WorldWideScience

Sample records for euratom

  1. Annual report of the Association EURATOM/Cea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaud, Ph.; Le Vagueres, F

    2002-07-01

    This annual report presents research activities, which have been performed in 2002 by the French EURATOM-Cea association in the frame of the European technology program. The first section describes EFDA (European fusion development agreement) activities and related developments carried out by the association. The second one is dedicated to the underlying technology program and finally the third one presents the inertial confinement fusion activities. In each section the tasks are sorted out according to the EFDA main fields: physics (heating and current drive, remote participation, diagnostics), vessel/in-vessel (vessel/blanket, plasma facing components, remote handling), magnet, tritium breeding and materials (water cooled lithium lead blanket, helium cooled pebble bed blanket, helium cooled lithium lead blanket, reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels, advanced materials, neutron source, fuel cycle), safety and environment, system studies (power plant conceptual studies, socio-economic studies) and JET technology activities. The EURATOM-Cea association is involved in all these studies.

  2. Fusion yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airila, M.; Karttunen, S. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2011. The emphasis of EFDA is in exploiting JET and co-ordinating physics research in the Associations. In addition, emerging technology and goal oriented training (GOT) activities are under EFDA. R and D Grants for the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' on remote handling for ITER divertor maintenance and MEMS magnetometer development constituted a significant fraction of the total research volume. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and EFDA. The physics work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University (AU), University of Helsinki and University of Tartu. The research areas of the EFDA Workprogramme within Association Euratom-Tekes are (i) Heat and particle transport and fast particle studies, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2011, including C28 experiments with the ITER-like wall, diagnostics development and code integration. Two persons were seconded to the JET operating team, one physicist (codes and modelling) and one engineer (remote handling) in preparation of the ITER-like wall. The Association participated also in the 2011 experimental programmes of ASDEX Upgrade at IPP, DIII-D at GA and C-Mod at MIT. The technology work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University, Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. Industrial participation is co-ordinated by Tekes. The technology research and development includes the DTP2 facility at VTT Tampere, materials and joining techniques, vessel/in-vessel components, magnetic diagnostics by micromechanical magnetometers for ITER, upgrading of the JET NPA diagnostics, Power Plant

  3. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory annual progress report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindslev, H.; Singh, B.N (eds.)

    2005-06-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step, the Long-term and the Underlying Fusion Technology programme. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2004. (au)

  4. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory annual progress report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindslev, H.; Singh, B.N.

    2004-05-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step, the Long-term and the Underlying Fusion Technology programme. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2003. (au)

  5. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory annual progress report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindslev, H.; Singh, B.N. (eds.)

    2006-11-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step, the Long-term and the Underlying Fusion Technology programme. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2005. (au)

  6. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory annual progress report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynov, J.P.; Singh, B.N. (eds.)

    2001-08-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics group has activities within development of laser diagnostics for fusion plasmas and studies of nonlinear dynamical processes related to turbulence and turbulent transport in the edge region of magnetised fusion plasmas. The activities in technology cover investigations of radiation damage of fusion rector materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step, the Long-term and the Underlying Fusion Technology programme. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2000. (au)

  7. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory annual progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, P.K.; Singh, B.N. (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step, the Long-term and the Underlying Fusion Technology programme. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2006. (au)

  8. ''Brexit means Brexit''. Also a British withdrawal of the EURATOM treaty?; ''Brexit means Brexit''. Exit auch fuer den EURATOM-Vertrag?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2016-08-15

    In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9 % of the British voters decided to leave the EU. The question did not include explicitly the exit from the EURATOM Treaty (EAV). Since the 2009 Lisbon Treaty the Euratom Community is a supranational organisation of the new EU. This raises the question whether the exit of Britain from the EU also means an exit from the Euratom treaty.

  9. Fusion yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes. Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Nora, M. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)) (eds.)

    2008-05-15

    This report summarises the activities and results of the fusion energy research carried out by the Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2007. Fusion research covers both physics and technology. Approximately one third of research volume is in physics and two thirds in technology. The University of Tartu joined the Tekes Association in 2007 and Estonia provides now a contribution to the European Fusion Programme in plasma-wall studies and wall diagnostics. Our highest priority in the fusion physics work is a participation in the EFDA JET work programmes and experimental campaigns. The main emphasis of the work is in simulations of tokamak transport experiments by predictive integrated codes, modelling of radio-frequency heating experiments and fast particles studies. The supporting theoretical work on turbulent transport and edge plasmas and related code development has proceeded well, too. Plasma-wall studies including coatings and material transport in the scrape-off-layer provide another important contribution to the JET programme. Upgrading of the JET neutral particle analyser (NPA) and development of micromechanical magnetometer are the main diagnostics activities of the Association Euratom-Tekes. The work of the Tekes Association in ITER technology was strongly focused into vessel/in-vessel materials and remote handling studies and was partly carried out in close collaboration with Finnish industry. The main activity was to prepare hosting of the ITER divertor test platform (DTP2) at VTT. The basic DTP2 steel structure was completed, control systems are tested and one full size cassette mock-up is delivered by industry. The test runs will start as soon as the multifunctional mover is ready and arrives at VTT. Other activities in remote maintenance systems include water hydraulic manipulators and tools for the ITER divertor maintenance and virtual modelling of remote handling operations. Advanced fabrication methods for ITER vacuum vessel as well

  10. Fusion Yearbook. 2008 Annual report Association Euratom-Tekes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nora, M. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Karttunen, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)) (eds.)

    2009-05-15

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2008. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and new EFDA. A few EFDA Technology Tasks and Contracts were still running in 2008 and are now completed. New R and D Grant work on remote handling for ITER launched by the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' started in 2008. The Physics Programme is carried out at VTT - Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and University of Helsinki (UH). The research areas of the Physics Programme are: (i) Heat and particle transport, MHD physics and plasma edge phenomena, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated actively in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2008 and exploitation of JET facilities in experimental campaigns C20-C25. Three persons were seconded to the UKAEA operating team, two physicists in codes and modelling and one engineer in remote handling. One person was a Task Force Leader in TF T (transport). One engineer from VTT was seconded to the ITER IO at Cadarache in 2008 (Assembly). Practically all physics activities of the Research Unit are carried out in co-operation with other Associations with the focus on EFDA JET work. In addition to EFDA JET activities, the Tekes Association participated in the 2008 experimental programme of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Several staff mobility visits of total 530 days took place in 2008. The Technology work is carried out at VTT, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. The technology research and development is focused on the remote handling, vessel/in-vessel materials and components plus some activities

  11. The Euratom Seventh Framework Programme FP7 (2007-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbil, R.

    2010-10-01

    The objective of the Seventh Euratom Framework Program in the area of nuclear fission and radiation protection is to establish a sound scientific and technical basis to accelerate practical developments of nuclear energy related to resource efficiency, enhancing safety performance, cost-effectiveness and safer management of long-lived radioactive waste. Key cross-cutting topics such as the nuclear fuel cycle, actinide chemistry, risk analysis, safety assessment, even societal and governance issues are linked to the individual technical areas. Research need to explore new scientific and techno- logical opportunities and to respond in a flexible way to new policy needs that arise. The following activities are to be pursued. (a) Management of radioactive waste, research on partitioning and transmutation and/or other concepts aimed at reducing the amount and/or hazard of the waste for disposal; (b) Reactor systems research to underpin the con- tinued safe operation of all relevant types of existing reactor systems (including fuel cycle facilities), life-time extension, development of new advanced safety assessment methodologies and waste-management aspects of future reactor systems; (c) Radiation protection research in particular on the risks from low doses on medical uses and on the management of accidents; (d) Infrastructures and support given to the availability of, and cooperation between, research infrastructures necessary to maintain high standards of technical achievement, innovation and safety in the European nuclear sector and Research Area. (e) Human resources, mobility and training support to be provided for the retention and further development of scientific competence, human capacity through joint training activities in order to guarantee the availability of suitably qualified researchers, engineers and employees in the nuclear sector over the longer term.

  12. FUSION Yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes. Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Rantamaeki, K. (eds.) [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-05-01

    This report summarises the results of the Tekes FUSION technology programme and the fusion research activities by the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2004. The research areas are fusion physics, plasma engineering, fusion technology and a smaller effort to socioeconomic studies. Fusion technology research is carried out in close collaboration with Finnish industry. The emphasis in fusion physics and plasma engineering is in theoretical and computational studies on turbulent transport and modelling of radio-frequency heating experiments and the real time control of transport barriers in JET plasmas, predictive integrated modelling of tokamak plasmas, and studies on material transport in the edge plasmas supported by surface analysis of the JET divertor and limiter tiles. The work in fusion technology for the EFDA Technology Programme and ITER is strongly focused into vessel/in-vessel materials covering research and characterisation of first wall materials, mechanical testing of reactor materials under neutron irradiation, characterisation of irradiated Ti-alloys, simulations of carbon and tungsten sputtering, joining and welding methods and surface physics studies on plasma facing materials. A second domain of fusion technology consists of remote handling systems including water hydraulic manipulators for the ITER divertor maintenance as well as prototyping of intersector welding and cutting robot. Virtual modelling is an essential element in the remote handling engineering. Preparations to host the ITER divertor test platform (DTP2) were completed in 2004 and the DTP2 facility will be hosted by VTT. Some effort was also devoted to neutronics, socio-economic and power plant studies. Several EFDA technology tasks were successfully completed in 2004. (orig.)

  13. Fusion yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Rantamaeki, K.; Marttila, A. (eds.)

    2006-06-15

    This report summarises the results of the Tekes FUSION technology programme and the fusion research activities by the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2005. The research areas are fusion physics and plasma engineering, fusion technology and a smaller effort to socio-economic studies. Fusion technology research is carried out in close collaboration with Finnish industry. The emphasis in fusion physics and plasma engineering is in theoretical and computational studies on turbulent transport and modelling of radio-frequency heating experiments. The work covered the real time control of transport barriers in JET plasmas, predictive integrated modelling of tokamak plasmas. Plasma-wall studies included coating technologies for plasma facing components and material transport in the edge plasmas supported by surface analysis of the JET divertor and limiter tiles. Two projects on diagnostics started in 2005. The work in fusion technology for the EFDA Technology Programme and ITER is strongly focused into vessel/in-vessel materials and remote handling studies. The main activity was to prepare hosting of the ITER divertor test platform (DTP2) at VTT. Other remote maintenance systems include water hydraulic manipulators for the ITER divertor maintenance as well as prototyping of intersector welding and cutting robot. Virtual modelling is an essential element in the remote handling engineering. A second domain of fusion technology covers research and characterisation of first wall materials, mechanical testing of reactor materials under neutron irradiation, studies of joining and welding methods, characterisation of irradiated CuCrZr/SS joints. Some effort was also devoted to new stainless steels, IFMIF-design, fusion neutronics and socio-economic studies. Several EFDA technology tasks and contracts were successfully completed in 2005. (orig.)

  14. The Euratom Seventh Framework Programme FP7 (2007-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbil R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Seventh Euratom Framework Program in the area of nuclear fission and radiation protection is to establish a sound scientific and technical basis to accelerate practical developments of nuclear energy related to resource efficiency, enhancing safety performance, cost-effectiveness and safer management of long-lived radioactive waste. Key cross-cutting topics such as the nuclear fuel cycle, actinide chemistry, risk analysis, safety assessment, even societal and governance issues are linked to the individual technical areas. Research need to explore new scientific and techno- logical opportunities and to respond in a flexible way to new policy needs that arise. The following activities are to be pursued. (a Management of radioactive waste, research on partitioning and transmutation and/or other concepts aimed at reducing the amount and/or hazard of the waste for disposal; (b Reactor systems research to underpin the con- tinued safe operation of all relevant types of existing reactor systems (including fuel cycle facilities, life-time extension, development of new advanced safety assessment methodologies and waste-management aspects of future reactor systems; (c Radiation protection research in particular on the risks from low doses on medical uses and on the management of accidents; (d Infrastructures and support given to the availability of, and cooperation between, research infrastructures necessary to maintain high standards of technical achievement, innovation and safety in the European nuclear sector and Research Area. (e Human resources, mobility and training support to be provided for the retention and further development of scientific competence, human capacity through joint training activities in order to guarantee the availability of suitably qualified researchers, engineers and employees in the nuclear sector over the longer term.

  15. EURATOM achievements and challenges in facilitating Pan-European infrastructure collaborative efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbil, Roger [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). DG Research and Innovation, Euratom Fission

    2017-10-15

    The European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Research and Training framework programmes are benefiting from a consistent success in pursuing excellence in research and facilitating Pan European collaborative efforts across a broad range of nuclear science and technologies, nuclear fission and radiation protection. To fulfil Euratom R and D programmes keys objectives of maintaining high levels of nuclear knowledge and building a more dynamic and competitive European industry, promotion of Pan-European mobility of researchers are implemented by co-financing transnational access to research infrastructures (RIs) and joint research activities. 'Euratom Achievements and Challenges' show the benefits of research efforts in key fields, of building an effective 'critical mass', of promoting the creation of 'centres of excellence' with an increased support for 'open access to key research infrastructures', exploitation of research results, management of knowledge, dissemination and sharing of learning outcomes.

  16. FFUSION yearbook 1997. Annual report of the Finnish fusion research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  17. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark (until 31-12- 2011: Association Euratom – Risø DTU) covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport......, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high...

  18. International need of discussion concerning the implementation of the guideline 2013/59/Euratom; Internationaler Diskussionsbedarf bei der Umsetzung der Richtlinie 2013/59/Euratom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, Boris [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany). Fachgebiet ' ' Stilllegung' '

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of the requirements of the guideline 2014/59/Euratom (radiation protection safety standards) is challenging for a number of EU member states. Several initiatives were introduced to support the member states accomplishing these challenges. In the frame of the initiatives indications were identified with respect to the need of harmonization for the embodiment of the regulations and the need of the recommendations for the implementation of the requirements. The contribution describes several initiatives and demonstrates exemplary the extracted insights.

  19. What future for Euratom as the UK prepares for its 'nuclear independence'?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    UK government ministers have been keeping European leaders guessing over what their negotiating position will be when formal talks start about the 'divorce' from the European Union. However, for the nuclear energy community, there was one very certain statement in recent weeks about what Brexit will also mean: withdrawal from the Euratom Treaty.

  20. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...

  1. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...

  2. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the pla......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction...... phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007....

  3. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  4. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 21st symposium on fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, P.; Grosman, A.; Beaumont, B. [and others

    2000-11-01

    The 27 contributions of EURATOM-Cea association have been gathered with 6 additional papers and 1 invited paper in this document. Most papers concern Tore-Supra and deal with the ergodic divertor, particle injection, impedance concept for ICRF antennas, low hybrid current drive, RF systems, the 118 GHz ECRH experiment, the inner first wall, improved vacuum vessel protection, pellet injection, material activation, and the CIEL project. 3 of the additional papers concern the model coil of ITER.

  5. FFUSION yearbook 1996. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-05-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1996. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  6. Nuclear industry calls on UK to avoid disruption of 'disorderly' withdrawal from Euratom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-07-15

    The UK will need to set priorities for Brexit talks if it is to avoid disruption in the nuclear sector and the possibility of a disorderly withdrawal from the Euratom Treaty affecting ambitious plans to build new nuclear reactors, Tom Greatrex, chief executive of the London-based Nuclear Industry Association (NIA), said. Mr Greatrex, a former Labour MP and shadow energy minister, warned that a lack of prioritisation in Brexit talks could lead to problems related to moving nuclear-purpose components and difficulties collaborating with counties in nuclear R and D projects with significant economic, industrial and scientific impact.

  7. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  8. The countdown for the negotiations on the exit of Great Britain from the EU and Euratom has begun; Alea iacta est. Der Countdown fuer die Verhandlungen ueber den Ausstieg Grossbritanniens aus EU und EURATOM hat begonnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-07-15

    On 29 March 2017 the official letter from the United Kingdom to the President of the EU Council was presented to inform the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the European Union (EU). The period of 2 years in Article 50 of the EU Treaty provided for the exit negotiations has thus begun to run. In the letter to the President of the Council, the UK Government expressly declares its intention to withdraw from the EU and from the Euratom Treaty (EAV). Thus the controversy about the conjunction of the withdrawal from the EU and Euratom has become obsolete.

  9. The 15th German Atomic Energy Act Amendment to the implementation of the EURATOM nuclear safety directive; Die 15. AtG-Novelle zur Umsetzung der EURATOM-Sicherheits-Richtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Dehn, Christian [PreussenElektra GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    The 15th German Atomic Energy Act Amendment has now passed the parliamentary legislative procedure with the decision of the Bundestag in the third reading of 30 March 2017. The publication in the Federal Law Gazette (Bundesgesetzblatt) is still pending. The background of the amendment is the addition to the Euratom safeguards directive adopted by the European Council in July 2014. This directive has to be implemented in the national regulations of the EURATOM Member States. However, since most of these supplements were already standard in German atomic law, the regulatory requirements for Germany were low. This is also explicitly stated in the statement to the act.

  10. ENETRAP III WP7. European guidance on the implementation of the requirements of the EURATOM BSS; ENETRAP III WP7. Europaeische Leitlinien zur Umsetzung der Aus- und Weiterbildungs-Anforderungen der EURATOM-Grundnormen im Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paynter, R. [EUTERP (Netherlands); Stewart, J. [PHE (United Kingdom); Schmitt-Hannig, A. [BfS (Germany); Coeck, M. [SCK-CEN (Belgium); Falcao, A. [IST (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    The Euratom BSS lays down specific requirements for the Radiation Protection Expert (RPE) and for the Radiation Protection Officer (RPO) and education and training requirements associated with these roles. A guidance document has been developed within the framework of ENETRAP III WP7 ''Guidance to support the implementation of E and T requirements for RPE and RPO as defined in the Euratom BSS''. The objective of WP7 activities is to facilitate the implementation of the new requirements for RPE and RPO in Member States and to help ensuring a consistent approach throughout the European Union.

  11. Radioactive waste management and public participation in the EU. Lessons learnt from the EURATOM research framework programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Gianluca [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Martell, Meritxell [Merience SCP, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Since 2000, the EURATOM Framework Programmes have dedicated political attention and economic support to public participation in radioactive waste management (RWM). Although a one-fit-all solution for a participatory RWM does not exist, the diversity that characterizes the European Union (EU) offers a relevant pool of knowledge and experience. The Joint Research Centre has used the knowledge and experience cumulated by relevant EURATOM projects to define a list of general principles for a more participatory approach to RWM. The principles explained in this article can ultimately work as indications for the changes and strategic actions that are needed for a better RWM in the EU.

  12. Modernisation and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation: the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    With the publication of new basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, foreseen in Article 2 and Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty, the European Commission modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation. A revision of the Basic Safety Standards was needed in order (1) to take account of the scientific and technological progress since 1996 and (2) to consolidate the existing set of Euratom radiation protection legislation, merging five Directives and upgrading a recommendation to become legally binding. The new Directive offers in a single coherent document basics safety standards for radiation protection, which take account of the most recent advances in science and technology, cover all relevant radiation sources, including natural radiation sources, integrate protection of workers, members of the public, patients and the environment, cover all exposure situations, planned, existing, emergency, and harmonise numerical values with international standards. After the publication of the Directive in the beginning of 2014, Member States have 4 y to transpose the Directive into national legislation and to implement the requirements therein. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Toward a common nuclear safety culture. From knowledge creation to competence building in Euratom programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, Georges van [EC DG Research J2 / Euratom (Fission), Brussels (Belgium). Innovation in Nuclear Systems, and Education and Training

    2010-11-15

    One of the main goals of the Euratom research and training programs is to contribute to the sustainability of nuclear energy by providing resources, in particular, for research and innovation in Generations II, IIII and IV (knowledge creation). Euratom training programs contribute most notably to competence building while facilitating the mutual recognition of experts and thereby continuously improving the nuclear safety culture. The Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP), composed of all stakeholders of nuclear fission and radiation protection (over 75 organizations), is a driving force therein. The emphasis in this paper is on nuclear competence building under the current 7-th Euratom Framework Programme (2007 - 2013). The employers (in particular, the nuclear industry and the technical safety organisations) are naturally involved in this process. According to the IAEA definition, competence means the ability to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes so as to perform a job in an effective and efficient manner and to an established standard (S.S.S. No. RS-G-1.4 / 2001). Knowledge is usually created in higher education institutions (e.g., universities) and in (private and public) research organizations. Skills and attitudes are usually the result of specific training and on-the-job experience throughout professional life. Euratom training activities are traditionally addressed to scientists and experts with higher education. Special attention is devoted to the continuous improvement of their competencies through borderless mobility and lifelong learning in synergy with the main stakeholders. The Euratom training strategy is based on 3 objectives: 1. Analysis of the needs of society and industry with regard to a common nuclear safety culture. This issue raises important questions, for examples: What should be added to existing training schemes? How could Continuous Professional Development (CPD) be improved? Is mobility and mutual recognition of

  14. Fusion technology. Annual report of the. Association Cea/EURATOM; Technologie de fusion.Rapport annuel de l`association CEA/Euratom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaud, P.; Le Vagueres, F.

    1996-12-31

    In 1996, the French EURATOM-CEA Association made significant contributions to the European technology programme. This work is compiled in this report as follows: the ITER CEA activities and related developments are described in the first section; blankets and material developments for DEMO, long term safety studies are summarised in the second part; the Underlying Technology activities are compiled in the third part of this report. In each section, the tasks are sorted out to respect the European presentation. For an easy reading, appendix 4 gives the list of tasks in alphabetical order with a page reference list. The CEA is in charge of the French Technology programme. Three specific organizational directions of the CEA, located on four sites (see appendix 5) are involves in this programme: Advanced Technologies Direction (DTA), for Material task; Nuclear Reactors Direction (DRN), for Blanket design, Neutronic problems, Safety tasks; Physical Sciences Direction (DSM) uses the competence of the Tore Supra team in the Magnet design and plasma Facing Component field. The CEA programme is completed by collaborations with Technicatome, COMEX-Nucleaire and Ecole Polytechnique. The breakdown of the programme by Directions is presented in figure 1. The allocation of tasks is given in appendix 2 and in appendix 3, the related publications. (author).

  15. Euratom innovation in nuclear fission: Community research in reactor systems and fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, G. van [European Commission, DG Research, Directorate J: Energy (Euratom), 1049 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: georges.van-goethem@ec.europa.eu; Hugon, M. [European Commission, DG Research, Directorate J: Energy (Euratom), 1049 Brussels (Belgium); Bhatnagar, V. [European Commission, DG Research, Directorate J: Energy (Euratom), 1049 Brussels (Belgium); Manolatos, P. [European Commission, DG Research, Directorate J: Energy (Euratom), 1049 Brussels (Belgium); Deffrennes, M. [European Commission, DG Research, Directorate J: Energy (Euratom), 1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-07-15

    The following questions are naturally at the heart of the current Euratom research and training framework programme:(1)What are the challenges facing the European Union nuclear fission research community in the short (today), medium (2010) and long term (2040)? (2)What kind of research and technological development (RTD) does Euratom offer to respond to these challenges, in particular in the area of reactor systems and fuel cycles? In the general debate about energy supply technologies there are challenges of both a scientific and technological (S/T) as well as an economic and political (E/P) nature. Though the Community research programme acts mainly on the former, there is nevertheless important links with Community policy. These not only exist in the specific area of nuclear policy, but also more generally as is depicted in the following figure. It is shown in the particular area of nuclear fission, to what extent Euratom research, education and innovation ('Knowledge Triangle' in above figure) respond to the following long-term criteria: (1) sustainability, (2) economics, (3) safety, and (4) proliferation resistance. Research and innovation in nuclear fission technology has broad and extended geographical, disciplinary and time horizons:- the community involved extends to all 25 EU Member States and beyond; - the research assembles a large variety of scientific disciplines; - three generations of nuclear power technologies (called II, III and IV) are involved, with the timescales extending from now to around the year 2040. To each of these three generations, a couple of challenges are associated (six in total):- Generation II (1970-2000, today): security of supply+environmental compatibility; - Generation III (around 2010): enhanced safety and competitiveness (economics); - Generation IV (around 2040): cogeneration of heat and power, and full recycling. At the European Commission (EC), the research related to nuclear reactor systems and fuel cycles is

  16. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical Univ. of Denmark. Annual progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, P.K.; Korsholm, S.B.; Rasmussen, J.J. (eds.)

    2008-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007. (Author)

  17. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2009-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008. (Author)

  18. SACSESS – the EURATOM FP7 project on actinide separation from spent nuclear fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourg Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of actinides by their separation from spent nuclear fuel, followed by transmutation in fast neutron reactors of Generation IV, is considered the most promising strategy for nuclear waste management. Closing the fuel cycle and burning long-lived actinides allows optimizing the use of natural resources and minimizing the long-term hazard of high-level nuclear waste. Moreover, improving the safety and sustainability of nuclear power worldwide. This paper presents the activities striving to meet these challenges, carried out under the Euratom FP7 collaborative project SACSESS (Safety of Actinide Separation Processes. Emphasis is put on the safety issues of fuel reprocessing and waste storage. Two types of actinide separation processes, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical, are considered, as well as related aspects of material studies, process modeling and the radiolytic stability of solvent extraction systems. Education and training of young researchers in nuclear chemistry is of particular importance for further development of this field.

  19. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2011-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010. (Author)

  20. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2010-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009. (Author)

  1. Fusion technology. Annual report of the Association CEA/EURATOM 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaud, P.; Le Vagueres, F

    1998-12-31

    The research and development work performed by the French EURATOM-CEA Association for fusion technology is part of the Fusion Programme of the European Community. This report compiles the work carried out during the year 1997 as follows: The ITER CEA activities and related developments are described in the first section (plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety); The second part is dedicated to the Long Term activities as Blankets and material developments, long term safety, socio-economic problem; The Underlying Technology activities are compiled in the third part of this report (plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety); And the fourth part describes the inertial confinement studies. (K.A.)

  2. Trends in severe accident research in Europe: SARNET network from Euratom to NUGENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dorsselaere Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network was set up under the aegis of the Framework Programmes of the European Commission from 2004 to 2013 and coordinated by IRSN to perform R&D on severe accidents in water-cooled nuclear power plants. The network self-sustainability was achieved through integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA European association devoted to R&D on fission technology of Generation II and III. The SARNET activities continue in the technical area “Severe accidents” through technical workshops, ranking of R&D priorities, improvements of severe accident codes, ERMSAR international conferences, and education and training courses. Six technical domains are addressed in this technical area: in-vessel corium/debris coolability, ex-vessel corium interactions and coolability, containment behaviour including hydrogen risk, source term released to the environment, impact of severe accidents on the environment and emergency management, and severe accident scenarios. The ranking of research priorities in the NUGENIA R&D roadmap that was published in 2015 underlined the need to focus efforts in the next years on the improvement of prevention of severe accidents and on the mitigation of their consequences, as highlighted by the Fukushima Dai-ichi accidents. Several current projects on mitigation of severe accident consequences in Euratom or NUGENIA frame are shortly described in this paper.

  3. FFUSION yearbook 1995. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-03-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). All fusion related research in Finland is included in the FFUSION programme and it made it possible to establish a dialogue with the European Fusion Programme already two years before Finland joined the European Union. The process led to the founding of the Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The contract of Association was signed in Helsinki on March 13 1995, to establish the 14th Association in the EU FFusion Programme. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1995. The emphasis is on research supported by the EU Commission. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies of the reactor materials. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), and Remote handling

  4. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 18. IAEA fusion energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Peysson, Y.; Hoang, G.T. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The 9 contributions of EURATOM-Cea association to the fusion energy conference hold at Sorrento are gathered in this document with 7 additional papers. The different titles are: 1) Ergodic divertor experiments on the route to steady state operation of Tore-Supra, 2) High power lower hybrid current drive experiments in Tore-Supra tokamak, 3) Electron transport and improved confinement on Tore-Supra, 4) ECRH experiments and developments for long pulse in Tore-Supra, 5) Impurity penetration and contamination in Tore-Supra ergodic divertor experiments, 6) Real time plasma feed-back control: an overview of Tore-Supra achievements, 7) Numerical assessment of the ion turbulent thermal transport scaling laws, 8) Design of next step tokamak: consistent analysis of plasma flux consumption and poloidal, 9) Large superconducting conductors and joints for fusion magnets: from conceptual design to test at full size scale, 10) Burst-prone transport in tokamaks with internal transport barriers, 11) Electrostatic turbulence with finite parallel correlation length and radial electric field generation, 12) Theoretical issues in tokamak confinement: internal-edge transport barriers and runaway avalanche confinement, 13) Core and edge confinement studies with different heating methods in JET, 14) Confinement and transport studies of conventional scenarios in ASDEX upgrade, 15) First test results for the ITER central solenoid model coil, and 16) Progress of the ITER central solenoid model coil program.

  5. Protection from radon exposure at home and at work in the directive 2013/59/Euratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, F

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, international organisations involved in radiation protection and public health have produced new guidance, recommendations and requirements aiming better protection from radon exposure. These organisations have often worked in close collaboration in order to facilitate the establishment of harmonised standards. This paper deals with such standards and specifically with the new European Council Directive of 5 December 2013 on basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation (2013/59/Euratom). This new Directive has established a harmonised framework for the protection against ionising radiations, including protection from radon exposure. Requirements for radon in workplace are much more tightening than in previous Directive, and exposures to radon in dwellings are regulated for the first time in a Directive. Radon-related articles of this Directive are presented and discussed in this paper, along with some comparisons with other relevant international standards. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Euratom research and training in nuclear reactor safety: Towards European research and the higher education area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, G. van [Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection European Commission, Building MO75-5-34, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: georges.van-goethem@cec.eu.int

    2004-07-01

    In this invited lecture, research and training in nuclear fission are looked at from a European perspective with emphasis on the three success factors of any European policy, namely: common needs, vision and instruments, that ought to be strongly shared amongst the stakeholders across the Member States concerned. As a result, the following questions are addressed: What is driving the current EU trend towards more research, more education and more training, in general? Regarding nuclear fission, in particular, who are the end-users of Euratom 'research and training' and what are their expectations from EU programmes? Do all stakeholders share the same vision about European research and training in nuclear fission? What are the instruments proposed by the European Commission (EC) to conduct joint research programmes of common interest for the nuclear fission community? In conclusion, amongst the stakeholders in Europe, there seems to be a wide consensus about common needs and instruments, but not about a common vision regarding nuclear. (author)

  7. The German atomic law on trial. The requirements of the EURATOM Nuclear Safety Directive; Deutsches Atomrecht auf dem Pruefstand. Die Anforderungen aus der EURATOM-Richtlinie zur nuklearen Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Dehn, Christian [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Nuclear Regulation and Policy

    2016-05-15

    The EURATOM Directive on Nuclear Safety, dated 8 July 2014, is to be transposed into national law, not later than 15 August 2017. This raises the question of whether and to what extent by then the German atomic energy act is adapted to the respective requirements. On national level requirements have to be implemented now, that are already not effective. This includes the introduction of thematic peer reviews and, if necessary, regulations for the independence and effectiveness of the regulatory authorities. Here - but only here - is a need for implementation.

  8. Nuclear safeguards in the European Union carried out by the European Commission or: the EURATOM treaty. The unknown nature; Kernmaterialueberwachung in der Europaeischen Kommission oder: der EURATOM-Vertrag. Das unbekannte Wesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilb, Wolfgang [European Commission, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Generaldirektion Energie - EURATOM Kernmaterialueberwachung

    2016-03-15

    Nuclear safeguards in the 28 Member States of the European Union are based on a complex structure of national, supranational and international legal acts: A first approach are the three ''S'' to be met: security, safety, safeguards. The EURATOM safeguards are based on two pillars: the control of nuclear material itself, as well as different types of international agreements: the first refers to ''agreements with a third State'', the second on ''agreement with an international organization''.

  9. Development of an Assessment Method for Building Materials Under Euratom Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de With, Govert

    2017-11-01

    In 2013, the European Commission published its basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom)-also known as EU-BSS. As a result, the use of raw materials with potentially elevated activity concentrations such as fly ash, phosphogypsum, and slags will now fall under EU-BSS scope when applied in building materials. In light of this new policy, a variety of tools are available to assess compliance with the 1-mSv y reference level for building materials. At the heart of these tools is a gamma-spectrometric determination of the naturally occurring radionuclides Ra, Th, and K in the material of concern. As a large number of construction products contain a certain amount of the raw material that falls under the scope of the EU regulation, this policy will lead to substantial measurement of building materials that pose little radiation risk. For this reason, a method is developed to enable assessment against the 1-mSv value not on the basis of gamma-spectrometric analysis but rather based on the product's material composition. The proposed method prescribes a maximum permitted content of raw materials with potentially elevated activity concentrations in terms of a weight percentage of the end product, where the raw materials of concern are defined as those listed in Annex XIII of the EU-BSS. The permitted content is a function of the product's surface density. Therefore, a product with a low surface density of up to 25 kg m can consist of nearly 100% raw materials with potentially elevated activity concentrations, and this percentage drops to around 15% for products with a surface density of around 500 kg m. Building materials that comply with these requirements on product composition are exempt from testing, while products that do not comply must perform regular gamma-spectrometric analysis. A full validation and testing of the method is provided. In addition, the paper discusses

  10. Changes in Polish law related to the implementation of COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołoszczuk Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is an invisible, naturally occurring radioactive noble gas. According to the WHO report, it is the most important cause of lung cancer after smoking [1]. Recent epidemiological studies show that a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer already occurs as a result of prolonged exposure to radon inside rooms where the concentration is at 100 Bq/m3 and increases by 16% per 100 Bq/m3 increase (considering a prolonged exposure period. For this reason, the Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom (BSS [2] establishing the basic safety standards for the protection against the hazards related to ionizing radiation, that was passed in 2013, pays particular attention to issues related to radon exposure. BSS reduce radon concentration limits in workplaces to 300 Bq/m3. According to the regulations in force, the BSS must be implemented in the Polish Atomic Law no later than 6th February 2018.

  11. ETSON views on R and D priorities for implementation of the 2014 Euratom Directive on safety of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre [IRSN/PSN, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mustoe, Jeremy; Power, Steve [Amec Foster Wheeler RSD, Birchwood Park, Warrington (United Kingdom); Adorni, Martina [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Schaffrath, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany); Nieminen, Anna [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    Following the Fukushima-Daiichi accident in 2011, the Council Directive 2014/87/Euratom has reinforced the previous 2009 Directive that had established a Community framework for the safety of nuclear installations. In particular, one new article introduces a high-level EU-wide safety objective of preventing accidents through defence- in-depth and avoiding radioactive releases outside a nuclear installation. For achieving this objective, the research necessary outcomes are mainly a better knowledge of the involved physical phenomena and its capitalization in methodologies and tools such as simulation codes. ETSON, the European Technical Safety Organisation Network, had already identified in its Position Paper in 2011 the main R and D priorities. The present paper underlines that most of these priorities, with a few updates due to progress of knowledge, remain consistent with the objectives of this new Directive. And it illustrates the ETSON involvement through examples of on-going or planned R and D national and international projects.

  12. Changes in Polish law related to the implementation of COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszczuk, Katarzyna; Skubacz, Krystian; Podgórska, Zuzanna

    2018-01-01

    Radon is an invisible, naturally occurring radioactive noble gas. According to the WHO report, it is the most important cause of lung cancer after smoking [1]. Recent epidemiological studies show that a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer already occurs as a result of prolonged exposure to radon inside rooms where the concentration is at 100 Bq/m3 and increases by 16% per 100 Bq/m3 increase (considering a prolonged exposure period). For this reason, the Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom (BSS) [2] establishing the basic safety standards for the protection against the hazards related to ionizing radiation, that was passed in 2013, pays particular attention to issues related to radon exposure. BSS reduce radon concentration limits in workplaces to 300 Bq/m3. According to the regulations in force, the BSS must be implemented in the Polish Atomic Law no later than 6th February 2018.

  13. Calls for proposals for Indirect IDT Action within the specific (Euratom) Research and Training Programme on Nuclear Energy (2002-2006); Convocatorias de propuestas de accion indirecta de IDT dentro del progrma especifico (Euratom) de investigacion y formacion sobre energia nuclear (2002-2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The official diary of the European Union C 273 of 14 November, 2003, published the Calls for Indirect IDT Action for the Euratom Research and Training Programme on Nuclear Energy. The complete text of these Calls are reproduced in page 29. (Author)

  14. State of implementation of directive 2013/59/Euratom regarding radon protection in selected member states of the European Union; Stand der Umsetzung der Richtlinie 2013/59/Euratom hinsichtlich des Radonschutzes in ausgewaehlten Mitgliedstaaten der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Stephanie [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Directive 2013/59/Euratom came 6th February 2014 into force. The member states have to implement the directive into national legislation until 6th of February 2018. According to different legal structures in the member states legislation will be comparable with regards to content, but may be implemented in different legal areas. Additionally the different current experience regarding radon regulation as well as different expertise with all aspects of radon protection will affect the implementation. Activities for implementation started in many member states, but at present it is not possible to make a mandatory statement for any member state, which modifications will come until 2018. On the other hand it is assumed that member states who have engaged themselves with radon protection issues since many years will not change their plans basically until 2018. The member states mentioned in the following text are chosen exemplary. A comprehensive compilation of the situation in all member states of the European Union was not possible. The inclusion of Switzerland resulted from the fact, that this European country is basically orientating its radon regulations on the international state of the art and international (also European) legislation.

  15. Implementation of the directive 2013/59 EURATOM from the view of a federal state authority - new challenges for the federal state authorities in the frame of the federal executive administration; Umsetzung der Richtlinie 2013/59 EURATOM aus Sicht einer Landesbehoerde. Neue Herausforderungen fuer die Landesbehoerde im Rahmen der Bundesauftragsverwaltung im Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, J. [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Dresden (Germany). Referat Strahlenschutz, Gentechnik und Chemikalien; Honolka, J. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Referat Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    The directive 2013/59 EURATOM must be implemented in Germany by the Federal Environment Ministry until 2018. The implementation is to modernize the law in the field of the Radiation Protection in Germany. New assignments are coming to the Saxon authorities. The implementation of Article 63 in the field of medicine will be described in more detail and the problems for the authorities in Saxony are discussed. The new tasks require additional staff.

  16. Overcoming the framing problem-a critical-ethical perspective on the need to integrate social sciences and humanities and stakeholder contributions in EURATOM radiation protection research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskens, Gaston

    2016-06-06

    This paper introduces the 'framing problem' as the problem of the limited potential of critical reflection on the societal justification and use of nuclear energy technology as a contribution to European radiation protection research, given that the research is itself driven by EURATOM's pro-nuclear political position. The idea is that the problem of policy framing could in principle be 'overcome' by the integration of social sciences and humanities and stakeholder contributions in that research, taking into account that this approach could help to raise critical awareness with the involved researchers and policy makers of the issues of fairness of risk justification in society and of the consequences thereof for nuclear energy policy and policy-supportive research itself.

  17. General data relating to the arrangements for disposal of radioactive waste required under Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty. Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    This document submitted by the Danish Government has been produced to satisfy the requirements of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty as recommended by the Commission of the European Communities (Annex 2 of Commission Recommendation 1999/829/Euratom of 6 December 1999). The above Recommendations include the dismantling of nuclear reactors and reprocessing plants in the list of operations to which Article 37 applies. Under paragraph 5.1 of the Recommendation, a submission of General Data in respect of such dismantling operations is only necessary when the proposed authorised limits and other requirements are less restrictive than those in force when the plant was operational. However, in the case of Risoe National Laboratory, no previous submission of general data has been made under Article 37 and no Opinion given by the Commission on a plan for the disposal of radioactive waste. For this reason, general data are submitted in respect of the proposed dismantling operations, even though no change to a less restrictive authorisation is envisaged at this time. This submission is for the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory, which are owned by the Danish Government and managed by a Board of Governors for the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. (BA)

  18. Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Buratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear...... reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups or. different topics within the field of neutron...... radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups....

  19. Education and training for industry: share initiatives and best practices. Challenges for EURATOM research and training in the frame of the European 'Higher Education' and 'Research' areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goethem, Georges [European Commission, DG RTD, Energy - Euratom, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    For the sake of clarification, education and training (E and T) are defined as follows: - Education is a basic or life-long learning process: education is broader than training and encompasses the need to maintain completeness and continuity of competences across generations (it is essentially a knowledge-driven process, involving academic institutions as suppliers, and students as customers). - Training is learning a particular skill required to deliver a particular outcome: training is about schooling activities other than regular academic education schemes (it is essentially an application-driven process, involving industrial/regulatory training organisations as suppliers, and professionals as customers). The goal of the EURATOM education programmes is, in collaboration with academia, to offer instruments that help produce top-quality teaching modules that can be assembled into higher level training packages or Masters programmes that are jointly qualified and mutually recognised across the EU. This is done naturally in line with the Bologna process (ERASMUS). The following four objectives have been agreed upon (ENEN): - Modular courses and common qualification approach (offer a coherent E and T framework and ensure top-quality for each module); - One mutual recognition system across the European Union (e.g. European Credit Transfer and accumulation System of ERASMUS /ECTS/); - Mobility for teachers and students across the EU (prepare the 'internal market' for free circulation of nuclear experts); - Feedback from 'stakeholders' (Both scientific and financial). (involve the 'future employers' in the process, thereby getting additional funding). The goal of the EURATOM training programmes is, in collaboration with 'future employers', to identify commonalties amongst CPD actions ('Continuous Professional Development'). The following four objectives have been agreed upon ('EURATOM Fission Training Scheme

  20. Decommissioning of the Nuclear Reactors R2 and R2-0 at Studsvik, Sweden. General Data as called for under Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    This document describes the plans for decommissioning of the nuclear research and material test reactors R2 and R2-0, situated at the Studsvik site close to the city of Nykoeping, Sweden. The purpose of the document is to serve as information for the European Commission, and to fulfil the requirements of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty. Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast, about 20 km east of Nykoeping and 80 km southwest of Stockholm. The site comprises the reactors R2 and R2-0 and several facilities for material investigation and radioactive waste treatment and storage. The reactors were used for a number of different purposes from 1960 until June 2005, when they were shut down following a decision by the operator. Decommissioning of the reactor facility is planned to be completed in 2016 after dismantling and conditioning of radioactive parts and demolition of the facility. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the dismantling activities will be treated and stored on-site awaiting final disposal. The waste treatment facilities, which are situated in other buildings at the Studsvik site, are planned to continue operation during and after the decommissioning of the reactor facility. All nuclear fuel has been transferred to a separate storage facility and is being shipped to the US according to existing agreements. The objective of the planned dismantling activities is to achieve clearance of the facility to make it possible to either demolish the buildings or use them for other purposes. The operator has divided the planning for dismantling and demolition of the facility into three phases [1]: Dismantling 1, including primary system decontamination, dismantling of the reactors with systems in the reactor pool, draining, cleaning and temporary covering of the reactor pool. This phase has begun and is due to last till approximately December 2009. Dismantling 2, including dismantling of systems in the reactor facility, removal of equipment, radiological

  1. Nuclear Polluters' Charter. Council directive 96/29/EURATOM (OJ L159 29th June 1996), the 'Basic Standards Directive'; briefing for MPs and MEPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramhall, R

    1997-07-01

    The nuclear industry has huge 'back end' problems: acres of radioactive waste stacked up with no final disposal route; hundreds of thousands of tonnes of metals, glass, plastic, and concrete too 'hot' to re-use or dump. Sea dumping has been ruled out, Nirex's deep repository is back to square one, the waste mountain is growing, and hundreds of nuclear factories and power stations await decommissioning. But by May 2000 the UK and all member states are required to conform with a dangerously vague and permissive Directive, and deregulate much of this expensive, embarrassing, and harmful waste. Below certain very lax limits it will become a financial asset to be sold on the open market. What cannot be sold will be landfilled and incinerated without restriction. Ostensibly, the Directive is a 'harmonisation' of radiation exposure standards. It was promulgated by the European Commission under the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The European Parliament has no power over Euratom, and (with one exception) amendments advised by MEPs were ignored. The Directive effectively deregulates reuse, recycling, disposal, and incineration of radioactive materials below certain threshold levels. It specifically allows recycling of contaminated materials and drops a precautionary proviso used in earlier European legislation. Spokesmen from the nuclear industry, the regulators, and the Commission openly admit that there is nothing to stop hundreds of thousands of tonnes of radioactive materials from nuclear licensed sites - potentially, their entire inventory - being diluted into industrial feedstocks of recyclable materials and ending up in consumer goods, fertilisers or any product. The Commission's view is let the buyers beware if they don't want contaminated goods or raw materials. National radiation protection agencies which advise the Commission and national governments claim that there is no threat to health, according to internationally

  2. Workshop Euratom Directive 97/43. New trends in radiation protection in clinical practice, in research and in regulation; Giornata di studio La Direttiva Europea 97/43: nuovi orientamenti per la radioprotezione nella pratica clinica, nella ricerca e nel quadro normativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, F. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1999-07-01

    The Euratom Directive 97/43 on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure is presented. In particular the following topics are focused, with a multidisciplinary approach, on: diagnostic reference levels in radiodiagnostics and nuclear medicine; radiation protection in paediatrics, in interventional radiology and in computer tomography; radiation protection radiotherapy, radiation protection in medical research; radiation protection in prenatal and neonatal exposure; radiation protection in medical-legal exposures. [Italian] Il rapporto raccoglie una presentazione della Direttiva Euratom 97/43 riguardante la protezione sanitaria delle persone contro i pericoli delle radiazioni ionizzanti connessi a esposizioni mediche. In particolare sono affrontati in modo interdisciplinare i seguenti argomenti: livelli diagnostici di riferimento in radiodiagnostica e in medicina nucleare; radioprotezione nelle esposizioni in eta' pediatrica, in radiologica interventistica e in tomografia computerizzata; radioprotezione in radioterapia; radioprotezione nella ricerca scientifica clinica; radioprotezione nell'esposizione in eta' prenatale e neonatale; esposizioni potenziali e radioprotezione nelle esposizioni medico-legali.

  3. Additional protocol between France, EURATOM and IAEA. 2001-2002 ordinary session. Project of law authorizing the ratification of the additional protocol to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the application of warranties in France; Protocole additionnel entre la France, Euratom et l'AIEA. Session ordinaire de 2001-2002. Projet de loi autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This additional protocol to the agreement between France, EURATOM and the IAEA aims at reinforcing the nuclear weapons non-proliferation regime. This protocol widens the field of competences of the IAEA with the supply of new information relative to: the civil nuclear cooperation between France and countries having no nuclear weapons in the domain of fuel cycle; the regular inspection of French nuclear facilities; the trade (import and export) of medium- or high-level radioactive wastes containing plutonium, highly enriched uranium or {sup 233}U, and the trade of some non-nuclear equipments or materials with countries having no nuclear weapons. The protocol defines also some practical dispositions relative to the delays and periodicity of controls, to the transmission of data, to the appointment of IAEA inspectors and their access to the facilities and sites considered. The list of the activities and equipments covered by the protocol are given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  4. European Union Council Directive 2009/71/EURATOM; Directiva 2009/71/Euratom del Consejo de la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butragueno, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Summary of Directive 2009/71, approved by the European Union on June 25th last. This text establishes a new Community framework for the safety of nuclear facilities and includes an analysis of issues such as the reactivation of nuclear programmes, the extension of the operating lifetime of the plants beyond their theoretical period of service and the need for safety requirements accepted by all the Member States. (Author)

  5. Fusion technology annual report of the association EURATOM/CEA 1998; Technologie de la fusion Rapport annuel 1998 Association EURATOM/CEA 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaud, P.; Le vagueres, F

    1998-07-01

    In this book are found technical and scientific papers on the main works carried out in the frame of the european program of fusion technology, during 1998. The presented activities are: plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety (short and long term), european blanket project (long term) with water cooled lithium lead and helium cooled pebble bed blanket, materials for fusion power plant, socio-economic research on fusion, plasma facing components, fuel cycle, inertial confinement. (A.L.B.)

  6. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory annual progress report 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    . The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations ofradiation damage of fusion reactor materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step...

  7. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory annual progress report 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    . The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations ofradiation damage of fusion reactor materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step...

  8. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory annual progress report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    . The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations ofradiation damage of fusion reactor materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step...

  9. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory annual progress report 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    . The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations ofradiation damage of fusion reactor materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step...

  10. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory annual progress report 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    . The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations ofradiation damage of fusion reactor materials. These activities contribute to the Next Step...

  11. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory annual progress report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology cover investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials...

  12. Professional education in the framework of the EURATOM FP7 GENTLE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, Jan Leen; Tamboer, Rene [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Konings, Rudy J.M. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); European Commission, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). JRC-ITU; Manara, Dario [European Commission, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). JRC-ITU; Sanchez, Victor Hugo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR); Ricotti, Marco [Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    The pan-European GENTLE project is initiated by leading institutions in the field of nuclear engineering and education to create a sustainable life-long learning programme in nuclear fission technology. Directly targeting the needs of industry, research, regulatory and TSO organizations, three different learning programmes have been developed: 1. support for student research experiences, 2. inter-semester courses for undergraduate and graduate students on topics outside regular curricula, and 3. a professional education programme targeting at professionals with 5 years of working experience outside the nuclear industry.

  13. Euratom requirements regarding environmental monitoring and review of Basic Safety Standards; Requisitos de Euratom con respecto a la vigilancia radiologica ambiental y revision de las Normas Basicas de Seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, A.

    2010-07-01

    This paper provides and overview of the articles related to environmental monitoring that were included in Title III of the Treaty that established the European Atomic Energy Comunity in 1957. In particular Article 35 of the Treaty which requires Member States to control the levels of radioactivity in the atmosphere, water and soil is the cornerstone of comprehensive programs that take place. (Author). 18 refs.

  14. Verification made under the terms of article 35 of the Euratom treaty. The region of Barsebaeck, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, A.; Herzeele, M.; Hall, I.; Markkanen, M. [European Commission (Luxembourg). Directorate-General XI Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection

    1998-05-01

    The verifications at Barsebaeck pertained both to the monitoring of liquid and airborne effluents and to the monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the environment in the vicinity of the plant. The team verified the operation and efficiency of the monitoring installations. It was noted that the statutory programme for environmental sample-taking did not entirely match the actual programme. The verification team took the view that there were good reasons for not requiring certain samples to be taken, but felt that the statutory programme should have been updated accordingly. Procedures and documentation at BKAB were found to be in good order. The team felt there was still room for improvement at the bottom line of the QA structure also with regard to the formal allocation of responsibilities for monitoring and reporting. It was also noted that the collection and measurement of environmental samples is entrusted to contractors which are not subject to the plant`s QA programme. The verification team concludes that the objectives of the review have been met and that it has been able to verify the satisfactory and efficient operation of the facilities for continuous monitoring of the level of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the area around the Barsebaeck nuclear plant 30 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Institut de recherche sur la fusion par confinement magnetique. Association EURATOM-CEA. Annual report 2008 (Full Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 2008 experimental campaign on Tore-Supra has been especially fruitful with the completion of multi-annual programmes bringing important answers, notably on operational aspects of long duration discharges. Concerning JET, particular effort have been devoted to: -) hydrogen isotopes retention studies, -) advanced scenarios studies such as JT60-JET physics identity experiments in ITB regimes, -) the commissioning of the ITER-like ICRH antenna, and -) high power level commissioning of the LHCD antenna and long distance coupling studies. Concerning integrated modelling, the development of the CRONOS code suite has been carried on, with particular emphasis on increasing its reliability and international coverage. CRONOS has been extensively used to investigate steady-state scenarios for ITER and DEMO. Most of the technological developments carried out by the Association concentrates on key domains that apply to ITER: superconducting conductors, actively cooled PFC (plasma facing components), or diagnostics. This document is divided into 5 main section: 1) Tore-Supra status, 2) theory and modeling, 3) Experimental physics, 4) technological developments, and 5) participation to W7X construction

  16. ACSEPT: a new FP7-Euratom Collaborative Project in the field of partitioning processes for advanced fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, Stephane; Touron, Emmanuel; Caravaca, Concha; Ekberg, Christian; Gaubert, Emmanuel; Hill, Clement [CEA/DEN/MAR/DRCP, Bat 181, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Actinide recycling by separation and transmutation is considered worldwide and particularly in several European countries as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste, thus contributing to the sustainability of nuclear energy. Consistently with potentially viable recycling strategies, the Collaborative Project ACSEPT will provide a structured research and development framework to develop chemical separation processes compatible with fuel fabrication techniques, with a view to their future demonstration at the pilot level. Two strategies are proposed for the recycling of the actinides issuing from various forms of future nuclear fuels: -) their homogeneous recycling in mixed fuels via a prior group separation of the actinides and -) their heterogeneous recycling in targets or core blankets via their selective separation from fission products. Two major technologies are considered to meet these challenges: hydrometallurgical processes and pyrochemical processes. A training and education programme will also be implemented to share the knowledge among communities and generations so as to maintain the nuclear expertise at the fore-front of Europe. The challenging objectives of ACSEPT will be addressed by a multi-disciplinary consortium composed of European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial players. This consortium will generate fundamental improvements for the future design of a potential Advanced Processing Pilot Unit.

  17. Implementation of the 'EU patient protection directive' in France; Euratom-Patientenschutz-Richtlinie 97/43. Anwendung in Frankreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, Vincent; Kraft, Florien [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Strasbourg (France)

    2012-07-01

    Taking France as an example, it is shown how the European Council Directive is implemented in a European member state outside of the Federal Republic of Germany. In doing so it becomes evident that in France, being a country without federal structures as pronounced as in Germany, radiation protection is regulated and surveyed by a centralized administration. This is influencing the practical impacts of the directives implemented in such countries in the national radiation protection legislation. (orig.)

  18. Instant release of fission products in leaching experiments with high burn-up nuclear fuels in the framework of the Euratom project FIRST- Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K.; González-Robles, E.; Kienzler, B.; Curti, E.; Serrano-Purroy, D.; Sureda, R.; Martínez-Torrents, A.; Roth, O.; Slonszki, E.; Mennecart, T.; Günther-Leopold, I.; Hózer, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The instant release of fission products from high burn-up UO2 fuels and one MOX fuel was investigated by means of leach tests. The samples covered PWR and BWR fuels at average rod burn-up in the range of 45-63 GWd/tHM and included clad fuel segments, fuel segments with opened cladding, fuel fragments and fuel powder. The tests were performed with sodium chloride - bicarbonate solutions under oxidizing conditions and, for one test, in reducing Ar/H2 atmosphere. The iodine and cesium release could be partially explained by the differences in sample preparation, leading to different sizes and properties of the exposed surface areas. Iodine and cesium releases tend to correlate with FGR and linear power rating, but the scatter of the data is significant. Although the gap between the fuel and the cladding was closed in some high burn-up samples, fissures still provide possible preferential transport pathways.

  19. Transposition of the 97/43 EURATOM directive. Mission on procedures and standard levels of medical examinations using ionizing radiations. The radiological procedures: quality criteria and doses optimization; Transposition de la directive 97/43 Euratom. Mission sur les procedures et les niveaux de reference des examens medicaux utilisant les rayonnements ionisants. Les procedures radiologiques: criteres de qualite et optimisation des doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report concerns the optimization of radiological practices, to avoid delivering unuseful doses while ensuring an image quality necessary to the obtaining of the desired diagnosis information. (N.C.)

  20. Bibliography of Documents Related to the Theory, Operation, Performance and Applications of Coaxial Plasma Guns. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    V., Grunberger, L. and Prior, W., "Observation of Solar Flare Type Processes in the Laboratory," in Solar Magnetic Fields, Symposium No. 43 of the...RF/FUS/84/6, Associazione EURATOM--Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare sulla Fusione, Centro di Frascati, Rome, Italy, September 1984. Brzosko, J. S...Energy Deuteron Beam Generation in Plasma Focus," Report No. 80.5, Associazione EURATOM--Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare sulla Fusione, Centro di

  1. Chapter 14: radiation protection organization in a medical imaging service; Chapitre 14: organisation de la radioprotection dans un service d'imagerie medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-12-01

    The adaptation of 96/29 EURATOM and 97/43 EURATOM European directives to French law is going to modify in an important way the taking into account of the radiation protection in our radiological practice. Over the prescriptions in implementation and control of equipment, an initial and continuous training will be obligatory. Here are reminded and updated the base knowledge of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  2. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak.

  3. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; M&V; M&V

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 voldeed Nederland aan de Europese verplichting om jaarlijks de hoeveelheid radioactiviteit in het milieu en in voeding te meten. Volgens het Euratom-verdrag uit 1957 zijn alle lidstaten van de Europese Unie verplicht deze metingen jaarlijks te verrichten. Nederland voert daarbij de

  4. History of the nuclear matter safety and control law; Historique de la loi sur la protection et le controle des matieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, G.

    1994-12-31

    In this text we give the history of the law creation on the control and safety of nuclear matter. Initially based on the CEA regulation single owner of nuclear matter, the development of nuclear energy has conducted the French government to edict law in relation with IAEA and Euratom recommendations.

  5. Exposition sur la Fusion au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    The fifth in a series of exhibitions at CERN presenting European research activities will be open to the public from 23 July to 11 September. CERN has invited the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) to present an overview of present research and technical developments in the field of thermonuclear fusion in Europe and elsewhere in the world.

  6. Non-medical application of radioactive materials or ionizing radiation. German legal regulations; Die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung ausserhalb der Medizin. Deutsche Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Non-medical imaging is regulated in Germany since the 2011 radiation protection law amendment and the simultaneous X-ray regulation amendment based on the Euratom guideline 96/29. The regulations contain lists with justified and non-justified activities.

  7. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; RIZA; RIKZ; KvW; LSO; IMD

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch government is compelled to measure radioactivity in the environment under terms of the Euratom Treaty of 1957. This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the Dutch environment in 2002. The measurements were carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health

  8. 10 CFR 110.41 - Executive Branch review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... source material or low-enriched uranium to EURATOM and Japan for enrichment up to 5 percent in the isotope uranium-235, and those categories of exports approved in advance by the Executive Branch as... facility. (2) More than one effective kilogram of high-enriched uranium or 10 grams of plutonium or U-233...

  9. 10 CFR 110.40 - Commission review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plutonium, except for exports of source material or low-enriched uranium to EURATOM or Japan for enrichment up to 5 percent in the isotope uranium-235, and those categories of exports which the Commission has... kilogram of high-enriched uranium, plutonium or U-233. (3) Nuclear grade graphite for nuclear end use. (4...

  10. Neutron spectrometric methods for core inventory verification in research reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ellinger, A; Hansen, W; Knorr, J; Schneider, R

    2002-01-01

    In consequence of the Non-Proliferation Treaty safeguards, inspections are periodically made in nuclear facilities by the IAEA and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate. The inspection methods are permanently improved. Therefore, the Core Inventory Verification method is being developed as an indirect method for the verification of the core inventory and to check the declared operation of research reactors.

  11. International Scientific and Technical Organisations; Organismos Cientifico-Tecnicos Internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The nuclear scientific and technical world is well aware of the EURATOM and IAEA activities but usually other international scientific and technical organisations relevant for their ordinary work are unknown. In this article three international organisations are described briefly, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). International Union of Pure and Applied chemistry (IUPAC) and the international council of Science (ICSU). (Author)

  12. The new radiation protection law. What does it mean for radiography? From the view of a Federal state authority; Das neue Strahlenschutzgesetz. Was bedeutet dies fuer die Radiographie? Aus dem Blick einer Landesbehoerde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Joachim [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    As a consequence of the implementation of the guideline 2013/59/EURATOM the German environmental ministry BMUB has revised the radiation protection law. The contribution discusses the impact of the revised law on the radiation protection authority in Saxonia. The new requirements concerning the application of radioactive materials for radiographic testing are summarized.

  13. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; M&M; M&V

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. All Member States of the European Union are required to perform these measurements each year under the terms of the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The Netherlands complied with the

  14. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; M&M; VLH

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. All Member States of the European Union are required to perform these measurements each year under the terms of the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The Netherlands complied with the

  15. Focus on nuclear fusion research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenek, Petr; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2011), s. 62-63 ISSN 0375-8842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * COMPASS * fusion energy * tokamak * EURATOM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.ipp.cas.cz/Tokamak/clanky/energetika_COMPASS.pdf

  16. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    2004-01-01

    , optical materials, optical storage, biophotonics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics, fusion plasma physics and plasma technology. The research is supported by several EUprogrammes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities...

  17. In-Field Performance Testing of the Fork Detector for Quantitative Spent Fuel Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); De Baere, P. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Vaccaro, S. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Schwalbach, P. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Liljenfeldt, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Sweden); Tobin, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Expanding spent fuel dry storage activities worldwide are increasing demands on safeguards authorities that perform inspections. The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) require measurements to verify declarations when spent fuel is transferred to difficult-to-access locations, such as dry storage casks and the repositories planned in Finland and Sweden. EURATOM makes routine use of the Fork detector to obtain gross gamma and total neutron measurements during spent fuel inspections. Data analysis is performed by modules in the integrated Review and Analysis Program (iRAP) software, developed jointly by EURATOM and the IAEA. Under the framework of the US Department of Energy–EURATOM cooperation agreement, a module for automated Fork detector data analysis has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the ORIGEN code from the SCALE code system and implemented in iRAP. EURATOM and ORNL recently performed measurements on 30 spent fuel assemblies at the Swedish Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), operated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The measured assemblies represent a broad range of fuel characteristics. Neutron count rates for 15 measured pressurized water reactor assemblies are predicted with an average relative standard deviation of 4.6%, and gamma signals are predicted on average within 2.6% of the measurement. The 15 measured boiling water reactor assemblies exhibit slightly larger deviations of 5.2% for the gamma signals and 5.7% for the neutron count rates, compared to measurements. These findings suggest that with improved analysis of the measurement data, existing instruments can provide increased verification of operator declarations of the spent fuel and thereby also provide greater ability to confirm integrity of an assembly. These results support the application of the Fork detector as a fully quantitative spent fuel

  18. The new radiation protection law 2018 and its significance for radiography; Das neue Strahlenschutzrecht 2018 und seine Bedeutung fuer die Radiographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaps, Charlotte; Soelter, Barbara; Steege, Andreas [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    The European Directive 2013/59 / Euratom (Euratom Directive) requires the Federal Government, pursuant to Article 106 of this Directive, to transpose the content of the directive into national law by 6 February 2018. The aim of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Construction and Reactor Safety (BMUB) is, in addition to the implementation of the directive, to simultaneously make use of the possibility to modernize, improve and make more effective the radiation protection law. Directive 2013/59 / EURATOM will be incorporated into German law by the new Radiological Protection Act (StrlSchG) and other regulations on the level of an ordinance. The Radiological Protection Act, the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Ordinance will be replaced by the StrlSchG. It is interesting to see the year 2017 under the point of view that the regulations at the level of regulation need to be elaborated. In particular, since the separation in radiation protection and X-ray regulation is not continued. Users could also experience this time pressure in 2018 when, in addition to the Radiation Protection Act, a large number of ordinances become legally binding. [German] Durch die europaeische Richtlinie 2013/59/EURATOM (Euratom-Richtlinie) ist die Bundesregierung gemaess Artikel 106 dieser Richtlinie verpflichtet, die inhaltlichen Vorgaben bis 6. Februar 2018 in nationales Recht umzusetzen. Das Ziel des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit (BMUB) ist es, neben der Umsetzung der Richtlinie, gleichzeitig die Moeglichkeit zu nutzen, das Strahlenschutzrecht zu modernisieren, praxistauglich zu verbessern und vollzugsfreundlicher zu gestalten. Die Richtlinie 2013/59/EURATOM wird durch das neue Strahlenschutzgesetz (StrlSchG) und weiteren Regelungen auf Verordnungsebene in das deutsche Recht eingehen. Das Strahlenschutzvorsorgegesetz, die Strahlenschutzverordnung und die Roentgenverordnung werden vom StrlSchG abgeloest werden

  19. European Commission Activities on Radiation Protection of Patients; Les actions de la Commission europeenne pour la protection radiologique des patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, Augustin; Simeonov, Georgi; Baranczyk, Remigiusz [Commission europeenne, Direction generale de l' energie, Unite radioprotection, Maison de l' Europe, L-2920 (Luxembourg)

    2011-07-15

    The European Union has a positive record of addressing radiation protection of patients, including specific Euratom legislation in 1984 and 1997, guidance, research and stakeholder involvement. Today we experience a rapid development of medical technology and doses from medical exposure are increasing. Accidents in radiotherapy, although rare, cause unnecessary suffering of patients. The Commission is undertaking a series of initiatives to address these challenges. Communication COM(2010)4231 from August 2010 provides an overview of the challenges and the associated Community action and proposes a long-term perspective. A proposal for amendment of Euratom legislation is underway. Further action is taking shape in order to strengthen regulatory supervision, raise awareness and safety culture, etc. (authors)

  20. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands. Results in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knetsch, G.J.; Groot, M.C.E. (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    In 2009 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. According to the Euratom Treaty of 1957, all Member States of the European Union are obliged to perform these measurements each year. Euratom has provided guidelines for performing the measurements uniformly since 2000. However, Member States are not obliged to comply with these recommended guidelines. In the Netherlands, in 2009 strontium-90 was also determined (for the first time) in a mixed food package for which the above recommendations had been fulfilled. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) reports on behalf of the Netherlands to the European Union about radioactivity in the environment. Moreover, this information provides background values and/or amounts of radioactivity that are present under normal circumstances. These background values can be used as reference values, for instance, during a disaster.

  1. [Radiation protection in orthopaedics: implications for clinical practice of the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-05-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effects of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection.

  2. [Radiation protection. Implications for clinical practice on the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-08-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effect of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection.

  3. Low-Level Wind Systems in the Warsaw Pact Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    EURATOM plant at Ispra, about 25 km (14 NM) SSW of LUigano. A study by Gandino and de Bortoli (n.d.) gives valuable supplemental information to that...widespread through valleys on the northern slopes of the Tatras. Valleys known as favored locations for strong foehn winds include Dolina Bialej Wody ...White Water * Valley) on the north slope of the High Tatras, along with Dolina Bystrej, Dolina Suchej Wody , Koscielisko, and Chocholowsko, all in the

  4. Environmental radioactivity monitoring. 30 years after Chernobyl - what has changed?; Ueberwachung der Umweltradioaktivitaet. 30 Jahre nach Tschernobyl. Was hat sich veraendert?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieringer, Jacqueline [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Freiburg (Germany). Fachgebiet SW 2.5; Steinkopff, Thomas [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany); Wershofen, Herbert [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany). Lab. 6.301

    2016-05-01

    Since the 50ies environmental radiation monitoring was assigned to federal and federal state authorities with respect to radionuclide releases from USSR and US nuclear weapon tests. First fallout measurements were performed since 1953 at the measuring point Schauinsland by the University Freiburg. In consequence of the obligations form the Euratom treaty 1957 and the increasing civil nuclear power utilization the radiation monitoring was extended and legally regulated.

  5. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E. [Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Auglaire, M. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Boeck, B. de [Association Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium); Braillard, O. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Eckardt, B. [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Ferroni, F. [Electrowatt Engineering Limited, Zurich (Switzerland); Moffett, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Pinawa (Canada); Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  6. The new directive on radioactive waste management; La nueva Directiva sobre gestion de residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste account from July last year with its own Community legislation, Directive 2011/70/Euratom. The intention is to ensure that all Member States to develop this task with the utmost responsibility and safety. Below is performed a thorough analysis of the standard through some of his articles, examines their transposition in the European Union and Spain and made a comparison with existing international law on the subject. (Author) 31 refs.

  7. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    2003-01-01

    , optical materials, optical storage, biophotonics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, includingEURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2002......The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The departmenthas core competences in: optical sensors...

  8. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Johansen, Per Michael; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    2000-01-01

    The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within the three programmes: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competences in:optical sensors, optical materials, biooptics......, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils and by industry. Asummary of the activities in 1999 is presented....

  9. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Johansen, Per Michael; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    2001-01-01

    , optical storage, biooptics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danishresearch councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2000 is presented.......The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has corecompetences in: optical sensors, optical materials...

  10. 2001: entering the era of radioactive consumerism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, C.

    1997-07-01

    This emotively written article warns consumers that under a recent Euratom Directive 96/29, nuclear waste may, in future, be recycled and used in certain consumer goods. The author suggests a conspiracy between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Kingdom Radiological Protection board to endanger the population, by exposing them to what, it claims, are dangerous, potentially life-threatening radiation doses. (UK).

  11. Consequences of the new radiation protection law on the radiation protection register and the occupational radiation protection; Auswirkungen des neuen Strahlenschutzgesetzes auf das Strahlenschutzregister und die berufliche Strahlenueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of the guideline 2013/59/EURATOM has been performed in the new radiation protection law. The most important consequences of the new radiation protection law for the occupational radiation protection are the following: the introduction of an explicit personal indicator and the actualization of occupational categories for employees. These facts require technical and administrative reorganization in data transmission of the licensee to the regulatory monitoring executive and the radiation protection register.

  12. Can Neutron Beam Components and Radiographic Image Quality be determined by the Use of Beam Purity and Sensitivity Indicators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    In the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group Test Program beam purity and s e n s i t i v i t y indicators, as prescribed by the ASTM E 545-81 were used together with the NRWG beam purity i n d i c a t o r - f u e l and c a l i b r a t i o n fuel pin. They were radiographed together at neutron...

  13. A Nordic view on perspectives for radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-04-01

    At the turn of millennium, several scientists have expressed their thoughts on the future of radioecology and related topics in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. These contributions are listed and commented upon. The role of radioecology in the 6th Euratom Framework Programme (2002-2006) is discussed. Previous Nordic radioecology seminars are summarised and trends identified, and suggestions are given for future Nordic activities and developments in the field of environmental radioactivity. (au)

  14. Reference values in indicators of patient dose; Valores de referencia en los indicadores de dosis a paciente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Llorente, P. L.; Hernandez Rodriguez, J.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Fernandez Bordes, M.; Martin Rincon, C.; Montes fuentes, C.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Sena Espinel, E. de; Martin Nunoz, J.

    2011-07-01

    The RD 1976/1999 on Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology laid the foundation for developing the Radiological Protection of Patient compliance with the relevant Directive EURATOM. More than ten years of implementation, we consider an urgent review and update its content due to the legal implications involved as set forth therein, especially in the aspects that have to do with the measurement of patient dose indicators, and more specifically in exploration called complex and CAT.

  15. Indoor radon; Le radon dans les batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies.

  16. Nuclear Data for Safe Operation and Waste Transmutation: ANDES (Accurate Nuclear Data for nuclear Energy Sustainability); Datos nucleares para la operacion segura y la transmutacion de residuos: Andes (Datos Nucleares Precisos para la Sostenibilidad de la Energia Nuclear)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear research within the 7th Framework Program (FP7 and FP7+2) of EURATOM has devoted a significant fraction of its efforts to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles and reactor concepts, mainly fast reactors, aiming to improve the long term sustainability by reduction of the final wastes, optimal use of natural resources and improvement of safety in the present and future nuclear installations. The new design need more accurate basic nuclear data for isotopes, like minor actinides, potentially playing an important role in the operation, fuel concept, safety or final wastes of those reactors and fuel cycles. Four projects, ANDES, ERINDA, EUFRAT and CHANDA, supported by EURATOM within the FP7 and FP7+2, have put together most of the European Nuclear Data community to respond efficiently and in a coordinated way to those needs. This paper summarizes the objectives, and main achievements of ANDES, the project responsible for most of the measurements and technical achievements that was coordinated by CIEMAT. Indeed, CIEMAT has coordinated the nuclear data R and D projects within EURATOM during the last 7 years (NUDATRA domain of EUROTRANS, and ANDES) and will continue this coordination in the CHANDA project till 2017. (Author)

  17. Ionizing radiations in Italian health care structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fizzano, M.R.; Frusteri, L. [Technical Advisory Dept. for Risk Assessment and Prevention, Italian Workers Compensation Authority, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The Council of the European Union has completely renewed the framework regarding radiation protection by adopting some directives: Directive 97/43 EURATOM lays down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposure to ionising radiations related to medical exposures, as a supplement of Directive 96/29 EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiations.The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. In Italy, safety law is referred to every workplace; anyway the use of ionising radiations is ruled by specific laws. So in the health care structures it is necessary integrating both the laws and this process is often difficult to carry on. The Italian Legislative Decree 230/95, one the main laws that aim to protect workers against ionising radiations, introduced Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This Decree asks that a doctor and a technical expert analyse the workplace and classify area and workers in according to dose of ionising radiation established by law. The Italian Legislative Decree 626/94 asks that risk analysis in general is made by doctor and specialist in risk. So, in case of risk from ionising radiation, all these figures have to cooperate in order to make an evaluation risk document. (N.C.)

  18. Optics and fluid dynamics department annual progress report for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, S.G.; Lading, L.; Lynov, J.P.; Michelsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Research in the Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department is performed within the following two programme areas: optics and continuum physics. In optics the activities are within (a) optical materials and electromagnetic propagation, (b) diagnostics and sensors, and (c) information processing. In continuum physics the activities are (a) nonlinear dynamics and (b) computer physics. The activities are supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils, and by industry. A special activity is the implementation of pellet injectors for fusion research. A summary of activities in 1994 is presented. (au) (27 ills., 44 refs.).

  19. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department. Annual progress report for 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindslev, H.; Hanson, S.G.; Lynov, J.P.; Petersen, P.M.; Skaarup, B. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1 laser systems and optical materials, (2 optical diagnostics and information processing and (3 plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competences in: optical sensors, optical materials, optical storage, biophotonics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics, fusion plasma physics and plasma technology. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2003 is presented. (au)

  20. Optics and Plasma Research Department. Annual progress report for 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindslev, H.; Lynov, J.P.; Pedersen, C.; Petersen, P.M.; Skaarup, B. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    The Optics and Plasma Research Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma physics and technology. The department has core competencies in optical sensors, optical materials, biophotonics, fusion plasma physics, and industrial plasma technology. The department employs key technologies in micro- and nanotechnology for optical systems, temperature calibration, and infrared measurement techniques. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2004 is presented. (au)

  1. The GUINEVERE Project for Accelerator Driven System Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Billebaud, A.; Baeten, P.; Aït Abderrahim, H.; Ban, G.; Baylac, M.; Bergmans, G.; Bondoux, D.; Bouvier, J.; Chabod, S.; De Conto, J.M.; Dessagne, P.; Gaudiot, G; Gautier, J. M.; Granget, G.; Heitz, G

    2009-01-01

    paper 9414; International audience; The GUINEVERE project is part of the EUROTRANS Integrated Project of the 6th EURATOM Framework Programme. It is mainly devoted to ADS on-line reactivity monitoring validation, sub-criticality determination and operational procedures (loading, start-up, shut-down, ...) as a follow-up of the MUSE experiments. The project consists in coupling a fast lead core, set-up in the VENUS reactor at SCK*CEN Mol (B), with a GENEPI neutron source under construction by CN...

  2. Report of the 52. meeting of the Superior Council of the Nuclear Safety and Information (project); Compte rendu de la 52. seance du Conseil Superieur de la Surete et de l'Information Nucleaire (projet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Since june 2000, the CSSIN (Superior Council on Nuclear Safety and Information) decided to present the meeting of its sessions, on the Internet site of the Nuclear Safety Authority. This document is the meeting project concerning the session of the 27 june 2000. The following subjects have been treated: the Blayais accident and its consequences; the Euratom Directive transposition on the workers and people protection; methodology and organization of the CSSIN concerning the civil nuclear installations and the radiation protection; actualization of the CSSIN heading in the Internet site of the Nuclear Safety Authority. (A.L.B.)

  3. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department. Annual progress report for 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindslev, H.; Hanson, S.G.; Lynov, J.P.; Petersen, P.M.; Skaarup, B. (eds.)

    2002-03-01

    The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: 1) laser systems and optical materials, 2) optical diagnostics and information processing and 3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competence in: optical sensors, optical materials, optical storage, bio-optics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2001 is presented. (au)

  4. Malicious release of radioactive materials in urban area. Exposure of the public and emergency staff, protective measures; Boeswillige Freisetzung radioaktiver Stoffe in urbanen Bereichen. Exposition von Bevoelkerung und Einsatzpersonal, Schutzmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin ITEM, Hannover (Germany). Bereich Aerosolforschung und Analytische Chemie; Lange, Florentin

    2016-07-01

    The preparedness for hypothetical radiological scenarios is part of the tasks for governmental authorities, safety and emergency organizations and the staff in case of the incident. The EURATOM guideline for radiation protection has to be implemented into national laws. According to the guidelines it is required that emergency planning has to be prepared for hypothetical radiological scenarios including terroristic or other maliciously motivated attacks using radioactive materials. The study includes assumptions on the released respirable radioactivity, restriction of the hazardous area, wind induced re-suspension of radioactive dusts and inhalation exposure, and mitigation measures.

  5. Generation IV: new reactor systems; Neue Reaktorsysteme innerhalb der Generation IV Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starflinger, J.; Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). IKET; Hofmeister, J. [RWE Power AG, Regenerative Stromerzeugung, Essen (Germany); Tromm, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Programm Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung

    2006-07-01

    Generation IV, an initiative for international cooperation in nuclear technology, was launched by 10 states in 2000 and joined by Euratom in July 2003. Its aim is to assess nuclear energy systems complying with future safety, disposal, proliferation, and public acceptance requirements. The Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe focuses on design, thermohydraulics, and neutron kinetics. Work is mainly devoted to the high-performance light water reactor (HPLWR) with supercritical steam conditions. Thus, competence can be maintained, as the HPLWR issues qualify for later work in nuclear industry. (orig.)

  6. UK's Brexit battle casts shadow over funding for international fusion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    The ramifications of Brexit - the UK's decision to leave the European Union - have continued to send shockwaves through the nuclear energy community, since I explained in this column recently that the move also means withdrawing from the Euratom Treaty. Now the UK's divorce from the EU is posing a threat that could deal a major blow to international efforts in fusion research. In fact, confusing signals from the UK have cast doubt on future funding and support for two key areas of world fusion cooperation: the Oxfordshire-based Joint European Torus (Jet) programme and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (Iter) project at Cadarache in France.

  7. Bright nuclear future hangs in balance as Brexit clock ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, St. George´s Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    Within the next two years, the UK will withdraw from the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) as a result of the country's decision to leave the European Union. As I wrote this article, legislators in the House of Commons were preparing to consider draft legislation - the Nuclear Safeguards Bill - that proposes a nuclear safeguards regime to form the backdrop of activities once the UK is 'independent' of the EU and its institutions. There are those who consider such an historic move to be bold and visionary. But is it?.

  8. Boron-Coated Straw Collar for Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design and optimize, in simulation space, an active neutron coincidence counter (or collar) using boron-coated straws (BCSs) as a non-3He replacement to the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL). UNCL has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since the 1980s to verify the 235U content in fresh light water reactor fuel assemblies for safeguards purposes. This report documents the design and optimization of the BCS collar.

  9. CRPP Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report covers all the activities of the CRPP in the field of plasma physics, from the technological challenges of future fusion reactors to the industrial use of low temperature plasmas. The work centres on the experimental and theoretical challenges of developing the techniques and understanding for advancing the concept of magnetic confinement of hot plasmas. Most of these activities are carried out under the auspices of the Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse. An overview on the international collaborations, as well as lists of scientific papers and reports prepared by CRPP staff members in 1999 are also provided.

  10. CRPP Annual Report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report covers all the activities of the CRPP in the field of plasma physics, from the technological challenges of future fusion reactors to the industrial use of low temperature plasmas. The work centres on the experimental and theoretical challenges of developing the techniques and understanding for advancing the concept of magnetic confinement of hot plasmas. Most of these activities are carried out under the auspices of the Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse. An overview on the international collaborations, as well as lists of scientific papers and reports prepared by CRPP staff members in 1998 are also provided.

  11. European activities in radiation protection in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Georgi

    2015-07-01

    The recently published Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom ('new European Basic Safety Standards', EU BSS) modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation by taking into account the latest scientific knowledge, technological progress and experience with implementing the current legislation and by merging five existing Directives into a single piece of legislation. The new European BSS repeal previous European legislation on which the national systems for radiation protection in medicine of the 28 European Union (EU) Member States are based, including the 96/29/Euratom 'BSS' and the 97/43/Euratom 'Medical Exposure' Directives. While most of the elements of the previous legislation have been kept, there are several legal changes that will have important influence over the regulation and practice in the field all over Europe-these include, among others: (i) strengthening the implementation of the justification principle and expanding it to medically exposed asymptomatic individuals, (ii) more attention to interventional radiology, (iii) new requirements for dose recording and reporting, (iv) increased role of the medical physics expert in imaging, (v) new set of requirements for preventing and following up on accidents and (vi) new set of requirements for procedures where radiological equipment is used on people for non-medical purposes (non-medical imaging exposure). The EU Member States have to enforce the new EU BSS before January 2018 and bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with it. The European Commission has certain legal obligations and powers to verify the compliance of the national measures with the EU laws and, wherever necessary, issue recommendations to, or open infringement cases against, national governments. In order to ensure timely and coordinated implementation of the new European legal requirements for radiation protection, the Commission is launching several actions

  12. Determination of the fission gas release in the segment N0204 and gas phase result of anoxic leaching experiment

    OpenAIRE

    González-Robles, Ernesto; Bohnert, Elke; Müller, Nikolaus; Herm, Michel; Metz, Volker; Kienzler, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the experiments performed at INE within the Work-packages 2 and 3 of the EURATOM FP7 Collaborative Project, “Fast / Instant Release of Safety Relevant Radionuclides from Spent Nuclear Fuel (CP FIRST-Nuclides)”. The segment N0204 from the pressure water reactor of Gösgen (KKG) nuclear power plant was selected to carry out this project. In a first approach and before the performance of leaching experiment, the fission gas release of this segment was det...

  13. Profile control studies for JET optimised shear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaudon, X.; Becoulet, A.; Eriksson, L.G.; Fuchs, V.; Huysmans, G.; How, J.; Moreau, D.; Rochard, F.; Tresset, G.; Zwingmann, W. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayetti, P.; Joffrin, E.; Maget, P.; Mayorat, M.L.; Mazon, D.; Sarazin, Y. [JET Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Voitsekhovitch, I. [Universite de Provence, LPIIM, Aix-Marseille 1, 13 (France)

    2000-03-01

    This report summarises the profile control studies, i.e. preparation and analysis of JET Optimised Shear plasmas, carried out during the year 1999 within the framework of the Task-Agreement (RF/CEA/02) between JET and the Association Euratom-CEA/Cadarache. We report on our participation in the preparation of the JET Optimised Shear experiments together with their comprehensive analyses and the modelling. Emphasis is put on the various aspects of pressure profile control (core and edge pressure) together with detailed studies of current profile control by non-inductive means, in the prospects of achieving steady, high performance, Optimised Shear plasmas. (authors)

  14. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. Normatively, (a) parts of the 1987 Brundtland report and (b) Danish experiences with regulated markets and innovations (Hvelplund 1995) are discussed and supplemented by (c) a critique of EU energy policies, especially the continued support of nuclear industry...... by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...

  15. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    2002-01-01

    , optical materials, optical storage, biooptics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM,by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2001 is presented.......The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The departmenthas core competences in: optical sensors...

  16. Legislating for occupational exposure to sources of natural radiation- the UK approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, N.; Walker, S.; Thomas, G.

    2004-07-01

    Title VII of EC Directive 96/29/Euratom (the 1996 BSS Directive) for the first time requires Member States to take action in relation to work activities within which the presence of natural radiation sources leads to a significant increase in the exposure of workers or members of the public which cannot be disregarded from the radiation protection point of view. The UK in fact has had legal requirements relating to occupational exposure to natural radiation sources since 1985, in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985, made to implement the bulk of the provisions of the previous BSS Directive (80/836/Euratom, as amended by 84/467/Euratom). The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999, that implement the worker protection requirements of the 1996 Euratom BSS Directive, include similar provisions. The definition of radioactive substance includes any substance which contains one or more radionuclides whose activity cannot be disregarded for the purposes of radiation protection. This means that some low specific activity ores and sands fall within this definition and are therefore subject to relevant requirements of the Regulations. Further advice is given on circumstances in which this may apply. Radon is covered more explicitly by applying the regulations to any work carried out in an atmosphere containing radon 222 gas at a concentration in air, averaged over any 24 hour period, exceeding 400 Bq m-3 except where the concentration of the short-lived daughters of radon 222 in air averaged over any 8 hour working period does not exceed 6.24 x 10-7Jm-3. The Health and Safety Executive pursues a policy of raising awareness of the potential for exposure to radon in the workplace and targeting those employers likely to have a radon problem (based on the use of existing information on homes). The regulatory approach has been to seek remedial building measures so that the workplace is removed from control. HSE is able to offer advice about getting their workplace tested and

  17. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department. Annual Progress Report for 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindslev, H.; Hanson, S.G.; Lynov, J.P.; Petersen, P.M.; Skaarup, B

    2003-05-01

    The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) Laser systems and optical materials (2) Optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) Plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competences in: optical sensors, optical materials, optical storage, biophotonics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2002 is presented. (au)

  18. Evaluation of the radiation exposure. Recommendation of the radiation protection commission; Ermittlung der Strahlenexposition. Empfehlung der Strahlenschutzkommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldauf, Daniela (comp.)

    2014-07-01

    The recommendation of the Strahlenschutzkommission (radiation protection commission) deals with the realistic requirements for the radiation exposure assessment based on radio-ecological modeling. The recommendation is applicable for all exposure situations that can be derived from FEP (features, events processes) exposure scenarios. In this case the exposure scenario consists of natural and technical features and a set of processes and events that can influence the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes the scientific justification, the previous procedure in Germany and abroad (EURATOM, France, UK, Ukraine, USA).

  19. 27 Member States. Effects on reporting of the BFS to the European Commission on environmental radioactivity; 27 Mitgliedstaaten. Auswirkungen auf die Berichterstattung ueber Umweltradioaktivitaet der Europaeischen Kommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, J.; Trugenberger-Schnabel, A. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    According to EURATOM treaty of 1957 all Member States shall carry out continuous monitoring of the level of radioactivity in the environment. For Germany, the BfS is responsible for collecting all the relevant measurement values for radioactivity in air, water, milk and diet. Results are published by the European Commission in a series of reports ''Environmental Radioactivity in the European Community''. Due to the increased number of member states the time and effort for compiling the reports has increased accordingly. Therefore in the future quality control will be laid in the responsibility of the individual collaborating organisation.

  20. CRPP Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    This report covers all the activities of the CRPP in the field of plasma physics, from the technological challenges of future fusion reactors to the industrial use of low temperature plasmas. The work centres on the experimental and theoretical challenges of developing the techniques and understanding for advancing the concept of magnetic confinement of hot plasmas. Most of these activities are carried out under the auspices of the Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse. An overview on the international collaborations, as well as lists of scientific papers and reports prepared by CRPP staff members in 2000 are also provided.

  1. SLANG (Synthetic LANGuage) - summary description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecken, P.; Eder, J.

    1981-01-01

    SLANG comprises a software and a hardware package enabling a language to be stored and to be output in digital form; or expressed differently, SLANG has input and analytic aspects as well as synthesizing and output aspects. Because a digital magnetic disc is used, language elements can be added and modified as required. The operation of the SLANG system is shown in diagrammatic form. It is used by Euratom in automatic checklists and to identify fault situations in reactors. Other applications are suggested. 3 references.

  2. Importance of the European qualification frame (EQF) and its tools for radiation protection; Bedeutung des Europaeischen Qualifikationsrahmens (EQR) und seiner Instrumente fuer den Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2013-09-01

    The harmonization of different radiation protection education and training systems in Europe and the mutual approval of the qualifications acquired abroad are discussed since years. Due to large national differences the mutual approval is usually based on case approaches instead of a standardized procedure. With the European qualification frame for life learning and EVCET (European credit system for vocational education and training) there are tools that could also be used in the sector of radiation protection education and training. The draft of the EURATOM basic safety standards (BSS) guideline includes the requirement of an approval of radiation protection officer certifications.

  3. Nuclear law in motion. Report on the 15th regional meeting of the German section of AIDN/INLA e.V; Atomrecht in Bewegung. Bericht ueber die 15. Regionaltagung der Deutschen Landesgruppe der AIDN/INLA e.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-11-15

    For the 15th time the German National Group of the Association Internationale du Droit Nucleaire/International Nuclear Law Association (AIDN/IN-LA) e.V. organised a regional conference. 90 participants from 15 countries, including representatives of Euratom and OECD/NEA, met in Bonn on 28 and 29 September to exchange views on current issues of nuclear law. The Rhine, which was in sight of the conference centre and connects countries, provided an excellent backdrop not only for the conference that connects nations, but also for the title of the conference ''Atomic Energy Law in Motion'' and for various lectures on nuclear transport.

  4. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, S.G.; Lading, L.; Lynov, J.P.; Skaarup, B. [eds.

    1996-01-01

    Research in the Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department has been performed within the following two programme areas: (1) optical diagnostics and information processing and (2) plasma and fluid dynamics. The optical activities are concentrated on optical materials, diagnostics and sensors. The plasma and fluid dynamics activities are concentrated on nonlinear dynamics in fluids, plasmas and optics as well as on plasma and fluid diagnostics. Scientific computing is an integral part of the work. The activities are supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 1995 is presented. (au) 36 ills., 166 refs.

  5. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, S.G.; Johansen, P.M.; Lynov, J.P.; Skaarup, B. (eds.)

    2001-05-01

    The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competence in: optical sensors, optical materials, optical storage, bio-optics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2000 is presented. (au)

  6. La Belgique et la coopération scientifique internationale

    OpenAIRE

    Marage, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    La Belgique et la coopération scientifique internationale P. Marage et Cl. Truffin Université Libre de Bruxelles Dans les années qui suivent la seconde guerre mondiale, la Belgique joue un rôle important, souvent moteur, dans la coopération scientifique internationale, en particulier européenne :collaborations notamment avec les Etats-Unis en matière nucléaire, création du CERN, EURATOM, Année géophysique internationale, ELDO, ESRO, etc. Cette implication internationale n’a cessé de s’affirme...

  7. Effective optimization of medical exposure: co-operation between radiation users and authorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkkinen, R.; Jarvinen, H. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    For the optimization of medical exposure in special radiological practices like in paediatric radiology, orthopaedics and cardiology, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (S.T.U.K.) in Finland has used a six step model to achieve the aims of the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/EURATOM). The basis is to introduce the regulation and to meet the needs of the users for education and training. The aim is to educate some specialists to distribute information and good practices among their own professional groups. S.T.U.K. makes continuous verification on site visits and improves the process. (authors)

  8. European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) policy statement 12.1: Recommendations on medical physics education and training in Europe 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, C J; Christofides, S; Hartmann, G H

    2014-09-01

    In 2010, EFOMP issued Policy Statement No. 12: "The present status of Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe. New perspectives and EFOMP recommendations" to be applied to education and training in Medical Physics within the context of the developments in the European Higher Education Area arising from the Bologna Declaration and with a view to facilitate the free movement of Medical Physics professionals within Europe. Concurrently, new recommendations regarding qualifications frameworks were published by the European Parliament and Council which introduced new terminology and a new qualifications framework - the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) for lifelong learning. In addition, a new European directive involving the medical use of ionizing radiations and set to replace previous directives in this area was in the process of development. This has now been realized as Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 which has repealed directive 97/43/Euratom. In this regard, a new document was developed in the context of the EC financed project "European Guidelines on the Medical Physics Expert" and published as RP174. Among other items, these guidelines refer to the mission statement, key activities, qualification framework and curricula for the specialty areas of Medical Physics relating to radiological devices and protection from ionizing radiation. These developments have made necessary an update of PS12; this policy statement provides the necessary update. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The SACSESS hydrometallurgy domain - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Institute for Nuclear Wsaste Disposal - INE, Karlsruhe (Germany); Taylor, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Ekberg, C. [Chalmers University of Technology, Nuclear Chemistry/Industrial Materials Recycling, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Guilbaud, P.; Bourg, S. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH - FZJ, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - IEK-6, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The EURATOM FP7 project SACSESS (Safety of Actinide Separation Processes) is in continuity of a long line of preceding EURATOM projects. SACSESS is organised along four domains, one of them related to the development of hydrometallurgical (i.e. solvent extraction based) actinide separations processes. Within this domain, the most promising processes developed in previous projects are further developed, improving their technology readiness level (TRL) towards the point at which safe industrial implementation will be achievable. The SACSESS reference compounds are: TODGA, CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP, SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTP, HEDTA and DTPA. TODGA is used to co-extract actinides and lanthanides from high-acidity raffinate solutions, separating from the non-lanthanide fission products. TODGA is also used to accelerate the extraction kinetics of CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP. CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP extracts actinides selectively over lanthanides and many other fission products. HEDTA and DTPA are used to strip actinides selectively over lanthanides from an organic phase containing both actinides and lanthanides. SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTP was developed to overcome some of the drawbacks of HEDTA and DTPA, such as the narrow pH window they are effective in.

  10. Final report on characterization of physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys before and after irradiation. (ITER R and D Task no. T213)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N.; Taehtinen, S. [VTT Manufacturing Technology (Finland)

    2001-12-01

    The present report summarizes and highlights the main results of the work carried out during the last 5 - 6 years on effects of neutron irradiation on physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys. The work was an European contribution to ITER Research and Development programme and was carried out by the Associations Euratom - Risoe and Euratom - Tekes. Details of the investigations carried out within the framework of the present task and the main results have been reported in various reports and journal publication. On the basis of these results some conclusions are drawn regarding the suitability of a copper alloy for its use in the first wall and divertor components of ITER. It is pointed out that the present work has managed only to identify some of the critical problems and limitations of the copper alloys for their employment in the hostile environment of 14 MeV neutrons. A considerable amount of further effort is needed to find a realistic and optimum solution. (au)

  11. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Research and Development in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stainsby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR research is directed towards fulfilling the ambitious goals of Generation IV (Gen IV, that is, to develop a safe, sustainable, reliable, proliferation-resistant and economic nuclear energy system. The research is directed towards developing the GFR as an economic electricity generator, with good safety and sustainability characteristics. Fast reactors maximise the usefulness of uranium resources by breeding plutonium and can contribute to minimising both the quantity and radiotoxicity nuclear waste by actinide transmutation in a closed fuel cycle. Transmutation is particularly effective in the GFR core owing to its inherently hard neutron spectrum. Further, GFR is suitable for hydrogen production and process heat applications through its high core outlet temperature. As such GFR can inherit the non-electricity applications that will be developed for thermal high temperature reactors in a sustainable manner. The Euratom organisation provides a route by which researchers in all European states, and other non-European affiliates, can contribute to the Gen IV GFR system. This paper summarises the achievements of Euratom's research into the GFR system, starting with the 5th Framework programme (FP5 GCFR project in 2000, through FP6 (2005 to 2009 and looking ahead to the proposed activities within the 7th Framework Programme (FP7.

  12. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giussani, Augusto [BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Protection and Health; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Research Unit Medical Raditation Physics and Diagnostics

    2013-08-01

    Presents the most recent developments in nuclear medicine imaging, with emphasis on the latest research findings. Considers the latest advances in imaging systems, image reconstruction, noise correction, and quality assurance. Discusses novel concepts, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA project. Lists rules of thumb for imaging of use to both beginners and experienced researchers. This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  13. Towards an integrated management of health physics and medical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommaert, Chantal; Rogge, Frank; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic [Association Vincotte Nuclear (AVN), Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    AVN is a licensed body that performs health physics control in different types of installations, from large nuclear facilities to small dentist cabinets. AVN can also provide medical physics services for the quality control of, for instance, medical devices used in a radiology or nuclear medicine department. Radiation protection for personnel and environment (health physics) and radiation protection for the patient (medical physics) are usually treated separately, using different referential documents, such as the European Directives 96/29/Euratom for health physics and 97/43/Euratom for medical physics. This difference is also clearly reflected in the Belgium legislation (two types of accreditation/licence for inspectors, different chapters in the law,..) From a practical point of view it is sometimes rather difficult to split the task 'on site' during an inspection. An RX system not complying with radiation protection criteria can definitively affect the patient as well as the workers. On the other hand, the hospitals, cannot easily differentiate these two tasks because they are not fully aware of the legislation and they are mixing both. Taking into account the health physics guidelines as well as medical physics guidelines, we have decided to move to an integrated approach of these two concepts. (orig.)

  14. Current design efforts for the gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-3850 (United States)]. e-mail: Kevan.Weaver@inl.gov

    2005-07-01

    Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFC I) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GCFR: a helium-cooled, direct Brayton cycle power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850 C at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GCFR. These are EURATOM (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, EURATOM (including the United Kingdom), France, Japan, and Switzerland have active research activities with respect to the GCFR. The research includes GCFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This paper outlines the current design status of the GCFR, and includes work done in the areas mentioned above. (Author)

  15. Nothing is as consistent as change. What new EU-BSS offer; Nichts ist so bestaendig wie der Wandel. Was uns die neuen EU-BSS bringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2014-04-15

    Since the publication of the first version of the Euratom-Guideline in 1959 about the fundamental safety standards for protection of danger caused by ionised radiation, these basic radiation safety standards - in short called EU-BSS - have been changed so far seven times. Last, recently by the Euratom-Guideline 2013/59 on December 5{sup th}, 2013. Viewed from the context of the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007 a thereupon resulted revision of the IAEO-BSS as well as due to new scientifically insights, the European legislation to radiation protection with its seventh amendment of the EU-BSS should be remodelled and consolidated. The revised version is to be put to practice as domestic legislation until February 6{sup th}, 2018. Revised BSS provide quite structural as well as with regards to content improved reforms - partially of fundamental nature. Some reforms indicate more or less great implementation problems others were moderated over the negotiation. Some require getting used to them at first. For the implementation into national legislation, the right touch is wished for the persons responsible when dealing with evident side effects and problems, so these will not settle. On EU - level first problems become apparent: the implementation of environmental protection against radiation turns upside down former principle which states: if men are protected, environment is protected as well. Thereby new material for the transformation into an eighth version of the EU-BSS would be available. (orig.)

  16. The role of international collaboration in knowledge development in creation of TSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackowski, Tomasz Marian; Skrzypek, Elena; Spirzewski, Michal [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock (Poland)

    2014-12-15

    National Centre for Nuclear Research has been created on September the 1{sup st} 2011 by the decree of the Polish Government with a clear goal to form Technical Support Organization for Polish regulator and public administration. It was done by merging two institutes, the former Institute of Atomic Energy POLATOM and the former Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, which worldwide reputation and successful research in various fields of nuclear power-related studies are well known. The fields of activity are widely focused on the nuclear physics, cosmology, electronics as well as detectors, accelerators, material research and many more. The main factor of National Center for Nuclear Research development was the participation in the European Structural Founds program ''Swierk Computing Centre'' from the beginning. In the frame of this particular program, the collaboration with the IAEA, NEA OECD, Euratom and research and TSO organizations from different countries began. The international collaboration plays the key role in the development of the Technical Support Organization expertise, which aim is to become the institution able to provide experts' support for decision-makers in nuclear power industry in Poland. Expertise and knowledge is expanded by the engagement in the code users international trainings, by being involved in various projects and benchmarks. The National Centre for Nuclear Research participates in, among the others, EURATOM projects such as NURESAFE (creation of BE Codes platform). Moreover NCBJ is involved in EURATOM FP7 projects such as NC2I-R (Cogeneration Initiative), ASAMPSAE (Advanced PSA), and ALLIANCE as part of the ALLEGRO project. In most of these groups our centre is taking active part in development as well as in management activities. Thanks to experiences gained and with work on research we are effectively expanding knowledge, experience and expertise to meet future's demands as a Technical

  17. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  18. L'Institut d'études européennes :50 ans de recherche et d'enseignement en quête d'ouverture / The Institute for European Studies: 50 years of teaching and research in pursuit of openness

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuys, John

    2014-01-01

    FR Le 27 février 1964, l’Institut d’études européennes est inauguré par son président fondateur Walter Ganshof van der Meersch, en présence du recteur de l’ULB Maurice Leroy, de Paul-Henry Spaak, Secrétaire général de l’OTAN, et de Louis Armand, précédemment à la tête de l’Euratom. On y étudiera l’Europe, dans sa portée géographique et institutionnelle, comme un objet fondamentalement hybride :le parcours des sections juridique, économique, politique et – bien plus tard – d’histoire, développ...

  19. A GPU-based real time high performance computing service in a fast plant system controller prototype for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, J., E-mail: jnieto@sec.upm.es [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 Spain (Spain); Arcas, G. de; Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 Spain (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, J.M.; Barrera, E. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 Spain (Spain); Castro, R. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, D. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 Spain (Spain); Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P.; Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of fast plant system controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GPU-based real time high performance computing service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance evaluation with respect to other solutions based in multi-core processors. - Abstract: EURATOM/CIEMAT and the Technical University of Madrid UPM are involved in the development of a FPSC (fast plant system control) prototype for ITER based on PXIe form factor. The FPSC architecture includes a GPU-based real time high performance computing service which has been integrated under EPICS (experimental physics and industrial control system). In this work we present the design of this service and its performance evaluation with respect to other solutions based in multi-core processors. Plasma pre-processing algorithms, illustrative of the type of tasks that could be required for both control and diagnostics, are used during the performance evaluation.

  20. Public opinion, public information and public implication in radioactive waste management in the European Union; La opinion publica, informacion publica e implicacion publica en la gestion de residuos radiactivos en la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.; Webster, S.

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear industry in European must address the issue of the lack of Public acceptance. In particular, the public are very concerned about radioactive waste. It is clear that there is a need to better inform the public about radioactive waste and to consult them as part of the decision-making process concerning the management of these wastes. Existing and proposed new European legislation not only encourage this provision of information and involvement in the decision-making process, but actually require it. The paper examines Public opinion and European legislation in this area and reports on the latest research on societal issues in radioactive waste management carried out under the Community's Euratom Framework Programme. (Author)

  1. Mesures de taux de production d'éléments gazeux et volatiles lors de réactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles épaisses de plomb-bismuth liquides

    CERN Document Server

    Tall, Yoro

    2008-01-01

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6th Euratom Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target which one molten lead-bismuth concept is studied by the SUBATECH (physique SUBAtomique et des TECHnologies associées) laboratory in Nantes. The irradiation of molten lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-b...

  2. The Oak Ridge Technical Information Center: A trailblazer in federal documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaden, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This softbound book attempts to record the history of US AEC's Technical Information Center, from its conception (1947) to 1977. This organization centralizes and manages the issues related to control and dissemination of technical information, to fulfill the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. TIC tried to search out and install efficient and economical systems for servicing the various technical information programs. It coordinated a direct organization-to-organization information exchange program, and it also participated in official bilateral exchange programs and in developing information systems for IAEA and Euratom. The work, planning, and strategies employed to achieve goals are chronicled in this book, whose 18 chapters are arranged into four sections according to different presidential administrations.

  3. The Oak Ridge Technical Information Center: A trailblazer in federal documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaden, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This document attempts to record the history of US AEC`s Technical Information Center, from its conception (1947) to 1977. This organization centralizes and manages the issues related to control and dissemination of technical information, to fulfill the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. TIC tried to search out and install efficient and economical systems for servicing the various technical information programs. It coordinated a direct organization-to-organization information exchange program, and it also participated in official bilateral exchange programs and in developing information systems for IAEA and Euratom. The work, planning, and strategies employed to achieve goals are chronicled in this document, with 18 chapters arranged into four sections according to different presidential administrations.

  4. PEBS: an international challenge for improve understanding of the natural barriers to isolate long-term radioactive waste; PEBS: un reto internacional para mejorar el conocimiento de las barreras naturales para aislar residuos radiactivos a largo plazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaus, I.

    2015-07-01

    The radioactive materials have a wide range of applications ranging from nuclear reactors to the use of isotopes in industries, medicine or research centres. These technologies generate waste whose disposal systems are becoming more sophisticated, to the point of using artificial barriers able to isolate them from contact with other materials, precipitation, surface water and groundwater subsurface. In this context, the European project long term Performance of the engineered Barrier Systems (PeBS), funded by the seventh framework (Fp7) Euratom and has counted with the participation of ENRESA, reviewed the evolution of the performance of sealing and barrier systems of artificial barriers in relevant time scales through the development of a comprehensive method that includes experiments, models, and a consideration of the potential impacts of long-term security functions. (Author)

  5. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  6. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, S.G.; Johansen, P.M.; Lading, L.; Lynov, J.P.; Skaarup, B. [eds.

    1998-04-01

    Research in the Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department has been performed within the following three programme areas: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The work is concentrated on combinations of systems, structures and materials. The systems work is focused on sensors, information processing and storage; the structures work is concentrated on pattern formation and diffractive elements; the materials work is centred on the understanding and utilisation of nonlinear phenomena for optical components and systems. Scientific computing is an integral part of the work. Biomedical optics is a new activity and the work on polymer optics is enhanced considerably. The activities are supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 1997 is presented. (au) 1 tab., 63 ills., 249 refs.

  7. Contribution to the study of superconducting magnetic systems in the frame of fusion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Artiguelongue, H.; Bej, Z.; Ciazynski, D.; Cloez, H.; Decool, P.; Hertout, P.; Libeyre, P.; Martinez, A.; Nicollet, S.; Rubino, M.; Schild, T.; Verger, J.M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-02-01

    This report is a presentation of all the 55 publications made by the Magnet Group of the 'Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee' during the 94-99 period. These publications have been made mainly in the frame of EURATOM contracts and task for ITER. This collection deals with most of the dimensioning aspects of large superconducting magnets and hence the field interest is wider than the restricted field of magnets for fusion by magnetic confinement. Whenever it is possible, simple expressions and criteria are given for dimensioning superconducting strands, assembling them to build cables and cooling them by an adapted forced flow cooling. This is hence a major for the understanding of the behaviour of large modern superconducting magnets and provides many tools for design and construction. (author)

  8. Quality control and risk management: specific characteristics of the French health care system;Fonction qualite et gestion du risque: reflexions sur les specificites du systeme francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, D. [Syndicat National des Radiotherapeutes Oncologues (SNRO), 75 - Paris (France); Bureau de la Societe Francaise de Radiotherapie Oncologique (SFRO), 75 - Paris (France); Couderc, B. [Union Nationale Hospitaliere Privee de Cancerologie (UNHPC), 75 - Paris (France); Institut National du Cancer (INCa), 75 - Paris (France); Ligue Contre le Cancer, 75 - Paris (France); Parmentier, G. [UNHPC, 75 - Paris (France); College de l' Accreditation, Haut Conseil de Sante Publique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    The techniques used in the field of radiotherapy are the same everywhere, but the organisation and scope of activities vary depending on the country, and sometimes depending on the specific region. The International Radiotherapy Conference held in Paris and devoted to the radiation protection of radiotherapy patients provides us with an opportunity to discuss some of the specific characteristics of the French health care system. These past years, the context of workforce shortage associated with strong government initiatives, the implementation of several successive National Cancer Plans, the transposition of European Directives into French law (EURATOM 96/29 and 97/43) and the accident in Epinal have had a rapidly restructuring effect on the French radiotherapy sector. (authors)

  9. Occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in a zircon sand milling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Luisa [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: lballest@upvnet.upv.es; Zarza, Isidoro [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: iszarpe@upvnet.upv.es; Ortiz, Josefina [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jortiz@iqn.upv.es; Serradell, Vicente [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: vserradell@iqn.upv.es

    2008-10-15

    Raw zirconium sand is one of the substances (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) which is widely used in the ceramic industry. This sand contains varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: mostly U-238 but also Th-232 and U-235, together with their daughters, and therefore may need to be regulated by Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This paper describes the method used to perform the radiological study on a zircon sand milling plant and presents the results obtained. Internal and external doses were evaluated using radioactivity readings from sand, airborne dust, intermediate materials and end products. The results on total effective dose show the need for this type of industry to be carefully controlled, since values near to 1 mSv were obtained.

  10. Assessment of the situation of centres of competence in the fields of nuclear fission and radiation protection. Final report

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfert, K; Glaeser, H; Klener, V; Métivier, H; Richard, P; Riebold, W L; Vasa, I; Zimmermann, M

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the present situation concerning centres of competence in the fields of Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection has been carried out with the intention to draw strategic conclusions as regards further needs in these fields, based on the actual situation and perceived future developments. This study was initiated by the programme committee for the Euratom research and training programme in the field of Nuclear Energy (1998 - 2002). To carry out this exercise, a Panel of four independent experts had been set up. The Panel had prepared a questionnaire comprising a comprehensive set of questions aiming at the acquisition of the information needed to carry out the assessment exercise. The questionnaire consisted in ten different form sheets and had been put on the Internet in order to ease the access and offer a comfortable way of filling in the form sheets. Out of 420 organisations invited to participate in the exercise, 293 organisations from EU member states, Central and Eastern European Acces...

  11. European cooperation in radiation protection in NORM-industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Pepin, Stephane [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium). Section Surveillance of the Territory and Natural Radiation; Wiegers, Rob [IBR Consult BV, Haelen (Netherlands)

    2017-10-01

    Noturally occurring radioactive materials, abbreviated NORM, have been incorporated into the European legislative framework of radiation protection With Directive 96/29/Euratom. Title VII of this directive pointed out that radiation protection has to be applied to ''work activities not covered by Article 2 [1] within which the presence of natural radiation sources leads to a significant increase in the exposure of workers or of members of the public which cannot be disregarded from the radiation protection point of view''. This new legal framework resulted in challenges for non-nuclear industries which process, treat or otherwise handle natural radiation sources. The natural radiation sources in these industries differ from the man-made radiation sources used in technical applications of radioactivity. In the non-nuclear industry, large volumes of raw materials with generally low activity concentration are processed.

  12. Nuclear waste governance. An international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Mez, Lutz; Schreurs, Miranda A. (eds.) [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    This volume examines the national plans that ten Euratom countries plus Switzerland and the United States are developing to address high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal. The chapters, which were written by 23 international experts, outline European and national regulations, technology choices, safety criteria, monitoring systems, compensation schemes, institutional structures, and approaches to public involvement. Key stakeholders, their values and interests are introduced, the responsibilities and authority of different actors considered, decision-making processes are analyzed as well as the factors influencing different national policy choices. The views and expectations of different communities regarding participatory decision making and compensation and the steps that have been or are being taken to promote dialogue and constructive problem-solving are also considered.

  13. Nuclear legislation in the European Union; Legislacion nuclear en la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovale, I.

    2009-07-01

    European Nuclear Legislation, developed under the Euratom Treaty, has evolved in accordance with established priorities and the interpretation of the Treaty on the legislative competence of the Community, and prevailing in particular rules on radiological protection and prevention against the risks of proliferation. The approval, in this year 2009, of a Directive on Nuclear Safety, is an important step in the harmonization of legislation on matters that have not been subject to common regulation, as nuclear safety, and it could have its continuation in a future Directive on the safety, and it could have its continuation in a future. Directive on the safety radioactive waste management. As for nuclear safeguards, a reform in the safeguards regimes in both European and international field has been promoted in order to implement an integrated safeguards system, whose implementation is expected to finalise in January 2010. (Author)

  14. Measurement of the fission cross-section of $^{240}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu at CERN's n_TOF Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Pavlik, A F; Gonzalez romero, E M

    The n_TOF Collaboration proposes to continue the fission program, already started in 2002-2004, taking advantage of the newly constructed Work Sector Type A, with the measurement of the two isotopes : $^{240}$ Pu and $^{242}$ Pu. They are both of major importance for reactor physics applications and are included in the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) High Priority List [1], in the NEA WPEC Subgroup 26 Report on the accuracy of nuclear data for advanced reactor designe [2] and in the EU 6$^{th}$ Framework Programme IP-EUROTRANS/NUDATRA reports [3]. Based on those requests, the measurement of the fission cross-section of the two Pu isotopes is one of the objectives of the project ANDES of the FP7 EURATOM program [4].

  15. Present status of 222Rn in groundwater in Extremadura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán López, M; Martín Sánchez, A

    2008-10-01

    Radon-222 was measured in groundwater sources of Extremadura (Spain), analyzing 350 samples from private and public springs, wells, and spas by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and gamma spectrometry. The 222Rn activity concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1168 Bq L(-1). The statistical analysis showed a log-normal distribution with a mean of (111+/-7) Bq L(-1) and a median of (36+/-3) Bq L(-1). A hydrogeological study revealed correlations between the activity concentration and the aquifer material's characteristics. A map of 222Rn in groundwater was elaborated and compared with the natural gamma radiation map for this region. About 35% of the samples showed 222Rn activity concentrations above the Euratom recommended limit of 100 Bq L(-1). Three uranium series radionuclides (238U, 234U, and 226Ra) were also assayed by alpha-particle spectrometry, estimating the annual effective dose due to the presence of these natural radionuclides in drinking water.

  16. Practical measurements of radiation dose in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smans, K.; Vanhavere, F.; Bosmans, H.

    2006-07-01

    The EURATOM directive 97/43 and the Belgian Royal Decree of July 20, 2001 impose today the application of the ALARA principle in medical practices. Priority should be given to paediatric examinations, especially for X-ray examinations undertaken in neonatal intensive care units. Within this framework, a dose study was started to assess the patient doses in one neonatal intensive care unit for the most common examinations. Direct measurement of radiation dose was done using highly sensitive thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). The ESD was on average 66 {mu}Gy. Also DAP-measurements were performed. For RX-thorax an average DAP-value of 1,27 cGy.cm{sub w}as calculated. (Author)

  17. Report on the control of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. Part 2: the reconversion of military plutonium stocks. The use of the helps given to central and eastern Europe countries and to the new independent states; Rapport sur le controle de la surete et de la securite des installations nucleaires. Deuxieme partie: la reconversion des stocks de plutonium militaire. L'utilisation des aides accordees aux pays d'Europe centrale et orientale et aux nouveaux etats independants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C

    2002-07-01

    This report deals with two different aspects of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. The first aspect concerns the reconversion of weapon grade plutonium stocks: the plutonium in excess, plutonium hazards and nuclear fuel potentialities, the US program, the Russian program, the actions of European countries (France, Germany), the intervention of other countries, the unanswered questions (political aspects, uncertainties), the solutions of the future (improvement of reactors, the helium-cooled high temperature reactor technology (gas-turbine modular helium reactor: GT-MHR), the Carlo Rubbia's project). The second aspect concerns the actions carried out by the European Union in favor of the civil nuclear facilities of central and eastern Europe: the European Union competencies through the Euratom treaty, the conclusions of the European audit office about the PHARE and TACIS nuclear programs, the status of committed actions, the coming planned actions, and the critical analysis of the policy adopted so far. (J.S.)

  18. Radiation safety and quality control assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laadunvarmistus roentgendiagnostiikassa 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A. [ed.

    1998-03-01

    The report is based on a seminar course of lectures `Radiation safety and quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998` organized by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland. The lectures included actual information on X-ray examinations: methods of quality assurance, methods of measuring and calculating patient doses, examination frequencies, patient doses, occupational doses, and radiation risks. Paediatric X-ray examinations and interventional procedures were the most specific topics. The new Council Directive 97/43/Euratom on medical exposure, and the European Guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images, were discussed in several lectures. Lectures on general radiation threats and preparedness, examples of radiation accidents, and emergency preparedness in hospitals were also included. (editor)

  19. A method applicable to effective dose rate estimates for aircrew dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A; Rancati, T

    2001-01-01

    The inclusion of cosmic radiation as occupational exposure under ICRP Publication 60 and the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom has highlighted the need to estimate the exposure of aircrew. According to a report of the Group of Experts established under the terms of Article 31 of the European Treaty, the individual estimates of dose for flights below 15 km may be done using an appropriate computer program. In order to calculate the radiation exposure at aircraft altitudes, calculations have been performed by means of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. On the basis of the calculated results, a simple method is proposed for the individual evaluation of effective dose rate due to the galactic component of cosmic radiation as a function of latitude and altitude. (13 refs).

  20. From international to France. The elaboration of radiation protection standards; De l'international a la France. Elaboration des normes de radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-11-15

    A first article recalls the history of the creation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) with its five different committees. Above the ICPR is the UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). Then come the IAEA and Euratom. They have different roles regarding radiation protection: knowledge diffusion, proposition of principles and modalities for radiological risk management, standard definition. National specificities are outlined (some national standards may be clearer and stronger than international ones). The process of elaboration of radiation protection rules is described. The implication of the French IRSN in these international bodies is outlined. The evolution of radiation protection of patients or workers is discussed, and more particularly the risks associated with different radiological techniques, and the case of workers exposed to natural radioactivity

  1. Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, S.G.; Johansen, P.M.; Lading, L.; Lynov, J.P.; Skaarup, B. [eds.

    1997-01-01

    Research in the Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department has been performed within the following three programme areas: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The work is concentrated on combinations of systems, structures and materials. The systems work is focused on sensors, information processing an storage; the structures work is concentrated on pattern formation and diffractive elements; the materials work is centred on the understanding and utilisation of nonlinear phenomena. Scientific computing is an integral part of the work. The activities are supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 1996 is presented. (au) 53 ills., 232 refs.

  2. National radon programmes and policies: the RADPAR recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, F; Hulka, J; Ringer, W; Rovenská, K; Fojtikova, I; Venoso, G; Bradley, E J; Fenton, D; Gruson, M; Arvela, H; Holmgren, O; Quindos, L; McLaughlin, J; Collignan, B; Gray, A; Grosche, B; Jiranek, M; Kalimeri, K; Kephalopoulos, S; Kreuzer, M; Schlesinger, D; Zeeb, H; Bartzis, J

    2014-07-01

    Results from epidemiological studies on lung cancer and radon exposure in dwellings and mines led to a significant revision of recommendations and regulations of international organisations, such as WHO, IAEA, Nordic Countries, European Commission. Within the European project RADPAR, scientists from 18 institutions of 14 European countries worked together for 3 y (2009-12). Among other reports, a comprehensive booklet of recommendations was produced with the aim that they should be useful both for countries with a well-developed radon programme and for countries with little experience on radon issues. In this paper, the main RADPAR recommendations on radon programmes and policies are described and discussed. These recommendations should be very useful in preparing a national action plan, required by the recent Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Generation IV Reactor Safety and Materials Research by the Institute for Energy and Transport at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuček, K., E-mail: kamil.tucek@ec.europa.eu; Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ammirabile, L.; Lázaro, A.; Grah, A.; Carlsson, J.; Döderlein, Ch.; Oettingen, M.; Fütterer, M.A.; D’Agata, E.; Laurie, M.; Turba, K.; Ohms, C.; Nilsson, K.-F.; Hähner, P.

    2013-12-15

    To support the drafting, development, implementation and monitoring of European energy and transport policy, the Institute for Energy and Transport of the European Commissions’ Joint Research Centre conducts pre-competitive research in the areas of experimental qualification of advanced fuels and materials as well as simulation and modelling of reactor safety and material performance. The work covers assessments, design optimisation and improvements to the safety and performance of new, innovative reactor systems, materials and instrumentation, in order to meet the EU's long-term energy needs while respecting enhanced safety, sustainability, and economic aspects. The research is linked, and contributes, to related EURATOM Framework Programme projects, Generation IV International Forum (GIF), International Atomic Energy Agency as well as OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA) activities. The current paper gives an overview and examples of past, current, and upcoming activities in the areas of reactor safety assessments, advanced fuel irradiation and materials research.

  4. Radiation safety and quality assurance in diagnostic x-ray imaging 1999; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laadunvarmistus roentgendiagnostiikassa 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servonmaa, A. [ed.

    1999-04-01

    In the European Union, the Directive 97/43/Euratom concerning the medical use of radiation brings many new tasks to radiation users. Quality assurance, patient dose measurement, staff training and clinical audit are among the most essential of these tasks. The Finnish radiation legislation has been modified to comply with the Directive. Much work is still required for practical implementation of these rules. This report deals with applications of the medical radiation Directive. Most applications are still at the planning stage, and clear guidance is lacking. However, the users have to know in time about these plans and future duties concerning them. Experience on quality assurance and clinical audit in hospitals are especially valuable in providing practical information on benefits and problems of these practices. Other radiation related topics, such as radiation risks, radioactivity in foods, and use of radiation in other European countries, are also included in the report. (orig.)

  5. International and European atomic legislation. The military and civil use of nuclear energy from the view of international law and European law; Internationales und europaeisches Atomrecht. Die militaerische und friedliche Nutzung der Atomenergie aus Sicht des Voelker- und Europarechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odendahl, Kerstin (ed.) [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Oeffentliches Recht; Kiel Univ. (Germany). Walther-Schuecking-Inst. fuer Internationales Recht

    2013-07-01

    The book on the international and European atomic legislation covers the following issues: the military and civil use of nuclear energy from the view of international law and European law; the use of nuclear weapons in military conflicts; nuclear disarmament and the implementation of nuclear-free zones; the engagement against nuclear weapon proliferation; nuclear power plants from the view of international laws and the law concerning the respective interests of neighboring states; international cooperation in case of nuclear disasters - lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima; the IAEA as the watchdog over the safety and peaceful use of nuclear energy? European legal requirements for the civil use of nuclear energy: EURATOM and EU norms.

  6. Radiation safety and quality in diagnostic x-ray imaging 2000. Education course 24.-25.2.2000 and 10.-11.4.2000; Saetelyturvallisuus ja laatu roentgendiagnostiikassa 2000. Koulutuspaeivaet 24.-25.2.2000, 10.-11.4.2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T. [eds.

    2000-02-01

    The Medical Directive (97/43/Euratom), which regulates current activities in radiation protection with regard to medical radiology, has introduced new obligations for hospitals. Current topics are the development of radiation protection regulations and quality systems, education and training programmes, patient doses and clinical audits. The assessment of patient dose is one of the most important tasks required by the Directive. Hospitals are made responsible for assessing patient doses and then comparing the results against the national reference levels. The European Commission has financed research projects in order to develop methods for assessing patient doses and to establish reference levels. This report deals with the new radiation protection regulations, quality systems and the assessment of patient doses. The articles deal with the requirements set for radiation workers, quality systems implemented in hospitals, dose assessment methods and patient doses. (orig.)

  7. Radiation dose measurement of paediatric patients in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, K. [Training Centre of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tartu (Estonia); Lintrop, M. [Department of Radiology, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu (Estonia); Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Eek, V.; Filippova, I. [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2003-06-01

    According to the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/Euratom) the radiation doses to patients should be measured in every hospital and doses should be compared to the reference doses established by the competent authorities. Special attention should be paid to the paediatric x-ray examinations, because the paediatric patients are more radiosensitive than adult patients. The requirement of measurements of radiation dose to patients is not yet included in the Estonian radiation act, but the purpose to join the European Communities makes the quality control in radiology very actual in Estonia. The necessity exists to introduce suitable measurement methods in the Xray departments of Estonian hospitals for establishing feedback system for radiologists, radiographers and medical physicists in optimising the radiation burden of patients and image quality. (orig.)

  8. The latest results from source term research. Overview and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, Luis E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Haste, Tim [Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, Paul-Lez-Durance (France). Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN); Kaerkelae, Teemu [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    Source term research has continued internationally for more than 30 years, increasing confidence in calculations of the potential radioactive release to the environment after a severe reactor accident. Important experimental data have been obtained, mainly under international frameworks such as OECD/NEA and EURATOM. Specifically, Phebus FP provides major insights into fission product release and transport. Results are included in severe accident analysis codes. Data from international projects are being interpreted with a view to further improvements in these codes. This paper synthesizes the recent main outcomes from source term research on these topics, and on source term mitigation. It highlights knowledge gaps remaining and discusses ways to proceed. Aside from this further knowledge-driven research, there is consensus on the need to assess the source term predictive ability of current system codes, taking account of scale-up from experiment to reactor conditions.

  9. Building the European Research Area in nuclear fission pioneering steps in actinide science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans

    2004-07-01

    The concept of the European Research Area (ERA) aims at closer development of research policies in Europe and closer networking of research capacities, to reduce fragmentation of research in Europe. The goal is to make European research more effective and competitive. Several approaches are made to create ERA. The European Research Framework Programme is one tool in this context, with the introduction of the new instruments, Integrated Projects, Networks of Excellence and Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives. Actinide science is one area that could benefit from better coordination and more effective use of the research capacities, both human and physical. The European Commission is thus funding a Network of Excellence (ACTINET-6) and an Integrated Project (EUROPART) in this area within the sixth EURATOM Framework Programme. (author)

  10. Information report nuclear energy in Europe; Rapport d'information energie nucleaire en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesquiou, A. de

    2002-07-01

    This report takes stock on the nuclear energy situation in Europe. The European Union with more than 40% of the nuclear power capacity in the world, is already confronted with the nuclear energy place and stakes in the future energy policy. The report si presented in two main parts. The first part, ''the assets and the weaknesses of the nuclear energy'', deals with the economical aspects which historically based the choice of the nuclear energy and the induced impacts on the environment. The competitiveness of the nuclear energy but also the wastes management problem are discussed. The second part, ''the diplomatic and juridical framework of the nuclear energy development'', details and presents the limits of the EURATOM treaty. (A.L.B.)

  11. Fusion - 2050 perspective (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The results of strongly exothermic reaction of thermonuclear fusion between nuclei of deuterium and tritium are: helium nuclei and neutrons, plus considerable kinetic energy of neutrons of over 14 MeV. DT nuclides synthesis reaction is probably not the most favorable one for energy production, but is the most advanced technologically. More efficient would be possibly aneutronic fusion. The EU by its EURATOM agenda prepared a Road Map for research and implementation of Fusion as a commercial method of thermonuclear energy generation in the time horizon of 2050.The milestones on this road are tokomak experiments JET, ITER and DEMO, and neutron experiment IFMIF. There is a hope, that by engagement of the national government, and all research and technical fusion communities, part of this Road Map may be realized in Poland. The infrastructure build for fusion experiments may be also used for material engineering research, chemistry, biomedical, associated with environment protection, power engineering, security, ...

  12. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics. Policy Statement No. 7.1: The roles, responsibilities and status of the medical physicist including the criteria for the staffing levels in a Medical Physics Department approved by EFOMP Council on 5th February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen; Christofides, Stelios; Brambilla, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an amalgamation and an update of the EFOMP Policy Statements No. 2, 4 and 7. It presents guidelines for the roles, responsibilities and status of the medical physicist together with recommended minimum staffing levels. These recommendations take into account the ever-increasing demands for competence, patient safety, specialisation and cost effectiveness of modern healthcare services, the requirements of the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, the European Commission's Radiation Protection Report No. 174: "Guidelines on medical physics expert", as well as the relevant publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The provided recommendations on minimum staffing levels are in very good agreement with those provided by both the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Radiation protection of patients and quality controls in teleradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermiglio, G.; Testagrossa, B.; Sansotta, C.; Tripepi, M.G. [Messina Univ., Dept. of Protezionistica Ambientale, Sanitaria, Sociale ed Industriale (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Nowadays, it is well-known that tele-radiology represents the new frontier of radiodiagnostic imaging. In this case, the continuous broadening of transmission bands and the more sophisticated procedures of information packaging constitute a no negligible inducement. Moreover, standards used to convert analogical signals into the digital ones, necessary to transfer via ether radiological images and information, involve a more limited loss of information. Nevertheless, unlike the common images, in case of the X-ray diagnostic images it must take into account that the EURATOM Council Directives give the health physicist all the procedures to be followed for checking the status of X-ray equipments. In particular, the EURATOM Council Directives provide minimum criteria of acceptance for parameters that characterised the correct working of the radiological equipments and the guide lines for standardised execution of X-ray images, in order to obtain high quality information. In addiction, for maintaining such level it is necessary to adopt adequate programs of Quality Assurance. Naturally, the high quality of radiological images must be conserved after the transmission of information. So, in order to evaluate the amount of losses that can be introduced after transferring the X-ray images from source to user, the authors have carried out specific procedures in order to evaluate the quality level of the images after transmission and to compare them with the correspondent ones acquired at the equipment console. To this aim, the AAs have identified all the parameters able to verify the quality level of the images and measured the values obtained for the directly acquired images and the transferred ones. They have also considered different kinds of transmission protocols to define suitable procedures of remote quality controls. (authors)

  14. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3

  15. Current problems of radiographic testing and radiation protection. Contributions; Aktuelle Fragen der Durchstrahlungspruefung und des Strahlenschutzes. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-01

    These seminar proceedings contain eight contributions in the form of summaries, some with PowerPoint slides, on the following topics: 1. Selected applications of radiographic testing in lightweight construction (T. Wenzel et al.); 2. X-ray computer tomography in lightweight construction (H.-J. Ullrich); 3. Testing of castings at Volkswagen using atline computer tomography (F. Hansen et al.), 4: Use of X-ray computer tomography for inspection of fibre-reinforced structures in the aerospace sector (T. Ullmann et al.); 5. New standards in digital radiography and for the phaseout of film radiography - from welding techniques to fibre composites (U. Ewert); 6. The current model approvals for nondestructive testing - what do the regulations require of the radiation protection supervisor and the radiation protection officer? (A. Lange); 7. Pulsed x-ray radiation - what measurement devices come into consideration? - current status and developments (F. Busch); 8. The revised EURATOM basic radiation protection standards - What changes await industrial radiography? [German] Diese Seminar-CD enthaelt acht Beitraege in Form von Kurzfassungen, zum Teil auch mit PowerPoint-Folien, zu folgenden Themen: 1. Ausgewaehlte Anwendungen der Durchstrahlungspruefung im Leichtbau (T. Wenzel et al.); 2. Roentgen-Computer-Tomographie im Leichtbau (H.-J. Ullrich); 3. Pruefung der Gussproduktion bei Volkswagen mit Hilfe der atline Computertomographie (F. Hansen et al.), 4: Einsatz der Roentgen-Computertomographie zur Untersuchung von Faserverbundstrukturen in der Luft- und Raumfahrt (T. Ullmann et al.); 5. Neue Standards zur Digitalen Radiographie und zum Filmersatz - von der Schweisstechnik bis zu Faserkompositen (U. Ewert); 6. Die aktuellen Muster-Genehmigungen in der ZfP - Was verlangen die Auflagen vom SSV und SSB? (A. Lange); 7. Gepulste Roentgenstrahlung - Welche Messgeraete waeren einsetzbar?. - Stand und Entwicklung (F. Busch); 8. Die neue EURATOM-Strahlenschutzgrundnorm - Welche

  16. Radiological informed consent in cardiovascular imaging: towards the medico-legal perfect storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loré Cosimo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Use of radiation for medical examinations and tests is the largest manmade source of radiation exposure. No one can doubt the immense clinical and scientific benefits of imaging to the modern practice of medicine. Every radiological and nuclear medicine examination confers a definite (albeit low long-term risk of cancer, but patients undergoing such examinations often receive no or inaccurate information about radiological dose exposure and corresponding risk directly related to the radiological dose received. Too detailed information on radiological dose and risk may result in undue anxiety, but information "economical with the truth" may violate basic patients' rights well embedded in ethics (Oviedo convention 1997 and law (97/43 Euratom Directive 1997. Informed consent is a procedure needed to establish a respectful and ethical relation between doctors and patients. Nevertheless, in an "ideal" consent process, the principle of patient autonomy in current radiological practice might be reinforced by making it mandatory to obtain explicit and transparent informed consent form for radiological examination with high exposure (≥ 500 chest x-rays. The form may spell-out the type of examination, the exposure in effective dose (mSv, derived from reference values in guidelines or – better – from actual values from their department. The dose equivalent might be also expressed in number of chest radiographs and the risk of cancer as number of extra cases in the exposed population, derived from most recent and authorative guidelines (e.g., BEIR VII Committee, release 2006. Common sense, deontological code, patients'rights, medical imaging guidelines, Euratom law, all coherently and concordantly encourage and recommend a justified, optimized, responsible and informed use of testing with ionizing radiation. Although the idea of informed consent for radiation dose does not seem to be on the immediate radar screen at least in the US, the

  17. MO-DE-BRA-05: EUTEMPE-RX: Combining E-Learning and Face-To-Face Training to Build Expert Knowledge, Skills and Competences for Medical Physicists in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, H [University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van Peteghem, N; Creten, S [KU Leuven, Leuven, Vlaams Brabant (Belgium); Mackenzie, A [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Vano, E [San Carlos University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Borowski, M [Klinikum Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Christofides, S [Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus); Caruana, C [University of Malta, Msida (Malta)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In 2013, the EURATOM authorities of the European Commission decided to support the Horizon2020 project submission ‘EUTEMPE-RX’ that aimed for a new set of course modules to train medical physicists in diagnostic and interventional radiology to expert level with small group deep learning. Each module would consist of 2 phases: an e-learning and a face-to-face phase, each phase requiring typically 40h of participant time. Methods: The European Federation (EFOMP) and 13 European partners, all of them selected for their excellent scientific and/or educational skills, led the 12 course modules. A quality manual ensured the quality of course content and organization. Educational workshops familiarized the teachers with e-learning techniques and methods for assessment. Content was set in accordance with the EC document RP174 that lists learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skills and competences (KSCs) for different specialties and levels of medical physics. Surveys for stake holder satisfaction were prepared. Results: Today the course modules are being realized. The modules cover most of the KSCs in RP174 document. Teachers have challenged the participants with unique tasks: case studies in medical physics leadership, Monte Carlo simulation of a complete x-ray imaging chain, development of a task specific QA protocol, compilation of optimization plans, simulation tasks with anthropomorphic breast models, etc. Participants undertook practical sessions in modern hospitals and visited a synchrotron facility, a calibration lab, screening organizations, etc. Feedback form quality surveys was very positive and constructive. A sustainability plan has been worked out. Conclusion: The modules have enabled the participants to develop their KSCs and cope with challenges in medical physics. The sustainability plan will be implemented to continue the unique combined e-learning and face to face training at high level training in diagnostic and interventional radiology

  18. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, S. J.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Hu, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Trellue, H.; Vo, D.

    2016-10-01

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  19. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccaro, S. [European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Tobin, S.J.; Favalli, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grogan, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Jansson, P. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Liljenfeldt, H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Hu, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Schwalbach, P. [European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Sjöland, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) (Sweden); Trellue, H.; Vo, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-11

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu, and {sup 134}Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  20. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    Takizuka (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan: Chair) R J Groebner (General Atomics, USA) T S Hahm (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA) A E Hubbard (MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, USA) K Ida (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) S V Lebedev (Ioffe Institute, Russia) G Saibene (EFDA CSU Garching, Germany) W Suttrop (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany) Additional information about this meeting (H-mode-TM-11) is available in its homepage http://www-jt60.naka.jaea.go.jp/h-mode-tm-11/. List of Participants N Aiba (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) T Akiyama (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) N Asakura (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) L G Askinazi (Ioffe Institute, Russia) M N A Beurskens (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) J D Callen (University of Wisconsin, USA) T Cho (University of Tsukuba, Japan) P C DeVries (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) X T Ding (Southwestern Institute of Physics, China) E J Doyle (University of California, Los Angels, USA) A Fukuyama (Kyoto University, Japan) P Gohil (General Atomics, USA) R J Groebner (General Atomics, USA) T S Hahm (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA) N Hayashi (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) Y Higashiyama (Nagoya University, Japan) Y Higashizono (University of Tsukuba, Japan) M Hirata (University of Tsukuba, Japan) G T Hoang (Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion Controle, France) G M D Hogeweij (FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands) M Honda (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) L D Horton (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany) W A Houlberg (ITER Organization) A E Hubbard (MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, USA) J W Hughes (MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, USA) M Ichimura (University of Tsukuba, Japan) K Ida (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) T Ido (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) T Imai (University of Tsukuba, Japan) F Imbeaux (Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion Controle, France) A Itakura

  1. Cooperative diplomacy: Citizens, sovereignty, and the logic of democratic enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Anthony Mark

    2000-12-01

    The contemporary theory of international regimes holds that governments collaborate when they reach a consensus on a centralized supervisory mechanism for resolving compliance, monitoring, and distributive questions. Yet, in the least likely case of international nuclear security, governments have repeatedly established major international regimes without such a consensus, even though undetected defection would impose substantial long-term costs on those continuing to comply, and seriously complicate attempts at retaliation. For example, despite more than ten years of almost continuous East-West negotiations, governments could not reach a consensus on the compliance questions related to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards regime. Yet, threshold and potential nuclear powers, such as France and India, respectively, exempted themselves from the IAEA's safeguards regime, but gained access to the knowledge, facilities and materials intended exclusively for full participants. Similarly, France, Italy, and Germany failed to agree on a centralized mechanism for supervising the production of nuclear warheads for a Western European nuclear force. Indeed, even the member states of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) could not agree on an effective centralized mechanism for supervising the regional production of fissionable materials. Yet, under the 1958 United States-EURATOM Nuclear Cooperation agreement, the United States agreed to expand its sales of enriched uranium and other special nuclear materials to the discordant members of EURATOM, who jointly assumed responsibility for an independent regional system of safeguards. Finally, the U.S. and Soviet governments could not agree on a centralized mechanism for solving the compliance questions related to the Partial Test Ban Treaty concluded in 1963, but the two superpowers and the U.K. left the resolution of those questions to the domestic authorities of the signatory states. I hypothesize

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Class, A.G.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moreau, V.; Massidda, L. [CRS4 Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Polaris, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D. [ASCOMP GmbH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angeli, D.; Losi, G. [DIEF – Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Mooney, K.G. [University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Amherst (United States); Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  3. 4{sup th} Annual workshop proceedings of the collaborative project ''Redox phenomena controlling systems'' (7{sup th} EC FP CP RECOSY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Kienzler, Bernhard; Duro, Lara; Grive, Mireia; Montoya, Vanessa (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The EURATOM 7{sup th} EC Framework Program Collaborative Project REdox phenomena Controlling SYstems (RECOSY) started in April 2008 and extends over 4 years. Although redox is not a new geochemical issue, different questions are still not resolved. For this reason, main objectives of RECOSY project are a) the sound understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release/retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal, b) providing tools to apply the result to Performance Assessment/Safety Case, c) training of next generation and d) documentation and communication of the results. To this aim, the project set up a consortium of 32 Beneficiaries/Contractors and 6 Associated Groups. The consortium includes key European Research Institutes, Universities, National Waste Management Agencies and SMEs, from 13 EURATOM signatory states, Russia, Japan, Korea, USA and one European Joint Research Centre. The ReCosy concept is innovative in the scientific approach to the redox phenomena. It includes i) advanced analytical tools, ii) investigations of processes responsible for redox control (thermodynamically and kinetically controlled processes, surface reactions and microbial processes,..), iii) provision of required data on redox controlling processes, and iv) response to disturbances in disposal systems. The work program is structured along six RTD workpackages (WP1-6). They cover near-field and far field aspects as well as all relevant host-rocks considered in Europe. In WP1, the scientific state-of-the-art and its application to Performance Assessment/Safety Case is documented and regularly updated. WP2 focuses on development of redox determination methods. WP3 focuses on redox response of defined and near-natural systems. WP4 studies the redox reactions of radionuclides. WP5 focuses on Redox processes in radionuclide transport and WP6 deals with redox reactions affecting the spent fuel source-term. Specific workpackages on knowledge management, education

  4. Nordic working group on x-ray diagnostics - Practical implementation of the directive on medical exposures in the Nordic EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltenburg, H.N.; Groen, P. [National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Herlev (Denmark); Leitz, W. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Servomaa, A. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Einarsson, G. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Reykjavik (Iceland); Olerud, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo (Norway)

    2003-06-01

    The EU directive on medical exposure, 97/43/EURATOM (referred to in the following as MED) imposes new requirements on hospital departments using ionising radiation for either diagnostics or treatment of illnesses. The directive was approved on 30 June 1997, and the member states were obliged to implement the requirements into national legislation before 13 May 2000. The implementation of a directive of this kind is a complicated process requiring time as well as other resources. The Nordic EU countries (Sweden, Finland and Denmark) must comply with the rules in MED, while this is not the case for Norway and Iceland as EFTA (European Free Trade Association) members, since the agreements between EFTA and EU does not cover the EURATOM treaty. The issues that have to be addressed in the national legislation are justification, optimisation, responsibilities, procedures, training, equipment, special protection during pregnancy and breast-feeding, and potential exposure. A central aspect in MED is the requirement for quality assurance programmes to be established in radiological departments (and in other departments employing ionising radiation). A change of this magnitude in legislation requires adjustments in the routines of the individual departments. The staff in each department needs to prepare and follow procedures and instructions for daily work and also participate in day-to-day quality assurance. A considerable burden has also been laid on the radiation protection authorities in the member states, first in the process of transposing MED into national law or regulations, and secondly in guiding the process of practical implementation. Here we will describe how the individual Nordic EU countries have chosen to implement MED in national legislation and how far the process of complying with the requirements has come so far. Although Norway and Iceland are not required to follow MED, it is still interesting for comparison to include the situation in these countries

  5. Medidas de radón en espacios de trabajo subterráneos del Campus de la Universidad de Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedecausa, B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of radioactive radon gas in underground workplaces in the Campus of the University of Alicante were performed using short period E-PERM® devices during the winter of 2010 and summer of 2011. The obtained radon concentrations show maximum values of 73.8 Bq/m3 in winter and 84.0 Bq/m3 in summer, and an arithmetic mean of 30.3 Bq/m3. Despite not considering annual mean concentrations, results are below those included in 90/143/Euratom European Commission Recommendation on the protection of the public against the dangers of radon exposure inside buildings, as well as those established by the Nuclear Security Council IS-33 Instruction in workplaces, contributing to the evaluation of the national distribution of radon and paying attention to radon problems in underground spaces.Las medidas del gas radiactivo radón en lugares de trabajo subterráneos del Campus de la Universidad de Alicante fueron realizadas mediante dispositivos E-PERM® de corto plazo durante el invierno de 2010 y el verano de 2011. Las concentraciones de radón obtenidas muestran valores máximos de 73,8 Bq/m3 en invierno y 84,0 Bq/m3 en verano, así como una media aritmética de 30,3 Bq/m3. Aunque no se abordan concentraciones medias anuales, todos los resultados se encuentran por debajo de los valores recogidos en la Recomendación 90/143/ EURATOM de la Comisión Europea relativa a la protección de la población contra los peligros de una exposición al radón en el interior de edificios así como los establecidos por la Instrucción IS-33 del Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear en lugares de trabajo, contribuyendo a la evaluación de la distribución de radón a nivel nacional y prestando atención a los problemas que este gas puede ocasionar en espacios subterráneos.

  6. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G., E-mail: evanslg@ornl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De [European Commission, Euratom Safeguards Office (Luxembourg); Browne, Michael C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available {sup 241}AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×10{sup 4} s{sup −1}. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify {sup 235}U content in variable PWR fuel

  7. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Louise G.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De; Browne, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available 241AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×104 s-1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32

  8. News of interest in the future European directive for radiological protection Novedades de interés en la futura directiva europea de protección radiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cancio Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Advisory Panel of the European Commission on Radiological Protection, referred to in Article 31 of EURATOM Treaty, adopted in late February of 2010 the most important aspects of the future directive. This new Directive also adpats into a single legislative text the five previous directives, it also includes protection against gas radon on which there was previously only a recommendation. The issues of greatest concern are the new recommendations related to emergency planning, the new framework of the protection system now based on all types of situations, planned, existing and emergency. In addition, specific aspects of processing industries naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM are fully integrated in the protection system has included a major overhaul of protection in medical applications including extending what is stated in the current directive on the subject , addresses the specific aspects for imaging non-medical reasons, which sets out new requirements with respect to radon in homes and workplaces and, finally, are issued new requirements for residential construction materials.El Grupo de Expertos Asesor de la Comisión Europea en Protección Radiológica, contemplado en el artículo 31 del Tratado EURATOM, aprobó a finales de febrero de 2010 los aspectos más importantes de la futura directiva. Esta nueva directiva, además de que refunde en un único texto legislativo las cinco directivas anteriores, incorpora también la protección con respecto al gas radón sobre el cual solo existía anteriormente una recomendación. Los aspectos de mayor interés son las nuevas recomendaciones relacionadas con la planificación de las emergencias, el nuevo marco del sistema de protección basado ahora en todos los tipos de situaciones, planificadas, existentes y de emergencias. Además, los aspectos específicos de industrias que procesan materiales radiactivos naturales (NORM están integrados totalmente en el sistema de protecci

  9. MAST Upgrade Status and Future Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James; MAST Upgrade Team Team

    2017-10-01

    The MAST Upgrade spherical tokamak has unique capabilities to address some of the key issues facing the development of fusion energy. Its main objectives are: 1) development of novel exhaust concepts, 2) contribution to the knowledge base for ITER and 3) to explore potential routes to smaller/cheaper fusion reactors. To fulfil these aims, it is equipped with 19 new poloidal field coils and closed divertors with Super-X capability. BT has been increased by 50% and the pulse length and Ip have increased to 5s and 2MA respectively. Auxiliary heating is provided by on and off axis NBI. The gas fuelling system allows for injection from 10 poloidal locations. The divertors are diagnosed with probes, bolometers, Thomson scattering, IR, visible imaging and spectroscopy. Fast ion physics studies are enhanced with a new fast ion loss detector. Following the construction phase, further enhancements are underway including new diagnostics, a cryoplant to serve the cryopumps and 2 additional neutral beams to increase the heating power from 5 to 10MW. Work supported by the RCUK Energy Programme [Grant Number EP/P012450/1] and EURATOM.

  10. Will fusion be ready to meet the energy challenge for the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchet, Yves; Massard, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Finite amount of fossil fuel, global warming, increasing demand of energies in emerging countries tend to promote new sources of energies to meet the needs of the coming centuries. Despite their attractiveness, renewable energies will not be sufficient both because of intermittency but also because of the pressure they would put on conventional materials. Thus nuclear energy with both fission and fusion reactors remain the main potential source of clean energy for the coming centuries. France has made a strong commitment to fusion reactor through ITER program. But following and sharing Euratom vision on fusion, France supports the academic program on Inertial Fusion Confinement with direct drive and especially the shock ignition scheme which is heavily studied among the French academic community. LMJ a defense facility for nuclear deterrence is also open to academic community along with a unique PW class laser PETAL. Research on fusion at LMJ-PETAL is one of the designated topics for experiments on the facility. Pairing with other smaller European facilities such as Orion, PALS or LULI2000, LMJ-PETAL will bring new and exciting results and contribution in fusion science in the coming years.

  11. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives; Dosismonitoring in der Radiologie. Status quo und Zukunftsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Meineke, A. [Cerner Healthcare Services, Idstein (Germany); Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2016-05-15

    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  12. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  13. Project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law made of a single article. The agreement between the French government and the international organization ITER is attached to the document. It defines the juridical status, the privileges and immunities of the organization itself and of its personnel inside the French territory. An appendix to the agreement precises the cooperation modalities between the French authorities and ITER organization. (J.S.)

  14. Does the new EU-BSS improve radon protection in Austria?; Wird durch die neue EU-BSS der Radonschutz in Oesterreich verbessert?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon; Haider, W. [Bundesministerium fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft, Wien (Austria). Abt. Strahlenschutz

    2015-07-01

    The new Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM regarding radiation protection (EU-BSS) contains comprehensive regulations regarding radon protection in dwellings, in public buildings, and at workplaces for the first time. Key elements are the specification of a reference level of maximum 300 Bq/m{sup 3}, the establishment of a national radon action plan, and a more comprehensive regulation of radon protection at workplaces and public buildings. The radon action plan shall contain strategies and measures regarding for example the estimation of the distribution of indoor radon concentrations, the mapping of radon, the radon risk communication strategy, the assignment of responsibilities, and regular reviews of the action plan. The new EU-BSS often requires only the establishment of strategies and the specification of measures, leaving the precise content of the strategies and measures to the member states. This gives the member states flexibility for the implementation of the EU-BSS into national legislation and allows to account for specific national experiences and circumstances. This contribution discusses and evaluates - based on the existing regulations concerning radon protection in Austria - the effectiveness of different new measures and regulations with respect to reducing the radon risk in Austria. Furthermore, their feasibility and practicability in terms of administrative and financial effort will be discussed. Thus, efficient new measures which lead to an improvement of the current radon control system will be identified.

  15. Practices in norm industries. Some remarks and questions on the implementation of the EU-BSS; Taetigkeiten in Norm-Industrien. Anmerkungen und Fragestellungen zur Umsetzung der EU-BSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flesch, K. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany); Deutsch-Schweizerischer Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Juelich (Germany). Arbeitskreis ' ' Natuerliche Radioaktivitaet' ' (AKNAT)

    2015-07-01

    The expert group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the ''German-Swiss Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.'' (FS) has assessed the practicability of individual facts of provisions in the EU BSS (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom) for protection against natural radiation sources with regard to its implementation into the laws and administrative provisions. Therefore the topics concerning NORM industries, radon, contaminated sites and commodities with NORM were identified to that the AKNAT commented from the technical point of view in preparation for implementing to a German radiation protection law. This presentation focuses on the topic of NORM industries. The AKNAT can provide its expert knowledge in practical radiation protection in terms of objections or suggestions for the implementation of the EU BSS into German radiation protection legislation. This relates to terminologies that are established or will be introduced, to the integration on the protection against natural radiation sources in the new concept of exposure situations and to the application on the principle of justification. This is as well connected to the modified methodology with the new concept of a 'graded approach' for NORM industries. Furthermore, some aspects will be discussed in connection with the new list of NORM industries, with the dose limits of occupational exposure as well as the dose limits for public exposure from all authorised practices.

  16. A training syllabus for radiation protection in dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, A; Dowling, A; Renehan, J; Clarke, D; Malone, J F

    2008-01-01

    The EU Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM (MED) states that Member States shall ensure that adequate theoretical and practical training is provided for dental practitioners working with ionising radiation; this also includes the provision of continuing education and training programmes, post-qualification. The area of dental radiology is specifically mentioned in this legally binding document. The Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James's Hospital, Dublin, is particularly interested in the area of radiation protection training and routinely provides educational courses both at national and international levels. A recent review of their dental radiation protection course was undertaken in conjunction with a number of Principal Dental Surgeons within the Health Service Executive in Ireland. The revised course was delivered to over 200 dental staff members at two separate meetings during 2006. The response from attendees was very positive. It is proposed to extend this course to other dental professionals, working both in the Irish private and public health sectors in the future.

  17. COMBINED MEASUREMENTS WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL DESIGN INFORMATION VERIFICATION SYSTEM AND GAMMA RAY IMAGING - A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT BETWEEN OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY, AND THE JOINT RESEARCH CENTER AT ISPRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailescu, L; Vetter, K; Ruhter, W; Chivers, D; Dreicer, M; Coates, C; Smith, S; Hines, J; Caiado, A R; Sequeira, V; Fiocco, M; Goncalves, J G

    2006-06-14

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have jointly performed tests to demonstrate combined measurements with a three-dimensional (3D) design information verification (DIV) system and a gamma-ray imager for potential safeguard applications. The 3D DIV system was made available by the European Commission's Joint Research Center to ORNL under a collaborative project between the U.S. Department of Energy and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The system is able to create 3D maps of rooms and objects and of identifying changes in positions and modifications with a precision on the order of millimeters. The gamma ray imaging system consists of a 4{pi} field-of-view Compton imaging system which has two fully operational DSSD (Double-Sided Segment Detector) High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors developed at LLNL. The Compton imaging instrument not only provides imaging capabilities, but provides excellent energy resolution which enables the identification of radioisotopes and nuclear materials. Joint Research Center was responsible to merge gamma-ray images with the 3D range maps. The results of preliminary first measurements performed at LLNL demonstrate, for the first time, mapping of panoramic gamma-ray images into 3D range data.

  18. EUROPAIRS: The European project on coupling of High Temperature Reactors with industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo, C., E-mail: carmen.angulo@gdfsuez.com [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Bogusch, E. [AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Strasse 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Bredimas, A. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Delannay, N. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Viala, C. [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Ruer, J.; Muguerra, Ph.; Sibaud, E. [SAIPEM S.A., 1/7 Avenue San Fernando, 78884 Saint Quentin en Yvelines Cedex (France); Chauvet, V. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Hittner, D. [AREVA NP Inc., 3315 Old Forest Road, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Fuetterer, M.A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Groot, S. de [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lensa, W. von; Verfondern, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strasse,52425 Juelich (Germany); Moron, R. [Solvay SA, rue du Prince Albert 33, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Baudrand, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Griffay, G. [Arcelor Mittal Maizieres Research SA, rue Luigi Cherubini 1A5, 39200 Saint Denis (France); Baaten, A. [USG/Baaten Energy Consulting, Burgermeester-Ceulen-Straat 78, 6212CT Maastricht (Netherlands); Segurado-Gimenez, J. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.

  19. The exposures to natural radioactivity as a result of human activities; Les expositions a la radioactivite naturelle du fait des activites humaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Dupuis, M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Leprieur, F.; Pasquier, J.L.; Doremus, P.; Pierre, J.P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Clamart (France); Bernhard, S. [ALGADE, 87 6 Bessines sur Gartempe (France); Delporte, V. [Drection Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Servent, J.P. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, 75 - Paris (France); Marchand, D. [DRASS Bretagne (France); Dupuis, M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Leprieur, F.; Pasquier, J.L.; Doremus, P.; Pierre, J.P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Clamart (France); Surbeck, H. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland); Degrange, J.P. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2005-07-01

    The new regulation in matter of radiation protection, coming from the transposition of the European directive 96/29/EURATOM modifies the code of the public health and the labour code. The exposures to natural radioactivity by the very fact of human activities are the object of specific dispositions. These new dispositions apply to professional areas that were, until now, little concerned by the regulation relative to ionizing radiations. The S.F.R.P., in relationship with the Minister in charge of labour, and the A.F.T.I.M. (French organisation of safety technicians and engineers and labour physicians) organizes two days of information and exchange on the subject. This meeting concerns industry and research departments but also inspectors and labour physicians and other actors having a look on the risk management in societies. After some reminder on radioactivity and its effects, the regulation and the global risk management on working place, several actual examples are presented, covering the different known situations of exposure to the natural radioactivity ( radon, cosmic rays, use of radioactive material in an industrial process, production of radioactive waste). The days finish by a round table conference on the stakes and practical entailment of the new regulation. (N.C.)

  20. General report on legal problems in radiation protection. Working group 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The legal implications and especially how some of the less definite concepts of the ICRP recommendations in Publication 60, issued in 1991, are given regulatory form are analysed. The preparation of the new EC directive on radiation protection and the attempt by IAEA and NEA to integrate the ICRP radiological protection principles with the nuclear safety principles are also examined. A special paragraph deals with long-debated question of exemptions. The report then analyses the right to be informed and the obligation to inform, in the field of radiation protection of the public, highlighting the different approaches in the regulatory systems developed during the past years at Community level and in the US. The problems of coordination between the provisions of the EC and the EURATOM treaties on environmental protection and radiation protection respectively, are then considered, partly with a view to the possible merging of these provisions into a single Treaty. Lastly, some considerations are developed concerning the different possible approaches to compensation for potentially radiation-induced diseases. 27 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Nuclear trade and non-proliferation: report by working group; Commerce nucleaire et non-proliferation: rapport du groupe de travail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerever, M.

    1995-12-31

    The paper is organized in three parts. The first one analyses the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) mentioning the arrangements and registered agreements between the IAEA and Member States. Also, the most important international legal instruments concerned the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are considered. In the second part, other international, regional or national legal instruments are discussed, particularly the London Club Guidelines, Treaty of Tlatelolco, the EURATOM and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Treaties, besides the American law of 18 Mars, 1978 - Nuclear Non-proliferation Act (NNPA) about the exportation of materials and services or nuclear technology; An appreciation about the laws and treaties are presented in the third part. Special attention is given to reinforce the non-proliferation dispositives face the actions after Iraq`s event (1990): new installations and nuclear activities moratorium extension export controls extension established by the London Club Guidelines and full scope safeguards adoption to accomplish controls and protect of dual-use nuclear-related technologies. 3 refs.

  2. DOSEFU: Computer application for dose calculation and effluent management in normal operation; DOSEFU: Aplicacion informatica para calculo de dosis y gestion de efluents en operacion normal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Garcia, J. E.; Gonzalvo Manovel, A.; Revuelta Garcia, L.

    2002-07-01

    DOSEFU is a computer application on Windows that develops the methodology of nuclear power plant Exterior Dose Calculation Manuals (Manuals de Calculo de Dosis al Exterior-MACADE) for calculating doses in normal operation caused by radioactive liquid and gaseous effluents, for the purpose of enforcing the new Spanish Regulation on Health Protection against Ionizing Radiations, Royal Decree 783/2001 resulting from transposition of Directive 96/29/Euratom whereby the basic rules regarding health protection of workers and the population against risks resulting from ionizing radiations are established. In addition to making dose calculations, DOSEFU generates, on a magnetic support, the information regarding radioactive liquid and gaseous effluents that plants must periodically send to the CSN (ELGA format). The computer application has been developed for the specific case of Jose Cabrera NPP, which is called DOEZOR. This application can be easily implemented in any other nuclear or radioactive facility. The application is user-friendly, as the end user inputs data and executes the different modules through keys and dialogue boxes that are enabled by clicking on the mouse (see figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 ), The application runs under Windows 95. Digital Visual Fortran has been used as the development program, as this does not require additional libraries (DLLs), it can be installed in any computer without affecting other programs that are already installed. (Author)

  3. An Illustrative Guide to the Minerva Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Erik; Leonard, Patrick; Hoeffel, Udo; Kwak, Sehyun; Pavone, Andrea; Svensson, Jakob; Krychowiak, Maciej; Wendelstein 7-X team Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Modern phsyics experiments require tracking and modelling data and their associated uncertainties on a large scale, as well as the combined implementation of multiple independent data streams for sophisticated modelling and analysis. The Minerva Framework offers a centralized, user-friendly method of large-scale physics modelling and scientific inference. Currently used by teams at multiple large-scale fusion experiments including the Joint European Torus (JET) and Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), the Minerva framework provides a forward-model friendly architecture for developing and implementing models for large-scale experiments. One aspect of the framework involves so-called data sources, which are nodes in the graphical model. These nodes are supplied with engineering and physics parameters. When end-user level code calls a node, it is checked network-wide against its dependent nodes for changes since its last implementation and returns version-specific data. Here, a filterscope data node is used as an illustrative example of the Minerva Framework's data management structure and its further application to Bayesian modelling of complex systems. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under Grant Agreement No. 633053.

  4. A training syllabus for radiation protection in dental radiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, A

    2008-01-01

    The EU Council Directive 97\\/43\\/EURATOM (MED) states that Member States shall ensure that adequate theoretical and practical training is provided for dental practitioners working with ionising radiation; this also includes the provision of continuing education and training programmes, post-qualification. The area of dental radiology is specifically mentioned in this legally binding document. The Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James\\'s Hospital, Dublin, is particularly interested in the area of radiation protection training and routinely provides educational courses both at national and international levels. A recent review of their dental radiation protection course was undertaken in conjunction with a number of Principal Dental Surgeons within the Health Service Executive in Ireland. The revised course was delivered to over 200 dental staff members at two separate meetings during 2006. The response from attendees was very positive. It is proposed to extend this course to other dental professionals, working both in the Irish private and public health sectors in the future.

  5. Generic Site Safety Report

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna. ITER Joint Central Team

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) are being conducted jointly by Euratom, Japan, and the Russian Federation, as Parties to the ITER EDA Agreement signed on 21 July 1992 and subsequently extended until July 20th 2001. (The United States of America was an ITER Party until September 30th 1999). The activities are conducted under the auspices of the IAEA by the ITER Joint Central Team and by the Home Teams (HT). The JCT is composed of qualified persons made available by each of the Parties in approximately equal numbers. The JCT members are located at the ITER Joint Work Sites (JWS) in Naka (Japan), Garching (Germany), and formerly in San Diego (USA). The Home Teams are established and organized by each Party for performing the tasks of the work programme for the EDA, assigned to them in approximately equal shares. Home Teams in each of the Parties perform specific design tasks, and perform research and development in technology (physics R&D is contributed voluntarily). The Home Team Leaders (HTL) ...

  6. Translational reprocessing of spent fuel elements in the light of European Community law. Grenzueberschreitende atomare Wiederaufarbeitung im Lichte des europaeischen Gemeinschaftsrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuing, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Objections are being raised against the current reprocessing of fuel elements from German nuclear power plants in France and Great Britain on the grounds that, measured by German protection requirements, it cannot be regarded as 'inncuous utilization' of radioactive waste material; this brings a momentous intervention of the German authorities against the operators of German nuclear power plants into consideration. Yet would not such a 'national solo attempt' conflict with European Community law . This question is illuminated in its different aspects. First the issue is examined from the point of view of radiation protection law under the Euratom Treaty and of the aim of the EC to establish the single market. Subsequent focal points are an inquiry into compatibility with the freedom of merchandise traffic and commercial services as provided by European Community law. The outcome is that European Community law does not oppose the German authorities intervencing. Rather such self-discipline practised by member states for the benefit of the European environment is admissible so long as the other EC member states do not establish equally stringent standards on their own accord or European Community law itself does not provide protection on a high level. (orig.).

  7. Analysis of filament statistics in fast camera data on MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Tom; Militello, Fulvio; Walkden, Nick; Harrison, James; Silburn, Scott; Bradley, James

    2017-10-01

    Coherent filamentary structures have been shown to play a dominant role in turbulent cross-field particle transport [D'Ippolito 2011]. An improved understanding of filaments is vital in order to control scrape off layer (SOL) density profiles and thus control first wall erosion, impurity flushing and coupling of radio frequency heating in future devices. The Elzar code [T. Farley, 2017 in prep.] is applied to MAST data. The code uses information about the magnetic equilibrium to calculate the intensity of light emission along field lines as seen in the camera images, as a function of the field lines' radial and toroidal locations at the mid-plane. In this way a `pseudo-inversion' of the intensity profiles in the camera images is achieved from which filaments can be identified and measured. In this work, a statistical analysis of the intensity fluctuations along field lines in the camera field of view is performed using techniques similar to those typically applied in standard Langmuir probe analyses. These filament statistics are interpreted in terms of the theoretical ergodic framework presented by F. Militello & J.T. Omotani, 2016, in order to better understand how time averaged filament dynamics produce the more familiar SOL density profiles. This work has received funding from the RCUK Energy programme (Grant Number EP/P012450/1), from Euratom (Grant Agreement No. 633053) and from the EUROfusion consortium.

  8. Patient dose in interventional radiology: a multicentre study of the most frequent procedures in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Bigand, Emeline [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); La Timone University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille Cedex (France); Salvat, Cecile [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Lariboisiere Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Paris (France); Vidal, Vincent [La Timone University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille Cedex (France); French Society of Radiology (SFR) - Interventional Radiology Federation (FRI), Paris (France); Beregi, Jean Paul [French Society of Radiology (SFR) - Interventional Radiology Federation (FRI), Paris (France); Nimes University Hospital, Medical Imaging Group Nimes, Department of Radiology, Nimes (France); Hornbeck, Amaury [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Trousseau University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Greffier, Joel [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Nimes University Hospital, Medical Imaging Group Nimes, Department of Radiology, Nimes (France)

    2017-10-15

    A national retrospective survey on patient doses was performed by the French Society of Medical physicists to assess reference levels (RLs) in interventional radiology as required by the European Directive 2013/59/Euratom. Fifteen interventional procedures in neuroradiology, vascular radiology and osteoarticular procedures were analysed. Kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), reference air kerma and number of images were recorded for 10 to 30 patients per procedure. RLs were calculated as the 3rd quartiles of the distributions. Results on 4600 procedures from 36 departments confirmed the large variability in patient dose for the same procedure. RLs were proposed for the four dosimetric estimators and the 15 procedures. RLs in terms of KAP and FT were 90 Gm.cm{sup 2} and 11 mins for cerebral angiography, 35 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 16 mins for biliary drainage, 75 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 6 mins for lower limbs arteriography and 70 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 11 mins for vertebroplasty. For these four procedures, RLs were defined according to the complexity of the procedure. For all the procedures, the results were lower than most of those already published. This study reports RLs in interventional radiology based on a national survey. Continual evolution of practices and technologies requires regular updates of RLs. (orig.)

  9. France's contribution to the construction of the European regulatory framework for nuclear safety; Le role de la France dans l'elaboration d'un cadre reglementaire europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etienne, Ph. [France aupres de l' Union europeenne, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    As a key player in the nuclear industry, France has worked constantly to consolidate the EURATOM requirements and to develop the legislation derived from them. The recent upsurge in interest in nuclear power has led the European Commission, supported by France, to produce a true community safety framework, the principles of which are presented in the 2000 Green Paper. The initial debate on the 'nuclear package' was followed by a period of reflection and discussion which began at a European level, in particular outside strictly community circles, with the WENRA group (Western European Nuclear Regulators Association). It was also at that time that France acquired an enhanced safety framework with the adoption of the 'Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field' Act of 2006. In March 2007, the European Council was to give the necessary impetus for reviving the Community process. ENSREG and the European Nuclear Energy Forum contributed to the Community debate on safety, waste management and transparency. This debate was to continue under the French Presidency with the adoption of a resolution on the management of waste and of spent fuel, along with initial discussions around the 'Safety' directive adopted several months later by the Czech Presidency. The efforts of the Commission and of France continued, in particular with a proposed directive concerning the management of waste and spent fuel, planned for autumn of 2010. (author)

  10. Impact of radiation protection means on the dose to the lens of the eye while handling radionuclides in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchmann, Iris; Szermerski, Bastian; Behrens, Rolf; Geworski, Lilli

    2016-12-01

    The human eye lens appears to be more radiosensitive than previously assumed. The reduction of the limit for the dose to the lens of the eye to 20 mSv per year has been passed in the current Euratom Directives (2013). Therefore, in this work the impact of laboratory glasses and X-ray protective goggles was investigated and reciprocal attenuation factors (i.e. transmission factors) for different nuclides (Tc-99m, I-131, Y-90, F-18 and Ga-68) were determined. The radionuclides in typical geometry (syringe, applicator) were positioned at a distance of 50 cm to the eyes of four Alderson-Head-Phantoms. Different dosemeters measuring Hp(3) respective Hp(0.07) were fixed to the eyes of the phantoms, either behind the glasses or without any protection means, respectively. The mean reciprocal attenuation factors were determined to be between unity for F-18 and I-131 using laboratory glasses (no attenuation effect) and radiation protection means, especially for those dose-relevant beta radiation emitting nuclides such as Y-90. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. New approach to the assessment and reduction of health risks and environmental impacts originating from TENORM according to EC regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poffijn, A. [Laboratory for Nuclear Physics, Gent (Belgium); Kraus, W.D. [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The New Basic Safety Standards as laid down in the Directive 96/29/Euratom differ from the earlier versions in that specific provisions have been formulated in Title VII for exposure to natural radiation sources. The scope of its application involves work activities, within which the presence of natural radiation sources may lead to exposures of workers and/or members of the public that cannot be ignored form the point of view of radiation protection. Two groups of work activities are of particular concern : the processing and/or storage of materials with enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and the production of residues causing a significant increase in the exposure of workers and members of the public. The Member States have to identity the activities of concern and they are given a high degree of flexibility in implementing the articles on natural radiation sources into national legislation. There is, however, a great need to harmonize the national approaches. Therefore guidance on the likely level of regulation of various materials and recommendations on the identification of such workplaces and on the nature of appropriate control have been prepared. The proposed set of screening and reference levels is intended as a first order approach, needing in some cases more detailed investigations. As a particular case, the detailed investigations done in relation to the phosphate industry and its environmental impact will be described and discussed. (authors)

  12. From Elsy to Leader - European LFR activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemberti, A. [Nuclear Science Development, Ansaldo Nucleare SpA, Corso F.M. Perrone 25, 16161 Genova (Italy); Carlsson, Johan [JRC/IE, Petten (Netherlands); Malambu, Edouard [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400, Mol (Belgium); Orden, Alfredo [Mechanical department, Empresarios Agrupados, Magallanes 3, 28015, Madrid (Spain); Cinotti, Luciano [Independent Professional Engineer, Via Vittorio Veneto 49, 16036, Recco, Genova (Italy); Struwe, Dankward [KIT-G, Karlsrhue (Germany); Agostini, Pietro; Monti, Stefano [ENEA, Via Martiri Di Montesole, 40129, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The European Lead Fast Reactor has been developed in the frame of the ELSY (European Lead System) project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of EURATOM, from September 2006 to March 2010. The project, coordinated by Ansaldo Nucleare, involved a wide consortium of European organizations. The ELSY reference design is a 600 MWe pool-type reactor cooled by pure lead. The ELSY project demonstrates the possibility of designing a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features, whilst fully complying with the Generation IV goals. The paper focuses on the main aspects of the proposed design for the European Lead Fast Reactor highlighting the innovation of this reactor concept and overall objectives. Special attention has been dedicated to safety starting from the first step of the design development taking into account other important aspects such as the investment protection, compactness of the primary system as well as sustainability. The main safety features of the proposed innovative Decay Heat Removal systems are presented. From the beginning of 2010, and for a duration of three years, the EC is financing a new project (LEADER - Lead European Advanced Demonstration Reactor) as part of the 7. Framework Program. The project is the natural follow up of ELSY: on the basis of the full plant size design, a Demonstration Plant for the LFR technology will be developed with the aim to proceed, in the following phase, to a detailed design and construction of the facility. This paper highlights the main objectives of the LEADER project. (authors)

  13. Some aspects on radiation protection in conventional and digital radiology in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milu, Constantin; Dumitrescu, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Since 1965, medical radiation exposure in the population of Romania has been evaluated by the Network of Radiation Hygiene Laboratories of the Ministry of Public Health, including 23 laboratories throughout the whole country; the network is co-ordinated by the Institute of Public Health Bucharest. In Romania, for a population of 22.5 million inhabitants, 465 X-ray examinations were reported during the last survey, the most frequent being chest examination. There was no specific reference to digital radiology. Digital radiology has been introduced only recently in Romania, and only some rough data on the situation can be presented. Siemens AG is now present in Romania with 23 installations, type SIEREGRAPH CF and AXIOM ICONOS. A digital image intensifier technique is used only for fluoroscopy, and radiography is performed using a conventional film/screen combination. The company Philips has nine installations for angiography, model INTEGRIS, and uses a computed radiography technique. Several direct digital radiography MULTISYSTEM SWISSRAY installations (about 40 units) are also available for adult and paediatric examinations. The Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM on health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure was fully transformed into Romanian legislation in 2002.

  14. Decision-making guide for management of agriculture in the case of a nuclear accident; Guide d'aide a la decision pour la gestion du milieu agricole en cas d'accident nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reales, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Fourrie, L. [Association De Coordination Technique Agricole, 75 - Paris (France); Quinio, C.; Grastilleur, Ch. [Ministere de l' Agriculture et de la Peche, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de l' Alimentation

    2008-07-15

    For several years, agricultural and nuclear professionals in France have been working on how to manage the agricultural situation in the event of a nuclear accident. This work resulted in measures at both the national (Aube nuclear safety exercises in 2003, INEX3 in 2005) and international levels (EURATOM Programmes). Following on from the European FARMING (FP5) and EURANOS (FP6) works, ACTA', IRSN and six agricultural technical institutes which are specialized in agricultural production and processing network (arable crop [especially cereals, maize, pulses, potatoes and forage crops], fruits and vegetables, vine and wine, livestock farming [cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry]), created a resource adapted to the French context: the Decision-aiding Tool for the Management of Agriculture in case of a Nuclear Accident. Devised for the Ministry of Agriculture services supporting state officials in a radiation emergency, this manual focuses on the early phase following the accident when the state of emergency would make discussion on countermeasures with a large stakeholder panel impossible. Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the French Nuclear Safety Authority, this project increased knowledge of post-accident management strategies and made an important contribution to the national think tank set up within the framework of the French Steering Committee for managing the post-event phase of a nuclear accident (CODIRPA). This article describes how the manual evolved throughout the project and the development of new resources. (authors)

  15. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of plutonium by passive neutron multiplicity counting

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay of plutonium in forms such as metal, oxide, scrap, residue, or waste using passive neutron multiplicity counting. This test method provides results that are usually more accurate than conventional neutron coincidence counting. The method can be applied to a large variety of plutonium items in various containers including cans, 208-L drums, or 1900-L Standard Waste Boxes. It has been used to assay items whose plutonium content ranges from 1 g to 1000s of g. 1.2 There are several electronics or mathematical approaches available for multiplicity analysis, including the multiplicity shift register, the Euratom Time Correlation Analyzer, and the List Mode Module, as described briefly in Ref. (1). 1.3 This test method is primarily intended to address the assay of 240Pu-effective by moments-based multiplicity analysis using shift register electronics (1, 2, 3) and high efficiency neutron counters specifically designed for multiplicity analysis. 1.4 This tes...

  16. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi, adopte par le senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law. The document presents first the principle, challenge and stakes of the ITER project and the long negotiations that have led to chose France for the setting up of the research facility. Then, it presents the agreement of November 7, 2007, which fixes the general framework of the conditions necessary to the achievement of the project. The agreement comprises the classical rules, privileges and immunities of any international organization sited on the French ground, plus some more specific dispositions in particular in the domain of management of the wastes generated by the facility. (J.S.)

  17. Spanish experience on the design of radon surveys based on the use of geogenic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz Fernández, C; Quindós Poncela, L S; Fernández Villar, A; Fuente Merino, I; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J L; Celaya González, S; Quindós López, L; Quindós López, J; Fernández, E; Remondo Tejerina, J; Martín Matarranz, J L; García Talavera, M

    2017-01-01

    One of the requirements of the recently approved EU-BSS (European Basic Safety Standards Directive, EURATOM, 2013) is the design and implementation of national radon action plans in the member states (Annex XVIII). Such plans require radon surveys. The analysis of indoor radon data is supported by the existing knowledge about geogenic radiation. With this aim, we used the terrestrial gamma dose rate data from the MARNA project. In addition, we considered other criterion regarding the surface of Spain, population, permeability of rocks, uranium and radium contain in soils because currently no data are available related to soil radon gas concentration and permeability in Spain. Given that, a Spanish radon map was produced which will be part of the European Indoor Radon Map and a component of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation. The map indicates geographical areas with high probability of finding high indoor radon concentrations. This information will support legislation regarding prevention of radon entry both in dwellings and workplaces. In addition, the map will serve as a tool for the development of strategies at all levels: individual dwellings, local, regional and national administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the contribution of natural sources of radiation to the total dose received by workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Carlos; Fuente, Ismael; Quindós, Luis; Gutierrez, Jose; Arteche, Jose; Quindós, Luis

    2010-10-01

    People working with ionising radiation are receiving radiation coming from artificial and natural sources. In Spain, as in many other countries, there is a serious control by the national authorities, Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, of the dose the workers receive from artificial sources. However, until the publication of the European Basic Safety Standards Directive, 96/29/EURATOM, the old criteria referring to the "above natural background" were widely used. This directive was incorporated to the Spanish legislation in July 2001 (BOE 178); in its Title VII it recommends to evaluate the dose coming from natural sources and take it into account for establishing the safety criteria. It is noteworthy to assess the natural doses received at homes and the dose received by workers of radioactive installations subject to regulations, and to compare the two results. The social and economical implications of the results derived can be important in the practical application of the recommendations included in the above-mentioned BOE 178 Directive.

  19. Present status of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater in Extremadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan Lopez, M. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: monica.galan@ciemat.es; Martin Sanchez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Radon-222 was measured in groundwater sources of Extremadura (Spain), analyzing 350 samples from private and public springs, wells, and spas by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and gamma spectrometry. The {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1168 Bq L{sup -1}. The statistical analysis showed a log-normal distribution with a mean of (111 {+-} 7) Bq L{sup -1} and a median of (36 {+-} 3) Bq L{sup -1}. A hydrogeological study revealed correlations between the activity concentration and the aquifer material's characteristics. A map of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater was elaborated and compared with the natural gamma radiation map for this region. About 35% of the samples showed {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations above the Euratom recommended limit of 100 Bq L{sup -1}. Three uranium series radionuclides ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, and {sup 226}Ra) were also assayed by alpha-particle spectrometry, estimating the annual effective dose due to the presence of these natural radionuclides in drinking water.

  20. Dosimetry-based treatment planning for molecular radiotherapy: a summary of the 2017 report from the Internal Dosimetry Task Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Stokke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European directive on basic safety standards (Council directive 2013/59 Euratom mandates dosimetry-based treatment planning for radiopharmaceutical therapies. The directive comes into operation February 2018, and the aim of a report produced by the Internal Dosimetry Task Force of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine is to address this aspect of the directive. A summary of the report is presented. Results A brief review of five of the most common therapy procedures is included in the current text, focused on the potential to perform patient-specific dosimetry. In the full report, 11 different therapeutic procedures are included, allowing additional considerations of effectiveness, references to specific literature on quantitative imaging and dosimetry, and existing evidence for absorbed dose-effect correlations for each treatment. Individualized treatment planning with tracer diagnostics and verification of the absorbed doses delivered following therapy is found to be scientifically feasible for almost all procedures investigated, using quantitative imaging and/or external monitoring. Translation of this directive into clinical practice will have significant implications for resource requirements. Conclusions Molecular radiotherapy is undergoing a significant expansion, and the groundwork for dosimetry-based treatment planning is already in place. The mandated individualization is likely to improve the effectiveness of the treatments, although must be adequately resourced.

  1. Development of dielectric window to conductor assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, L.; Nuutinen, S.; Taehtinen, S. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity

    1998-12-31

    The report summarises the work done by Association Euratom-Tekes in developing manufacturing procedures for vacuum tight ceramic to metal joints and in manufacturing full scale components for the ICRF vacuum window construction. The development started at VTT Manufacturing Technology in 1996 under the Task T238.2 and continued in 1997 under the Underlying Technology tasks. In the design of the components, the following issues were addressed and resolved: (1) The choice of dielectric material; The choice is made as the best compromise among nuclear, mechanical, and thermal properties, but in due consideration of material availability, fabrication issues and response to cyclic loads, (2) Layout and detailed design. The shape of the dielectric window is optimized to minimize electric fields in the dielectric materials; The optimised field distribution is computed in a 2D geometry; The design includes thermal calculation and the cooling layout and includes provision for remote handling replacement in one block, (3) Metal/dielectric joining. The joining technology is selected and justified. Joining tests on material selections to verify the applicability has been done, the validation of the design pre-prototype tests have been carried out selectively. The steps for the manufacture of these full scale components are described in the report with the appropriate concluding remarks and suggestions for the further actions. (orig.)

  2. Focus on the legislative approach to short half life radioactive hospital waste releasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Caterina; Traino, Antonio Claudio

    2015-11-01

    We propose to summarize the advancements introduced by the new Directive 2013/59/Euratom concerning the concept of clearance, for which the radioactive medical waste represents a typical candidate. We also intend to spotlight disputable points in the regulatory scheme in force in Italy, as well to make a contribution to evaluate whether the practice of patients' urine storing, stated by it, can be regarded to be proper. With directing our interest to radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine, we first present an overview of how the clearance concept, and that of exemption closely related to it, have been developed from the previous Directive 96/29 to the new one; then we describe the implementation of these concepts in the Italian legislation. Subsequently we estimate the exposure due both to keeping the effluent on site and to direct discharging it to the environment. In line with a well established international consensus, the Directive 2013/59 drives simple and harmonized regulation of clearance. On the contrary, some complexity and lack of consistency can be found in the framework of the national legislation affecting the radioactive medical waste handling. In addition the practice of excreta storing is disputed not to be really beneficial. The opportunity should be taken to make the whole system of these requirements simpler and more consistent and effective when it is revised to transpose the new Directive. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Outcomes from the EURATOM–ROSATOM ERCOSAM SAMARA projects on containment thermal-hydraulics for severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladino, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.paladino@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Andreani, Michele [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Guentay, Salih [Innovative, Technology Development GmbH (Switzerland); Mignot, Guillaume; Kapulla, Ralf; Paranjape, Sidharth; Sharabi, Medhat [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Kisselev, Arkadi; Yudina, Tatiana; Filippov, Aleksandr [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation); Kamnev, Mikhail; Khizbullin, Akhmir; Tyurikov, Oleg [JSC “Afrikantov OKB Mechanical Engineering”, Nizhny Novgorod 603074 (Russian Federation); Liang, Zhe [CNL-2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON L5K 1B2 (Canada); Abdo, Daniele; Brinster, Jérôme; Dabbene, Frédéric [CEA, DEN, DM2S, STMF, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kelm, Stephan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Klauck, Michael; Götz, Lasse [RWTH Aachen University (Germany); and others

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hydrogen distribution in the containment of PWR was investigated for scenario leading to stratification. • The scenario was scaled from a generic PWR containment to four facilities. • Effect of spray, cooler and heat sources was investigated experimentally and with LP and CFD. • Code-to-code benchmarks aiming a scaling up the facilities to a large containment. - Abstract: ERCOSAM and SAMARA are the acronyms for two parallel projects co-financed respectively by EURATOM and ROSATOM during the period 2010–2014 with the general aim to advance the knowledge on the phenomenology associated with the hydrogen and steam spreading and stratification in the LWR containment during a postulated severe accident. The important peculiarity of the projects was in experimental and analytical investigating the impact of systems such as spray, cooler and heat sources (simulating thermal effect of PARs) on the distribution of gas mixture (e.g. hydrogen, steam, air). This paper presents the main outcomes of the ERCOSAM–SAMARA projects.

  4. Institutional arrangements for the reduction of proliferation risks formulation, evaluation, and implementation of institutional concepts. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this supporting analysis is to provide a foundation for developing a model, an international or multinational institution capable of accomodating the back end of the fuel cycle, while meeting US nonproliferation goals. The analysis is based on a review of selected, defunct and extant institutions which, although not necessarily concerned with nonproliferation, have faced a trade-off between acceptability and effectiveness in meeting their objectives. Discussion of the various institutions is divided into three categories: international organizations, multinational consortia, and cartels or producer associations. Examples of international organizations include the International Seabed Authority, Intelsat, the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The International Seabed Authority is discussed. Multinational consortia are organizations that have been developed primarily to meet common commercial objectives. Membership includes at least three member nations. Examples include the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), URENCO, Unilever, Royal Dutch Shell, Eurochemic, Eurodif, Euratom, European Coal and Steel Community, and Serena. Cartels or producer associations are multinational agreements that restrict market forces; viz, production, market share, customers or prices. Examples include the Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Fifth International Tin Agreement (ITA), as well as agreements governing diamonds and uranium, bauxite and coffee. OPEC, CIPEC and ITA are discussed.

  5. Three new projects for the CERN Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The measures for the protection of personnel against ionising radiation at CERN are very strict. As soon as a new directive is issued by EURATOM, the Laboratory ensures it is adopted quickly. Since every system can be perfected, Pierre Carbonez and the Dosimetry Service team are working on three new projects aimed at improving the safety of workers exposed to ionising radiation in the course of their work on the CERN sites.       The two types of dosimeters currently in use at CERN. 4,700 people at CERN have a dosimeter. Every month, they have to have their dosimeter scanned by one of the 45 readers installed at various strategic locations around the Laboratory. Each month, the dosimetry team led by Pierre Carbonez exchanges around 450 dosimeters to recalibrate them and prepare them for further use. “These dosimeters are passive detectors which record the doses caused by beta, gamma and neutron radiation," explains Pierre Carbonez. &a...

  6. RADON REFERENCE LEVELS AND PRIORITY AREAS CONSIDERING OPTIMISATION AND AVERTABLE LUNG CANCERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, F; Venoso, G; Antignani, S; Carpentieri, C

    2017-11-01

    Protection from radon exposure in workplaces and dwellings, as included in the latest relevant international regulations and recommendations, is based on the new concept of 'reference level' whose meaning is significantly different from that of previous 'action level' concept. In fact, whereas remedial actions had to be considered only for radon concentrations above the action level, actions to optimise radon exposure are requested with priority above reference level but optimisation should be applied also for radon concentrations below reference level. Similar considerations can be applied to the usually called 'Rn-prone' areas, which are here proposed to be regulated as 'priority' areas. The main implication of these new challenging concepts is a substantial increase of avertable lung cancer deaths, as it will be shown using Italian data. Some practical examples of possible policy actions fitting an approach based on these new concepts will also be given, which could be useful for the implementation of the Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Behavior of axisymmetric density fluctuations in TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Gabriele; Jenko, Frank; Brunner, Stephan; Coda, Stefano; Huang, Zhouji; Villard, Laurent; Goerler, Tobias; Navarro, Alejandro B.; Told, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Axisymmetric density fluctuations, either with a radially coherent or dispersive nature, are routinely observed in the TCV tokamak and experimentally interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). We use local and global GENE simulations to investigate their behavior. With a simplified physical model, neglecting impurities and using heavy electrons, simulations reproduce the observed behavior. Simulations allow to conclude that the modification of the safety factor q alone cannot explain the transition between these two different fluctuation regimes, which thus appear as a consequence of variations of other parameters, including collisionality and finite machine size effects. The behavior of the radially coherent GAM is further investigated with high-realism GENE simulations. With this set-up, local simulations reproduce the experimental transport level at different radii while matching the observed GAM frequency at the location where the mode peaks. Global high-realism runs, aiming at reproducing the radial extent of the fluctuations, will be discussed as well. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under Grant Agreement No 633053.

  8. Radon in schools. An elevation measurement in schools in Baden-Wuerttemberg; Radon in Schulen. Eine Erhebungsmessung in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenbeck, I.; Naber, C.; Frank, G.; Wilhelm, C.; Schaller, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Sicherheit und Umwelt

    2016-07-01

    With an effective dose of about 1.1 mSv per year, radon and its secondary products have the biggest share in the population's natural radiation exposure. For implementation of the new EU directive 2013/59/EURATOM dated January 17, 2014, it is now planned to adapt the limit values of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and to extend the scope of validity in the EU member states. The ''Radon at Schools'' project is to cover an area-wide survey of radon concentrations in room air of schools in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Potential hazards caused by radon-222 and secondary products of radon are to be studied. For the project, 1600 schools were selected and requested to participate by an information letter. Half of the schools is distributed over the entire area of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The other half is located in areas of increased radon potential. Radon concentration in room air is determined passively by Karlsruhe radon exposimeters. Subsequently, active radon measurements will be made at conspicuous schools and information events will be offered for municipalities, teachers, interested parents, and pupils.

  9. Design of a phase contrast imaging diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Grulke, O.; Böttger, L.-G.; Sehren, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator at IPP Greifswald commenced operation in 2015, and while its design has been aimed at minimizing neoclassical transport, turbulent transport is expected to be strongly affected by the magnetic geometry. With this in mind, MIT and IPP-Greifswald scientists have undertaken a project to design and implement a phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic to measure turbulence in W7-X in the OP1.2 operating phase starting in 2017. The principle and design aspects of the PCI method have been described in numerous past publications. In W7-X the PCI system will have two imaging systems differing only in the angle of the spatial mask that selects for magnetic pitch angle, and will produce measurements of poloidal and radial correlations. A series of remotely controllable optics will allow the beam size and image magnification to be adjustable. We expect sensitivity to fluctuations in the range of 2 kHz to approximately 2 MHz and wavenumbers in the range of 1 cm-1 to 30 cm-1 which should allow us to detect ITG, TEM and possibly ETG turbulence. The MIT portion of this project is supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-SC0014229, and the IPP part is funded under Euratom Grant agreement No 633053.

  10. Guidelines and algorithms: strategies for standardization of referral criteria in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainberger, Franz; Pokieser, Peter; Imhof, Herwig [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Czembirek, Heinrich [Zentralroentgeninstitut, Lainz Hospital, Vienna (Austria); Fruehwald, Franz [Fruehwald-Institute of Diagnostic Imaging, Poelten (Austria)

    2002-03-01

    Guidelines can be regarded as special forms of algorithms and have been shown to be useful tools for supporting medical decision making. With the Council Directive 97/43/Euratom recommendations concerning referral criteria for medical exposure have to be implemented into national law of all EU member states. The time- and cost-consuming efforts of developing, implementing, and updating such guidelines are balanced by the acceptance in clinical practice and eventual better health outcomes. Clearly defined objectives with special attention drawn on national and regional differences among potential users, support from organisations with expertise in evidence-based medicine, separated development of the evidence component and the recommendations component, and large-scale strategies for distribution and implementation are necessary. Editors as well as users of guidelines for referral criteria have to be aware which expectations can be met and which cannot be fulfilled with this instrument; thus, dealing with guidelines requires a new form of ''diagnostic reasoning'' based on medical ethics. (orig.)

  11. Assessment report: Application from OKG AB for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality; Granskningsrapport: Ansoekan fraan OKG Aktiebolag om tillstaand enligt kaerntekniklagen (1984:3) till en markdeponi foer laagaktivt avfall i Simpevarp i Oskarshamns kommun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindbom, G.; Wiebert, A.; Norden, M.; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Loefgren, T.; Lumpus, J

    2000-10-01

    OKG AB has to SSI submitted an application for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities (1984:3) concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality. The application for a license covers permission to build, possess and operate a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste. Attached to the application is an environmental impact statement. An application for a license according to the Environmental Act (1998:808) has been submitted to the Environmental Court in Vaexjoe. SSI has circulated the application for consideration to the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the County Government Board of Kalmar and the Oskarshamn municipality. SSI has informed the European Commission about the application in accordance with the EURATOM Treaty, article 37. This assessment report constitutes the base for the decision by SSI 2000-09-18 for approval and radiation protection conditions. In the report, earlier permissions for shallow land burials/landfills at the Swedish nuclear installations are described. This report shows the development of the legal system during the last years, the premises for the assessment of the application, and SSI's review of OKG's plans, consequence analysis and environmental impact statement.

  12. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  13. Model-based minimization algorithm of a supercritical helium loop consumption subject to operational constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, F.; Bonnay, P.; Girard, A.; Hoa, C.; Lacroix, B.; Le Coz, Q.; Nicollet, S.; Poncet, J.-M.; Zani, L.

    2017-12-01

    Supercritical helium loops at 4.2 K are the baseline cooling strategy of tokamaks superconducting magnets (JT-60SA, ITER, DEMO, etc.). This loops work with cryogenic circulators that force a supercritical helium flow through the superconducting magnets in order that the temperature stay below the working range all along their length. This paper shows that a supercritical helium loop associated with a saturated liquid helium bath can satisfy temperature constraints in different ways (playing on bath temperature and on the supercritical flow), but that only one is optimal from an energy point of view (every Watt consumed at 4.2 K consumes at least 220 W of electrical power). To find the optimal operational conditions, an algorithm capable of minimizing an objective function (energy consumption at 5 bar, 5 K) subject to constraints has been written. This algorithm works with a supercritical loop model realized with the Simcryogenics [2] library. This article describes the model used and the results of constrained optimization. It will be possible to see that the changes in operating point on the temperature of the magnet (e.g. in case of a change in the plasma configuration) involves large changes on the cryodistribution optimal operating point. Recommendations will be made to ensure that the energetic consumption is kept as low as possible despite the changing operating point. This work is partially supported by EUROfusion Consortium through the Euratom Research and Training Program 20142018 under Grant 633053.

  14. Radionuclide transfer to invertebrates and small mammals in a coastal sand dune ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.D., E-mail: mwood@liv.ac.uk [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER)/School of Biological Sciences, Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Leah, R.T. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER)/School of Biological Sciences, Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Jones, S.R. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, PO Box 12, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Latchford, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    International intercomparisons of models to assess the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife have identified radionuclide transfer assumptions as a significant source of uncertainty in the modelling process. There is a need to improve the underpinning data sets on radionuclide transfer to reduce this uncertainty, especially for poorly-studied ecosystems such as coastal sand dunes. This paper presents the results of the first published study of radionuclide transfer to invertebrates and small mammals in a coastal sand dune ecosystem. Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are reported for detritivorous, herbivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous biota. Differences in activity concentrations measured in the sand dune biota are related to the trophic level of the organisms and the influence of sea-to-land transfer is apparent in the food chain transfer observed at the site. There are notable differences in the concentration ratios (CRs) calculated for the sand dune biota compared to other terrestrial ecosystems, especially for the small mammals which have CRs that are two orders of magnitude lower than the generic terrestrial ecosystem CRs published by the recent EC EURATOM ERICA project. The lower CRs at the sand dunes may be due to the influence of other cations from the marine environment (e.g. K and Na) on the net radionuclide transfer observed, but further research is required to test this hypothesis.

  15. Dust generation at interaction of plasma jet with surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticos, Catalin; Toader, Dorina; Banu, Nicoleta; Scurtu, Adrian; Oane, Mihai

    2013-10-01

    Coatings of W and C with widths of a few microns will be exposed to plasma jet for studying the erosion of the surface and detachment of micron size dust particles. A coaxial plasma gun has been built inside a vacuum chamber for producing supersonic plasma jets. Its design is based on a 50 kJ coaxial plasma gun which has been successfully used for accelerating hypervelocity dust. Initial shots were carried out for a capacitor bank with C = 12 μF and charged up to 2 kV. Currents of tens of amps were measured with a Rogowsky coil and plasma flow speeds of 4 km/s were inferred from high-speed images of jet propagation. An upgrade consisting in adding capacitors in parallel will be performed in order to increase the energy up to 2 kJ. A coil will be installed at the gun muzzle to compress the plasma flow and increase the energy density of the jet on the sample surface. A CCD camera with a maximum recording speed of 100 k fps and a maximum resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels was set for image acquisition of the plasma and dust. A laser system used to illuminate the ejected dust from the surface includes a laser diode emitting at 650 nm with a beam power of 25 mW. The authors acknowledge support from EURATOM WP13-IPH-A03-P2-02-BS22.

  16. EURAC: A liquid target neutron spallation source using cyclotron technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlado, J. M.; Mínguez, E.; Sanz, J.; Piera, M.

    1995-09-01

    Euratom/JRC Ispra led some years ago the design of an accelerator based neutron spallation source EURAC, with special emphasis as a fusion material testing device. DENIM was involved in the development of the last version of this source. EURAC proposes to use a beam of 600 MeV or 1.5 GeV protons, produced by an effective and low cost ring cyclotron with a current of 6 mA impinging in a liquid lead, or lead-bismuth, target. It will use an advanced cyclotron technology which can be implemented in the next future, in the line of the actual technology of the upgraded SIN-type cyclotron. The adjacent rows to the target correspond to the lead, or Li17Pb83, cooled channels where the samples will be located. The available volumes there were shown enough for material testing purposes. Here, proposal of using those experimental areas to introduce small masses of radioactive wastes for testing of transmutation in spallation source is made. In addition, extrapolation of present conceptual design to make available larger volumes under flexible conditions seems to be possible. Neutrons leaking from the test zone drive a subcritical booster (hidrogen moderator in the center.

  17. [(No) Fear of audits? Control is good, trust is better. Audits as a core element of quality management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl-Wagner, B; Steinbrucker, S

    2011-10-01

    Quality management (QM) cannot be successfully implemented and performed without audits. The PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle is the core component of QM systems. In this cycle an audit represents the crucial step "check". Audits verify whether the performed actions and their results conform to the requirements. It is especially important to verify whether the principles of QM are omnipresent and fully implemented in a department or institution. The announcement of an audit may cause mixed feelings or even anxiety among the personnel to be audited. Without previous information and training the audit may be perceived as an act of control and intrusion into departmental affairs. The colleagues often fear sanctions if lapses are found or consider the audit to be a cross-examination. However, an audit is rather meant to be a helpful aid and a chance to continuously improve the departmental QM system by means of a constructive communication among colleagues. In the year 2009 the European Commission published guidelines for the performance of clinical audits in medical radiology, including diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy (Council Directive 97 / 43 / EURATOM). The aim is an optimal protection of the individual from the hazards of ionizing radiation and the directive expects radiological departments to perform clinical audits in accordance with national procedures.

  18. Radiation dose to adult patients in LS spine X-ray examinations of health centres in one central hospital district in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innanmaa, L.; Petaejaejaervi, M. [Pirkanmaa Polytechnic, Tampere (Finland); Parviainen, T.; Servomaa, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    According to the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/Euratom), the radiation dose to the patient should be measured and the doses compared against to the national reference doses. The European Commission has issued quality criteria for x-ray examinations for adults. The criteria to be considered include clinical image quality, examination techniques and radiation dose. The radiation dose caused by x-ray examinations to adult patients should be measured or calculated for at least ten standard size patients (70 kg {+-} 15 kg). At every unit of the department, the radiation dose is determined, at regular intervals, for the most general examinations, at least in one projection. If the comparison dose levels are exceeded repeatedly, both the examination techniques and the radiological units in use must be checked and any corrective actions required must be carried out. The Nordic countries defined Nordic reference dose levels for some X-ray examinations in 1996. In Finland, dose reference levels for adults were given on 8 December 2000. (orig.)

  19. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club is now midway through the season and has had mixed fortunes, winning seven and losing five matches, with one drawn last weekend against the Fleet Street Strollers. Two wins were recorded against Trafford Solicitors in Bellingham in the north of England only days after the heaviest rainfall in the North East in living memory, read the detailed match report online to see what the grounds man had to say when we insisted on playing! Reports of all matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “ Matches (Fixtures, results, reports) ”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Upcoming fixtures include the Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition on August 19th and away matches against Rhone CC in Lyon and against Milan and Euratom Cricket clubs in Settimo Milanese in September. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on Thursday every week...

  20. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P. Fernandez (ed.) [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  1. SOME LEGAL ASPECTS OF ENERGY SECURITY IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia Maican

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a sustainable, secure and competitive energy supply has long been recognized within the Community, and has been addressed on numerous occasions, notably in the Green Papers elaborated by the Commission in 2000 and 2006. Recent supply crises and rapidly escalating fuel prices have focused the minds of leaders across the European Union, as well as those of businesses and individual energy consumers. Energy policy transcends a range of different policy areas, including competition, transport, environment and energy itself. Decisions relating to energy policy in Europe are primarily within the remit of individual Member State governments, with the European Commission’s powers limited to two specific areas (creation of the European single market and matters relating to nuclear safety and security under the EURATOM Treaty. The extent of the transfer of powers towards Europe is clearly a critical decision point and in practice a sensitive balance is likely to be required between those matters for which the Commission should have responsibility and those where Member State governments retain sole authority. European officials are putting into evidence their belief that Europe’s energy predicament is acute and mention energy security as a priority issue for the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Policy commitments say that energy strategy must move beyond the internal sphere and become systematically a part of EU external relations. The Commission’s 2006 Energy Green Paper promised “a better integration of energy objectives into broader relations with third countries”.

  2. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  3. Bump formation in the runaway electron tail

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, J; Fülöp, T

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electrons are generated in a magnetized plasma when the parallel electric field exceeds a critical value. For such electrons with energies typically reaching tens of MeV, the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac (ALD) radiation force, in reaction to the synchrotron emission, is significant and can be the dominant process limiting the electron acceleration. The effect of the ALD-force on runaway electron dynamics in a homogeneous plasma is investigated using the relativistic finite-difference Fokker-Planck codes LUKE [Decker & Peysson, Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA, (2004)] and CODE [Landreman et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 185, 847 (2014)]. Under the action of the ALD force, we find that a bump is formed in the tail of the electron distribution function if the electric field is sufficiently large. We also observe that the energy of runaway electrons in the bump increases with the electric field amplitude, while the population increases with the bulk electron temperature. The presence of the bump divides the elec...

  4. Radon hazard in shallow groundwaters: Amplification and long term variability induced by rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Francesco, S., E-mail: stefano.defrancesco@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Tommasone, F. Pascale [Office of Civil Protection, Meteorology, Climatology and Natural Hazards, Piazza Municipio, 81051 Pietramelara, Caserta (Italy); Cuoco, E.; Verrengia, G. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Tedesco, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); C.N.R. (Italian Council for Research), Institute of Environmental Geology and Geological Engineering, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 00100 Roma (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    {sup 222}Rn concentrations have been determined with a RAD7 radon detector in shallow groundwaters of the Pietramelara Plain, north-western Campania, southern Italy, where pyroclastic deposits, along with recent stream alluvial sediments, come in contact with Mesozoic carbonate reservoirs. The aim of this study has been to study the annual variation of {sup 222}Rn concentration in the shallow groundwaters, scarcely considered in the literature and of obvious relevance for radon hazard evaluation. Our results definitely show that {sup 222}Rn levels are characterized by a clear annual periodicity, strictly related to rainfall and water table levels, with a pronounced difference between the dry and the wet season. In this last case with concentrations increasing up to two orders of magnitude (up to two times the lower threshold given in the Recommendation 2001/928/EURATOM for public waters). In relation to this, experimental field data will be presented to demonstrate that this variability is due to purely hydrological mechanisms, mainly rinse out and discharge that control leaching efficiency. The detected cycle (Radon Hydrological Amplification Cycle, RHAC) has been generalized for the Mediterranean Tyrrhenian climate. The marked and seasonally persistent amplification in {sup 222}Rn levels poses the problem of evaluating the epidemiological risk brought up by this previously not yet reported mechanism. This mechanism, occurring in shallow groundwaters, very likely should strongly influence indoor radon levels via groundwater-soil-building exchange.

  5. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 6.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Bumbure, Lada; Cremers, Florian; Schmidt, Werner F O

    2016-01-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an update of Policy Statement No. 6 first published in 1994. The present version takes into account the European Union Parliament and Council Directive 2013/55/EU that amends Directive 2005/36/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications and the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The European Commission Radiation Protection Report No. 174, Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert and the EFOMP Policy Statement No. 12.1, Recommendations on Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe 2014, are also taken into consideration. The EFOMP National Member Organisations are encouraged to update their Medical Physics registration schemes where these exist or to develop registration schemes taking into account the present version of this EFOMP Policy Statement (Policy Statement No. 6.1"Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists"). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 10.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Schemes for Continuing Professional Development of Medical Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Cremers, Florian; Figueira, Rita; van Swol, Christiaan; Evans, Stephen; Torresin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is vital to the medical physics profession if it is to embrace the pace of change occurring in medical practice. As CPD is the planned acquisition of knowledge, experience and skills required for professional practice throughout one's working life it promotes excellence and protects the profession and public against incompetence. Furthermore, CPD is a recommended prerequisite of registration schemes (Caruana et al. 2014) and is implied in the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (EU BSS) and the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS). It is to be noted that currently not all national registration schemes require CPD to maintain the registration status necessary to practise medical physics. Such schemes should consider adopting CPD as a prerequisite for renewing registration after a set period of time. This EFOMP Policy Statement, which is an amalgamation and an update of the EFOMP Policy Statements No. 8 and No. 10, presents guidelines for the establishment of national schemes for CPD and activities that should be considered for CPD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Progress report 2000 / 2001; Rapport d'activite 2000 / 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The 2000-2001 period has seen many facts of importance for the EURATOM-Cea association. The first outstanding fact is the positive evolution of the ITER project because of both the willingness of the partners and the French proposition to the European Union to consider the Cadarache site as the European site. The second outstanding fact is both the installation on Tore-Supra of a new generation of plasma-facing component: the Ciel project and the launch of the Cimes project whose aim is to allow Tore-Supra to reach discharge up to 1000 s. The third outstanding fact is the continuation of experiments in Jet after 1999, end date of the Jet Joint Undertaking. These new provisions aim at maintaining in activity the spearhead of the European program, waiting for a clarification of the ITER situation. Among the results obtained in Jet operations, we can quote those having a direct influence on the ITER performances: - the beneficial effect of a high triangularity on the ELM (edge localized modes) and on the confinement factor at high density, - the real time control of advanced tokamak discharges at quasi steady state, and the theoretical explanation of the current hole (in lower hybrid advanced scenarios, a region with vanishing current density that appears in the plasma centre). (A.C.)

  8. Assessment of the control rods shadow effect in the VENUS-F core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetnar Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning and transmutation (P&T of spent nuclear fuel is an important field of present development of nuclear energy technologies. One of the possible ways to carry out the P&T process is to use the accelerator driven systems (ADS. This technology has been developed within the EURATOM Framework Programmes for several years now. Current research in this field is carried out within the scope of 7th FP project FREYA. Important parts of the project are experiments performed in the GUINEVERE facility devoted to characterising the subcritical core kinetics and development of reactivity monitoring techniques. The present paper considers the effects of control rods use on the core reactivity. In order to carry out the evaluation of the experimental results, it is important to have detailed core characteristics at hand and to take into consideration the differences in the effect of control rods acting separately or together (the so-called shadow effect on both the reactivity value and the measured neutron flux. Also any core asymmetry should be revealed. This goal was achieved by both MCNP simulations and the experimental results. However, in the case of experimental results, the need for calculating respective correction factors was unavoidable.

  9. Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) FY05 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Totemeier; J. Gan; E.E. Feldman; E.A Hoffman; R.F. Kulak; I.U. Therios; C. P. Tzanos; T.Y.C. Wei; L-Y. Cheng; H. Ludewig; J. Jo; R. Nanstad; W. Corwin; V. G. Krishnardula; W. F. Gale; J. W. Fergus; P. Sabharwall; T. Allen

    2005-09-01

    participating in research related to the development of the GFR. These are Euratom (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, Euratom (including the United Kingdom and Switzerland), France, and Japan have active research activities with respect to the GFR. The research includes GFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This report outlines the current design status of the GFR, and includes work done in the areas mentioned above for this fiscal year. In addition, this report fulfills the Level 2 milestones, ''Complete annual status report on GFR reactor design'', and ''Complete annual status report on pre-conceptual GFR reactor designs'' in work package GI0401K01. GFR funding for FY05 included FY04 carryover funds, and was comprised of multiple tasks. These tasks involved a consortium of national laboratories and universities, including the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Auburn University (AU), Idaho State University (ISU), and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-M). The total funding for FY05 was $1000K, with FY04 carryover of $174K. The cost breakdown can be seen in Table 1.

  10. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status; Dosismanagement in der Radiologie. Ein Ueberblick zum Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verius, M. [LKH Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    The Euratom directive 2013/59 (''EU directive for radiation protection'') has to be implemented into national law by spring 2018 and requires a complete recording of patient dosages and relevant parameters. Additionally, a medical physics expert has to be consulted for each radiological examination above a defined threshold. A complete recording of the dosage administered from all modalities and optimization of the radiological procedures should result in a reduction of the total dosage. This can be achieved by automated systems that incorporate not only the detection of the dose parameters but also the evaluation and analysis of these data. When provided with warning levels such a system should be able to inform or warn the operator when dose thresholds have been exceeded or even better inform the operator about possible excess dosages before an examination. Depending on the information provided by the modality, dose management systems can operate at different levels in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), radiological and hospital information systems (RIS/HIS) or with the header information of a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image and evaluate and analyze this data. A practicable use of such systems is only possible by close cooperation of medical personnel, medical physicists and information technology (IT) administrators. Various systems are available commercially or free but an individual adaptation of these systems is useful and necessary, depending on the requirements of the radiology practice or hospital. (orig.) [German] Die Euratom-Richtlinie 2013/59 (''EU-Richtlinie zum Strahlenschutz'') besagt, dass sie bis zum Fruehjahr 2018 in nationales Recht der Mitgliedstaaten umgesetzt werden muss, d. h. eine lueckenlose Erfassung der Patientendosen zu erfolgen hat. Ausserdem muss zu jeder Modalitaet in einem bestimmten Ausmass ein Medizinphysikexperte hinzugezogen werden. Die

  11. The new law on radiation protection as a consequence of the EU safety standard of 2013; Das neue Strahlenschutzgesetz als Auswirkung der EU-Grundnormen von 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layer, G. [Klinikum Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The transformation of a European guideline (2013/59/Euratom) from 2013 into national law requires adaptation of the national statutory regulations. This year, all areas of protection from ionizing radiation will be subject to the new radiation protection law (StrlSchG). Through this, the German X-ray and Radiation Protection Acts will be combined to form a higher level of authority. The main parts of the StrlSchG will receive a new classification and will be organized according to the exposure scenario: radiation protection in planned exposure scenarios, radiation protection in emergency exposure scenarios, radiation protection in existing exposure scenarios, and the regulation of overall exposure scenarios. The most important or modified regulated points for radiology are concerned with early recognition, where the application of X-ray or nuclear radiation is permitted in principle under certain conditions; the consultation of medical physics experts in all diagnostic investigative procedures involving radiation and applications for radiological intervention that are linked to high doses in the person under investigation; teleradiology, another special case of the application of X-rays in humans that requires approval, now with the ''required'' technical qualification in radiation protection, formerly with the ''full'' technical qualification, in addition to research, the simplified approval procedure being substituted with a notification procedure. Furthermore, in contrast to previous regulations, those tasked with radiation protection can contact the regulators directly in the case of conflict, which indicates considerable reinforcement of their authority. The only dose limit that will be considerably reduced is the organ-specific equivalent dose of the eye lens, where the highest value will be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year in those who are exposed to radiation professionally. (orig.) [German] Die Umsetzung einer

  12. Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d); Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Atti. Giornata di studio, Bologna, 28 febbraio 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E. [ENEA, Div. Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA - Bologna has organised a one day-workshop on the subject: Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d). The aim of the workshop was the discussion of the new implications and modifications to be expected in the routine individual monitoring of external radiation, due to the issue of the Decree 241/00 (G.U. 31/8/2000) in charge since 01/01/2001. The decree set up in Italian law the standards contained in the European Directive EURATOM 96/29-Basic Standards for the Protection of Health of Workers and the General Public against Dangers arising from Ionizing Radiation. Among others, the definition of the operational quantities for external radiation for personal and environmental monitoring, H{sub p}(d) e H{sup *}(d) respectively as defined by ICRU (International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurements), requires to update the methods of measurements and calibration of the personal dosemeters and environmental monitors. This report collects the papers presented at the workshop dealing with the Personal Dose Equivalent, H{sub p}(d), the conversion coefficients, H{sub p}(d)/K{sub a} e H{sub p}(d)/{sub ,} obtained through Monte Carlo calculations published by ICRU and ICRP (International Commission for Radiation Protection), the new calibration procedures and the practical implication in the routine of individual monitoring in terms of H{sub p}(d). Eventually, in the last chapter, the answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are briefly reported. [Italian] L'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA di Bologna ha organizzato una giornata di studio Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Lo scopo della giornata e' stato quello di discutere le novita' e le modifiche da apportare alle pratiche di monitoraggio dell'esposizione esterna alle radiazioni ionizzanti, a seguito dell'entrata in vigore

  13. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Conclusions Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear

  14. Awareness of medical radiation exposure among patients: A patient survey as a first step for effective communication of ionizing radiation risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ria, F; Bergantin, A; Vai, A; Bonfanti, P; Martinotti, A S; Redaelli, I; Invernizzi, M; Pedrinelli, G; Bernini, G; Papa, S; Samei, E

    2017-11-01

    The European Directive 2013/59/EURATOM requires patient radiation dose information to be included in the medical report of radiological procedures. To provide effective communication to the patient, it is necessary to first assess the patient's level of knowledge regarding medical exposure. The goal of this work is to survey patients' current knowledge level of both medical exposure to ionizing radiation and professional disciplines and communication means used by patients to garner information. A questionnaire was designed comprised of thirteen questions: 737 patients participated in the survey. The data were analysed based on population age, education, and number of radiological procedures received in the three years prior to survey. A majority of respondents (56.4%) did not know which modality uses ionizing radiation. 74.7% had never discussed with healthcare professionals the risk concerning their medical radiological procedures. 70.1% were not aware of the professionals that have expertise to discuss the use of ionizing radiation for medical purposes, and 84.7% believe it is important to have the radiation dose information stated in the medical report. Patients agree with new regulations that it is important to know the radiation level related to the medical exposure, but there is little awareness in terms of which modalities use X-Rays and the professionals and channels that can help them to better understand the exposure information. To plan effective communication, it is essential to devise methods and adequate resources for key professionals (medical physicists, radiologists, referring physicians) to convey correct and effective information. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Test of ring, eye lens and whole body dosemeters for the dose quantity Hp(3) to be used in interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumska, A.; Budzanowski, M.; Kopeć, R.

    2017-11-01

    In its statement on tissue reactions approved on 21st April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 2012) reviewed its recommendation concerning the equivalent dose limit for the eye lens and reduced the dose limits for occupationally exposed persons to 20 mSv in a year, averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. This limit was approved and written down in the new EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community) directive 2013/59 and in the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) BSS (Basic Safety Standard) of July 2014. For that reason, the necessity to monitor the eye lens may become more important than it was before. However, specially dedicated dosemeters for the dose quantity Hp(3) are using very rarely. Commonly use are only whole body personal dosemeters for the personal dose equivalent quantities Hp(10) worn on the trunk and ring dosemeters worn on finger to measure the quantity Hp(0.07). Therefore, in this work it was investigated whether dosemeters from routine use calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) and worn on thyroid collar and protective apron could deliver similar results like dedicated eye lens dosemeter worn close to the eyes. The results show that the best method if dedicated eye lens dosimeters is not used is to measure doses in terms of Hp(0.07) on the thyroid collar (Pearson product, r=0.85). Obtained results shows also importance of proper localization of eye lens dosimeter (close to the eye, from side of the X-ray source).

  16. Patient dose monitoring systems: A new way of managing patient dose and quality in the radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, N

    2017-12-01

    Due to the upcoming European Directive (2013/59/EURATOM) and the increased focus on patient safety in international guidelines and regulations, Patient Dose Monitoring Systems, also called Dose Management Systems (DMS), are introduced in medical imaging departments. This article focusses on the requirements for a DMS, its benefits and the necessary implementation steps. The implementation of a DMS can be perceived as a lengthy, yet worthy, procedure: users have to select the appropriate system for their applications, prepare data collection, validate, perform configuration, and start using the results in quality improvement projects. A state of the art DMS improves the quality of service, ensures patient safety and optimizes the efficiency of the department. The gain is multifaceted: the initial goal is compliance monitoring against diagnostic reference levels. At a higher level, the user gets an overview of the performance of the devices or centers that are under his supervision. Error identification, generation of alerts and workflow analysis are additional benefits. It can also enable a more patient-centric approach with personalized dosimetry. Skin dose, size-specific dose estimates and organ doses can be calculated and evaluated per patient. A DMS is a powerful tool and essential for improved quality and patient care in a radiology department. It can be configured to the needs of medical physicists, radiologists, technologists, even for the management of the hospital. Collaboration between all health professionals and stakeholders, input-output validation and communication of findings are key points in the process of a DMS implementation. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Best Practices for NPT Transit Matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitaker, J. Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oakberg, John A. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snow, Catherine [Sno Consulting, LLC, Sandy, UT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Transit matching is the process for relating or matching reports of shipments and receipts submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Transit matching is a component used by the IAEA in drawing safeguards conclusions and performing investigative analysis. Transit matching is part of IAEA safeguards activities and the State evaluation process, and it is included in the annual Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR). Annually, the IAEA currently receives reports of ~900,000 nuclear material transactions, of which ~500,000 are for domestic and foreign transfers. Of these the IAEA software can automatically match (i.e., machine match) about 95% of the domestic transfers and 25% of the foreign transfers. Given the increasing demands upon IAEA resources, it is highly desirable for the machine-matching process to match as many transfers as possible. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have conducted an investigation funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to identify opportunities to strengthen IAEA transit matching. Successful matching, and more specifically machine matching, is contingent on quality data from the reporting States. In February 2016, ORNL hosted representatives from three States, the IAEA, and Euratom to share results from past studies and to discuss the processes, policies, and procedures associated with State reporting for transit matching. Drawing on each entity's experience and knowledge, ORNL developed a best practices document to be shared with the international safeguards community to strengthen transit matching. This paper shares the recommendations that resulted from this strategic meeting and the next steps being taken to strengthen transit matching.

  18. NetCDF based data archiving system applied to ITER Fast Plant System Control prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R., E-mail: rodrigo.castro@visite.es [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, M.; De Arcas, G.; Barrera, E.; Lopez, J.M.; Sanz, D. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Goncalves, B.; Santos, B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, IPFN - Laboratorio Associado, IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P. [ITER Organization, St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of a data archiving solution for a Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data archiving solution based on scientific NetCDF-4 file format and Lustre storage clustering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPICS control based solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tests results and detailed analysis of using NetCDF-4 and clustering technologies on fast acquisition data archiving. - Abstract: EURATOM/CIEMAT and Technical University of Madrid (UPM) have been involved in the development of a FPSC (Fast Plant System Control) prototype for ITER, based on PXIe (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation). One of the main focuses of this project has been data acquisition and all the related issues, including scientific data archiving. Additionally, a new data archiving solution has been developed to demonstrate the obtainable performances and possible bottlenecks of scientific data archiving in Fast Plant System Control. The presented system implements a fault tolerant architecture over a GEthernet network where FPSC data are reliably archived on remote, while remaining accessible to be redistributed, within the duration of a pulse. The storing service is supported by a clustering solution to guaranty scalability, so that FPSC management and configuration may be simplified, and a unique view of all archived data provided. All the involved components have been integrated under EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), implementing in each case the necessary extensions, state machines and configuration process variables. The prototyped solution is based on the NetCDF-4 (Network Common Data Format) file format in order to incorporate important features, such as scientific data models support, huge size files management, platform independent codification, or single-writer/multiple-readers concurrency. In this contribution, a complete description of the above mentioned solution

  19. Nuclear fission and diplomacy. Kernsplijting en diplomatie; De Nederlandse politiek ten aanzien van de vreedzame toepassing van kernenergie, 1939-1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Splunter, J.M. (Vakgroep Internationale Betrekkingen en Volkenrecht, Faculteit PSCW, Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    The title study, based on archive investigations in the Netherlands, the United States and Great Britain, deals with early phase of Dutch involvement in nuclear energy, that is up to the signing of the Euratom treaty in 1957. It concentrates upon the international aspects of Dutch activities in nuclear energy, especially upon relations with other countries active in the field. In chapter two the Dutch government policy regarding the strategic materials uranium and thorium is discussed. Attention is paid to the interest of the United States for such materials. It is explained why the Dutch government kept it a secret that they possessed a certain amount of uranium and why they negotiated the thorium reserves which were mined in the Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia). In chapter three the Dutch policy in the United Nations regarding the so-called Baruch plan, being the USA-proposal for international control and management of the use of nuclear energy, and the counter proposal of the USSR, the Gromyko plan, in the period 1946-152 is outlined. In chapter four an overview is given of how the Dutch nuclear energy research in the first ten years after the Second World War was set up and organized. As a result of US president Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech, held in December 1953, the Americans offered to cooperate with Western European countries, already involved in research on peaceful applications of nuclear energy. This change in the US-policy of secrecy is described in chapter five. The consequences of that speech are dealt with in chapter six. It resulted, amongst other things in the foundation of the Reactor Centre Netherlands (RCN), now Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). It is concluded that only in the last years of the period, studied in this thesis, the Netherlands reconciled itself to American supremacy, partly explained by the weakly developed political structure in the Netherlands regarding the nuclear energy policy. 17

  20. Education and training in dental schools in Spain, Sevilla University experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, J. C.; Carrera, F.; Gomez, A.; Luis, J.; Rodriguez, M.; Herrador, M.

    2003-07-01

    The ICRP, in its publication 73 entitled Radiological Protection and Safety in Medicine states (paragraph 128) that one important need is to provide adequate resources for the education and training in radiological protection for future professional and technical staff in medical practice. The training programme should include initial training for all incoming staff and regular updating retraining. The European Directive 97/743/EURATOM on Medical Exposure (MED) lays down requirements for education and training. The document RP 116 published by the European commission give guidelines on Education and Training in Radiation Protection and in its paragraph 51 establish that Members States shall encourage the introduction of a course on radiation protection in the basic curriculum of medical and dental schools according to the EC Medical Exposure Directive (MED). In the Spanish legislation RD 815/2001 referred to the medical exposures, it is encourage the need for the introduction of Radiological Protection courses in Medicine and Dental schools with the objective of patient protection. In this study it has been analysed the actual situation of the education and training in Radiation Protection in Dental Schools in Spain. In addition it is described the experience of the University of Sevilla. The results of the study shows that only 4 from 9 dental schools have disciplines of Radiation Protection in its curriculum. In one of them the course is mandatory and has a content of 2 credits (20 hours). In the rest of dental schools the discipline has an optional character with an average of 4 credits. The discipline of Radiation Protection of the curriculum of Dental School at Sevilla university has 4 credits and it is configured as a course with the necessary requirements from the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council to obtain the Radiological Accreditation of Responsible of Dental Radiodiagnostic Installations. This diploma is given once the students have finished the Bachelor

  1. Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006): Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Bob

    2007-03-01

    Professor H Winter. It was with great sadness that we learnt of the death of colleague and friend Professor Hannspeter Winter in Vienna on the 8 November 2006. In memory of him and the contribution he made both to our conference and to the field of the physics of highly charged ions we dedicate these proceedings. Hannspeter was one of our distinguished invited speakers at HCI2006 and gave a talk on the status of the ITER programme. His invited paper on the subject is included in these proceedings. Hannspeter will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work on ion-surface interactions that, together with his colleagues at the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), has stimulated a worldwide experimental and theoretical interest in this field. He was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik at TUW in 1987 and using both his scientific and management skills has made it one of the leading university physics laboratories in the world. His research publications, of which there are 270, have inspired many others to work in the field of atomic and plasma physics. He was also a great European playing a major role in the EURATOM fusion programme, the European Physical Society and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and was an evaluator and advisory board member for many national and international institutions. Hannspeter was also an interesting and friendly social companion with interests in current affairs, music and fine wines and will be greatly missed both on a scientific and social level. Our condolences go to his wife Renate, son Dorian and his relatives. R W McCullough Co-chair HCI2006

  2. The European programme boris (bioavailability of radionuclides in soils): a global analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponnet, C.; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonzr, M.A. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DPRE/SERLAB, Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Parekh, N. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Merlewood research station, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Vallejo, R.; Sauras, T.; Casadesus, J. [Barcelona Univ., Dept. of Plant Biology (Spain); Plassard, C.; Staunton, S. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Soil Science Unit, 34 - Montpellier (France); Norden, M.; Avila, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Shaw, G.; Wells, C. [Imperial College, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    prediction ability. (This research programme has been funded by the 5. European Framework Programme / EURATOM). (author)

  3. Reduction of68Ge activity containing liquid waste from68Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Roy, Kamalika; Krenning, Eric P; Breeman, Wouter A P

    PET with 68 Ga from the TiO 2 - or SnO 2 - based 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity ( 68 Ge vs. 68 Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of 68 Ge activity is produced by eluting the 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry. Since clearance level of 68 Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce 68 Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to waste. Most efficient method to reduce the 68 Ge activity is by sorption of TiO 2 or Fe 2 O 3 and subsequent centrifugation. The required 10 Bq per mL level of 68 Ge activity in waste was reached by Fe 2 O 3 logarithmically, whereas with TiO 2 asymptotically. The procedure with Fe 2 O 3 eliminates ≥90% of the 68 Ge activity per treatment. Eventually, to simplify the processing a recirculation system was used to investigate 68 Ge activity sorption on TiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 or Zeolite. Zeolite was introduced for its high sorption at low pH, therefore 68 Ge activity containing waste could directly be used without further interventions. 68 Ge activity containing liquid waste at different HCl concentrations (0.05-1.0 M HCl), was recirculated at 1 mL/min. With Zeolite in the recirculation system, 68 Ge activity showed highest sorption.

  4. Can Sweden be forced to manage nuclear waste from other countries?; Kan Sverige tvingas ta emot andra laenders kaernavfall?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulf; Lindgren, Jonas; Nordfors, Lennart [Gullers Grupp, Stockholm (Sweden); Hallerby, Christer [Docere Intelligence, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    This report tries to answer two questions: Can Sweden, through supranational decisions, be forced to dispose of other nations nuclear waste within its own borders? and How can a Swedish stakeholder follow and influence EU-agendas, in particular concerning nuclear waste? Sometimes it has been argued that, through the EU-membership, Sweden could be forced to accept foreign radioactive waste for disposal in Sweden. However, the Swedish Nuclear Technology Act clearly states that license for final disposal spent nuclear fuels can not be given for fuel from another country than Sweden. At the Swedish EU entry it was found that the national legislation were compatible with the EU regulations, and as a consequence waste from foreign nuclear plants can not be disposed of in Sweden, even if the plant is owned by a Swedish company. Other conclusions in the report are: The system for decision making in EU is complex and slow and must be supported by supranational and international organs. The process is complex, but offers many opportunities for following-up and influencing. The risk for anything happening 'over-night' in the radioactive waste question is minimal. The issue of regulating radioactive waste management in a supranational way, i.e. by forcing a country to accept wastes from another country is not on the agenda. The Euratom treaty is interpreted in the way that such decision can not be made. The international discussions about regional repositories build upon voluntary agreements. Scenarios leading to coersive legislation are judged to be politically unrealistic - and needing important changes to be realised.

  5. Establishment and application of diagnostic reference levels for nuclear medicine procedures in Germany; Festlegung und Anwendung diagnostischer Referenzwerte fuer nuklearmedizinische Untersuchungen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosske, D.; Minkov, V.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene und Dosimetrie

    2004-06-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) were introduced in Germany by a publication in the Bundesanzeiger Nr. 143 from August 5, 2003. Thereby a recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) from 1996 and a demand by the EU Guideline 97/43/EURATOM from 1997 is converted into national law. Aim of this paper is to acquaint with and to justify the determined DRL as well as to provide information on the practical use of the concept of the DRL. Material and method: DRL were established by experts on the basis of a national survey conducted in hospitals and private practices as well as of national and international recommendations and published by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. Besides the data basis the dosimetric principles are described for the estimation of the effective doses of the various examinations. Results: DRL were established for 10 frequent and doserelevant examinations constituting more than 80% of all nuclear medicine examinations currently performed in Germany. For some examinations two different DRL were given to take into account clinical conditions. For paediatric examinations fractions of the activities to be administered to adults are given dependent on the body weight. Discussion: The published DRL are in agreement with the majority of national and international recommendations and with the present practice of nuclear medicine examinations in Germany. They are related to average activites for groups of patients with standard sizes and, moreover, to typical examinations with current standard equipment. It is planned to check and to reconsider the DRL about every 2-3 years. (orig.)

  6. [The new law on radiation protection as a consequence of the EU safety standard of 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, G

    2017-07-01

    The transformation of a European guideline (2013/59/Euratom) from 2013 into national law requires adaptation of the national statutory regulations. This year, all areas of protection from ionizing radiation will be subject to the new radiation protection law (StrlSchG). Through this, the German X‑ray and Radiation Protection Acts will be combined to form a higher level of authority. The main parts of the StrlSchG will receive a new classification and will be organized according to the exposure scenario: radiation protection in planned exposure scenarios, radiation protection in emergency exposure scenarios, radiation protection in existing exposure scenarios, and the regulation of overall exposure scenarios. The most important or modified regulated points for radiology are concerned with early recognition, where the application of X‑ray or nuclear radiation is permitted in principle under certain conditions; the consultation of medical physics experts in all diagnostic investigative procedures involving radiation and applications for radiological intervention that are linked to high doses in the person under investigation; teleradiology, another special case of the application of X‑rays in humans that requires approval, now with the "required" technical qualification in radiation protection, formerly with the "full" technical qualification, in addition to research, the simplified approval procedure being substituted with a notification procedure.Furthermore, in contrast to previous regulations, those tasked with radiation protection can contact the regulators directly in the case of conflict, which indicates considerable reinforcement of their authority.The only dose limit that will be considerably reduced is the organ-specific equivalent dose of the eye lens, where the highest value will be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year in those who are exposed to radiation professionally.

  7. Spent fuel verification options for final repository safeguards in Finland. A study on verification methods, their feasibility and safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautamaeki, J.; Tiitta, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    The verification possibilities of the spent fuel assemblies from the Olkiluoto and Loviisa NPPs and the fuel rods from the research reactor of VTT are contemplated in this report. The spent fuel assemblies have to be verified at the partial defect level before the final disposal into the geologic repository. The rods from the research reactor may be verified at the gross defect level. Developing a measurement system for partial defect verification is a complicated and time-consuming task. The Passive High Energy Gamma Emission Tomography and the Fork Detector combined with Gamma Spectrometry are the most potential measurement principles to be developed for this purpose. The whole verification process has to be planned to be as slick as possible. An early start in the planning of the verification and developing the measurement devices is important in order to enable a smooth integration of the verification measurements into the conditioning and disposal process. The IAEA and Euratom have not yet concluded the safeguards criteria for the final disposal. E.g. criteria connected to the selection of the best place to perform the verification. Measurements have not yet been concluded. Options for the verification places have been considered in this report. One option for a verification measurement place is the intermediate storage. The other option is the encapsulation plant. Crucial viewpoints are such as which one offers the best practical possibilities to perform the measurements effectively and which would be the better place in the safeguards point of view. Verification measurements may be needed both in the intermediate storages and in the encapsulation plant. In this report also the integrity of the fuel assemblies after wet intermediate storage period is assessed, because the assemblies have to stand the handling operations of the verification measurements. (orig.)

  8. European commission research activities on iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, E. della [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    The research on iodine, as on other important fission products which would be released during a severe accident, carried out directly or organized by the European Commission stems from the Euratom Treaty, namely from Chapter III of the treaty which deals with the protection of the health of the population against radiations and from Chapter I which deals with research. In this paper we do not consider the Commission radiological protection programme: we limit ourselves to the presentation of the research carried out on Iodine as part of the most recent source term studies within the framework Programmes as are called the research programme of the European Commission, usually valid for a 4 year periods. The research activities are carried out by the European Commission either directly through the Joint Research Centres (JRC) or indirectly through collaboration with research organizations of Member States. Concerning the iodine research carried out as Direct Action in the Joint Research Centres, are mentioned here the most relevant activities carried out in this field at the JRC of Ispra and Karlsruhe (TUI). As Indirect Action, we present here the results of some studies allocated by the European Commission to experts of research organizations of Member Countries, followed by a short description of the main results achieved by the Reinforced Concerted Action, within the III Framework Programme (1992-1995). At the end of the paper are described the research on iodine being carried out or proposed within the IV Framework Programme (1995-1998). Mention is also done of the Commission participation, relevant in terms of financial and human efforts, to the PHEBUS FP Project. (author) refs.

  9. The GUINEVERE project for Accelerator Driven System physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, A.; Baylac, M.; Bondoux, D.; Bouvier, J.; Chabod, S.; De Conto, J.M.; Nuttin, A. [LPSC-CNRS-IN2P3/UJF/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs. 38026 Grenoble cedex (France); Baeten, P.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; Bergmans, G.; Chetnitkov, A.; Kochetkov, A.; Vandeplassche, D.; Vermeersch, F.; Vittiglio, G. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Ban, G.; Gautier, J.M.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecouey, J.L.; Marie, N.; Merrer, Y.; Steckmeyer, J.C. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN/Universite de Caen/CNRS-IN2P3, 14050 Caen (France); Dessagne, P.; Gaudiot, G.; Heitz, G.; Kerveno, M. [IPHC-DRS/UdS/CNRS-IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Granget, G.; Mellier, F. [CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laune, B.; Reynet, D. [IPNO, CNRS-IN2P3/UPS, 91406 Orsay (France)

    2009-06-15

    The GUINEVERE project is part of the EUROTRANS Integrated Project of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme. It is mainly devoted to ADS on-line reactivity monitoring validation, subcriticality determination and operational procedures (loading, start-up, shut-down,..) in follow-up of the MUSE experiments. The project consists in coupling a fast lead core, set-up in the VENUS reactor at SCK.CEN Mol (B), with a GENEPI neutron source under construction by CNRS. To accommodate the accelerator in a vertical coupling configuration, the VENUS building is being heightened. The fast core will be loaded with enriched Uranium and will be moderated and reflected with solid lead (zero power experiment). For the purpose of the experimental programme, the neutron source has to be operated not only in pulsed mode but also in continuous mode to investigate the current-to-flux reactivity indicator in representative conditions of a powerful ADS. In this latter mode it is also required to make short beam interruptions to have access to the neutron population decrease as a function of time: from this spectrum it will be possible to apply different analysis techniques such as 'prompt decay' fitting techniques and 'source jerk' techniques. Beam interruptions will be repeated at a programmable frequency to improve time spectra statistics. Different sub-criticality levels (k{sub eff}=0.99, 0.97, 0.95,..) will be investigated in order to obtain a full set of data points for the final overall validation of the methodology. This paper describes the status of the experimental facility assembling, and the foreseen experimental programme to be started. (authors)

  10. Development of nuclear design criteria for neutron spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordo, F.; Abanades, A. [E.T.S. Industriales, Madrid Polytechnic University, UPM, J.Gutierrez Abascal, 2 -28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spallation neutron sources allow obtaining high neutronic flux for many scientific and industrial applications. In recent years, several proposals have been made about its use, notably the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Japanese Spallation Source (JSNS) and the projects of Accelerator-Driven Subcritical reactors (ADS), particularly in the framework of EURATOM programs. Given their interest, it seems necessary to establish adequate design basis for guiding the engineering analysis and construction projects of this kind of installations. In this sense, all works done so far seek to obtain particular solutions to a particular design, but there has not been any general development to set up an engineering methodology in this field. In the integral design of a spallation source, all relevant physical processes that may influence its behaviour must be taken into account. Neutronic aspects (emitted neutrons and their spectrum, generation performance..), thermomechanical (energy deposition, cooling conditions, stress distribution..), radiological (spallation waste activity, activation reactions and residual heat) and material properties alteration due to irradiation (atomic displacements and gas generation) must all be considered. After analysing in a systematic manner the different options available in scientific literature, the main objective of this thesis was established as making a significant contribution to determine the limiting factors of the main aspects of spallation sources, its application range and the criteria for choosing optimal materials. To achieve this goal, a series of general simulations have been completed, covering all the relevant physical processes in the neutronic and thermal-mechanical field. Finally, the obtained criteria have been applied to the particular case of the design of the spallation source of subcritical reactors PDX-ADS and XT-ADS. These two designs, developed under the European R and D Framework Program, represent nowadays

  11. Valdose program: methodologies for dose assessment in internal contamination, 1997 census; Programma valdose: metodologie di valutazione della dose da contaminazione interna, censimento 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    Dose assessment in internal dosimetry needs computational and interpretative tools that allow carrying out, as a first step, an evaluation of intake on the base of bioassay measurements or WBC measurements, and as a second step, dose evaluation on the base of estimated intake. In the frame of the MIDIA Co-ordination (WBC operating in Italy), in the first months of 1997 a census on methodologies for dose evaluation in internal contamination has been proposed. A technical form has been sent to all the WBC Centres allowing an accurate description of modalities used in each centre. 9 out of 17 centres sent the answers to the technical form in time. In this paper all the forms filled in are reported. A careful comparative evaluation of the answers has been made both for routine monitoring and for special monitoring. The various radionuclides present in the Italian reality, calculation methodologies both for intake and dose, hypotheses adopted for date, path and modalities of contaminations are also presented. Proposals for conforming to the methodology in Italy after the introduction of the models following ICRP 60 publication that are the base of the Euratom 96/29 Directive are also discussed. [Italiano] La valutazione di dose in contaminazione interna necessita di strumenti interpretativi che permettano di effettuare in una prima la valutazione dell`intake sulla base delle misure dei campioni biologici o del corpo intero (WBC), ed in una seconda fase la valutazione della dose sulla base dell`intake. All`interno del coordinamento MIDIA dei WBC operanti in Italia e` stato proposto, nel primo trimestre del 1997, un censimento sulle metodologie di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna. Ai diversi centri e` stato inviato una scheda tecnica che, mediante un particolareggiato schema di domande, aiutava i diversi centri nella esposizione delle modalita` di valutazione di dose che ogni centro segue. 9 au 17 centri WBC operanti al momemnto in Italia hanno inviato la

  12. Deficiencies in product labelling instructions and quality control directions for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buroni, Federica E; Lodola, Lorenzo; Persico, Marco G; Aprile, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify deficiencies in product labelling instructions for reconstitution and in the quality control directions detailed in the technical leaflets (TLs) or summary product characteristic (SPC) sheets of commonly used technetium labelling cold kits. The reconstitution and quality control directions in 25 TLs/SPCs were evaluated to identify deficiencies, incompleteness, restrictions, errors, impracticability, and vagueness. In addition, their congruence with the statements given in the relative European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur. VII ed.) monography and diagnostic reference levels of Directive 97/43/EURATOM was evaluated. Deficiencies in information were scored and classified into five categories: 1, absent or incomplete; 2, restrictive; 3, inconsistent or wrong; 4, impractical; and 5, vague. In the 25 documents analyzed a total of 141 deficiencies were found (corresponding to 40.2% of the total scores assigned), and more frequently they pertained to quality control procedures (70.9%), followed by those related to quantitative composition (14.9%), preparation (8.5%), and particle size (5.7%). Nearly 80% of these deficiencies were classified as type 1 - that is, absent or incomplete information. The indications in TLs and SPCs should provide useful information for maintaining the quality and purity of the radiopharmaceutical preparation and ensure the safety level and effectiveness required by law. However, the instructions are often suboptimal or even erroneous, and consequently there are countless failures or difficulties, which represent an impediment to good laboratory practice. We believe that a 'smart' review of radiopharmaceutical documentation would be beneficial in order to align these indications to the real needs of the operators involved in routine in-house nuclear medicine practice.

  13. ICPP: Results from the MAST Spherical Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Alan

    2000-10-01

    The MAST (Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak) experiment is now fully operational, producing 1MA plasmas with MW level auxiliary heating from Neutral Beam Injection and 60GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating. Central electron and ion temperatures are both of order 1keV (measured by 30-point Thomson Scattering, Neutral Particle Analyzer and Charge-Exchange spectroscopy respectively). Following boronisation, the Greenwald density limit has been exceeded in double-null divertor discharges by 50operation has been achieved in both Ohmic and NBI heated plasmas. In addition to conventional plasma induction, MAST can employ the `merging-compression' scheme (pioneered on START) producing initial spherical tokamak plasmas of up to 0.5MA without use of flux from the central solenoid. The central solenoid can then be applied to further increase the current at ramp rates of up to 13MA/s; plasma current of 1MA is reached at only one-half of the full solenoid swing. Studies of strike point power loading in both Ohmic and beam heated plasmas have confirmed the result from START that the fraction of power loading on the inboard strike point is lower than predicted from simple models. Comprehensive arrays of halo detectors indicate tolerable levels of halo currents with low asymmetries; an encouraging result for the ST concept, and providing key data to test models. Results from MAST will be used both to extend the conventional tokamak database, and to determine the potential of the ST as a route to fusion power in its own right. Acknowledgement: this work is funded jointly by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and EURATOM. The NBI equipment is on loan from ORNL, the NPA from PPPL.

  14. Determination of eye lens doses and identification of risk groups among radiation exposed workers. An Austrian pilot study; Bestimmung der Augenlinsen-Dosis und Identifizierung von Risikogruppen bei beruflich strahlenexponierten Personen. Eine Pilotstudie in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadtmann, H.; Hranitzky, C.; Willer, H. [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria). Radiation Protection Dosimetry; Strebl, F.; Ernst, G. [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria). Radiation Safety and Applications; Aspek, W. [Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (AUVA), Wien (Austria). Abt. Unfallverhuetung und Berufskrankheitenbekaempfung (HUB)

    2015-07-01

    On European level, in 2014 the dose limit for the lens of the eye of radiation exposed workers has been reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year (2013/59/Euratom). Data about eye lens exposition measured under realistic operational conditions of Austrian radiation exposed workers is sparse and there is no information to verify, if all professional groups identified to be at risk for elevated eye doses will remain below the new annual dose limit. Therefore, financed by the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, AUVA, a pilot study has been initiated to answer this question. Based on published information professional groups of radiation exposed workers and operational tasks with an enhanced risk of elevated eye lens doses have been identified. By dosimetric measurements with volunteers (forehead dose meters and parallel measurements with whole-body TL-dose meters above and under the lead apron) realistic lens doses will be estimated during selected radiation exposed tasks. Comparison of yielded doses will show whether a TLD outside the apron could serve as an alternative to forehead dose meters dedicated to measure eye lens doses. Measurements with leaded protective eyewear based on IEC61331 yield results for lead equivalent in good agreement with manufacturers' information. Results for eye lens doses determined by use of a RANDO head phantom and a standardized phantom simulating a body in a typical exposition situation for interventional radiologists show that wearing of leaded goggles allows for a 90% dose reduction. Under such conditions the eye lens dose is dominated by backscatter and stray radiation from the operator's head and patient body. This has to be considered for the evaluation of protective effectiveness for leaded eye wear.

  15. Estimation of the collective dose in the Portuguese population due to medical procedures in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Pedro; Carmen de Sousa, M; Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana; Pascoal, Ana; Cardoso, Gabriela; Lança, Isabel; Matela, Nuno; Janeiro, Luís; Sousa, Patrick; Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui; Santos, Ana Isabel; Simãozinho, Paula; Vaz, Pedro

    2013-05-01

    In a wide range of medical fields, technological advancements have led to an increase in the average collective dose in national populations worldwide. Periodic estimations of the average collective population dose due to medical exposure is, therefore of utmost importance, and is now mandatory in countries within the European Union (article 12 of EURATOM directive 97/43). Presented in this work is a report on the estimation of the collective dose in the Portuguese population due to nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures and the Top 20 diagnostic radiology examinations, which represent the 20 exams that contribute the most to the total collective dose in diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures in Europe. This work involved the collaboration of a multidisciplinary taskforce comprising representatives of all major Portuguese stakeholders (universities, research institutions, public and private healthcare providers, administrative services of the National Healthcare System, scientific and professional associations and private service providers). This allowed us to gather a comprehensive amount of data necessary for a robust estimation of the collective effective dose to the Portuguese population. The methodology used for data collection and dose estimation was based on European Commission recommendations, as this work was performed in the framework of the European wide Dose Datamed II project. This is the first study estimating the collective dose for the population in Portugal, considering such a wide national coverage and range of procedures and consisting of important baseline reference data. The taskforce intends to continue developing periodic collective dose estimations in the future. The estimated annual average effective dose for the Portuguese population was of 0.080±0.017 mSv caput(-1) for nuclear medicine exams and of 0.96±0.68 mSv caput(-1) for the Top 20 diagnostic radiology exams.

  16. SU-E-T-588: Optimization of Imaging Following 223Ra Administration in Targeted Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benabdallah, N; Bernardini, M [Hopital Europeen George Pompidou, Paris, Ile de France (France); Desbree, A [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-roses, Ile-de-France (France); Labriolle-Vaylet, C de [Hopital Trousseau, Paris, Ile de France (France); Franck, D [Institut de Radioprotection et de Suretu Nucleaire, Fontenay Aux Roses, Ile de France (France)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: With a growing demand of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, especially Xofigo ({sup 223}RaCl{sub 2}) which is used in the treatment of metastatic bone disease, the optimization of dosimetry becomes necessary. Indeed, in Europe, as stated on the council directive 2013/59/euratom, exposures of target volumes for radiotherapeutic purposes shall be individually planned taking into account that doses to non-target volumes and tissues shall be as low as reasonably achievable. To that aim, the possibility of imaging {sup 223}Ra was first investigated. Methods: The experiments were conducted at the Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou with an Infinia Hawkeye 4 gamma camera, equipped with a medium-energy collimator. Imaging parameters, such as sensibility, spatial resolution and energy spectrum, were determined using several physical phantoms with a source of 6 MBq of {sup 223}Ra. Bone metastases were modeled with a NEMA Body Phantom to investigate image degradation based on the concentration of {sup 223}Ra. Results: The acquired energy spectrum allowed to visualize several photon peaks: at 85, 154 and 270 keV. Camera sensitivity measured from the phantom study was 102.3 cps/MBq for the 85 keV ± 20 %, 89.9 cps/MBq for the 154 ± 20 % window and 65.4 cps/MBq for the 270 ± 10 % window. The spatial resolution (full-width at half-maximum) was respectively 1.7, 1.9 and 1.8 cm for the three energy windows. SPECT/CT images of NEMA Body Phantom without and with attenuation have permitted to determine the best reconstruction parameters. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clinically relevant information from images of {sup 223}Ra. All these results will be valuable to analyze biodistribution imaging of the radiopharmaceutical in the patient body and go further in the reconstruction of patient images in order to personalize the dosimetry.

  17. Case study on implementation of the dose constraint concept in optimization in working environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewska, Grazyna; Krajewski, Pawel [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, PL-03194, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    A case study of already fixed dose constrain values in nuclear medicine sector, indicated that, the practical implementation of ICRP principle of optimization ( Publication 103, ICRP, 2007) still hit on methodology problems due to lack of adequate numerous monitoring data of internal contamination and complicated mathematical formalism. In practice, to ensure that 'the likelihood of incurring exposure, the number of people exposed, and the magnitude of their individual doses are kept as low as reasonably achievable', the baseline of effective doses together with statistical distribution is required. Furthermore, as it has revealed in this study, doses PHP's generated with MC methods had un-regularly shapes, depending on random operations rather than routine procedures. The role of dose constraints for occupational exposures, was further elaborated in Publication 101 (ICRP, 2006) as 'the dose constraint is a value of individual dose used to limit the range of options considered in the process of optimization'. The revisions of the International Basic Safety Standards as well as the Euratom Basic Safety Standard Directive both aim to implement new ICRP recommendations and have requirements to use dose constraints, defined broadly along the lines provided by the ICRP, and suggest that values be selected from the bands recommended by the ICRP. These will be obligatory adopted in the national regulations by regulatory authorities of EU countries. However, due to accidental characteristics of monitoring data, the 95% confidence tail of the doses for the most highly exposed individuals is near the limit of 20 mSv per year. This is apparently observed in the particular endocrinology units dealing with I-131 therapy. One might concluded that dose limitation and optimization are viewed as sufficient for the management of occupational exposures and reasonably be achieved. (authors)

  18. Radiation protection in 90Y-labelled DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Elisa; Sghedoni, Roberto; Asti, Mattia; Fioroni, Federica; Salvo, Diana; Borasi, Giovanni

    2009-02-01

    Beta-emitting radionuclides are being increasingly used in targeted radionuclide therapy in nuclear medicine. In particular, the pure high-energy beta-emitter 90Y (Emax=2.27 MeV) has a physical half-life compatible with the pharmacokinetics of peptides. The use of this isotope implies an increase in the radiation dose received by the nuclear medicine staff. The aim of this study is thus the evaluation of the personal beta-dosimetry data related to therapeutic 90Y-labelled DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide preparation and administration in a nuclear medicine department. Personal dose measurements were carried out with a series of thin active layer ultrasensitive MCP-Ns (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) dosimeters fixed at the operator's fingertips and by means of some direct reading dosimeters; other individual protection devices, such as shielded aprons and anti-X gloves, were also used. The 95th percentile of the chemist's skin equivalent dose distribution was 1.759 mSv/GBq by using 0.10-mm anti-X gloves and 0.265 mSv/GBq by using 0.20-mm anti-X gloves. The 95th percentile of the physician's skin equivalent dose distribution was 1.198 mSv/GBq by using 0.10-mm anti-X gloves. The use of an anti-X apron during administration permits saving absorbed doses by a factor over 97% for both Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). Because of the physical properties of beta-emitters, an increased number of therapeutic sessions is to be expected. The dose values measured till now, resulting from a high radioprotection level modus operandi, have always respected the threshold limits reported by the European Directive EURATOM 96/29 05/13/1996 for exposed workers, even in addition to other clinical practices in the department.

  19. Spanish Radiation Protection training model for outside workers; Modelo espanol de formacion en proteccionr adiologica para trabajadores expuestos externos en el ambito de instalaciones nucleares e instalaciones radiactivas del ciclo del combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, I.; Munoz, M. J.; Amor, I.; Pinos, M.; Goyoaga, J.

    2003-07-01

    European Directive 90/641/Euratom established specific responsibilities regarding training of outside workers. The Spanish transposition of this Directive, through Royal Decree 413/97, distributed the responsibility for outside workers radiation protection training between the outside undertaking (basic training course) and the nuclear and no nuclear installations (e specific training course). The Spanish nuclear Safety Council, (regulatory body in matter of nuclear safety and radiation protection), started in year 2001 the development of a Technical Instruction for official recognition of this issue through publication in the Official State Bulletin. The drawing up of this document has finished at the beginning of 2003. The requirements included in this document will be compulsorily for outside workers involved in tasks carried out it controlled areas in nuclear and fuel cycle installations. This document includes requirements regarding following points: . Requirements needed by the trainers who may teach any basic or specific training course, based on their technical and scientific expertise. . Programme of basic and specific training course, including a description of the contents and the stablished length in hours of each course. . Evaluation of knowledge acquired by means of a test. . Accreditation of successful completion of the course by means of information which should be included in the personal Radiation Passbook. . Validity of the basic and specific training course. . Requirements and proceedings in case of losing the personal Radiation Passbook . Inspection by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council . Requirements for accreditation of training in radiation protection in case of foreigners working as outside exposed workers in Spanish nuclear power plants. (Author) 3 refs.

  20. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  1. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made.

  2. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status; Stilllegung und Rueckbau in der Europaeischen Union. Aktueller Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute [European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Nuclear Energy, Waste Management and Transport

    2009-02-15

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO{sub 2} emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear cardiology practice and associated radiation doses in Europe: results of the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) for the 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Oliver; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Acampa, Wanda; Burchert, Wolfgang; Flotats, Albert; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Knuuti, Juhani; Underwood, S Richard; Vitola, João V; Mahmarian, John J; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Better, Nathan; Rehani, Madan M; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear cardiology is widely used to diagnose coronary artery disease and to guide patient management, but data on current practices, radiation dose-related best practices, and radiation doses are scarce. To address these issues, the IAEA conducted a worldwide study of nuclear cardiology practice. We present the European subanalysis. In March 2013, the IAEA invited laboratories across the world to document all SPECT and PET studies performed in one week. The data included age, gender, weight, radiopharmaceuticals, injected activities, camera type, positioning, hardware and software. Radiation effective dose was calculated for each patient. A quality score was defined for each laboratory as the number followed of eight predefined best practices with a bearing on radiation exposure (range of quality score 0 - 8). The participating European countries were assigned to regions (North, East, South, and West). Comparisons were performed between the four European regions and between Europe and the rest-of-the-world (RoW). Data on 2,381 European patients undergoing nuclear cardiology procedures in 102 laboratories in 27 countries were collected. A cardiac SPECT study was performed in 97.9 % of the patients, and a PET study in 2.1 %. The average effective dose of SPECT was 8.0 ± 3.4 mSv (RoW 11.4 ± 4.3 mSv; P cardiology is lower and the average quality score is higher than in the RoW. There is regional variation in effective dose in relation to the best practice quality score. A possible reason for the differences between Europe and the RoW could be the safety culture fostered by actions under the Euratom directives and the implementation of diagnostic reference levels. Stress-only imaging and weight-adjusted activity might be targets for optimization of European nuclear cardiology practice.

  4. Radon in spring waters in the south of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, E; Peñalver, A; Borrull, F; Aguilar, C

    2016-01-01

    Spring waters in the south of Catalonia were analysed to determine the (222)Rn activity in order to be able to establish a correlation between the obtained values with the geology of the area of origin of these samples, and also estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn. Most of the analysed samples (90%) show (222)Rn activities lower than 100Bq/L (exposure limit in water recommended by the World Health Organisation and EU directive 2013/51/EURATOM). However, in some cases, the activity values found for this isotope exceeded those levels and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the spring waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristics. To verify the origin of the radon present in the analysed samples, the obtained activity values were compared with the activities of its parents ((226)Ra, (238)U and (234)U). Finally, we have calculated the annual effective dose from all the radionuclides measured in spring water samples. The results showed that the higher contribution due to spring water ingestion come from (222)Rn and (226)Ra. The resulting contribution to the annual effective dose due to radon ingestion varies between 10.2 and 765.8 μSv/y, and the total annual effective dose due to his parents, (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U varies between 0.8 and 21.2 μSv/y so the consumption of these waters does not involve any risks to population due to its natural radioactivity content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Workshop on intakes of radionuclides: occupational and public exposure, Avignon, 15-18 September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etherington, G.; Phipps, A.W.; Harrison, J.D.; Jones, D.G.; Stradling, G.N

    1998-06-01

    This meeting was the fourth in this series of Workshops, previous meetings having been held in Versailles, France in 1988, in Elmau, Germany in 1991, and in Bath, UK in 1993.The Avignon meeting comes at a time of intense activity in internal dosimetry. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently completed development and publication of a series of physiologically based age-dependent biokinetic models for a range of important radionuclides. This followed the publication in 1994 of the new Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). These models have now been used to determine the dose coefficients that are given in the EURATOM Directive and in the International Basic Safety Standards. A forthcoming ICRP publication will present predictions of the new models for bioassay quantities of interest, and will give revised guidance on the design and interpretation of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes. Another will give technical guidance on the use of the HRTM in practical situations. Looking further into the future, work on the development of a new age-dependent dosimetric model for the gastro-intestinal tract is now under way. With so many recent and forthcoming developments in modelling, it is not surprising that one of the unifying themes of the meeting was the impending need for internal dosimetry practitioners to be able to use the new models for assessments of doses in the workplace. The meeting's main sessions were organised under five headings: occupational exposure to radionuclides, public exposure to radionuclides, developments in modelling, physical dosimetry and treatment of accidental intakes.

  6. State of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis: highlights from the 4th Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Marsden, Oliva; Pellegrini, Kristi L.

    2016-09-16

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official nuclear forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with roughly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist law enforcement during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. The ITWG recently completed its fourth CMX in the 20 year history of the organization. This was also the largest materials exercise to date, with participating laboratories from 16 countries or organizations. Three samples of low enriched uranium were shipped to these laboratories as part of an illicit trafficking scenario, for which each laboratory was asked to conduct nuclear forensic analyses in support of a fictitious criminal investigation. An objective review of the State Of Practice and Art of international nuclear forensic analysis based upon the outcome of this most recent exercise is provided.

  7. Harmonization between a Framework of Multilateral Approaches to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities and Bilateral Nuclear Cooperation Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of primary challenges for ensuring effective and efficient functions of the multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities is harmonization between a MNA framework and existing nuclear cooperation agreements (NCA. A method to achieve such harmonization is to construct a MNA framework with robust non-proliferation characteristics, in order to obtain supplier states’, especially the US’s prior consents for non-supplier states’ certain activities including spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium storages and retransfers of plutonium originated in NCAs. Such robust characteristics can be accomplished by MNA member states’ compliances with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Safeguards, regional safeguards agreements, international conventions, guidelines and recommendations on nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear security, safety, and export control. Those provisions are to be incorporated into an MNA founding agreement, as requirements to be MNA members in relation to NCAs. Furthermore, if an MNA facility is, (1 owned and operated jointly by all MNA member states, (2 able to conclude bilateral NCAs with non-MNA/supplier states as a single legal entity representing its all member states like an international organization, and (3 able to obtain necessary prior consents, stable, smooth, and timely supplies of nuclear fuel and services can be assured among MNA member states. In this paper, the authors will set out a general MNA framework and then apply it to a specific example of Europe Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM and then consider its applicability to the Asian region, where an establishment of an MNA framework is expected to be explored.

  8. Radiation safety and quality in diagnostic x-ray imaging 2001; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laatu roentgendiagnostiikassa 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T. (eds.)

    2001-05-01

    The obligations of the medical exposure directive (97/43/Euratom) for hospitals dominate the current activities in radiation protection in medical radiology. The directive gives special emphasis to radiation exposure of children, to examinations with high radiation doses and to radiation exposure in health screening programmes. The most important examinations with high doses are radiological interventions, where even acute skin effects are possible, and the computed tomography where the number of CT examinations makes only about 5% from the total number of x-ray examinations but the collective effective dose about 40% from the combined collective effective dose of all x-ray examinations. In the research projects financed by the European Commission, radiation exposures to paediatric patients have been measured in radiography, fluoroscopy and CT, and various dose assessment methods have been compared to develop a method for national follow-up of patients' radiation dose. The newest research project is focused on dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional radiology and digital imaging. Other actual topics are the development of radiation protection regulations and quality systems, education and training programmes, and clinical audits. This report deals with new radiation protection guides and recommendations and the education and training of radiological staff in radiation protection. One important topic is the development of national follow-up method of radiation exposure to patients and comparison of various dose assessment methods. Quality assurance in health care and in paediatric radiology, and the acceptance test and quality assurance measurements of radiological equipment are also described. (orig.)

  9. Occupational exposure of medical staff due to diagnostic X-ray examinations in veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergel, E.; Feige, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Haeusler, U. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)

  10. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Haste, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Kärkelä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  11. Fusion program. The interest for the industry; Programa de fusion. Interes para la Industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Bautista, M. T.

    2007-07-01

    On November 21, 2006, the ministers representing all the parties taking part in ITER (EU, china, India, Japan, Rusia, USA and south Korea signed the so-called ITER agreement, thereby affirming the decision to build this fusion energy demonstration experiment. As of that moment, each partner has been preparing its Domestic Agency that will manage its contribution. Europe will play a relevant role in this facility, the site of which is located in Cadarache, and will provide 50% of its investment. This leading role of Europe is the continuation of years of decisive support for the fusion program. In successive Framework Programs of EURATOM, resources have been allotted to fusion and projects have been executed with specific organizations to coordinate them (EFDA). One of the most significant decision to accomplish this coordination was to involve the industry; in 1994, the ITER EDA Framework Contract was signed to develop the ITER engineering. Since then the EFET group, formed by seven European engineering firms including Empresarios Agrupados and Sener, has developed design work for ITER. together with these engineering activities, engineering firms and manufacturers were qualified to develop prototypes as apart of the so-called 17-technology program. these decisions have made it possible to provide ITER with the industry experience in the execution of large projects and have provided industry with a knowledge of this facility features. Now the time has come to execute the project, and the challenge will be to know how to take advantage of the experience gained by Europe. This article discusses in greater detail the areas to which the European industry has contributed and the expected conditions for this participation. (Author)

  12. General load function in geo-mechanics: application to underground works; Fonction de charge generale en geomecanique: application aux travaux souterrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolino, S

    2006-04-15

    This work deals both with the behavioral and numerical aspects of the mechanical response of a rock massif to the digging out of a tunnel. The comparison between existing criteria has permitted to stress on some key points, like the dependence of the criterion to the average stress and the extension ratio. A load function, easily identifiable with tests, with regular and convex properties, has been proposed which allows to take into account the shape of the Mohr envelope of the criterion and the extension ratio. Regularized forms of Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria can thus be achieved. The development of this new criterion has been completed by the proposal of a numerical charts method which greatly speeds up the resolution. For the proposed criterion, the physical problem is equivalent to a purely geometrical problem in polar coordinates in the plan. Numerical charts can thus be built which allow to find immediately the value of plastic deformations and to greatly reduce the processing time. Tunnel calculation methods have been the object of a bibliographic synthesis, specifying the domains and limitations of use of tunnel dimensioning methods used by engineers. The modeling of tunnels excavation has been performed with the stationary algorithm designed for the calculation of systems submitted to mobile loads. This algorithm has been adapted to integrate the new criterion and the numerical charts system. These tools have been validated using a real case study and data supplied by the French national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) in the framework of the MODEX-REP European project (5. Euratom plan). The study of these data has permitted to define a rock wear variable, easily identifiable and allowing to parameterize the damaged rock criterion. (J.S.)

  13. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, Bozidar; Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-03-01

    Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear legal and moral

  14. Novedades de interés en la futura directiva europea de protección radiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cancio Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Expertos Asesor de la Comisión Europea en Protección Radiológica, contemplado en el artículo 31 del Tratado EURATOM, aprobó a finales de febrero de 2010 los aspectos más importantes de la futura directiva. Esta nueva directiva, además de que refunde en un único texto legislativo las cinco directivas anteriores, incorpora también la protección con respecto al gas radón sobre el cual solo existía anteriormente una recomendación. Los aspectos de mayor interés son las nuevas recomendaciones relacionadas con la planificación de las emergencias, el nuevo marco del sistema de protección basado ahora en todos los tipos de situaciones, planificadas, existentes y de emergencias. Además, los aspectos específicos de industrias que procesan materiales radiactivos naturales (NORM están integrados totalmente en el sistema de protección; se ha incluido una revisión importante de la protección en las aplicaciones médicas incluso ampliando lo que se establecía en la actual directiva sobre el tema; se tratan los aspectos específicos para la obtención de imágenes por motivos no médicos; se establecen nuevos requerimientos con respecto al radón en viviendas y lugares de trabajo y, por último, se dictan nuevos requerimientos para materiales de construcción de viviendas.

  15. Spent BWR fuel characterisation combining a fork detector with gamma spectrometry. Report on Task JNT A 1071 FIN of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiitta, A.; Hautamaeki, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Turunen, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Arlt, R.; Arenas, Carrasco J.; Esmailpour-Kazerouni, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Schwalbach, P. [Euratom Safeguards Office (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    The LWR spent fuel assemblies have to be verified at the partial defect level before they become difficult to access. According to the IAEA's criteria the partial defect test for spent fuel should be able to detect if half or more of the fuel pins have been removed from an assembly and possibly replaced by dummies. Euratom applies similar criteria. Therefore a standard verification procedure needs to be developed using an appropriate combination of measurements and theoretical calculations. Two experiments with an 'upgraded' fork detector were performed at the TVO KPA Store in September and in December 1999. On the whole, 26 assemblies were measured. In the 'upgraded' fork detector the total neutron count and the gross gamma measurements are complemented with gamma spectroscopic measurement using an integrated measurement head. A cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector is placed on the same vertical level as the fission and ionisation chambers. This enables simultaneous gamma and neutron measurements at one location. In the upgraded fork model the fork prongs can also be removed and gamma spectrometric measurements can be done using only the CZT detector. This allows more versatile placement of the target fuel assembly allowing various kind of gamma spectroscopic scanning measurements. In this report a gamma spectroscopy based correction to the gross gamma data is introduced. This corrected gross gamma signal seems to describe more consistently the burnup of the assembly than the {sup 137}Cs intensity obtained by direct gamma spectrometry. Concerning the measured neutron data of assemblies with different enrichments, an enrichment correction method based on calculations made with the ORIGEN-S program is introduced in this report. In addition, the share of {sup 244}Cm neutrons of the total neutron source is derived from the results calculated with the PYVO program. These corrections to the neutron signal seem to improve the correlation of the

  16. Areva, annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report contains information on AREVA objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in chapters 4 and 7. This information is a not meant as a presentation of past performance data and should not be interpreted as a guarantee that events or data set forth herein are assured or that objectives will be met. Forward looking statements made in this document also address known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could, were they to translate into fact, cause AREVA future financial performance, operating performance and production to differ significantly from the objectives presented or suggested herein. Those factors include, in particular, changes in international, economic or market conditions, as well as risk factors presented in Section 4.14.3. Neither AREVA nor the AREVA group is committing to updating forward looking statements or information contained in the annual report. This annual report contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Unless otherwise indicated, all historical data and forward looking information are based on Group estimates (source: AREVA) and are provided as examples only. To AREVA knowledge, no report is available on the AREVA group markets that is sufficiently complete or objective to serve as a sole reference source. The AREVA group developed estimates based on several sources, including in-house studies and reports, statistics provided by international organizations and professional associations, data published by competitors and information collected by AREVA subsidiaries. The main sources, studies and reports used include (i) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the World Nuclear Association (WNA), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEA), Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for the nuclear business; and (ii

  17. PREFACE: Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lebedev, Yu

    2010-01-01

    The Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'08) organized by St Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from 30 June to 5 July 2008. A Special Session on Plasmas for Environmental Issues was co-organised by the Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Lisbon, Portugal and the Laboratory of Plasmas and Energy Conversion, University of Toulouse, France. That puts the beginning of a series in Workshops on Plasmas for Environmental Issues, now as a satellite meeting of the European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007)), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 38 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the

  18. The sustainable nuclear energy technology platform. A vision report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear fission energy can deliver safe, sustainable, competitive and practically carbon-free energy to Europe's citizens and industries. Within the framework of the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan), the European Commission's stakeholders in this field have formulated a collective vision of the contributions this energy could make towards Europe's transition to a low-carbon energy mix by 2050, with the aim of integrating and expanding R and D capabilities in order to further this objective. The groundwork has been prepared by the stakeholders listed in Annex II, within the framework of two EURATOM FP6 (Sixth Framework Programme) Coordination Actions, namely SNF-TP (Sustainable Nuclear Fission Technology Platform) and PATEROS (Partitioning and Transmutation European Road-map for Sustainable Nuclear Energy), with contributions from Europe's technical safety organisations. This vision report prepares the launch of the European Technology Platform on Sustainable Nuclear Energy (SNE-TP). It proposes a vision for the short-, medium- and long-term development of nuclear fission energy technologies, with the aim of achieving a sustainable production of nuclear energy, a significant progress in economic performance, and a continuous improvement of safety levels as well as resistance to proliferation. In particular, this document proposes road-maps for the development and deployment of potentially sustainable nuclear technologies, as well as actions to harmonize Europe's training and education, whilst renewing its research infrastructures. Public acceptance is also an important issue for the development of nuclear energy. Therefore, research in the fields of nuclear installation safety, protection of workers and populations against radiation, management of all types of waste, and governance methodologies with public participation will be promoted. The proposed road-maps provide the backbone for a strategic research agenda (SRA) to maintain

  19. Potential scenarios for broadening stakeholder involvement in the implementing geological disposal technology platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, Meritxell [Merience Strategic Thinking, Barcelona (Spain); Bergmans, Anne [University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    This paper analyses the potential for the involvement of different types of stakeholders in the Implementing Geological Disposal Technology Platform (IGD-TP). This analysis was conducted as part of the InSOTEC project, a three-year (2011- 2014) collaborative research project funded under the 7. Euratom Framework Programme (Grant Agreement nr. 269906). In our analysis, we consider the extent to which the IGDTP's practice as regards to stakeholder involvement matches its discourse, and what potential for improvement exists given its structural organisation as a European Technology Platform (ETPs). Technology Platforms (TPs) can be understood as knowledge networks, deliberately set up to influence (research) policy in a specific domain. We therefore use knowledge networks as a conceptual approach and look at the IGD-TP as a complex network which includes actors, knowledge and practices across different countries, focusing on a very specific topic (i.e. implementing geological disposal). We compare the way different stakeholders are involved in the IGD-TP to the practice of other ETPs, and explore how the IGD-TP is viewed by its members and by outsiders to the platform Applying Callon's framework of knowledge co-production (1999) we come to define different degrees of interaction between science, society and policy in view of defining research and development (R and D) priorities [1]. Subsequently we describe how these interactions could be conceptualised and interpreted for the IGD-TP. The current approach of the IGDTP can be mainly understood as classical model involving mainly expert stakeholders and scientists. Where there seems to be a good representation among IGD-TP members of industry, research institutes, and some members of the academic community this is not the case for other types of stakeholders, such as public authorities or civil society. At this stage, the overall approach of the IGD-TP would seem to restrict the scope of stakeholder

  20. Towards understanding ELM mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ian

    2012-10-01

    particular that the plasma response induces a larger jxb torque than the NTV torque and the penetration time is consistent with the time scale observed for the appearance of the lobe structures. This work was funded by the RCUK Energy Programme under grant EP/I501045 and the European Communities under the contract of Association between EURATOM and CCFE. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  1. Analysis of the neutron component and determination of the LET spectrum at high altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vana, N.; Minarik, M.; Schoener, W. [Atoministitute of the Austrian Universities, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Berger, T.; Hajek, M.; Noll, M. [Institute for Space Dosimetry, Lustkandlgasse 52/3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2000-05-01

    The European Council directive 96/29/Euratom of 13 May 1996 emphasizes the introduction of two categories for occupational exposure. Category A includes the employees for whom the annual effective dose is likely to exceed 6 mSv. Suggesting an average flight time between 600 and 1000 hours per year for aircrew, the typical annual dose lies between 4 and 8 mSv with a maximum value of 15 mSv for Concorde flights. This requires the surveillance of aircrew members and thus the development of proper measurement devices. Because of the similar radiation environment, high altitude mountains seem to be an ideal choice to test and to improve recently developed measurement systems. Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS) with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillation counter and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs), respectively, were used to determine the neutron energy spectrum as well as the absorbed dose and the average linear energy transfer (LET) in a complex mixed radiation field on top of Mt. Sonnblick (3105 m). The neutron component makes up 35 to 60% of the biologically relevant dose at high altitudes, depending on the geomagnetic latitude. The average LET of the mixed radiation field was determined using the high temperature ratio (HTR)-method. Paired TLD-600 and TLD-700 dosemeters as well as an extended range Sievert counter were employed for determination of the neutron dose equivalent. Furthermore, a LET spectrum was recorded on Mt. Kitzsteinhorn (3029 m) using the laboratory-manufactured tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC)-system PART. All detectors were calibrated with standard radiation sources and in the CERN EC neutron reference field. The measurements performed with the passive BSS as well as the Sievert counters show that there exists a neutron component with energies up to 100 MeV (and probably more) at such altitudes. The total dose equivalent rate measured on top of Mt. Sonnblick was 200 nSv.h{sup -1} compared to an absorbed dose rate of 120 nGy.h{sup -1}. The

  2. Measurement of the most exotic beta-delayed neutron emitters at N=50 and N=126

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillmann, Iris

    2017-09-01

    Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, and the European Commission under the FP7/EURATOM CHANDA program.

  3. Monitoring in the post-closure phase. Development of wireless techniques for data transmission from the repository to the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Thomas J.; Rosca-Bocancea, Ecaterina; Hart, Jaap [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    When the in-situ monitoring in a geological disposal facility is continued during the post-closure phase, monitoring data need to be transmitted wirelessly from the repository to the surface. Wireless data transmission is used today in many applications, but the large attenuation by the geologic medium between the disposal facility and the surface makes the application of high-frequency based techniques impractical. As part of the EURATOM FP-7 project MoDeRn (Monitoring Developments for safe Repository operation and staged closure), NRG has investigated the feasibility of wireless data transmission through an argillaceous host rock (Boom Clay), making use of low frequency magnetic fields. The main focus of the contribution was to analyze and optimize the energy efficiency of this technique. Therefore, a mathematical model description has been developed that allows to estimate the expected signal strength on the earth's surface on basis of the most relevant characteristics of transmitter, receiver and transmission path. The model is used to analyze the complex interactions of different system parameters, and is applied to design an optimized set-up for through-the-earth data transmission and to estimate minimum energy demands for signal transmission. To demonstrate the potentials of this technique, experiments were performed in the 225 m deep underground research facility HADES in Mol, Belgium. Signal propagation and attenuation by the geologic medium between the HADES and the surface has been measured, and the site-specific magnetic background noise at the surface in Mol has been characterized. Based on the results, optimum conditions for signal transmission have been derived and data transmission experiments have been performed. Results show that despite large local interferences on the surface in Mol, wireless data transmission through 225 m of a geological medium is possible. Data transmission rates up to 100 bit/s has been successfully tested. The

  4. RETROCK Project. Treatment of geosphere retention phenomena in safety assessments. Scientific basis of retention processes and their implementation in safety assessment models (WP2). Work Package 2 report of the RETROCK Concerted Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykyri, M. [Safram Oy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    2004-10-01

    This report considers the present-day understanding and approaches to take into account retention and transport processes in the performance assessment (PA) models used in the evaluation of the long-term safety of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. It is a product of Work Package 2 in the RETROCK Concerted Action, a part of EURATOM's research and training programme. The processes emphasised in RETROCK are the influences of the flow field, matrix diffusion, and sorption on radionuclide transport characteristics. These processes, and radioactive decay, provide the key terms to the transport equations of the PA models. The following processes are handled more cursorily: colloid-facilitated transport, microbial activity, gas-mediated transport, precipitation/coprecipitation, and off diagonal Onsager processes. The environment in question is saturated sparsely fractured rock in the repository far field. The fracture network offers flow paths for the groundwater transporting radionuclides away from a repository. The radionuclides in various chemical forms interact physically and chemically with other matter in groundwater, fracture surfaces, fracture infills and the rock matrix adjacent to the fractures. These interactions typically result in significant retardation, and decay, of radionuclides compared to the velocity of the groundwater. The PA models usually take into account retention phenomena using simplified concepts that are justified by their conservatism. They are complemented by a large variety of more detailed and realistic process-specific models that can be used to support the choice of data for PA models, as well as specific arguments made in safety cases. While the fundamental understanding, the conceptualisations of the phenomena, the models and the computing resources develop, the extensive data requirements often become a most restrictive factor to the use of a model. The difficulties in obtaining data tend to hinder the

  5. 2. Annual Workshop Proceedings of the Integrated Project 'Fundamental Processes of Radionuclide Migration' - 6. EC FP IP FUNMIG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckau, Gunnar; Kienzler, Bernhard [FZK - Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Ka rlsruhe (Germany); Duro, Lara; Montoya, Vanessa [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spai n)] (eds.)

    2007-06-15

    Long-term Governance on RAdioactive Waste Management, OBRA Co-ordination Action running from October 2006; Integrated Project PAMINA, running from October 2006; Integrated Project NF-PRO, running from 2004, will finish end of 2007; Treatment of influences of the near field on the geosphere in the Safety Case; Recent developments of the Euratom (Fission) Programme - Priority research area 'Management of Radioactive waste - Disposal of HLW and LLW Towards FP7.

  6. Toward an Evolutive and Tightly Integrated Information System for Nuclear Materials Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessoude, O. [Euriware (Areva Group), 25 avenue de Tourville, Equeurdreville, 50100 (France)

    2009-06-15

    From a nuclear materials management standpoint, spent-fuel recycling is considered a very challenging activity. This challenge has its positive counterpart as a lot has been learned from confronting a large variety of nuclear materials, complex material transfers and transformations. Since the inception of its computerized nuclear materials management system, AREVA NC La Hague has relied upon its IT subsidiary EURIWARE for software design and development. In 2003, the founding milestone was the implementation of the new GMP software package (Gestion des Matieres et des Produits - Materials and Products Management). GMP was underpinned by the following principles: reliability, transparency and close integration with the process control layer, so as to mitigate human errors and keep the management process smooth and efficient. In 2005, another major milestone was reached with CMNR (Comptabilite des Matieres Nucleaires Reglementaire - Regulatory Nuclear Materials Accountancy), a system in charge of local accounting and multi-site consolidation at corporate level. In spite of an auspicious start, GMP came up against the same stumbling block as many information systems: the multiplication of interfaces and technologies (entropy increasing over time). For the sake of maintenance, evolutions and performance, AREVA has decided a progressive modernization of its Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) information system. The underlying principle is a clear separation between the main functions: - Physical Follow-up, performed at the plant-level, - Regulatory Accountancy (for IRSN, EURATOM and IAEA safeguards), offering consolidation at the corporate level, - Patrimonial Accountancy (allocation of materials and conditioned wastes to AREVA's customers). The pivotal piece of this multi-year programme is the implementation of a dedicated data repository. We describe its main building blocks and demonstrate how it helps in managing changes to regulation, products, customers and

  7. ACSEPT a European project for a new step in the future demonstration of advanced fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C. [CEA, DRCP - Bat 181, CEA Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France); Caravaca, C.; Espartero, A. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22 - 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rhodes, C.; Taylor, R.; Harrison, M. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); EKBERG, C. [Chalmers tekniska hoegskola, Institutionen foer kemi- och bioteknik, Aemnesomraadets namn, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); GEIST, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik, P.O.B. 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich - FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Cassayre, L. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); Malmbeck, R. [JRC-ITU, Karlsruhe (Germany); De Angelis, G. [ENEA, Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Bouvet, S. [Rio Tinto Alcan, Centre de Recherche de Voreppe, Voreppe (France); Klaassen, F. [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    For more than fifteen years, a European scientific community has joined its effort to develop and optimise processes for the partitioning of actinides from fission products. In an international context of 'nuclear renaissance', the upcoming of a new generation of nuclear reactor (Gen IV) will require the development of associated advanced closed fuel cycles which answer the needs of a sustainable nuclear energy: the minimization of the production of long lived radioactive waste but also the optimization of the use of natural resources with an increased resistance to proliferation. Actually, Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T), associated to a multi-recycling of all transuranics (TRUs), should play a key role in the development of this sustainable nuclear energy. By joining together 34 Partners coming from European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial players in a multidisciplinary consortium, the FP7 EURATOM-Fission Collaborative Project ACSEPT (Actinide recycling by Separation and Transmutation), started in 2008 for four year duration, provides the sound basis and fundamental improvements for future demonstrations of fuel treatment in strong connection with fuel fabrication techniques. Consistently with potentially viable recycling strategies, ACSEPT therefore provides a structured R and D framework to develop chemical separation processes compatible with fuel fabrication techniques, with a view to their future demonstration at the pilot level. ACSEPT is organized into three technical domains: (i) Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimize and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning or to group actinide separation. (ii) Concerning high temperature pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT focuses on the enhancement of the two reference cores of process selected within previous projects. R and D efforts are now devoted to key scientific and technical

  8. Implementation of an action plan in radiological protection of the patient in Argentina; Implementacion de un plan de accion en proteccion radiologica del paciente en la Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelin, S.; Perez, M.R.; Dubner, D. [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 CP 1429, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: smicheli@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The medical irradiations constitute the main contribution to the human exposure to ionizing radiations of artificial character. The growing quantity of practices, facilities and human resources dedicated to such ends, it has increased the concern of regulator organisms and scientific societies by the radiological protection of the patient (PRP). Besides completing it regulatory function in the domains of the medical practices that its concern it, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina, decided to install an active discussion in order to promoting an action plan in PRP in the national environment. To such end, the ARN organized the First National Day on PRP in December, 2004, with the attendance of professionals of the fields of the Radiodiagnostic, the Nuclear Medicine and the Radiotherapy as well as of representatives of professional associations and authorities of health. In this day the conclusions of the International Conference on PRP (Malaga, 2001) and the approaches of the Directive 97/43/EURATOM adopted in European countries were presented. It was discussed about: practices justification, responsibility of the prescriber doctor, quality systems, dose optimization, reference levels, dosimetry, training of human resources, especially for certain practices (pregnant woman, pediatric radiology and interventionist, PR/118 tomography for the correct application of diagnostic practices and an expert presented in teleconference form the experience of France for the adoption of these guides. During the Second National Day on PRP organized by the ARN (June 2005), received opinions were debated in the different environments in relation to the PR/118 guide and it potential adaptation to the national conditions. Also it was presented the state of advance of the activities developed in relation to the proposed tasks. As a result of this meeting, it was conformed a national net of PRP to which intended to incorporate academic institutions, in order to

  9. Radon-222 in groundwater and effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Janet Ayobami; Oyeleke, Oyebode Akanni

    2017-03-20

    Radon concentration in groundwater collected from the eleven Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ibadan, Nigeria, was analyzed. Annual effective doses due to ingestion and inhalation of radon from the consumption of the water were determined. The arithmetic means (AMs) of radon concentration for the 11 LGAs varied from 2.18 to 76.75 Bq l-1 with a standard deviation of 1.57 and 70.64 Bq l-1, respectively. The geometric means (GMs) varied from 1.67 to 49.47 Bq l-1 with geometric standard deviation of 2.22 and 3.04, respectively. About 58% of the 84 water samples examined had a higher concentration of radon than the 11.1 Bq l-1 recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); the AMs of six LGAs and GMs of three LGAs were higher than the recommended value. However the AMs and GMs of all the LGAs with about 93% of the water sampled were lower than the 100 Bq l-1 recommended by the World Health Organization and EURATOM drinking water directive. The concentration of radon varied with the geological formation of the area. The AMs of the annual effective dose due to ingestion of radon in water ranged from 0.036 to 1.261 mSv y-1, 0.071 to 2.521 mSv y-1 and 0.042 to 1.471 mSv y-1 for adult, child and infant, respectively and the GMs in the range of 0.026 to 0.813, 0.055 to 1.625 and 0.032 to 0.948 mSv y-1, respectively. The AMs of 10 LGAs and GMs of 7 LGAs were higher than the recommended reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 from the consumption of water for the duration of one year for all the three categories of people. The AMs and GMs of the annual effective dose due to inhalation of radon in drinking water ranged from 0.533 to 18.82 μSv y-1 and 0.411 to 12.13 μSv y-1, respectively, contributing less to the overall dose.

  10. Ingredients for a Dutch radon action plan, based on a national survey in more than 2500 dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetsers, R C G M Ronald; Blaauboer, R O Roelf; Dekkers, S A J Fieke

    2016-12-01

    A new Euratom directive demands that Member States establish a national action plan for indoor radon. Important requirements are a national reference level for the radon concentration in dwellings, actions to identify dwellings with radon concentrations that might exceed this reference level and the encouragement of appropriate measures to reduce the radon concentrations in dwellings where these are high. This paper provides ingredients and recommendations for a national action plan for radon in dwellings, applicable to the Netherlands. The approach presented here, which may serve as a model for other countries or regions with a comparatively favourable indoor radon situation, is based on the analysis of radon data from a national survey in more than 2500 Dutch dwellings, built since 1930. The annual average activity concentration of radon in dwellings in the Netherlands equals 15.6 ± 0.3 Bq m(-3). The 50th and 95th percentiles were found to be 12.2 and 38.0 Bq m(-3), respectively. In 0.4 per cent of the dwellings we found values above 100 Bq m(-3). Radon concentrations showed correlations with type of dwelling, year of construction, ventilation system, soil type and smoking behaviour of inhabitants. The survey data suggest that it is feasible for the Netherlands to adopt a national reference level for radon in dwellings of 100 Bq m(-3), in line with recommendations by WHO and ICRP. We were able to predict dwellings with a moderate probability for radon concentrations above 100 Bq m(-3) by applying a combination of three selection criteria: location, type of dwelling and manner of ventilation. Of the existing 6.2 million dwellings in the Netherlands (built since 1930), approximately 23-24 thousand are suspected to exceed this level. Some 80% of these are found in the group of naturally ventilated single-family dwellings in either the southern part of Limburg (approx. 13 thousand) or the Meuse-Rhine-Waal river delta (approx. six thousand). This selected

  11. Residual risks of the 13{sup th} amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act; Restrisiken der 13. Atomgesetzaenderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-08-15

    The 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, which was adopted by the German federal parliament on June 30 and entered into force on August 6, 2011, must be judged in the light of its genesis. Federal Chancellor Merkel, in her government declaration of June 9, 2011, had mentioned topics such as residual risk, safety standards, and risk assumptions, on which the federal government, in the week after the event of March 11, 2011, had commissioned the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) to conduct a comprehensive safety review of all German nuclear power plants, and appointed an Ethics Committee to write an opinion on safe energy supply. On the basis of quickly drafted reports, the federal cabinet, without any international harmonization (EU, IEA), adopted a draft opt out law on June 6, 2011. How should the declarations by the Federal Chancellor on June 9, 2011 be classified in terms of atomic energy law? In her words, it all revolved around the residual risk. The debate, which has been shifted to the realm of constitutional law, is open to considerations and steps to attack the new opt out law on grounds of material unconstitutionality (violation of the property guarantee under Sec. 14 or the principle of equality under Art.3 of the Basic Law). As far as final storage is concerned, the amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act announced still for this year, also for transposition of the EURATOM Directive of July 19, 2011 about nuclear waste management, the ''re-assessment of the residual risk'' is not likely to play a role. All these events are reminiscent of a sentence by former Federal Chancellor Schmidt: ''The history of the NATO dual-track decision remains a textbook case showing that even in a democracy emotions using ethical arguments, mixed with demagogy, can become strong enough to cast aside balanced reason.'' There is also a distinction by Max Weber between ''ethics of ideology

  12. A.C.R.O. activity report 2003; A.C.R.O. rapport d'activite 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Normandy from 2001 to 2003; Radio ecological monitoring of the environment of the Cogema la Hague building site in the Moulinets cove;Inventory of the radioactivity of the catchment area and the Brest Harbour (achieved in march 2003); Radiological measures of the earthly environment of the establishment of the G.I.P. CYCERON in Caen year 2003; Radiological characterization of D.I.S. and technical aid in relation to the directive 96/29 EURATOM. (N.C.)

  13. Nuclear Safety. 1997; Surete Nucleaire. 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-19

    A quick review of the nuclear safety at EDF may be summarized as follows: - the nuclear safety at EDF maintains at a rather good standard; - none of the incidents that took place has had any direct impact upon safety; - the availability remained good; - initiation of the floor 4 reactor generation (N4 unit - 1450 MW) ensued without major difficulties (the Civaux 1 NPP has been coupled to the power network at 24 december 1997); - the analysis of the incidents interesting from the safety point of view presents many similarities with earlier ones. Significant progress has been recorded in promoting actively and directly a safe operation by making visible, evident and concrete the exertion of the nuclear operation responsibility and its control by the hierarchy. The report develops the following chapters and subjects: 1. An overview on 1997; 1.1. The technical issues of the nuclear sector; 1.2. General performances in safety; 1.3. The main incidents; 1.4. Wastes and radiation protection; 2. Nuclear safety management; 2.1. Dynamics and results; 2.2. Ameliorations to be consolidated; 3. Other important issues in safety; 3.1. Probabilistic safety studies; 3.2. Approach for safety re-evaluation; 3.3. The network safety; 3.4. Crisis management; 3.5. The Lifetime program; 3.6. PWR; 3.7. Documentation; 3.8. Competence; 4. Safety management in the future; 4.1. An open future; 4.2. The fast neutron NPP at Creys-Malville; 4.3. Stabilization of the PWR reference frame; 4.4. Implementing the EURATOM directive regarding the radiation protection standards; 4.5. Development of biomedical research and epidemiological studies; 4.6. New regulations concerning the liquid and gaseous effluents; 5. Visions of an open future; 5.1. Alternative views upon safety ay EDF; 5.2. Safety authority; 5.3. International considerations; 5.4. What happens abroad; 5.5. References from non-nuclear domain. Four appendices are added referring to policy of safety management, policy of human factors in NPPs

  14. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Pebble Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Mark Schanfein

    2012-08-01

    Questionnaire (DIQ), prepared by the facility operator, typically with the support of the facility designer. The IAEA will verify design information over the life of the project. This design information is an important IAEA safeguards tool. Since the main interlocutor with the IAEA in each country is the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC (or Regional Regulatory Authority, e.g. EURATOM), the responsibility for conveying this design information to the IAEA falls to the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC.

  15. Physics of the interaction between runaway electrons and the background plasma of the current quench in tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reux, Cedric

    2017-10-01

    and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission. C. Reux, S. Jachmich, E. Joffrin, I. Coffey, O. Ficker, S. Gerasimov, V. Kiptily, U. Kruezi, M. Lehnen, U. Losada, A. Martin, J. Mlynar, E. Nardon, M. O'Mullane, V. Plyusnin, V. Riccardo, F. Saint-Laurent, G. Szepesi, S. Silburn and JET contributors.

  16. Abstracts of the 4th International MELODI Workshop 12 -14 September 2012, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulonen, N. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    research' provides highlights of Euratom projects dedicated for research on low dose risk. (orig.)

  17. The MARINE experiment: Irradiation of sphere-pac fuel and pellets of UO{sub 2−x} for americium breeding blanket concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: elio.dagata@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hania, P.R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Freis, D.; Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bejaoui, S. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DEC, F-13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Charpin, F.F.; Baas, P.J.; Okel, R.A.F.; Til, S. van [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lapetite, J.-M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Delage, F. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DEC, F-13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • MARINE is designed to check the behaviour of MABB sphere-pac concept. • MABB sphere-pac are compared with MABB pellet. • Swelling and helium release behaviour will be the main output of the experiment. • An experiment to check sphere-pac MADF fuel behaviour has been already performed. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and heat production of waste packages to be stored in a repository. The MARINE irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of European experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS, MARIOS, SPHERE) performed in the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The MARINE experiment is developed and carried out in the framework of the collaborative research project PELGRIMM of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental works in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuels, the release or trapping of helium as well as swelling have been shown to be the key issues for the design of such kind of fuel both as drivers and even more for Am-bearing blanket targets (due to the higher Am contents). The main objective of the MARINE experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of uranium oxide fuel containing 13% of americium and to compare the behaviour of sphere-pac versus pellet fuel, in particular the role of microstructure and temperature on fission gas release and He on fuel swelling. The MARINE experiment will be irradiated in 2016 in the HFR in Petten (The Netherlands) and is expected to be completed in spring 2017. This paper discusses the rationale and objective of the MARINE experiment and provides a general description of its design for which some innovative features have been adopted.

  18. Epi-genetics modifications induced by a depleted uranium exposure in the zebra fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombeau, K.; Pereira, S.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO (France); Bourdineaud, J.P. [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC (France); Ravanat, J.L. [INAC/Scib UMR E3 CEA-UJF (France)

    2014-07-01

    The work presented here integrates in the general framework of assessment of effects of chronic exposure to low doses of radionuclides. This evaluation necessarily involves the study of the mechanisms of toxic action at the cellular or subcellular level, in order to better understand the processes of propagation of effects to the level of the populations or ecosystems. As such, the question of the mechanisms underlying the trans-generational effects and the adaptive capacity of organisms is central, both in humans and in animal species. Epigenetic refer to changes in gene function that do not involve changes in DNA sequence, and which are transmitted in a hereditary manner by mitosis or meiosis. The latter plays a key role in these trans-generational effects. Among these changes, DNA-methylation is one of the most studied epigenetic parameters. This work is part of a PhD, included in the European COMET project (Euratom 7. Framework Program), and focuses on epigenetic modifications induced in zebra fish after a chronic exposure to radionuclides. Male and female fishes were exposed to 2 and 20 μg.L{sup -1} of depleted uranium for 24 days. After 7 and 24 days of exposure, brain, gonads, and eyes were collected in order to study changes in DNA methylation. In addition, genotoxicity was measured by the γH2AX assay. The overall changes in DNA methylation were studied by AFLP-MS and HPLC-MS, in order to know if the exposure to depleted uranium changes the global status of DNA methylation. We have found a decrease in the global level of methylation in the eyes of males after 24 days of exposure, the diminution being much more important and significant at the higher concentration of exposure (11.79 ± 3.62 against 52.43 ± 3.01 for controls) This study will be refined by analyzing the methylation of specific regions of the genome, because it represent the sequences of genes involved in major physiological functions and that may be subject to variations in the methylation

  19. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  20. Nuclear cardiology practice and associated radiation doses in Europe: results of the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) for the 27 European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Oliver; Burchert, Wolfgang [University Hospital of the Ruhr University, Institute of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Pascual, Thomas N.B.; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana [International Atomic Energy Agency, Section of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); Mercuri, Mathew [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Acampa, Wanda [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Flotats, Albert [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Kitsiou, Anastasia [Sismanoglio Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Athens (Greece); Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Underwood, S.R. [Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Vitola, Joao V. [Quanta Diagnostico and Terapia, Curitiba (Brazil); Mahmarian, John J. [Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Department of Cardiology, Houston, TX (United States); Karthikeyan, Ganesan [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiology, New Delhi (India); Better, Nathan [Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Rehani, Madan M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Radiation Protection of Patients Unit, Vienna (Austria); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Einstein, Andrew J. [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Collaboration: for the INCAPS Investigators Group

    2016-04-15

    relation to the best practice quality score. A possible reason for the differences between Europe and the RoW could be the safety culture fostered by actions under the Euratom directives and the implementation of diagnostic reference levels. Stress-only imaging and weight-adjusted activity might be targets for optimization of European nuclear cardiology practice. (orig.)

  1. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010 The Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'10) is organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from July 5 to July 10, 2010. The scientific programme covers the topics Fusion Plasma and Materials; Plasma Modeling and Fundamentals; Plasma Sources, Diagnostics and Technology. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007), IWSSPP'08, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 207 (2010), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 34 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants who sent their manuscripts and passed through the (sometimes heavy and troublesome) refereeing and editing

  2. SARGEN-IV: Consideration on the possible content of the safety analysis report for innovative ESNII reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammirabile, L., E-mail: Luca.AMMIRABILE@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Petten (Netherlands); Tuček, K. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Petten (Netherlands); Blanc, D. [Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Pabarcius, R.; Kaliatka, A. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania); Mansani, L. [ANSALDO Nucleare, Genova (Italy); Carluec, B. [AREVA, Lyon (France); Dufour, P. [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique, Cadarache (France); Homann, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We present considerations on the content of the safety analysis report for innovative ESNII reactors. • The innovative ESNII reactor concepts require identification of safety objectives and engineering design requirements. • For innovative plant designs the SAR should clearly address all safety aspects to help the regulatory's safety evaluation. • It is recommended that parts of the SAR be discussed with the regulatory body at an early stage. - Abstract: In view of the potential deployment of demonstrators and prototypes associated with the European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII), the present licensing framework, based on the current Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, will have to adjust as necessary taking into account to the new safety aspects introduced by these innovative technologies. Within the SARGEN-IV project under the Euratom Framework Programme FP7, an extensive work has been done to review the critical safety features of the reactor concepts developed under ESNII. This review has also been used as a reference to provide guidelines on the structure and content of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the innovative ESNII reactors. Structure and content of a SAR generally differ among countries. The approach followed to give recommendations and guidance was to adopt as far as possible the format of the current practices for LWR based on the US NRC Reg Guide 1.70 together with IAEA publication GS-G-4.1 and to identify those chapters whose subjects need to be adapted to the specific design. Due to the innovative nature of the design, the licensing process for new ESNII concepts may take longer. The early involvement of regulators in defining safety objectives and criteria and acceptable solutions to meet these criteria may be beneficial to shorten this process. Therefore, it is recommended that parts of the SAR should be submitted to the regulatory body at an early stage and in accordance with an agreed

  3. Dependence of F{sub 1} values for ingestion of strontium on the type of test meal; Abhaengigkeit der F{sub 1}-Werte bei Ingestion von Strontium von der Darreichungsform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, E.; Roth, P.; Hoellriegl, V. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schramel, P.; Wendler, I. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Greim, H. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Toxikologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Zilker, T.; Felgenhauer, N. [Klinikum der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Romanov, S.; Suslova, K.; Dudchenko, N. [Inst. fuer Biophysik, Ozersk (Russian Federation); McAughey, J.; Hear, R. [AEA Technology Environment, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The ingestion of radionuclides, released into the environment after a nuclear accident, with foodstuffs results in an internal radiation exposure of members of the public. For radionuclides with a long effective half live e.g. {sup 90}Sr, the committed radiation dose is significantly dependent on the fraction of the ingested activity that crossed the gut wall (f{sub 1} value). The directive 96/29/Euratom gives f{sub 1} values for children of less than 1 year of age of 0.6, for children between 1 and 15 years of 0.4 and for subjects above 15 years of 0.3. This study was aimed to investigate how far these values correspond to the actual uptake from contaminated foodstuffs. The fractional intestinal absorption of strontium was determined in 8 healthy volunteers by means of a double isotope technique in which the orally administered test substance is labelled by one stable strontium isotope as tracer and simultaneously another stable strontium isotope is injected intravenously as sterile isotonic solution. The f{sub 1} values are derived from the ratio of the tracers in blood samples drawn more than 4 hours after administration and from aliquots of 24 hours urine collections. The tracer isotopes {sup 84}Sr and {sup 86}Sr applied were detected by ICP-MS or TI-MS. Aqueous solutions, milk, extrinsically and intrinsically labelled cress, salad and onions as well as a homogenized composite meal were used as test materials. For aqueous solutions, f{sub 1} values of 1.0 were obtained applying 0.1 mg Sr and 0.6 {+-} 0.12 for 1 to 2 mg Sr. Vegetables given separately on an empty stomach show similar f{sub 1} values as aqueous solutions. In comparison with aqueous solutions, the uptake from milk and from the composite meal of 0.27 {+-} 0.13 is reduced by about a factor of two. The data obtained show partly significant deviations from the tabulated values given in the EU-directive, i.e. that the resulting radiation exposure is considerably dependent on individual dietary habits

  4. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M.H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The present characteristics can be summarized in one word: expansion. Impelled by the CEA, but also by such organisations as the Electricite de France and the Merchant Marine, the French nuclear effort for the years 1957-1961 reaches about 600 thousand millions francs; over half this sum will be spent by chemical industry on research, pilot installations, construction of plants and delivery. The aim is to work efficiently, quickly and profitably. This is achieved through close collaboration between the big state organisations and private industry. It is chiefly along the following lines that this large scale effort is carried on: - thorough chemical treatment of increasing tonnages of ores from the French Union, with the aim of producing pure, plentiful and cheap uranium. - careful preparation of nuclear fuels, economical and perfectly adapted to the various types of reactor in operation or under construction. - Further treatment of irradiated fuels to extract the plutonium completely, as well as the uranium and certain fission products. industrial manufacture of material of nuclear purity or corrosion resistant required by the technology of energy producing or research reactors. - Supply to the many foreign or French users of isotopes and radioactive tracers required by medicine, industry and agriculture in ever-increasing numbers. - Meticulous chemical treatment of gaseous or liquid effluent in strictly controlled stations in order that reactors and their annexes will be perfectly safe to use. This account shows the great extent of the effort laid out by a young, energetic chemical industry in full swing. Having made sure of its techniques and set up numerous installations it is fully in a position to confront the French atomic programme. In addition it is able and anxious to associate with the developments of foreign atomic industry, especially EURATOM and Eurochemic. (author) [French] Un mot en resume les caracteristiques presentes: l'expansion. Sous l

  5. Finland country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantamaeki, Karin [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    Electricity share: 24.9%. Nuclear equipments: Research: 1 TRIGA Mark II; Electricity production: 4 units; Olkiluoto BWR Unit 1 (1979), Unit 2 (1982), 860 MWe (net); Loviisa PWR Unit 1 (1977), Unit 2 (1981), 490 MWe (net). Public acceptance: 43% for increase, 25% for decrease; 24%(61%) of women (men) for increase; 36%(13%) for decrease. Energy policy: new nuclear unit under construction in Olkiluoto (first EPR in the world); 2 environmental impact assessments ready, 1 pending (autumn); 1 decision-in-principle submitted, 2 expected in autumn. Nuclear waste management policy: Low- and intermediate-level wastes disposed of in underground repositories located in the bedrock at 60 to 100 m; Final disposal facility built in Olkiluoto; DiP for facility for fuel from all 5 units ratified by Parliament in 2002; Fuel encapsulated in containers placed in bedrock at 500 m; Deep underground rock characterisation and research facility (ONKALO) is under construction in Olkiluoto (ready in 2010); Excavation started in 2004; Characterisation levels at 420 m (2008) and 520 m (2009); Later used as an access route to the final repository of spent fuel which should be operational in 2020. Nuclear research: Several institutes and groups involved; Annual volume estimated to 200 ppy; Two focus areas: safety and operational performance of power plants, Management and disposal of nuclear waste; Public research in national programs; Nuclear Power Plant Safety SAFIR2010, 2007-2010; Public Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management KYT2010, 2006-2010; EURATOM-Tekes Fusion Energy Cooperation 2007-2011; Main objective of programs is to provide authorities with high-standard expertise and results; Train new nuclear experts. The construction of the new plant and the high number of experts retiring within next 10 years has increased the needs for new personnel. The new situation also attracts students and young professionals. Nuclear energy education given at 3 universities: - Nuclear

  6. National responsibility in an enlarged European Union?; Nationellt ansvar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i en utvidgad Europeisk Union?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Per; Stendahl, Sara; Erhag, Thomas [Dept. of Law, School of Business, Economics and Law, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    -proliferation aspects. The political decision to take part in such international cooperation lies however without any doubt within the national competence. In the European Union the question about responsibility for spent nuclear fuel is not directly regulated. Common legislation initiatives from the commission concerning methods for disposal and storage of spent nuclear fuel has been blocked by member states. The EURATOM-treaty and the EU treaty have a potential reach to national regulation about handling of nuclear wastes and spent nuclear fuel. It should also be noted that there is no binding community legislation where the principle of national responsibility comes to expressions, although the the national legislation competence in the area is expressed in miscellaneous political documents. There exists a hypothetical possibility that the question about the member states' right to maintain a principle of national responsibility can be examined of the EU Court of Justice.

  7. Montecarlo simulation code in optimisation of the IntraOperative Radiation Therapy treatment with mobile dedicated accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, M [USC Fisica Sanitaria, Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy); Agosteo, S [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico, Milan (Italy); Moretti, R [USC Fisica Sanitaria, Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy); Andreoli, S [USC Fisica Sanitaria, Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    The principle of optimisation of the EURATOM 97/43 directive foresees that for all medical exposure of individuals for radiotherapeutic purposes, exposures of target volumes shall be individually planned, taking into account that doses of non-target volumes and tissues shall be as low as reasonably achievable and consistent with the intended radiotherapeutic purpose of the exposure. Treatment optimisation has to be carried out especially in non conventional radiotherapic procedures, as Intra Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) with mobile dedicated LINear ACcelerator (LINAC), which does not make use of a Treatment Planning System. IORT is carried out with electron beams and refers to the application of radiation during a surgical intervention, after the removal of a neoplastic mass and it can also be used as a one-time/stand alone treatment in initial cancer of small volume. IORT foresees a single session and a single beam only; therefore it is necessary to use protection systems (disks) temporary positioned between the target volume and the underlying tissues, along the beam axis. A single high Z shielding disk is used to stop the electrons of the beam at a certain depth and protect the tissues located below. Electron back scatter produces an enhancement in the dose above the disk, and this can be reduced if a second low Z disk is placed above the first. Therefore two protection disks are used in clinical application. On the other hand the dose enhancement at the interface of the high Z disk and the target, due to back scattering radiation, can be usefully used to improve the uniformity in treatment of thicker target volumes. Furthermore the dose above the disks of different Z material has to be evaluated in order to study the optimal combination of shielding disks that allow both to protect the underlying tissues and to obtain the most uniform dose distribution in target volumes of different thicknesses. The dose enhancement can be evaluated using the electron

  8. Synthetic report 2012. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion; Rapport de synthèse 2012. Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secrétariat à l’éducation et à la recherche (SER), Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Since 1961, Switzerland participates in the research on thermonuclear fusion thanks to the creation of the Research Centre in Plasma Physics. In 1979 it entered into partnership with the European programme on fusion through its adhesion to EURATOM. The thermonuclear fusion is an interesting energy source because the basic fuel is practically inexhaustible and its use does not release any significant CO{sub 2} quantity and very little radioactive residues. But its working up faces enormous physical and technological difficulties. The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), presently in construction, has to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the controlled fusion. Il will be followed by DEMO, foreseen for 2040-2050, which must guarantee the economical rentability. At CRPP the research projects are partitioned onto several sites: at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, they concern the physics of the magnetic confinement with the Variable Geometry Tokamak (TCV), the development of theoretical models and the numerical simulation, the plasma heating and the generation of hyper frequency waves; the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) studies the superconductivity and the materials; the interactions between the plasma and the Tokamak walls are studied at the Basel University for the structures of ITER. Thanks to its large flexibility, TCV allows the creation and the control of plasmas of very different forms. The injection system of millimetric waves allows orienting the injected power according to specific profiles. By using the asymmetry of the flow in the toroidal sense, the plasma rotation could be measured with a much better accuracy than before. In TCV, by playing on the form of the plasma, it was possible to strongly reduce the energy quantity which is expelled by the Edge Localized Modes (ELM) onto the wall of the vacuum chamber. The ‘snowflake’ configuration created in TCV allows distributing the ELM energy onto several impact

  9. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughter, Mark D [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    of the future, but has yet to be demonstrated commercially. In the early 1980s, six countries developing gas centrifuge technology (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, and Australia) along with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) began developing effective safeguards techniques for GCEPs. This effort was known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP). The HSP had the goal of maximizing safeguards effectiveness while minimizing the cost to the operator and inspectorate, and adopted several recommendations, such as the acceptance of limited-frequency unannounced access (LFUA) inspections in cascade halls, and the use of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements and tamper-indicating seals. While only the HSP participants initially committed to implementing all the measures of the approach, it has been used as a model for the safeguards applied to GCEPs in additional states. This report provides a snapshot overview of world enrichment capacity in 2007, including profiles of the uranium enrichment programs of individual states. It is based on open-source information, which is dependent on unclassified sources and may therefore not reflect the most recent developments. In addition, it briefly describes some of the safeguards techniques being used at various enrichment plants, including implementation of HSP recommendations.

  10. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    dose estimations for humans and wildlife for typical environmental exposure scenarios; (3) Models: brief descriptions on how to use two models in-part maintained by the collaborators - CROM and the ERICA-Tool. Training and Education Platform - a focal point for students and professionals interested in radioecology/environmental radioactivity. These pages will present an overview of course modules; course curriculums and learning outcomes; provide access to some training videos, lectures, presentations and summary notes from STAR and COMET training courses and also include a FAQ section. Observatory sites - STAR has selected two contaminated field sites (in Ukraine (Chernobyl) and Poland (Rontok-Wielki)) at which collaborative studies will be focused to test hypotheses and approaches, improving predictive capabilities. Data collected from these sites will be openly available, maximizing sharing of data and resources. Further research at the sites is planned by COMET and the European Radioecology Alliance. Outputs from previous EURATOM projects - reports and deliverables from EC funded projects have been compiled to facilitate easy access. (authors)

  11. Management of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods in Spain. Establishment of a common framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Montero, M.; Oltra, C.; Sala, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Gallego, E. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales - UPM-ETSII (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident with radiological consequences affecting the quality of foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and in general, consumer goods, the European Union and its Member States, have developed radiation protection general guidelines to manage such situations. In this context, there are recommendations and standards, at international (Codex Alimentarius -FAO/OMS-, IAEA) and regional levels (EURATOM Directives) based on activity concentrations in different products and maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. These levels are based on certain assumptions about the consumption of contaminated products. However, the application of these guidelines is not easy, as shown after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Several factors converge in this situation. First, is the national regulation of each country, that can decide on the maximum radioactivity levels in food consumed within the country. Other is the misinterpretation of the guidelines that where originally developed for specific conditions. Finally, rejection attitudes of consumers and general public towards foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and goods according to their provenience, must also be taken into account. Aware of this reality, the European Union is funding within its 7. Framework Programme for R and D projects to help optimize European response to radiological emergencies, including those involving contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods. Specifically, this is the overall objective of the PREPARE Project (Innovative Integrative Tools and Platforms to be Prepared for Radiological Emergencies and Post-Accident Response in Europe) within the framework of NERIS Platform (European Platform on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response and Recovery). PREPARE project is intended to develop strategies, guidelines and tools for the management of foodstuffs and consumer goods contaminated with radioactivity, considering not only the Public Administration, as

  12. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  13. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    and numerical techniques which enable efficient quantitative study of peeling-ballooning modes. More broadly, I would like to thank the full DIII-D, C-Mod and JET teams, the LLNL and General Atomics Theory groups, and the York Plasma Institute. In addition, I would like to thank the US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, EURATOM, and the UK EPSRC for supporting this research. On a more personal note, I would like to thank my mentors over the years, including Nat Fisch, Greg Hammett, Ron Waltz, Vincent Chan, and Tony Taylor, and numerous colleagues who provided insight related to this work, including Lang Lao, Alan Turnbull, Ming Chu, Bob Miller, Rip Perkins, John Greene, Keith Burrell, John Ferron, Mickey Wade, Wayne Solomon, George McKee, Zheng Yan, Andrea Garofalo, Raffi Nazikian, Jack Connor, Jim Hastie, Chris Hegna, Samuli Saarelma, Guido Huijsmans, Alberto Loarte, Yutaka Kamada, Naoyuki Oyama, Hajime Urano, Nobuyuki Aiba, Andrew Kirk, David Dickinson, Lorne Horton, Costanza Maggi, Wolfgang Suttrop, P.A. Schneider, Rajesh Maingi, Amanda Hubbard, Ahmed Diallo, John Walk, and Matthew Leyland. Recently, the model developed in this paper has been used to discover a new regime of operation, the Super H-Mode, and to shed light on mechanisms for suppressing Edge Localized Modes. I hope that the model will continue to be useful, both as a tool for predicting and optimizing pedestal and fusion performance, and as a platform on which the fusion community continues to build our understanding of the complex physics of the edge barrier region, which plays such an important role in overall confinement and stability.

  14. The view at nuclear renaissance via actual European and Slovak approach to nuclear education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slugen, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology, FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-07-01

    In the last decade, preservation and optimal nuclear knowledge management are becoming a rising challenge worldwide. Many papers and experts talks at different conferences stressed attention on stagnating or decreasing expertise connecting to decreased numbers of graduates, professors or research workers. Several networks were created in the Europe in frame of the 5. and 6. EURATOM Framework Programme accented international collaboration in training and education physics (EUPEN, STEPS) or in nuclear power engineering (ENEN, NEPTUNO). In the Central-European region, there exists a very extensive and also effective international collaboration in nuclear industry and education. Similarly good situation is also among universities and technical high schools in this area. Actually, the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava has established contacts with many universities abroad in the area of utilization of research and training reactors. One of good examples of international collaboration is ENEN - European Nuclear Education Network Association which resulted in a formation of 'Eugene Wigner Training Courses on Reactor Physics Experiments' running in the last 2 years as a mutual effort of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Budapest, Hungary), Czech Technical University (Prague, Czech Republic), University of Technology (Vienna, Austria), and Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Bratislava, Slovakia). In total 69 participants from different European countries as Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Israel, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and Switzerland took part at these international training courses so far. In the frame of these courses, students of nuclear engineering vivisited three different experimental facilities located at the course organisers' institutes and carried out experimental laboratory practices. The preservation of nuclear knowledge is possible only via effective use of all

  15. Assessment of the cellular and electrophysiological response of cardiomyocytes to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Alexander; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Friess, Johannes; Thielemann, Christiane; Mr; Frank, Simon

    gap junction protein, was studied. An elevated expression of Cx 43 was observed in rabbit hearts following radiation exposure concomitant with an altered conductivity. However, data obtained so far for Cor.At cardiomyocytes show no apparent change in the expression of Cx 43 in X-ray irradiated samples in comparison to the control consistent with the electrophysiological measurements. In contrast, X-irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the number of apoptotic cells starting 24h after exposure. Cardiomyocytes, although differentiated, show a low mitotic activity both in vivo and in vitro, leading to binucleated cells which are a hallmark of maturation. Taking advantage of this specific feature, we determined both the fraction of binucleated cells and the number of cells containing micronulei (as a DNA damage marker) in irradiated and control samples. Binucleation was apparently not affected following X-irradiation, while the number of cardiomyocytes with micronuclei rose steadily with dose and sampling time. Taken together our results show that the electrophysiological activity of cardiomyocytes surviving the exposure to X-rays is hardly affected, although the cells display radiation damage on cellular level. If persistent radiation damage results in adverse long-term effects remains to be elucidated. The aforementioned aspects are currently investigated for high LET particles. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Euratom Seventh Framework Programm under grant agreement n° 295823 (PROCARDIO) and was supported by BMBF grant 02NUK025A and HGS-HIRe.

  16. The DOPAS full-scale demonstation of plugs and seals project and related GRS national RD and D programs. A retrospective view on 24-month of investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Oliver; Meyer, Thorsten; Miehe, Ruediger [GRS mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Final Repository Safety Div.

    2015-07-01

    The DOPAS Full-Scale Demonstration of Plugs and Seals project consisting of 14 beneficiaries from 8 European countries brings forward important demonstration activities in plugging and sealing. These activities are also a part of each participants national long-term RD and D programm and are therefore jointly funded by Euratom's Seventh Framework Programme and national funding organizations. The Demonstration experiments which will be partially or wholly implemented during the DOPAS project are a full-scale seal (FSS) implemented in Saint-Dizier in France, an experimental pressure sealing plug (EPSP) underground in the Josef Gallery in Czech Republic, a deposition tunnel dome plug (DOMPLU) in the AespoeHard Rock Laboratory in Sweden, a deposition tunnel wedge plug (POPLU) in the underground rock characterization facility ONKALO (future spent fuel repository) in Finland, and components of a shaft sealing system (ELSA) in Germany (Dopas 2012). ELSA is a program of laboratory and in-situ experiments that will be used to further develop the reference shaft seal for the German disposal concept for a repository in rock salt and to develop reference shaft seals for a repository in clay host rocks (Kudla et al. 2013). On behalf of BMWi, the national funding organization for R and D work related to radioactive waste management, facing the ELSA project phase 3, GRS is investigating sealing and backfilling materials planned to be utilized in salt and clay formations. The program aims at providing experimental data needed for the theoretical analysis of the long-term sealing capacity of these sealing materials. According to current R and D work on the salt option, the shaft and drift seal components considered in Germany comprise seal components consisting of MgO and cement based salt concrete (Mueller-Hoeppe et al. 2012). In order to demonstrate hydro-mechanical material stability under representative load scenarios, the sealing capacity of the seal system and the impact

  17. Identifying Patterns in the Weather of Europe for Source Term Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klampanos, Iraklis; Pappas, Charalambos; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Davvetas, Athanasios; Ikonomopoulos, Andreas; Karkaletsis, Vangelis

    2017-04-01

    parameters, using the Java flavour of the Euratom-supported funded RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support) system2 for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents. Once dispersions have been pre-computed, and immediately after a detected release, the currently observed weather can be matched to the derived weather classes. Since each weather class corresponds to a different plume dispersion pattern, the closest classes to an unseen weather sample, say the current weather, are the most likely to lead us to the release origin. In addressing the above problem, we make use of multiple years of weather reanalysis data from NCAR's version3 of ECMWF's ERA-Interim4. To derive useful weather classes, we evaluate several algorithms, ranging from straightforward unsupervised clustering to more complex methods, including relevant neural-network algorithms, on multiple variables. Variables and feature sets, clustering algorithms and evaluation approaches are all dealt with and presented experimentally. The Big Data Europe platform allows for the implementation and execution of the above tasks in the cloud, in a scalable, robust and efficient way.

  18. Challenges for the nuclear safety of the deregulation of electricity markets; Defis pour la surete nucleaire de la dereglementation des marches de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Eurosafe 2000 was organised around two round tables on the first day and four seminars on the second day. The first round table dealt with general aspects of deregulation including the economic constraints and the special challenges arising during transition from regulated to deregulated structures. The second round table focussed on technical and organisational safety issues which are directly or indirectly related to the changes introduced by deregulation. The four seminars hold in order to provide opportunities for comparing experiences and learning about recent activities of IPSN, GRS and their partners in the European Union and Eastern Europe: Seminar 1 (Nuclear installation safety, assessment and analysis): assessment of the flooding incident at the Blayais nuclear power plant; PSA data base, comparison of the French and German approach; assessment of the Balakovo fire probabilistic study and elaboration of a guide for reviewing fire PSA; comprehensive technical assessment of an advanced German PWR by PSA - objectives and main results; PSA approach for the safety assessment of low-power and shutdown states; correlation of initiating events with the PSA level-2 results; safety assessment for fission products tests in the Phebus reactor; use of NPP simulators for applied human factor studies; assessment of the 'deterministic realistic method' applied to large LOCA analysis; assessment of the feasibility of an improvement programme enabling operation of units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy nuclear power plant. Seminar 2 (nuclear installation safety, research): PHEBUS 2K project on severe accidents; current status of the COCOSYS development; fission product modeling in ASTEC; Euratom Framework Programme (FP) research in reactor safety: main achievements of FP- 4 (1994-1998), some preliminary results of FP-5 (1998-2002) and prospects for beyond 2002; development of coupled systems of 3D neutronics and fluid-dynamic system codes and their application for safety

  19. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  20. Coloss project; Le projet Coloss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The COLOSS project was a shared-cost action, co-ordinated by IRSN within the Euratom Research Framework Programme 1998-2002. Started in February 2000, the project lasted three years. The work-programme performed by 19 partners was shaped around complementary activities aimed at improving severe accident codes. Unresolved risk-relevant issues regarding H2 production, melt generation and the source term were studied, through a large number of experiments such as a) dissolution of fresh and high burn-up UO{sub 2} and MOX by molten Zircaloy, b) simultaneous dissolution of UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} by molten Zircaloy, c) oxidation of U-O-Zr mixtures by steam, d) degradation-oxidation of B{sub 4}C control rods. Significant results have been produced from separate-effects, semi-global and large-scale tests on COLOSS topics. Break-through were achieved on some issues. Nevertheless, more data are needed for consolidation of the modelling on burn-up effects on UO{sub 2} and MOX dissolution and on oxidation of U-O-Zr and B{sub 4}C-metal mixtures. There was experimental evidence that the oxidation of these mixtures can contribute significantly to the large H2 production observed during the reflooding of degraded cores under severe accident conditions. Based on the experimental results obtained on the COLOSS topics, corresponding models were developed and were successfully implemented in several severe accident codes. Upgraded codes were then used for plant calculations to evaluate the consequences of new models on key severe accident sequences occurring in different plants designs involving B{sub 4}C control rods (EPR, BWR, VVER- 1000) as well as in the TMI-2 accident. The large series of plant calculations involved sensitivity studies and code benchmarks. Main severe accident codes in use in the EU for safety studies were used such as ICARE/CATHARE, SCDAP/RELAP5, ASTEC, MELCOR and MAAP4. This activity enabled: a) the assessment of codes to calculate core degradation, b) the

  1. Message from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    , General Atomics, USA A. Hassanein, Purdue University, USA Y.-M. Jeon, National Fusion Research Institute, Spain S. Kajita, Nagoya University, Japan T.P. Kiviniemi, Aalto University, Finland R.M. More, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA F. Sattin, Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CNR, Italy J.A. Snipes, ITER Organization, France W. Suttrop, Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics-Garching, Germany F.L. Tabares, Energy Environment and Technology Research Centre, Spain Y. Ueda, Osaka University, Japan V.S. Voitsenya, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine G. Xu, Chinese Academy of Sciences-Hefei Institutes of Physical Sciences, People's Republic of China In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion . At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2013. Our thanks to them! We also wish to express our thanks to Paul Thomas, who served as Guest Editor for the special issue of the overview and summary reports from the 24th Fusion Energy Conference in San Diego, October 2012. This issue is of great value as a summary of the major developments worldwide in fusion research in the last two years. Authors The winner of the 2013 Nuclear Fusion Award is D.G. Whyte for the paper: I-mode: an H-mode energy confinement regime with L-mode particle transport in Alcator C-Mod [1], and we congratulate him and coauthors on this achievement. We also note special topic papers published in 2013: Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendestein 7-X by H.S. Bosch et al [2], Power requirements for electron cyclotron current drive and ion cyclotron resonance heating for sawtooth control in ITER by I.T. Chapman et al [3] and IFMIF: overview of the validation activities by J. Knaster et al [4]. The Board of Editors The Board of Editors has had a substantial turnover in members. For their great service to the journal, we wish to

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Germany. Report of the federal installations and the Federal office of radiation protection. Data and evaluation; Umweltradioaktivitaet in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bericht der Leitstellen des Bundes und des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Stand 2014. Daten und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    This report is a compilation and evaluation of data on radioactivity in the environment and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Germany from 2011 to 2013. The mean radiation exposure of the public in Germany was about 4.0 mSv in 2013, of which natural radiation exposure accounted for about 2.1 mSv and man-made radiation exposure for 1.9 mSv. An international work group is in charge of the preparation of quality standards for radon measurements. These latter also serve as a basis to implement the regulations of the new EURATOM Basic Safety Standards Directive. Rice grown within the contaminated zone around Fukushima has been certified as reference material for food monitoring. The trace analysis laboratory for airborne radioactive substances obtained several striking results of measurements performed during the reporting period. Man-made radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident were detectable, too. Assessment of anthropogenic radioactivity also requires thorough measurement of ''natural'' radiation components. Three different measurement areas are used as a reference for calibration. Discharges of radioactive substances into the exit air and wastewaters from nuclear power plants remained far below the authorised limit from 2011 to 2013. There has been a trend of decreasing discharges since 1975. The nine nuclear power plant units in operation at the end of the reporting period had a total capacity of 12.7 GW and accounted for 15 per cent of power generation. The annual mean values provided by the measuring network of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD; German Meteorological Service) amounted to 0.6 mBq/m{sup 3}, 0.7 mBq/m{sup 3} and 0.7 mBq/m{sup 3} for the total -activity in the air and 58 Bq/m{sup 2}, 38 Bq/m{sup 2}, and 27 Bq/m{sup 2} for the total -activity deposited by precipitation in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The higher annual value for 2011 is due to the Fukushima releases. The activity concentrations of {sup 85}Kr

  3. Responsibility for safe management of spent nuclear fuel - a legal perspective; Ansvarstagande i kaernbraenslecykelns slutsteg - ett raettsligt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Per; Stendahl, Sara; Erhag, Thomas (Dept. of Law, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    have been fulfilled. However, this regulatory framework gives the Government great leeway in imposing requirements on the industry with regard to different alternatives for managing the spent nuclear fuel. Based on the general formulation of the regulations, the answer to the question regarding the interpretation of the requirements in Section 10 of the Nuclear Activities Act is that this interpretation is in the hands of the political majority at the time of the licensing process. In other words, the question of what is safe according to the Nuclear Activities Act is a political one, and the legal interpretation is ultimately made by the Government and not by a court. If at the time of the decision there is a political majority that opposes granting a licence, legal argumentation may be offered, but hardly otherwise. This is a conclusion that is confirmed by the review of previous licensing decisions. Responsibility for management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is regulated in Sweden by several different laws and regulatory complexes, which means that the regulatory frameworks overlap each other. It has been noted that a permit and licence for a final repository have to be applied for under both the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code. This study describes in general terms the parallel regulation of environmental, nuclear safety and radiation protection matters on the national and European levels. Examples are given of regulatory responsibility for waste management and for provision of information in connection with licence applications for final disposal within the framework of Euratom and the EU Treaty. Finally, the consequences of this type of parallel regulation for the Swedish licensing process are discussed. The study shows that due to parallel regulation at a national level, there are certain risks of overlap and contradiction, not least as regards conditions governing environmental responsibility as well as nuclear safety and radiation

  4. Radioactivity in the environment. Report for 2001 : a summary and radiological assessment of the Environment Agency's monitoring programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    decisions on RSA 93 authorisations. Radiological monitoring programmes are carried out in support of the Agency's regulatory functions under RSA 93 and as part of the UK Government's obligations under the Euratom Treaty. This report presents the results of the Agency's regular monitoring of radioactivity in the environment during 2001 and an assessment of the radiological impact. The main findings of the regular monitoring programme during 2001 were as follows: The majority of operator declarations of the radioactive content of waste discharges and disposals had been assessed accurately or were over-estimate; Radiation dose rates above sediments and concentrations of radionuclides in water, sediment, soil and grass were generally consistent with those reported in previous years. Enhanced levels of artificial radionuclides continue to be found in coastal sediments in the vicinity of Sellafield, which decline with increasing distance from the site. Radioactivity levels around other major sites were mostly low or not detectable; As in previous years, concentrations of radionuclides in samples of airborne dust and rainwater from seven locations in the UK were very low or undetectable; Water from all 31 monitored sources of drinking water in England and Wales, except one in Derbyshire, were consistently below the World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water screening levels. The enhanced level of uranium in the Derbyshire water is due to the natural levels of uranium in the local geology, and is insignificant from a radiological point of view. Assessments of doses that might be received by members of the public from drinking water and occupation of beaches, inter-tidal areas and river banks around nuclear and major non-nuclear sites were made. In all cases, doses were less than the annual dose limit for members of the public of 1000 microsieverts (1000 {mu}Sv). Houseboat dwellers on the Ribble Estuary in Lancashire received the highest total annual dose of 142

  5. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C., E-mail: kuijper@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Somers, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Chauvet, V.; Cerullo, N.; Cetnar, J.; Abram, T.; Bakker, K.; Bomboni, E.; Bernnat, W.; Domanska, J.G.; Girardi, E.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Hesketh, K.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Hossain, K.; Jonnet, J.; Kim, Y.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Kopec, M.; Murgatroyd, J.; Millington, D.; Lecarpentier, D.; Lomonaco, G.; McEachern, D.; Meier, A.; Mignanelli, M.; Nabielek, H.; Oppe, J.; Petrov, B.Y.; Pohl, C.; Ruetten, H.J.; Schihab, S.; Toury, G.; Trakas, C.; Venneri, F.; Verfondern, K.; Werner, H.; Wiss, T.; Zakova, J.

    2010-11-15

    The PUMA project -the acronym stands for 'Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors'- was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the EURATOM 6th Framework Program (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO{sub 2}-free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR

  6. PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendy, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion comprises refereed papers contributed by invited speakers at the 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. The conference was jointly hosted by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, by the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association and by Imperial College London, where it took place from 28 June to 2 July 2004. The overall agenda for this conference was set by the Board of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society, chaired by Friedrich Wagner (MPIPP, Garching) and his successor Jo Lister (CRPP, Lausanne). It built on developments in recent years, by further increasing the scientific diversity of the conference programme, whilst maintaining its depth and quality. A correspondingly diverse Programme Committee was set up, whose members are listed below. The final task of the Programme Committee has been the preparation of this special issue. In carrying out this work, as in preparing the scientific programme of the conference, the Programme Committee formed specialist subcommittees representing the different fields of plasma science. The chairmen of these subcommittees, in particular, accepted a very heavy workload on behalf of their respective research communities. It is a great pleasure to take this opportunity to thank: Emilia R Solano (CIEMAT, Madrid), magnetic confinement fusion; Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn (MPQ, Garching), laser-plasma interaction and beam plasma physics; and Jean-Luc Dorier (CRPP, Lausanne), dusty plasmas. The relatively few papers in astrophysical and basic plasma physics were co-ordinated by a small subcommittee which I led. Together with Peter Norreys (RAL, Chilton), we five constitute the editorial team for this special issue. The extensive refereeing load, compressed into a short time interval, was borne by the Programme Committee members and by many other experts, to whom this special issue owes much. We are also grateful to the Local Organizing Committee

  7. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2010-02-01

    November 2009 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. The other three have been very helpful in 'minority fields'. We have excluded our Board members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their Special Issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Tomonori Takizuka, JAEA-Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Rudolf Neu, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Sibylle Guenter, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States David R. Mikkelsen, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States Peter C. de Vries, EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, United Kingdom Yasuhiro Suzuki, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jerzy Wolowski, Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Poland Tetsuo Tanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Yasuyuki Yagi, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan Congratulations and many, many thanks! The Guest Editors of special editions deserve a special mention for the excellent help that they have given us. They are: Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States, Special Issue on H-Mode Physics and Transport Barriers Yaroslav Kolesnichenko, Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine, Special Issue on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Kimitaka Itoh, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan and Howard R. Wilson, University of York, UK, Special Issue on Plasma Instabilities Bernhard Unterberg, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany, Special Issue on Stochastic Fusion Plasma In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2009. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2009 Nuclear Fusion

  8. PREFACE: 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Hans

    1982-01-01

    second one to (3) Fusion and (4) Laboratory Plasmas. The 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics was organized by Chalmers University of Technology. It gathered about 500 participants from 40 countries. Large delegations came from the USA, France, West Germany, Japan, the USSR, and India, the number of participants from these countries ranging from 100 to 20. Sweden had about 50 participating scientists. There were a total of about 20 from the other Scandinavian countries. The principal sponsor of the conference was IUPAP, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. The conference also had a number of co-sponsors like IAU, the International Astronomical Union, URSI, the International Union of Radio Science, EPS, the European Physical Society, and EURATOM-FUSION. The conference was supported by Swedish Industry and Swedish Research Boards. The previous ICPP, held in Nagoya two years ago, was the first attempt to combine two types of conferences: the Plasma Theory Conference, first held in Kiev in the Soviet Union in 1971, and the Waves and Instabilities Congress, held for the first time in Innsbruck, Austria in 1973. As a consequence of the success of the Nagoya conference it was decided by the International Organizing Committee of the ICPP that the 1982 conference should also be of the combined type. The 1982 ICPP in Göteborg was thus a Joint Conference of the Fifth Kiev International Conference in Plasma Theory and the Fifth International Congress on Waves and Instabilities in Plasmas. During the conference in Göteborg the International Organizing Committee had a meeting and it was decided that also the next International Conference on Plasma Physics will be of the combined type. It will be held in Lausanne, Switzerland in 1984. The International Organizing Committee on the 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics comprised about 40 plasma physics scientists from all over the world, who represented various sections of plasma physics. I would

  9. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed