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Sample records for eurisol-ds multi-mw target

  1. EURISOL-DS MULTI-MW TARGET ISSUES: BEAM WINDOW AND TRANSVERSE FILM TARGET

    CERN Document Server

    Adonai Herrera-Martínez, Yacine Kadi

    The analysis of the EURISOL-DS Multi_MW target precise geometry (Fig.1) has proved that large fission yields can be achieved with a 4 MW, providing a technically feasible design to evacuate the power deposited in the liquid mercury. Different designs for the mercury flow have been proposed, which maintain its temperature below the boiling point with moderate flow speeds (maximum 4 m/s).

  2. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Cavitations detection by the a Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Cyril Kharoua, Yacine Kadi, Jacques Lettry, Laure Blumenfeld, Karel Samec (CERN)Knud Thomsen, Sergej Dementevjs, Rade Milenkovich (PSI)Anatoli Zik, Erik Platacis (IPUL)

    This technical note summarises the innovative measurement devices used within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) to detect the occurrence of cavitation in liquid metal flowing inside the CGS target mock-up.During the METEX hydraulic experiment carried out at IPUL (Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia), a Laser Doppler Vibrometer was used to characterize the wall vibrations of the beam window at different flow regimes. A series of tests proved the high sensitivity of the LDV to detect the occurrence of cavitation in the liquid metal flowing inside the target. In this context, a dedicated test procedure was developed to establish the validity of using LDV for detecting the onset of cavitation.

  3. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Thermal Behaviour of the fission target disk arrangement inspired by the MAFF project

    CERN Document Server

    Cyril Kharoua, Yacine Kadi and the EURISOL-DS Task#2 collaboration

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) [1] for the thermal behaviour of the fission target.A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the heat deposition within the fissile material and estimate the temperature rise. This new solution takes into account the problems related to effusion/diffusion of radioactive isotopes inside a thick target. To enhance the extraction rates and the thermal behaviour it is proposed to study a solution where the fissile material is split into an arrangement of disks.

  4. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Cost Analysis for a Proposed Development Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Karel, Samec; Kadi, Yacine; Noah, Etam; Lettry, Jacques; Wagner, Werner; Thomsen, Knud; Patorski, Jacek; Dementevjs, Sergej; Zik, Anatoli; Platacis, Erik

    The EURISOL Design Study has reached final completion and the three institutes, CERN, IPUL and PSI, participating in the development of the Multi-Megawatt target station have met the objective of a reliable, affordable and credible design. The costs involved in the full development of such a target are forecast to reach 200 million €, approximately 15% of the total costs of the EURISOL facility.A breakdown of the costs is presented as well as an outline of future possible R&D efforts aimed at improving reliability and safety of the facility. Another important goal of the proposed R&D is to minimise development risk by focusing resources, early on in the project, on areas identified as presenting a particular risk. An example clearly identified in the study would be the conditioning of the contaminated Mercury, both during the lifetime of the facility and after decommissioning.

  5. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Design of the EURISOL Liquid metal loop

    CERN Document Server

    K. Samec (PSI)

    A Mercury loop capable of evacuating 2.7 MW of the 4 MW deposited in the Eurisol liquid metal neutron spallation target is described in the present design study.The study takes into account the effects on the loop of temperature, pressure, irradiation, liquid metal corrosion, including both steady state operations and normal transients. Accidental conditions are only briefly alluded to in the form of a description of the protection barriers and envisaged mitigation strategies.

  6. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target Preliminary Study of the Liquid Metal Proton-to-Neutron Converter

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2006-01-01

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) [1]. A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the optimum value of relevant parameters in the target design. Different scenarios were simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA [2]. Namely, sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impact of the projectile particle energy on the neutronics and energy deposition in the spallation target. The optimal target dimensions were also studied for every case as well as the proper target material for the liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, since mercury and lead-bismuth eutectic are reasonable options. The effect of the beam width on the power densities was also evaluated, taking into account the geometrical limitations of the facility. Finally, a comparison between protons and deuterons as primary particles was performed, acknowledging the limitations of using FLU...

  7. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Study of the WTF Liquid Metal Proton-to-Neutron Converter

    CERN Document Server

    Cyril Kharoua, Yacine Kadi (CERN)Erik Platacis, Kalvis Kravalis (IPUL)

    This technical note summarises the design calculations and experiments performed within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) for the WTF (Windowless Transverse Film) mercury converter.A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the heat deposition within the mercury and estimate the flow velocity needed in the film. The geometry used is based on previous analysis simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA.Many experiments have been performed at IPUL to optimise an inlet nozzle capable to create a stable film. The experimental program followed to design the film former will be detailed in this report.The results of these calculations are addressing the baseline parameters. Particularly, a 1 GeV proton beam with a sigma ~2 mm Gaussian distribution impacting on a 4x30x40cm long target. The very high power density requires about 5m/s velocity in the region where the heat deposition is maximum.

  8. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target Preliminary Study of the Thermal Behaviour of the fission target inspired by the MAFF project

    CERN Document Server

    Cyril Kharoua, Yacine Kadi

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) [1] for the thermal behaviour of the fission target. A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the heat deposition within the fissile material and estimate the temperature raise.

  9. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target Preliminary Study of the WTF(Windowless Transverse Film) Liquid Metal Proton-to-Neutron Converter

    CERN Document Server

    Cyril Kharoua, Yacine Kadi, Karel Samec, Roberto Rocca

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) [1] for the WTF (Windowless Transverse Film) mercury converter. A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the heat deposition within the mercury and estimate the mercury velocity needed in the film. The geometry used is based on previous analysis simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA [2]. The results of these calculations show the baseline parameters, which will be used for the detailed design. Particularly, with a 1 GeV proton beam with a ~2 mm Gaussian distribution on a 4x30x40cm long target and with a 5m/s velocity at the peak power density region seems a suitable solution.

  10. Eurisol-DS Multi MW Target Preliminary Study of the Windlowless Transverse Film (WTF) Liquid Metal Proton-to Neutron Converter

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Rocca, R; Samec, K

    2008-01-01

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task#2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) for the WTF (Windowless Transverse Film) mercur converter. A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the heat deposition within the mercury and estimate the mercury velocity needed in the film. The geometry used is based on previous analysis simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. The results of these calculations show the baseline parameters, which will be used for the detailed design. Particularly, with a 1 GeV proton beam with a $\\sigma$ ~2 mm Gaussian distribution on a 4x30x40cm long target and with a 5m/s velocity at the peak power density region seems a suitable solution.

  11. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target Unit: Neutronics and shielding performance, dose rate and material activation calculations for the MAFF configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Luis, R; Goncalves, I. F; Vaz, P; Kadi, Y; Kharoua, C; Rocca, R; Tecchio, L; Negoita, F; Ene, D; David, J.C

    One of the EURISOL-DS (The EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam – Design Study) objectives is to provide a safe and reliable facility layout meeting the following operational parameters:1.

  12. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target-Comparative Neutronic Performance of the Baseline-Configuration vs. the Hg-Jet Option

    CERN Document Server

    Adonai Herrera-Martínez, Yacine Kadi,and the EURISOL-DS Task#2 collaboration

    This technical report summarises the comparative study between several design options for the Multi-MW target station performed within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study.

  13. EURISOL-DS multi-MW target unit: Neutronics performance and shielding assessment, dose rate and material activation calculations for the MAFF configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Romanets, Y; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Goncalves, I F; Tecchio, L; Kharoua, C; Vaz, P; Ene, D; David, J C; Rocca, R; Negoita, F

    2010-01-01

    One of the objectives of the EURISOL (EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) Design Study consisted of providing a safe and reliable facility layout and design for the following operational parameters and characteristics: (a) a 4 MW proton beam of 1 GeV energy impinging on a mercury target (the converter); (b) high neutron fluxes (similar to 3 x 10(16) neutrons/s) generated by spallation reactions of the protons impinging in the converter and (c) fission rate on fissile U-235 targets in excess of 10(15) fissions/s. In this work, the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX (Pelowitz, 2005) and FLUKA (Vlachoudis, 2009; Ferrari et al., 2008) were used to characterize the neutronics performance and to perform the shielding assessment (Herrera-Martinez and Kadi, 2006; Cornell, 2003) of the EURISOLTarget Unit and to provide estimations of dose rate and activation of different components, in view of the radiation safety assessment of the facility. Dosimetry and activation calculations were perfor...

  14. Mercury purification in the megawatt liquid metal spallation target of EURISOL-DS

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eller, Martin; Schumann, Dorothea; Eichler, Bernd; Horn, Susanne

    High power spallation targets are going to be used extensively in future research and technical facilities such as spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories, radioactive beam facilities or accelerator driven systems for the transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste. Within EURISOL-DS, a 4 MW liquid metal spallation target is designed to provide neutrons for a fission target, where neutron rich radionuclides will be produced. For the spallation target, mercury is planned to be used as target material. A large amount of radionuclides ranging from atomic number Z=1 to 81 will be produced in the liquid metal during long term irradiation. It is planned to remove those radionuclides by chemical or physicochemical methods to reduce its radioactivity. For the development of a purification procedure, knowledge about the chemical state of the different elements present in the mixture is required. We present a general concept of applicable separation techniques in a target system and show some results of experiment...

  15. FISSION TARGET DESIGN AND INTEGRATION OF NEUTRON CONVERTER FOR EURISOL-DS PROJECT

    CERN Document Server

    J. Bermudez, O. Alyakrinskiy, M. Barbui, F. Negoita, L. Serbina, L.B. Tecchio, E. Udup

    A study of a new fission target for EURISOL-DS is presented with a detailed description of the target. Calculations of several configurations were done using Monte Carlo code FLUKA aimed to obtaining 1015 fissions/s on single target. In Eurisol, neutrons inducing the fission reactions are produced by a proton beam 1GeV-4mA interacting with a mercury converter. The target configuration was customized to gain fission yield from the large amount of low energy neutrons produced by the Hg converter. To this purpose, the fissile material is composed by discs of 238-Uranium carbide enriched with 15 g of 235-U. Studies of several geometries were done in order to define the shape and composition of uranium target, taking into account the mechanical and space constraints

  16. Multi-MW target station: Beam Window Issues and Transverse Film Target

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martinez, A

    The analysis of the EURISOL-DS Multi_MW target precise geometry has proved that large fission yields can be achieved with a 4 MW, providing a technically feasible design to evacuate the power deposited in the liquid mercury. Different designs for the mercury flow have been proposed, which maintain its temperature below the boiling point with moderate flow speeds (maximum 4 m/s).

  17. EURISOL Multi-MW Target: Preliminary Study

    CERN Document Server

    A.Herrera-Martínez and Y.Kadi

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task #2 of the EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL DS).A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the optimum value of relevant parameters in the target design. Different scenarios were simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. Namely, sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impact of the projectile particle energy on the neutronics and energy deposition in the spallation target. The optimum target dimension was also studied for every case as well as the proper target material for the liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, since mercury and lead-bismuth eutectic are reasonable options. The effect of the beam width on the power densities was also evaluated, taking into account the geometrical limitations of the facility. Finally, a comparison between protons and deuterons as primary particles was performed, acknowledging the limitations of using FLUKA for thes...

  18. Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part I: thin targets

    CERN Document Server

    David, J.C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N

    Report on benchmark calculations on residue production in thin targets. Calculations were performed using MCNPX 2.5.0 coupled to a selection of reaction models. The results were compared to nuclide production cross-sections measured in GSI in inverse kinematics

  19. Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part II: thick targets

    CERN Document Server

    David, J.-C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N

    Benchmark calculations on residue production using MCNPX 2.5.0. Calculations were compared to mass-distribution data for 5 different elements measured at ISOLDE, and to specific activities of 28 radionuclides in different places along the thick target measured in Dubna.

  20. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Experimental program associated to validation of CFD simulations of the mercury loop

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Laure; Kadi, Yacine; Samec, Karel; Lindroos, Mats

    At the core of the Eurisol project facility, the neutron source produces spallation neutrons from a proton beam impacting dense liquid. The liquid circulates at high speed inside the source, a closed vessel with beam windows.This technical note summarises the needed of the hydraulic METEX 1 and METEX 2 data tests to contribute to validate CFD turbulent simulation of liquid metal with the LES model and FEM structural model as well as a-dimensional analysis of Laser Dopplet Velocimetry for cavitation measurements.

  1. EURISOL-DS Multi-MWatt Hg Target: Neutron flux and fission rate calculations for the MAFF configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Romanets, Y; Vaz, P; Herrera-Martinez, A; Kadi, Y; Kharoua, C; Lettry, J; Lindroos, M

    The EURISOL (The EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) project aims at producing high intensity radioactive ion beams produced by neutron induced fission on a fissile target (235U) surrounding a liquid mercury converter. A proton beam of 1 GeV and 4 MW impinges on the Hg converter generating by spallation reactions high neutron fluxes. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA were used to assess the neutronics performance of the system which geometry, inspired from the MAFF concept, allows a versatile manipulation of the fission targets. The objective of the study was to optimize the geometry of the system and the materials used in the fuel and reflector elements of the system, in order to achieve the highest possible fission rate.

  2. Innovative Waste Management in the Mercury Loop of the EURISOL Multi-MW Converter Target

    CERN Document Server

    PSI: Jörg Neuhausen, Dorothea Schumann, Rugard Dressler, Susanne Horn, Sabrina Lüthi, Stephan Heinitz, Suresh ChirikiCERN: Thierry Stora, Martin Eller

    The choice of mercury as target material imposes various questions concerning the safe operation of such a system that are related to the physical and chemical properties of the target material itself and the nuclear reaction products produced within the target during its life time of several decades. Therefore, a subtask was created within the EURISOL-DS project that is concerned with studying an innovative waste management for the generated radioactivity by chemical means. Such a study strongly depends on the radioactive inventory and its distribution throughout the target and loop system. Radioactive inventory calculations were performed within task 5 [6]. The distribution of nuclear reaction products and their chemical state that can be expected within the target and loop system is one of the topics covered in this report. Based on the results obtained by theoretical studies as well as laboratory scale experiments, the feasibility of waste reduction using chemical methods, both conventional (e.g. leaching...

  3. ENGINEERING DESIGN OF THE EURISOL MULTI-MW SPALLATION TARGET

    CERN Document Server

    Adonai Herrera-Martinez*, Yacine Kadi, Morteza Ashrafi-Nik, Karel Samec, Janis Freibergs, Ernests Platacis

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam project (EURISOL) is set to design the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW target assembly, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In this high power target station, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source. This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the mercury proton-to-neutron converter and the fission targets. The overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutron fluxes of the order ...

  4. Engineering design of the EURISOL multi-MW spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A; Ashrafi-Nik, M; Samec, K; Freibergs, J; Platacis, E

    2007-01-01

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam project (EURISOL) is set to design the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW target assembly, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In this high power target station, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source. This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the mercury proton-to-neutron converter and the fission targets. The overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutron fluxes of the order of 1...

  5. Design of the EURISOL multi-MW target assembly radiation and safety issues

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, Marta; Kadi, Yacine; Otto, Thomas; Tecchio, L

    2006-01-01

    The multi-MW target proposed for the EURISOL facility will be based on fission of uranium (or thorium) compounds to produce rare isotopes far from stability. A two-step process is used for the isotope production. First, neutrons are generated in a liquid mercury target, irradiated by the 1 GeV proton or deuteron beam, provided by the EURISOL linac driver. Then, the neutrons induce fission in a surrounding assembly of uranium carbide. R&D projects on several aspects of the target assembly are ongoing. Key criteria for the target design are a maximum beam power capability of 4 MW, a remote handling system with minimum downtime and maximum reliability, as well as radiation safety, minimization of hazards and the classification of the facility. In the framework of the ongoing radiation characterization and safety studies, radiation transport simulations have been performed to calculate the prompt radiation dose in the target and surrounding materials, as well as to determine shielding material and angle-depen...

  6. EURISOL-DS METEX: CERN SAFETY COMMISSION RECOMMENDATIONS

    CERN Document Server

    J.Gulley (CERN: SC/GS)

    Following a request from M. Lindroos (CERN, AB Department) a visit to the EURISOL mercury target experiment atIPUL (Institute of Physics of University of Latvia) outside Riga in Latvia was organized for 17th September 2008 with J.Gulley (CERN Safety Commission, chemical safety expert) accompanied by K. Samec (CERN, AB Department) and K.Thomsen (Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI). The aim of the visit was to provide general recommendations to IPUL on healthand safety issues related to the use of mercury, with the objective being to reduce exposure to acceptable levels, sofar as is reasonably practicable. An in‐depth process safety study using a systematic risk assessment/hazardidentification technique was outside the scope of the study.

  7. Radiological considerations on multi-MW targets Part I Induced radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Silari, M

    2005-01-01

    CERN is designing a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to provide a 2.2GeV, 4MW proton beam to feed facilities like, for example, a future Neutrino Factory or a Neutrino SuperBeam. The material activation in such facilities is an important aspect that has to be taken into account at an early design stage. In particular, the choice of the target has consequences on the induced radioactivity and dose rates in the target itself and in its surroundings. In the present work, the radiological aspects of a stationary target made up of small tantalum pellets are compared to those of a free-surface jet of mercury. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump were performed for both targets by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which...

  8. EURISOL Multi-MW Target: Investigation of the hydrodynamics of liquid metal (Hg) jet

    CERN Document Server

    Freibergs, J

    In order to develop a windowless target it is necessary to investigate the hydrodynamics of liquid metal (Hg) jet. On the basis of the schematic layout of a high-power target module presented in Ref. [2], and the parameters of the windowless target (speed of the mercury jet up to 30 m/s, diameter of jet 10-20 mm and length of jet about 1 m), a first estimation of the parameters of the main components of a Hg-loop has been obtained by the Institute of Physics, University of Latvia. A preliminary engineering design of a functional Hg-loop to be constructed soon is also proposed. A simplified water stand has been developed with the ability of testing different Hg-nozzle configurations. The tests carried out showed that the kinetic energy of the jet is so high that the coaxial water flow at contact point is transformed into small bubbles (spray). The characteristics of the jet were shown to depend on the pressure of the stand.

  9. Radiological considerations on multi-MW targets Part II After-heat and temperature distribution in packed tantalum spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Magistris, M

    2005-01-01

    CERN is designing a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to provide a 2.2GeV, 4MW proton beam to feed facilities like, for example, a future Neutrino Factory or a Neutrino SuperBeam. One of the most promising target candidates is a stationary consisting of a Ti container filled with small Ta pellets. The power deposited as heat by the radioactive nuclides (the so-called after-heat) can considerably increase the target temperature after ceasing operation, if no active cooling is provided. An estimate of the induced radioactivity and after-heat was performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. To estimate the highest temperature reached inside the target, the effective thermal conductivity of packed spheres was evaluated using the basic cell method. A method for estimating the contribution to heat transmission from radiation is also discussed1).

  10. EURISOL Multi-MW Target: First thermal-hydraulic studies for the EURISOL high-power liquid-metal target using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Trevor V. Dury

    A scoping study of a mercury target for the Multi-Megawatt Proton-to-Neutron Converter of theEURISOL Project has been made at PSI using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codeCFX-4. A mesh model of a horizontal target with forced circulation was used which had beenoriginally proposed for the European Spallation Source (ESS). The heat deposition profilewhich was applied produced a total of 4 MW of heat in the fluid and 13.4 kW in the window,

  11. Status of ionization by radial electron neat adaptation ion source research and development for SPIRAL2 and EURISOL-DS

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, C; Cheikh-Mhamed, M; 10.1063/1.2834316

    2008-01-01

    To take up the most challenging issue of supplying plasma ion source able to produce radioactive beams under extreme SPIRAL-2 and EURISOL irradiation conditions, an R&D program has been initiated to work out IRENA (Ionization by Radial Electrons Neat Adaptation) ion source. Using EBGP (Electron Beam Generated Plasma) concept, the ion source is specifically adapted for thick target and intense irradiation. A validation prototype has been designed, constructed and tested. Results obtained will be presented and commented and IRENA potential discussed, particularly in the framework of the multi-megawatts EURISOL.

  12. EURISOL-DS METEX: Post-processing of the experimental data: Test matrix, Pre-calculations, Data Recording and Mining, Statistical and Advance Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    R. Milenkovic and S. DemetjevsE. Manfrin, F. Barbagallo, S. Joray, J. Patorski, F. Groeschel

    At its first stage, the hydraulic and structural test of the EURISOL target mock-up, named METEX1 (MErcury Target EXperiment 1), accompanied by extended thermal-hydraulic and structural computational studies, have been carefully planned and prepared at PSI (PaulScherrer Institut). The experiment will be performed by PSI on the adopted IPUL-loop in June, 2008 at IPUL, Riga, Latvia.The main objective of this document is to give a brief overview of the following: the test matrixaccompanied by computational results, the procedures and methods, which are to be used fordata acquisition, signal post-processing and validation of the computational methods.

  13. EURISOL-DS METEX1: LDV measurement to detect Cavitations

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Kharoua, Cyril; Samec, Karel

    Laser Doppler Vibrometers (LDV) are optical instruments for accurately measuring velocity and displacement of vibrating structures completely without contact.A rugged optic head (roughly the same size as a video camera) mounts to a tripod and can be easily pointed at a vibrating object.

  14. Thermal behavior optimization in multi-MW wind power converter by reactive power circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, an actively controlled reactive power influence to the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. The allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is firstly mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well ...... in the conditions of constant wind speed and during wind gust. It is concluded that the thermal performance will be improved by injecting proper reactive power circulation in the wind turbine system and thereby be able to reduce the thermal cycling and enhance the reliability.......In the paper, an actively controlled reactive power influence to the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. The allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is firstly mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well...... as the induction generator and power device capacity. Then the effects of reactive power circulation towards current characteristic and thermal distribution of the two-level back-to-back power converter is analyzed and compared. Finally the thermal-oriented reactive power is introduced to the system...

  15. Thermal analysis of multi-MW two-level wind power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Mogens, Lau

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature...... in the power device in the whole range of wind speed are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that in both partial-scale and full-scale power converter the most thermal stressed power device in the generator-side converter will have higher mean junction temperature and larger junction temperature...... fluctuation compared to grid-side converter at the rated wind speed. Moreover, the thermal performance of the generator-side converter in the partial-scale power converter becomes crucial around the synchronous operating point and should be considered carefully....

  16. Thermal Behavior Optimization in Multi-MW Wind Power Converter by Reactive Power Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    for the conditions of constant wind speed and during wind gust. It is concluded that the thermal performance will be improved by injecting proper reactive power circulation within the wind turbine system, thereby being able to reduce the thermal cycling and enhance the reliability of the power converter.......The influence of actively controlled reactive power on the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. First, the allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well...... as the induction generator and power device capacity. Then, the effects of reactive power circulation on current characteristic and thermal distribution of the two-level back-to-back power converter are analyzed and compared. Finally, the thermal-oriented reactive power control method is introduced to the system...

  17. Comparison of multi-MW converters considering the determining factors in wind power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    converters are normally targeted to the industrial drive applications, and they did not take into account the special requirements in the case of wind power. This paper tries to unify and compare several promising wind power converters by a series new model and perspective. The evaluation criteria...... to be unified for comparison. And the two-level low-voltage converter solution still shows cost advantage regarding power semiconductors, while some multi-level medium-voltage converter solutions can show better performance when complying with the grid codes....

  18. EURISOL-DS METEX: Cooling and Temperature Control of the Mercury Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Joray

    The cooling of the mercury loop is described on pages two, three and four. The gaps in the water jackets of the heat exchangers are too large and the cooling water capacity is too low. Convection from the wall into water is bad. The mercury temperature is too high. On page five is a proposal how the mercury temperature can be kept low and constant.

  19. Multi-MW 22.8 GHz Harmonic Multiplier - RF Power Source for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-07-26

    Electrodynamic and particle simulation studies have been carried out to optimize design of a two-cavity harmonic frequency multiplier, in which a linear electron beam is energized by rotating fields near cyclotron resonance in a TE111 cavity in a uniform magnetic field, and in which the beam then radiates coherently at the nth harmonic into a TEn11 output cavity. Examples are worked out in detail for 7th and 2nd harmonic converters, showing RF-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 45% and 88%, respectively at 19.992 GHz (K-band) and 5.712 GHz (C-band), for a drive frequency of 2.856 GHz. Details are shown of RF infrastructure (S-band klystron, modulator) and harmonic converter components (drive cavity, output cavities, electron beam source and modulator, beam collector) for the two harmonic converters to be tested. Details are also given for the two-frequency (S- and C-band) coherent multi-MW test stand for RF breakdown and RF gun studies.

  20. Baseline Design of a Solid Neutron Converter Driven by 160 MeV Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2006-01-01

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL DS) aims at the design of several spallation and fission targets for the production of radioactive isotopes. Namely, direct targets, where high-energy protons interact directly with the fission targets, as well as the design of a Multi-MW proton-to-neutron converter coupled with a fission target. For the later, several options have been proposed, including the use of a relatively low energy (in the hundreds of MeV) high intensity proton beam. In this scope, the neutronic characteristics of a tantalum n-converter/fission-target system have been established (although not yet optimised) for a reference proton energy of 160 MeV. A set of simulations has been carried out for different design requirements and different characteristics of the proton beam. An extensive comparison of the main physical parameters has also been carried out, in order to allow the optimal engineering design of the whole target station.

  1. HIE-ISOLDE: Baseline Design of a Solid Neutron Converter Driven by 160 MeV Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Yacine

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL DS) aims at the design of several spallation and fission targets for the production of radioactive isotopes. Namely, direct targets, where high-energy protons interact directly with the fission targets, as well as the design of a Multi-MW proton-to-neutron converter coupled with a fission target. For the later, several options have been proposed, including the use of a relatively low energy (in the hundreds of MeV) high intensity proton beam. In this scope, the neutronic characteristics of a tantalum n-converter/fission-target system have been established (although not yet optimised) for a reference proton energy of 160 MeV. A set of simulations has been carried out for different design requirements and different characteristics of the proton beam. An extensive comparison of the main physical parameters has also been carried out, in order to allow the optimal engineering design of the whole target station.

  2. Radiation safety with high power operation of EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Ridikas, D

    2007-01-01

    The European Community has launched the design study for a next generation RIB facility able to increase by a few orders of magnitude, the exotic beam intensity and availability in Europe. Forty institutes and laboratories within Europe, North America and Asia are taking part in this consortium, named EURISOL DS project (European Isotope Separation On Line Design Study). In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW (MMW) target assembly, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In this MMW station, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source. The envisaged increase in RIB intensities at EURISOL means a drastic increase of the radioactive inventory and corresponding radioprotection related issues. Safety aspects of the future RIB production targets (aiming at a few ~1015 fissions/s) will become decisive in li...

  3. The multi megawatt target station integration of the MAFF/PIAFE fission target design

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Herrera-Martinez, A; Lettry, J; Ashrafi-Nik, M; Groeschel, F; Samec, K; Zanini, L; Alyakriskiy, O; Barbui, M; Tecchio, Luigi; Freibergs, J; Gross, M; Nebel, F; Thirolf, P; Negoita, F; Serbina, L; Romanets, Y; Vaz, P; Lindroos, M; Kadi, Y

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target (MAFF/PIAFE design like) and the overall performance of the facility, which will sust...

  4. The EURISOL Multi Megawatt Target Station, a liquid metal target for a High Power spallation source.

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Blumenfeld, L; Milenkovich, R; Wagner, W; Thomsen, K; Dementjevs, S; Platacis, E; Kravalis, K; Zik, A

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2013.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This presentation summarises the work carried out for the Multi Megawatt target station of the EURISOL Design Study with particular attention to the coupled neutronic of the liquid converter and the overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutr...

  5. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  6. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren

    energy and an increase in the loading of the wind turbine structure and components. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that there are advantages of basing a yaw system on hydraulic components instead of normal electrical components. This is done through a state of the art analysis followed...... in the wind turbine yaw system along with minor reductions in the blades and main shaft. Optimization of the damping and stiffness of the hydraulic soft yaw system have been conducted and an optimum found for load reduction. Linear control algorithms for control of damping pressure peaks have been developed...... and tested in simulations with success. To verify the results of the new hydraulic soft yaw concept a novel friction model for including coulomb in the yaw system is developed and implemented in the FAST aeroelastic code from NREL in order to include friction phenomena. A cosimulation interface between...

  7. Power Electronic System for Multi-MW PV sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    in Sønderborg (DK) was implemented. A total of 17 PV-inverters have been monitored during a period exceeding one year and the recorded data constitutes the basis of this investigation. A part of the 2.1 MW PV plant was reconfigured to emulate the behavior of a central-inverter and solar panels distributed over...... a distance of 160 m. In parallel a string based inverter configuration was established with solar panels at the same locations. An analysis of irradiation data recorded during the test period showed that non-uniform irradiance due to moving clouds is expected to influence the PV plants for less than 4.......4%. A portable IV-scanning instrument for the fast long term characterization of solar panels was developed as part of the project. Each second a sweep of the IV-characteristics of a solar panel is performed and the result stored for later analysis. The instrument is based on an active load, is optimized...

  8. Beam dynamics studies on the EURISOL driver accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, A; Paparella, R; Zenere, D; Biarrotte, J. L; Bousson, S; Ponton, A; Berkovits, D; Rodnizki, J; Duperrier, R; Uriot, D; Zvyagintsev, V

    A 1 GeV, 5 mA cw superconducting proton/H- linac, with the capability of supplying cw primary beam to up to four targets simultaneously by means of a new beam splitting scheme, is under study in the framework of the EURISOL DS project which aims to produce an engineering-oriented design of a next generation European Radioactive beam facility. The EURISOL driver accelerator would be able to accelerate also a 100 μA, 3He beam up to 2.2 GeV, and a 5 mA deuteron beam up to 264 MeV. The linac characteristics and the status of the beam dynamics studies will be presented.

  9. Design and Experimental Validation of Hydraulic Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    market. A hydraulic yaw system is such a new technology, and so a mathematical model of the full scale system and test rig system is derived and compared to measurements from the system. This is done in order to have a validated model, which wind turbine manufacturers may use for test in their simulation...... environment. The model and the test rig are tested up against different design load cases and the results are compared. The experiments show that the model is valid for comparing the overall dynamics of the hydraulic yaw system. Based on the results it is concluded that the model derived is suitable...

  10. Specification of Instrumentation of Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type and is described e.g. in Tedd et. al. (2006). The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based...

  11. Reactive power influence on the thermal cycling of multi-MW wind power inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the reactive power influence on the thermal cycling of power devices in grid-connected inverter for 10 MW wind turbines is investigated. Restrained by the grid codes, the allowable reactive power ranges in relation to amplitude and phase angle of the load current for a single...... converter system are first presented at different wind speeds. Furthermore, the interaction between paralleled converter systems in a wind park is also considered and analyzed. By controlling the reactive power circulated among paralleled converters, a new concept is then proposed to stabilize the thermal...... fluctuation of the power devices during wind gusts. It is concluded that the reactive power may change the thermal distribution of power devices. By properly controlling the reactive power, it is possible to achieve a more stable junction temperature in the power devices during the fluctuation of wind speed...

  12. Reactive power influence on the thermal cycling of multi-MW wind power inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the reactive power influence on the thermal cycling of power devices in grid-connected inverter for 10 MW wind turbines is investigated. Restrained by the grid codes, the allowable reactive power ranges in relation to amplitude and phase angle of the load current for a single...... converter system are first presented at different wind speeds. Furthermore, the interaction between paralleled converter systems in a wind park is also considered and analyzed. By controlling the reactive power circulated among paralleled converters, a new concept is then proposed to stabilize the thermal...... fluctuation of the power devices during wind gusts. It is concluded that the reactive power may change the thermal distribution of power devices. By properly controlling the reactive power, it is possible to achieve a more stable junction temperature in the power devices during the fluctuation of wind speed...

  13. Multi-MW Closed Cycle MHD Nuclear Space Power Via Nonequilibrium He/Xe Working Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Harada, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Prospects for a low specific mass multi-megawatt nuclear space power plant were examined assuming closed cycle coupling of a high-temperature fission reactor with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion and utilization of a nonequilibrium helium/xenon frozen inert plasma (FIP). Critical evaluation of performance attributes and specific mass characteristics was based on a comprehensive systems analysis assuming a reactor operating temperature of 1800 K for a range of subsystem mass properties. Total plant efficiency was expected to be 55.2% including plasma pre-ionization power, and the effects of compressor stage number, regenerator efficiency and radiation cooler temperature on plant efficiency were assessed. Optimal specific mass characteristics were found to be dependent on overall power plant scale with 3 kg/kWe being potentially achievable at a net electrical power output of 1-MWe. This figure drops to less than 2 kg/kWe when power output exceeds 3 MWe. Key technical issues include identification of effective methods for non-equilibrium pre-ionization and achievement of frozen inert plasma conditions within the MHD generator channel. A three-phase research and development strategy is proposed encompassing Phase-I Proof of Principle Experiments, a Phase-II Subscale Power Generation Experiment, and a Phase-III Closed-Loop Prototypical Laboratory Demonstration Test.

  14. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  15. An overview of the state of the art technologies for multi-MW scale offshore wind turbines and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    mechanisms such as individual blade pitch control offer promising advances. The lack of reliability of the gearbox has resulted in drive train technologies to move toward direct drives, whose benefits and liabilities are assessed in combination with generator concepts. The support structures are discussed......An overview of technological trends in the design of multi-mega Watt wind turbines focused on the offshore sector is presented. The state of the art technologies for wind turbine design are multidisciplinary ranging from blade aeroelasticity, power transmission to the generator, to advanced control...... systems that ensure performance and the design of offshore support structures to minimize cost of energy. Light weight carbon fiber blades, aeroelastic tailoring using bend–twist coupling are discussed in coordination with a multitude of aerodynamic technologies for optimal power capture such as high...

  16. Medium Voltage Three-level Converters for the Grid Connection of aMulti-MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Three-level (3L) neutral point clamped (NPC), flying capacitor (FC), and H-bridge (HB) voltage source converters (VSCs) as a grid-side full-scale medium voltage (MV) converter are modeled, controlled, and simulated for the grid connection of a hypothetical 6MW wind turbine. Via the converter...... topological features and the simulation results demonstrating the converter performance, these three 3L-VSCs are discussed and compared in terms of power density and reliability, which can be considered as two of the most important criteria for the converters placed in wind turbine nacelles. Given the grid...

  17. Medium voltage three-level converters for the grid connection of a multi-MW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Three-level (3L) neutral point clamped (NPC), flying capacitor (FC), and H-bridge (HB) voltage source converters (VSCs) as a grid-side full-scale medium voltage (MV) converter are modeled, controlled, and simulated for the grid connection of a hypothetical 6MW wind turbine. Via the converter...... topological features and the simulation results demonstrating the converter performance, these three 3L-VSCs are discussed and compared in terms of power density and reliability, which can be considered as two of the most important criteria for the converters placed in wind turbine nacelles. Given the grid...

  18. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  19. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  20. MEET ISOLDE - Target Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    MEET ISOLDE - Target Production. Everything at ISOLDE starts with a target and the target production team realise on more then 50 years of experience to build and develop new targets for ISOLDE’s wide physics program.

  1. Converter Structure-Based Power Loss and Static Thermal Modeling of The Press-Pack IGBT Three-Level ANPC VSC Applied to Multi-MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    MW wind turbine to a MV grid. The switching power loss models are built using the experimental switching power loss data acquired via the double-pulse tests conducted on a full-scale 3L-ANPC-VSC prototype. The converter static thermal model is developed based on the double-sided water-cooled press...... performance, the converter structure-based power loss and thermal models are developed in this study for the medium-voltage (MV) three-level active neutral-point-clamped voltage source converter (3L-ANPC-VSC) utilizing 4500 V-1800 A press-pack insulated-gate bipolar transistor-diode pairs and interfacing a 6......-pack switches. Via a single-phase test setup with two full-scale 3L-ANPC-VSC legs, the developed power loss and thermal models are validated experimentally. Employing the validated models, the 3L-ANPC-VSC's thermal performance is demonstrated on simulation for a 6 MW wind turbine grid interface. Hence...

  2. Multi-MW wind turbine power curve measurements using remote sensing instruments – the first Høvsøre campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael

    speed calculated from LiDAR profile measurements gave a small reduction of the power curve uncertainty. Several factors can explain why this difference is smaller than expected, including the experimental design and errors pertaining to the LiDAR at that time. This first measurement campaign shows...

  3. Thermal Analysis of Multi-MW Two-Level Generator Side Converters with Reduced Common-Mode-Voltage Modulation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Thermal performance is one of the main indicators of power converter, since it is related to both the cost of cooling system and the reliability of the power converter. Moreover, the common-mode voltage in motor driver may damage the bearing of the motor and also cause failure. Therefore, both...... the thermal performance and common-mode voltage of the converter should be taken into account during the selection process of the modulation strategies. In this paper, based on the generator side converter of a 3 MW wind power system, the common-modevoltage reduced modulation strategies are compared...... with the conventional-60o discontinuous PWM, where the common-mode voltage, power losses and thermal performance are all taken into account. In detail, the common-mode voltages are investigated both in time domain and spectrum. The power loss distribution of the power converter with the two modulation strategies...

  4. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few different ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  5. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590...

  6. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590 spectrophotometer

  7. Targets for Precision Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, W.; Yao, L.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Heffner, M.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Laptev, A. B.; Massey, T. N.; Meharchand, R.; Qu, H.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Selhan, B.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.

    2014-05-01

    The general properties needed in targets (sources) for high precision, high accuracy measurements are reviewed. The application of these principles to the problem of developing targets for the Fission TPC is described. Longer term issues, such as the availability of actinide materials, improved knowledge of energy losses and straggling and the stability of targets during irradiation are also discussed.

  8. Setting Asset Performance Targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Masschelein, S.; Schoenmaker, R.; Muruvan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Setting targets is a common way for organisations to establish performance expectations. However the validity of targets is challenged when performance is influenced by factors beyond the control of the manager. This project examines the issue of target setting for a single asset performance measure

  9. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  10. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  11. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  12. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  13. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  14. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  15. Target visibility for multiple maneuvering target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabordo, Madeleine G.; Aboutanios, Elias

    2015-05-01

    We present a recursion of the probability of target visibility and its applications to analysis of track life and termination in the context of Global Nearest Neighbour (GNN) approach and Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter. In the presence of uncertainties brought about by clutter; decisions to retain a track, terminate it or initialise a new track are based on probability, rather than on distance criterion or estimation error. The visibility concept is introduced into a conventional data-association-oriented multitarget tracker, the GNN; and a random finite set based-tracker, the PHD filter, to take into account instances when targets become invisible or occluded by obstacles. We employ the natural logarithmof the Dynamic Error Spectrum to assess the performance of the trackers with and without probability of visibility incorporated. Simulation results show that the performance of the GNN tracker with visibility concept incorporated is significantly enhanced.

  16. Frozen spin targets

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, A S L

    1976-01-01

    Describes six projects which use the frozen-spin principle: Helium-3 R.M.S. and longitudinally polarized frozen spin targets at Rutherford Laboratory, and the frozen spin targets at KEK, Saclay and the one used by the CERN-Helsinki collaboration. (7 refs).

  17. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  18. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  19. Segmented Target Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhi, Abdul Rahman; Frank, Nathan; Gueye, Paul; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A proposed segmented target would improve decay energy measurements of neutron-unbound nuclei. Experiments like this have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) located at Michigan State University. Many different nuclei are produced in such experiments, some of which immediately decay into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are bent by a large magnet and measured by a suite of charged particle detectors. The neutrons are measured by the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). With the current target setup, a nucleus in a neutron-unbound state is produced with a radioactive beam impinged upon a beryllium target. The resolution of these measurements is very dependent on the target thickness since the nuclear interaction point is unknown. In a segmented target using alternating layers of silicon detectors and Be-targets, the Be-target in which the nuclear reaction takes place would be determined. Thus the experimental resolution would improve. This poster will describe the improvement over the current target along with the status of the design. Work supported by Augustana College and the National Science Foundation grant #0969173.

  20. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  1. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  2. Targets and teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C; Lange, Karin S; Hoey, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    with less disagreement about recommended targets. Multiple regression analysis indicated that teams reporting higher HbA1c targets and more target disagreement had parents reporting higher treatment targets. This seemed to partially account for center differences in Hb1Ac. Conclusions: The diabetes care....... Research Design and Methods: Children, under the age of 11 with type 1 diabetes and their parents treated at the study centers participated. Clinical, medical, and demographic data were obtained, along with blood sample for centralized assay. Parents and all members of the diabetes care team completed...... questionnaires on treatment targets for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and recommended frequency of blood glucose monitoring. Results: Totally 1113 (53% male) children (mean age 8.0±2.1years) from 18 centers in 17 countries, along with parents and 113 health-care professionals, participated. There were substantial...

  3. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  4. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  5. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. In order to arrive at out objective, we provide a plausible answer to the following question: "Which...

  6. Delays in thick targets

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, J R J

    2002-01-01

    The delays in the emission of radioactive particles from a thick target bombarded by high-energy protons is discussed in relation to the basic physical processes of diffusion and effusion through the target and ioniser. The delay time, relative to the decay time, is crucial to the efficiency of particle release at the exit of the ioniser. The principles of minimizing the delay times are discussed with reference to a mathematical model of the process, and some experimental examples are given.

  7. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  8. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  9. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  10. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  11. Targeted Therapy of CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawaf, Othman; Fischer, Kirsten; Eichhorst, Barbara; Hallek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has undergone profound changes in the past years. First, the addition of CD20-targeting antibodies to conventional chemotherapy has improved the therapeutic outcome in the majority of CLL patients. Since the establishment of the critical role of the B cell receptor signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of CLL, several agents have been developed to target this pathway. Ibrutinib and idelalisib, 2 potent kinase inhibitors, have both become available for CLL therapy in the first and second line. Additionally, the observation of high expression levels of the anti-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 in CLL has led to the development of venetoclax, a BH3 mimetic compound that inhibits Bcl-2 and has shown high efficacy in CLL. This short review summarizes preclinical and clinical data on currently available agents in CLL and provides an outlook on upcoming new challenges in the targeted therapy of CLL. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  13. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  14. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  15. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis...

  16. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  17. Microenvironmental targets in sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhnman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors affecting all age groups. They are typically classified according to their resemblance to corresponding normal tissue. Their heterogeneous features, for example in terms of disease-driving genetic aberrations and body location, complicate both disease classification and development of novel treatment regimens. Many years of failure of improved patient outcome in clinical trials has lead to the conclusion that novel targeted therapies are likely needed in combination with current multimodality regimens. Sarcomas have not, in contrast to the common carcinomas, been the subject for larger systematic studies on how tumor behavior relates to characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. There is consequently an urgent need for identifying suitable molecular targets, not only in tumor cells, but also in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses preclinical and clinical data about potential molecular targets in sarcomas. Studies on targeted therapies involving the tumor microenvironment are prioritized. A greater understanding of the biological context is expected to facilitate more successful design of future clinical trials in sarcoma.

  18. Target Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is your level of intensity? When is the best time of day to work out? Target Heart Rates Warm Up, Cool Down See More >> Getting Active Getting Started - Tips for Long-term Exercise Success Get Moving: Easy Tips to Get Active! ...

  19. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  20. Target Chamber Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  1. Active Target Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Draznik, Peter; Frank, Nathan

    2012-10-01

    We have simulated an existing experimental design to determine the resolution improvement upon energy measurements of neutron unbound nuclei. A number of experiments of this type have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), located at Michigan State University. An excited nucleus is typically produced with a radioactive beam interacting with a passive Beryllium target. Many different nuclei are produced in experiment, each of which immediately decays into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are detected and the neutrons interact in scintillation detectors such as the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). In our simulation, we have constructed an active target that provides additional information such that the point of nuclear interaction within the target may be determined. This information improves the resolution in decay energy measurements of neutron unbound isotopes. This presentation will cover some aspects of the simulation process, as well as showing some of the results that demonstrate the simulated improvement over a passive target.

  2. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  3. Emerging Targets in Photopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Michael M; Hansen, Mickel J; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L

    2016-09-05

    The field of photopharmacology uses molecular photoswitches to establish control over the action of bioactive molecules. It aims to reduce systemic drug toxicity and the emergence of resistance, while achieving unprecedented precision in treatment. By using small molecules, photopharmacology provides a viable alternative to optogenetics. We present here a critical overview of the different pharmacological targets in various organs and a survey of organ systems in the human body that can be addressed in a non-invasive manner. We discuss the prospects for the selective delivery of light to these organs and the specific requirements for light-activatable drugs. We also aim to illustrate the druggability of medicinal targets with recent findings and emphasize where conceptually new approaches have to be explored to provide photopharmacology with future opportunities to bring "smart" molecular design ultimately to the realm of clinical use. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Inflation Targeting: Provisional Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerna, Silviu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflation targeting monetary policy framework that requires the central bank to achieve a low inflation has contributed to price stability in industrialized countries. As well as the other developing countries, ex communist countries have also tried to apply this strategy, which was susceptible to increase monetary policy transparency and to determine authorities to make necessary reforms in order to pass from a planned to a market economy. In Romania, inflation targeting has contributed, to a large extent, to price increase smoothening, without affecting economic growth. Knowing the factors that have determined this unquestionable success allows for not only understanding the Romanian transition process, but also draw some useful conclusions in view of the necessary actions for adopting the euro.

  5. Foucault on targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to gain an insight into the behavior of a large NHS trust, in its attempt to meet a 90 percent patient access target, in a week long national audit in March 2003. Why did individuals act in dramatically different ways to their norm over this period. The work of Michel Foucault is used to explore these issues. The discourses of power, knowledge, discipline and governmentality are identified as key foucaudian themes that offer an alternative interpretation of how individuals behave in their place of work. The importance of the historical context of discourse within the NHS cannot be underestimated in shaping the behavior of individuals and groups today. Power and knowledge permeate NHS organizations through disciplinary practices and dressage. Governmentality seeks to maintain the status quo through disciplinary processes such as national healthcare targets. The natural response of NHS organizations is therefore, to seek order and conformity rather than disorder and conflict.

  6. Antibodies Targeting EMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    VLDL uptake and redistribution of lipids to cells for energy metabolism and cell signaling. ApoE overexpression has shown to be associated with a...involved in testosterone and estradiol biosynthesis, as well as prostaglandin F synthesis and has previously been implicated in cancer progression, AKR1C2...is involved in androgen metabolism and is a potential drug target for prostate cancer. AKR1C4 is involved in bile acid synthesis but has not yet

  7. Explosive Target Balances

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas; Reischmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Using the new unit root test by Phillips et al. (2011) we show that the Target balances of the German Bundesbank have been exploding from the beginning of 2009 to the beginning of 2013. By implementing a full-allotment policy and reducing the required minimum quality of collaterals in October 2008, the European Central Bank (ECB) refinanced credits in the GIIPS countries to a large extent. Private capital flowed out of the GIIPS countries (Greece, Italy, Ireland, Portugal and Spain), and the ...

  8. Implementing Target Value Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  9. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  10. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  11. Meeting the Aichi targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funk, Stephan M; Conde, Dalia Amor; Lamoreux, John

    2017-01-01

    &s), is an excellent opportunity to achieve the Aichi 2020 Targets T11 (protected areas) and T12 (preventing species extinctions). AZE taxa have small, single-site populations that are especially vulnerable to human-induced extinctions, particularly for the many amphibians. We show that AZEs&s can be protected...... feasibly and cost-effectively, but action is urgent. We argue that the Alliance, whose initial main aim was to identify AZEs&s, must be followed up by a second-generation initiative that directs and co-ordinates AZE conservation activities on the ground. The prominent role of zoos, conservation NGOs...

  12. Polarized scintillator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2000-05-01

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  13. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail: vandenbrandt@psi.ch; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S

    2000-05-21

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  14. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    achieve this goal, we cultured high-invasive prostate cancer PC3 cells and treated them with the drugs/inhibitors that were proposed to target WASF3...groups (treated by DMSO), either treated by 100 μM CYT997 or 10 μM Dasatinib suppressed the cells to spread throughout the fish body (Fig. 4). As...have scr eened t he e f fect s o f mor e t han 40 drugs on invasion using cul tur ed prost ate cancer cells and f ound t hat tar geting multiple

  15. Targeting Nuclear Thymidylate Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, James; Stover, Patrick J.; Field, Martha S.

    2016-01-01

    Thymidylate (dTMP) biosynthesis plays an essential and exclusive function in DNA synthesis and proper cell division, and therefore has been an attractive therapeutic target. Folate analogues, known as antifolates, and nucleotide analogs that inhibit the enzymatic action of the de novo thymidylate biosynthesis pathway and are commonly used in cancer treatment. In this review, we examine the mechanisms by which the antifolate 5-fluorouracil, as well as other dTMP synthesis inhibitors, function in cancer treatment in light of emerging evidence that dTMP synthesis occurs in the nucleus. Nuclear localization of the de novo dTMP synthesis pathway requires modification of the pathway enzymes by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein. SUMOylation is required for nuclear localization of the de novo dTMP biosynthesis pathway, and disruption in the SUMO pathway inhibits cell proliferation in several cancer models. We summarize evidence that the nuclear localization of the dTMP biosynthesis pathway is a critical factor in the efficacy of antifolate-based therapies that target dTMP synthesis. PMID:27876557

  16. Targeted corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanji, Vishal; Mehta, Jod S; Sharma, Namrata; Sharma, Bhavana; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2012-07-01

    Corneal transplantation surgery has moved from an era of conventional penetrating keratoplasty to selective replacement of the diseased corneal layer with complementary healthy donor corneal tissue. Anterior lamellar transplantation surgeries do not involve replacement of corneal endothelium, consequently eliminating the occurrence of endothelial rejection. Similarly, in diseases affecting the corneal endothelium, selective replacement with a lamellar lenticule bearing healthy endothelium provides better outcomes in terms of ocular surface, lesser astigmatism and quick visual recovery. In addition to the advantages of enhanced surgical outcomes, targeted corneal transplantation allows the use of one donor cornea for more than one recipient, thereby offering a viable solution to the problem of paucity of donor corneas. Evolving techniques of corneal transplantation have enabled better utilization of donor corneal tissue. Anterior lamellar as well as endothelial keratoplasty surgeries have become first-choice surgeries in appropriately selected cases. This review briefly discusses some of these novel surgical techniques. A better understanding of targeted corneal transplantation would lead to adaptation of the concept of component corneal surgery. This would further enable the corneal surgeons to circumvent the problem of donor corneal shortage especially in the developing world.

  17. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  18. Old Drug, New Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Panova, Tatiana; Normand, Christophe; Gadal, Olivier; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Panov, Konstantin I.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol-I) is the main driving force behind ribosome biogenesis, a fundamental cellular process that requires the coordinated transcription of all three nuclear polymerases. Increased Pol-I transcription and the concurrent increase in ribosome biogenesis has been linked to the high rates of proliferation in cancers. The ellipticine family contains a number of potent anticancer therapeutic agents, some having progressed to stage I and II clinical trials; however, the mechanism by which many of the compounds work remains unclear. It has long been thought that inhibition of Top2 is the main reason behind the drugs antiproliferative effects. Here we report that a number of the ellipticines, including 9-hydroxyellipticine, are potent and specific inhibitors of Pol-I transcription, with IC50 in vitro and in cells in the nanomolar range. Essentially, the drugs did not affect Pol-II and Pol-III transcription, demonstrating a high selectivity. We have shown that Pol-I inhibition occurs by a p53-, ATM/ATR-, and Top2-independent mechanism. We discovered that the drug influences the assembly and stability of preinitiation complexes by targeting the interaction between promoter recognition factor SL1 and the rRNA promoter. Our findings will have an impact on the design and development of novel therapeutic agents specifically targeting ribosome biogenesis. PMID:23293027

  19. Quantum state targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Terry; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2004-11-01

    We introduce a primitive for quantum cryptography that we term “state targeting.” We show that increasing one’s probability of success in this task above a minimum amount implies an unavoidable increase in the probability of a particular kind of failure. This is analogous to the unavoidable disturbance to a quantum state that results from gaining information about its identity, and can be shown to be a purely quantum effect. We solve various optimization problems for state targeting that are useful for the security analysis of two-party cryptographic tasks implemented between remote antagonistic parties. Although we focus on weak coin flipping, the results are significant for other two-party protocols, such as strong coin flipping, partially binding and concealing bit commitment, and bit escrow. Furthermore, the results have significance not only for the traditional notion of security in cryptography, that of restricting a cheater’s ability to bias the outcome of the protocol, but also for a different notion of security that arises only in the quantum context, that of cheat sensitivity. Finally, our analysis leads to some interesting secondary results, namely, a generalization of Uhlmann’s theorem and an operational interpretation of the fidelity between two mixed states.

  20. Target Housing Material Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  1. Targeting adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Bodo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG, insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET, however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs, activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ a ‘master’ regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity.

  2. Targeting adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Bodo; Schlinkert, Paul; Mayer, Peter; Eckstein, Niels

    2012-10-27

    Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT) is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET), however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs), activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) a 'master' regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity.

  3. Low intensity beam target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    This is a wheel fitted with many targets around its periphery (each with three longitudinally arranged thin rods) of which one is placed into the beam via a rotation of the wheel. Upstream of each target is placed a luminescent screen, aligbed on each target axis and viewed with a TV camera, to make sure that one is hitting the target. This target unit was probably used to study target's behaviour (like beam heating). Gualtiero Del Torre stands on the left, Pierre Gerdil on the right.

  4. Issues in Target Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    simulations we take as ground truth that the target moves at 10m/s heading west and 5m/s heading north, starting from ( 5000m , 35000m). The emitted frequency is... runs , the estimated initial and final positions fall into the 99% confidence region. −1 −0.8 −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 x 10 4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5...position of trajectories. “F”: final position of trajectories. Right: The true and estimated trajectories from 100 Monte Carlo runs for Johnson noise

  5. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bradycardia is common during targeted temperature management, likely being a physiologic response to lower body temperature, and has recently been associated with favorable outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in smaller observational studies. The present study sought...... to confirm this finding in a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C and explore the response to targeted temperature management targeting 36°C. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized study. SETTING: Thirty-six ICUs in 10 countries. PATIENTS......: We studied 447 (targeted temperature management = 33°C) and 430 (targeted temperature management = 36°C) comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with available heart rate data, randomly assigned in the targeted temperature management trial from 2010 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted...

  6. Characterization of solid hydrogen targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.C. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Bailey, J.M.; Mulhauser, F. [Chester Technology (United Kingdom); Beer, G.A.; Douglas, J.L.; Knowles, P.E.; Maier, M.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A.; Porcelli, T.A. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TRIUMF Facility; Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, MN (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland); Kammel, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kim, S.K. [Jeonbuk National Univ., Jeonju City (Korea, Republic of); Kunselman, A.R. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States); Martoff, C.J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zmeskal, J. [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-10-01

    In experiments using the TRIUMF solid hydrogen target system, the knowledge of the target thickness and uniformity is often essential in order to extract physical parameters from the data. We have characterized the thickness and uniformity of frozen targets using the energy loss of alpha particles. An accuracy of {approx}5% was achieved, a limit imposed by the uncertainty in the stopping powers. The details of the method are described, and the thickness calibration of the target is presented. (orig.). 11 refs.

  7. Target noise in overlay metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligson, Joel L.; Adel, Mike E.; Izikson, Pavel; Levinski, Vladimir; Yaffe, Dan

    2004-05-01

    We have developed a method for calculating the statistical effects of spatial noise on the overlay measurement extracted from a given overlay target. The method has been applied to two kinds of overlay targets on three process layers, and the new metric, Target Noise, has been shown to correlate well to the random component of Overlay Mark Fidelity. A significant difference in terms of robustness has been observed between AIM targets and conventional Frame-in-Frame targets. The results fit well into the spatial noise hierarchy presented in this paper.

  8. The target effect: visual memory for unnamed search targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark D; Williams, Carrick C

    2014-01-01

    Search targets are typically remembered much better than other objects even when they are viewed for less time. However, targets have two advantages that other objects in search displays do not have: They are identified categorically before the search, and finding them represents the goal of the search task. The current research investigated the contributions of both of these types of information to the long-term visual memory representations of search targets. Participants completed either a predefined search or a unique-object search in which targets were not defined with specific categorical labels before searching. Subsequent memory results indicated that search target memory was better than distractor memory even following ambiguously defined searches and when the distractors were viewed significantly longer. Superior target memory appears to result from a qualitatively different representation from those of distractor objects, indicating that decision processes influence visual memory.

  9. Guidance and targeting for the Strategic Target System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John E.

    Guidance algorithms and targeting procedures for the Strategic Target System (STARS) launch vehicle are described. The STARS vehicle is a three stage booster, based partly upon retired Polaris A3 missile assets, which is intended to support development and testing of the Strategic Defense Initiative by delivering target payloads to the vicinity of the Kwajalein Atoll. STARS will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility located on Kauai, Hawaii. The STARS guidance objective is to deliver payloads to a prescribed target location with maximum accuracy at intercontinental ballistic missile velocities. Mission objectives are achieved with a combination of guidance algorithms.

  10. Oxide Fiber Targets at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Carminati, D; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Correia, J G; Crepieux, B; Dietrich, M; Elder, K; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Georg, U; Giles, T; Joinet, A; Jonsson, O C; Kirchner, R; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Maier, H J; Mishin, V I; Oinonen, M; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L; Rinaldi, T; Santana-Leitner, M; Wahl, U; Weissman, L

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxyde fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxyde fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce...

  11. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT, which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination

  12. Target Acquisition Methodology Enhancement (TAME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    acquisition probability from COMINT, PCOM , against all communications type targets, is determined offline by a stochastic model for subsequent...of PN over all replications. F-4 f. Computes overall acquisition probability, PCOM , against all communications type targets as C: PCOM = (1. - PN...NNET where NNET denotes the number of nets which the target is in. F-6. TOTAL ACQUISITION PROBABILITY. With PNCj and PCOM computed as above, the

  13. Guidance system for laser targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Gary D.; Bogdanoff, Anatoly

    1978-01-01

    A system for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory, and a set of electrostatic deflection means, energized according to a calculated output of said computer, to change the target trajectory to intercept the focal spot of the laser which is triggered so as to illuminate the target of the focal spot.

  14. Targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-09-30

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  16. Achieving Plant CRISPR Targeting that Limits Off-Target Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Wolt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The CRISPR-Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with associated Cas9 protein has been used to generate targeted changes for direct modification of endogenous genes in an increasing number of plant species; but development of plant genome editing has not yet fully considered potential off-target mismatches that may lead to unintended changes within the genome. Assessing the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9 for increasing editing efficiency as well as the potential for unanticipated downstream effects from off-target mutations is an important regulatory consideration for agricultural applications. Increasing genome-editing specificity entails developing improved design methods that better predict the prevalence of off-target mutations as a function of genome composition and design of the engineered ribonucleoprotein (RNP. Early results from CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in plant systems indicate that the incidence of off-target mutation frequencies is quite low; however, by analyzing CRISPR-edited plant lines and improving both computational tools and reagent design, it may be possible to further decrease unanticipated effects at potential mismatch sites within the genome. This will provide assurance that CRISPR-Cas9 reagents can be designed and targeted with a high degree of specificity. Improved and experimentally validated design tools for discriminating target and potential off-target positions that incorporate consideration of the designed nuclease fidelity and selectivity will help to increase confidence for regulatory decision making for genome-edited plants.

  17. Literature evidence in open targets - a target validation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Dunham, Ian; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-06-06

    We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text. The component serves the platform regularly with the up-to-date data since December, 2015. Currently, there are a total number of 1168365 distinct target-disease associations text mined from >26 million PubMed abstracts and >1.2 million Open Access full text articles. Our comparative analyses on the current available evidence data in the platform revealed that 850179 of these associations are exclusively identified by literature mining. This component helps the platform's users by providing the most relevant literature hits for a given target and disease. The text mining evidence along with the other types of evidence can be explored visually through https://www.targetvalidation.org and all the evidence data is available for download in json format from https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data .

  18. Transverse target spin asymmetries on a proton target at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Transversity and transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are been measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) by using a transversely polarized target at the COMPASS experiment. COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at the CERN M2 beamline, which provides a 160GeV/c polarized m+ beam. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS has collected data with a transversely polarized deuteron 6LiD target. In 2007, COMPASS has used for the first time a proton NH3 target. To access transversity COMPASS has used three different quark polarimeters: the Collins effect, responsible for an azimuthal asymmetry in the single hadron distribution, azimuthal target spin asymmetries of charged hadron pairs and the transverse polarisation of L hyperons. Beside this also the Sivers asymmetry arising from the correlation between the transverse nucleon spin and the quark intrinsic transverse momentum was measured. European

  19. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  20. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this t...

  1. Saccadic adaptation to moving targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Havermann

    Full Text Available Saccades are so called ballistic movements which are executed without online visual feedback. After each saccade the saccadic motor plan is modified in response to post-saccadic feedback with the mechanism of saccadic adaptation. The post-saccadic feedback is provided by the retinal position of the target after the saccade. If the target moves after the saccade, gaze may follow the moving target. In that case, the eyes are controlled by the pursuit system, a system that controls smooth eye movements. Although these two systems have in the past been considered as mostly independent, recent lines of research point towards many interactions between them. We were interested in the question if saccade amplitude adaptation is induced when the target moves smoothly after the saccade. Prior studies of saccadic adaptation have considered intra-saccadic target steps as learning signals. In the present study, the intra-saccadic target step of the McLaughlin paradigm of saccadic adaptation was replaced by target movement, and a post-saccadic pursuit of the target. We found that saccadic adaptation occurred in this situation, a further indication of an interaction of the saccadic system and the pursuit system with the aim of optimized eye movements.

  2. Saccadic adaptation to moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermann, Katharina; Volcic, Robert; Lappe, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Saccades are so called ballistic movements which are executed without online visual feedback. After each saccade the saccadic motor plan is modified in response to post-saccadic feedback with the mechanism of saccadic adaptation. The post-saccadic feedback is provided by the retinal position of the target after the saccade. If the target moves after the saccade, gaze may follow the moving target. In that case, the eyes are controlled by the pursuit system, a system that controls smooth eye movements. Although these two systems have in the past been considered as mostly independent, recent lines of research point towards many interactions between them. We were interested in the question if saccade amplitude adaptation is induced when the target moves smoothly after the saccade. Prior studies of saccadic adaptation have considered intra-saccadic target steps as learning signals. In the present study, the intra-saccadic target step of the McLaughlin paradigm of saccadic adaptation was replaced by target movement, and a post-saccadic pursuit of the target. We found that saccadic adaptation occurred in this situation, a further indication of an interaction of the saccadic system and the pursuit system with the aim of optimized eye movements.

  3. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    CERN Document Server

    Li Zheng Dong; He Wu Liang; Pei Chun Lan; Peng Wen; SongChen; Zheng Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  4. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  5. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  6. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, U.; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some...... contact points. The experience with various oxide fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils......, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process...

  7. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  8. High speed cryogenic monodisperse targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukharov, A.; Vishnevkii, E.

    2017-11-01

    The basic possibility of creation of high speed cryogenic monodisperse targets is shown. According to calculations at input of thin liquid cryogenic jets with a velocity of bigger 100 m/s in vacuum the jets don’t manage to freeze at distance to 1 mm and can be broken into monodisperse drops. Drops due to evaporation are cooled and become granules. High speed cryogenic monodisperse targets have the following advantages: direct input in vacuum (there is no need for a chamber of a triple point chamber and sluices), it is possible to use the equipment of a cluster target, it is possible to receive targets with a diameter of D 100m/s), exact synchronization of the target hitting moment in a beam with the moment of sensors turning on.

  9. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov...

  10. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtgar, Mohammed; Wenz, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy is a major advance in the management of cancer patients. With an emphasis on practical aspects, this book offers an ideal introduction to this innovative  technology for clinicians.

  11. Hyperspectral-Augmented Target Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soliman, Neil A

    2008-01-01

    ... air with the capability to seek, monitor, and destroy mobile terrorist targets in hostile territory. One such capability recognizes and persistently tracks multiple moving vehicles in complex, highly ambiguous urban environments...

  12. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    have recently formed a research network - the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using targeted...... defined by clinical remission criteria (disease activity score, simplified disease activity index, etc) does not always equate to the complete absence of inflammation as measured by new sensitive imaging techniques such as ultrasound (US) . There is evidence that imaging synovitis is frequently found...... in these patients and associated with adverse clinical and functional outcomes. This article reviews the data regarding remission, ultrasound imaging and outcomes in patients with RA to provide the background to a consensus statement from an international collaboration of ultrasonographers and rheumatologists who...

  13. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    have recently formed a research network--the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using targeted...... defined by clinical remission criteria (disease activity score, simplified disease activity index, etc) does not always equate to the complete absence of inflammation as measured by new sensitive imaging techniques such as ultrasound (US) . There is evidence that imaging synovitis is frequently found...... in these patients and associated with adverse clinical and functional outcomes. This article reviews the data regarding remission, ultrasound imaging and outcomes in patients with RA to provide the background to a consensus statement from an international collaboration of ultrasonographers and rheumatologists who...

  14. Targeted therapy for pediatric glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olow, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses molecular underpinnings of responses to promising targeted agents for pediatric tumors of Central Nervous System (CNS), incorporating preclinical testing of novel and translatable combination therapies to define the best therapy for each tumor cell specific molecular aberration.

  15. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  16. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  17. Theoretical aspects of inflation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflation targeting is one of the possible strategies used by central banks during conducting monetary policy. The basic characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of inflation targeting will be presented in this paper. The focus is on the the presentation and interpretation of the understanding of this strategy from the perspective of monetarist and Keynesian theory, the theory of rational expectations, and methodological analysis of the strategy in light of the game theory using payoff matrix.

  18. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  19. Targeting the nuclear RNA exosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meola, Nicola; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2017-01-01

    Centrally positioned in nuclear RNA metabolism, the exosome deals with virtually all transcript types. This 3'-5' exo- and endo-nucleolytic degradation machine is guided to its RNA targets by adaptor proteins that enable substrate recognition. Recently, the discovery of the 'Poly(A) tail exosome...... targeting (PAXT)' connection as an exosome adaptor to human nuclear polyadenylated transcripts has relighted the interest of poly(A) binding proteins (PABPs) in both RNA productive and destructive processes....

  20. Converter structure-based power loss and static thermal modeling of the press-pack IGBT-based three-level ANPC and HB VSCs applied to Multi-MW wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    The wind turbine converters demand high power density due to nacelle space limitation and high reliability due to high maintenance cost. Once the converter topology with the semiconductor switch technology is selected, the converter power density and reliability are dependent on the component cou...

  1. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...... autonomous star tracker the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). One feature of this instrument is that potential targets are registered directly in terms of date, right ascension, declination, and intensity, which greatly facilitates both tracking search and registering. Results from ground and inflight tests...

  2. Pharmacogenomics of GPCR Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Chavali, Sreenivas; Masuho, Ikuo

    2017-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in the human genome is a cause of individual differences in responses to medications and is an underappreciated burden on public health. Although 108 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of 475 (∼34%) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs...... and account for a global sales volume of over 180 billion US dollars annually, the prevalence of genetic variation among GPCRs targeted by drugs is unknown. By analyzing data from 68,496 individuals, we find that GPCRs targeted by drugs show genetic variation within functional regions such as drug......- and effector-binding sites in the human population. We experimentally show that certain variants of μ-opioid and Cholecystokinin-A receptors could lead to altered or adverse drug response. By analyzing UK National Health Service drug prescription and sales data, we suggest that characterizing GPCR variants...

  3. INFLATION TARGETING IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian Lungu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the inflation targeting approach in three transition economies, namely Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic with the use of Taylor rules as benchmarks. The three economies considered have been successful at achieving disinflation, but deviations of inflation from its target have been persistent in all cases. Except for the Czech Republic, deviations from the Taylor rule are large and persistent, with Hungary displaying the largest fluctuations. Polish interest rates have consistently exceeded those suggested by the Taylor rule and given the prevalence of high unemployment, these undershootings do not augur well for the stability of monetary policy. Finally, the behaviour of Czech interest rates can be remarkably captured by the simple Taylor rule proposed in this paper, suggesting that the Czech National Bank has been the most successful at stabilising inflation and output around their target levels.

  4. Targeting Angiogenesis in Childhood Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant K. Bid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis constitute two processes in the formation of new blood vessels and are essential for progression of solid tumors. Consequently, targeting angiogenesis, and to a lesser extent vasculogenesis, has become a major focus in cancer drug development. Angiogenesis inhibitors are now being tested in pediatric populations whereas inhibitors of vasculogenesis are in an earlier stage of development. Despite the initial enthusiasm for targeting angiogenesis for treatment of cancer, clinical trials have shown only incremental increases in survival, and agents have been largely cytostatic rather than inducing tumor regressions. Consequently, the role of such therapeutic approaches in the context of curative intent for childhood sarcomas is less clear. Here we review the literature on blood vessel formation in sarcomas with a focus on pediatric sarcomas and developments in targeting angiogenesis for treatment of these rare cancers.

  5. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nikolay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors.

  6. Progress with developing a target for magnetized target fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, F.J.; Chrien, R.E.; Idzorek, G.; Oona, H.; Whiteson, D.O.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Sheehey, P.T.

    1997-09-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an approach to fusion where a preheated and magnetized plasma is adiabatically compressed to fusion conditions. Successful MTF requires a suitable initial target plasma with an embedded magnetic field of at least 5 T in a closed-field-line topology, a density of roughly 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}, a temperature of at least 50 eV, and must be free of impurities which would raise radiation losses. Target plasma generation experiments are underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the Colt facility; a 0.25 MJ, 2--3 {micro}s rise-time capacitor bank. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate plasma conditions meeting the minimum requirements for a MTF initial target plasma. In the first experiments, a Z-pinch is produced in a 2 cm radius by 2 cm high conducting wall using a static gas-fill of hydrogen or deuterium gas in the range of 0.5 to 2 torr. Thus far, the diagnostics include an array of 12 B-dot probes, framing camera, gated OMA visible spectrometer, time-resolved monochrometer, filtered silicon photodiodes, neutron yield, and plasma-density interferometer. These diagnostics show that a plasma is produced in the containment region that lasts roughly 10 to 20 {micro}s with a maximum plasma density exceeding 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}. The experimental design and data are presented.

  7. Targeted Therapies for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoroenyi Amanam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related death and by 2030, it will be second only to lung cancer. We have seen tremendous advances in therapies for lung cancer as well as other solid tumors using a molecular targeted approach but our progress in treating pancreatic cancer has been incremental with median overall survival remaining less than one year. There is an urgent need for improved therapies with better efficacy and less toxicity. Small molecule inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and immune modulatory therapies have been used. Here we review the progress that we have made with these targeted therapies.

  8. Harnessing off-target effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saginc, Gaye; Voellmy, Franziska; Linding, Rune

    2017-01-01

    The 'off-targets' of a drug are often poorly characterized yet could be harnessed in the treatment of complex diseases. A recent study used a small-molecule screening in non-small-cell lung cancer to repurpose an FDA-approved ALK/IGF1R inhibitor and uncover its mechanism of action.......The 'off-targets' of a drug are often poorly characterized yet could be harnessed in the treatment of complex diseases. A recent study used a small-molecule screening in non-small-cell lung cancer to repurpose an FDA-approved ALK/IGF1R inhibitor and uncover its mechanism of action....

  9. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T; Borer, K.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Con-Sen, N.; de La Taille, C.; Dick, N.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hess, M.; Igersheim, R.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kocher, H.; Krasnoperov, A.; Krumstein, Z.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Moser, U.; Nozdrin, A.; Olchevski, A.; Porokhovoi, S.; Raux, L.; Sadovski, A.; Schuler, J.; Schutz, H.-U.; Schwab, C.; Smolnikov, A.; Van Beek, G.; Vilain, P.; Walchli, T.; Wilquet, G.; Wurtz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction. Wavelength shifting fibres collect the light signal emitted by the scintillator strips and guide it to both ends where it is read by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. All the elements used in the construction of this detector and its main characteristics are described.

  10. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence......, and collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues....... Working through these cases, students will learn to manage and evaluate realistic intelligence accounts....

  11. TARGET Imbalances at Record Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    TARGET is the payments system for making settlements between euro area economies and five other EU economies. Cross-border transactions generate claims/surpluses and liabilities/deficits among national central banks which “net out” for the system as a whole. These imbalances are manageable in rel...

  12. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  13. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  14. Emerging targets in treating pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David S; Raghavan, Rahul; Christiansen, Sandy; Cohen, Steven P

    2015-08-01

    To provide an overview on drug targets and emerging pharmacological treatment options for chronic pain. Chronic pain poses an enormous socioeconomic burden for the more than 30% of people who suffer from it, costing over $600 billion per year in the USA. In recent years, there has been a surge in preclinical and clinical research endeavors to try to stem this epidemic. Preclinical studies have identified a wide array of potential targets, with some of the most promising translational research being performed on novel opioid receptors, cannabinoid receptors, selective ion channel blockers, cytokine inhibitors, nerve growth factor inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, glial cell inhibitors, and bisphosphonates. There are many obstacles for the development of effective medications to treat chronic pain, including the inherent challenges in identifying pathophysiological mechanisms, the overlap and multiplicity of pain pathways, and off-target adverse effects stemming from the ubiquity of drug target receptor sites and the lack of highly selective receptor ligands. Despite these barriers, the number and diversity of potential therapies have continued to grow, to include disease-modifying and individualized drug treatments.

  15. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kiran eMarelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  16. How are inflation targets set?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, R.; Matějů, Jakub

    -, č. 426 (2010), s. 1-35 ISSN 1211-3298 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : inflation targeting * central bank * credibility Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp426.pdf

  17. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  18. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could ...

  19. Targeted Therapies in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common genital cancer in developed world. It is generally diagnosed in early stage and it has a favorable prognosis. However, advanced staged disease and recurrences are difficult to manage. There are some common genetic alterations related to endometrial carcinogenesis in similar fashion to other cancers. Personalized medicine, which means selection of best suited treatment for an individual, has gain attention in clinical care of patients in recent years. Targeted therapies were developed as a part of personalized or %u201Ctailored%u201D medicine and specifically acts on a target or biologic pathway. There are quite a number of molecular alteration points in endometrial cancer such as PTEN tumor suppressor genes, DNA mismatch repair genes, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and p53 oncogene which all might be potential candidates for tailored targeted therapy. In recent years targeted therapies has clinical application in ovarian cancer patients and in near future with the advent of new agents these %u201Ctailored%u201D drugs will be in market for routine clinical practice in endometrial cancer patients, in primary disease and recurrences as well.

  20. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...

  1. Polarized Scintillating Targets at Psi

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2001-02-01

    Scintillating polarized targets are now routinely available: blocks of 18×18×5 mm scintillating organic polymer, doped with TEMPO, polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical 3He-4He dilution refrigerator. A 19 mm diameter plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat.

  2. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX. SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  3. Targeted Advertising and Social Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper shows how a firm can use non-targeted advertising to exploit consumers' desire for social status. A monopolist sells multiple varieties of a good to consumers who each care about what others believe about his wealth. Advertising allows consumers both to buy different varieties

  4. Polarimetric imaging of underwater targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilerson, Alex; Carrizo, Carlos; Tonizzo, Alberto; Ibrahim, Amir; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Foster, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

    2013-06-01

    Underwater imaging is challenging because of the significant attenuation of light due to absorption and scattering of light in water. Using polarization properties of light is one of the options for improving image quality. We present results of imaging of a polarized target in open ocean (Curacao) and coastal (NY Bight) waters. The target in the shape of a square is divided into several smaller squares, each of which is covered with a polarizing film with different polarization orientations or transmission coefficients was placed on a mirror and imaged under water by a green-band full-Stokes polarimetric video camera at the full range of azimuth angles against the Sun. The values of the Stokes vector components from the images are compared with the modeled image of the target using radiative transfer code for the atmosphere-ocean system combined with the simple imaging model. It is shown that even in clear water the impact of the water body on the polarized underwater image is very significant and retrieval of target polarization characteristics from the image is extremely challenging.

  5. Target selection for direct marketing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of

  6. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  7. Collisional disruptions of rotating targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševeček, Pavel; Broz, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    Collisions are key processes in the evolution of the Main Asteroid Belt and impact events - i.e. target fragmentation and gravitational reaccumulation - are commonly studied by numerical simulations, namely by SPH and N-body methods. In our work, we extend the previous studies by assuming rotating targets and we study the dependence of resulting size-distributions on the pre-impact rotation of the target. To obtain stable initial conditions, it is also necessary to include the self-gravity already in the fragmentation phase which was previously neglected.To tackle this problem, we developed an SPH code, accelerated by SSE/AVX instruction sets and parallelized. The code solves the standard set of hydrodynamic equations, using the Tillotson equation of state, von Mises criterion for plastic yielding and scalar Grady-Kipp model for fragmentation. We further modified the velocity gradient by a correction tensor (Schäfer et al. 2007) to ensure a first-order conservation of the total angular momentum. As the intact target is a spherical body, its gravity can be approximated by a potential of a homogeneous sphere, making it easy to set up initial conditions. This is however infeasible for later stages of the disruption; to this point, we included the Barnes-Hut algorithm to compute the gravitational accelerations, using a multipole expansion of distant particles up to hexadecapole order.We tested the code carefully, comparing the results to our previous computations obtained with the SPH5 code (Benz and Asphaug 1994). Finally, we ran a set of simulations and we discuss the difference between the synthetic families created by rotating and static targets.

  8. Cellular Targets of Dietary Polyphenol Resveratrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that resveratrol, a grape derived polyphenol, exerts its chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer by interacting with specific cellular targets, denoted resveratrol targeting proteins (RTPs...

  9. North Pacific Targets Program Environmental Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The STPO would provide the Strategic Target System launch vehicle for strategic target launch services from Kodiak Launch Complex, Kodiak Island, Alaska, a commercial rocket launch facility operated...

  10. Targeted nanosystems: Advances in targeted dendrimers for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hu

    2016-02-01

    Dendrimers possess discrete highly compact nanostructures constituted of successive branched layers. Soon after the inception of dendrimers, recognition of their tunable structures and biologically favorable properties provoked a great enthusiasm in delving deeply into the utility of dendrimers for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. One of the most important nanotechnology applications is the development of nanomedicines for targeted cancer therapies. Tremendous success in targeted therapies has been achieved with the use of dendrimer-based nanomedicines. This article provides a concise review on latest advances in the utility of dendrimers in immunotherapies and hormone therapies. Much basic and clinical research has been done since the invention of dendrimers, which are highly branched nano-sized molecules with the ability to act as carriers in nanomedicine. In this concise review article, the authors highlighted the current use of dendrimers in immunotherapies and hormone therapies in the fight against cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emerging targets in human lymphoma: targeting the MYD88 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JQ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available James Q Wang,* Yogesh S Jeelall,* Keisuke Horikawa* Department of Immunology, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia *All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: B cell neoplasms co-opt the molecular machinery of normal B cells for their survival. Technological advances in cancer genomics has significantly contributed to uncovering the root cause of aggressive lymphomas, revealing a previously unknown link between TLR signaling and B cell neoplasm. Recurrent oncogenic mutations in MYD88 have been found in 39% of the activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC DLBCL. Interestingly, 29% of ABC DLBCL have a single amino acid substitution of proline for the leucine at position 265 (L265P, and the exact same variant has also been identified in a number of lymphoid malignancies. The MYD88 L265P variant was recently identified in 90% of Wadenstrom's macroglobulinemia patients. These recent developments warrant the need for novel diagnostic tools as well as targeted therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the physiological functions of MYD88 and focus on its role in B cell lymphomas, evaluating the potential for targeting oncogenic MYD88 in lymphoma. Keywords: MYD88, L265P mutation, lymphoma, targeted therapy

  12. Targeting an efficient target-to-target interval for P300 speller brain–computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Eric W.; Wang, Xingyu

    2013-01-01

    Longer target-to-target intervals (TTI) produce greater P300 event-related potential amplitude, which can increase brain–computer interface (BCI) classification accuracy and decrease the number of flashes needed for accurate character classification. However, longer TTIs requires more time for each trial, which will decrease the information transfer rate of BCI. In this paper, a P300 BCI using a 7 × 12 matrix explored new flash patterns (16-, 18- and 21-flash pattern) with different TTIs to assess the effects of TTI on P300 BCI performance. The new flash patterns were designed to minimize TTI, decrease repetition blindness, and examine the temporal relationship between each flash of a given stimulus by placing a minimum of one (16-flash pattern), two (18-flash pattern), or three (21-flash pattern) non-target flashes between each target flashes. Online results showed that the 16-flash pattern yielded the lowest classification accuracy among the three patterns. The results also showed that the 18-flash pattern provides a significantly higher information transfer rate (ITR) than the 21-flash pattern; both patterns provide high ITR and high accuracy for all subjects. PMID:22350331

  13. Newer targeted therapies in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Khandpur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disease that can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those who are afflicted due to chronicity of the disease and frequent remissions and relapses. Many available systemic therapies, however, are unsuitable for chronic administration due to the risk of cumulative toxicity. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of psoriasis have led to the development of new, genetically engineered, targeted therapies for this disease. These include approaches targeting antigen presentation and co-stimulation, T-cell activation and leukocyte adhesion, action on pro-inflammatory mediators, and modulating the cytokine balance. Although only preliminary data are available so far and there is limited data supporting their use, these trials contribute to a further understanding of the disease and will eventually lead to new therapeutic options for psoriasis.

  14. Moulding calixarenes for biomacromolecule targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Marta; Morbioli, Ilaria; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro

    2015-09-28

    After their successful use as a preorganized platform for the preparation of receptors for metal ions and small neutral molecules over the last 15 years, calixarenes are enjoying a renaissance of popularity as scaffolds for ligands that are able to efficiently and selectively target macromolecules such as proteins/enzymes, nucleic acids and lipids. This feature article summarizes the peculiar factors characterizing the calixarene structure and properties, as well as outlines the main rules that can be used to turn such macrocycles into efficient and successful ligands for these classes of biomacromolecules. Factors that affect the multivalent properties of calixarenes, such as the size, conformation and stereochemical presentation of binding groups or their amphiphilicity and hybrid character, are described in detail with the use of a few selected examples from the literature. Perspectives and applications of these ligands in bionanotechnology and nanomedicine, such as protein sensing and inhibition, gene-delivery, targeted drug-delivery and cell imaging, are also discussed.

  15. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  16. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  17. Remote moving target indication assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test key components of a sensor to be used on remotely piloted vehicles, aircraft, or satellites for the detection of moving vehicles in cluttered backgrounds. The proposed sensor uses modern large-array focal planes to provide multiple infrared observations of moving targets and capable on-board computers to integrate multiple observations to detect moving targets in background clutter. This combination reduces the size, weight, and cost of the sensor to levels that can be flown on many small unmanned platforms. This effort selected the actual components, integrated them into a test bed, tested the performance of the sensor against realistic generated scenes, and designed a proof-of-concept prototype.

  18. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC...... are considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug...... delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....

  19. Poverty, inequality, and geographic targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Simler, Kenneth R.; Nhate, Virgulino

    2005-01-01

    "This paper applies small area estimation techniques to Mozambican data to develop high resolution (subdistrictlevel) poverty and inequality maps...The picture that emerges is one of considerable local-level economic heterogeneity, with the poor living alongside the nonpoor. Rather than finding stark pockets of intense poverty traps in one part of the country and a relative absence of poverty in other parts, the situation is much more nuanced. This suggests that targeting antipoverty efforts ...

  20. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  1. Medium size polarised deuteron target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Yu.F.; Polyakov, V.V.; Kovalev, A.I.; Bunyatova, E.I.; Borisov, N.S.; Trautman, V.Yu.; Werner, K.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1984-03-01

    A frozen polarised deuteron target based on ethanediol with a high percentage of deuterium is described. Analytical expressions for the NMR spectrum correction for non-linearity of the Q-meter are obtained and a method for the determination of the asymmetry is developed. Experimental results confirm the thermal mixing theory for deuteron and proton spin systems with a dipole-dipole reservoir of electron spins.

  2. Peptide-targeted polymer cancerostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhmová, Eliška; Pola, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S153-S164 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : HPMA copolymers * tumor targeting * peptides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S153.pdf

  3. Coherent Communications, Imaging and Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stappaerts, E; Baker, K; Gavel, D; Wilks, S; Olivier, S; Brase, J; Olivier, S; Brase, J

    2003-10-03

    Laboratory and field demonstration results obtained as part of the DARPA-sponsored Coherent Communications, Imaging and Targeting (CCIT) program are reviewed. The CCIT concept uses a Phase Conjugation Engine based on a quadrature receiver array, a hologram processor and a spatial light modulator (SLM) for high-speed, digital beam control. Progress on the enabling MEMS SLM, being developed by a consortium consisting of LLNL, academic institutions and small businesses, is presented.

  4. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Two graduate students and one postdoctoral research associate...hostile immune reaction toward FR-expressing tumors. A series of vaccinations with hapten fluorescein (EC90 vaccine ) admin- istrated with an adjuvant...FITC-conjugated (FITC is flu - orescein isothiocyanate) CA inhibitor acetalozamide (AAZ) targeted CA-IX positive cells (Kd = 12.6 nM). The biodistribution

  5. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting distress in rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Vriezekolk, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological distress is highly prevalent in patients with rheumatic diseases. It is associated with a variety of negative outcomes, including pain, fatigue, disability, and maladaptive cognitive behavioural coping strategies. In this thesis, psychological distress was studied both as an outcome measure and as a therapeutic target in the context of multidisciplinary rehabilitation. The longitudinal role of coping in psychological distress was systematically reviewed, a questionnaire to asses...

  7. Novel therapies targeting vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousoulis, Dimitris; Antoniades, Charalambos; Koumallos, Nikolaos; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Stefanadi, Elli; Latsios, George; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2006-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as a major mechanism involved in all the stages of atherogenesis. Evaluation of endothelial function seems to have a predictive role in humans, and therapeutic interventions improving nitric oxide bioavailability in the vasculature may improve the long-term outcome in healthy individuals, high-risk subjects, or patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Several therapeutic strategies are now available, targeting both the synthesis and oxidative inactivation of nitric oxide (NO) in human vasculature. Statins seem to be currently the most powerful category of these agents, improving endothelial function and decreasing cardiovascular risk after long-term administration. Other cardiovascular agents improving endothelial function in humans are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptors blockers, which increase NO bioavailability by modifying the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Newer therapeutic approaches targeting endothelial dysfunction in specific disease states include insulin sensitizers, L-arginine (the substrate for endothelial NO synthase [eNOS]) as well as substances that target eNOS "coupling," such as folates or tetrahydrobiopterin. Although there are a variety of strategies to improve NO bioavailability in human endothelium, it is still unclear whether they have any direct benefit at a clinical level.

  8. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Targeted Treatment Options in Mastocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Vaes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mastocytosis refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from the clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells and their accumulation in the skin (cutaneous mastocytosis when only in the skin, CM or in various organs (systemic mastocytosis, SM. This leads to a wide variety of clinical manifestations resulting from excessive mediator release in CM and benign forms of SM (indolent SM, ISM and from tissue mast cell infiltration causing multiorgan dysfunction and failure in more aggressive subtypes (aggressive SM, ASM, or mast cell leukemia. In addition, SM may be associated with hematological neoplasms (AHN. While treatment of ISM primarily aims at symptom management with anti-mediator therapies, cytoreductive and targeted therapies are needed to control the expansion of neoplastic mast cells in advanced forms of SM, in order to improve overall survival. Mast cell accumulation results from a gain-of-function mutation (mostly the D816V mutation within the KIT tyrosine kinase domain expressed by mast cells and additional genetic and epigenetic mutations may further determine the features of the disease (ASM and AHN. Consequently, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and targeted therapies directed against the oncogenic signaling machinery downstream of KIT are attractive therapeutic approaches. A better understanding of the relative contribution of these genetic and epigenetic events to the molecular pathogenesis of mastocytosis is of particular interest for the development of targeted therapies and therefore to better choose patient subgroups that would best benefit from a given therapeutic strategy.

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Sensor and Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    mission, a pre-determined number of different targets should be shuffled between the target locations in the array. Example targets for this subtest are...UNFOV Ultra Narrow Field of View UTM Universal Transverse Mercator VBLSS Video-Based Laser Scoring System VRT Vertical Reference Target WFOV

  11. Progress with developing a target for magnetized target fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, F.J.; Chrien, B.E.; Idzorek, G.; Oona, H.; Whiteson, D.O.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Sheehey, P.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an approach to fusion where a preheated and magnetized plasma is adiabatically compressed to fusion conditions. Successful MTF requires a suitable initial target plasma with an embedded magnetic field of at least 5 T in a closed-field-line topology, a density of roughly 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}, a temperature of at least 50 eV, and must be free of impurities which would raise radiation losses. Target plasma generation experiments are underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the Colt facility; a 0.25 MJ, 2--3 {micro}s rise-time capacitor bank. In the first experiments, a Z-pinch is produced in a 2 cm radius by 2 cm high conducting wall using a static gas-fill of hydrogen or deuterium gas in the range of 0.5 to 2 torr. Follow-on experiments will use a frozen deuterium fiber along the axis (without a gas-fill). The diagnostics include B-dot probes, framing camera, gated OMA visible spectrometer, time-resolved monochrometer, silicon photodiodes, neutron yield, and plasma-density interferometer. Operation to date has been with drive current ranging from 0.8 MA to 1.9 MA. Optical diagnostics show that the plasma produced in the containment region lasts roughly 20 to 30 {micro}s, and the B-dot probes show a broad current-profile in the containment region. The experimental design and data will be presented.

  12. 'EURISOL Desktop Assistant Toolkit' (EDAT): a modeling, simulation and visualization support to the preliminary radiological assessment of RIB projects

    CERN Document Server

    Vamanu, D; Acasandrei, V; Plukis, A; Maceika, E

    The paper describes an approach taken within EURISOL-DS project (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) to a number of safety and radioprotection issues raised by the advent of radioactive ion beam facilities in the cutting edge area of particle accelerators. The ensuing solution emerged from a collaborative effort of the investigating team-in-charge, affiliated with ‘Horia Hulubei’ National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest, with expert colleagues at the Physics Institute in Vilnius, and at CERN.

  13. Targeted advertising, platform competition and privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Henk Kox; Bas Straathof; Gijsbert Zwart

    2014-01-01

    Targeted advertising can benefit consumers through lower prices for access to websites. Yet, if consumers dislike that websites collect their personal information, their welfare may go down. We study competition for consumers between websites that can show targeted advertisements. We find that more targeting increases competition and reduces the websites' profits, but yet in equilibrium websites choose maximum targeting as they cannot credibly commit to low targeting. A privacy protection pol...

  14. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  15. Targeted Therapy in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Baron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapies use an understanding of the pathophysiology of a disease in an individual patient. Although targeted therapy for systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma has not yet reached the level of patient-specific treatments, recent developments in the understanding of the global pathophysiology of the disease have led to new treatments based on the cells and pathways that have been shown to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. The presence of a B cell signature in skin biopsies has led to the trial of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, in SSc. The well-known properties of transforming growth factor (TGF-β in promoting collagen synthesis and secretion has led to a small trial of fresolimumab, a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing TGF-β. Evidence supporting important roles for interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of SSc have led to a large trial of tocilizumab in SSc. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP upon binding of nitric oxide (NO to the sGC molecule. Processes such as cell growth and proliferation are regulated by cGMP. Evidence that sGC may play a role in SSc has led to a trial of riociguat, a molecule that sensitizes sGC to endogenous NO. Tyrosine kinases (TKs are involved in a wide variety of physiologic and pathological processes including vascular remodeling and fibrogenesis such as occurs in SSc. This has led to a trial of nintedanib, a next-generation tyrosine-kinase (TK inhibitor which targets multiple TKs, in SSc.

  16. Downstream targets of WRKY33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John

    2008-01-01

    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection. Tran...... immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens....

  17. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... of the ‘inside’ costs of the sub-component, technical specifications of the product, opportunistic behavior from the suppliers and cognitive limitation. These are all aspects that easily can dismantle the market mechanism and make it counter-productive in the organization. Thus, by directing more attention...

  18. The challenge of targeting metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Isaiah J; Kripke, Margaret L

    2015-12-01

    Metastases that are resistant to conventional therapy are the major cause of death from cancer. In most patients, metastasis has already occurred by the time of diagnosis. Thus, the prevention of metastasis is unlikely to be of therapeutic benefit. The biological heterogeneity of metastases presents a major obstacle to treatment. However, the growth and survival of metastases depend on interactions between tumor cells and host homeostatic mechanisms. Targeting these interactions, in addition to the tumor cells, can produce synergistic therapeutic effects against existing metastases.

  19. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  20. Targeting α-synuclein oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Diggelen, Femke

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a complex disease, characterised by degeneration of neocortical, limbic and nigrostriatal neurons. It is unknown what initiates neurodegeneration, but soluble oligomers of the protein α-synuclein (αSn) seem to be particularly toxic, compared to insoluble fibrils....... Although there is currently no cure for PD, αSn oligomers (αSOs) are a potential therapeutic target, but a major drawback it that little is known about the nature of PD-associated αSOs. The scientific literature describes a wide variety of protocols to generate αSOs in vitro, with a subsequent...

  1. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  2. Targeting telomerase with radiolabeled inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Philip A; Jackson, Mark R; Gouverneur, Veronique; Vallis, Katherine A

    2017-01-05

    The expression of telomerase in approximately 85% of cancers and its absence in the majority of normal cells makes it an attractive target for cancer therapy. However the lag period between initiation of telomerase inhibition and growth arrest makes direct inhibition alone an insufficient method of treatment. However, telomerase inhibition has been shown to enhance cancer cell radiosensitivity. To investigate the strategy of simultaneously inhibiting telomerase while delivering targeted radionuclide therapy to cancer cells, 123 I-radiolabeled inhibitors of telomerase were synthesized and their effects on cancer cell survival studied. An 123 I-labeled analogue of the telomerase inhibitor MST-312 inhibited telomerase with an IC 50 of 1.58 μM (MST-312 IC 50 : 0.23 μM). Clonogenic assays showed a dose dependant effect of 123 I-MST-312 on cell survival in a telomerase positive cell line, MDA-MB-435. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Properties of Protein Drug Target Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon C.; Doig, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate identification of drug targets is a crucial part of any drug development program. We mined the human proteome to discover properties of proteins that may be important in determining their suitability for pharmaceutical modulation. Data was gathered concerning each protein’s sequence, post-translational modifications, secondary structure, germline variants, expression profile and drug target status. The data was then analysed to determine features for which the target and non-target proteins had significantly different values. This analysis was repeated for subsets of the proteome consisting of all G-protein coupled receptors, ion channels, kinases and proteases, as well as proteins that are implicated in cancer. Machine learning was used to quantify the proteins in each dataset in terms of their potential to serve as a drug target. This was accomplished by first inducing a random forest that could distinguish between its targets and non-targets, and then using the random forest to quantify the drug target likeness of the non-targets. The properties that can best differentiate targets from non-targets were primarily those that are directly related to a protein’s sequence (e.g. secondary structure). Germline variants, expression levels and interactions between proteins had minimal discriminative power. Overall, the best indicators of drug target likeness were found to be the proteins’ hydrophobicities, in vivo half-lives, propensity for being membrane bound and the fraction of non-polar amino acids in their sequences. In terms of predicting potential targets, datasets of proteases, ion channels and cancer proteins were able to induce random forests that were highly capable of distinguishing between targets and non-targets. The non-target proteins predicted to be targets by these random forests comprise the set of the most suitable potential future drug targets, and should therefore be prioritised when building a drug development programme. PMID

  4. Bioengineering Strategies for Designing Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    The goals of bioengineering strategies for targeted cancer therapies are (1) to deliver a high dose of an anticancer drug directly to a cancer tumor, (2) to enhance drug uptake by malignant cells, and (3) to minimize drug uptake by nonmalignant cells. Effective cancer-targeting therapies will require both passive- and active targeting strategies and a thorough understanding of physiologic barriers to targeted drug delivery. Designing a targeted therapy includes the selection and optimization of a nanoparticle delivery vehicle for passive accumulation in tumors, a targeting moiety for active receptor-mediated uptake, and stimuli-responsive polymers for control of drug release. The future direction of cancer targeting is a combinatorial approach, in which targeting therapies are designed to use multiple targeting strategies. The combinatorial approach will enable combination therapy for delivery of multiple drugs and dual ligand targeting to improve targeting specificity. Targeted cancer treatments in development and the new combinatorial approaches show promise for improving targeted anticancer drug delivery and improving treatment outcomes. PMID:23768509

  5. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  6. Terahertz-based target typing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Wanke, Michael Clement; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Grine, Albert D.; Barrick, Todd A.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to create a THz component set and understanding to aid in the rapid analysis of transient events. This includes the development of fast, tunable, THz detectors, along with filter components for use with standard detectors and accompanying models to simulate detonation signatures. The signature effort was crucial in order to know the spectral range to target for detection. Our approach for frequency agile detection was to utilize plasmons in the channel of a specially designed field-effect transistor called the grating-gate detector. Grating-gate detectors exhibit narrow-linewidth, broad spectral tunability through application of a gate bias, and no angular dependence in their photoresponse. As such, if suitable sensitivity can be attained, they are viable candidates for Terahertz multi-spectral focal plane arrays.

  7. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  8. Targeting Persistent Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Srinidhi; You, Jianxin

    2017-08-18

    While the majority of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient and cleared within a couple of years following exposure, 10-20% of infections persist latently, leading to disease progression and, ultimately, various forms of invasive cancer. Despite the clinical efficiency of recently developed multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines, these preventive measures are not effective against pre-existing infection. Additionally, considering that the burden associated with HPV is greatest in regions with limited access to preventative vaccination, the development of effective therapies targeting persistent infection remains imperative. This review discusses not only the mechanisms underlying persistent HPV infection, but also the promise of immunomodulatory therapeutic vaccines and small-molecular inhibitors, which aim to augment the host immune response against the viral infection as well as obstruct critical viral-host interactions.

  9. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the ex...... is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.......Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings......, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread...

  10. Obesity treatment: novel peripheral targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Benjamin C T; Chaudhri, Owais B; Bloom, Stephen R

    2009-12-01

    Our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis has expanded enormously in recent years. Food intake and body weight are tightly regulated by the hypothalamus, brainstem and reward circuits, on the basis both of cognitive inputs and of diverse humoral and neuronal signals of nutritional status. Several gut hormones, including cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin, have been shown to play an important role in regulating short-term food intake. These hormones therefore represent potential targets in the development of novel anti-obesity drugs. This review focuses on the role of gut hormones in short- and long-term regulation of food intake, and on the current state of development of gut hormone-based obesity therapies.

  11. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  12. Target therapies in pancreatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestris, Nicola; Gnoni, Antonio; Brunetti, Anna Elisabetta; Vincenti, Leonardo; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Merchionne, Francesca; Maiello, Evaristo; Lorusso, Vito; Nardulli, Patrizia; Azzariti, Amalia; Reni, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) occurs in the majority of cases with early locoregional spread and distant metastases at diagnosis, leading to dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. Traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy provides only modest benefit to patients with PDAC. Identification of different molecular pathways, overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells, has provided the opportunity to develop targeted therapies (monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors) and peculiar new class of taxanes with a crucial therapeutic role in this cancer setting. A phase III trial has shown that erlotinib in combination with gemcitabine was clinically irrelevant and skin toxicity can be a positive prognostic factor. Moreover, the combination of cetuximab or erlotinib with radiotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer has shown to be synergistic and a reversal of radio-resistance has been suggested by inhibition of VEGF/EGFR pathway. To overcome EGFR-inhibition therapy resistance several alternative pathways targets are under investigation (IGF- 1R, MMPs, Hedgehog proteins, m-TOR, MEK, COX-2) and provide the rationale for clinical use in phase II/III studies. Also nab-paclitaxel, a new taxanes class, uses high pancreatic albumin-binding protein SPARC levels to act in cancer cells with a less toxic and more effective dose with respect to classic taxanes. Understanding of molecular pathogenesis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma continues to expand. However, many promising data in preclinic and phase I/II trials did not yield promise in phase III trials, suggesting that identification of predictive biomarkers for these new agents is mandatory. The knowledge of biologic and molecular aspects of pancreatic cancer can be the basis for future therapeutic developments.

  13. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed...... in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  14. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowna, Thomas; Malekos, Steven; Korgan, Grant; Adams, Jesse; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; LeGalloudec, Nathalie

    2014-06-10

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  15. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  16. Study Identifies New Lymphoma Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI researchers have identified new therapeutic targets for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Drugs that hit these targets are under clinical development and the researchers hope to begin testing them in clinical trials of patients with DLBCL.

  17. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A

    2006-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  18. Targeting Cancer with Antisense Oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnatowich, DJ

    2008-10-28

    With financial assistance from the Department of Energy, we have shown definitively that radiolabeled antisense DNAs and other oligomers will accumulate in target cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by an antisense mechanism. We have also shown that the number of mRNA targets for our antisense oligomers in the cancer cell types that we have investigated so far is sufficient to provide and antisense image and/or radiotherapy of cancer in mice. These studies have been reported in about 10 publications. However our observation over the past several years has shown that radiolabeled antisense oligomers administered intravenously in their native and naked form will accumulate and be retained in target xenografts by an antisense mechanism but will also accumulate at high levels in normal organs such as liver, spleen and kidneys. We have investigated unsuccessfully several commercially available vectors. Thus the use of radiolabeled antisense oligomers for the imaging of cancer must await novel approaches to delivery. This laboratory has therefore pursued two new paths, optical imaging of tumor and Auger radiotherapy. We are developing a novel method of optical imaging tumor using antisense oligomers with a fluorophore is administered while hybridized with a shorter complementary oligomer with an inhibitor. In culture and in tumored mice that the duplex remains intact and thus nonfluorescent until it encounters its target mRNA at which time it dissociates and the antisense oligomer binds along with its fluorophore to the target. Simultaneous with the above, we have also observed, as have others, that antisense oligomers migrate rapidly and quantitatively to the nucleus upon crossing cell membranes. The Auger electron radiotherapy path results from this observation since the nuclear migration properties could be used effectively to bring and to retain in the nucleus an Auger emitting radionuclide such as 111In or 125I bound to the antisense oligomer. Since the object becomes

  19. Targeted integration of genes in Xenopus tropicalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Zhaoying; Tian, Dandan; Xin, Huhu

    2017-01-01

    With the successful establishment of both targeted gene disruption and integration methods in the true diploid frog Xenopus tropicalis, this excellent vertebrate genetic model now is making a unique contribution to modelling human diseases. Here, we summarize our efforts on establishing homologous...... recombination-mediated targeted integration in Xenopus tropicalis, the usefulness, and limitation of targeted integration via the homology-independent strategy, and future directions on how to further improve targeted gene integration in Xenopus tropicalis....

  20. Capacitive Sensors And Targets Would Measure Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstrom, Del T.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple capacitive sensors and active targets used to measure distance between, and relative orientation of, two objects. Sensed target signals processed and used by control systems to align objects to be joined. Shapes, sizes, and layouts of sensors and targets optimized for specific application. Particular layout of targets and sensors enables determination of relative position and orientation of two objects in all six degrees of freedom.

  1. 40 CFR 35.9020 - Planning targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning targets. 35.9020 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9020 Planning targets. The EPA Assistant Administrator for Water develops planning targets each year to help each...

  2. Inflation Targeting and Business Cycle Synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Robert P; Rose, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    Inflation targeting seems to have a small but positive effect on the synchronization of business cycles; countries that target inflation seem to have cycles that move slightly more closely with foreign cycles. Thus the advent of inflation targeting does not explain the decoupling of global business cycles, for two reasons. Indeed business cycles have not in fact become less synchronized across countries.

  3. Starkweather Target Game for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Elizabeth K.

    The Starkweather Target Game is designed to measure preschool children's willingness to try difficult tasks independent of ability. The game consists of a box-shaped target which responds, when the target is hit by a rolled ball, somewhat like a jack-in-a-box. When the bull's eye is hit, the lid opens and a surprise picture appears. After being…

  4. Vergence facility with stereoscopic and nonstereoscopic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni-Moghaddam, Hamed; Goss, David A; Dehvari, Abubakr

    2014-05-01

    To compare vergence facility with nonstereo and stereo targets in binocular symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Sixty-six students were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups according to the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey Questionnaire score. Vergence facility was tested at 40 cm by flipper prism 3Δ BI/12Δ BO (BI, base-in; BO, base-out). The targets used were a nonstereo target (a vertical column of small letter "E" of ~20/30 size), a stereo-local target (fifth set of circles of the Titmus test with stereoacuity of 100 arcsec), and a stereo-global target (page 6 of the TNO test with stereoacuity of 120 arcsec). Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed differences in the mean vergence facility with different targets in all subjects and separately in two symptom groups (p 0.05) but significant for the comparison of stereo-global targets with the other two targets. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed the cutoff points 10.5, 10.5, and 9.75 cycles per minute with nonstereo, stereo-local, and stereo-global targets, respectively. The sensitivity of the three targets used was the same (97%). Specificity was 0.93 or higher with all three targets, with the highest specificity obtained with the stereo-global target (100%). The highest vergence facility was obtained with a nonstereo target and the lowest was obtained with a stereo-global target. High sensitivity with all three targets means that there are few false-negative results with them, and the high specificity is indicative of low false-positive results. Hence, the vergence facility predictive value would be high in diagnosing binocular symptomatic patients using a 3Δ BI/12Δ BO prism flipper at near and a response cutoff of about 10 cycles per minute or less.

  5. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Barry J [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Raja, Chand [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Rizvi, Syed [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Li Yong [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Tsui, Wendy [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Zhang, David [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Song, Emma [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Qu, C F [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Kearsley, John [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Graham, Peter [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Thompson, John [Sydney Melanoma Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050 NSW (Australia)

    2004-08-21

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The {sup 213}Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 {mu

  6. Tantalum/Copper X-Ray Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, William J.; Edmonds, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Lewis Research Center developed unique solution to subsidiary problem of fabrication of x-ray target. Plasma spraying enabled fabrication of lightweight, high-performance targets. Power settings, atmosphere-control settings, rate of deposition, and other spraying parameters developed. Thin coats of tantalum successfully deposited on copper targets. Targets performed successfully in tests and satisfied all criteria expressed in terms of critical parameters. Significantly reduces projected costs of fabrication of targets and contributes to development of improved, long-lived, lightweight x-ray system.

  7. Targeting nominal income growth or inflation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behavior of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation...... targeting is preferable. Otherwise, nominal income growth targeting may be superior because it induces inertial policy making, which improves the inflation-output-gap trade-off. Somewhat paradoxically, inflation targeting may be relatively less favorable the more society dislikes inflation, and the more...

  8. Improved Targeting of Cancers with Nanotherapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Christian; Watson, Andre; Kaplinsky, Joseph John

    2017-01-01

    Targeted cancer nanotherapeutics offers numerous opportunities for the selective uptake of toxic chemotherapies within tumors and cancer cells. The unique properties of nanoparticles, such as their small size, large surface-to-volume ratios, and the ability to achieve multivalency of targeting...... ligands on their surface, provide superior advantages for nanoparticle-based drug delivery to a variety of cancers. This review highlights various key concepts in the design of targeted nanotherapeutics for cancer therapy, and discusses physicochemical parameters affecting nanoparticle targeting, along...... with recent developments for cancer-targeted nanomedicines....

  9. Graphite target for the spiral project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putaux, J.C.; Ducourtieux, M.; Ferro, A.; Foury, P.; Kotfila, L.; Mueller, A.C.; Obert, J.; Pauwels, N.; Potier, J.C.; Proust, J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bertrand, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Loiselet, M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A study of the thermal and physical properties of graphite targets for the SPIRAL project is presented. The main objective is to develop an optimized set-up both mechanically and thermally resistant, presenting good release properties (hot targets with thin slices). The results of irradiation tests concerning the mechanical and thermal resistance of the first prototype of SPIRAL target with conical geometry are presented. The micro-structural properties of the graphite target is also studied, in order to check that the release properties are not deteriorated by the irradiation. Finally, the results concerning the latest pilot target internally heated by an electrical current are shown. (author). 5 refs.

  10. The trajectory of the target probability effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nicholas; Yap, Melvin J; Jabar, Syaheed B

    2013-05-01

    The effect of target probability on detection times is well-established: Even when detection accuracy is high, lower probability targets are detected more slowly than higher probability ones. Although this target probability effect on detection times has been well-studied, one aspect of it has remained largely unexamined: How the effect develops over the span of an experiment. Here, we investigated this issue with two detection experiments that assessed different target probability ratios. Conventional block segment analysis and linear mixed-effects modeling converged on two key findings. First, we found that the magnitude of the target probability effect increases as one progresses through a block of trials. Second, we found, by examining the trajectories of the low- and high-probability targets, that this increase in effect magnitude was driven by the low-probability targets. Specifically, we found that low-probability targets were detected more slowly as a block of trials progressed. Performance to high-probability targets, on the other hand, was largely invariant across the block. The latter finding is of particular interest because it cannot be reconciled with accounts that propose that the target probability effect is driven by the high-probability targets.

  11. Secondary anchor targeted cell release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ali; Lee-Montiel, Felipe T; Amos, Jennifer R; Imoukhuede, P I

    2015-11-01

    Personalized medicine offers the promise of tailoring therapy to patients, based on their cellular biomarkers. To achieve this goal, cellular profiling systems are needed that can quickly and efficiently isolate specific cell types without disrupting cellular biomarkers. Here we describe the development of a unique platform that facilitates gentle cell capture via a secondary, surface-anchoring moiety, and cell release. The cellular capture system consists of a glass surface functionalized with APTES, d-desthiobiotin, and streptavidin. Biotinylated mCD11b and hIgG antibodies are used to capture mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and human breast cancer (MCF7-GFP) cell lines, respectively. The surface functionalization is optimized by altering assay components, such as streptavidin, d-desthiobiotin, and APTES, to achieve cell capture on 80% of the functionalized surface and cell release upon biotin treatment. We also demonstrate an ability to capture 50% of target cells within a dual-cell mixture. This engineering advancement is a critical step towards achieving cell isolation platforms for personalized medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Targeting ceramide metabolism in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburasayn, Hanin; Al Batran, Rami; Ussher, John R

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a major health concern that increases the risk for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. Thus, an enormous research effort has been invested into understanding how obesity-associated dyslipidemia and obesity-induced alterations in lipid metabolism increase the risk for these diseases. Accordingly, it has been proposed that the accumulation of lipid metabolites in organs such as the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart is critical to these obesity-induced pathologies. Ceramide is one such lipid metabolite that accumulates in tissues in response to obesity, and both pharmacological and genetic strategies that reduce tissue ceramide levels yield salutary actions on overall metabolic health. We will review herein why ceramide accumulates in tissues during obesity and how an increase in intracellular ceramide impacts cellular signaling and function as well as potential mechanisms by which reducing intracellular ceramide levels improves insulin resistance, T2D, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. Because a reduction in skeletal muscle ceramide levels is frequently associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity in humans, the beneficial findings reported for reducing ceramides in preclinical studies may have clinical application in humans. Therefore, modulating ceramide metabolism may be a novel, exciting target for preventing and/or treating obesity-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Resource implications of a national health target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Peter; Sopina, Liza Elizaveta; Ashton, Toni

    2014-01-01

    Background The Shorter Stays in Emergency Departments health target was introduced in New Zealand in 2009. District Health Boards (DHBs) are expected to meet the target with no additional funding or incentives. The costs of implementing such targets have not previously been studied. Method A survey...... of clinical/service managers in ED throughout New Zealand determined the type and cost of resources used for the target. Responses to the target were classified according to their impact in ED, the hospital and the community. Quantifiable resource changes were assigned a financial value and grouped...... into categories: structure (facilities/beds), staff and processes. Simple statistics were used to describe the data, and the correlation between expenditure and target performance was determined. Results There was 100% response to the survey. Most DHBs reported some expenditure specifically on the target...

  14. Targeting dendritic cells--why bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Martin; Tacken, Paul J; Figdor, Carl G

    2013-04-11

    Vaccination is among the most efficient forms of immunotherapy. Although sometimes inducing lifelong protective B-cell responses, T-cell-mediated immunity remains challenging. Targeting antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) is an extensively explored concept aimed at improving cellular immunity. The identification of various DC subsets with distinct functional characteristics now allows for the fine-tuning of targeting strategies. Although some of these DC subsets are regarded as superior for (cross-) priming of naive T cells, controversies still remain about which subset represents the best target for immunotherapy. Because targeting the antigen alone may not be sufficient to obtain effective T-cell responses, delivery systems have been developed to target multiple vaccine components to DCs. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of targeting DCs: if targeting is beneficial at all and which vaccine vehicles and immunization routes represent promising strategies to reach and activate DCs.

  15. Preliminary study of mercury target structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Shoji; Nakagawa, Toshi; Mori, Seiji; Nishikawa, Akira

    1997-11-01

    Development of a proton accelerator based neutron source (1.5 GeV, 5.3 mA (for neutron source 3.3 mA), thermal power 8 MW) is currently conducted by the Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative, JAERI. Preliminary design studies and related R and D of a solid metal target for the first stage (1.5 GeV, 1 mA) and a liquid metal target for both the first and second stages (1.5 GeV, 3.3 mA) are conducted by the Target Group to develop both solid and liquid metal target systems. A few kinds of target structures have been investigated in FY 1996 and the preliminary results for the target structures are described in this paper. Investigation results of alternative materials for the target container are also described in this paper. (author)

  16. Governing by targets : Reductio ad unum and evolution of the two-degree climate target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morseletto, Piero; Biermann, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176991662; Pattberg, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Targets are widely employed in environmental governance. In this paper, we investigate the construction of the 2 °C climate target, one of the best known targets in global environmental governance. Our paper examines this target through a historical reconstruction that identifies four different

  17. Using the Dual-Target Cost to Explore the Nature of Search Target Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Michael J.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored to examine search efficiency and infer how color is mentally represented to guide search for multiple targets. Observers located a single color target very efficiently by fixating colors similar to the target. However, simultaneous search for 2 colors produced a dual-target cost. In addition, as the similarity between…

  18. Target definition for shipwreck hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paul Kirsner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or ‘mean’ just 2.7 NM (nautical miles from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor’s reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013. The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review.

  19. Target definition for shipwreck hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsner, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or "mean" just 2.7 NM (nautical miles) from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor's reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013). The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review.

  20. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L; Keith, W Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed "senescence," can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells' heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors

  1. Target detection and tracking in infrared video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhihui; Zhu, Jihong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for target detection and tracking in infrared video. The target is defined by its location and extent in a single frame. In the initialization process, we use an adaptive threshold to segment the target and then extract the fern feature and normalize it as a template. The detector uses the random forest and fern to detect the target in the infrared video. The random forest and fern is a random combination of 2bit Binary Pattern, which is robust to infrared targets with blurred and unknown contours. The tracker uses the gray-value weighted mean-Shift algorithm to track the infrared target which is always brighter than the background. And the tracker can track the deformed target efficiently and quickly. When the target disappears, the detector will redetect the target in the coming infrared image. Finally, we verify the algorithm on the real-time infrared target detection and tracking platform. The result shows that our algorithm performs better than TLD in terms of recall and runtime in infrared video.

  2. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load.

  3. Resistance to Antibiotics Mediated by Target Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Brian G.

    1994-04-01

    The development of resistance to antibiotics by reductions in the affinities of their enzymatic targets occurs most rapidly for antibiotics that inactivate a single target and that are not analogs of substrate. In these cases of resistance (for example, resistance to rifampicin), numerous single amino acid substitutions may provide large decreases in the affinity of the target for the antibiotic, leading to clinically significant levels of resistance. Resistance due to target alterations should occur much more slowly for those antibiotics (penicillin, for example) that inactivate multiple targets irreversibly by acting as close analogs of substrate. Resistance to penicillin because of target changes has emerged, by unexpected mechanisms, only in a limited number of species. However, inactivating enzymes commonly provide resistance to antibiotics that, like penicillin, are derived from natural products, although such enzymes have not been found for synthetic antibiotics. Thus, the ideal antibiotic would be produced by rational design, rather than by the modification of a natural product.

  4. High power target developments at ISAC

    CERN Document Server

    Bricault, P G; Dowling, A; Lane, M

    2003-01-01

    TRIUMF, Canada's national research facility for particle and nuclear physics is currently operating the ISAC facility. A high-energy proton beam from the H sup - TRIUMF cyclotron is used to generate short-lived radioactive species in a thick target. An ion source at the target creates a radioactive beam, which is then injected into the ISAC beam lines and accelerator system. The ISAC facility is designed to accept proton beam intensity up to 100 mu A at 500 MeV. At present our target design can only sustains 40 mu A at maximum. Beyond this point the target has to be cooled. A new target equipped with fins has been developed that may sustain proton beam up to 100 mu A. The fined target has been tested off-line and a thermal simulation using ANSYS[reg] has been conducted and the results are reported here.

  5. Neutronic characterization of the MEGAPIE target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panebianco, Stefano; David, Jean-Christophe; Leray, Sylvie; Letourneau, Alain; Michel-Sendis, Franco; Stankunas, Gediminas [CEA/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berg, Klara; Filges, Uwe; Groeschel, Friedrich; Luethy, Markus; Scazzi, Selene; Tobler, Leonhard; Zanini, Luca [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Eid, Mohamed [CEA/DEN/DM2S/SERMA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guertin, Arnaud; Thiolliere, Nicolas [SUBATECH, Nantes (France); Konobeyev, Alexander Yu. [FZK/IRS, Karlsruhe (Germany); Latge, Christian [CEA/DEN/DTN/DIR, St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Lemaire, Sebastien [CEA/DAM/DCSA/SCGA, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    2008-07-01

    The MEGAPIE project aimed to design, build and operate a liquid metal spallation neutron target of 1 MW beam power in the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (Villigen, Switzerland). The project is an important step in the road-map towards the demonstration of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) concept and high power liquid metal targets in general. Following the design phase, an experimental program was defined to provide a complete characterization of the facility by performing a 'mapping' of the neutron flux at different points, from the center of the target to the beam lines. The neutronic performance of the target was studied using different experimental techniques with the goals of validating the Monte Carlo codes used in the design of the target; additionally, the performance was compared with the solid lead targets used before and after the MEGAPIE experiment. (authors)

  6. Neutronic characterization of the MEGAPIE target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panebianco, Stefano [CEA, Irfu, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: Stefano.panebianco@cea.fr; Berg, Klara [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); David, Jean-Christophe [CEA, Irfu, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Eid, Mohamed [CEA/DEN/DM2S/SERMA, Centre de Saclay, F-91194 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Filges, Uwe; Groeschel, Friedrich [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Guertin, Arnaud [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, F-44307 Nantes (France); Konobeyev, Alexander Yu [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IRS, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Latge, Christian [CEA/DEN/DTN/DIR, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lemaire, Sebastien [CEA, DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres le Chatel (France); Leray, Sylvie; Letourneau, Alain [CEA, Irfu, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Luethy, Markus [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Michel-Sendis, Franco [CEA, Irfu, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Scazzi, Selene [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Stankunas, Gediminas [CEA, Irfu, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thiolliere, Nicolas [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, F-44307 Nantes (France); Tobler, Leonhard; Zanini, Luca [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-04-15

    The MEGAPIE project aimed to design, build and operate a liquid metal spallation neutron target of about 1 MW beam power in the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (Villigen, Switzerland). This project is an important step in the roadmap towards the demonstration of the accelerator driven system (ADS) concept and high power liquid metal targets in general. Following the design phase, an experimental program was defined to provide a complete characterization of the facility by performing a 'mapping' of the neutron flux at different points, from the center of the target to the beam lines. The neutronic performance of the target was studied using different experimental techniques with the goals of validating the Monte Carlo codes used in the design of the target; additionally, the performance was compared with the solid lead targets used before and after the MEGAPIE experiment.

  7. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cates, G.D. Jr. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous {sup 3}He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail.

  8. THERMAL OSCILLATIONS IN LIQUID HELIUM TARGETS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.

    2001-07-16

    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  9. Protection Related to High-power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Target protection is an important part of machine protection. The beam power in high-intensity accelerators is high enough that a single wayward pulse can cause serious damage. Today's high-power targets operate at the limit of available technology, and are designed for a very narrow range of beam parameters. If the beam pulse is too far off centre, or if the beam size is not correct, or if the beam density is too high, the target can be seriously damaged. We will start with a brief introduction to high-power targets and then move to a discussion of what can go wrong, and what are the risks. Next we will discuss how to control the beam-related risk, followed by examples from a few different accelerator facilities. We will finish with a detailed example of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source target tune up and target protection.

  10. Visualizing Energy on Target: Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ARL-TR-8234 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Visualizing Energy on Target: Molecular Dynamics Simulations by DeCarlos E...return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8234● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Visualizing Energy on Target: Molecular Dynamics...REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 October 2015–30 September 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Visualizing Energy on Target

  11. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE STRATEGIC PLANNING: TARGET CHOICE TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lankin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Choice of the targets is one of most important elements of the resource planning system. Particular feature of the strategic planning is development of future alternatives for the enterprise. Main resource strategic planning cycle elements: examination of principal external and internal environment components; forming the company mission; development of long-term targets; concretization of the long-term targets through short-term aims; examination of strategies and final choice.

  12. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Rok Razpotnik; Neža Novak; Vladka Čurin Šerbec; Uros Rajcevic

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB) makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain deli...

  13. Bioinformatics for cancer immunotherapy target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein

    2014-01-01

    therapy target discovery in a bioinformatics analysis pipeline. We describe specialized bioinformatics tools and databases for three main bottlenecks in immunotherapy target discovery: the cataloging of potentially antigenic proteins, the identification of potential HLA binders, and the selection epitopes...... and co-targets for single-epitope and multi-epitope strategies. We provide examples of application to the well-known tumor antigen HER2 and suggest bioinformatics methods to ameliorate therapy resistance and ensure efficient and lasting control of tumors....

  14. Promoting target models by potential measures

    OpenAIRE

    Dubiel, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Direct marketers use target models in order to minimize the spreading loss of sales efforts. The application of target models has become more widespread with the increasing range of sales efforts. Target models are relevant for offline marketers sending printed mails as well as for online marketers who have to avoid intensity. However business has retained its evaluation since the late 1960s. Marketing decision-makers still prefer managerial performance measures of the economic benefit of a t...

  15. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, S.; Ammigan, K.; Anderson, K.; Buccellato, S. A.; Crowley, C. F.; Hartsell, B. D.; Hurh, P.; Hylen, J.; Kasper, P.; Krafczyk, G. E.; Lee, A.; Lundberg, B.; Marchionni, A; Mokhov, N. V.; Moore, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-fil...

  16. Target R and D at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    We proposed a solid and a mercury target concepts through the preliminary conceptual design. To feasible these concepts, analysis and experimental works are being carried out. This paper introduces an outline of present status of target R and D such as heat transfer augmentation experiments for the solid target, mercury flow tests with a loop of maximum flow rate of 15L/min, flow pattern measurements for a cold source moderator etc. as well as preliminary conceptual design works. (author)

  17. Target Language Adaptation of Discriminative Transfer Parsers

    OpenAIRE

    Täckström, Oscar; McDonald, Ryan; Nivre, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    We study multi-source transfer parsing for resource-poor target languages; specifically methods for target language adaptation of delexicalized discriminative graph-based dependency parsers. We first show how recent insights on selective parameter sharing, based on typological and language-family features, can be applied to a discriminative parser by carefully decomposing its model features. We then show how the parser can be relexicalized and adapted using unlabeled target language data and ...

  18. Magnetic confinement system using charged ammonia targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Gary D.; Bogdanoff, Anatoly

    1979-01-01

    A system for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory, and a set of electrostatic deflection means, energized according to a calculated output of said computer, to change the target trajectory to intercept the focal spot of the laser which is triggered so as to illuminate the target of the focal spot.

  19. COST OF ADDRESSING TARGETS OF UNEQUAL VALUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    The formalism for evaluating first strike costs and incentives for military targeting generalize to include higher value targets. That introduces two new allocations to the usual allocation between missiles and military targets, but they can be performed analytically. As the number of weapons on each side decreases, the optimal fraction of second strike weapons allocated to military values falls. The shift to high value targets is more pronounced below about 1,000 weapons for nominal parameters. Below 500 weapons the first striker's cost of action drops below its cost of inaction. A strike would induce a second strike of about 250 weapons on high value targets. An increase in the first striker's preference for damage to the other's high value targets increases or a decrease in its preference for preventing damage to its own high value targets decreases first strike costs and stability margins. Including defenses complicates allocations slightly. The main effect is increased attrition of second strikes, particularly at larger defenses, which makes it possible to significantly reduce damage to high value targets. At 1,000 weapons, by 300 to 400 interceptors the first striker's costs are reduced to 30% below that of inaction and the number of weapons delivered on the first striker's high value targets is reduced to about 100.

  20. What makes a good drug target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashaw, Isabella; Ellinghaus, Peter; Sommer, Anette; Asadullah, Khusru

    2012-02-01

    Novel therapeutics in areas with a high unmet medical need are based on innovative drug targets. Although 'biologicals' have enlarged the space of druggable molecules, the number of appropriate drug targets is still limited. Discovering and assessing the potential therapeutic benefit of a drug target is based not only on experimental, mechanistic and pharmacological studies but also on a theoretical molecular druggability assessment, an early evaluation of potential side effects and considerations regarding opportunities for commercialization. This article defines key properties of a good drug target from the perspective of a pharmaceutical company. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncertainty Prediction in Passive Target Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    denote the bearing and range from observer 12B to target 10B at time t2 as indicated in FIG. 3. Between times t1 and t2, observer 12A has traveled over...Cartesian coordinates of the target with respect to time , and ?̇? and ?̇? are components of the target velocity. [0007] As is well known, a...as a time interval of constant platform velocity.) [0008] In addition to a point estimate of the current target state, a representation of the

  2. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...

  3. An entropy model with variable target

    OpenAIRE

    K O Jörnsten; Larsson, T; J T Lundgren; Migdalas, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper an entropy model with variable target is presented, in which target values are assumed to belong to a specified convex set, so that multiple base-year information and forecasts of future trends can be handled without prior aggregation of such information into one fixed target. Three solution methods for such a model are presented -- one cutting-plane and two search methods -- all of which utilize the fact that entropy models with fixed targets can be solved efficiently. Some com...

  4. Tumour-targeted nanomedicines: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lammers, T.G.G.M; Hennink, W.E; Storm, G

    2008-01-01

    .... Various different tumour-targeted nanomedicines have been evaluated over the years, and clear evidence is currently available for substantial improvement of the therapeutic index of anticancer agents...

  5. Selective targeting of epigenetic reader domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greschik, Holger; Schüle, Roland; Günther, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Epigenetic regulators including writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin marks have been implicated in numerous diseases and are therefore subject of intense academic and pharmaceutical research. While several small-molecule inhibitors targeting writers or erasers are either approved drugs or are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, the targeting of epigenetic readers has lagged behind. Proof-of-principle that epigenetic readers are also relevant drug targets was provided by landmark discoveries of selective inhibitors targeting the BET family of acetyl-lysine readers. More recently, high affinity chemical probes for non-BET acetyl- and methyl-lysine reader domains have also been developed. Areas covered: This article covers recent advances with the identification and validation of inhibitors and chemical probes targeting epigenetic reader domains. Issues related to epigenetic reader druggability, quality requirements for chemical probes, interpretation of cellular action, unexpected cross-talk, and future challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: Chemical probes provide a powerful means to unravel biological functions of epigenetic readers and evaluate their potential as drug targets. To yield meaningful results, potency, selectivity, and cellular target engagement of chemical probes need to be stringently validated. Future chemical probes will probably need to fulfil additional criteria such as strict target specificity or the targeting of readers within protein complexes.

  6. Two target localization using passive monopulse radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2016-02-19

    The simultaneous lobing technique, also known as monopulse technique, has been widely used for fast target localization and tracking purposes. Many works focused on accurately localizing one or two targets laying within a narrow beam centered around the monopulse antenna boresight direction. In this work, however, a new approach uses the outputs of a four quadrant antenna receiver to rapidly localize two point targets present in the hemisphere. A second set of antennas can be required to localize two targets sharing the same elevation or azimuth angles. To combine the outputs of both antenna sets and enhance the estimation performance of the algorithm, two methods are presented and compared.

  7. EURISOL Desktop Assistant Toolkit (EDAT): A modeling, simulation and visualization support to the preliminary radiological assessment of RIB projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, D.; Vamanu, B.; Acasandrei, V.; Maceika, E.; Plukis, A.

    2010-04-01

    The paper describes an approach taken within the EURISOL-DS project (European Isotope Separation Online Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) to a number of safety and radioprotection issues raised by the advent of radioactive ion beam facilities in the cutting edge area of particle accelerators. The ensuing solution emerged from a collaborative effort of the investigating team-in-charge, affiliated with the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest, with expert colleagues at the Physics Institute in Vilnius, and at CERN, within the participation in the EURISOL-DS project, Sub-Task B: Radiation, Activation, Shielding and Doses of the Safety and Radioprotection, Task 5. The work was primarily geared towards the identification of knowledge and data in line with validated, accepted and nationally/internationally recommended methods and models of radiological assessment applied within the nuclear power fuel cycle, deemed to be suitable for assessing health and environmental impact of accelerator operations as well. As a result, a computer software platform code-named “EURISOL Desktop Assistant Toolkit” was developed. The software is, inter alia, capable to assess radiation doses from pure or isotopically mixed open or shielded point sources; emergency response-relevant doses; critical group doses via complex pathways, including the air, the water, and the food chain and derived release limits for the normal, routine operations of nuclear facilities. Dedicated data libraries and GIS (Geographic Information System) facilities assist the input/output operations.

  8. Targeted advertising, platform competition and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, Henk; Straathof, Bas; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2017-01-01

    Targeted advertising can benefit consumers through lower prices for access to web sites. Yet, if consumers dislike that web sites collect their personal information, their welfare may go down. We study competition for consumers between web sites that can show targeted advertisements. We find that

  9. A rotating target for Ra production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohani, M.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2012-01-01

    A target wheel with pyrolytic graphite targets is designed and constructed at the TRI mu P facility to boost the production rate of Ra isotopes. Simulation, design properties and production results are discussed. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Technical Design Report, Second Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bechtol, D. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Bethea, Katie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Carden, W. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chae, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, A. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Counce, Deborah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Craft, K. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Richard M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curry, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayton, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dean, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dye, T. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Eason, Bob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckroth, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fincrock, C. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Fritts, S. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gawne, Ken R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hess, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Horak, Charlie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Lorelei L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Larry C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, B. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Johnson, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Laughon, Gregory J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Kelly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Michilini, M. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Middendorf, Mark E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Neal, Ed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nemec, B. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Peters, Roy Cecil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reagan, G. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rennich, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saethre, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schubert, James Phillip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, C. Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strong, William Herb [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tallant, Kathie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tennant, David Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibadeau, Barbara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trumble, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Trotter, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Webb, Steven B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Derrick C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, Karen S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jinkui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Second Target Station (STS) is a proposed upgrade for SNS. It includes a doubling of the accelerator power and an additional instrument hall. The new instrument hall will receive a 467 kW 10 Hz beam. The parameters and preliminary design aspects of the STS are presented for the accelerator, target systems, instrument hall, instruments and civil construction aspects.

  11. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Mark A.

    2000-03-22

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy.

  12. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  13. Inflation targeting and interest rate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis contains a collection of papers on issues in inflation targeting and its implications for the way interest rates are set. In this respect, the first part deals with two largely positive issues: the effect of inflation forecast targeting on the term structure of interest rates and the

  14. Population ageing and public finance targets

    OpenAIRE

    Heikki Oksanen

    2003-01-01

    The paper incorporates intergenerational fairness into a framework to analyse long-term sustainability of public finances under population ageing. It establishes a link between ageing-related public expenditure projections and public finance targets, thereby clarifying the connection between pension reforms and general government budget balance and debt targets.

  15. Thin Scintillating Polarized Targets for Spin Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.

    2003-07-01

    At PSI polarized scintillating targets are available since 1996. Proton polarizations of more than 80%, and deuteron polarizations of 25% in polystyrene-based scintillators can be reached under optimum conditions in a vertical dilution refrigerator with optical access, suited for nuclear and particle physics experiments. New preparation procedures allow to provide very thin polarizable scintillating targets and widen the spectrum of conceivable experiments.

  16. Harmonic Phase Response of Nonlinear Radar Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ARL-TR-7513 ● OCT 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Harmonic Phase Response of Nonlinear Radar Targets by Sean F McGowan, Dr...Laboratory Harmonic Phase Response of Nonlinear Radar Targets by Sean F McGowan and Kelly D Sherbondy Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...

  17. Function and targets of Fusarium oxysporum effectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawehns, F.K.K.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-layered immune system protects plants against pathogens. Adapted pathogens overcome or evade this immune system by secreting small proteins, called effectors. Often susceptibility genes encode host targets for these effectors, and loss-of-function mutations in such target genes can confer

  18. Security analysts' target prices and takeover premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Dirk F.

    2015-01-01

    Most existing studies conclude that the accuracy of analysts' target prices is questionable. In forecasting target prices, analysts estimate a future stock price under the constraint of a time frame of usually 12. months. We exclude this source of uncertainty by focusing on valuations in takeover

  19. ISOLDE target zone control room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  20. Poverty Targeting Classifications and Distributional Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Elio H Londero

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews two common definitions of poverty targeted projects, discusses the limitations of poverty targeting classifications, calls for a poverty focused cost-benefit analysis that looks at the main policy constraints affecting the distribution of project benefits, and argues for looking at the distribution of net benefits. Finally, it offers some conclusions for the distributionally-minded applied economists.

  1. The History of Target-Controlled Infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, Michel M. R. F.; De Smet, Tom; Glen, John (Iain) B.; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Schnider, Thomas W.

    Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted (target) drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical

  2. Experimental identification of microRNA targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs are small RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally. Animal microRNAs recognize their targets by incomplete base pairing to sequence motifs most often present in the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNAs. This partial complementarity vastly expands the repertoire...

  3. Targeted toxins in brain tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Michael; Hall, Walter A

    2010-11-01

    Targeted toxins, also known as immunotoxins or cytotoxins, are recombinant molecules that specifically bind to cell surface receptors that are overexpressed in cancer and the toxin component kills the cell. These recombinant proteins consist of a specific antibody or ligand coupled to a protein toxin. The targeted toxins bind to a surface antigen or receptor overexpressed in tumors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor or interleukin-13 receptor. The toxin part of the molecule in all clinically used toxins is modified from bacterial or plant toxins, fused to an antibody or carrier ligand. Targeted toxins are very effective against cancer cells resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. They are far more potent than any known chemotherapy drug. Targeted toxins have shown an acceptable profile of toxicity and safety in early clinical studies and have demonstrated evidence of a tumor response. Currently, clinical trials with some targeted toxins are complete and the final results are pending. This review summarizes the characteristics of targeted toxins and the key findings of the important clinical studies with targeted toxins in malignant brain tumor patients. Obstacles to successful treatment of malignant brain tumors include poor penetration into tumor masses, the immune response to the toxin component and cancer heterogeneity. Strategies to overcome these limitations are being pursued in the current generation of targeted toxins.

  4. Misattribution of sensory input reflected in dysfunctional target:non-target ERPs in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K; Gordon, E; Williams, L; Bahramali, H; Harris, A; Gray, J; Gonsalvez, C; Meares, R

    2000-11-01

    While numerous studies have found disturbances in the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) of patients with schizophrenia linked to task relevant target stimuli (most notably a reduction in P300 amplitude), few have examined ERPs to task irrelevant non-targets. We hypothesize, from current models of dysfunction in information processing in schizophrenia, that there will be less difference between ERPs to targets and non-targets in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. EEGs were recorded for 40 subjects with schizophrenia and 40 age and sex matched controls during an auditory oddball reaction time task. ERPs to the targets and non-targets immediately preceding the targets were averaged separately. There was a disturbance in ERPs to targets but also to non-targets (reduced N100 amplitude and earlier P200 latency) and the difference between target and non-target ERP components (N100 and P200 amplitude and P200 latency), was significantly reduced in the schizophrenic group compared with controls. These findings suggest a disturbance in processing task relevant and irrelevant stimuli, consistent with Gray's (1998) hypothesis of misattributions in the 'match:mismatch' of novel (target) and familiar (non-target) sensory input compared with stored information.

  5. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  6. Radiochemical aspects of liquid mercury spallation targets

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eichler, Bernd; Eller, Martin; Horn, Susanne; Schumann, Dorothea; Stora, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Liquid metal spallation targets using mercury as target material are used in state-of-the-art high power pulsed neutron sources that have been constructed in the USA and Japan within the last decade. Similar target concepts were also proposed for next generation ISOL, beta-beam and neutrino facilities. A large amount of radioactivity will be induced in the liquid metal during operation caused by the interaction of the target material with the intense proton beam. This radioactivity - carried by a wide range of radioisotopes of all the elements of the periodic table from hydrogen up to thallium - must be considered for the assessment of safe operation and maintenance procedures as well as for a final disposal of the used target material and components. This report presents an overview on chemical investigations performed in our laboratory that deal with the behavior of radionuclides in proton irradiated mercury samples. The solubility of elements in mercury was calculated using thermodynamical data obtained by...

  7. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L, E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2009-12-15

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) are being simulated in order to set specifications for target fabrication. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4 MJ and 380 TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-ball shaped cocktail hohlraum; with these improvements, a target based on the 240-beam A1040 capsule can be included in the 160-beam laser energy-power space. Robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, which can trade off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  8. Hydrogen isotope recycling at a tungsten target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, M., E-mail: sakamoto@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Higashizono, Y. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ogawa, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School for Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hosoi, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Rusinov, A. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School for Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takeda, H.; Akabane, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Hydrogen recycling has been studied focusing on the neutral behavior in front of tungsten target in the plasma–wall interaction simulator APSEDAS and the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. The line intensity of hydrogen Balmer series decreased toward the target corresponding to a decrease in the electron density in APSEDAS. The relative population of n = 3 and n = 4 increased and that of n = 5 and n = 6 decreased just in front of the target (Z < 5 mm). This might be attributed to the reflected atom or reemitted molecule from the target. In GAMMA 10, the intensity of hydrogen Balmer (H{sub α}) line decreased exponentially with distance from the target with two decay lengths: ∼16 mm and ∼53 mm. These two short decay lengths are attributed to the fact that a fraction of the reflected atoms and atoms dissociated from molecules are at excited energy states.

  9. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Gudkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  10. Delayed neutrons measurement at the MEGAPIE target

    CERN Document Server

    Panebianco, Stefano; Dore, Diane; Ledoux, Xavier; Letourneau, Alain; Prevost, Aurelien; Ridikas, Danas

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the Neutronic and Nuclear Assessment Task Group of the MEGAPIE experiment we measured the delayed neutron (DN) flux at the top of the target. The measurement was proposed mainly for radioprotection purposes since the DN flux at the top of the target has been estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the prompt neutron flux. Given the strong model-dependence of DN predictions, the measurement of DN contribution to the total neutron activity at the top of the target was thus desired. Moreover, this measurement is complementary to the DN experiments performed at PNPI (Gatchina) on solid lead and bismuth targets. The DN measurement at MEGAPIE was performed during the start-up phase of the target. In this paper we present a detailed description of the experimental setup and some preliminary results on decay spectra.

  11. Launch window definition for sky target experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, N. H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a brief report on the computer program developed for the Extraterrestrial Physics Barium Ion Cloud (BIC) Project. The mathematical analysis developed for the program along with its programing characteristics are pointed out to show that this program is adaptable to similar sky target projects. Definite viewing constraints are specified so that the chosen ground tracking stations can photograph the behavior of the sky target after its release. Viewing factors include the illumination of the target by the sun, the relative elevation look angle to the target from each tracking station, the solar and lunar depression angles at each tracking station, and the total sky background brightness of the target relative to each tracking station. Numeric values are assigned to each factor through program input. The program output is flexible so that the results of the window calculations can be studied to the depth required.

  12. Target Identification Strategies in Plant Chemical Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim eDejonghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current needs to understand gene function in plant biology increasingly require more dynamic and conditional approaches opposed to classic genetic strategies. Gene redundancy and lethality can substantially complicate research, which might be solved by applying a chemical genetics approach. Now understood as the study of small molecules and their effect on biological systems with subsequent target identification, chemical genetics is a fast developing field with a strong history in pharmaceutical research and drug discovery. In plant biology however, chemical genetics is still largely in the starter blocks, with most studies relying on forward genetics and phenotypic analysis for target identification, while studies including direct target identification are limited. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in chemical genetics in plant biology with a focus on target identification. Furthermore, we discuss different strategies for direct target identification and the possibilities and challenges for plant biology

  13. Radar target identification using multifractal geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Ban; Leung, Henry; Lo, Titus K. Y.; Litva, John

    1996-06-01

    The design of a system to distinguish objects from measurements of their radar backscatter signals has been a topic of considerable investigation. In the identification of a particular target out of a library of possible targets, the difficulty is that the radar signals cannot be fed rawly into a classifier. Some signal processing has to be done to generate the signal features for target identification. In this paper, multifractal geometry is applied to address the practical issue of discrimination between fishing boat, growlers (small pieces of glacial ice) and sea scattered signals, which is important for search-and-rescue operation. An efficient box-counting method is used to compute the generalized dimension and the multifractal spectrum of different targets and sea scattered signals. In an effort to support our study, X-band radar measurements were collected and analyzed to determine the separability of sea surface targets and sea scattered signals using the multifractal geometry.

  14. The Jefferson Lab Frozen Spin Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Keith, James Brock, Christopher Carlin, Sara Comer, David Kashy, Josephine McAndrew, David Meekins, Eugene Pasyuk, Joshua Pierce, Mikell Seely

    2012-08-01

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin relaxation times as high as 4000 hours were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  15. Peptide Selection for Targeted Protein Quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva, Cristina; Sabidó, Eduard

    2017-03-03

    Targeted proteomics methods in their different flavors rely on the use of a few peptides as proxies for protein quantitation, which need to be specified either prior to or after data acquisition. However, in contrast with discovery methods that use all identified peptides for a given protein to estimate its abundance, targeted proteomics methods are limited in the number of peptides that are used for protein quantitation. Because only a few peptides per protein are acquired or extracted in targeted experiments, the selection of peptides that are used for targeted protein quantitation becomes crucial. Several rules have been proposed to guide peptide selection for targeted proteomics studies, which have generally been based on the amino acidic composition of the peptide sequences. However, the compliance of these rules does not imply that not-conformed peptides are not reproducibly generated nor do they guarantee that the selected peptides correctly represent the behavior of the protein abundance under different conditions.

  16. Behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of target interception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; Zarco, Wilbert; Prado, Luis; Pérez, Oswaldo

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of manual interception. We review the most important elements of an interceptive action from the sensory and cognitive stage to the motor side of this behavior. We describe different spatial and temporal target parameters that can be used to control the interception movement, as well as the different strategies used by the subject to intercept a moving target. We review the neurophysiological properties of the parietofrontal system during target motion processing and during a particular experiment of target interception. Finally, we describe the neural responses associated with the temporal and spatial parameters of a moving target and the possible neurophysiological mechanisms used to integrate this information in order to trigger an interception movement.

  17. Ecosystem Targets - Defining target levels for ecosystem components: a socio-ecological approach

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ecological indicators can facilitate Ecosystem-based Management, but only if targets for indicators exist. Because targets are an expression of the desired state of...

  18. Multiple Model Adaptive Estimator Target Tracker for Maneuvering Targets in Clutter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    ...) to be implemented directly. Poorly known or varying target dynamics complicate the design of any tracking filter, and filters using only a single dynamics model can rarely handle anything beyond the most benign target maneuvers...

  19. Search for Two Categories of Target Produces Fewer Fixations to Target-Color Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Stroud, Michael J.; Cave, Kyle R.; Li, Xingshan; Godwin, Hayward J.; Liversedge, Simon P.; Donnelly, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Searching simultaneously for metal threats (guns and knives) and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in X-ray images is less effective than 2 independent single-target searches, 1 for metal threats and 1 for IEDs. The goals of this study were to (a) replicate this dual-target cost for categorical targets and to determine whether the cost remains…

  20. Hitting moving targets : A dissociation between the use of the target's speed and direction of motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Marie; Middelburg, Tom; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Brenner, Eli

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that people do not use their judgment of a target's speed to determine where to hit it. Instead, they use their judgment of the target's changing position and an expected speed (based on the speed of previous targets). In the present study we investigate whether people

  1. Subcellular drug targeting, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucuta, Sorin Emilian

    2014-02-01

    Effective treatment of diseases at the molecular level is possible by directing the drug substance (micromolecular, protein or peptide drugs, DNA, oligonucleotides, siRNA) with the aid of a specialized nanoparticulate carrier, for safe and effective transport to the specific site of action in the cytosol and its organelles including nuclear targeting. To achieve efficient cytosolic delivery of therapeutics or nuclear targeting, different drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed (macromolecular drug conjugates, chemically or genetically modified proteins, and particulate drug carriers) capable of subcellular internalization overcoming the biological barriers, by passive targeting and especially by active targeting (receptor-targeted delivery). The success depends on the physicochemical nature of DDS, intracellular barriers that these systems need to overcome, the bioavailability of the bioactive drug, biodistribution, the intracellular pharmacokinetics and its influence on the pharmacodynamic effect. Models necessary for this purpose exist but they need to be more developed especially with quantitative treatments, after the development of the means of highlighting the evolution of the drug substance in biophase or at the level of the target cellular organelle by quantitative assays. It is expected that intracellularly targeted drug delivery approaches will be clinically useful using specialized DDSs belonging to the pharmaceutical nanotechnologies.

  2. Hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the tracking accuracy of hypersonic sliding target in near space, the influence of target hypersonic movement on radar detection and tracking is analyzed, and an IMM tracking algorithm is proposed based on radial velocity compensating and cancellation processing of high dynamic biases under the earth centered earth fixed (ECEF coordinate. Based on the analysis of effect of target hypersonic movement, a measurement model is constructed to reduce the filter divergence which is caused by the model mismatch. The high dynamic biases due to the target hypersonic movement are approximately compensated through radial velocity estimation to achieve the hypersonic target tracking at low systematic biases in near space. The high dynamic biases are further eliminated by the cancellation processing of different radars, in which the track association problem can be solved when the dynamic biases are low. An IMM algorithm based on constant acceleration (CA, constant turning (CT and Singer models is used to achieve the hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space. Simulation results show that the target tracking in near space can be achieved more effectively by using the proposed algorithm.

  3. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, S. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K.; ; Buccellato, S. A. [Fermilab; Crowley, C. F. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. D. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Kasper, P. [Fermilab; Krafczyk, G. E. [Fermilab; Lee, A. [Fermilab; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Reitzner, S. D. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stefanik, A. M. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab; Vaziri, K. [Fermilab; Williams, K. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Densham, C. [RAL, Didcot

    2016-10-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-filled decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The target and horns are encased in actively cooled steel and concrete shielding in a chamber called the target chase. The reference design chase is filled with air, but nitrogen and helium are being evaluated as alternatives. A replaceable beam window separates the decay pipe from the target chase. The facility is designed for initial operation at 1.2 MW, with the ability to upgrade to 2.4 MW, and is taking advantage of the experience gained by operating Fermilab’s NuMI facility. We discuss here the design status, associated challenges, and ongoing R&D and physics-driven component optimization of the Target Station.

  4. Improving pharmacological targeting of AKT in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Omer F; Gowda, Raghavendra; Sharma, Arati; Noory, Mohammad A; Dinavahi, Saketh S; Kardos, Gregory; Drabick, Joseph J; Robertson, Gavin P

    2017-09-28

    Targeting AKT with pharmacological agents inhibiting this protein in the melanoma clinic is ineffective. This is a major contradiction considering the substantial preclinical data suggesting AKT as an effective target. Various approaches have been undertaken to unravel this contradiction and drug combinations sought that could resolve this concern. We have shown that genetic targeting AKT3 or WEE1 can be effective for inhibiting tumor growth in preclinical animal models. However, no one has examined whether combining pharmacological agents targeting each of these enzymes could be more effective than inhibiting each alone and enhance the efficacy of targeting AKT in melanoma. This report shows that combining the AKT inhibitors (AZD5363 or MK1775) with the WEE1 inhibitor, AZD5363, can synergistically kill cultured melanoma cells and decrease melanoma tumor growth by greater than 90%. Co-targeting AKT and WEE1 led to enhanced deregulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage repair pathways by modulating the transcription factors p53 and FOXM1, as well as the proteins whose expression is regulated by these two proteins. Thus, this study identifies a unique combination of pharmacological agents and the ratio needed for efficacy that could be used to potentially improve the therapeutic effectiveness of targeting AKT in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. COMPASS polarized target for Drell-Yan

    CERN Document Server

    Pešek, M

    2014-01-01

    In the COMPASS Drell–Yan experiment the pion beam with momen tum of 190 GeV/ c and in- tensity up to 10 8 pions/s will interact with transversely polarized proton t arget producing muon pair via Drell–Yan process. The solid-state NH 3 will be polarized by dynamic nuclear polar- ization. Maximum polarization reached during data taking i s expected to be up to 90%. The non-interacting beam and other particles produced inside t he target will be stopped in the hadron absorber after the target. Two target cells, sepparated by a 20 cm gap in between, each 55 cm long and 4 cm in diameter give the target material volume about 691 cm 3 . The target platform needs to be moved by 2.3 m in upstream dire ction from the position used in previous experiments in order to accomodate the absorber. D uring the beam time higher radiation is expected in the area of the control room. Thus a new target r emote control system is needed. The target magnet is undergoing a substantial upgrade. Drell–Yan data taking is expected t...

  6. Systemic Targeted Alpha Radiotherapy for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan B. J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fundamental principles of internal targeted alpha therapy for cancer were established many decades ago.The high linear energy transfer (LET of alpha radiation to the targeted cancer cellscauses double strand breaks in DNA. At the same time, the short range radiation spares adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts, such as lack of control of some primary cancers (e.g.glioblastoma multiformeand to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. Objective: This review charts the developing role of systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. Method: Targeted alpha therapy is a rapidly advancing experimental therapy that holds promise to deliver high cytotoxicity to targeted cancer cells. Initially thought to be indicated for leukemia and micrometastases, there is now evidence that solid tumors can also be regressed. Results: Alpha therapy may be molecular or physiological in its targeting. Alpha emitting radioisotopes such as Bi-212, Bi-213, At-211 and Ac-225 are used to label monoclonal antibodies or proteins that target specifc cancer cells. Alternatively, Radium-233 is used for palliative therapy of breast and prostate cancers because of its bone seeking properties. Conclusion: Preclinical studies and clinical trials of alpha therapy are discussed for leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, bone metastases, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and other cancers.

  7. Gene Therapy and Targeted Toxins for Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria G.; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt; King, Gwendalyn D.; Curtin, James F.; Yagiz, Kader; Mineharu, Yohei; Assi, Hikmat; Wibowo, Mia; Muhammad, AKM Ghulam; Foulad, David; Puntel, Mariana; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2011-01-01

    The most common primary brain tumor in adults is glioblastoma. These tumors are highly invasive and aggressive with a mean survival time of nine to twelve months from diagnosis to death. Current treatment modalities are unable to significantly prolong survival in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. As such, glioma is an attractive target for developing novel therapeutic approaches utilizing gene therapy. This review will examine the available preclinical models for glioma including xenographs, syngeneic and genetic models. Several promising therapeutic targets are currently being pursued in pre-clinical investigations. These targets will be reviewed by mechanism of action, i.e., conditional cytotoxic, targeted toxins, oncolytic viruses, tumor suppressors/oncogenes, and immune stimulatory approaches. Preclinical gene therapy paradigms aim to determine which strategies will provide rapid tumor regression and long-term protection from recurrence. While a wide range of potential targets are being investigated preclinically, only the most efficacious are further transitioned into clinical trial paradigms. Clinical trials reported to date are summarized including results from conditionally cytotoxic, targeted toxins, oncolytic viruses and oncogene targeting approaches. Clinical trial results have not been as robust as preclinical models predicted; this could be due to the limitations of the GBM models employed. Once this is addressed, and we develop effective gene therapies in models that better replicate the clinical scenario, gene therapy will provide a powerful approach to treat and manage brain tumors. PMID:21453286

  8. Folate targeted polymeric 'green' nanotherapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sreeja; Binulal, N. S.; Mony, Ullas; Manzoor, Koyakutty; Nair, Shantikumar; Menon, Deepthy

    2010-07-01

    The concept of 'green' chemotherapy by employing targeted nanoparticle mediated delivery to enhance the efficacy of phytomedicines is reported. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles encapsulating a well known nutraceutical namely, grape seed extract (GSE)—'NanoGSE'—was prepared by a nanoprecipitation technique. The drug-loaded nanoparticles of size ~ 100 nm exhibited high colloidal stability at physiological pH. Molecular receptor targeting of this nanophytomedicine against folate receptor over-expressing cancers was demonstrated in vitro by conjugation with a potential cancer targeting ligand, folic acid (FA). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry data showed highly specific cellular uptake of FA conjugated NanoGSE on folate receptor positive cancer cells. Studies were also conducted to investigate the efficiency of targeted (FA conjugated) versus non-targeted (non-FA conjugated) nanoformulations in causing cancer cell death. The IC50 values were lowered by a factor of ~ 3 for FA-NanoGSE compared to the free drug, indicating substantially enhanced bioavailability to the tumor cells, sparing the normal ones. Receptor targeting of FA-NanoGSE resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic index, which was also quantified by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. This in vitro study provides a basis for the use of nanoparticle mediated delivery of anticancer nutraceuticals to enhance bioavailability and effectively target cancer by a 'green' approach.

  9. Targeting tumor suppressor genes for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Han, Cecil; Wang, Liana; Zhang, Xinna; He, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiongbin

    2015-12-01

    Cancer drugs are broadly classified into two categories: cytotoxic chemotherapies and targeted therapies that specifically modulate the activity of one or more proteins involved in cancer. Major advances have been achieved in targeted cancer therapies in the past few decades, which is ascribed to the increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms for cancer initiation and progression. Consequently, monoclonal antibodies and small molecules have been developed to interfere with a specific molecular oncogenic target. Targeting gain-of-function mutations, in general, has been productive. However, it has been a major challenge to use standard pharmacologic approaches to target loss-of-function mutations of tumor suppressor genes. Novel approaches, including synthetic lethality and collateral vulnerability screens, are now being developed to target gene defects in p53, PTEN, and BRCA1/2. Here, we review and summarize the recent findings in cancer genomics, drug development, and molecular cancer biology, which show promise in targeting tumor suppressors in cancer therapeutics. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Preliminary investigation of solid target geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro; Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shafiqul, I.M.; Tsuji, Nobumasa; Okamoto, Hutoshi; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Hayashi, Katsumi

    1997-11-01

    In this report, we introduce the developing plan for a solid metal target structure. Supposing tantalum as the target material, the temperature distribution and the maximum thermal stress in a tantalum plate of a solid metal target was evaluated under a water cooling condition, using the heat generation rate calculated with the JAERI`s neutron transport code. The calculation results showed that the water velocity was higher than 10 m/s in order to cool the 3mm-thick target plate down to 200degC when the target surface was smooth and heat transfer rate was calculated with the Dittus-Boelter equation. In this case, the maximum thermal stress is 50 MPa at the target plate surface. The coolant water flow distribution in a target vessel was also evaluated for ISIS-type flow channels and the parallel flow channels. In the ISIS-type flow channels, at least 25mm height of the coolant plenum is needed for a uniform flow distribution. The maximum flow velocity difference between the flow gaps in the parallel flow channels was 30%. A heat transfer augmentation experiment was conducted using ribbed-surface flow channel. The heat transfer rate was confirmed to increase up to twice the value of that for a smooth surface. (author)

  11. Degradable Polymersomes for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Matthew Alan

    Chemotherapy today is often accompanied by major side effects due to delivery of toxic drugs to healthy tissue in addition to diseased cells. Targeted drug delivery offers the possibility of minimizing these side effects by specific delivery to cancer cells using targeted nanocarriers that enhance drug accumulation in tumors and facilitate target-specific cellular uptake. Polymersomes, vesicles self-assembled from polymeric amphiphiles, are an attractive targeted vehicle, as they are capable of encapsulating both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, have lengthy circulation times in vivo, and can employ degradable functionality for triggered release of payload and clearance from the body. This thesis reports on efforts to enhance the capabilities of degradable polymersomes for targeted delivery. First, targeting functionality is incorporated into polymersomes of the block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(gamma-methyl-epsilon-caprolactone) by incorporating the reactive vinyl sulfone group into the amphiphile's hydrophilic terminus, allowing site-selective reaction with cysteine-functionalized targeting peptides following self-assembly. The performance of targeted delivery using this polymersome is then evaluated in vitro. Binding and delivery to model cell lines for targeted and bystander cells is tracked using nontargeted polymersomes and compared to that for polymersomes using a high- or low-affinity ligand. Polymer degradation is also tracked both in simple media and during cellular delivery. Finally, a new monomer is developed incorporating acid-labile acetal functionality into a cyclic polyester. The polymerization of this monomer to two distinct polymers is also characterized and the degradation behavior of both polymers evaluated.

  12. Protein search for multiple targets on DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Martin [Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz 55122 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kochugaeva, Maria [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kolomeisky, Anatoly B., E-mail: tolya@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Protein-DNA interactions are crucial for all biological processes. One of the most important fundamental aspects of these interactions is the process of protein searching and recognizing specific binding sites on DNA. A large number of experimental and theoretical investigations have been devoted to uncovering the molecular description of these phenomena, but many aspects of the mechanisms of protein search for the targets on DNA remain not well understood. One of the most intriguing problems is the role of multiple targets in protein search dynamics. Using a recently developed theoretical framework we analyze this question in detail. Our method is based on a discrete-state stochastic approach that takes into account most relevant physical-chemical processes and leads to fully analytical description of all dynamic properties. Specifically, systems with two and three targets have been explicitly investigated. It is found that multiple targets in most cases accelerate the search in comparison with a single target situation. However, the acceleration is not always proportional to the number of targets. Surprisingly, there are even situations when it takes longer to find one of the multiple targets in comparison with the single target. It depends on the spatial position of the targets, distances between them, average scanning lengths of protein molecules on DNA, and the total DNA lengths. Physical-chemical explanations of observed results are presented. Our predictions are compared with experimental observations as well as with results from a continuum theory for the protein search. Extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations fully support our theoretical calculations.

  13. Proton bombarded reactions of Calcium target nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tel Eyyup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, proton bombarded nuclear reactions calculations of Calcium target nuclei have been investigated in the incident proton energy range of 1–50 MeV. The excitation functions for 40Ca target nuclei reactions have been calculated by using PCROSS nuclear reaction calculation code. Weisskopf-Ewing and the full exciton models were used for equilibrium and for pre-equilibrium calculations, respectively. The excitation functions for 40Ca target nuclei reactions (p,α, (p,n, (p,p have been calculated using the semi-empirical formula Tel et al. [5].

  14. Fixed target issues for the Tevatron Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanski, R.

    1988-08-29

    The Tevatron Upgrade poses some interesting prospects for the Fixed-Target program if an option to extract the high energy proton beam is preserved. This paper presents a summary of the advantages of increased energy for fixed target experiments, and evaluates some of the more challenging technical issues. In particular, Bottom production, muon and neutrino interactions, and polarized /bar p/ experiments would benefit substantially from a higher energy primary beam. The new Main Injector will also be important for fixed target experiments as a source for test beams and intense kaon and neutrino beams. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Reduce proton energy spread by target ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shuan; Chen, Jiaer; Yan, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    It's shown that, with strong target ablation monoenergetic protons along the laser direction is available during the laser aluminum foil interaction, which is different from the classic TNSA theory. When the laser pre-pulse is too strong that the whole target is vaporized, the energetic electrons generated in the gas preplasma will play an important role for the ion acceleration because the sheath field will not be available. These electrons beam, which is highly directional, will setup triangle envelope acceleration field along the laser direction at the target rear, reducing the ion energy spread.

  16. Targets for a Neutral Kaon Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Christopher [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    A secondary beam of neutral Kaons is under consideration for Hall D at Jefferson Lab to perform spectroscopic studies of hyperons produced by K 0 L particles scattering from proton and deuteron targets. The proposed physics program would utilize the GlueX detector package currently installed in Hall D. This contribution looks at potential targets for use in the new facility, paying close attention to the existing infrastructure of GlueX and Hall D. Unpolarized cryotargets of liquid hydrogen and deuerium, as well as polarized solid targets of protons and deuterons are examined.

  17. Antiproton production target of the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The target rods were initially of tungsten, later of iridium. Diameters were around 3 mm and the lengths 60-110 mm. The rod is embedded in graphite, pressed into an aluminium body with cooling fins for forced air cooling. The 26 GeV proton beam from the PS was focused to the dimension of the rod. To aim precisely at its centre, the target was fitted with a scintillator screen, with circles at every 5 mm radius. Both scintillator and target had to stand pulses of 1.4E13 protons every 4.8 s, without interruption for many months.

  18. Drug-induced regulation of target expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskar, Murat; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Drug perturbations of human cells lead to complex responses upon target binding. One of the known mechanisms is a (positive or negative) feedback loop that adjusts the expression level of the respective target protein. To quantify this mechanism systems-wide in an unbiased way, drug...... further newly identified drug-induced differential regulation of Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, Endoplasmin, DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha and Calmodulin 1. The feedback regulation in these and other targets is likely to be relevant for the success or failure of the molecular intervention....

  19. 29 mm Diameter Target Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-10-23

    After numerous delays, the test of the 29 mm diameter target was conducted on 8/18/2017. The complete target design report, dated 8/15/2016, is reproduced below for completeness. This describes in detail the 10 disk target with varying thickness disks. The report presents and discusses the test results. In brief summary, there appears to have been multiple instrumentation errors. Measured temperatures, pressures and IR camera window temperature measurement are all suspect. All tests were done at 35 MeV, with 171 μA current, or 6 kW of beam power.

  20. Performance Simulations of Moving Target Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. K. Loh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of appropriate moving target search (MTS algorithms for computer-generated bots poses serious challenges as they have to satisfy stringent requirements that include computation and execution efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the performance and behaviour of existing moving target search algorithms when applied to search-and-capture gaming scenarios. As part of the investigation, we also introduce a novel algorithm known as abstraction MTS. We conduct performance simulations with a game bot and moving target within randomly generated mazes of increasing sizes and reveal that abstraction MTS exhibits competitive performance even with large problem spaces.

  1. Radar automatic target recognition (ATR) and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR)

    CERN Document Server

    Blacknell, David

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect and locate targets by day or night, over wide areas, regardless of weather conditions has long made radar a key sensor in many military and civil applications. However, the ability to automatically and reliably distinguish different targets represents a difficult challenge. Radar Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) captures material presented in the NATO SET-172 lecture series to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art and continuing challenges of radar target recognition. Topics covered include the problem as applied to th

  2. TargetMine, an integrated data warehouse for candidate gene prioritisation and target discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Chen

    Full Text Available Prioritising candidate genes for further experimental characterisation is a non-trivial challenge in drug discovery and biomedical research in general. An integrated approach that combines results from multiple data types is best suited for optimal target selection. We developed TargetMine, a data warehouse for efficient target prioritisation. TargetMine utilises the InterMine framework, with new data models such as protein-DNA interactions integrated in a novel way. It enables complicated searches that are difficult to perform with existing tools and it also offers integration of custom annotations and in-house experimental data. We proposed an objective protocol for target prioritisation using TargetMine and set up a benchmarking procedure to evaluate its performance. The results show that the protocol can identify known disease-associated genes with high precision and coverage. A demonstration version of TargetMine is available at http://targetmine.nibio.go.jp/.

  3. New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165942.html New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene Two trials show ... New gene-based therapies appear to significantly decrease cholesterol levels in people, and could even cut down ...

  4. Is telomerase a viable target in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseman, C.M.; Wright, W.E.; Shay, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The ideal cancer treatment would specifically target cancer cells yet have minimal or no adverse effects on normal somatic cells. Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that maintains the ends of human chromosome, is an attractive cancer therapeutic target for exactly this reason [1]. Telomerase is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells, making it a nearly universal cancer marker, while the majority of normal somatic cells are telomerase negative. Telomerase activity confers limitless replicative potential to cancer cells, a hallmark of cancer which must be attained for the continued growth that characterizes almost all advanced neoplasms [2]. In this review we will summarize the role of telomeres and telomerase in cancer cells, and how properties of telomerase are being exploited to create targeted cancer therapies including telomerase inhibitors, telomerase-targeted immunotherapies and telomerase-driven virotherapies. A frank and balanced assessment of the current state of telomerase inhibitors with caveats and potential limitations will be included. PMID:21802433

  5. Logarithm laws and shrinking target properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We survey some of the recent developments in the study of logarithm laws and shrinking target properties for various families of dynamical systems. We discuss connections to geometry, diophantine approximation and probability theory.

  6. Nuclear Targeting Terms for Engineers and Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Ledger, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Defense has a methodology for targeting nuclear weapons, and a jargon that is used to communicate between the analysts, planners, aircrews, and missile crews. The typical engineer or scientist in the Department of Energy may not have been exposed to the nuclear weapons targeting terms and methods. This report provides an introduction to the terms and methodologies used for nuclear targeting. Its purpose is to prepare engineers and scientists to participate in wargames, exercises, and discussions with the Department of Defense. Terms such as Circular Error Probable, probability of hit and damage, damage expectancy, and the physical vulnerability system are discussed. Methods for compounding damage from multiple weapons applied to one target are presented.

  7. Therapeutic Approaches to Target Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Arlhee, E-mail: arlhee@cim.sld.cu; Leon, Kalet [Department of Systems Biology, Center of Molecular Immunology, 216 Street, PO Box 16040, Atabey, Havana 11600 (Cuba)

    2011-08-15

    The clinical relevance of cancer stem cells (CSC) remains a major challenge for current cancer therapies, but preliminary findings indicate that specific targeting may be possible. Recent studies have shown that these tumor subpopulations promote tumor angiogenesis through the increased production of VEGF, whereas the VEGF neutralizing antibody bevacizumab specifically inhibits CSC growth. Moreover, nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with a potent antiangiogenic activity, has been shown by our group to reduce the frequency of CSC-like subpopulations in mouse models of brain tumors when combined with ionizing radiation. These studies and subsequent reports from other groups support the relevance of approaches based on molecular-targeted therapies to selectively attack CSC. This review discusses the relevance of targeting both the EGFR and angiogenic pathways as valid approaches to this aim. We discuss the relevance of identifying better molecular markers to develop drug screening strategies that selectively target CSC.

  8. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  9. Tumor-targeted nanomedicines for cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranja, Alexandra G; Pathak, Vertika; Lammers, Twan; Shi, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic drugs have multiple drawbacks, including severe side effects and suboptimal therapeutic efficacy. Nanomedicines assist in improving the biodistribution and target accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs, and are therefore able to enhance the balance between efficacy and toxicity. Multiple types of nanomedicines have been evaluated over the years, including liposomes, polymer-drug conjugates and polymeric micelles, which rely on strategies such as passive targeting, active targeting and triggered release for improved tumor-directed drug delivery. Based on the notion that tumors and metastases are highly heterogeneous, it is important to integrate imaging properties in nanomedicine formulations in order to enable non-invasive and quantitative assessment of targeting efficiency. By allowing for patient pre-selection, such next generation nanotheranostics are useful for facilitating clinical translation and personalizing nanomedicine treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. IMS Mitigation Target Areas - 2010 [ds673

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Mitigation Target Areas (MTA) were developed by the California Department of Fish and Game for the Interim Mitigation Strategy (IMS). The MTAs are an identification...

  11. Novel molecular multilevel targeted antitumor agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sonawane

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We believe that our receptor-directed intracellular organelle-targeted proteins can be employed for numerous specific and safer treatment applications when drugs have specific intracellular sites of their action.

  12. Targeting the tumor microenvironment for cancer therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sounni, Nor Eddine; Noel, Agnès

    With the emergence of the tumor microenvironment as an essential ingredient of cancer malignancy, therapies targeting the host compartment of tumors have begun to be designed and applied in the clinic...

  13. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-09-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Enhancing proton acceleration by using composite targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.

    2015-07-10

    Efficient laser ion acceleration requires high laser intensities, which can only be obtained by tightly focusing laser radiation. In the radiation pressure acceleration regime, where the tightly focused laser driver leads to the appearance of the fundamental limit for the maximum attainable ion energy, this limit corresponds to the laser pulse group velocity as well as to another limit connected with the transverse expansion of the accelerated foil and consequent onset of the foil transparency. These limits can be relaxed by using composite targets, consisting of a thin foil followed by a near critical density slab. Such targets provide guiding of a laser pulse inside a self-generated channel and background electrons, being snowplowed by the pulse, compensate for the transverse expansion. The use of composite targets results in a significant increase in maximum ion energy, compared to a single foil target case.

  15. Computing the apparent centroid of radar targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    A high-frequency multibounce radar scattering code was used as a simulation platform for demonstrating an algorithm to compute the ARC of specific radar targets. To illustrate this simulation process, several targets models were used. Simulation results for a sphere model were used to determine the errors of approximation associated with the simulation; verifying the process. The severity of glint induced tracking errors was also illustrated using a model of an F-15 aircraft. It was shown, in a deterministic manner, that the ARC of a target can fall well outside its physical extent. Finally, the apparent radar centroid simulation based on a ray casting procedure is well suited for use on most massively parallel computing platforms and could lead to the development of a near real-time radar tracking simulation for applications such as endgame fuzing, survivability, and vulnerability analyses using specific radar targets and fuze algorithms.

  16. Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Daniel Abraham [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

  17. Characterizing Health Information for Different Target Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueping; Hou, Zhen; Hou, Li; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of audiences in health care: health professionals and health consumers, each have different information needs. Health monographs targeting different audiences are created by leveraging readers' background knowledge. The NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries provide parallel cancer information and education resources with different target audiences. In this paper, we used targeted audience-specific cancer information PDQs to measure characteristic differences on the element level between audiences. In addition, we compared vocabulary coverage. Results show a significant difference between the professional and patient version of cancer monographs in both content organization and vocabulary. This study provides a new view to assess targeted audience-specific health information, and helps editors to improve the quality and readability of health information.

  18. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  19. WTS - Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) application supports a new SMS-structured process designed to focus on safety oversight of systems and processes rather than...

  20. RNA as a small molecule druggable target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Noreen F; Smith, Graham F

    2017-12-01

    Small molecule drugs have readily been developed against many proteins in the human proteome, but RNA has remained an elusive target for drug discovery. Increasingly, we see that RNA, and to a lesser extent DNA elements, show a persistent tertiary structure responsible for many diverse and complex cellular functions. In this digest, we have summarized recent advances in screening approaches for RNA targets and outlined the discovery of novel, drug-like small molecules against RNA targets from various classes and therapeutic areas. The link of structure, function, and small-molecule Druggability validates now for the first time that RNA can be the targets of therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeted ocean sampling guidance for tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sue; Cummings, James A.; Schmidt, Jerome M.; Sanabia, Elizabeth R.; Jayne, Steven R.

    2017-05-01

    A 3-D variational ocean data assimilation adjoint approach is used to examine the impact of ocean observations on coupled tropical cyclone (TC) model forecast error for three recent hurricanes: Isaac (2012), Hilda (2015), and Matthew (2016). In addition, this methodology is applied to develop an innovative ocean observation targeting tool validated using TC model simulations that assimilate ocean temperature observed by Airborne eXpendable Bathy Thermographs and Air-Launched Autonomous Micro-Observer floats. Comparison between the simulated targeted and real observation data assimilation impacts reveals a positive maximum mean linear correlation of 0.53 at 400-500 m, which implies some skill in the targeting application. Targeted ocean observation regions from these three hurricanes, however, show that the largest positive impacts in reducing the TC model forecast errors are sensitive to the initial prestorm ocean conditions such as the location and magnitude of preexisting ocean eddies, storm-induced ocean cold wake, and model track errors.

  2. Targeting Prostate Cancer with Multifunctional Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0487 TITLE: Targeting Prostate Cancer with Multifunctional Nanoparticles PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Darryl Martin...Targeting Prostate Cancer with Multifunctional Nanoparticles 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0487 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Darryl...claudin-3 and claudin-4 are expressed in subsets of aggressive prostate cancer. Finally, we produced our first two batches of nanoparticles during year

  3. Targeting the Neural Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0505 TITLE: Targeting the Neural Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Ittmann MD PhD...CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting the Neural Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0505 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...ABSTRACT Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer -related death for men in the United States. Recent

  4. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer . The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer . During

  5. Design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Roberts, D.H.; Levine, B.H.

    1982-05-05

    The design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory for deuterium-tritium fuel processing for laser fusion targets has been accomplished with the intent of providing redundant safeguard systems. The design of the tritium laboratory is based on a combination of tritium handling techniques that are currently used by experienced laboratories. A description of the laboratory in terms of its interrelated processing systems is presented to provide an understanding of the design features for safe operation.

  6. Gas Production in the MEGAPIE Spallation Target

    OpenAIRE

    Thiollière, Nicolas; Zanini, Luca; David, Jean-Christophe; Eikenberg, Jost; Guertin, Arnaud; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu.; Lemaire, Sébastien; Panebianco, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) project was started in 2000 to design, build, and operate a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation neutron target at the power level of 1 MW. The target was irradiated for 4 months in 2006 at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. Gas samples wereextracted in various phases of operation and analyzed by g spectroscopy, leading to the determination of the main radioactive isotopes released from the LBE. Comparison with ...

  7. Simple scaling model for exploding pusher targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, E.K.; Larsen, J.T.; Nuckolls, J.H.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Manes, K.R.

    1977-11-04

    A simple model has been developed which when normalized by experiment or Lasnex calculations can be used to scale neutron yields for variations in laser input power and pulse length and target radius and wall thickness. The model also illucidates some of the physical processes occurring in this regime of laser fusion experiments. Within certain limitations on incident intensity and target geometry, the model scales with experiments and calculations to within a factor of two over six decades in neutron yield.

  8. Novel targeted therapies for inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Vermeire, Severine; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2017-01-01

    Our growing understanding of the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has opened new avenues for developing targeted therapies. These advances in treatment options targeting different mechanisms of action offer new hope for personalized management. In this review we highlight...... to intestinal sites of inflammation (e.g., sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators). We also provide an update on the current status in clinical development of these new classes of therapeutics....

  9. Test of a High Power Target Design

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS343 :\\\\ \\\\ A high power tantalum disc-foil target (RIST) has been developed for the proposed radioactive beam facility, SIRIUS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The yield and release characteristics of the RIST target design have been measured at ISOLDE. The results indicate that the yields are at least as good as the best ISOLDE roll-foil targets and that the release curves are significantly faster in most cases. Both targets use 20 -25 $\\mu$m thick foils, but in a different internal geometry.\\\\ \\\\Investigations have continued at ISOLDE with targets having different foil thickness and internal geometries in an attempt to understand the release mechanisms and in particular to maximise the yield of short lived isotopes. A theoretical model has been developed which fits the release curves and gives physical values of the diffusion constants.\\\\ \\\\The latest target is constructed from 2 $\\mu$m thick tantalum foils (mass only 10 mg) and shows very short release times. The yield of $^{11}$Li (half-life of ...

  10. The SPES High Power ISOL production target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.

    2016-11-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  11. Targeting Signaling Pathways in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haybaeck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma (OC is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Response to platinum-based chemotherapy is poor in some patients and, thus, current research is focusing on new therapy options. The various histological types of OC are characterized by distinctive molecular genetic alterations that are relevant for ovarian tumorigenesis. The understanding of these molecular pathways is essential for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Purpose: We want to give an overview on the molecular genetic changes of the histopathological types of OC and their role as putative therapeutic targets. In Depth Review of Existing Data: In 2012, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor, bevacizumab, was approved for OC treatment. Bevacizumab has shown promising results as single agent and in combination with conventional chemotherapy, but its target is not distinctive when analyzed before treatment. At present, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors and components of the EGFR pathway are in the focus of clinical research. Interestingly, some phytochemical substances show good synergistic effects when used in combination with chemotherapy. Conclusion: Ongoing studies of targeted agents in conjunction with chemotherapy will show whether there are alternative options to bevacizumab available for OC patients. Novel targets which can be assessed before therapy to predict efficacy are needed. The assessment of therapeutic targets is continuously improved by molecular pathological analyses on tumor tissue. A careful selection of patients for personalized treatment will help to reduce putative side effects and toxicity.

  12. Caffeine and performance in clay target shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Bianca; Sanders, Nick; Kemp, Justin

    2009-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the influence that caffeine has on accuracy and cognitive performance in precision activities such as shooting and archery. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two doses of caffeine on shooting performance, reaction time, and target tracking times in the sport of clay target shooting. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was undertaken by seven elite male shooters from the double-trap discipline. Three intervention trials (2 mg caffeine . kg(-1) body mass (BM); 4 mg caffeine . kg(-1) BM; placebo) were undertaken, in which shooters completed four rounds per trial of 50 targets per round. Performance accuracy (score) and digital video footage (for determination of reaction time and target tracking times) were gathered during competition. Data were analysed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. No differences in shooting accuracy, reaction time or target tracking times among the three intervention trials or across the four rounds within each intervention were observed (P > 0.05). The results indicate that ingestion of caffeine . kg(-1) BM does not provide performance benefits to elite performers of clay target shooting in the double-trap discipline.

  13. NDCX-II target experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J.J., E-mail: jjbarnard@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); More, R.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Terry, M.; Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Henestroza, E.; Koniges, A.; Kwan, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ng, A. [University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Ni, P.A.; Liu, W.; Logan, B.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Startsev, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Yuen, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The ion accelerator NDCX-II is undergoing commissioning at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Its principal mission is to explore ion-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) especially in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We have carried out hydrodynamic simulations of beam-heated targets for parameters expected for the initial configuration of NDCX-II. For metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets), the beam is predicted to heat the target in a timescale comparable to the hydrodynamic expansion time for experiments that infer material properties from measurements of the resulting rarefaction wave. We have also carried out hydrodynamic simulations of beam heating of metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets) in which the ion range is shorter than the areal density of the material. In this case shock waves will form and we derive simple scaling laws for the efficiency of conversion of ion energy into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Geometries with a tamping layer may also be used to study the merging of a tamper shock with the end-of-range shock. This process can occur in tamped, direct drive IFE targets.

  14. Achieving target refraction after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Shira S; Chee, Yewlin E; Haddadin, Ramez I; Veldman, Peter B; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Brauner, Stacey C; Chang, Kenneth K; Chen, Sherleen H; Gardiner, Matthew F; Greenstein, Scott H; Kloek, Carolyn E; Chen, Teresa C

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the difference between target and actual refraction after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation at an academic teaching institution's Comprehensive Ophthalmology Service. Retrospective study. We examined 1275 eye surgeries for this study. All consecutive cataract surgeries were included if they were performed by an attending or resident surgeon from January through December 2010. Postoperative refractions were compared with preoperative target refractions. Patients were excluded if they did not have a preoperative target refraction documented or if they did not have a recorded postoperative manifest refraction within 90 days. The main outcome measure was percentage of cases achieving a postoperative spherical equivalent ± 1.0 diopter (D) of target spherical equivalent. We performed 1368 cataract surgeries from January through December of 2010. Of these, 1275 (93%) had sufficient information for analysis. Of the included cases, 94% (1196 of 1275) achieved ± 1.0 D of target refraction by 90 days after cataract surgery. This paper establishes a new benchmark for a teaching hospital, where 94% of patients achieved within 1.0 D of target refraction after cataract surgery. The refractive outcomes after cataract surgery at this academic teaching institution were higher than average international benchmarks. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Achieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Olabode ABDULKADRI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica Abstract: The high cost of energy in Jamaica, one of the highest in the Caribbean region, is usually cited as a hindrance to industrial development and efficiency, especially in the manufacturing sector. High energy cost is also considered to be a national energy security issue and the government is taking steps to ensure adequate supply of energy at affordable prices. In the current National Development Plan, the government has set a target for renewable energy sources to supply 20% of the country's energy need by the year 2030. Using a linear programing model of energy planning, we examine how realistically this target could be achieved. Our findings indicate that the 20% renewable energy target is technically achievable with the optimal plan showing a mixture of wind power, hydropower and bagasse power but no solar power. However, when the timeline for investment in new generating capacities that will ensure the attainment of the target is considered, it becomes highly improbable that the target will be met. This study fills the gap that exists in evidence-based analysis of energy policy in Jamaica.

  16. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2014-10-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs.

  17. TargetNet: a web service for predicting potential drug-target interaction profiling via multi-target SAR models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhi-Jiang; Dong, Jie; Che, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Min-Feng; Wen, Ming; Wang, Ning-Ning; Wang, Shan; Lu, Ai-Ping; Cao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Drug-target interactions (DTIs) are central to current drug discovery processes and public health fields. Analyzing the DTI profiling of the drugs helps to infer drug indications, adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of actions. Therefore, it is of high importance to reliably and fast predict DTI profiling of the drugs on a genome-scale level. Here, we develop the TargetNet server, which can make real-time DTI predictions based only on molecular structures, following the spirit of multi-target SAR methodology. Naïve Bayes models together with various molecular fingerprints were employed to construct prediction models. Ensemble learning from these fingerprints was also provided to improve the prediction ability. When the user submits a molecule, the server will predict the activity of the user's molecule across 623 human proteins by the established high quality SAR model, thus generating a DTI profiling that can be used as a feature vector of chemicals for wide applications. The 623 SAR models related to 623 human proteins were strictly evaluated and validated by several model validation strategies, resulting in the AUC scores of 75-100 %. We applied the generated DTI profiling to successfully predict potential targets, toxicity classification, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of action, which sufficiently demonstrated the wide application value of the potential DTI profiling. The TargetNet webserver is designed based on the Django framework in Python, and is freely accessible at http://targetnet.scbdd.com .

  18. Enantioselective Effects of Chiral Pesticides on their Primary Targets and Secondary Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Jianyun; Yao, Yijun

    2017-01-01

    Enantioselectivity has been well recognized in the environmental fate and effects of chiral pesticides. Enantiospecific action of the optical enantiomers on the biological molecules establishes the mechanistic basis for the enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticides to both target and non-target organisms. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for research literature concerning the enantioselective effects of chiral pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, on biomolecules in various species by using some key words. The results of the relevant literatures were reviewed in the text and summarized in tables. Pesticides generally exert their activity on the target organisms via disrupting the primary target biomolecules. In non-target species, effects of pesticides on the secondary targets distinguished from the primary ones make great contribution to their toxicity. Recent investigations have provided convincing evidence of enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticides to both target and non-target species which is recognized to result from their enantiospecific action on the primary or secondary targets in organisms. This review confirms that chiral pesticides have enantiospecific effects on both primary and secondary target biomolecules in organisms. Future studies regarding toxicological effects of chiral pesticides should focus on the relationship between the enantiomeric difference in the compound-biomolecules interaction and the enantioselectivity in their toxicity.

  19. Affinity Propagation Clustering of Measurements for Multiple Extended Target Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Zhang; Renbiao Wu

    2015-01-01

    More measurements are generated by the target per observation interval, when the target is detected by a high resolution sensor, or there are more measurement sources on the target surface. Such a target is referred to as an extended target. The probability hypothesis density filter is considered an efficient method for tracking multiple extended targets. However, the crucial problem of how to accurately and effectively partition the measurements of multiple extended targets remains unsolved....

  20. Modeling target erosion during reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strijckmans, K., E-mail: Koen.Strijckmans@ugent.be; Depla, D.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The erosion of a target is simulated with the RSD2013 software during reactive magnetron sputtering. • The influence of redeposition on the target state and on the hysteresis is explained. • The racetrack formation along the hysteresis and as function of the redeposition is quantified. • Comparison of the racetrack and the sputter profile shows clear differences. - Abstract: The influence of the reactive sputter conditions on the racetrack and the sputter profile for an Al/O{sub 2} DC reactive sputter system is studied by modeling. The role of redeposition, i.e. the deposition of sputtered material back on the target, is therefore taken into account. The used model RSD2013 is capable of simulating the effect of redeposition on the target condition in a spatial resolved way. Comparison between including and excluding redeposition in the RSD2013 model shows that the in-depth oxidation profile of the target differs. Modeling shows that it is important to distinguish between the formed racetrack, i.e. the erosion depth profile, and the sputter profile. The latter defines the distribution of the sputtered atoms in the vacuum chamber. As the target condition defines the sputter yield, it does determine the racetrack and the sputter profile of the planar circular target. Both the shape of the racetrack and the sputter profile change as function of the redeposition fraction as well as function of the oxygen flow change. Clear asymmetries and narrowing are observed for the racetrack shape. Similar effects are noticed for the sputter profile but to a different extent. Based on this study, the often heard misconception that the racetrack shape defines the distribution of the sputtered atoms during reactive sputtering is proven to be wrong.

  1. Temperature targets revisited under climate sensitivity uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubersch, Delf; Roth, Robert; Held, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    While the 2° target has become an official goal of the COP (Conference of the Parties) process recent work has shown that it requires re-interpretation if climate sensitivity uncertainty in combination with anticipated future learning is considered (Schmidt et al., 2011). A strict probabilistic limit as suggested by the Copenhagen diagnosis may lead to conceptual flaws in view of future learning such a negative expected value of information or even ill-posed policy recommendations. Instead Schmidt et al. suggest trading off the probabilistic transgression of a temperature target against mitigation-induced welfare losses and call this procedure cost risk analysis (CRA). Here we spell out CRA for the integrated assessment model MIND and derive necessary conditions for the exact nature of that trade-off. With CRA at hand it is for the first time that the expected value of climate information, for a given temperature target, can meaningfully be assessed. When focusing on a linear risk function as the most conservative of all possible risk functions, we find that 2° target-induced mitigation costs could be reduced by up to 1/3 if the climate response to carbon dioxide emissions were known with certainty, amounting to hundreds of billions of Euros per year (Neubersch et al., 2014). Further benefits of CRA over strictly formulated temperature targets are discussed. References: D. Neubersch, H. Held, A. Otto, Operationalizing climate targets under learning: An application of cost-risk analysis, Climatic Change, 126 (3), 305-318, DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1223-z (2014). M. G. W. Schmidt, A. Lorenz, H. Held, E. Kriegler, Climate Targets under Uncertainty: Challenges and Remedies, Climatic Change Letters, 104 (3-4), 783-791, DOI 10.1007/s10584-010-9985-4 (2011).

  2. Optimized Parameters for a Mercury Jet Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, X.; Kirk, H.

    2010-12-01

    A study of target parameters for a high-power, liquid mercury jet target system for a neutrino factory or muon collider is presented. Using the MARS code, we simulate particle production initiated by incoming protons with kinetic energies between 2 and 100 GeV. For each proton beam energy, we maximize production by varying the geometric parameters of the target: the mercury jet radius, the incoming proton beam angle, and the crossing angle between the mercury jet and the proton beam. The number of muons surviving through an ionization cooling channel is determined as a function of the proton beam energy. We optimize the mercury jet target parameters: the mercury jet radius, the incoming proton beam angle and the crossing angle between the mercury jet and the proton beam for each proton beam energy. The optimized target radius varies from about 0.4 cm to 0.6 cm as the proton beam energy increases. The optimized beam angle varies from 75 mrad to 120 mrad. The optimized crossing angle is near 20 mrad for energies above 5 GeV. These values differ from earlier choices of 67 mrad for the beam angle and 33 mrad for the crossing angle. These new choices for the beam parameters increase the meson production by about 20% compared to the earlier parameters. Our study demonstrates that the maximum meson production efficiency per unit proton beam power occurs when the proton kinetic energy is in the range of 5-15 GeV. Finally, the dependence on energy of the number of muons at the end of the cooling channel is nearly identical to the dependence on energy of the meson production 50 m from the target. This demonstrates that the target parameters can be optimized without the additional step of running the distribution through a code such as ICOOL that simulates the bunching, phase rotation, and cooling.

  3. Protein Targeting to the Plastid of Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnford, Dion G; Schwartzbach, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    The lateral transfer of photosynthesis between kingdoms through endosymbiosis is among the most spectacular examples of evolutionary innovation. Euglena, which acquired a chloroplast indirectly through an endosymbiosis with a green alga, represents such an example. As with other endosymbiont-derived plastids from eukaryotes, there are additional membranes that surround the organelle, of which Euglena has three. Thus, photosynthetic genes that were transferred from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and whose proteins are required in the new plastid, are now faced with targeting and plastid import challenges. Early immunoelectron microscopy data suggested that the light-harvesting complexes, photosynthetic proteins in the thylakoid membrane, are post-translationally targeted to the plastid via the Golgi apparatus, an unexpected discovery at the time. Proteins targeted to the Euglena plastid have complex, bipartite presequences that direct them into the endomembrane system, through the Golgi apparatus and ultimately on to the plastid, presumably via transport vesicles. From transcriptome sequencing, dozens of plastid-targeted proteins were identified, leading to the identification of two different presequence structures. Both have an amino terminal signal peptide followed by a transit peptide for plastid import, but only one of the two classes of presequences has a third domain-the stop transfer sequence. This discovery implied two different transport mechanisms; one where the protein was fully inserted into the lumen of the ER and another where the protein remains attached to, but effectively outside, the endomembrane system. In this review, we will discuss the biochemical and bioinformatic evidence for plastid targeting, discuss the evolution of the targeting system, and ultimately provide a working model for the targeting and import of proteins into the plastid of Euglena.

  4. Normalization for triple-target microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magniette Frederic

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most microarray studies are made using labelling with one or two dyes which allows the hybridization of one or two samples on the same slide. In such experiments, the most frequently used dyes are Cy3 and Cy5. Recent improvements in the technology (dye-labelling, scanner and, image analysis allow hybridization up to four samples simultaneously. The two additional dyes are Alexa488 and Alexa494. The triple-target or four-target technology is very promising, since it allows more flexibility in the design of experiments, an increase in the statistical power when comparing gene expressions induced by different conditions and a scaled down number of slides. However, there have been few methods proposed for statistical analysis of such data. Moreover the lowess correction of the global dye effect is available for only two-color experiments, and even if its application can be derived, it does not allow simultaneous correction of the raw data. Results We propose a two-step normalization procedure for triple-target experiments. First the dye bleeding is evaluated and corrected if necessary. Then the signal in each channel is normalized using a generalized lowess procedure to correct a global dye bias. The normalization procedure is validated using triple-self experiments and by comparing the results of triple-target and two-color experiments. Although the focus is on triple-target microarrays, the proposed method can be used to normalize p differently labelled targets co-hybridized on a same array, for any value of p greater than 2. Conclusion The proposed normalization procedure is effective: the technical biases are reduced, the number of false positives is under control in the analysis of differentially expressed genes, and the triple-target experiments are more powerful than the corresponding two-color experiments. There is room for improving the microarray experiments by simultaneously hybridizing more than two samples.

  5. Controversies in Targeted Therapy of Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma: ON Target or OFF Target Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues de Thé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL represents an ideal model for targeted therapy because of intrinsic chemo-resistance of ATL cells and the presence of two well identified targets: the HTLV-I retrovirus and the viral oncoprotein Tax. The combination of zidovudine (AZT and interferon-alpha (IFN has a dramatic impact on survival of ATL patients. Although the mechanism of action remains unclear, arguments in favor or against a direct antiviral effect will be discussed. Yet, most patients relapse and alternative therapies are mandatory. IFN and arsenic trioxide induce Tax proteolysis, synergize to induce apoptosis in ATL cells and cure Tax-driven ATL in mice through specific targeting of leukemia initiating cell activity. These results provide a biological basis for the clinical success of arsenic/IFN/AZT therapy in ATL patients and suggest that both extinction of viral replication (AZT and Tax degradation (arsenic/IFN are needed to cure ATL.

  6. TBC2target: A Resource of Predicted Target Genes of Tea Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages consumed worldwide. Numerous bioactive constituents of tea were confirmed to possess healthy benefits via the mechanisms of regulating gene expressions or protein activities. However, a complete interacting profile between tea bioactive compounds (TBCs and their target genes is lacking, which put an obstacle in the study of healthy function of tea. To fill this gap, we developed a database of target genes of TBCs (TBC2target, http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2target based on a pharmacophore mapping approach. In TBC2target, 6,226 interactions between 240 TBCs and 673 target genes were documented. TBC2target contains detailed information about each interacting entry, such as TBC, CAS number, PubChem CID, source of compound (e.g., green, black, compound type, target gene(s of TBC, gene symbol, gene ID, ENSEMBL ID, PDB ID, TBC bioactivity and the reference. Using the TBC-target associations, we constructed a bipartite network and provided users the global network and local sub-network visualization and topological analyses. The entire database is free for online browsing, searching and downloading. In addition, TBC2target provides a BLAST search function to facilitate use of the database. The particular strengths of TBC2target are the inclusion of the comprehensive TBC-target interactions, and the capacity to visualize and analyze the interacting networks, which may help uncovering the beneficial effects of tea on human health as a central resource in tea health community.

  7. Targeted therapy using nanotechnology: focus on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Pala, Nicolino; Sechi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology have contributed to the development of engineered nanoscale materials as innovative prototypes to be used for biomedical applications and optimized therapy. Due to their unique features, including a large surface area, structural properties, and a long circulation time in blood compared with small molecules, a plethora of nanomaterials has been developed, with the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases, in particular by improving the sensitivity and recognition ability of imaging contrast agents and by selectively directing bioactive agents to biological targets. Focusing on cancer, promising nanoprototypes have been designed to overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, as well as for early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions. However, several obstacles, including difficulty in achieving the optimal combination of physicochemical parameters for tumor targeting, evading particle clearance mechanisms, and controlling drug release, prevent the translation of nanomedicines into therapy. In spite of this, recent efforts have been focused on developing functionalized nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents to specific molecular targets overexpressed on different cancer cells. In particular, the combination of targeted and controlled-release polymer nanotechnologies has resulted in a new programmable nanotherapeutic formulation of docetaxel, namely BIND-014, which recently entered Phase II clinical testing for patients with solid tumors. BIND-014 has been developed to overcome the limitations facing delivery of nanoparticles to many neoplasms, and represents a validated example of targeted nanosystems with the optimal biophysicochemical properties needed for successful tumor eradication.

  8. Molecular Therapeutic Targets for Glioma Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Takano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent angiogenesis that occurs in malignant glioma, antiangiogenic therapy has been attempted. There have been several molecular targets that are specific to malignant gliomas, as well as more broadly in systemic cancers. In this review, I will focus on some topics related to molecular therapeutic targets for glioma angiogenesis. First, important angiogenic factors that could be considered molecular targets are VEGF, VEGF-induced proteins on endothelial cells, tissue factor, osteopontin, v3 integrin, and thymidine phosphorylase as well as endogenous inhibitors, soluble Flt1, and thrombospondin 1. Second, hypoxic areas are also decreased by metronomic CPT11 treatment as well as temozolomide. Third, glioma-derived endothelial cells that are genetically and functionally distinct from normal endothelial cells should be targeted, for example, with SDF-1 and CXCR7 chemokine. Fourth, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs likely contribute towards glioma angiogenesis in the brain and could be useful as a drug delivery tool. Finally, blockade of delta-like 4 (Dll4 results in a nonfunctioning vasculature and could be another important target distinct from VEGF.

  9. Multi-Agent Cooperative Target Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwen Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a vision-based cooperative search for multiple mobile ground targets by a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs with limited sensing and communication capabilities. The airborne camera on each UAV has a limited field of view and its target discriminability varies as a function of altitude. First, by dividing the whole surveillance region into cells, a probability map can be formed for each UAV indicating the probability of target existence within each cell. Then, we propose a distributed probability map updating model which includes the fusion of measurement information, information sharing among neighboring agents, information decay and transmission due to environmental changes such as the target movement. Furthermore, we formulate the target search problem as a multi-agent cooperative coverage control problem by optimizing the collective coverage area and the detection performance. The proposed map updating model and the cooperative control scheme are distributed, i.e., assuming that each agent only communicates with its neighbors within its communication range. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated by simulation.

  10. Cisplatin Targeting of Bacterial Ribosomal RNA Hairpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayani N. P. Dedduwa-Mudalige

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a clinically important chemotherapeutic agent known to target purine bases in nucleic acids. In addition to major deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA intrastrand cross-links, cisplatin also forms stable adducts with many types of ribonucleic acid (RNA including siRNA, spliceosomal RNAs, tRNA, and rRNA. All of these RNAs play vital roles in the cell, such as catalysis of protein synthesis by rRNA, and therefore serve as potential drug targets. This work focused on platination of two highly conserved RNA hairpins from E. coli ribosomes, namely pseudouridine-modified helix 69 from 23S rRNA and the 790 loop of helix 24 from 16S rRNA. RNase T1 probing, MALDI mass spectrometry, and dimethyl sulfate mapping revealed platination at GpG sites. Chemical probing results also showed platination-induced RNA structural changes. These findings reveal solvent and structural accessibility of sites within bacterial RNA secondary structures that are functionally significant and therefore viable targets for cisplatin as well as other classes of small molecules. Identifying target preferences at the nucleotide level, as well as determining cisplatin-induced RNA conformational changes, is important for the design of more potent drug molecules. Furthermore, the knowledge gained through studies of RNA-targeting by cisplatin is applicable to a broad range of organisms from bacteria to human.

  11. Target Response Adaptation for Correlation Filter Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer

    2016-09-16

    Most correlation filter (CF) based trackers utilize the circulant structure of the training data to learn a linear filter that best regresses this data to a hand-crafted target response. These circularly shifted patches are only approximations to actual translations in the image, which become unreliable in many realistic tracking scenarios including fast motion, occlusion, etc. In these cases, the traditional use of a single centered Gaussian as the target response impedes tracker performance and can lead to unrecoverable drift. To circumvent this major drawback, we propose a generic framework that can adaptively change the target response from frame to frame, so that the tracker is less sensitive to the cases where circular shifts do not reliably approximate translations. To do that, we reformulate the underlying optimization to solve for both the filter and target response jointly, where the latter is regularized by measurements made using actual translations. This joint problem has a closed form solution and thus allows for multiple templates, kernels, and multi-dimensional features. Extensive experiments on the popular OTB100 benchmark show that our target adaptive framework can be combined with many CF trackers to realize significant overall performance improvement (ranging from 3 %-13.5% in precision and 3.2 %-13% in accuracy), especially in categories where this adaptation is necessary (e.g. fast motion, motion blur, etc.). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  12. Novel targeted agents for gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Contemporary advancements have had little impact on the treatment of gastric cancer (GC, the world’s second highest cause of cancer death. Agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor mediated pathways have been a common topic of contemporary cancer research, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. Trastuzumab is the first target agent evidencing improvements in overall survival in HER2-positive (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gastric cancer patients. Agents targeting vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, and other biological pathways are also undergoing clinical trials, with some marginally positive results. Effective targeted therapy requires patient selection based on predictive molecular biomarkers. Most phase III clinical trials are carried out without patient selection; therefore, it is hard to achieve personalized treatment and to monitor patient outcome individually. The trend for future clinical trials requires patient selection methods based on current understanding of GC biology with the application of biomarkers.

  13. Staufen2 Regulates Neuronal Target RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacki E. Heraud-Farlow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in directing RNA translation to neuronal synapses. Staufen2 (Stau2 has been implicated in both dendritic RNA localization and synaptic plasticity in mammalian neurons. Here, we report the identification of functionally relevant Stau2 target mRNAs in neurons. The majority of Stau2-copurifying mRNAs expressed in the hippocampus are present in neuronal processes, further implicating Stau2 in dendritic mRNA regulation. Stau2 targets are enriched for secondary structures similar to those identified in the 3′ UTRs of Drosophila Staufen targets. Next, we show that Stau2 regulates steady-state levels of many neuronal RNAs and that its targets are predominantly downregulated in Stau2-deficient neurons. Detailed analysis confirms that Stau2 stabilizes the expression of one synaptic signaling component, the regulator of G protein signaling 4 (Rgs4 mRNA, via its 3′ UTR. This study defines the global impact of Stau2 on mRNAs in neurons, revealing a role in stabilization of the levels of synaptic targets.

  14. Engineering liposomal nanoparticles for targeted gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, C; Gaskill, K; Pasley, S; Matosevic, S

    2017-08-01

    Recent mechanistic studies have attempted to deepen our understanding of the process by which liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material occurs. Understanding the interactions between lipid nanoparticles and cells is still largely elusive. Liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material faces systemic obstacles alongside entry into the cell, endosomal escape, lysosomal degradation and nuclear uptake. Rational design approaches for targeted delivery have been developed to reduce off-target effects and enhance transfection. These strategies, which have included the modification of lipid nanoparticles with target-specific ligands to enhance intracellular uptake, have shown significant promise at the proof-of-concept stage. Control of physical and chemical specifications of liposome composition, which includes lipid-to-DNA charge, size, presence of ester bonds, chain length and nature of ligand complexation, is integral to the performance of targeted liposomes as genetic delivery agents. Clinical advances are expected to rely on such systems in the therapeutic application of liposome nanoparticle-based gene therapy. Here, we discuss the latest breakthroughs in the development of targeted liposome-based agents for the delivery of genetic material, paying particular attention to new ligand and cationic lipid design as well as recent in vivo advances.

  15. Biopolymer based nanosystem for doxorubicin targeted delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikós, Zsuzsanna; Kerekes, Krisztina; Fazekas, Erika; Kun, Sándor; Borbély, János

    2017-01-01

    This study describes formation of an actively and passively targeted, water-soluble drug delivery system (DDS) which contains doxorubicin (DOX). The system comprises two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers: poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) and chitosan (CH). Self-assembly of these biopolymers in aqueous medium results stable nanoparticles (NPs) with a hydrodynamic size of 80-150 nm and slightly negative surface charge. Folic acid (FA) was used as targeting agent bonded to the polyanion (PA) and also to the surface of the NPs. The NP's physical stability, active targeting effect, cellular toxicity, release profile and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy were investigated. It was found that the targeted, self-assembled nanoparticles are stable at 4°C for several months, cause better in vitro toxicity effect on folate receptor (FR) positive cell lines than the doxorubicin or the non-targeted nanosystem and based on its release profile it is expected, that the nanosystem will remain stable during the circulation in the body. Pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated that the DOX-loaded nanoparticles can deliver greater tumor growth inhibition than the free drug molecules and the liposomal compound, with less general toxicity. It was observed that the overall survival is the main benefit of the biopolymer based drug delivery system.

  16. 29 mm Diameter Test Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The Northstar target for Mo99 production is made up of Mo100 disks in a stack separated by coolant gaps for helium flow. A number of targets have been tested at ANL for both production of Mo99 and for thermal-hydraulic performance. These have all been with a 12 mm diameter target, even while the production goals have increased the diameter to now 29 mm. A 29 mm diameter target has been designed that is consistent with the ANL beam capabilities and the capabilities of the helium circulation system currently in use at ANL. This target is designed for 500 μA at 35 MeV electrons. While the plant design calls for 42 MeV, the chosen design point is more favorable and higher power given the limits of the ANL accelerator. The intended beam spot size is 12 mm FWHM, but the thermal analysis presented herein conservatively assumed a 10 mm FWHM beam, which results in a 44% higher beam current density at beam center.

  17. PAK1 AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichina, Julia V; Goc, Anna; Al-Husein, Belal; Somanath, Payaningal R; Kandel, Eugene S

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in mammalian cells. PAKs, and PAK1 in particular, play a role in such disorders as cancer, mental retardation and allergy. Cell motility, survival and proliferation, the organization and function of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, transcription and translation are among the processes affected by PAK1. Areas covered in this review We discuss the mechanisms that control PAK1 activity; its involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes; the benefits and the drawbacks of the current tools to regulate PAK1 activity; the evidences that point to PAK1 as a therapeutic target; and the likely directions of future research. What the reader will gain The reader will gain a better knowledge and understanding of the areas covered in this review. Take-home message PAK1 is a promising therapeutic target in cancer and allergen-induced disorders. Its suitability as a target in vascular, neurological and infectious diseases remains ambiguous. Further advancement of this field requires progress on such issues as the development of specific and clinically acceptable inhibitors, the choice between targeting one or multiple PAK isoforms, elucidation of the individual roles of PAK1 targets and the mechanisms that may circumvent inhibition of PAK1. PMID:20507214

  18. Cooperative Robots to Observe Moving Targets: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Rinner, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The deployment of multiple robots for achieving a common goal helps to improve the performance, efficiency, and/or robustness in a variety of tasks. In particular, the observation of moving targets is an important multirobot application that still exhibits numerous open challenges, including the effective coordination of the robots. This paper reviews control techniques for cooperative mobile robots monitoring multiple targets. The simultaneous movement of robots and targets makes this problem particularly interesting, and our review systematically addresses this cooperative multirobot problem for the first time. We classify and critically discuss the control techniques: cooperative multirobot observation of multiple moving targets, cooperative search, acquisition, and track, cooperative tracking, and multirobot pursuit evasion. We also identify the five major elements that characterize this problem, namely, the coordination method, the environment, the target, the robot and its sensor(s). These elements are used to systematically analyze the control techniques. The majority of the studied work is based on simulation and laboratory studies, which may not accurately reflect real-world operational conditions. Importantly, while our systematic analysis is focused on multitarget observation, our proposed classification is useful also for related multirobot applications.

  19. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, M., E-mail: aikawa@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ebata, S.; Imai, S. [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The thick-target yield (TTY) is a macroscopic quantity reflected by nuclear reactions and matter properties of targets. In order to evaluate TTYs on radioactive targets, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. The method to deduce the TTY is theoretically derived from inverse kinematics. We apply the method to the {sup nat}Cu({sup 12}C,X){sup 24}Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the {sup 137}Cs + {sup 12}C reaction as an example of a radioactive system and discussed a conversion coefficient of a TTY measurement.

  20. ANALYSIS OF PULSE OPTICAL TARGET SEEKER STATIC CHARACTERISTICS AT TARGET AIRCRAFTS EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Trifonov,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with operating principles of optical pulse target seekers based on quadrant photodiode when targets are located in short-range field region. Method. Target image shape and light intensity distribution can affect static characteristics and cause appearance of image energy maximums when targets are located in short-range field region. Physical modeling of static characteristics plotting process was carried out. The main idea of the proposed method lies in counting sums of image pixels intensities in every virtual area of the sensor while virtual frame of the whole photodetector is moving over the target image. Main Results. Most probable target illumination directions were analyzed. Critical distances when the first extra image energy maximum appears were calculated for every target illumination directions. Time of missile uncontrollable flight at a near miss distance was also estimated. Practical Relevance. Research results point out that using of control loop proper logic is required to provide reliable target shot down for active and semi-active laser homing systems. Also disabling of such systems should be carried out when targets are located in short-range field region.

  1. Targeting mutant NRAS signaling pathways in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ha Linh; Aplin, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a devastating form of skin cancer and its incidence is increasing faster than any other preventable cancer in the United States. The mutant NRAS subset of melanoma is more aggressive and associated with poorer outcomes compared to non-NRAS mutant melanoma. The aggressive nature and complex molecular signaling conferred by this transformation has evaded clinically effective treatment options. This review examines the major downstream effectors of NRAS relevant in melanoma and the associated advances made in targeted therapies that focus on these effector pathways. We outline the history of MEK inhibition in mutant NRAS melanoma and recent advances with newer MEK inhibitors. Since MEK inhibitors will likely be optimized when combined with other targeted therapies, we focus on recently identified targets that can be used in combination with MEK inhibitors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Targeted Delivery of Protein Drugs by Nanocarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Battisti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biotechnology demonstrate that peptides and proteins are the basis of a new generation of drugs. However, the transportation of protein drugs in the body is limited by their high molecular weight, which prevents the crossing of tissue barriers, and by their short lifetime due to immuno response and enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the ability to selectively deliver drugs to target organs, tissues or cells is a major challenge in the treatment of several human diseases, including cancer. Indeed, targeted delivery can be much more efficient than systemic application, while improving bioavailability and limiting undesirable side effects. This review describes how the use of targeted nanocarriers such as nanoparticles and liposomes can improve the pharmacokinetic properties of protein drugs, thus increasing their safety and maximizing the therapeutic effect.

  3. A ligand's view of target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, Stephen L; Gloriam, David E

    2011-01-01

    shows with several examples how focusing on the binding site(s) has a clear advantage when it comes to establishing sequence-correlated pharmacological profiles. By organizing and comparing sequence and structural data it is possible to "borrow" SAR from similar targets to increase the speed of lead......-finding and, potentially, to produce ligands for previously intractable receptors. Sequence motifs correlated with ligands can be applied in the design of target-specific focused libraries that are both efficient and cost-effective and should provide increased hit-rates over diversity screening. Furthermore......, in the optimization phase, the binding motif approach offers the possibility to identify quickly the most likely off-target candidates to be chosen for selectivity screening, as well as potentially characterizing those pockets which may best be exploited for improved selectivity....

  4. Small target detection using objectness and saliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naiwen; Xiao, Yang; Fang, Zhiwen; Yang, Jian; Wang, Li; Li, Tao

    2017-10-01

    We are motived by the need for generic object detection algorithm which achieves high recall for small targets in complex scenes with acceptable computational efficiency. We propose a novel object detection algorithm, which has high localization quality with acceptable computational cost. Firstly, we obtain the objectness map as in BING[1] and use NMS to get the top N points. Then, k-means algorithm is used to cluster them into K classes according to their location. We set the center points of the K classes as seed points. For each seed point, an object potential region is extracted. Finally, a fast salient object detection algorithm[2] is applied to the object potential regions to highlight objectlike pixels, and a series of efficient post-processing operations are proposed to locate the targets. Our method runs at 5 FPS on 1000*1000 images, and significantly outperforms previous methods on small targets in cluttered background.

  5. Target materials for exotic ISOL beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gottberg, A

    2016-01-01

    The demand for intensity, purity, reliability and availability of short-lived isotopes far from stability is steadily high, and considerably exceeding the supply. In many cases the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method can provide beams of high intensity and purity. Limitations in terms of accessible chemical species and minimum half-life are driven mainly by chemical reactions and physical processes inside of the thick target. A wide range of materials are in use, ranging from thin metallic foils and liquids to refractory ceramics, while poly-phasic mixed uranium carbides have become the reference target material for most ISOL facilities world-wide. Target material research and development is often complex and especially important post-irradiation analyses are hindered by the high intrinsic radiotoxicity of these materials. However, recent achievements have proven that these investigations are possible if the effort of different facilities is combined, leading to the development of new material matrices t...

  6. Stable Targets for Spaceborne Microwave Radiometer Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Chan, S. K.; Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.; Savoie, M. H.; Knowles, K.

    2006-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, continuous observations of the Earth have been made by spaceborne microwave radiometers. Since these instruments have different observational characteristics, care must be taken in combining their data to form consistent long term records of brightness temperatures and derived geophysical quantities. To be useful for climate studies, data from different instruments must be calibrated relative to each other and to reference targets on the ground whose characteristics are stable and can be monitored continuously. Identifying such targets over land is not straightforward due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the land surface and cover. In this work, we provide an analysis of multi-sensor brightness temperature statistics over ocean, tropical forest, and ice sheet locations, spanning the period from 1978 to the present, and indicate the potential of these sites as continuous calibration monitoring targets.

  7. Targeting Specific Immunologic Pathways in Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Guilherme Piovezani; Faubion, William A; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the immunologic pathways in intestinal inflammation is crucial for the development of new therapies that can maximize patient response and minimize toxicity. Targeting integrins and cytokines is intended to control leukocyte migration to effector sites or inhibit the action of proinflammatory cytokines. New approaches to preventing leukocyte migration may target integrin receptors expressed on the intestinal vascular endothelium. The interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 pathway has been a therapeutic target of interest in controlling active Crohn's disease (CD). New therapeutic approaches in CD may involve the enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokine pathways and modulation of cellular responses and intranuclear signals associated with intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Fremerye, P; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Lambert, F; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L, E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2010-08-01

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser MegaJoule are presented. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4MJ and 380TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-shaped cocktail hohlraum. 1D and 2D robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, that can be traded off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  9. Targeting the Met pathway in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, Astrid; Azaña, Daisy; Perez, Cesar A; Raez, Luis E; Santos, Edgardo S

    2012-04-01

    Dysregulation of Met signaling has been implicated in the initiation, progression and metastasis of human cancers, and therefore represents an attractive target for anticancer drug development. Met is overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancer and its lack of staining in normal lung tissue makes it an attractive target. To date, erlotinib and gefitinib have established themselves as first-line therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor an EGF receptor gene mutation, and hence, it is crucial that we identify mechanisms of resistance that could be targeted by novel agents, while keeping an acceptable toxicity profile at the same time; something very important when we develop these new drugs. Inhibitors of the Met pathway represent a therapeutic alternative in this setting. In this review, we discuss the early clinical studies reported using two Met inhibitors, a monoclonal antibody (MetMAb) and a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (MGCD265).

  10. Will nanotechnology influence targeted cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Jan; Scheinberg, David A

    2011-04-01

    The rapid development of techniques that enable synthesis (and manipulation) of matter on the nanometer scale and the development of new nanomaterials will play a large role in disease diagnosis and treatment, specifically in targeted cancer therapy. Targeted nanocarriers are an intriguing means to selectively deliver high concentrations of cytotoxic agents or imaging labels directly to the cancer site. Often, solubility issues and an unfavorable biodistribution can result in a suboptimal response of novel agents even though they are very potent. New nanoparticulate formulations allow simultaneous imaging and therapy ("theranostics"), which can provide a realistic means for the clinical implementation of such otherwise suboptimal formulations. In this review, we did not attempt to provide a complete overview of the rapidly enlarging field of nanotechnology in cancer; rather, we presented properties specific to nanoparticles and examples of their uses, which show their importance for targeted cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeted radionuclide therapy: frontiers in theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivanone, Francesca; Valente, Mauro; Savi, Annarita; Canevari, Carla; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2017-06-01

    The concept of targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) relies on the use of injected nuclear medicine as treating agents, targeted at the cellular or molecular level. The growth of the interest in TRT was stimulated by the advances in radionuclide production and labeling as well as by the improvement in the knowledge of appropriate and specific molecular targets. In recent years, different studies on TRT were focused on the evaluation of radionuclide compounds able to combine imaging of the disease with TRT, in a theranostic approach. This approach is of particular interest towards the personalization of treatments, allowing both the baseline characterization of oncological pathologies and treatment optimization by correct dosimetric calculation as well as therapy monitoring. This paper presents a review of recent literature on TRT, with a particular focus on clinical applications promoting such a theranostic approach, showing the impact of the synergy of diagnostic imaging and therapeutics.

  12. Antiobesity pharmacotherapy: new drugs and emerging targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Blomain, E S; Waldman, S A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a growing pandemic, and related health and economic costs are staggering. Pharmacotherapy, partnered with lifestyle modifications, forms the core of current strategies to reduce the burden of this disease and its sequelae. However, therapies targeting weight loss have a significant history of safety risks, including cardiovascular and psychiatric events. Here, evolving strategies for developing antiobesity therapies, including targets, mechanisms, and developmental status, are highlighted. Progress in this field is underscored by Belviq (lorcaserin) and Qsymia (phentermine/topiramate), the first agents in more than 10 years to achieve regulatory approval for chronic weight management in obese patients. On the horizon, novel insights into metabolism and energy homeostasis reveal guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) signaling circuits as emerging targets for antiobesity pharmacotherapy. These innovations in molecular discovery may elegantly align with practical off-the-shelf approaches, leveraging existing approved drugs that modulate cGMP levels for the management of obesity.

  13. Novel advances in targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk-Atar, Kıvılcım; Eroğlu, Hakan; Çalış, Sema

    2017-11-23

    Developing a new drug molecule is not only time-consuming and expensive, but also mostly a failing process. However, improving bioavailability, targetability, efficacy or safety of old drugs could be more effective way to use them in clinic. For these purposes, so many strategies including individualising drug therapy, nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems, drug conjugates, therapeutic drug monitoring, stimuli-sensitive targeted therapy are investigated intensely. Depending on the desired application or targeted site, nanoparticles can be administrated as orally, locally, topically and systemically. Currently, the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved nanoparticles are mostly aimed to treat cancer. Although some of these formulations were approved by Food and Drug Administration and/or European Medicines Agency to use in clinic, most of them have fell down to pass either pre-clinical or clinical trials. To have high approval rate, failure reasons need to be better understand.

  14. Metalloproteinases: potential therapeutic targets for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    In different inflammatory diseases, many metalloproteinases are over expressed and thought to promote progression of the disease. Understanding roles of these enzymes in disease progression as well as in normal homeostasis is crucial to identify target enzymes for the disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the autoimmune inflammatory diseases in which around 1-2 % of the world populations are suffered from. Roles of metalloproteinases are well documented in RA, but so far none of them is proposed to be a target enzyme. However, there are at least three enzymes that can potentially be molecular targets to inhibit progression of RA. Understanding roles of these enzymes in more detail and developing highly selective inhibitors to these enzymes would be essential for novel antimetalloproteinase therapies in future.

  15. Targets set to reduce Lake Erie algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In February 2016, the Great Lakes Executive Committee, which oversees the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) between the U.S. and Canada, approved phosphorus loading targets for Lake Erie to reduce the size of harmful algal blooms (HABs), reduce the presence of the low oxygen zone in the central basin, and protect nearshore water quality. The targets are set with respect to the nutrient loads calculated for 2008. To reduce the impacts of HABs on Lake Erie a target was set of a 40 percent reduction in total and soluble reactive phosphorus loads in the spring from two Canadian rivers and several Michigan and Ohio rivers, especially the Maumee River (https://binational.net/2016/02/22/ finalptargets-ciblesfinalesdep/). States and the province of Ontario are already developing Domestic Action Plans to accomplish the reductions and scientists are developing research and monitoring plans to assess progress.

  16. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjees Hasan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  17. Targeting the RAS pathway in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhenyu; Flaherty, Keith T; Tsao, Hensin

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a highly lethal type of skin cancer and is often refractory to all traditional chemotherapeutic agents. Key insights into the genetic makeup of melanoma tumors have led to the development of promising targeted agents. An activated RAS pathway, anchored by oncogenic BRAF, appears to be the central motor driving melanoma proliferation. Although recent clinical trials have brought enormous hope to patients with melanoma, adverse effects and novel escape mechanisms of these inhibitors have already emerged. Definition of the limits of the first successful targeted therapies will provide the basis for further advances in management of disseminated melanoma. In this review, the current state of targeted therapy for melanoma is discussed, including the potent BRAF(V600E) inhibitor vemurafenib. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Azzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo.

  20. Spallation neutron source target station issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.N.; Charlton, L.A. [and others

    1996-10-01

    In many areas of physics, materials and nuclear engineering, it is extremely valuable to have a very intense source of neutrons so that the structure and function of materials can be studied. One facility proposed for this purpose is the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS). This facility will consist of two parts: (1) a high-energy ({approximately}1 GeV) and high powered ({approximately} 1 MW) proton accelerator, and (2) a target station which converts the protons to low-energy ({le} 2 eV) neutrons and delivers them to the neutron scattering instruments. This paper deals with the second part, i.e., the design and development of the NSNS target station and the scientifically challenging issues. Many scientific and technical disciplines are required to produce a successful target station. These include engineering, remote handling, neutronics, materials, thermal hydraulics, and instrumentation. Some of these areas will be discussed.

  1. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Jamil; Yin, Qian; Uehara, Mayuko; Ohori, Shunsuke; Tang, Li; Cai, Kaimin; Ichimura, Takaharu; McGrath, Martina; Maarouf, Omar; Kefaloyianni, Eirini; Loughhead, Scott; Petr, Jarolim; Sun, Qidi; Kwon, Mincheol; Tullius, Stefan; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Cheng, Jianjun; Abdi, Reza

    2016-05-10

    Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Saccade target selection in Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingshan; Liu, Pingping; Rayner, Keith

    2015-04-01

    In Chinese reading, there are no spaces to mark the word boundaries, so Chinese readers cannot target their saccades to the center of a word. In this study, we investigated how Chinese readers decide where to move their eyes during reading. To do so, we introduced a variant of the boundary paradigm in which only the target stimulus remained on the screen, displayed at the saccade landing site, after the participant's eyes crossed an invisible boundary. We found that when the saccade target was a word, reaction times in a lexical decision task were shorter when the saccade landing position was closer to the end of that word. These results are consistent with the predictions of a processing-based strategy to determine where to move the eyes. Specifically, this hypothesis assumes that Chinese readers estimate how much information is processed in parafoveal vision and saccade to a location that will carry novel information.

  3. Flanking region sequence information to refine microRNA target ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    block of four bases or more could be required by the target sites to find suitable interactions with the targeting ... end, and (ii) randomized target UTRs retaining the same nucleotide composition, in order to avoid any ... analysis were the complete target region of 70-base flanking sequences around the microRNA target site.

  4. Molecularly targeted drugs for metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying-dong Cheng, Hua Yang, Guo-qing Chen, Zhi-cao Zhang Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC has significantly improved with applications of molecularly targeted drugs, such as bevacizumab, and led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival rate. These drugs are capable of specifically targeting the inherent abnormal pathways in cancer cells, which are potentially less toxic than traditional nonselective chemotherapeutics. In this review, the recent clinical information about molecularly targeted therapy for mCRC is summarized, with specific focus on several of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecularly targeted drugs for the treatment of mCRC in the clinic. Progression-free and overall survival in patients with mCRC was improved greatly by the addition of bevacizumab and/or cetuximab to standard chemotherapy, in either first- or second-line treatment. Aflibercept has been used in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–irinotecan (FOLFIRI chemotherapy in mCRC patients and among patients with mCRC with wild-type KRAS, the outcomes were significantly improved by panitumumab in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–oxaliplatin (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Because of the new preliminary studies, it has been recommended that regorafenib be used with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI as first- or second-line treatment of mCRC chemotherapy. In summary, an era of new opportunities has been opened for treatment of mCRC and/or other malignancies, resulting from the discovery of new selective targeting drugs. Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, cetuximab, panitumumab, clinical trial, molecularly targeted therapy

  5. Targeted social mobilization in a global manhunt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Rutherford

    Full Text Available Social mobilization, the ability to mobilize large numbers of people via social networks to achieve highly distributed tasks, has received significant attention in recent times. This growing capability, facilitated by modern communication technology, is highly relevant to endeavors which require the search for individuals that possess rare information or skills, such as finding medical doctors during disasters, or searching for missing people. An open question remains, as to whether in time-critical situations, people are able to recruit in a targeted manner, or whether they resort to so-called blind search, recruiting as many acquaintances as possible via broadcast communication. To explore this question, we examine data from our recent success in the U.S. State Department's Tag Challenge, which required locating and photographing 5 target persons in 5 different cities in the United States and Europe - in under 12 hours - based only on a single mug-shot. We find that people are able to consistently route information in a targeted fashion even under increasing time pressure. We derive an analytical model for social-media fueled global mobilization and use it to quantify the extent to which people were targeting their peers during recruitment. Our model estimates that approximately 1 in 3 messages were of targeted fashion during the most time-sensitive period of the challenge. This is a novel observation at such short temporal scales, and calls for opportunities for devising viral incentive schemes that provide distance or time-sensitive rewards to approach the target geography more rapidly. This observation of '12 hours of separation' between individuals has applications in multiple areas from emergency preparedness, to political mobilization.

  6. Targeted social mobilization in a global manhunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad; Dsouza, Sohan; McInerney, James; Naroditskiy, Victor; Venanzi, Matteo; Jennings, Nicholas R; deLara, J R; Wahlstedt, Eero; Miller, Steven U

    2013-01-01

    Social mobilization, the ability to mobilize large numbers of people via social networks to achieve highly distributed tasks, has received significant attention in recent times. This growing capability, facilitated by modern communication technology, is highly relevant to endeavors which require the search for individuals that possess rare information or skills, such as finding medical doctors during disasters, or searching for missing people. An open question remains, as to whether in time-critical situations, people are able to recruit in a targeted manner, or whether they resort to so-called blind search, recruiting as many acquaintances as possible via broadcast communication. To explore this question, we examine data from our recent success in the U.S. State Department's Tag Challenge, which required locating and photographing 5 target persons in 5 different cities in the United States and Europe - in under 12 hours - based only on a single mug-shot. We find that people are able to consistently route information in a targeted fashion even under increasing time pressure. We derive an analytical model for social-media fueled global mobilization and use it to quantify the extent to which people were targeting their peers during recruitment. Our model estimates that approximately 1 in 3 messages were of targeted fashion during the most time-sensitive period of the challenge. This is a novel observation at such short temporal scales, and calls for opportunities for devising viral incentive schemes that provide distance or time-sensitive rewards to approach the target geography more rapidly. This observation of '12 hours of separation' between individuals has applications in multiple areas from emergency preparedness, to political mobilization.

  7. Development of an autonomous target tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidda, Venkata Ramaiah

    In recent years, surveillance and border patrol have become one of the key research areas in UAV research. Increase in the computational capability of the computers and embedded electronics, coupled with compatibility of various commercial vision algorithms and commercial off the shelf (COTS) embedded electronics, and has further fuelled the research. The basic task in these applications is perception of environment through the available visual sensors like camera. Visual tracking, as the name implies, is tracking of objects using a camera. The process of autonomous target tracking starts with the selection of the target in a sequence of video frames transmitted from the on-board camera. We use an improved fast dynamic template matching algorithm coupled with Kalman Filter to track the selected target in consecutive video frames. The selected target is saved as a reference template. On the ground station computer, the reference template is overlaid on the live streaming video from the on-board system, starting from the upper left corner of the video frame. The template is slid pixel by pixel over the entire source image. A comparison of the pixels is performed between the template and source image. A confidence value R of the match is calculated at each pixel. Based on the method used to perform the template matching, the best match pixel location is found according to the highest or lowest confidence value R. The best match pixel location is communicated to the on-board gimbal controller over the wireless Xbee network. The software on the controller actuates the pan-tilt servos to continuously to hold the selected target at the center of the video frame. The complete system is a portable control system assembled from commercial off the shelf parts. The tracking system is tested on a target having several motion patterns.

  8. Constrained target controllability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wei, Ze-Gang; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Jingsong; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Chen, Luonan

    2017-06-01

    It is of great theoretical interest and practical significance to study how to control a system by applying perturbations to only a few driver nodes. Recently, a hot topic of modern network researches is how to determine driver nodes that allow the control of an entire network. However, in practice, to control a complex network, especially a biological network, one may know not only the set of nodes which need to be controlled (i.e. target nodes), but also the set of nodes to which only control signals can be applied (i.e. constrained control nodes). Compared to the general concept of controllability, we introduce the concept of constrained target controllability (CTC) of complex networks, which concerns the ability to drive any state of target nodes to their desirable state by applying control signals to the driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. To efficiently investigate the CTC of complex networks, we further design a novel graph-theoretic algorithm called CTCA to estimate the ability of a given network to control targets by choosing driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. We extensively evaluate the CTC of numerous real complex networks. The results indicate that biological networks with a higher average degree are easier to control than biological networks with a lower average degree, while electronic networks with a lower average degree are easier to control than web networks with a higher average degree. We also show that our CTCA can more efficiently produce driver nodes for target-controlling the networks than existing state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we use our CTCA to analyze two expert-curated bio-molecular networks and compare to other state-of-the-art methods. The results illustrate that our CTCA can efficiently identify proven drug targets and new potentials, according to the constrained controllability of those biological networks.

  9. Blood Pressure Targets in the Hypertensive Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zheng, Jin-Gang

    2017-08-20

    Hypertension is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease and increases mortality in the elderly. However, the available medical evidences are both inconsistent and insufficient regarding establishing credible and useful blood pressure (BP) targets in the hypertensive elderly. This review summarizes the existing evidences used for establishing optimal BP targets for this patient population and points out some data inconsistencies which have added to the uncertainty. We conducted a search for the articles published in English in the PubMed database up to March 2017, with the keywords "hypertension," "elderly," "blood pressure," and "antihypertensive." Articles that related to BP targeting in the hypertensive elderly were selected for this review. The selected studies indicated that antihypertensive therapy can substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, for a subset of the elderly (60 years or older) with systolic BP> 160 mmHg. Studies regarding more strict targets yielded mixed findings. For the very old and frail patients (80 years or older), there is a lack of evidence that optimal BP targets and intensive antihypertensives are helpful but in fact may be harmful. There are solid evidences that patients who are 60-80 years old and in good health have benefited from lowering their BP to below 150/90 mmHg. If well tolerated, the BP target can be further lowered to below 140/90 mmHg. However, for the very old and frail, individualized and careful assessment is crucial. Antihypertensive treatment should be cautious and the adverse effect of drugs requires close monitoring as such treatment can be counterproductive.

  10. Meningococcal disease and future drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, L K; Colding, H; Hartzen, S H

    2011-01-01

    -host interactions are key determinants of the clinical course and risk of fatal outcome. Accordingly, successful treatment of severe meningococcal disease requires not only antibiotics but also adjuvants targeting the released endotoxins and the host immune/inflammatory responses. This review highlights the most...... recent data and current knowledge on molecular mechanisms of meningococcal disease and explains how host immune responses ultimately may aggravate neuropathology and the clinical prognosis. Within this context, particular importance is paid to the endotoxic components that provide potential drug targets...

  11. Classical realizability in the CPS target language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by considerations about Krivine's classical realizability, we introduce a term calculus for an intuitionistic logic with record types, which we call the CPS target language. We give a reformulation of the constructions of classical realizability in this language, using the categorical...... techniques of realizability triposes and toposes. We argue that the presentation of classical realizability in the CPS target language simplifies calculations in realizability toposes, in particular it admits a nice presentation of conjunction as intersection type which is inspired by Girard's ludics....

  12. Constructing Risky Target Groups among Normal Citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    Studies on social construction of target populations show how stereotypes and social categories transfer with experts, politicians and lawmakers from everyday life to the political system as ‘common sense knowledge’ about social problems and preferences for political categories. Here such categor......Studies on social construction of target populations show how stereotypes and social categories transfer with experts, politicians and lawmakers from everyday life to the political system as ‘common sense knowledge’ about social problems and preferences for political categories. Here...

  13. USING TARGET COST IN DETERMINING PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Ionut CEAUSESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The target cost method was designed as a comprehensive set of tools for cost planning, cost management and cost control. This method is based on the idea that the selling price of a product is fixed at the market. Price does not therefore depend on cost. Target costing method is not only a method for calculating the costs, but also a method which uses modern management techniques on the study assessed the market value analysis, reducing the diversity of technology, manufacturing, partnership suppliers.

  14. Linear beam raster for cryogenic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, C; Sinkine, N; Wojcik, R

    2005-02-21

    Based on the H-bridge switch technique a linear beam raster system was developed in 2002. The system generates a rectangular raster pattern with highly uniform ({approx}95%) raster density distribution on cryogenic targets. The two raster frequencies are 24.96 and 25.08 kHz. The turning time at the vertex is 200 ns and the scan linearity is 98%. The beam-heating effect on the target is effectively eliminated. The new raster system allows the use of higher beam current toward 200 muA in many of the experimental proposals at end station Hall A and Hall C of the Jefferson lab.

  15. Kinematic Synthesis for Linkages with Velocity Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Juan, Ana; Sancibrian, Ramon; García, Pablo; Viadero, Fernando; Iglesias, Miguel; Fernández, Alfonso

    A gradient-based optimization method for designing linkages with velocity targets is described. Two theoretical application cases are established for four-bar linkage. In the first, a constant-velocity module is proposed for a point on the coupler. In the second, the goal is the velocity components. These cases are studied with and without coordination with the input link. The results obtained are compared with another gradient-based approach, and show that the method works efficiently for these types of target.

  16. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor I. Barrena Medel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer remains a major women's health problem due to its high lethality. Despite great efforts to develop effective prevention and early detection strategies, most patients are still diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. This pattern of late presentation has resulted in significant challenges in terms of designing effective therapies to achieve long-term cure. One potential promising strategy is the application of targeted therapeutics that exploit a myriad of critical pathways involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This review examines three of the most provocative targeted therapies with current or future applicability in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  17. Target marketing strategies for occupational therapy entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzmann, L N; Kautzmann, F N; Navarro, F H

    1989-01-01

    Understanding marketing techniques is one of the skills needed by successful entre renews. Target marketing is an effective method for occupational therapy entrepreneurs to use in determining when and where to enter the marketplace. The two components of target marketing, market segmentation and the development of marketing mix strategies for each identified market segment, are described. The Profife of Attitudes Toward Health Care (PATH) method of psychographic market segmentation of health care consumers is presented. Occupational therapy marketing mix strategies for each PATH consumer group are delineated and compatible groupings of market segments are suggested.

  18. Fixed-target physics at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Maurice, Emilie Amandine

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has the unique possibility, among the LHC experiments, to be operated in fixed target mode, using its internal gas target SMOG. The energy scale achievable at the LHC and the excellent detector capabilities for vertexing, tracking and particle identification allow a wealth of measurements of great interest for cosmic ray and heavy ions physics. We report the first measurements made in this configuration: the measurement of antiproton production in proton-helium collisions and the measurements of open and hidden charm production in proton-argon collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\textrm{NN}} =$ 110 GeV.

  19. Polarization Null Characteristics of Simple Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Micronetics were carried out for 18 buoy targets located above a sea-bed surface. Two specific, rather different buoy shapes are used, where six of the targets...34, Teledyne- Micronetics , San Diego, CA. Final Report, Naval Air Systems Command, Cuntract No. 40001L9-C-80-0595, December 1981. L. A. Morgan and S...Weisbrod, "RCS Matrix Studies of Sea Clutter,Teledyne- Micronetics , Final Report, San Diego, CA, ’March t982. L. A. Morgan, S. Weisbrod, "RCS Matrix Studies

  20. New Methods for Targeted Alpha Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. David

    2014-03-01

    Targeted radiotherapies based on alpha emitters are a promising alternative to beta emitting radionuclides. Because of their much shorter range, targeted α-radiotherapy (TAT) agents have great potential for application to small, disseminated tumors and micro metastases and treatment of hematological malignancies consisting of individual, circulating neoplastic cells. A promising approach to TAT is the use of the in vivo α-generator radionuclides 223 = 11.4 d) and 225Ac 1/2 = 10.0 d). In addition to their longer half-lives, these two isotopes have the potential of dramatically increasing the therapeutic efficacy of TAT as they each emit four α particles in their decay chain. This principle has recently been exploited in the development of Xofigo®, the first TAT agent approved for clinical use by the U.S. FDA. Xofigo, formulated as 223RaCl2, is used for treatment of metastatic bone cancer in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. TAT with 223Ra works, however, only in the case of bone cancer because radium, as a chemical analogue of calcium, efficiently targets bone. In order to bring the benefits of TAT with 223Ra or 225Ac to other tumor types, a new delivery method must be devised. Retaining the in vivo α generator radionuclides at the target site through the decay process is one of the major challenges associated with the development of TAT. Because the recoil energy of the daughter radionuclides from the α-emission is ~ 100 keV - a value which is four orders of magnitude greater than the energy of a covalent bond - the daughters will not remain bound to the bioconjugate at the targeting site. Various approaches have been attempted to achieve retention of the α-generator daughter radionuclides at the target site, including incorporation of the in vivo generator into liposomes and fullerenes. Unfortunately, to date single wall liposomes and fullerenes are able to retain less than 10% of the daughter radionuclides. We have recently demonstrated that a

  1. Strategies for targeted antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sarika; Sallum, Ulysses; Zheng, Xiang; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2009-06-01

    The photophysics and mechanisms of cell killing by photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been extensively studied in recent years, and PDT has received regulatory approval for the treatment of a number of diseases worldwide. As the application of this treatment modality expands with regard to both anatomical sites and diseases, it is important to develop strategies for enhancing PDT outcomes. Our group has focused on developing targeting strategies to enhance PDT for both cancerous as well as anti-microbial applications. In this article, we will discuss photosensitizer modification and conjugation strategies for targeted antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

  2. Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

    2012-02-29

    The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

  3. [Thalidomide teratogenicity and its direct target identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Half a century ago, thalidomide was developed as a sedative drug and was wildly used over 40 countries. However the drug has serious birth defects such as amelia and phocomelia. Now thalidomide is regarded as a clinically effective drug and used for the treatment of multiple myeloma under strict controls. The direct target of thalidomide had been a long-standing question. We identified cereblon as a primary direct target protein for thalidomide teratogenicity using new affinity bead technology in 2010. In this review, we introduce an overview of thalidomide teratogenicity, a story about how we identified cereblon, and recent advances in cereblon studies.

  4. Fabrication of implanted $^{22}$Na targets

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A knowledge of the $^{22}$Na(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$ Mg reaction rate is of significant astrophysical interest. In order to complete previous studies of this reaction, radioactive $^{22}$Na targets of high purity are required. We ask for support to fabricate these targets via the implantation technique at ISOLDE GPS (off—line mode) using $^{22}$Na nuclides in an Al matrix produced in Nov. 1990 at the PSI (Zürich). The $^{22}$Na nuclides are released and ionized in a surface ionisation source, mass-analyzed at ISOLDE GPS, and implanted in a Ni-Ta backing and a C—foil in a special implantation setup.

  5. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k...

  6. TARGET EXCITATION IN BARE ION XE/AR COLLISIONS STUDIED BY ELECTRON TARGET ION COINCIDENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENIJS, G; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R

    We present electron spectra resulting from collisions of bare ions N-15(7+) and C-13(6+) on Ar and the charge state distribution of target ions resulting from C-13(6+)-Xe collisions. From both type of experiments we find evidence that electron capture accompanied by target excitation is an important

  7. Fluctuations in Echo Level Associated with Changes in Target Aspect and Target Frequency Response (abstract only)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampolli, M.; Ainslie, M.A.; Zon, T. van

    2011-01-01

    Ping-to-ping variations in echo level can be caused by time variations in sonar parameters (source level, orientation), target aspect, relative and absolute motion of sonar and target, and time varying environment (e.g. surface waves). Quantifying and understanding such fluctuations are important,

  8. HE2+-HE COLLISIONS - ONE-ELECTRON CAPTURE AND TARGET-ION EXCITATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOLKERTS, HO; BLIEK, FW; MENG, L; OLSON, RE; MORGENSTERN, R; VONHELLERMANN, M; SUMMERS, HP; HOEKSTRA, R

    1994-01-01

    By means of photon emission spectroscopy we have studied state selective one-electron capture and target-ion excitation in collisions of He-2+ with He. The collision energy has been varied from 1 to 75 keV amu-1 Four-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations have been performed in the

  9. Target-present guessing as a function of target prevalence and accumulated information in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-05-01

    Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response. However, researchers have found very high false alarms in high-prevalence searches, suggesting that prevalence rates may be used as a source of information to make "educated guesses" after search termination. Here, we further examine the ability for prevalence level and knowledge gained during visual search to influence guessing rates. We manipulate target prevalence and the amount of information that an observer accumulates about a search display prior to making a response to test if these sources of evidence are used to inform target present guess rates. We find that observers use both information about target prevalence rates and information about the proportion of the array inspected prior to making a response allowing them to make an informed and statistically driven guess about the target's presence.

  10. Mars Target Encyclopedia: Information Extraction for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, K. L.; Francis, R.; Gowda, T.; Lu, Y.; Riloff, E.; Singh, K.

    2017-06-01

    Mars surface targets / and published compositions / Seek and ye will find. We used text mining methods to extract information from LPSC abstracts about the composition of Mars surface targets. Users can search by element, mineral, or target.

  11. Target-adaptive polarimetric synthetic aperture radar target discrimination using maximum average correlation height filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2006-05-01

    We report the development of a technique for adaptive selection of polarization ellipse tilt and ellipticity angles such that the target separation from clutter is maximized. From the radar scattering matrix [S] and its complex components, in phase and quadrature phase, the elements of the Mueller matrix are obtained. Then, by means of polarization synthesis, the radar cross section of the radar scatters are obtained at different transmitting and receiving polarization states. By designing a maximum average correlation height filter, we derive a target versus clutter distance measure as a function of four transmit and receive polarization state angles. The results of applying this method on real synthetic aperture radar imagery indicate a set of four transmit and receive angles that lead to maximum target versus clutter discrimination. These optimum angles are different for different targets. Hence, by adaptive control of the state of polarization of polarimetric radar, one can noticeably improve the discrimination of targets from clutter.

  12. PRICE-LEVEL TARGETING – A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO INFLATION TARGETING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Vasile Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that has led some central banks reaching the zero lower bound of their interest rate to use unconventional monetary policy instruments, has brought to the forefront theacademic discussions on the shift from inflation targeting (IT to price level targeting. This paper provides a comparative analysis on IT strategy and targeting the price level, assesses the implications and highlights the challenges of an eventual transition to a new monetary policy strategy. Balancing the advantages (mainly better anchored inflation expectations and disadvantages (communication difficulties generated by following a potential price-level targeting strategy and the necessary prerequisites for its functionality (predictive agents, fully familiar with the implications of such a strategy and with complete confidence in themonetary authority has led us to the conclusion that there is no common acceptance that price level targeting strategy might replace the present IT framework.

  13. Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Myeloproliferative Neoplasms PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gary W. Reuther CONTRACTING...2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 2012-2 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms ...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Myeloproliferative neoplasms

  14. Bunched release of gases from oxide targets

    CERN Document Server

    Ravn, H L; Evensen, A H M; Jonsson, O C; Kugler, E; Lettry, Jacques; Tengblad, O; Barker, J; Drumm, P V; Hagebø, E; Hoff, P; Steffensen, K

    1997-01-01

    Targets made out of oxides of the alkaline earth metals have been shown at ISOLDE to be among the fastest targets for production of radioactive beams of the rare gas elements. In addition oxide target materials release nitrogen and seem to be the only ones which may release the element carbon due to its oxidation to the high temperature stable CO gas. Thick targets of MgO and CaO have been studied in connection with their use at the 1GeV pulsed proton beam from the PS-BOOSTER synchrotron. It is shown that the 2.4$\\mu$s short proton pulse causes a pronounced bunched release with short delay of these elements which gives rise to 100-200 ms wide pulses of radioactive ion beams. Pulse shapes and overall yields of ion beams of He, Ne and Ar isotopes are studied as function of temperature and proton pulse intensity. For carbon and nitrogen also the release as function of the observed ionic species C$^+$, CO$^+$, N$^+$ and N$_2^+$ is discussed.

  15. Targeting senescence cells in pancreatic cancer | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Targeting senescence cells in pancreatic cancer. Cellular senescence is a programmed response to oncogenic (tumour-causing) stress that aims to halt the expansion of cells with malignant potential. It does this by stopping the proliferation of pre-cancerous lesions and recruitment of the immune system for their elimination.

  16. Perceived Organisational Target Selling, Self- Efficacy, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed reports have shown that different variables account for differences in the psychological wellbeing of bank employees in Nigeria. Based on this premise, the study examined the contributions of perceived organizational target selling, self-efficacy, sexual harassment and job insecurity on psychological wellbeing among ...

  17. Potential targets for the treatment of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Charlotte J; Stanley, Joanna L; Baker, Philip N

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy, typically characterized by hypertension and proteinuria observed after the 20th week of gestation. Preeclampsia has dire consequences for both maternal and neonatal health: it is associated with 50,000 - 100,000 annual deaths globally, as well as serious fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, including increased risk of fetal growth restriction and still birth. Despite the severe health, social, and economic costs of preeclampsia, currently the only curative therapy is delivery of the baby and placenta, which itself carries the associated risks of premature birth. The lack of treatments for this condition is attributable to a number of causes, including but not limited to: a partial understanding of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this complex disease; an inability to sensitively predict women who will go on to develop the disease; and a paucity of robust animal models with which to test new treatments. Recently, progress has been made in identifying potential new therapeutic targets. This review will discuss in detail the evidence supporting further investigation of these targets, which include angiogenic factors, agents that increase vasodilation, anti-inflammatory drugs, substances that reduce oxidative stress, and statins. New therapeutic targets have the potential to make a significant positive impact on maternal and neonatal health. It is exciting that a number of potential therapies are currently being investigated; however, it is also vital that basic research continues to identify potential mechanisms and targets, and that any potential therapy is thoroughly tested before progression to clinical trial.

  18. Metallic beryllium-7 target of small diameter

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, A Yu; Vincent, J S; Buckley, K R; Bateman, N P; Snover, K A; Csandjan, J M; Steiger, T D; Adelberger, E G; Swanson, H E

    1999-01-01

    The stellar sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate has the largest uncertainty among all nuclear reaction rates in the standard solar model. However, the solar neutrino flux predicted for the majority of proposed and existing solar neutrino detectors is directly dependent on the rate of sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction. The existing solar neutrino detectors measure rate of sup 8 B decay neutrinos that is too low. This constitutes largely the solar neutrino problem. Existing measurements of the sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate disagree with one another, indicating the need for more precise experiments. To provide the required targets a new procedure for sup 7 Be production, separation and target manufacturing has been developed. First, a lithium target has been designed for sup 7 Be production at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron. The lithium target has been extensively tested at 50 mu A proton beam current yielding 8.1 MBq/mu A h of sup 7 Be. An adsorption filtration technique has been developed for sup ...

  19. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Doshita, N.; Finger Jr., M.; Finger, M.; Gautheron, F.; Goertz, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hess, C.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kondo, K.; Le Goff, J.M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Srnka, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. F (2006), F295-F305 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : COMPASS * polarized target * Dilution refrigerator Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  20. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  1. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued...

  2. Efficient target-selected mutagenesis in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wienholds, E.; van Eeden, F.; Kosters, M.; Mudde, J.B.; Plasterk, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most powerful methods available to assign function to a gene is to inactivate or knockout the gene. Recently,we described the first target-selected knockout in zebrafish. Here,we report on the further improvements of this procedure,resulting in a highly efficient and easy method to do

  3. Molecular Targeted Intervention for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC remains one of the worst cancers, with almost uniform lethality. PC risk is associated with westernized diet, tobacco, alcohol, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, and family history of pancreatic cancer. New targeted agents and the use of various therapeutic combinations have yet to provide adequate treatments for patients with advanced cancer. To design better preventive and/or treatment strategies against PC, knowledge of PC pathogenesis at the molecular level is vital. With the advent of genetically modified animals, significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of PC. Currently, several clinical trials and preclinical evaluations are underway to investigate novel agents that target signaling defects in PC. An important consideration in evaluating novel drugs is determining whether an agent can reach the target in concentrations effective to treat the disease. Recently, we have reported evidence for chemoprevention of PC. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of current updates on molecularly targeted interventions, as well as dietary, phytochemical, immunoregulatory, and microenvironment-based approaches for the development of novel therapeutic and preventive regimens. Special attention is given to prevention and treatment in preclinical genetically engineered mouse studies and human clinical studies.

  4. Membrane ectopeptidases targeted by human coronaviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Berend Jan; Smits, Saskia L.; Haagmans, Bart L.

    2014-01-01

    Six coronaviruses, including the recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, are known to target the human respiratory tract causing mild to severe disease. Their interaction with receptors expressed on cells located in the respiratory tract is an essential first step in the

  5. Membrane ectopeptidases targeted by human coronaviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); S.L. Smits (Saskia); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSix coronaviruses, including the recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, are known to target the human respiratory tract causing mild to severe disease. Their interaction with receptors expressed on cells located in the respiratory tract is an essential first

  6. Sub classification and targeted characterization of prophage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-06-21

    Jun 21, 2007 ... The construct of ybcS has been over expressed in E. coli and the purified protein was functional, exhibiting lytic activity against E. coli and Salmonella typhi cell wall substrate. Such targeted sequence-structure-function characterization of proteins encoded by cryptic prophages will help understand the ...

  7. Fighting power, targeting and cyber operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.; van Haaster, J.; Brangetto, P.; Maybaum, M.; Stinissen, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the operationalisation of military cyber operations in general, and for targeting purposes, either in defence or offence, in particular. The role of cyber operations in military doctrine will be clarifi ed, its contribution to fi ghting power conceptualised, and the

  8. Fighting power, targeting and cyber operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.A.L.; van Haaster, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the operationalisation of military cyber operations in general, and for targeting purposes (either in defence or offence) in particular. The position of cyber operations in military doctrine will be clarified, their contribution to fighting power conceptualised and

  9. Design of the Next Generation Spallation Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferres, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    The purpose of this summary is to detail the studies that enable new nuclear physics experiments currently limited by neutron intensity or energy resolution available at LANSCE. The target is being redesigned so that the Flight Paths (FP) in the upper tier provide a higher intensity in the epithermal and medium energy ranges.

  10. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, B. [ETH Nuclear Engineering Lab., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  11. Targeting EGFR in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Naoto T. Ueno, Dongwei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Our preliminary data show that erlotinib inhibits Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in a xenograft model. However, inhibition of metastasis by erlotinib is accompanied by nonspecific effects because erlotinib can inhibit other kinases; thus, more direct targets that regulate TNBC metastasis need to be identified to improve its therapeutic efficacy.

  12. Targeting EGFR in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto T. Ueno, Dongwei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our preliminary data show that erlotinib inhibits Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC in a xenograft model. However, inhibition of metastasis by erlotinib is accompanied by nonspecific effects because erlotinib can inhibit other kinases; thus, more direct targets that regulate TNBC metastasis need to be identified to improve its therapeutic efficacy.

  13. Colour unmasks dark targets in complex displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdom, Frederick A A; Kasrai, Reza

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that colour (meaning chromatic) variations help the visual system segment luminance-variegated displays into their illumination and reflectance layers. This leads to the prediction that colour variations should unmask partially camouflaged achromatic transparencies on luminance-variegated backgrounds. We used 'Mondrian-like' backgrounds that were either achromatic, i.e., varying only in luminance, or chromatic, which in our stimuli meant varying in both luminance and colour. Both achromatic and chromatic backgrounds had the same luminance distribution. Thresholds for detecting simulated transparency targets were found to be lower when on the chromatic compared to achromatic backgrounds. We hypothesised that the chromatic-background advantage resulted from the extra cue provided by colour as to which borders were background and which transparency, predicting that (a) randomising the colours on either side of the transparency border, (b) rotating the target to destroy its X-junctions, and (c) viewing the target eccentrically, would each destroy the chromatic-background advantage. However, none of these predictions was upheld. We suggest therefore that the chromatic-background advantage is due to a low-level, rather than border-disambiguation mechanism. We suggest that chromatic variations reduce the noise, but not the signal, in the mechanism that detects dark targets in complex displays.

  14. Targeted inhibition of cancer-inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes Coimbra, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The new paradigm in cancer treatment that aims to inhibit the smoldering inflammatory response in tumors is explored to develop new anticancer treatments. It appears that targeted drug delivery is essential in this concept as high local levels of anti-inflammatory agents are needed to observe the

  15. Targeted therapy and its availability in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Aleksandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy has made a significant breakthrough for the treatment of different kind of severe diseases, mostly oncological and autoimmune ones. Biological or biotech products, as well as small synthetic molecules, like family of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have already expressed their efficacy in several important indications. Their availability on the market and reimbursement possibility is of great importance, especially for the patients needed to be on lifelong therapies. Targeted therapy enhanced progression free and overall survival in many conditions, but also a number of these therapies produced important and severe side effects. Considering the fact that targeted therapy is on the global market relatively shortly, there is necessity for prolonged therapy monitoring: for further effectiveness assessment, for safety profile and long term health consequences establishment. Reimbursed targeted therapy proved its benefits that overweight risks, but still remains extremely high costs problem for its application. For an upper middle income country like Serbia, with significantly lower health care expenditures per capita than in other well developed countries, the availability of this expensive therapy is not yet gratifying.

  16. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  17. Molecular Targeted Intervention for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B.; Pant, Shubham; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the worst cancers, with almost uniform lethality. PC risk is associated with westernized diet, tobacco, alcohol, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, and family history of pancreatic cancer. New targeted agents and the use of various therapeutic combinations have yet to provide adequate treatments for patients with advanced cancer. To design better preventive and/or treatment strategies against PC, knowledge of PC pathogenesis at the molecular level is vital. With the advent of genetically modified animals, significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of PC. Currently, several clinical trials and preclinical evaluations are underway to investigate novel agents that target signaling defects in PC. An important consideration in evaluating novel drugs is determining whether an agent can reach the target in concentrations effective to treat the disease. Recently, we have reported evidence for chemoprevention of PC. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of current updates on molecularly targeted interventions, as well as dietary, phytochemical, immunoregulatory, and microenvironment-based approaches for the development of novel therapeutic and preventive regimens. Special attention is given to prevention and treatment in preclinical genetically engineered mouse studies and human clinical studies. PMID:26266422

  18. Modular target acquisition model & visualization tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Vos, W.K.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a software framework for image-based simulation models in the chain: scene-atmosphere-sensor-image enhancement-display-human observer: EO-VISTA. The goal is to visualize the steps and to quantify (Target Acquisition) task performance. EO-VISTA provides an excellent means to

  19. Target Improves Efficiency in New Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Target Corporation partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  20. Targeting: the challenges of modern warfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a multidisciplinary treatment of targeting. It is intended for use by the military, government legal advisers and academics. The book is suitable for use in both military training and educational programs and in Bachelor and Master degree level courses on such topics as War Studies

  1. Risk-targeted maps for Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacareanu, Radu; Pavel, Florin; Craciun, Ionut; Coliba, Veronica; Arion, Cristian; Aldea, Alexandru; Neagu, Cristian

    2017-11-01

    Romania has one of the highest seismic hazard levels in Europe. The seismic hazard is due to a combination of local crustal seismic sources, situated mainly in the western part of the country and the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source, which can be found at the bend of the Carpathian Mountains. Recent seismic hazard studies have shown that there are consistent differences between the slopes of the seismic hazard curves for sites situated in the fore-arc and back-arc of the Carpathian Mountains. Consequently, in this study we extend this finding to the evaluation of the probability of collapse of buildings and finally to the development of uniform risk-targeted maps. The main advantage of uniform risk approach is that the target probability of collapse will be uniform throughout the country. Finally, the results obtained are discussed in the light of a recent study with the same focus performed at European level using the hazard data from SHARE project. The analyses performed in this study have pointed out to a dominant influence of the quantile of peak ground acceleration used for anchoring the fragility function. This parameter basically alters the shape of the risk-targeted maps shifting the areas which have higher collapse probabilities from eastern Romania to western Romania, as its exceedance probability increases. Consequently, a uniform procedure for deriving risk-targeted maps appears as more than necessary.

  2. The Internet: Friend, Foe or Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the author provides an overview of how the Internet, a byproduct of our times, is shaping our culture and society in profound ways. He notes some of the major concerns and perils of the Internet age and concludes by pointing out how and why certain countries are targeting the Internet in terms of increased regulation and…

  3. Video enhancement effectiveness for target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael; Fischer, Amber; Petrov, Plamen

    2011-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) capture real-time video data of military targets while keeping the warfighter at a safe distance. This keeps soldiers out of harm's way while they perform intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and close-air support troops in contact (CAS-TIC) situations. The military also wants to use UAV video to achieve force multiplication. One method of achieving effective force multiplication involves fielding numerous UAVs with cameras and having multiple videos processed simultaneously by a single operator. However, monitoring multiple video streams is difficult for operators when the videos are of low quality. To address this challenge, we researched several promising video enhancement algorithms that focus on improving video quality. In this paper, we discuss our video enhancement suite and provide examples of video enhancement capabilities, focusing on stabilization, dehazing, and denoising. We provide results that show the effects of our enhancement algorithms on target detection and tracking algorithms. These results indicate that there is potential to assist the operator in identifying and tracking relevant targets with aided target recognition even on difficult video, increasing the force multiplier effect of UAVs. This work also forms the basis for human factors research into the effects of enhancement algorithms on ISR missions.

  4. Therapeutic approaches to drug targets in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Chandak, Prakash G; Dhawale, Shashikant C; Barde, Sonal R; Tidke, Priti S; Sakhare, Ram S

    2014-07-01

    Non-communicable diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetes are responsible for major social and health burden as millions of people are dying every year. Out of which, atherosclerosis is the leading cause of deaths worldwide. The lipid abnormality is one of the major modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis. Both genetic and environmental components are associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Immune and inflammatory mediators have a complex role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Understanding of all these processes will help to invent a range of new biomarkers and novel treatment modalities targeting various cellular events in acute and chronic inflammation that are accountable for atherosclerosis. Several biochemical pathways, receptors and enzymes are involved in the development of atherosclerosis that would be possible targets for improving strategies for disease diagnosis and management. Earlier anti-inflammatory or lipid-lowering treatments could be useful for alleviating morbidity and mortality of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, novel drug targets like endoglin receptor, PPARα, squalene synthase, thyroid hormone analogues, scavenger receptor and thyroid hormone analogues are more powerful to control the process of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the review briefly focuses on different novel targets that act at the starting stage of the plaque form to the thrombus formation in the atherosclerosis.

  5. Immunity to TB and targets for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes

    2012-02-01

    For centuries the treatment of TB has presented an enormous challenge to global health. In the 20th century, the treatment of TB patients with long-term multidrug therapy gave hope that TB could be controlled and cured; however, contrary to these expectations and coinciding with the emergence of AIDS, the world has witnessed a rampant increase in hard-to-treat cases of TB, along with the emergence of highly virulent and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Unfortunately, these bacteria are now circulating around the world, and there are few effective drugs to treat them. As a result, the prospects for improved treatment and control of TB in the 21st century have worsened and we urgently need to identify new therapies that deal with this problem. The potential use of immunotherapy for TB is now of greater consideration than ever before, as immunotherapy could potentially overcome the problem of drug resistance. TB immunotherapy targets the already existing host anti-TB immune response and aims to enhance killing of the bacilli. For this purpose, several approaches have been used: the use of anti-Mycobacteria antibodies; enhancing the Th1 protective responses by using mycobacterial antigens or increasing Th1 cytokines; interfering with the inflammatory process and targeting of immunosuppressive pathways and targeting the cell activation/proliferation pathways. This article reviews our current understanding of TB immunity and targets for immunotherapy that could be used in combination with current TB chemotherapy.

  6. Validation of molecular targets in prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalken, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    As prostate cancer is not a single disease, it is important to identify the pivotal pathway in the patient being treated. The molecular environment is the site of current oncological research to define new therapeutic targets for hormone-refractory disease, offering the potential to eventually

  7. Nuclei far from stability using exotic targets

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelmy, J B; Brown, R E; Flynn, E R; Thomas, K E; Van der Plicht, J

    1981-01-01

    The meson factories have made possible high fluence medium energy proton beams that can be used for spallation reactions to produce macro quantities of unstable isotopes. Targets of over 10 g/cm/sup 2/ can be exposed to total fluence approaching 1 A-hour resulting in spallation yields in the 0.01-10 mg range for many isotopes of potential interest for nuclear structure studies. With the use of hot cell facilities, chemical processing can isolate the desired material and this coupled with subsequent isotope separation can result in usable quantities of material for nuclear target application. With offstable isotopes as target materials, conventional nuclear spectroscopy techniques can be employed to study nuclei far from stability. The irradiation and processing requirements for such an operation, along with the isotope production possibilities, are discussed. Also presented are initial experiments using a /sup 148/Gd (t/sub 1/2/=75a) target to perform the (p, t) reaction to establish levels in the proposed do...

  8. Polysaccharides for colon targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, M K; Jain, S K

    2004-01-01

    Colon targeted drug delivery has the potential to deliver bioactive agents for the treatment of a variety of colonic diseases and to deliver proteins and peptides to the colon for their systemic absorption. Various strategies, currently available to target the release of drugs to colon, include formation of prodrug, coating of pH-sensitive polymers, use of colon-specific biodegradable polymers, timed released systems, osmotic systems, and pressure controlled drug delivery systems. Among the different approaches to achieve targeted drug release to the colon, the use of polymers especially biodegradable by colonic bacteria holds great promise. Polysaccharidases are bacterial enzymes that are available in sufficient quantity to be exploited in colon targeting of drugs. Based on this approach, various polysaccharides have been investigated for colon-specific drug release. These polysaccharides include pectin, guar gum, amylose, inulin, dextran, chitosan, and chondroitin sulphate. This family of natural polymers has an appeal to drug delivery as it is comprised of polymers with a large number of derivatizable groups, a wide range of molecular weights, varying chemical compositions, and, for the most part, low toxicity and biodegradability yet high stability. The most favorable property of these materials is their approval as pharmaceutical excipients.

  9. Targeting Killing of Breast Tumor Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Si-Yi

    2005-01-01

    .... Toward the goal, we have prepared HA molecules from human umbilical cord hyaluronic acid by hydrolysed by Bee venom. However, we have encountered the technical difficulty to produce CD44-targeted liposomes that are incorporated with HA molecules. Due to the technical problems, this proposed study has been extended for additional one year.

  10. Targeted Killing of Breast Tumor Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Si-Yi

    2004-01-01

    .... Toward the goal, we have prepared HA molecules from human umbilical cord hyaluronic acid by hydrolysed by Bee venom. However, we have encountered the technical difficulty to produce CD44-targeted liposomes that are incorporated with HA molecules. Due to the technical problems, this proposed study has been extended for additional one year.

  11. Target tracking using a 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kriel, M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This chapter briefly outlines a few mathematical techniques to track targets in 3D using a 2D radar. 2D radars are relatively cheap and efficient sensors that often form the first line of defence in airspace control. In military applications...

  12. IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE ACOUSTIC TARGET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acoustic target strength (TS) of Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis was measured in situ at 38 kHz during two surveys over the Namibian continental shelf in 1998 and 1999 using a SIMRAD EK500 echosounder/ES38D submersible split-beam transducer. Scattered aggregations of horse mackerel ...

  13. Latino Movement: A Target for Harassment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Members of the Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan (MEChA), which translates to Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan, report that their movement is being targeted by school administrators across the country due to its demands for Chicano/Latino studies programs and protests against anti-immigration and anti-affirmative action movements.…

  14. Targeting Sphingosine Kinase-1 To Inhibit Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Hengst, Jeremy; Gowda, Raghavendra; Fox, Todd E.; Yun, Jong K; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resistance to therapies develops rapidly for melanoma leading to more aggressive disease. Therefore, agents are needed that specifically inhibit proteins or pathways controlling the development of this disease, which can be combined, dependent on genes deregulated in a particular patient’s tumors. This study shows that elevated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) levels resulting from increased activity of sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) occur in advanced melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA decreased anchorage dependent and independent growth as well as sensitized melanoma cells to apoptosis inducing agents. Pharmacological SPHK1 inhibitors SKI-I but not SKI-II decreased S-1-P content, elevated ceramide levels, caused a G2-M block and induced apoptotic cell death in melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA or the pharmacological agent called SKI-I, decreased the levels of pAKT. Furthermore, SKI-I inhibited the expression of CYCLIN D1 protein and increased the activity of caspase-3/7, which in turn led to the degradation of PARP. In animals, SKI-I but not SKI-II retarded melanoma growth by 25-40%. Thus, targeting SPHK1 using siRNAs or SKI-I has therapeutic potential for melanoma treatment either alone or in combination with other targeted agents. PMID:22236408

  15. Attentional dwell times for targets and masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2013-12-06

    Studies on the temporal dynamics of attention have shown that the report of a masked target (T2) is severely impaired when the target is presented with a delay (stimulus onset asynchrony) of less than 500 ms after a spatially separate masked target (T1). This is known as the attentional dwell time. Recently, we have proposed a computational model of this effect building on the idea that a stimulus retained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) takes up visual processing resources that otherwise could have been used to encode subsequent stimuli into VSTM. The resources are locked until the stimulus in VSTM has been recoded, which explains the long dwell time. Challenges for this model and others are findings by Moore, Egeth, Berglan, and Luck (1996) suggesting that the dwell time is substantially reduced when the mask of T1 is removed. Here we suggest that the mask of T1 modulates performance not by noticeably affecting the dwell time but instead by acting as a distractor drawing processing resources away from T2. This is consistent with our proposed model in which targets and masks compete for attentional resources and attention dwells on both. We tested the model by replicating the study by Moore et al., including a new condition in which T1 is omitted but the mask of T1 is retained. Results from this and the original study by Moore et al. are modeled with great precision.

  16. Molecular targets in serous gynecologic cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we describe a series of studies assessing the effectiveness of targeted therapeutics that inhibit Notch signaling or the HER2 receptor in serous gynecologic cancers. In the first part of the thesis, we have confirmed previous data by showing expression of Notch1 and Notch3 in ovarian

  17. Cryostat for a 2 litre polarized target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    This target (world's largest) was meant for the muon scattering experiment NA2, then named NA9. It was prepared for use with NH3 in order to increase the amount or free hydrogen. Michel Rieubland (top, left), Tapio Niinikoski and Policella (bottom, centre and right).

  18. The target landscape of clinical kinase drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaeger, Susan; Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Wilhelm, Mathias; Polzer, Harald; Vick, Binje; Koenig, Paul-Albert; Reinecke, Maria; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Petzoldt, Svenja; Meng, Chen; Zecha, Jana; Reiter, Katrin; Qiao, Huichao; Helm, Dominic; Koch, Heiner; Schoof, Melanie; Canevari, Giulia; Casale, Elena; Depaolini, Stefania Re; Feuchtinger, Annette; Wu, Zhixiang; Schmidt, Tobias; Rueckert, Lars; Becker, Wilhelm; Huenges, Jan; Garz, Anne-Kathrin; Gohlke, Bjoern-Oliver; Zolg, Daniel Paul; Kayser, Gian; Vooder, Tonu; Preissner, Robert; Hahne, Hannes; Tõnisson, Neeme; Kramer, Karl; Götze, Katharina; Bassermann, Florian; Schlegl, Judith; Ehrlich, Hans-Christian; Aiche, Stephan; Walch, Axel; Greif, Philipp A; Schneider, Sabine; Felder, Eduard Rudolf; Ruland, Juergen; Médard, Guillaume; Jeremias, Irmela; Spiekermann, Karsten; Kuster, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    Kinase inhibitors are important cancer therapeutics. Polypharmacology is commonly observed, requiring thorough target deconvolution to understand drug mechanism of action. Using chemical proteomics, we analyzed the target spectrum of 243 clinically evaluated kinase drugs. The data revealed previously unknown targets for established drugs, offered a perspective on the "druggable" kinome, highlighted (non)kinase off-targets, and suggested potential therapeutic applications. Integration of phosphoproteomic data refined drug-affected pathways, identified response markers, and strengthened rationale for combination treatments. We exemplify translational value by discovering SIK2 (salt-inducible kinase 2) inhibitors that modulate cytokine production in primary cells, by identifying drugs against the lung cancer survival marker MELK (maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase), and by repurposing cabozantinib to treat FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia. This resource, available via the ProteomicsDB database, should facilitate basic, clinical, and drug discovery research and aid clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  20. Modulating angiogenesis with integrin-targeted nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro-Castano, Aroa; Gallon, Elena; Decker, Caitlin; Vicent, María J

    2017-09-15

    Targeting angiogenesis-related pathologies, which include tumorigenesis and metastatic processes, has become an attractive strategy for the development of efficient guided nanomedicines. In this respect, integrins are cell-adhesion molecules involved in angiogenesis signaling pathways and are overexpressed in many angiogenic processes. Therefore, they represent specific biomarkers not only to monitor disease progression but also to rationally design targeted nanomedicines. Arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) containing peptides that bind to specific integrins have been widely utilized to provide ligand-mediated targeting capabilities to small molecules, peptides, proteins, and antibodies, as well as to drug/imaging agent-containing nanomedicines, with the final aim of maximizing their therapeutic index. Within this review, we aim to cover recent and relevant examples of different integrin-assisted nanosystems including polymeric nanoconstructs, liposomes, and inorganic nanoparticles applied in drug/gene therapy as well as imaging and theranostics. We will also critically address the overall benefits of integrin-targeting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.