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Sample records for eurasian neogene insectivores

  1. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I / L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doukas, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The Neogene insectivores from Greece span an interval from Early Miocene to Biharian but certainly do not represent a continuous succession. The first reference of small mammals in Greece is by Dames (1883), who described Mus [=Parapodemus] gaudryi from the classical locality of

  2. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I / L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: Romania

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    Rzebik-Kowalska, B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The oldest descriptions of Romanian fossil insectivores date from the 1930s. At that time, I. Simionescu described two Early Pliocene localities, Măluşteni (in 1930) and Bereşti (in 1932), both containing a rich mammal fauna. Among the insectivores, Simionescu identified such genera as

  3. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I / L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: Austria

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    Ziegler, R.; Daxner-Höck, G.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Small mammals, and especially insectivores, long have been the stepchildren in Austrian palaeontology, although Hofmann described an insectivore species, Plesiosorex styriacus, from two Styrian sites as early as 1892. In 1893 the same author described and figured an erinaceid tooth, now

  4. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I / L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engesser, B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The first fossil insectivore remain from Switzerland mentioned in the scientific literature, was probably a talpid humerus from the locality of Vermes 2. The specimen was found around 1850 by the Swiss geologist J.B. Greppin, who sent it to H. von Meyer in Frankfurt. This great

  5. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I / L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rzebik-Kowalska, B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Despite the 19th century tradition of mammalian palaeontology in the present territory of Poland, the oldest records of insectivores are found in the papers of Andreae (1904), Schlosser (in Zittel, 1911) and Wegner (1913), who described the fauna from the Middle Miocene (MN 6) locality

  6. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I / L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: Czech Republic and Slovak Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fejfar, O.; Sabol, M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The fossil record of insectivores in Czech Republic comes from two different settings: A. in the stratified deposits in the North Bohemian tectonic rift (the sites; Tuchořice, the Open Mine Merkur-Nord near Chomutov, Dolnice and Františkovy Lázně (Franzensbad), and Β. in the karstic

  7. First fossil insectivores from Flores

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek Ostende, van den, L.W.; Berch, van der, G.; Awe Due, R.

    2006-01-01

    The hominid bearing strata from the Liang Bua cave on Flores have yielded a large amount of microvertebrate remains. Among these are three mandibles of shrews, the first record of fossil insectivores from the island. The fossils, representing two different species, are not referable to any of the known Recent shrews from Flores, and are probably part of the extinct insular fauna. Since mandibles alone do not offer sufficient characters to allow even a generic classification, they are publishe...

  8. Cellular scaling rules of insectivore brains

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    Diana K Sarko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insectivores represent extremes in mammalian body size and brain size, retaining various “primitive” morphological characteristics, and some species of Insectivora are thought to share similarities with small-bodied ancestral eutherians. This raises the possibility that insectivore brains differ from other taxa, including rodents and primates, in cellular scaling properties. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for insectivore brains and demonstrate that insectivore scaling rules overlap somewhat with those for rodents and primates such that the insectivore cortex shares scaling rules with rodents (increasing faster in size than in numbers of neurons, but the insectivore cerebellum shares scaling rules with primates (increasing isometrically. Brain structures pooled as “remaining areas” appear to scale similarly across all three mammalian orders with respect to numbers of neurons, and the numbers of non-neurons appear to scale similarly across all brain structures for all three orders. Therefore, common scaling rules exist, to different extents, between insectivore, rodent and primate brain regions, and it is hypothesized that insectivores represent the common aspects of each order. The olfactory bulbs of insectivores, however, offer a noteworthy exception in that neuronal density increases linearly with increasing structure mass. This implies that the average neuronal cell size decreases with increasing olfactory bulb mass in order to accommodate greater neuronal density, and represents the first documentation of a brain structure gaining neurons at a greater rate than mass. This might allow insectivore brains to concentrate more neurons within the olfactory bulbs without a prohibitively large and metabolically costly increase in structure mass.

  9. Convergent evolution in primates and an insectivore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffelli, Dario; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.

    2003-04-16

    The cardiovascular risk factor apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) has a puzzling distribution among mammals, its presence being limited to a subset of primates and a member of the insectivore lineage, the hedgehog. To explore the evolutionary history of apo(a), we performed extensive genomic sequence comparisons of multiple species with and without an apo(a) gene product, such as human, baboon, hedgehog, lemurand mouse. This analysis indicated that apo(a) arose independently in a subset of primates, including baboon and human, and an insectivore, the hedgehog, and was not simply lost by species lacking it. The similar structural domains shared by the hedgehog and primate apo(a) indicate that they were formed by a unique molecular mechanism involving the convergent evolution of paralogous genes in these distantspecies.

  10. Insect diet of some afrotropical insectivorous passerines at the Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite being the most common avian dietary strategy, our understanding of the nutrition of avian insectivores lags behind that of less populous granivores, herbivores, and frugivores; thereby attracting research interest. Insect diet of Afrotropical insectivorous passerines at the Jos Wildlife Park was studied by trapping birds ...

  11. Ecological energetics of an abundant aerial insectivore, the Purple Martin.

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    Jeffrey F Kelly

    Full Text Available The atmospheric boundary layer and lower free atmosphere, or aerosphere, is increasingly important for human transportation, communication, environmental monitoring, and energy production. The impacts of anthropogenic encroachment into aerial habitats are not well understood. Insectivorous birds and bats are inherently valuable components of biodiversity and play an integral role in aerial trophic dynamics. Many of these insectivores are experiencing range-wide population declines. As a first step toward gaging the potential impacts of these declines on the aerosphere's trophic system, estimates of the biomass and energy consumed by aerial insectivores are needed. We developed a suite of energetics models for one of the largest and most common avian aerial insectivores in North America, the Purple Martin (Prognesubis. The base model estimated that Purple Martins consumed 412 (± 104 billion insects*y⁻¹ with a biomass of 115,860 (± 29,192 metric tonnes*y⁻¹. During the breeding season Purple Martins consume 10.3 (+ 3.0 kg of prey biomass per km³ of aerial habitat, equal to about 36,000 individual insects*km⁻³. Based on these calculations, the cumulative seasonal consumption of insects*km⁻³ is greater in North America during the breeding season than during other phases of the annual cycle, however the maximum daily insect consumption*km⁻³ occurs during fall migration. This analysis provides the first range-wide quantitative estimate of the magnitude of the trophic impact of this large and common aerial insectivore. Future studies could use a similar modeling approach to estimate impacts of the entire guild of aerial insectivores at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These analyses would inform our understanding of the impact of population declines among aerial insectivores on the aerosphere's trophic dynamics.

  12. Ecological energetics of an abundant aerial insectivore, the Purple Martin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jeffrey F; Bridge, Eli S; Frick, Winifred F; Chilson, Phillip B

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer and lower free atmosphere, or aerosphere, is increasingly important for human transportation, communication, environmental monitoring, and energy production. The impacts of anthropogenic encroachment into aerial habitats are not well understood. Insectivorous birds and bats are inherently valuable components of biodiversity and play an integral role in aerial trophic dynamics. Many of these insectivores are experiencing range-wide population declines. As a first step toward gaging the potential impacts of these declines on the aerosphere's trophic system, estimates of the biomass and energy consumed by aerial insectivores are needed. We developed a suite of energetics models for one of the largest and most common avian aerial insectivores in North America, the Purple Martin (Prognesubis). The base model estimated that Purple Martins consumed 412 (± 104) billion insects*y⁻¹ with a biomass of 115,860 (± 29,192) metric tonnes*y⁻¹. During the breeding season Purple Martins consume 10.3 (+ 3.0) kg of prey biomass per km³ of aerial habitat, equal to about 36,000 individual insects*km⁻³. Based on these calculations, the cumulative seasonal consumption of insects*km⁻³ is greater in North America during the breeding season than during other phases of the annual cycle, however the maximum daily insect consumption*km⁻³ occurs during fall migration. This analysis provides the first range-wide quantitative estimate of the magnitude of the trophic impact of this large and common aerial insectivore. Future studies could use a similar modeling approach to estimate impacts of the entire guild of aerial insectivores at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These analyses would inform our understanding of the impact of population declines among aerial insectivores on the aerosphere's trophic dynamics.

  13. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

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    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  14. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  15. Does calcium constrain reproductive activity in insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insects are a poor source of dietary calcium and since they are seasonally abundant, it has been suggested that calcium availability may play a significant role in controlling the timing of reproduction in insectivorous bats. To assess the possible role of dietary calcium, we have measured bone calcium concentrations in ...

  16. Annual spatiotemporal migration schedules in three larger insectivorous birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger ...... for understanding spatiotemporal migration patterns and causes of declines in migratory species.......Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger...... the annual migrations of nightjars and swifts and compared these with satellite tracking of cuckoo migration. Results: Individuals of the three species migrated to wintering grounds centered in Central Africa, except some common swifts that remained in West Africa, crossing or circumventing the Sahara along...

  17. The Sources and Evolution of Eurasianism

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    Yulia Evgenievna Shulika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent time we have been witnessing the progressing Eurasian integration processes based on economic integration. In this context, we see the growing interest to Eurasianism that was approached not in terms of the “cold-head calculations”, but as civilizational, cultural, historical and formational determinism.

  18. Adaptive functional diversification of lysozyme in insectivorous bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; He, Guimei; Xu, Huihui; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-11-01

    The role of gene duplication in generating new genes and novel functions is well recognized and is exemplified by the digestion-related protein lysozyme. In ruminants, duplicated chicken-type lysozymes facilitate the degradation of symbiotic bacteria in the foregut. Chicken-type lysozyme has also been reported to show chitinase-like activity, yet no study has examined the molecular evolution of lysozymes in species that specialize on eating insects. Insectivorous bats number over 900 species, and lysozyme expression in the mouths of some of these species is associated with the ingestion of insect cuticle, suggesting a chitinase role. Here, we show that chicken-type lysozyme has undergone multiple duplication events in a major family of insect-eating bats (Vespertilionidae) and that new duplicates have undergone molecular adaptation. Examination of duplicates from two insectivorous bats-Pipistrellus abramus and Scotophilus kuhlii-indicated that the new copy was highly expressed in the tongue, whereas the other one was less tissue-specific. Functional assays applied to pipistrelle lysozymes confirmed that, of the two copies, the tongue duplicate was more efficient at breaking down glycol chitin, a chitin derivative. These results suggest that the evolution of lysozymes in vespertilionid bats has likely been driven in part by natural selection for insectivory. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The state in the Eurasian doctrine

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    S N Lebedev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the state in the Eurasian doctrine, one of the most distinctive and significant movements of the Russian sociological and political-philosophical thought abroad in the 1920-1930’s. The issues addressed by the Eurasians are still relevant under the current epoch of the new Russian statehood construction and to a certain extent are implemented in the contemporary political practice. According to the classical Eurasian doctrine, all nations of “Russia-Eurasia” are united by the “place of development” and constitute a single historical and socio-cultural world, which organically combines elements of the East and the West. The Eurasian doctrine of the state proclaims the idea of strong government and powerful state, which represents the interests of the people and maintains direct connections with its citizens by combining the law and justice principles with the norms of morality, welfare and conscience. The article examines the key Eurasian concept “ideocratic state” and the essential characteristics of the Eurasian concept of the state system, such as ideocracy, autarchy, idea-ruler, and ruling selection. The key state-forming concept is “Pan-Eurasian nationalism” interpreted by the Eurasians as an archetype of ideology, a basis of the national idea. The authors consider basic principles of the socio-economic structure of the Eurasian state, including active participation of the state in the economic life of the country, the coexistence of public and private properties. According to the Eurasian doctrine, the state-planned economy and the state regulation of culture form the foundations of autarchic states that protect the country from economic and humanitarian intervention. The authors come to the conclusion that Eurasian theory of the state can significantly enrich nowadays scientific theory and help to solve the tasks of modernization of the Russian society at the present stage for it takes

  20. Neogene Proto-Caribbean porcupinefishes (Diodontidae).

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    Aguilera, Orangel; Silva, Guilherme Oliveira Andrade; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Machado, Alessandra Silveira; Dos Santos, Thaís Maria; Marques, Gabriela; Bertucci, Thayse; Aguiar, Thayanne; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge; Rodriguez, Felix; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Fossil Diodontidae in Tropical America consist mostly of isolated and fused beak-like jawbones, and tooth plate batteries. These durophagous fishes are powerful shell-crushing predators on shallow water invertebrate faunas from Neogene tropical carbonate bottom, rocky reefs and surrounding flats. We use an ontogenetic series of high-resolution micro CT of fossil and extant species to recognize external and internal morphologic characters of jaws and tooth plate batteries. We compare similar sizes of jaws and/or tooth-plates from both extant and extinct species. Here, we describe three new fossil species including †Chilomycterus exspectatus n. sp. and †Chilomycterus tyleri n. sp. from the late Miocene Gatun Formation in Panama, and †Diodon serratus n. sp. from the middle Miocene Socorro Formation in Venezuela. Fossil Diodontidae review included specimens from the Neogene Basins of the Proto-Caribbean (Brazil: Pirabas Formation; Colombia: Jimol Formation, Panama: Gatun and Tuira formations; Venezuela: Socorro and Cantaure formations). Diodon is present in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, whereas the distribution of Chilomycterus is highly asymmetrical with only one species in the Pacific. It seems that Diodon was as abundant in the Caribbean/Western Atlantic during the Miocene as it is there today. We analyze the paleogeographic distribution of the porcupinefishes group in Tropical America, after the complete exhumation of the Panamanian isthmus during the Pliocene.

  1. MOLDOVA: MISSED ADVANTAGES OF EURASIAN INTEGRATION

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    Ludmila Vasiljevna Fokina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to potentially missed advantages of Eurasian integration (EAEU for Moldova. Special attention is given to the branches in which the country could get evident advantages including agriculture, power engineering, external trade ties with the EAEU countries. Possible positive effects of Eurasian integration in solution of the Transnistrian problem, in the sphere of labour migration and other fields are also shown.

  2. Annual spatiotemporal migration schedules in three larger insectivorous birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger...... the annual migrations of nightjars and swifts and compared these with satellite tracking of cuckoo migration. Results: Individuals of the three species migrated to wintering grounds centered in Central Africa, except some common swifts that remained in West Africa, crossing or circumventing the Sahara along...... different routes in spring and fall. Overall, all species showed similar regional and seasonal use of several stopover areas during migration. Among the three species, European nightjars and common cuckoos showed the most similar spatiotemporal migration patterns. The nightjars wintered in SW Central Africa...

  3. Evidence of cryptic individual specialization in an opportunistic insectivorous bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat use and feeding behaviors of cryptic animals are often poorly understood. Analyses of stable isotope ratios in animal body tissues can help reveal an individual's location and resource use during tissue growth. We investigated variation in stable isotope ratios of 4 elements (H, C, N, and S) in the hair of a sedentary species of insectivorous bat (Eptesicus fuscus) inhabiting a chemically complex urban landscape. Our objective was to quantify population-level isotopic variation and test for evidence of resource specialization by individuals. Bats were sampled over 3 annual molt cycles at maternity roosts in buildings and variance components analysis was used to test whether intraindividual isotopic variation among molts differed from interindividual variation, after controlling for year and roost-group effects. Consistent with prior evidence that E. fuscus is opportunistic in its habitat use and foraging at the population level, we observed wide population-level variation for all isotopes. This variation likely reflects the chemical complexity of the urban landscape studied. However, isotopic variation among years within marked individuals was lower than variation among marked individuals within year for all isotopes, and carbon signatures indicated resource specialization by roost groups and individuals. This is the 1st study to examine variation in stable isotope ratios of individual wild bats over multiple years. Although our results suggest this population tends toward opportunistic habitat use or prey selection, or both, during molt periods, results also indicate that individuals and groups of bats composing the population might be habitat or dietary specialists—a novel finding for insectivorous bats.

  4. Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Madagascar

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    Paul, J. D.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    Madagascar is located on the fringes of the African superswell. Its position and the existence of a +30 mGal long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly suggest that its present-day topography is maintained by convective circulation of the sub-lithospheric mantle. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust encompassing the island imply that Madagascar straddles a dynamic topographic gradient. In June-July 2012, we examined geologic evidence for Neogene uplift around the Malagasy coastline. Uplifted coral reef deposits, fossil beach rock, and terraces demonstrate that the northern and southern coasts are probably being uplifted at a rate of ~0.2 mm/yr. Rates of uplift clearly vary around the coastline. Inland, extensive peneplains occur at elevations of 1 - 2 km. These peneplains are underlain by 10 - 20 m thick laterite deposits, and there is abundant evidence for rapid erosion (e.g. lavaka). Basaltic volcanism also occurred during Neogene times. These field observations can be combined with an analysis of drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~100 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Madagascar. An inverse model is then used to minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~20 to ~4. Our results suggest that youthful and rapid uplift of 1-2 km occurred at rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/yr during the last ˜15 Myr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Hauts Plateaux). Our field observations and modeling indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

  5. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  6. Patches of Bare Ground as a Staple Commodity for Declining Ground-Foraging Insectivorous Farmland Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Schaub; Nicolas Martinez; Aline Tagmann-Ioset; Nadja Weisshaupt; Melanie L Maurer; Reichlin, Thomas S.; Fitsum Abadi; Niklaus Zbinden; Lukas Jenni; Raphaël Arlettaz

    2010-01-01

    Conceived to combat widescale biodiversity erosion in farmland, agri-environment schemes have largely failed to deliver their promises despite massive financial support. While several common species have shown to react positively to existing measures, rare species have continued to decline in most European countries. Of particular concern is the status of insectivorous farmland birds that forage on the ground. We modelled the foraging habitat preferences of four declining insectivorous bird s...

  7. Relating streamflow characteristics to specialized insectivores in the Tennessee River Valley: a regional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rodney R.; Gregory, M. Brian; Wales, Amy K.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of hydrologic time series and fish community data across the Tennessee River Valley identified three hydrologic metrics essential to habitat suitability and food availability for insectivorous fish communities in streams of the Tennessee River Valley: constancy (flow stability or temporal invariance), frequency of moderate flooding (frequency of habitat disturbance), and rate of streamflow recession. Initial datasets included 1100 fish community sites and 300 streamgages. Reduction of these datasets to sites with coexisting data yielded 33 sites with streamflow and fish community data for analysis. Identification of critical hydrologic metrics was completed using a multivariate correlation procedure that maximizes the rank correlation between the hydrologic metrics and fish community resemblance matrices. Quantile regression was used to define thresholds of potential ranges of insectivore scores for given values of the hydrologic metrics. Increased values of constancy and insectivore scores were positively correlated. Constancy of streamflow maintains wetted perimeter, which is important for providing habitat for fish spawning and increased surface area for invertebrate colonization and reproduction. Site scores for insectivorous fish increased as the frequency of moderate flooding (3 times the median annual streamflow) decreased, suggesting that insectivorous fish communities respond positively to less frequent disturbance and a more stable habitat. Increased streamflow recession rates were associated with decreased insectivore scores. Increased streamflow recession can strand fish in pools and other areas that are disconnected from flowing water and remove invertebrates as food sources that were suspended during high-streamflow events.

  8. Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Caspar A; Foppen, Ruud P B; van Turnhout, Chris A M; de Kroon, Hans; Jongejans, Eelke

    2014-07-17

    Recent studies have shown that neonicotinoid insecticides have adverse effects on non-target invertebrate species. Invertebrates constitute a substantial part of the diet of many bird species during the breeding season and are indispensable for raising offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that the most widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, has a negative impact on insectivorous bird populations. Here we show that, in the Netherlands, local population trends were significantly more negative in areas with higher surface-water concentrations of imidacloprid. At imidacloprid concentrations of more than 20 nanograms per litre, bird populations tended to decline by 3.5 per cent on average annually. Additional analyses revealed that this spatial pattern of decline appeared only after the introduction of imidacloprid to the Netherlands, in the mid-1990s. We further show that the recent negative relationship remains after correcting for spatial differences in land-use changes that are known to affect bird populations in farmland. Our results suggest that the impact of neonicotinoids on the natural environment is even more substantial than has recently been reported and is reminiscent of the effects of persistent insecticides in the past. Future legislation should take into account the potential cascading effects of neonicotinoids on ecosystems.

  9. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China.

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    Hui-Ju Han

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107 bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species.

  10. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Li; Liu, Jian-Wei; Luo, Li-Mei; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Qin, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Ye-Lei; Zheng, Xue-Xing; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107) bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species.

  11. Flavonoid variation in Eurasian Sedum and Sempervivum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.F; 't Hart, H; Elema, E.T; Bolck, A

    Flavonoids from vegetative parts of 29 species of Eurasian Sedum, Sedum meyeri-johannis from central East Africa, 34 species of Sempervivum, and Jovibarba heuffelii have been identified after acid hydrolysis. Ten flavonoid aglycones were detected, i.e. kaempferol, herbacetin, sexangularetin,

  12. To the Question of the Eurasian Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Akhmedova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyses the main directions and perspectives of cooperation among member countries of CIS in the framework of Eurasian Organization. The potential of this cooperation is great, but realization of this potential demands considerable efforts from the participants of the process.

  13. The Eurasian Knowledge-based Economy Formation in the Eurasian Economic Union Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Sapir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is an intensification of integration processes in the global economy. Integration is an effective tool to overcome the modern challenges and threats. However, for the effective countries and regions integration in the global economy it requires the active development of innovation processes along with the integration processes. On the 29th of May, 2014 in Astana the Treaty establishing the Eurasian Economic Union was signed by the Presidents of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, and entered into force on the First of January 2015. In this regard, the article analyzes the foundations of the knowledge economy concept. Moreover, it researches the emergence of the Eurasian knowledge economy in several stages using the statistical data and the index method. The article suggests that the Eurasian Economic Union has a significant potential for the development of the Eurasian regional knowledge economy and proposes a number of measures for successful formation of it. International legal formalization of the process can become Eurasian Convention in the field of the knowledge economy. This article expands the understanding of the prospects of integration and innovation processes within the Eurasian Economic Union.

  14. Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito

  15. Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Gonsalves

    Full Text Available Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR, mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g. Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored

  16. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  17. High Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Insectivorous Bats in Argentina: Presence of Several Independent Enzootics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Carolina; Gury Dohmen, Federico; Beltran, Fernando; Martinez, Leila; Novaro, Laura; Russo, Susana; Palacios, Gustavo; Cisterna, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. Methods We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV) strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. Results Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection. PMID:22590657

  18. High diversity of rabies viruses associated with insectivorous bats in Argentina: presence of several independent enzootics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Piñero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. METHODS: We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection.

  19. Disproportionate Declines in Ground-Foraging Insectivorous Birds after Mistletoe Removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Watson

    Full Text Available Insectivorous birds have been recognized as disproportionately sensitive to land-use intensification and habitat loss, with those species feeding primarily on the ground exhibiting some of the most dramatic declines. Altered litter inputs and availability of epigeic arthropods have been suggested to underlie reduced abundances and shrinking distributions but direct evidence is lacking. I used a patch-scale removal experiment in southern Australia to evaluate whether ground-feeding insectivores are especially vulnerable to altered litter-fall. Building on work demonstrating the importance of mistletoe litter to nutrient dynamics, litter was reduced by removing mistletoe (Loranthaceae from one set of eucalypt woodlands, responses of birds three years after mistletoe removal compared with otherwise similar control woodlands containing mistletoe. Despite not feeding on mistletoes directly, insectivores exhibited the greatest response to mistletoe removal. Among woodland residents, ground-foraging insectivores showed the most dramatic response; treatment woodlands losing an average of 37.4% of their pre-treatment species richness. Once these 19 species of ground-foraging insectivores were excluded, remaining woodland species showed no significant effect of mistletoe removal. This response reflects greater initial losses in treatment woodlands during the study (which coincided with a severe drought and double the number of species returning to control woodlands (where mistletoe numbers and litter were not manipulated post-drought. These findings support the productivity-based explanation of declining insectivores, suggesting diminished litter-fall reduced habitat quality for these birds via decreased availability of their preferred prey. In addition to altered prey availability, interactions between litter-fall and epigeic arthropods exemplify the importance of below-ground / above-ground linkages driving ecosystem function.

  20. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hård af Segerstad, Carl; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Ingemar Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway a...

  1. Atmospheric controls on Eurasian snow extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Serreze, Mark C.; Robinson, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Composite analyses, based on weekly snow-cover charts, temperature, sea level pressure, cyclone tracks and a rotated PCA of daily filtered 700 hPa geopotential height are used to examine relationships between the dominant modes of low-frequency atmospheric variability and mid-winter snow extent over the Eurasian continent. Two of the circulation modes examined have been identified previously and represent the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Eurasian Type 1 (EU1) pattern. A third, termed the Siberian pattern (SIB), has not been identified previously, and describes variability in 700 hPa height over central Asia and southern Siberia. The most coherent snow-cover signals occur in the transient snow regions over Europe and south-western Asia, where variations in snow extent are largely controlled by temperature. Snow signals in east Asia are difficult to explain, but appear to be primarily determined by the availability of precipitation. For the NAO, snow-cover signals are largely restricted to central Europe. This result is initially surprising, as the NAO is associated with large temperature anomalies over a large part of the Eurasian continent. However, east of the Ural Mountains temperature anomalies in NAO extremes are confined to northern regions where mean temperatures are well below freezing, and air temperatures have little influence on snow extent. In extremes of the EU1 and SIB patterns, significant snow-cover signals are found in south-western Asia, where variability in the amplitude of the Eurasian wave train results in large differences in air temperature and cyclone activity over the transient snow regions. No coherent snow-cover signals are associated with extremes of the Siberian High.

  2. Paleoecology of the Neogene Agbada formation, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paleoecology of the Neogene Agbada formation, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Bankole Samson, Eckart Schrank, Peter Adeonipekun. Abstract. Abundant and well preserved assemblages of pollen, spores, dinoflagellates, freshwater algae and fungal remains had been encountered and documented from three selected wells within ...

  3. Provenance of the Late Neogene Siwalik sandstone, Kumaun ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An understanding about lithology, tectonics and unroofing history of provenance is mostly drawn from ... history of Late Neogene Siwalik sandstone of the ...... and Tibet: Mountain Roots to Mountain Tops (eds). Macfarlane A, Sorkhabi R B and Quade (Colorado: Boulder), J. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper, pp. 239–256.

  4. Putin’s Third Term: The Triumph of Eurasianism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pryce

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of the Russian Federation's 2012 presidential election, Vladimir Putin expressed his support for the establishment of a functioning Eurasian Union by 2015. This article attempts to demonstrate that this Eurasian push, taken in context together with a number of other policies and programs pursued by Putin and Dmitri Medvedev, reflects a shift in Russian identity politics towards neo-Eurasianism. In doing so, the potential weaknesses of neo-Eurasianism as an identity framework for the whole of Russian society will be highlighted, indicating that the further centralization of political authority with the core (Moscow will only exacerbate grievances in the regions of the periphery.

  5. Coupled tectonic/surface processes modeling of the Neogene Mesopotamian basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Vergés, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how wide and long-lived drainage systems respond to changes in plate configuration is key to decipher between climate and tectonic forcing on the sedimentary record. The Mesopotamian large foreland basin results from flexure of the Arabian plate controlled by tectonic load of the Zagros Mountains to the East. In contrast, the current drainage pattern seems to be ruled by the uplift of the Anatolian region to the North, forcing the two main river systems (Tigris and Euphrates) to drain the basin longitudinally. In addition to that, the Mesopotamian area developed where the Neogene closure of the gateway between Mediterranean sea and Indian ocean occurred consequently to the convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates, but modes and timing of basin development remain poorly constrained. Moreover, the connection between the Mesopotamian basin and the Indian Ocean via the Persian Gulf still remains to be understood. The purpose of this study is to understand and investigate the processes involved in the Mesopotamian basin evolution, with an emphasis on the evolution of drainage conditions, from the closure of the basin as a result of the propagation of the collision, to the opening of the drainage through the Hormuz Strait and contribution of the uplift of the Oman Mountains. To that purpose, we perform integrated modeling of surface processes (erosion/transport/sedimentation), lithospheric flexure and kinematic fault deformation. The numerical model is particularly designed to study the 3D foreland basin evolution and to dentify large-scale relationships between tectonic movements and sediment transport. This model allows us to investigate the basin history at the scale of the Arabian plate and over a long period of time, i.e. since the collision (35-20 Ma ) to present day.

  6. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazhigin, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo

  7. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davit Vasilyan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae

  8. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo bufo, and a small part of this assemblage

  9. Moreau's Paradox reversed, or why insectivorous birds reach high densities in savanna trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, Leo; Bijlsma, Rob G.; Van Der Kamp, Jan; Sikkema, Marten; Wymenga, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    In West Africa, tree preferences of wintering migratory birds (and African residents) were quantified in order to assess the importance of wintering conditions on distribution, abundance and trends of insectivorous woodland birds. This study encompassed 2000 plots between 10-18°N and 0-17°W, visited

  10. The insectivorous sundew (Drosera rotundifolia, L.) might be a novel source of PR genes for biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusikova, I.; Libantova, J.; Moravcikova, J.; Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The gene pool of insectivorous sundew, Drosera rotundifolia L., was studied to identify and analyse sequences encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The digested genomic DNA was in ¿inverted¿ Southern hybridisation probed to 19 clones for PR genes from different plant sources. From

  11. Insectivores (Lipotyphla, Mammalia) from the Ramblian of the Daroca-Calamocha area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.

    2003-01-01

    The insectivore assemblages from the Ramblian stratotype near Calamocha (Spain) are described, as well as those from San Roque 4A and 4B, two Ramblian localities near the Aragonian stratotype. Two new species are described, the erinaceid Galerix remmerti, and the shrew Clapasorex alvarezae. Both the

  12. Potential of pest regulation by insectivorous birds in Mediterranean woody crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Rey Benayas

    Full Text Available Regulation of agricultural pests managing their natural enemies represents an alternative to chemical pesticides. We assessed the potential of insectivorous birds as pest regulators in woody crops located in central Spain. A total of 417 nest boxes installed in five field study sites (one vineyard, two fruit orchards, and two olive groves were monitored for use and breeding of insectivorous birds and other species for four consecutive years (2013-2016. At all field sites except the two olive groves, where birds never occupied the nest boxes, predation experiments were conducted with Greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella sentinel caterpillars, and food consumption by birds was estimated. Nesting of insectivorous birds, chiefly Great tit (Parus major, and sparrows (Passer domesticus and P. montanus increased over time, averaging 60% per field site in the vineyard and fruit orchards by the fourth year. Use of nest boxes by sparrows and by Garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus was high at the fruit orchards (70% and the vineyard (30%, respectively. Micro-habitat characteristics (nest box level and meso-habitat characteristics (patch level strongly affected use of nest boxes and bird breeding (i.e. number of laid eggs and produced chicks in different years. Distance to natural or semi-natural vegetation did not consistently affect bird breeding, nor did we see consistent evidence of competition between adjacent breeding birds. Predation rates of sentinel caterpillars were approximately one-third higher near boxes with nesting birds (31.51 ± 43.13% than at paired distant areas without nest boxes (22.45% ± 38.58%. Food consumption by insectivorous birds per ha and breeding season were conservatively estimated to range from 0.02 kg in one fruit orchard to 0.15 kg in the vineyard. We conclude that installation of nest boxes in Mediterranean woody crops enhances populations of insectivorous birds that regulate pests, but that the effects are moderate and

  13. EURASIAN CUSTOMS UNION – ANALYSES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa-Nicoleta PINCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Globalization the process of integration is speeded and taken to a different level. After the EU model, we are facing now with different entities trying to copy this model and adjusting it to their needs. Such a project is the Eurasian Customs Union, a project which has only recently come into being. The present paper will analyze the driven forces behind this and its capacity to fully function as a customs union before the year 2020- the time limit set by the Russian President Vladimir Putin.

  14. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing

  15. A Bivalve Proxy for Neogene Antarctic Shelf Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N. A.; Williams, M.; Quilty, P. G.; Leng, M. J.; Zalasiewicz, J. A.; Smellie, J.; Dowsett, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene shallow-marine successions of the Antarctic Peninsula and of the East Antarctic region preserve rich assemblages of bivalve molluscs. These bivalve molluscs provide a detailed record of palaeoseasonality in the chemical signature and morphology of their shells that can be used to assess sea temperatures and sea ice extent for the Antarctic shelf during the Pliocene. Analyses identify the following. 1) Neogene bivalves from James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula, comprise material of late Miocene through to late Pliocene age. Results identify warm (ca. 3-10 °C) early Pliocene sea temperatures, and cooler late Pliocene sea temperatures (ca. 0-4 °C), and flag a cooling trend which is consistent with the evolution of polar climate through this interval. 2) Neogene bivalves from the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctic, identify generally warmer than present sea temperatures (ca. 0-11 °C) in the early Pliocene consistent with data from other fossil groups of this age, including dolphins and silicoflagellates. The new data may provide significant ground truth for climate models assessing the Southern Ocean and Antarctic shelf climate.

  16. The autecology of small rodents and insectivores of the Tribeč Mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulich, I.; Nosek, J.; Szabó, L.

    1967-01-01

    Small rodents and insectivores have become the main reservoirs of tick-borne encephalitis virus. In order, therefore, to demonstrate the dynamic and structural changes occurring in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, information has been collected on the distribution, habitat, life-cycle, population density and extent of tick infestation of the rodents and insectivores that inhabit the Tribeč region and adjacent parts of the Hronský Inovec Mountains. The following mammals are discussed: Sciurus vulgaris, Citellus citellus, Glis glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Mus musculus, Micromys minutus, Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, Microtus arvalis, Pitymys subterraneus, Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Neomys fodiens, N. anomalus, Crocidura suaveolens, C. leucodon, Erinaceus roumanicus and Talpa europaea. Many of these are important reservoirs of virus. PMID:5298539

  17. First detection of mycobacteria in African rodents and insectivores, using stratified pool screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, L.; Eddyani, M.; Mgode, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    With the rising number of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in developing countries, the control of mycobacteria is of growing importance. Previous studies have shown that rodents and insectivores are carriers of mycobacteria. However, it is not clear how widespread mycobacteria...... are in these animals and what their role is in spreading them. Therefore, the prevalence of mycobacteria in rodents and insectivores was studied in and around Morogoro, Tanzania. Live rodents were trapped, with three types of live traps, in three habitats. Pieces of organs were pooled per habitat, species, and organ...... type (stratified pooling); these sample pools were examined for the presence of mycobacteria by PCR, microscopy, and culture methods. The mycobacterial isolates were identified using phenotypic techniques and sequencing. In total, 708 small mammals were collected, 31 of which were shrews. By pool...

  18. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Manhães

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

  19. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  20. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  1. Accumulation of anticoagulant rodenticides in a non-target insectivore, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Claire V., E-mail: claire.dowding@naturalengland.org.u [School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG (United Kingdom); Shore, Richard F.; Worgan, Andrew [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Baker, Philip J.; Harris, Stephen [School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Studies on exposure of non-targets to anticoagulant rodenticides have largely focussed on predatory birds and mammals; insectivores have rarely been studied. We investigated the exposure of 120 European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from throughout Britain to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs and SGARs) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC) and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The proportion of hedgehogs with liver SGAR concentrations detected by HPLC was 3-13% per compound, 23% overall. LCMS identified much higher prevalence for difenacoum and bromadiolone, mainly because of greater ability to detect low-level contamination. The overall proportion of hedgehogs with LCMS-detected residues was 57.5% (SGARs alone) and 66.7% (FGARs and SGARs combined); 27 (22.5%) hedgehogs contained >1 rodenticide. Exposure of insectivores and predators to anticoagulant rodenticides appears to be similar. The greater sensitivity of LCMS suggests that hitherto exposure of non-targets is likely to have been under-estimated using HPLC techniques. - Exposure of insectivorous hedgehogs to anticoagulant rodenticides in Britain is similar to predatory birds and mammals that specialise in eating small mammals, and hitherto exposure levels have been under-estimated using HPLC techniques.

  2. Effects of drainage-basin geomorphology on insectivorous bird abundance in temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tomoya; Urabe, Jotaro; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2010-10-01

    Interfaces between terrestrial and stream ecosystems often enhance species diversity and population abundance of ecological communities beyond levels that would be expected separately from both the ecosystems. Nevertheless, no study has examined how stream configuration within a watershed influences the population of terrestrial predators at the drainage-basin scale. We examined the habitat and abundance relationships of forest insectivorous birds in eight drainage basins in a cool temperate forest of Japan during spring and summer. Each basin has different drainage-basin geomorphology, such as the density and frequency of stream channels. In spring, when terrestrial arthropod prey biomass is limited, insectivorous birds aggregated in habitats closer to streams, where emerging aquatic prey was abundant. Nevertheless, birds ceased to aggregate around streams in summer because terrestrial prey became plentiful. Watershed-scale analyses showed that drainage basins with longer stream channels per unit area sustained higher densities of insectivorous birds. Moreover, such effects of streams on birds continued from spring through summer, even though birds dispersed out of riparian areas in the summer. Although our data are from only a single year, our findings imply that physical modifications of stream channels may reduce populations of forest birds; thus, they emphasize the importance of landscape-based management approaches that consider both stream and forest ecosystems for watershed biodiversity conservation. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Late-orogenic extension and strike-slip deformation in the Neogene of southeastern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijninger, B.M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Betic Cordillera of southern Spain form the western end of the Alpine orogen, which during the Neogene was affected by large-scale late-orogenic extension. Extension, however, occurred within a setting of continuous slow convergence of the African and European plates. During the Neogene,

  4. Neogene sharks and rays from the Brazilian 'Blue Amazon'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orangel Aguilera

    Full Text Available The lower Miocene Pirabas Formation in the North of Brazil was deposited under influence of the proto-Amazon River and is characterized by large changes in the ecological niches from the early Miocene onwards. To evaluate these ecological changes, the elasmobranch fauna of the fully marine, carbonate-rich beds was investigated. A diverse fauna with 24 taxa of sharks and rays was identified with the dominant groups being carcharhiniforms and myliobatiforms. This faunal composition is similar to other early Miocene assemblages from the proto-Carribbean bioprovince. However, the Pirabas Formation has unique features compared to the other localities; being the only Neogene fossil fish assemblage described from the Atlantic coast of Tropical Americas. Phosphate oxygen isotope composition of elasmobranch teeth served as proxies for paleotemperatures and paleoecology. The data are compatible with a predominantly tropical marine setting with recognized inshore and offshore habitats with some probable depth preferences (e.g., Aetomylaeus groups. Paleohabitat of taxa particularly found in the Neogene of the Americas (†Carcharhinus ackermannii, †Aetomylaeus cubensis are estimated to have been principally coastal and shallow waters. Larger variation among the few analyzed modern selachians reflects a larger range for the isotopic composition of recent seawater compared to the early Miocene. This probably links to an increased influence of the Amazon River in the coastal regions during the Holocene.

  5. Regional energy projects in the Eurasian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Dobrica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian area has a very rich energy reserves, and is characterized by a complex network of relationships between major suppliers and consumers. The central place in this area has Russia as a country richest in energy resources in Eurasia. Beside her, the European Union is the largest economic and political grouping in the world, and a huge consumer of energy. The dynamic development of Chinese economy requires more energy imports by China. Dependence of the European Union and China on imported energy is high and will grow in the future. Russia is the world's dominant natural gas producer and one of the two largest oil producers in the world. Russia is the largest natural gas supplier of the EU and a significant oil and natural gas supplier of China. Energy projects in Eurasia are the result of the need to strengthen the stability of energy supplies, efforts to diversify sources of supply, and the geographic redistribution of Russian oil and gas exports. Although the interests of the main actors often do not agree, the reasons of energy security affect the development of joint energy projects.

  6. Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Gonsalves

    Full Text Available The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat, a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito, in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax.

  7. Neogene transpressional mountain building in the Gobi Altai (Mongolia) was not assiociated with vertical axis rotations: no deviation from the Cretaceous APWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straathof, G. B.; van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Langereis, C. G.; Cunningham, W.

    2006-12-01

    Following Paleozoic amalgamation of the Asian continent, the Mesozoic history of southern and eastern Mongolia was characterized by widespread sedimentation and volcanism. During the Cenozoic, collision between India and Asia led to a NNE-SSW directed compressive stress-field in central Asia, which in Mongolia initiated a regional array of left-lateral transpressive strike-slip faults in the south, and a right-lateral transpressive strike-slip system in the west, accommodating motion around a stable Precambrian basement block (Hangay dome). Two end-member scenarios explain why the Mongolian strike-slip systems became transpressional: the first suggests that these strike-slip faults utilize obliquely oriented weak Paleozoic or Mesozoic zones in the basement. The second scenario suggests that initial strike-slip faults become transpressional as a result of vertical axis rotations, due to increased shortening from east to west in the Gobi Altai. To test these hypotheses, we carried out a paleomagnetic investigation in the northeastern Gobi Altai. Our fieldwork indicates that widespread early Cretaceous Mesozoic sedimentation and volcanism in the region is associated with rifting. Following deposition of the rift-sediments, at least four phases of localized magmatism occurred in the late Cretaceous, Paleocene, Oligocene and Neogene. We regionally sampled the lower Cretaceous basalts, and some younger lavas and basalt plugs. Approximately 900 samples were drilled in 10 localities in lower Cretaceous lavas, each subdivided into 7-15 sites of 7 samples each. These were then AF and thermally demagnetized. Curie temperatures around 560- 600°C indicate magnetite as the principal carrier of the magnetic signal. The results show a mean direction of D/I = 10.2/66.8 (a95=3.6; k=177.5), which does not statistically deviate from the published average Eurasian paleomagnetic direction for this time window (D/I = 13.6/62.4; a95 = 1.7). We thus conclude that Neogene transpressional

  8. Eurasian Union on the Viewpoint of China: Geopolitical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about geopolitical strategic analyze of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s “Eurasian Union” strategy from Chinese viewpoint. The article describes historical background of Eurasian Union, its geopolitical purposes, achievements and weakness, particularly from China's national strategic design and stance of Central Asia in Eurasian Continent. The geopolitical analysis of possibility for Sino-Russian Alliance and realistic difficulties of it are provided. Different point of Chinese experts on Russia-West relations are given. Some of them believe that he Warsaw Pact and the Cold War revival in the CIS, its purpose is to play as geopolitical blunders against the Western countries under the leadership of NATO, IMF and the United States. While others, take into consideration the US-Russian Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, and Russia’s actively participation in the former Group of Eight, accession to WTO and other initiatives that indicates the current Moscow is not the Soviet Union, and does not exclude cooperation with existing international system dominated by the Western world. And finally, China's own Eurasian strategy design is represented, especially China’s foreign policy options on Central Asia as solutions to some current existing geopolitical differences between China and Russia’s own Eurasian Strategy in order to achieve mutual win-set goal.

  9. Energy metabolism and fasting in male and female insectivorous bats Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

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    MB. Freitas

    Full Text Available Metabolic adaptations induced by 24 and 48 hours of fasting were investigated in male and female insectivorous bats (Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766. For this purpose, plasma glucose, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, glycogen, protein and lipids concentrations in liver and muscles were obtained. Data presented here demonstrate that fed bats showed plasma glucose levels similar to those reported for other mammal species. In response to fasting, glycemia was decreased only in 48 hours fasted females. Plasma NEFA levels were similar in both sexes, and did not exhibit any changes during fasting. Considering the data from energy reserve variations, fed females presented an increased content of liver glycogen as well as higher breast muscle protein and limbs lipids concentrations, compared to fed males. In response to fasting, liver and muscle glycogen levels remained unchanged. Considering protein and lipid reserves, only females showed decreased values following fasting, as seen in breast, limbs and carcass lipids and breast muscle protein reserves, but still fail to keep glucose homeostasis after 48 hours without food. Taken together, our data suggest that the energy metabolism of insectivorous bats may vary according to sexual differences, a pattern that might be associated to different reproduction investments and costs between genders.

  10. Bartonella Infection in Hematophagous, Insectivorous, and Phytophagous Bat Populations of Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Matthew J; Chomel, Bruno B; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Olave-Leyva, José Ignacio; Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2017-08-01

    Although emerging nonviral pathogens remain relatively understudied in bat populations, there is an increasing focus on identifying bat-associated bartonellae around the world. Many novel Bartonella strains have been described from both bats and their arthropod ectoparasites, including Bartonella mayotimonensis, a zoonotic agent of human endocarditis. This cross-sectional study was designed to describe novel Bartonella strains isolated from bats sampled in Mexico and evaluate factors potentially associated with infection. A total of 238 bats belonging to seven genera were captured in five states of Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula. Animals were screened by bacterial culture from whole blood and/or polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from heart tissue or blood. Bartonella spp. were isolated or detected in 54 (22.7%) bats, consisting of 41 (38%) hematophagous, 10 (16.4%) insectivorous, and three (4.3%) phytophagous individuals. This study also identified Balantiopteryx plicata as another possible bat reservoir of Bartonella. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models suggested that Bartonella infection was positively associated with blood-feeding diet and ectoparasite burden. Phylogenetic analysis identified a number of genetic variants across hematophagous, phytophagous, and insectivorous bats that are unique from described bat-borne Bartonella species. However, these strains were closely related to those bartonellae previously identified in bat species from Latin America.

  11. Accumulation of anticoagulant rodenticides in a non-target insectivore, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Claire V; Shore, Richard F; Worgan, Andrew; Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Studies on exposure of non-targets to anticoagulant rodenticides have largely focussed on predatory birds and mammals; insectivores have rarely been studied. We investigated the exposure of 120 European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from throughout Britain to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs and SGARs) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC) and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The proportion of hedgehogs with liver SGAR concentrations detected by HPLC was 3-13% per compound, 23% overall. LCMS identified much higher prevalence for difenacoum and bromadiolone, mainly because of greater ability to detect low-level contamination. The overall proportion of hedgehogs with LCMS-detected residues was 57.5% (SGARs alone) and 66.7% (FGARs and SGARs combined); 27 (22.5%) hedgehogs contained >1 rodenticide. Exposure of insectivores and predators to anticoagulant rodenticides appears to be similar. The greater sensitivity of LCMS suggests that hitherto exposure of non-targets is likely to have been under-estimated using HPLC techniques.

  12. The perils of picky eating: dietary breadth is related to extinction risk in insectivorous bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G Boyles

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several recent papers evaluate the relationship between ecological characteristics and extinction risk in bats. These studies report that extinction risk is negatively related to geographic range size and positively related to habitat specialization. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that extinction risk is also related to dietary specialization in insectivorous vespertilionid bats using both traditional and phylogenetically-controlled analysis of variance. We collected dietary data and The World Conservation Union (IUCN rankings for 44 Australian, European, and North American bat species. Our results indicate that species of conservation concern (IUCN ranking near threatened or above are more likely to have a specialized diet than are species of least concern. Additional analyses show that dietary breadth is not correlated to geographic range size or wing morphology, characteristics previously found to correlate with extinction risk. Therefore, there is likely a direct relationship between dietary specialization and extinction risk; however, the large variation in dietary breadth within species of least concern suggests that diet alone cannot explain extinction risk. Our results may have important implications for the development of predictive models of extinction risk and for the assignment of extinction risk to insectivorous bat species. Similar analyses should be conducted on additional bat families to assess the generality of this relationship between niche breadth and extinction risk.

  13. Beyond frontiers: Ancient Rome and the Eurasian trade networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Galli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the 19th century, the Roman Empire was already considered one of the key players inside the Eurasian networks. This research focuses on four relevant points. From a historiographical perspective, the reconstruction of the trading routes represented a central theme in the history of the relationship between the Roman Empire and the Far East. Imagining a plurality of itineraries and combinations of overland and sea routes, it is possible to reconstruct a complex reality in which the Eurasian networks during the Early Roman Empire developed. As far as economics is concerned, new documentation demonstrates the wide range and the extraordinary impact of the Eastern products on Roman markets. A final focus on the process of Chinese silk unravelling and reweaving provides an important clue on how complex and absolutely not mono-directional were the interactions and the exchanges in the Eurasian networks during the first centuries of the Roman Empire.

  14. Shifts in caterpillar biomass phenology due to climate change and its impact on the breeding biology of an insectivorous bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Holleman, L.J.M.; Gienapp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Timing of reproduction has major fitness consequences, which can only be understood when the phenology of the food for the offspring is quantified. For insectivorous birds, like great tits (Parus major), synchronisation of their offspring needs and abundance of caterpillars is the main selection

  15. Russia in the context of Eurasian integration: The social dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G I Osadchaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of empirical data (a number of representative nationwide opinion polls and expert estimates the article presented a detailed overview of the Russians’ and experts’ perception of the results and prospects of the Eurasian integration, and an analytical evaluation of their opinions, hopes and expectations taking into account the potential of the labor movement in the new integrated socio-economic and geopolitical space. The author explains the role and meaning of the social interaction of members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU in ensuring the effectiveness of integration, and proposes methodological foundations for the development of the social model of the Eurasian Union with an emphasis on its social dimension. The article reveals the essence of the today supranational model of social policy and its influence on social policies of the members of EEU. Thus, the author explains the primary need to harmonize social actions of the members of EEU in employment policies, and proposes a number of measures for social policy in Russia to ensure free movement of labor in the Eurasian economic space as a key host state and society.

  16. Ancient DNA reveals past existence of Eurasian lynx in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Varela, R.; García, N.; Nores, C.

    2016-01-01

    The known distribution of the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus within the Iberian Peninsula since the Middle Pleistocene and the lack of reliable records of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in this region have led to the assumption that the Iberian lynx was the sole inhabitant of Iberia. In this study, we ident...

  17. Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Williams-Guillén

    Full Text Available Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae. In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.

  18. Deglaciation of the Eurasian ice sheet complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Auriac, Amandine; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Shackleton, Calvin; Winsborrow, Monica; Heyman, Jakob; Hall, Adrian M.

    2017-08-01

    The Eurasian ice sheet complex (EISC) was the third largest ice mass during the Last Glacial Maximum with a span of over 4500 km and responsible for around 20 m of eustatic sea-level lowering. Whilst recent terrestrial and marine empirical insights have improved understanding of the chronology, pattern and rates of retreat of this vast ice sheet, a concerted attempt to model the deglaciation of the EISC honouring these new constraints is conspicuously lacking. Here, we apply a first-order, thermomechanical ice sheet model, validated against a diverse suite of empirical data, to investigate the retreat of the EISC after 23 ka BP, directly extending the work of Patton et al. (2016) who modelled the build-up to its maximum extent. Retreat of the ice sheet complex was highly asynchronous, reflecting contrasting regional sensitivities to climate forcing, oceanic influence, and internal dynamics. Most rapid retreat was experienced across the Barents Sea sector after 17.8 ka BP when this marine-based ice sheet disintegrated at a rate of ∼670 gigatonnes per year (Gt a-1) through enhanced calving and interior dynamic thinning, driven by oceanic/atmospheric warming and exacerbated by eustatic sea-level rise. From 14.9 to 12.9 ka BP the EISC lost on average 750 Gt a-1, peaking at rates >3000 Gt a-1, roughly equally partitioned between surface melt and dynamic losses, and potentially contributing up to 2.5 m to global sea-level rise during Meltwater Pulse 1A. Independent glacio-isostatic modelling constrained by an extensive inventory of relative sea-level change corroborates our ice sheet loading history of the Barents Sea sector. Subglacial conditions were predominately temperate during deglaciation, with over 6000 subglacial lakes predicted along with an extensive subglacial drainage network. Moreover, the maximum EISC and its isostatic footprint had a profound impact on the proglacial hydrological network, forming the Fleuve Manche mega-catchment which had an area of

  19. The Neogene Environment of the Beardmore Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Cantrill, D. J.; Francis, J. E.; Roof, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Discontinuous sequences of Neogene marine and non-marine glacigenic sequences, including the Meyer Desert Formation (MDF), occur throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. The upper 85m of the MDF, consisting of interbedded diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones, outcrops in the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at 85° 07'S, 166° 35'E. The location is about 170 km south of the confluence of the Beardmore Glacier with the Ross Ice Shelf and about 500 km north of the South Pole The glacial, fluvioglacial and glaciolacustrine facies of the MDF represent a dynamic glacial margin which advanced and retreated on at least four occasions. On at least one occasion, the retreat was sufficiently long for plants and animals to colonize the head of a major fjord which existed in the place of the existing Beardmore Glacier. From the fossils we have identified at least 18 species of plants, 3 species of insects, 2 species of freshwater mollusks, and a species of fish. The plant fossils consist of pollen, seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, and in situ plants. The plants include a cryptogamic flora of mosses and liverworts, conifers, and angiosperms in the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Nothofagaceae, Ranunculaceae, Hippuridaceae, ?Caryophyllaceae, and ?Chenopodiaceae or ?Myrtaceae. The plants grew in a weakly developed soil developed on a complex periglacial environment that included moraines, glacial outwash streams, well-drained gravel ridges, and poorly drained depressions in which peat and marl were being deposited. The fossil assemblage represents a mosaic tundra environment of well- and poorly-drained micro-sites, in which nutrient availability would have been patchily distributed. Antarctica has been essentially in a polar position since the Early Cretaceous and at 85° S receives no sunlight from the middle of March until the end of September. Today, the annual radiation received is about 42% that of Tierra del Fuego at 55° S. During the Neogene

  20. Foraging behavior of selected insectivorous birds in Cauvery Delta region of Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asokan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the foraging behavior of five insectivorous birds, namely White-breasted Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis, Small Bee-eater Merops orientalis, Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis, Common Myna Acridotheres tristis and Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus in Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu, India. The birds used a variety of perch types for hunting insect prey; in general the electric power line was a common perch type used by all species except the Common Myna. The perching and foraging height used by birds were classified into 3 meter categories, up to 12m. Aerial feeding or hawking in Bee-eaters and ground feeding in Common Mynas were major feeding techniques, recorded 68% and 86% of the time respectively. The other three species used gleaning as a feeding technique. The highest niche overlap was recorded between Indian Rollers and Black Drongos and between White-breasted Kingfishers and Indian Rollers.

  1. Support for the allotonic frequency hypothesis in an insectivorous bat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, M Corrie; Jacobs, David S

    2003-01-01

    The allotonic frequency hypothesis proposes that certain insectivorous bat species can prey upon moths that can hear bat echolocation calls by using echolocation frequencies outside the sensitivity range of moth ears. The hypothesis predicts that the peak frequencies of bat echolocation calls are correlated with the incidence of moths in the diets of these bats. The aim of this study was to test this prediction on a bat community dominated by bats using low duty cycle echolocation calls, i.e. aerial foraging, insectivorous species using frequency modulated calls. The community consisted of nine species, two molossids, Sauromys petrophillus and Tadarida aegyptiaca, five vespertilionids, Eptesicus capensis, Eptesicus hottentotus, Miniopteris schreibersii, Myotis tricolor, and Myotis lesueuri, one rhinolophid, Rhinolophus clivosus, and one nycterid, Nycteris thebaica. The insect fauna in the habitat used by the bat community was suited to the testing of the allotonic frequency hypothesis because more than 90% of the moths comprising the insect fauna were tympanate. These included Pyralidae (3.8%), Geometridae (44.9%), Notodontidae (3.8%), Arctiidae (4.6%), Lymantriidae (0.8%) and Noctuidae (32.4%). As predicted, peak echolocation frequency was correlated with the incidence of moths in the diets of these nine species (r=0.98, df=7, Phearing might have acted directly on call frequency and secondarily on body size and wing morphology, as part of the same adaptive complex. It is unlikely that dietary differences were due to temporal and spatial differences in the availability of prey because the pattern of differences in skull morphology of the nine species supported our dietary analyses. The skull morphology of a bat represents a historical record of the kind of diet it has become adapted to over its evolutionary history. These results suggest that prey defences may mediate other factors structuring bat communities, e.g. competition. Competition may be reduced for those

  2. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats. PMID:23441145

  3. Dietary and flight energetic adaptations in a salivary gland transcriptome of an insectivorous bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carleton J Phillips

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that evolution of salivary gland secretory proteome has been important in adaptation to insectivory, the most common dietary strategy among Chiroptera. A submandibular salivary gland (SMG transcriptome was sequenced for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The likely secretory proteome of 23 genes included seven (RETNLB, PSAP, CLU, APOE, LCN2, C3, CEL related to M. lucifugus insectivorous diet and metabolism. Six of the secretory proteins probably are endocrine, whereas one (CEL most likely is exocrine. The encoded proteins are associated with lipid hydrolysis, regulation of lipid metabolism, lipid transport, and insulin resistance. They are capable of processing exogenous lipids for flight metabolism while foraging. Salivary carboxyl ester lipase (CEL is thought to hydrolyze insect lipophorins, which probably are absorbed across the gastric mucosa during feeding. The other six proteins are predicted either to maintain these lipids at high blood concentrations or to facilitate transport and uptake by flight muscles. Expression of these seven genes and coordinated secretion from a single organ is novel to this insectivorous bat, and apparently has evolved through instances of gene duplication, gene recruitment, and nucleotide selection. Four of the recruited genes are single-copy in the Myotis genome, whereas three have undergone duplication(s with two of these genes exhibiting evolutionary 'bursts' of duplication resulting in multiple paralogs. Evidence for episodic directional selection was found for six of seven genes, reinforcing the conclusion that the recruited genes have important roles in adaptation to insectivory and the metabolic demands of flight. Intragenic frequencies of mobile- element-like sequences differed from frequencies in the whole M. lucifugus genome. Differences among recruited genes imply separate evolutionary trajectories and that adaptation was not a single, coordinated event.

  4. Within-guild dietary discrimination from 3-D textural analysis of tooth microwear in insectivorous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, M A; Crumpton, N; Gill, P G; Jones, G; Rayfield, E J

    2013-12-01

    Resource exploitation and competition for food are important selective pressures in animal evolution. A number of recent investigations have focused on linkages between diversification, trophic morphology and diet in bats, partly because their roosting habits mean that for many bat species diet can be quantified relatively easily through faecal analysis. Dietary analysis in mammals is otherwise invasive, complicated, time consuming and expensive. Here we present evidence from insectivorous bats that analysis of three-dimensional (3-D) textures of tooth microwear using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) roughness parameters derived from sub-micron surface data provides an additional, powerful tool for investigation of trophic resource exploitation in mammals. Our approach, like scale-sensitive fractal analysis, offers considerable advantages over two-dimensional (2-D) methods of microwear analysis, including improvements in robustness, repeatability and comparability of studies. Our results constitute the first analysis of microwear textures in carnivorous mammals based on ISO roughness parameters. They demonstrate that the method is capable of dietary discrimination, even between cryptic species with subtly different diets within trophic guilds, and even when sample sizes are small. We find significant differences in microwear textures between insectivore species whose diet contains different proportions of 'hard' prey (such as beetles) and 'soft' prey (such as moths), and multivariate analyses are able to distinguish between species with different diets based solely on their tooth microwear textures. Our results show that, compared with previous 2-D analyses of microwear in bats, ISO roughness parameters provide a much more sophisticated characterization of the nature of microwear surfaces and can yield more robust and subtle dietary discrimination. ISO-based textural analysis of tooth microwear thus has a useful role to play, complementing

  5. The importance of Acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the Arava desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Talya D; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats.

  6. A Palaeohydrological Shift during Neogene East Antarctic Ice Sheet Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Owen, R. L.; Newton, R.; Ivanovic, R. F.; Francis, J.; Tindall, J. C.; Riding, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The East Antarctic Ice Sheet is an important driver of global climate, playing a particular role in governing albedo and atmospheric circulation (eg. Singh et al., 2013). Recent evidence from marine sediment and terrestrial glaciovolcanic sequences suggests that the EAIS underwent periodic retreat and collapse in response to warmer climates during the late Neogene (14 to 3 million years ago). Mummified prostrate trees recovered from palaeosols at Oliver Bluffs in the Beardmore Glacier region, Transantarctic Mountains (85° S), represent a rare insight into the terrestrial palaeoclimate during one of these periods of retreat. Prostrate trees are an understudied but useful tool for interrogating endmember (e.g. periglacial) environments at high altitudes and latitudes. We present exciting new palaeoclimate data from the sequence at Oliver Bluffs. δ18O analysis of tree ring cellulose suggests that Antarctic summer palaeoprecipitation was enriched relative to today (-25 to -5‰ for ancient, -35 to -20‰ for modern); consistent with our isotope-enabled general circulation model simulations. The MBT/CBT palaeothermometer gives a summer temperature of 3-6ºC, consistent with other palaeobotanical climate indices. These geological and model data have wide-ranging implications for our understanding of the hydrological cycle during this time period. We present data suggesting that changes in moisture recycling and source region indicate a markedly different hydrological cycle.

  7. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, M.

    2015-10-09

    Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5×coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry.

  8. Trichomonosis in Eurasian sparrowhawks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunca, Tomas; Smejkalova, Pavla; Cepicka, Ivan

    2015-07-07

    Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (χ(2) = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings dropped in the urban area (5.4%) and remained similar in the rural area (16.6%) in 2013. Sequences of ITS region and SSU rDNA confirmed that the isolates from infected sparrowhawk nestlings belonged to Trichomonas gallinae.

  9. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the develo...

  10. EURASIAN LANGUAGES: THE BASIS OF ALLOCATION, LOGICS, SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALINA NATALIYA VASILIEVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors show the logical basis for the idea of J. Greenberg about Eurasian languages. A dominant position of this idea is the assertion that all the languages of Central and South America are included in the Amerind gens. The logic of fuzzy sets or fuzzy logic is examined as a logical foundation of J. Greenberg's concept. A linguistic variable "truth" takes a special place in this logic.

  11. Russian neo-revisionist strategy and the Eurasian Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Dzarasov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the real meaning of the Eurasian Integration Project for East–West relations. The author departs from Sakwa’s treatment of Russian strategy as neo-revisionist. It does not aspire to change the current world order while trying to make the West observe its national interests within the existing framework. This perspective is treated in the article from the standpoint of world-systems analysis. The Eurasian Project is understood as a reaction of the Russian state to the failure of the neoliberal attempt to integrate into the world economy and the international security system. The two great trade mega-unions—the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Trans-Atlantic Partnership—are seen as geoeconomic bolt clamps, which put Russia under enormous pressure. The Russian strategy in the Ukrainian and Syrian crises is designed to find the way out of strategic isolation. The Eurasian Union is expected by the Russian ruling elite to be an important tool to forestall the isolation of the country and secure her economic, military and international security.

  12. Tillage and herbicide reduction mitigate the gap between conventional and organic farming effects on foraging activity of insectivorous bats

    OpenAIRE

    Barré, Kévin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain; Chiron, François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The increased use of pesticides and tillage intensification is known to negatively affect biodiversity. Changes in these agricultural practices such as herbicide and tillage reduction have variable effects among taxa, especially at the top of the trophic network including insectivorous bats. Very few studies compared the effects of agricultural practices on such taxa, and overall, only as a comparison of conventional versus organic farming without accurately accounting...

  13. Comparative gastrointestinal morphology of three small mammalian insectivores: Acomys spinosissimus (Rodentia), Crocidura cyanea (Eulipotyphla), and Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonzaier, Julia; Van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Bennett, Nigel C; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2013-06-01

    The gastrointestinal morphology was investigated in three mammalian insectivorous species, namely Acomys spinosissimus, Crocidura cyanea, and Amblysomus hottentotus. The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive morphological comparison between the different species and to explore whether anatomical gastrointestinal adaptations are associated with the insectivorous diet of these species. The shape, proportional length, and proportional surface areas of the different gastrointestinal regions were recorded and compared in the three insectivores. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Alcian Blue/Periodic Acid Schiff (AB/PAS) were used for morphological assessment. In all three species, the stomach was simple and uncompartmentalized. The internal aspect of the stomach in A. spinosissimus was hemi-glandular, containing stratified squamous epithelium in the fundus, with glandular epithelium in the body and pyloric region. However, C. cyanea and A. hottentotus had wholly glandular stomachs. Paneth cells were not observed in the intestinal tracts of C. cyanea and A. hottentotus. Acomys spinosissimus was the only species studied that had a cecum. The proximal colonic region of A. spinosissimus had V-shaped mucosal folds. Histologically, C. cyanea had villi throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT), whereas for A. hottentotus villi were not present in the most distal gastrointestinal regions. In both C. cyanea and A. hottentotus, longitudinal mucosal folds were present in the distal part of the colon. The GITs of C. cyanea and A. hottentotus showed little morphological differentiation namely, a simple, glandular stomach and the lack of a cecum. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Michael J.; Waddell, Victor G.; Madsen, Ole; de Jong, Wilfried; Hedges, S. Blair; Cleven, Gregory C.; Kao, Diana; Springer, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    The traditional views regarding the mammalian order Insectivora are that the group descended from a single common ancestor and that it is comprised of the following families: Soricidae (shrews), Tenrecidae (tenrecs), Solenodontidae (solenodons), Talpidae (moles), Erinaceidae (hedgehogs and gymnures), and Chrysochloridae (golden moles). Here we present a molecular analysis that includes representatives of all six families of insectivores, as well as 37 other taxa representing marsupials, monotremes, and all but two orders of placental mammals. These data come from complete sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Valine, and 16S rRNA genes (2.6 kb). A wide range of different methods of phylogenetic analysis groups the tenrecs and golden moles (both endemic to Africa) in an all-African superordinal clade comprised of elephants, sirenians, hyracoids, aardvark, and elephant shrews, to the exclusion of the other four remaining families of insectivores. Statistical analyses reject the idea of a monophyletic Insectivora as well as traditional concepts of the insectivore suborder Soricomorpha. These findings are supported by sequence analyses of several nuclear genes presented here: vWF, A2AB, and α-β hemoglobin. These results require that the order Insectivora be partitioned and that the two African families (golden moles and tenrecs) be placed in a new order. The African superordinal clade now includes six orders of placental mammals. PMID:9707584

  15. Seasonal diets of insectivorous birds using canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa, T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Mike D.

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT. Little is known about how insectivorous bird diets are influenced by arthropod availability and about how these relationships vary seasonally. We captured birds in forest-canopy gaps and adjacent mature forest during 2001 and 2002 at the Savannah River Site in Barnwell County, South Carolina, and flushed their crops to gather information about arthropods eaten during four periods: spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration. Arthropod availability for foliage- and ground-gleaning birds was examined by leaf clipping and pitfall trapping. Coleopterans and Hemipterans were used by foliage- and ground-gleaners more than expected during all periods, whereas arthropods in the orders Araneae and Hymenoptera were used as, or less than, expected based on availability during all periods. Ground-gleaning birds used Homopterans and Lepidopterans in proportions higher than availability during all periods. Arthropod use by birds was consistent from spring through all migration, with no apparent seasonal shift in diet. Based on concurrent studies, heavily used orders of arthropods were equally abundant or slightly less abundant in canopy gaps than in the surrounding mature forest, but bird species were most frequently detected in gaps. Such results suggest that preferential feeding on arthropods by foliage-gleaning birds in p p habitats reduced arthropod densities or, alternatively, that bird use of gap and forest habitat was not determined y food resources. The abundance of arthropods across the stand may have allowed birds to remain in the densely vegetated gaps where thick cover provides protection from predators.

  16. Assessing costs of carrying geolocators using feather corticosterone in two species of aerial insectivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Berzins, Lisha L; Bradley, David W; Laughlin, Andrew J; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Ambrosini, Roberto; Dawson, Russell D; Dunn, Peter O; Hobson, Keith A; Liechti, Felix; Marchant, Tracy A; Norris, D Ryan; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Taylor, Caz M; Whittingham, Linda A; Clark, Robert G

    2015-05-01

    Despite benefits of using light-sensitive geolocators to track animal movements and describe patterns of migratory connectivity, concerns have been raised about negative effects of these devices, particularly in small species of aerial insectivore. Geolocators may act as handicaps that increase energetic expenditure, which could explain reported effects of geolocators on survival. We tested this 'Energetic Expenditure Hypothesis' in 12 populations of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from North America and Europe, using measurements of corticosterone from feathers (CORTf) grown after deployment of geolocators as a measure of physiology relevant to energetics. Contrary to predictions, neither among- (both species) nor within-individual (tree swallows only) levels of CORTf differed with respect to instrumentation. Thus, to the extent that CORTf reflects energetic expenditure, geolocators apparently were not a strong handicap for birds that returned post-deployment. While this physiological evidence suggests that information about migration obtained from returning geolocator-equipped swallows is unbiased with regard to levels of stress, we cannot discount the possibility that corticosterone played a role in reported effects of geolocators on survival in birds, and suggest that future studies relate corticosterone to antecedent factors, such as reproductive history, and to downstream fitness costs.

  17. Domestication drive the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Jun; Qian, Long; Gaughan, Sarah; Xiang, Wei; Ai, Tao; Fan, Zhenming; Wang, Chenghui

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has altered a variety of traits within the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), including phenotypic, physiological and behavioral traits of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Little is known, however, about the genetic changes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. In this study, we assembled a high-quality de novo reference transcriptome and identified differentially expressed genes between wild and domesticated Eurasian perch. A total of 113,709 transcripts were assembled, and 58,380 transcripts were annotated. Transcriptomic comparison revealed 630 differentially expressed genes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. Within domesticated Eurasian perch there were 412 genes that were up-regulated including MHCI, MHCII, chia, ighm within immune system development. There were 218 genes including try1, ctrl, ctrb, cela3b, cpa1 and cpb1, which were down-regulated that were associated with digestive processes. Our results indicated domestication drives the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch. Our study not only provide valuable genetic resources for further studies in Eurasian perch, but also provide novel insights into the genetic basis of physiological changes in Eurasian perch during domestication process.

  18. Neodymium isotopes and the Neogene evolution of Arctic intermediate water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, B. A.; Frank, M.; Spielhagen, R.

    2006-12-01

    flow into the Arctic, as seen in a return towards more negative Nd isotopic values. The Quaternary record is argued to reflect stronger glacial brine formation on the Artic shelves under the larger ice sheets, with concomitant restriction of N. Atlantic-sourced intermediate water. These interpretations of the Nd and Arctic ocean intermediate water variability will be assessed in terms of climate change on both the Neogene and glacial-interglacial time scales.

  19. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed

  20. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal K.; Kassi, Akhtar M.; Friis, Henrik

    Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene...

  1. Neogene stratigraphy of the Langenboom locality (Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, T.G.; Bor, T.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Munsterman, D.K.; Brinkhuis, H.; Burger, A.W.; Vonhof, H.B.; Post, K.; Hoedemakers, K.; Janse, A.C.; Taverne, N.

    2008-01-01

    The locality of Langenboom (eastern Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands), also known as Mill, is famous for its Neogene molluscs, shark teeth, teleost remains, birds and marine mammals. The stratigraphic context of the fossils, which have been collected from sand suppletions, was hitherto poorly

  2. Paleogeographic and Depositional Model for the Neogene fluvial succession, Pishin Belt Northwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Umar, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Detailed facies analysis of the Neogene successions of the Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin) has enabled documentation of successive depositional systems and palaeogeographic settings of the basin formed by the collision of northwestern continental margin of Indian Plate and Afghan Block. During Early...... deformation of these formations successively caused them to contribute as an additional source terrain for the younger formations...

  3. Extended stratigraphy, palynology and depositional environments record the initiation of the Himalayan Gyirong Basin (Neogene China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Zhang, K.; Wang, G.; Jiang, S.; Chen, F.; Xiang, S.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Hoorn, C.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report new sedimentological and paleontological data from a 603.5 m thick Neogene sequence (Woma section) in the Gyirong Basin, a basin induced by east-west extension in the Himalayas of southern Tibet. We document the conglomeratic Danzengzhukang Formation, at the base of the section, and

  4. ASEAN-LED MULTILATERAL SECURITY DIALOGUE: EURASIAN PRIORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е А Канаев

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses upon new aspects in ASEAN priorities relevant to the rise of efficiency of ASEAN-led multilateral dialogues platforms - ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF, ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting Plus Eight (ADMM+8 and East Asia Summit (EAS. Having outlined the conceptual contradiction between the rise of the global component in Asia-Pacific security challenges, the authors trace the intellectual and practical dimensions of ASEAN response. On reviewing the key directions of intra-ASEAN expert discussions, the authors reveal their qualitatively new component - to link the modi-fication of ASEAN modality of cooperation and its expansion to the Eurasian area. The trace of factors responsible for the possibility and necessity to adopt ARF, ADMM+8 and EAS to the impeding format ASEAN-SCO-EAEU and practically-oriented proposals about the promising directions of cooperation within this format are the key academic value-added of the study. The actuality and academic significance of the study stem from the necessity to analyze issues important for ASEAN and its Eurasian partners. Among these issues, the key are: which directions of cooperation can be of help for ASEAN in order to strengthen its positions as the driving force of Asia-Pacific multilateral dialogue frameworks? By what means can ASEAN and ASEAN-led formats be integ-rated in the establishment of Greater Eurasia with the maximum outcomes for both ASEAN and its Eurasian partners? How can ASEAN experience be used for the establishment of an efficient trans-continental rather than regional multilateral security dialogue? Findings on these issues make the article academi-cally unique.

  5. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the development of the economic situation in each country in recent years. The starting point for discussion is the analysis of benefits of economic integration in the light of theory.

  6. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia.

  7. Insectivorous bats digest chitin in the stomach using acidic mammalian chitinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strobel

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet.

  8. Feeding resource partitioning between two understorey insectivorous birds in a fragment of Neotropical cloud forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Manhães

    Full Text Available Abstract The food habits and niche overlap based on diet composition and prey size of two species of understorey insectivorous birds were investigated in an area of montane rain forest in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. A total of 43 birds were captured: 33 individuals of Conopophaga lineata (Conopophagidae with 13 recaptures, and 10 individuals of Myiothlypis leucoblephara (Parulidae with 12 recaptures, from which were obtained respectively 33 and 10 fecal samples. Fragments of 16 groups of arthropods, plus insect eggs, were identified in these samples. Conopophaga lineata predominantly consumed Formicidae (32% and Isoptera (23.6%. However, the index of alimentary importance (AI of Isoptera (3.53 was lower than other groups such as Formicidae (AI = 61.88, Coleoptera (AI = 16.17, insect larvae (AI = 6.95 and Araneae (AI = 6.6. Myiothlypis leucoblephara predominantly consumed Formicidae (28.2% and Coleoptera (24.4%, although Coleoptera and Hymenoptera non-Formicidae had the highest values of AI (38.71 and 22.98 respectively. Differences in the proportions of the types of arthropods consumed by birds were not enough to reveal their separation into feeding niches (overlap = 0.618, p observed ≤ expected = 0.934, whereas differences in the use of resources was mainly due to the size of the prey (p<0.001, where C lineata, the species with the highest body mass (p<0.001 consumed larger prey. It is plausible that prey size is an axis of niche dimension that allows the coexistence of these species.

  9. Heterogeneous movement of insectivorous Amazonian birds through primary and secondary forest: A case study using multistate models with radiotelemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Powell, Luke L.; Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Erik l.; Nichols, James D.; Stouffer, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Given rates of deforestation, disturbance, and secondary forest accumulation in tropical rainforests, there is a great need to quantify habitat use and movement among different habitats. This need is particularly pronounced for animals most sensitive to disturbance, such as insectivorous understory birds. Here we use multistate capture–recapture models with radiotelemetry data to determine the successional stage at which within-day movement probabilities of Amazonian birds in secondary forest are similar to those in primary forest. We radio-tracked three common understory insectivore species in primary and secondary forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments project near Manaus, Brazil: two woodcreepers, Glyphorynchus spirurus (n = 19) andXiphorhynchus pardalotus (n = 18), and the terrestrial antthrush Formicarius colma(n = 19). Forest age was a strong predictor of fidelity to a given habitat. All three species showed greater fidelity to primary forest than to 8–14-year-old secondary forest, indicating the latter’s relatively poor quality. The two woodcreeper species used 12–18-year-old secondary forest in a manner comparable to continuous forest, but F. colmaavoided moving even to 27–31-year-old secondary forest—the oldest at our site. Our results suggest that managers concerned with less sensitive species can assume that forest reserves connected by 12–18-year-old secondary forest corridors are effectively connected. On the other hand, >30 years are required after land abandonment before secondary forest serves as a primary forest-like conduit for movement by F. colma; more sensitive terrestrial insectivores may take longer still.

  10. The relative influence of competition and prey defenses on the phenotypic structure of insectivorous bat ensembles in southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Corrie Schoeman

    Full Text Available Deterministic filters such as competition and prey defences should have a strong influence on the community structure of animals such as insectivorous bats that have life histories characterized by low fecundity, low predation risk, long life expectancy, and stable populations. We investigated the relative influence of these two deterministic filters on the phenotypic structure of insectivorous bat ensembles in southern Africa. We used null models to simulate the random phenotypic patterns expected in the absence of competition or prey defences and analysed the deviations of the observed phenotypic pattern from these expected random patterns. The phenotypic structure at local scales exhibited non-random patterns consistent with both competition and prey defense hypotheses. There was evidence that competition influenced body size distribution across ensembles. Competition also influenced wing and echolocation patterns in ensembles and in functional foraging groups with high species richness or abundance. At the same time, prey defense filters influenced echolocation patterns in two species-poor ensembles. Non-random patterns remained evident even after we removed the influence of body size from wing morphology and echolocation parameters taking phylogeny into account. However, abiotic filters such as geographic distribution ranges of small and large-bodied species, extinction risk, and the physics of flight and sound probably also interacted with biotic filters at local and/or regional scales to influence the community structure of sympatric bats in southern Africa. Future studies should investigate alternative parameters that define bat community structure such as diet and abundance to better determine the influence of competition and prey defences on the structure of insectivorous bat ensembles in southern Africa.

  11. Eurasian polities as hybrid regimes: The case of Putin's Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry E. Hale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Eurasian countries' political systems are not accurately described as some version of either democracy or authoritarianism. Nor does it advance social science to study each of these countries' political systems as being completely unique, sharing no significant commonalities with those of other countries. Instead, it is more fruitful to understand many Eurasian countries as a type of hybrid regime, a system that combines important elements of both democracy and autocracy in some way. One of the most important features of Eurasia's hybrid regimes, one that is shared by many hybrid regimes worldwide, is that they combine contested elections with pervasive political clientelism. Political developments in these countries can thus be usefully understood as machine politics, and the development of political systems can be understood as processes of rearranging the components of the machines in different ways. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated through an in-depth study of the Russian Federation. It is argued that Russian political development under Putin is best understood not as “authoritarianization” but as a process in which Russia transitioned from a system of “competing pyramids” of machine power to a “single-pyramid” system, a system dominated by one large political machine. It turns out that in single-pyramid systems that preserve contested elections, as does Russia, public opinion matters more than in typical authoritarian regimes.

  12. Interregional Cooperation in the Emerging Eurasian Economic Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Anatol’evich Gulin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union entered into force and presented a new stage of reintegration of the countries on the territory of the former USSR. The success of this project will depend not only on collaboration at the national level, but also on the degree of the EEU countries’ involvement in the integration process. The academic debate on this issue is a relevant and practically important task. The article highlights the results of the international online-conference “Interregional cooperation in the emerging Eurasian Economic Space”, conducted by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS June, 16–20 2015. It considers the issues associated with interregional trade and economic cooperation, interaction in the sphere of science and innovation and various aspects of humanitarian cooperation. It raises important problems of cross-border cooperation of the EEU states. The article makes a conclusion about the need to develop the integration process both in scope (through expanded directions of cooperation, which should not be limited only to contacts at the highest political level or trade partnership and depth (through involvement of regions, enterprises, different social groups, individual citizens

  13. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyan​, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and ...

  14. An Enormous Interstitial Mestizo? The (Impossibility of Eurasian Identity in Dutch Postcolonial Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Petra R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the (impossibility of Eurasian identity in Dutch postcolonial novels by second-generation authors such as Marion Bloem and Adriaan van Dis. As a result of Indonesia’s decolonisation 300.000 Dutch nationals came from the former Dutch East Indies to the Netherlands. Among them was a large group of Eurasians, people of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent. Many of whom had never set foot on the so-called motherland. Although Eurasians had belonged to the European community in the tropics, they were perceived as immigrants by the Dutch government and were subjected to an aggressive, far-reaching assimilation policy - fearing they would otherwise become a major social problem. Their offspring, the so-called second generation, is often assumed to struggle with their identity while growing up in a postcolonial society that did not tolerate cultural differences at the time. What constitutes a Eurasian identity, and can such identities exist after the enforced assimilation of Eurasians in the Netherlands? How do second-generation authors look upon their Eurasian background and how do they portray these assumed identity struggles in postcolonial literature? The texts in question are discussed in relation to theories of hybridity. It is argued that the widespread notion that Eurasians either fall between two stools or grow into examples of hybrid identity are not foregone conclusions.

  15. Migratory status is not related to the susceptibility to HPAIV H5N1 in an insectivorous passerine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Kalthoff

    Full Text Available Migratory birds have evolved elaborate physiological adaptations to travelling, the implications for their susceptibility to avian influenza are however unknown. Three groups of stonechats (Saxicola torquata from (I strongly migrating, (II weakly migrating and (III non-migrating populations were experimentally infected with HPAIV H5N1. The different bird groups of this insectivorous passerine species were infected in autumn, when the migrating populations clearly exhibit migratory restlessness. Following infection, all animals succumbed to the disease from 3 through 7 days post inoculation. Viral shedding, antigen distribution in tissues, and survival time did not differ between the three populations. However, notably, endothelial tropism of the HPAIV infection was exclusively seen in the group of resident birds. In conclusion, our data document for the first time the high susceptibility of an insectivorous passerine species to H5N1 infection, and the epidemiological role of these passerine birds is probably limited due to their high sensitivity to HPAIV H5N1 infection. Despite pronounced inherited differences in migratory status, the groups were generally indistinguishable in their susceptibility, survival time, clinical symptoms and viral shedding. Nevertheless, the migratory status partly influenced pathogenesis in the way of viral tropism.

  16. Conversion efficiency of alpha linolenic acid to omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in aerial insectivore chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Cornelia W; Lawrence, Peter; Winkler, David W; Flecker, Alexander S; Brenna, J Thomas

    2017-12-07

    Food availability and quality are both critical for growing young animals. In nature, swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and other aerial insectivores feed on both aquatic insects, which are rich in omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and terrestrial insects, which contain considerably lower amounts of omega-3 HUFA. Carnivorous mammals and fishes must obtain omega-3 HUFA from diet, as they have lost the capacity to convert the precursor omega-3 ALA into omega-3 HUFA. Thus, the relative value of aquatic versus terrestrial insects depends not only on the fatty acid composition of the prey, but also upon the capacity of consumers to convert ALA into omega-3 HUFA. We used a combination of stable-isotope-labeled fatty acid tracers to ask if, and how efficiently, Tree Swallows can deposit newly synthesized omega-3 HUFA into tissue. Our data show for the first time that Tree Swallows can convert ALA into omega-3 HUFA deposited in liver and skeletal muscle. However, high Tree Swallow demand for omega-3 HUFA combined with low ALA availability in natural terrestrial foods may strain their modest conversion ability. This suggests that while Tree Swallows can synthesize omega-3 HUFA de novo, omega-3 HUFA are ecologically essential nutrients in natural systems. Our findings thus provide mechanistic support for our previous findings and the importance of omega-3 HUFA -rich aquatic insects for Tree Swallows and most likely other aerial insectivores with similar niches. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The influence of food abundance, food dispersion and habitat structure on territory selection and size of an Afrotropical terrestrial insectivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Newmark, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Most tropical insectivorous birds, unlike their temperate counterparts, hold and defend a feeding and breeding territory year-around. However, our understanding of ecological factors influencing territory selection and size in tropical insectivores is limited. Here we examine three prominent hypotheses relating food abundance, food dispersion (spatial arrangement of food items), and habitat structure to territoriality in the Usambara Thrush Turdus roehli. We first compared leaf-litter macro-invertebrate abundance and dispersion, and habitat structure between territories and random sites. We then examined the relation between these same ecological factors and territory size. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion were sparsely and evenly distributed across our study system and did not vary between territories and random sites. In contrast, habitat structure did vary between territories and random sites indicating the Usambara Thrush selects territories with open understorey and closed overstorey habitat. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion within territories of the Usambara Thrush were not associated with habitat structure. We believe the most likely explanation for the Usambara Thrush’s preference for open understorey and closed overstorey habitat relates to foraging behavior. Using information-theoretic model selection we found that invertebrate abundance was the highest-ranked predictor of territory size and was inversely related, consistent with food value theory of territoriality.

  18. Dynamics and stress field of the Eurasian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    We address the connection between forces on the Eurasian plate, the plate's motion and the intraplate stress field. Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In this study we analyse the forces along the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate, presently the most prominent suture zone on Earth, resulting from the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate the force distribution along the Tethyan boundary as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We evaluate force distributions obeying this mechanical law on the basis of their ability to reproduce observed stress orientations. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Our investigation is structured according to two research objectives, pursued in a corresponding step-wise approach: (1) a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of Eurasia's stress field to the distribution of all acting forces; and (2) a quantification of collision-related forces along the southern boundary of Eurasia, including their relation to observed plate boundary structure, in particular plateau height. Intraplate stress observations as compiled in the World Stress Map project are used to constrain the distribution of forces acting on Eurasia. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser

  19. Otodectic otoacariasis in free-ranging Eurasian lynx in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgis, M P; Segerstad, C H; Christensson, B; Mörner, T

    2001-07-01

    An infestation with Otodectes cynotis, the ear mite of cats and dogs, was observed in three free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden. The ear canals were obstructed by waxy secretions and exfoliated epithelium. Histologically, there were hyperkeratosis and acanthosis, and the epithelial surface was overlained by hyperkeratotic and parakeratotic crusts with mites, mite detritus and cerumen. In the subcutis there was a slight to moderate infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages. The ceruminous glands were bypertrophic and hyperplastic, and there was also an hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands. The lesions seemed to correlate with the degree of infestation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of otoacariasis in free-ranging lynx.

  20. Reworked late Neogene Austrochlamys anderssoni (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from northern James Ross Island, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrie, D; Jonkers, H. A.; Smellie, John L.; Crame, J. Alistair; McArthur, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a new outcrop of fossiliferous Neogene sediments on northern James Ross Island, northern Antarctic Peninsula. Approximately 100 specimens of the pectinid bivalve Austrochlamys anderssoni (Hennig, 1911) were collected from the permafrost active layer. This bivalve species has a late Miocene to late Pliocene range and has previously been reported from both the glaciomarine Hobbs Glacier Formation and the interglacial Cockburn Island Formation in the James Ross Isla...

  1. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, H.; Deng, T.; Li, Y.; Xu, H

    2015-01-01

    Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13–11, 8–7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The result...

  2. Petrological and Geochemical Features of the Neogene Volcanites of the Osogovo Mountains, Eastern Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Serafimovski, Todor; Tasev, Goran; DOLENEC, TADEJ

    2006-01-01

    The subject of the presented study was the petrological and geochemical characterization of the Neogene volcanic rocks from the Osogovo Mountains. In this paper we present new results of petrological and geochemical analyses of igneous rocks, mostly from Sasa, Toranica and Ruen. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the studied rocks confirmed the results of some previous investigations that indicated that the exposed lithologies are mostly dacites, quartzlatites, trachyandesit...

  3. The reasons of creation of the Eurasian Economic Union: economics or politics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers creation of the Eurasian economic Union. It is shown that Russia is the main provider of integration in the post-Soviet space. The author identifies several reasons for the establishment of the Eurasian economic Union. Much attention is paid to geo-economic reasons. It is clear that the Eurasian economic Union is a geopolitical project for Moscow. The author believes that domestic political considerations also support the motive of integration processes in the post-Soviet space.

  4. Surface-Atmosphere Moisture Coupling in Eurasian Frozen Ground Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfeld, O. W.; Ford, T.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost represents an impermeable barrier to moisture, resulting in a saturated or near-saturated surface layer during the warm season in many continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. These surface conditions could lead to enhanced convection and precipitation during the warm season, and significant local recycling of moisture. In areas underlain by sporadic or isolated permafrost, or in seasonally frozen areas, the moisture can drain away more readily, resulting in much drier soil conditions. As climate change causes frozen ground degradation, this will thus also alter the patterns of atmospheric convection, moisture recycling, and the hydrologic cycle in high-latitude land areas. In this study, we analyze evaporative fraction (EF) as a proxy for evapotranspiration, and precipitation from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-land) reanalysis dataset. We focus on 1979-2012 and document patterns and changes in EF over the Eurasian high latitudes. We find strong, positive April EF trends over the study period, particularly in the Lena River Basin, 80% of which is underlain by continuous permafrost. In fact, these significant positive trends in spring EF are strongest over continuous permafrost across the Eurasian high latitudes, but negative for sporadic and isolated permafrost. In addition, we find a strong, statistically significant relationship between EF anomalies and the probability of subsequent precipitation over the Lena Basin during April. This association therefore suggests a potential land-atmosphere coupling between frozen ground and precipitation. As the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground distribution changes in the future, this will likely have repercussions for the Arctic hydrologic cycle.

  5. Neogene tectonics and fault-related folds in the Gulf of Hammamet area, Tunisian offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Ghada; Ahmadi, Riadh; Brahim, Noureddine; Turki, Faiçal

    2014-09-01

    The western part of the Gulf of Hammamet area lies in the Pelagian Platform, eastward of the Atlas front. This region shows large changes in structural style compared to the Pelagian Platform. During the Neogene, the Gulf of Hammamet recorded the convergence of the Eurasia and Africa plates. During the Pliocene to early Quaternary, the area recorded an NW-SE shortening related to the Atlas contraction followed by an NNE-SSW extension linked to the Pantelleria-Malta graben opening. Subsurface geology of the Gulf of Hammamet area allows us to propose a tectonic sketch, where the Neogene deformation is characterized by (1) Cenozoic age detachment level that located in the Mio-Pliocene and Quaternary series; (2) the growth of fault-related folds (mainly fault-propagation folds) and (3) a total shortening of about 6 km. The thin-skinned thrusting is late Miocene age and is synchronous to the Africa-Europe collision. During the upper Miocene (Tortonian), fault-propagation folds developed above inherited normal faults. The Pliocene age was tectonically calm period. Finally, post-Villafranchian contraction reactivated these structures. Despite the large number of hydrocarbon discoveries, the Gulf of Hammamet remains under-explored. This new interpretation of Neogene tectonic events and folding models could lead to a new play idea for the hydrocarbon prospectively in this proven oil province.

  6. Diet and prey availability of terrestrial insectivorous birds prone to extinction in amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared niche breath, prey size, and diet variability in two pairs of sympatric species of terrestrial insectivorous birds, each pair containing one species that can persist in small forest fragments and one that does not. The pairs were Myrmeciza ferruginea and Sclerurus rufigularis; and Formicarius colma and F. analis, respectively. The prey availability in forest fragments was also sampled and compared to the availability in continuous forests. Niche breath indices did not differ between pair members, but diet variability differed in the opposite direction from that hypothesized. Although the two bird species most vulnerable to fragmentation fed on larger prey than less vulnerable species, prey availability, including that based on prey size did not differ among fragmented versus continuous forest sites. Thus, diet per se appeared not to be an important cause of extinction-proneness in these species. The simplest explanation proposed, that vulnerability to fragmentation was directly related to territory size, requires testing. However, it was consistent with observations that the bird species feeding on larger prey also need larger territories.Dieta e disponibilidade de presas de aves insetívoras terrestres em fragmentos florestais amazônicos. As aves insetívoras terrestres são um dos grupos mais vulneráveis à fragmentação de florestas tropicais; no entanto algumas espécies desta guilda ainda sobrevivem em fragmentos florestais e em florestas secundárias. Se a sensibilidade destas aves à fragmentação de florestas estivesse associada à dieta, então espécies com a dieta relativamente flexível teriam maior propensão em persistir nos fragmentos florestais. Este estudo comparou sobreposição trófica, amplitude de nicho, tamanho de presas e variabilidade de dieta de dois pares de espécies de aves insetívoras terrestres, onde cada par foi composto por uma espécie que persiste nos fragmentos e outra que n

  7. Assessing the relative importance of isolated Ficus trees to insectivorous birds in an Indian human-modified tropical landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Bregman, Tom P.

    2017-01-01

    The destruction of forest for agricultural expansion has created a vast estate of human-modified land in tropical regions. One group of organisms that are particularly vulnerable to the loss of forest habitat are insectivorous birds. Despite this, few conservation strategies have been identified...

  8. Determinants of tree species preference for foraging by insectivorous birds in a novel Prosopis - Leucaena woodland in Puerto Rico: the role of foliage palatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Beltran; J.M. Wunderle Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The foliage palatability hypothesis predicts that avian insectivores will preferentially forage in tree species with the greatest abundance of their arthropod prey, which in turn are associated with the tree’s foliage nutrition and palatability. We tested this hypothesis in a novel Prosopis–Leucaena woodland in Puerto Rico by determining foraging preferences of five...

  9. On the food of the Eurasian pygmy owl (Glaucidium passerinum) in Slovakia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karol Šotnár; Samuel Pačenovský; Ján Obuch

    2015-01-01

    Data on the food of the Eurasian pygmy owl in Slovakia was collected in 1999−2014 at 12 breeding locations in 7 mountain ranges of the Western Carpathian Mts and 1 range belonging to the Eastern Carpathian Mts...

  10. Henry E. Hale. Patronal Politics: Eurasian Regime Dynamics in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F. Remington

    2016-01-01

    Henry E. Hale. Patronal Politics: Eurasian Regime Dynamics in Comparative Perspective. Problems of International Politics. Eds. Keith Darden and Ian Shapiro. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xviii, 542 pp. References. Index. US$39.99, paper.

  11. Biosystematic, molecular and phytochemical evidence for the multiple origin of sympetaly in Eurasian Sedoideae (Crassulaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, H; van Ham, RDHJ; Stevens, JF; Elema, ET; van der Klis, H; Gadella, TWJ

    Traditionally the sympetalous, Eurasian Crassulaceae are classified in four gen-era, but combined biosystematic, molecular and chemotaxonomic studies indicate that sympetaly evolved at least eight times independently in European Crassulaceae. Morphologically Umbilicus is very distinct and at the

  12. Evading Invasives: How Eurasian Water-Milfoil Effects the Development of Lakefront Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Goodenberger, James; Klaiber, H. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Eurasian water-milfoil is an aquatic invasive plant that has moved rapidly through lakes across the United States. Along with being a hazard to local ecosystems, water-milfoil is a nuisance to those who use lakes for recreation, and its presence even lowers the value of lakefront properties. Though its effects can cause great disutility to lake users, no empirical studies have emerged that investigate the impacts that Eurasian water-milfoil, or any other invasive species, have on human behavi...

  13. Neogene stratigraphy, foraminifera, diatoms, and depositional history of Maria Madre Island, Mexico: Evidence of early Neogene marine conditions in the southern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloy, C.; Ingle, J.C.; Barron, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Foraminifera and diatoms have been analyzed from an upper Miocene through Pleistocene(?) sequence of marine sediments exposed on Maria Madre Island, largest of the Tre??s Marias Islands off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The Neogene stratigraphic sequence exposed on Maria Madre Island includes a mid-Miocene(?) non-marine and/or shallow marine sandstone unconformably overlain by a lower upper Miocene to uppermost Miocene upper to middle bathyal laminated and massive diatomite, mudstone, and siltstone unit. This unit is unconformably overlain by lower Pliocene middle to lower bathyal sandstones and siltstones which, in turn, are unconformably overlain by upper Pliocene through Pleistocene(?) upper bathyal to upper middle bathyal foraminiferal limestones and siltstones. These beds are unconformably capped by Pleistocene terrace deposits. Basement rocks on the island include Cretaceous granite and granodiorite, and Tertiary(?) andesites and rhyolites. The upper Miocene diatomaceous unit contains a low diversity foraminiferal fauna dominated by species of Bolivina indicating low oxygen conditions in the proto-Gulf Maria Madre basin. The diatomaceous unit grades into a mudstone that contains a latest Miocene upper to middle bathyal biofacies characterized by Baggina californica and Uvigerina hootsi along with displaced neritic taxa. An angular unconformity separates the upper Miocene middle bathyal sediments from overlying lower Pliocene siltstones and mudstones that contain a middle to lower bathyal biofacies and abundant planktonic species including Neogloboquadrina acostaensis and Pulleniatina primalis indicating an early Pliocene age. Significantly, this Pliocene unit contains common occurrences of benthic species restricted to Miocene sediments in California including Bulimina uvigerinaformis. Pliocene to Pleistocene(?) foraminiferal limestones and siltstones characterize submarine bank accumulations formed during uplift of the Tre??s Marias Island area, and include

  14. Prevalence of Basidiobolus ranarum Eidam in the intestinal tract of an insectivorous bat, Rhinopoma hardwickei hardwickei Gray, in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, V P; Randhawa, H S; Khan, Z U; Singh, N; Kini, S

    1984-01-01

    The prevalance of Basidiobolus ranarum Eidam is reported from the intestinal contents of 14 (7%) of 200 bats belonging to Rhinopoma hardwickei hardwickei Gray ('the lesser rat-tailed bat'), an insectivorous species captured from Delhi area. Eleven of the positive bats were captured during August/September whereas the remaining three came from collections made during November or April. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were found in the intestine of the bats yielding B. ranarum. This is believed to be the first report on the association of B. ranarum with bats. A more extensive sampling of bat species including their guano is indicated to elucidate the role of Chiroptera in the biological cycle of B. ranarum.

  15. Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  16. Genotyping success of historical Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanc, Primož; Sindičić, Magda; Jelenčič, Maja; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Kos, Ivan; Huber, Duro

    2012-03-01

    Historical samples, like tanned hides and trophy skulls, can be extremely important for genetic studies of endangered or elusive species. Selection of a sampling protocol that is likely to provide sufficient amount and quality of DNA with a minimum damage to the original specimen is often critical for a success of the study. We investigated microsatellite genotyping success of DNA isolated from three different types of Eurasian lynx historical samples. We analysed a total of 20 microsatellite loci in 106 historical samples from the endangered Dinaric lynx population, established from re-introduction of three pairs of lynx in 1973 from Slovakian Carpathians. Of the three tested sample types, turbinal bone and septum from the nasal cavity of the trophy skulls had the lowest percentage of samples successfully genotyped for all 20 microsatellite loci. Footpad samples, collected using a cork drill, exhibited better results in polymerase chain reaction amplification and genotyping than samples of footpad epidermis cut with a scalpel. We report simple and efficient sampling protocols, which could be widely applied for future studies utilizing historical samples. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A Preliminary Calibrated Deglaciation Chronology for the Eurasian Ice Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, L.; Peltier, W. R.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results for a high-resolution glaciologically-self-consistent deglacial history for the Eurasian ice complex calibrated against a large set of RSL data. The history is derived from on-going ensemble-based analyses using the 3D University of Toronto glacial systems model and a new high-resolution ice-margin chronology derived from geological and geomorphological observations. Isostatic response is computed with the VM2 viscosity structure. Bayesian calibration of the model is carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in combination with neural networks trained to model results. The calibration provides a posterior distribution for model parameters (and thereby modelled glacial histories) given the observational data sets that thereby also takes into account data uncertainty. Comparison of the chronology against the current version of the ICE-5G deglacial load history will elucidate the impact of glaciological self-consistency on inferred load chronologies.A map of the computed present-day rate of vertical uplift will also be presented.

  18. Renal calculi in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, V R; Tomlinson, A J; Molenaar, F M; Lawson, B; Rogers, K D

    2011-07-09

    Macroscopic renal calculi were seen in 50 of 492 (10.2 per cent) wild Eurasian otters found dead in England from 1988 to 2007. Forty-eight adults and two subadults were affected. Calculi were present in 15.7 per cent (31 of 197) of adult males and 12.7 per cent (17 of 134) of adult females. There was an increase in prevalence in the study population over time; no calculi were found in 73 otters examined between 1988 and 1996, but in most subsequent years they were observed with increased frequency. Calculi occurred in both kidneys but were more common in the right kidney. They varied greatly in shape and size; larger calculi were mostly seen in the calyces while the smallest ones were commonly found in the renal medulla. Calculi from 45 cases were examined by x-ray diffraction analysis; in 43 (96 per cent), they were composed solely of ammonium acid urate. Affected otters had heavier adrenal glands relative to their body size than unaffected otters (P0.05). Many otters had fresh bite wounds consistent with intraspecific aggression. The proportion bitten increased over time and this coincided with the increased prevalence of renal calculi.

  19. Integration Processes on Civil Service Reform in the Eurasian Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Borshevskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article was studied the process of reforming the institute of civil service in the countries of the Eurasian space (e.g. Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. The integration of national systems of public administration and, in particular, the civil service, is an important factor contributing to the implementation of the centripetal tendencies in the post-Soviet space. The research methodology is based on a combination of comparative legal analysis, historical retrospective method, normalization and scaling, structural-functional and system analysis. A comparison of the legal models of public service was made in research. The author puts forward the hypothesis that it is presence the relationship between the quantitative changes (for example, number of employees of civil service and the dynamics of macroeconomic indicators (e.g. number of employed in the economy. In this regard were observed common trends. On materials of the statistical surveys were considered quantitative changes in national systems of civil service. The study of the socio-demographic characteristics of the public service (gender, age, profession allowed to formulate conclusions about the general and specific trends in the reform of the civil service of the analyzed countries. A number of values were first calculated by the author. The work is intended to become the basis for a broad international research on the development of civil service, which is the central mechanism for implementation the integration in the post-Soviet space.

  20. The Baja California Borderland and the Neogene Evolution of the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J. M.; Eakins, B. W.

    2001-12-01

    New observational data on Neogene faulting in the borderland of Baja California places important constraints on tectonic models for the evolution of the Pacific-North American (P-NA) plate boundary and rifting in the Gulf of California. Neogene faults in the borderland range from strike slip to normal slip and accommodate integrated transtension. Most have east-facing escarpments and likely reactivate the former east-dipping accretionary complex. Numerous lines of evidence indicate that Neogene faults are still active and accomplish a significant component ( ~1-5 mm/yr) of Pacific-North American shearing. Quaternary volcanoes are found offshore and along the Pacific coastal margin, Quaternary marine terraces are warped and uplifted as high as 200 masl. Many of the offshore faults have fresh escarpments and cut Holocene sediments. Extensive arrays of Quaternary fault scarps are found throughout the coastal region and in Bahia Magdalena they are clearly associated with major faults that bound recently uplifted islands. A prominent band of seismicity follows the coast and eight earthquakes (Ms>5.0) were teleseismically recorded between 1973 and 1998. This evidence for active shearing indicates that the Baja microplate has not yet been completely transferred to the Pacific plate. The best lithologic correlation that can be used to define the total Neogene slip across the borderland faults is the offset between the Magdalena submarine fan and its Baja source terrane. The distal facies of the fan drilled during DSDP leg 63 is dominated by mudstone and siltstone that contain reworked Paleogene cocoliths derived from strata correlative with the Tepetate formation found throughout the borderland and fine-grained sandstone derived from a source terrane of granitoid basement. The Middle Miocene La Calera formation of the Cabo trough is one of many granitoid-clast syn-rift alluvial deposits that could form the continental counterpart of the submarine fan near the mouth of the

  1. High arsenic (As content in coals from Neogene deposits of the Pannonian Basin in Slovenia

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    Miloš Markič

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High contents of arsenic (As in coal samples from four localities within Neogene deposits of the Pannonian Basin in Slovenia are presented and discussed in this paper. Data from three localities represent interval samples of coal cuttings from wells TER-1 (Terbegovci, Sob-3g (Murska Sobota, and MD-1 (Mislinjska Dobrava. The fourth locality is Globoko, where the main lignite seam was analysed already in 1989. The oldest are coal samples from the MD-1 well which are supposed to be of the Lower Miocene age (except for the shallowest one, which is of the Plio-Quaternary age. Coal samples from the TER-1 and Sob-3g wells are of the Upper Miocene age (Mura Formation. The lignite sample from Globoko is of the Upper Miocene age too (Pontian; Globoko Formation. Most samples were prepared for the ICP-MS method analysis as “whole coal”, dry, pulverized lab-samples, weighting ca. 10 g. The results show for all “whole coals” samples considerably increased contents of As: 22.7, 111.4, 222.1, and 131.4 µg/g for the Lower Miocene (?, and 84.5 µg/g for the Plio-Quaternary coals from MD-1 well, 392 µg/g for coals from the Sob-3g well, and 116 µg/g for a coal from the TER-1 well (both Upper Miocene – Mura Formation. In the case of Globoko, not “whole coal” but its high temperature ash was analysed and showed As content as high as 170 µg/g applying AAS method of analysis, and even 260 µg/g applying the ICP-MS. Origin of As could be pre-Neogene rocks of the hinterland and/or Neogene calc-alkaline volcanites. Mineral-gas exhalations from the under-continental upper mantle, containing As, could also be a source of this highly volatile element.

  2. Neogene structural development in the Valencia trough margins from palaeomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, J. M.; Freeman, R.; Roca, E.

    1992-03-01

    Reliable palaeomagnetic data from the emerged margins of the Valencia trough include results from Triassic, Jurassic, Paleogene and Miocene rocks. From these data, a clockwise rotation of the Catalan Coastal ranges relative to the western part of Iberia is apparent. In addition, a clockwise rotation is indicated by the magnetic directions from the Balearics with respect to those of the Catalan margin. Major Neogene structures in the evolution of the Valencia trough and thin-skinned tectonics rather than crustal-scale block motions play a large role throughout the Balearic Islands.

  3. Paleoatmospheric signatures in Neogene fossil leaves; Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Lab. of Paleobotany and Palynology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgh, J. van der; Visscher, H.; Dilcher, D.L.; Kuerschner, W.M.

    1993-06-18

    An increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) concentration results in a decrease in the number of leaf stomata. This relation is known both from historical observations of vegetation over the past 200 years and from experimental manipulations of microenvironments. Evidence from stomatal frequencies of fossil [ital Quercus petraea] leaves indicates that this relation can be applied as a bioindicator for changes in paleoatmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations during the last 10 million years. The data suggest that late Neogene CO[sub 2] concentrations fluctuated between about 280 and 370 parts per million by volume. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  4. New constraints on Neogene counter-clockwise rotation of Adria relative to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, Eline; Handy, Mark R.; Molli, Giancarlo; Ustaszewski, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    The Adriatic microplate (Adria) is a key player in the geodynamics of Alpine-Mediterranean belts because of its location between two converging plates, Europe and Africa. Most of Adria has been subducted and is presently surrounded by deformed margins comprising the Alps, Apennines, Dinarides and the Calabrian Arc. The Alps-Apennines and Alps-Dinarides junctions are marked by switches in subduction polarity, with Adria being the indenting upper plate in the Alps and the lower plate in the Apennines and Dinarides. Reconstructing Neogene motion and rotation of Adria is therefore key to understanding how such contrasting orogenic styles develop within a similar convergent tectonic regime. We propose a new kinematic reconstruction that balances shortening and extension in the northern Apennines; it reveals that Adria rotated counter-clockwise as it subducted beneath the European Plate to the west and to the east, while indenting the Alps to the north. Syn-collisional back-arc extension in the Liguro-Provençal and northern Tyrrhenian basins exceeds collisional shortening in the northern Apennines, indicating that after 20 Ma Adria and Europe diverged. When combined with existing estimates of Neogene shortening in the Western and Eastern Alps, this overall divergence in the Apennines constrains Adria to have moved to the NW while rotating counter-clockwise relative to Europe. We furthermore consider the length of the present Adriatic slab (135 km) imaged by P-wave tomography in the southern Dinarides to represent the maximum convergence since late Paleogene slab-breakoff, constraining Adria to have rotated 6.5˚ counter-clockwise about an axis in northwestern Italy. Thus, the best fit of available structural data from the Apennines, Alps and Dinarides constrains Adria to have moved 113 km to the NW (azimuth 325˚ ) while rotating 6.5˚ counter-clockwise relative to Europe since 20 Ma. Our model predicts some 80-100 km of Neogene extension between Adria and Africa, most

  5. {sup 10}Be in rhodochrosite nodules from Neogene sediments along the Galapagos Ridge, equatorial Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldahan, A., E-mail: ala.aldahan@geo.uu.s [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Morad, S. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Petroleum Geosciences, Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Possnert, G. [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sturesson, U. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); ElSaiy, A. [Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-04-15

    Microcrystalline, calcian rhodochrosite occurs as nodules around burrows in late Neogene pelagic sediments from the Galapagos Ridge in the Guatemala Basin, eastern equatorial Pacific (DSDP Leg 68; Site 503). {sup 10}Be isotope revealed that the rhodochrosite nodules have formed under growth conditions much faster than those reported for Fe-Mn nodules. The overall REE patterns of the nodules and host pelagic sediments indicate element derivation mainly from marine pore water. However, variations in the shale normalised Eu values suggest influx of hydrothermal fluids into mounds area at Galapagos, which is also evidenced by the similar minor and major element contents in the nodules and host sediments.

  6. Quantifying the multiple, environmental benefits of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Richard; Puttock, Alan; Graham, Hugh; Anderson, Karen; Cunliffe, Andrew; Elliott, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Beavers are ecological engineers with an ability to modify the structure and flow of fluvial systems and create complex wetland environments with dams, ponds and canals. Consequently, beaver activity has potential for river restoration, management and the provision of multiple environmental ecosystem services including biodiversity, flood risk mitigation, water quality and sustainable drinking water provision. With the current debate surrounding the reintroduction of beavers into the United Kingdom, it is critical to monitor the impact of beavers upon the environment. We have developed and implemented a monitoring strategy to quantify the impact of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver on multiple environmental ecosystem services and river systems at a range of scales. First, the experimental design and preliminary results will be presented from the Mid-Devon Beaver Trial, where a family of beavers has been introduced to a 3 ha enclosure situated upon a first order tributary of the River Tamar. The site was instrumented to monitor the flow rate and quality of water entering and leaving the site. Additionally, the impacts of beavers upon riparian vegetation structure, water/carbon storage were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that beaver activity, particularly the building of ponds and dams, increases water storage within the landscape and moderates the river response to rainfall. Baseflow is enhanced during dry periods and storm flow is attenuated, potentially reducing the risk of flooding downstream. Initial analysis of water quality indicates that water entering the site (running off intensively managed grasslands upslope), has higher suspended sediment loads and nitrate levels, than that leaving the site, after moving through the series of beaver ponds. These results suggest beaver activity may also act as a means by which the negative impact of diffuse water pollution from agriculture can be mitigated thus providing cleaner water in rivers downstream

  7. First detection of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in wild Eurasian Siskins (Carduelis spinus) in Germany. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, M; Stelter, R; Jung, A; Wohlsein, P; Kummerfeld, N

    2015-01-01

    The colonization of the gastric ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus (M.) ornithogaster could be associated with a chronic wasting disease in several bird species in captivity. The prevalence and clinical relevance of M. ornithogaster in wild birds is unknown in detail. In the wintering season 2012/13 injured Eurasian Siskins (Carduelis spinus, n = 8) from the area of Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany were examined microbiologically and pathologically. In six out of eight injured Eurasian Siskins M. ornithogaster were detected. The yeast was diagnosed microscopically in wet smears from the gastric isthmus and/or in faecal samples. Histopathological examination (n = 4) of the macroscopically slightly enlarged proventriculus in infected birds demonstrated the growth of M. ornithogaster in the mucosal surface and in the ducts of the glands without an inflammatory reaction. As a possible sign of a lowered fitness, all six infected siskins had a reduced body weight (mean: 11.8 ± 1.64 g) in the lower normal weight range compared to the two injured Eurasian Siskins without M. ornithogaster (15.0 g) as well as to data from the literature. Concurrent intestinal bacterial infections comprised Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella Typhimurium, that are regarded as an abnormal bacterial flora for Eurasian Siskins. Infections with M. ornithogaster can be found in the wild population of Eurasian Siskins in Germany. The frequent occurrence of secondary bacterial infections associated with M. ornithogaster infections should be considered in the treatment and rehabilitation of finches.

  8. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Cerrone, Anna; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Aloise, Gaetano; Auriemma, Clementina; Riccone, Nunzia; Galiero, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leishmania spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. detection, and helminths were studied by traditional methods. Out of six carcasses tested, three were positive for E. canis and co-infection with Rickettsia sp. occurred in one of those. Sequences of the 16S rRNA E. canis gene were identical to each other but differed from most of those previously found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus) from southern Italy. Helminths included just cystacanths of Sphaerirostris spp. from the intestine of two Eurasian otters and the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum from the lungs of a single Eurasian otter. None of the samples was positive for the other investigated selected pathogens. This study is the first report on the evidence of infection by rickettsial pathogens in the Eurasian otter. The present result prompts some inquiries into the pathogenic role of those bacteria for the isolated sub-populations of the endangered Eurasian otter in southern Italy.

  9. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leishmania spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. detection, and helminths were studied by traditional methods. Out of six carcasses tested, three were positive for E. canis and co-infection with Rickettsia sp. occurred in one of those. Sequences of the 16S rRNA E. canis gene were identical to each other but differed from most of those previously found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and wolves (Canis lupus from southern Italy. Helminths included just cystacanths of Sphaerirostris spp. from the intestine of two Eurasian otters and the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum from the lungs of a single Eurasian otter. None of the samples was positive for the other investigated selected pathogens. This study is the first report on the evidence of infection by rickettsial pathogens in the Eurasian otter. The present result prompts some inquiries into the pathogenic role of those bacteria for the isolated sub-populations of the endangered Eurasian otter in southern Italy.

  10. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  11. Eurasian Union: A Utopia, a Dream or a Coming Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Varol SEVIM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years passed after the dissolution of the USSR and the re-birth of Russian Federation and Central Asian states in the world arena in such a unipolar world. Since the rise of Vladimir Putin to power Russia resists on unipolar system and sees that as a treat to its security. Hence, Kremlin perceives that the economic strength is the sine qua non for the future of Russia in order to sustain a Big Power status not only in its region but also in the world. In 2011, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan have achieved to form a Customs Union among them and invited all the states in the region to join the organization. There were thesis which mainly argued that Russia would no longer be a “power” in the Central Asia and could only be a regional power just in case of maintaining of its own unity. However, the circumstances have changed in the region accordingly Russian weight as a result of the new conjuncture. In 2012, Russia had a new presidential election and Putin returned to Kremlin as President himself. It has been understood from his words that Kremlin's new strategy to be focused on creating a Eurasian Union including Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan at the first stage. It is aimed to analyze in this study that whether this project could be successful and if so, what could be the impacts on world order in terms of competition between Russia, the United States and China also. And finally, what could be the result of such an organization for the Russia.

  12. Neogene folding and faulting in southern Monterey Bay, Central California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Taggart, J. M.; Greene, H. Gary; Ledbetter, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the Neogene structural history of southern Monterey Bay by mapping and correlating the shallow tectonic structures with previously identified deeper occurring structures. Side scan sonographs and Uniboom seismic reflection profiles collected in the region suggest that deformation associated with both compressional and transcurrent movement is occurring. Strike-slip movement between the North American and Pacific plates started as subduction ceased 21 Ma, creating the San Andreas fault system. Clockwise rotation of the Pacific plate occurred between 3.4 and 3.9 Ma causing orthogonal convergence between the two plates. This plate rotation is responsible for compressional Neogene structures along the central California coast. Structures exhibit transpressional tectonic characteristics such as thrust faulting, reverse faulting and asymmetrical folding. Folding and faulting are confined to middle Miocene and younger strata. Shallow Mesozoic granitic basement rocks either crop out or lie near the surface in most of the region and form a possible de??collement along which the Miocene Monterey Formation has decoupled and been folded. Over 50% of the shallow faults strike normal (NE-SW) to the previously identified faults. Wrench fault tectonics complicated by compression, gradual uplift of the basement rocks, and a change in plate convergence direction are responsible for the observed structures in southern Monterey Bay. ?? 1993.

  13. PALYNOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE LATE NEOGENE SEDIMENTS OF EASTERN SLAVONIA (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Pecimotika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By applying a palynological analysis of the Late Neogene sediments from one exploration well in the area of Eastern Slavonia, three vegetation zones (Z1, Z2, Z3 as conditioned by climate sensitivity were set. On the basis of mutual percentage relations of the occurrence of individual form-species and grouping them according to the results of cluster analysis, these zones reflect the changes of warm-cold and variable humidity periods. The age of zones has been determined: zone Z1 is Pontian, zone Z2 is Pliocene and zone Z3 is Pleistocene-Holocene. In the Pontian, 13 form-species of spores were determined that do not cross the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. In the Pliocene, 4 index form-species of spores were determined that were not found in the Quaternary in the study area. In the youngest sediments of the study area, i.e. Pleistocene and Holocene, 7 index form-species of spores were determined. Together with well logging (gamma ray and specific resistivity logs of the formation, a model was constructed for the local routine provision of age in the study area. The results are generally consistent with other results obtained from Early Neogene sediments in adjacent areas in the central part of Paratethys, and may serve as a model for the correlation of contemporaneous sediments in other areas of Croatia, e.g. Sava and Drava Depressions , which in effect may contribute to the more efficient investigation of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  14. Neogene sharks and rays from the Brazilian ‘Blue Amazon’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Orangel; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D.; Kocsis, László; Vennemann, Torsten W.; de Toledo, Peter Mann; Nogueira, Afonso; Amorim, Kamilla Borges; Moraes-Santos, Heloísa; Polck, Marcia Reis; Ruivo, Maria de Lourdes; Linhares, Ana Paula; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano

    2017-01-01

    The lower Miocene Pirabas Formation in the North of Brazil was deposited under influence of the proto-Amazon River and is characterized by large changes in the ecological niches from the early Miocene onwards. To evaluate these ecological changes, the elasmobranch fauna of the fully marine, carbonate-rich beds was investigated. A diverse fauna with 24 taxa of sharks and rays was identified with the dominant groups being carcharhiniforms and myliobatiforms. This faunal composition is similar to other early Miocene assemblages from the proto-Carribbean bioprovince. However, the Pirabas Formation has unique features compared to the other localities; being the only Neogene fossil fish assemblage described from the Atlantic coast of Tropical Americas. Phosphate oxygen isotope composition of elasmobranch teeth served as proxies for paleotemperatures and paleoecology. The data are compatible with a predominantly tropical marine setting with recognized inshore and offshore habitats with some probable depth preferences (e.g., Aetomylaeus groups). Paleohabitat of taxa particularly found in the Neogene of the Americas (†Carcharhinus ackermannii, †Aetomylaeus cubensis) are estimated to have been principally coastal and shallow waters. Larger variation among the few analyzed modern selachians reflects a larger range for the isotopic composition of recent seawater compared to the early Miocene. This probably links to an increased influence of the Amazon River in the coastal regions during the Holocene. PMID:28832664

  15. Seismic reflection survey at Llancanelo region (Mendoza, Argentina) and preliminary interpretation of Neogene stratigraphic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, A.; Onnis, L.; de la Vega, M.; Tassone, A.; Violante, R. A.; Lippai, H.; López, E.; Rovere, E. I.

    2015-07-01

    A shallow multichannel seismic survey reaching depths of 700/800 m was performed for the first time in the Llancanelo Lake region (Southern Mendoza Province, Argentina), in order to depict the major Neogene sedimentary-volcanic sequences that form the final infilling of the tectonic-volcanic basin where the lake is located. The seismic survey advances on the results of previous geoelectric and electromagnetic surveys carried out at early stages of the research that reached the uppermost 80-100 m of the sequences (Quaternary), and therefore they go deeper in the subsoil. All the surveys were supported by surface and subsoil geological observations. After explaining the details of the performed seismic methodology, the obtained results are discussed, which indicate the presence of three major sedimentary units with increasing volcanic (basaltic layers) intercalations with depth, that accommodate to the geometry of the depocenter. The entire sequence encompasses most of the Neogene. This research sets the methodological basis for future, more detailed shallow seismic surveys in the region.

  16. Record of C4 Photosynthesis Through the Late Neogene and Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    C4 photosynthesis is an adaptation to the low atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations experienced in the Neogene; it is found principally in tropical to sub-tropical/temperate regions where temperatures are high in the growing season. Although C4 photosynthesis makes up about 50% of Net Primary Productivity in tropical regions, its macroscopic fossil record is extremely sparse. Therefore, inferences to its significance in local ecosystems are based primarily on stable isotopes, with phytoliths become more important as phytolith morphology becomes better associated with plant structure and classification. Stable isotopes have been the principal recorder for understanding the history of C4 photosynthesis; however, different materials record different aspects of the C4 contribution to ecosystem structure and thus are telling different parts of the same story. With the fossil record so poorly known, we often assume similar ecosystem structures and functions as we observe in modern analogues. It is likely that large evolutionary changes have taken place within C4 plants as they went from 50% tropical NPP in the late Neogene.

  17. Isolamento do vírus rábico de morcego insetívoro , Lasyurus borealis Rabies virus isolation in insectivorous bat Lasyurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Fatima Alves Martorelli

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de raiva em morcego insetívoro, Lasyurus borealis, na região urbana, em bairro residencial, no Município de Jundiaí, SP (Brasil.A case of rabies in an insectivorous bat, Lasyurus borealis , in a residential suburb in an urban area in the southern region of Brazil, is reported.

  18. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Karg, Jerzy; Karg, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease) of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July), all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August), suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests, especially the

  19. The energy requirements of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in intensive culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, A.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Alanara, A.

    2011-01-01

    requirements of this species. The aim of this study was to develop an energy requirement model for intensive culture of Eurasian perch reared at rational temperatures. Data on growth (the thermal unit growth coefficient, TGC, 3√g ‧ (℃ ‧ days)-1) and digestible energy need (DEN, kJ DE ‧ g -1) of Eurasian perch......Fish feed constitutes one of the largest costs in aquaculture, therefore inefficient feed management will have a negative impact on fish farm economics. Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) is a relatively new candidate for freshwater aquaculture, however little is known about the energy...... of the daily theoretical weight increment (TWi, g ‧ day)1) and (ii) a linear DEN model. The TGC model was validated by comparing theoretical data with data obtained from a commercial growth trial. By combining the TWi and the DEN, a model describing the daily theoretical energy requirement (TER, kJ ‧ day)1...

  20. First evidence for carrion–feeding of Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of carrion-feeding with remains of artiodactyls (0.3%, n=1104 samples with food remains have been documented in a long term diet study of Eurasian Eagle-owls (Bubo bubo in 53 localities at Southeastern Bulgaria. Bone pieces of a sheep/goat (Ovis aries/Carpa hircus, a Fallow Deer (Dama dama and a Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa dom. in three Eurasian Eagle-owl breeding localities (5.7% prove extremely rare feeding on carrion. Northern White-breasted Hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus, rats (Rattus sp., waterbirds and gallinaceous birds (total 59.5-72.6% by biomass constituted the main portion of the diets with carrion remains. The comparisons between food niche breadths, diet composition, average prey biomass and values of superpredation of the annual diets in the three localities have not supported the carrion-feeding of the Eurasian Eagle-owl as a result of food shortages.

  1. Risk-taking by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in a human-dominated landscape : Effects of sex and reproductive status.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnefeld, N; Linnell, J.D C; Odden, J; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Andersen, R.A.

    This study aimed to test how the sex and reproductive status of Eurasian lynx influenced their use of 'attractive sinks' - habitats with high prey density and high mortality risks. Locations of 24 Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx were obtained by radio-telemetry in a mixed forest and agricultural habitat in

  2. Uplift and volcanism of the SE Colombian Andes in relation to Neogene sedimentation in the Upper Magdalena Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van der A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The present study deals with the relation between Neogene uplift and volcanism of the SE Colombian Andes and sedimentation processes in the Upper Magdalena Valley. The southernmost part of the Upper Magdalena Valley, the S. Neiva Basin, is located between latitudes 2°08'-2°31 N and

  3. Contrasting neogene denudation histories of different structural regions in the transantarctic mountains rift flank constrained by cosmogenic isotope measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wateren, F.M. van der; Dunai, T.J.; Balen, R.T. van; Klas, W.; Verbers, A.L.L.M.; Passchier, S.; Herpers, U.

    1999-01-01

    Separate regions within the Transantarctic Mountains, the uplifted flank of the West Antarctic rift system, appear to have distinct Neogene histories of glaciation and valley downcutting. Incision of deep glacial outlet valleys occurred at different times throughout central and northern Victoria

  4. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results.

  5. Normal haematological and serum biochemical values of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from a Scottish rehabilitation centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J C; Pagan, L; Hart, M; Green, R

    Blood samples were taken from 47 clinically normal, wild-born Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) before they were released from a rehabilitation centre in Scotland between August 1990 and March 1996. Serum biochemistry profiles were determined for 47 animals and haematological profiles for 41, and the results from males, females, and animals under or over one year of age were analysed as separate groups and as pooled populations. The normal ranges for a wide variety of haematological and serum biochemical parameters of the Eurasian otter are presented, and significant differences with age and sex are detailed.

  6. The effect of water contamination and host-related factors on ectoparasite load in an insectivorous bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korine, Carmi; Pilosof, Shai; Gross, Amit; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-07-22

    We examined the effects of sex, age, and reproductive state of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus kuhlii on the abundance and prevalence of arthropod ectoparasites (Macronyssidae and Cimicidae) in habitats with either sewage-polluted or natural bodies of water, in the Negev Desert, Israel. We chose water pollution as an environmental factor because of the importance of water availability in desert environments, particularly for P. kuhlii, which needs to drink on a daily basis. We predicted that parasite infestation rates would be affected by both environment and demographic cohort of the host. We found that female bats in the polluted site harbored significantly more mites than female bats in the natural site and that juveniles in the polluted site harbored significantly more cimicid individuals than juveniles in the natural site. We further found that age and sex (host-related factors) affected ectoparasite prevalence and intensity (i.e., the abundance of parasites) in the polluted site. Our results may suggest that the interaction between host-related and environment-related factors affected parasite infestations, with females and young bats being more susceptible to ectoparasites when foraging over polluted water. This effect may be particularly important for bats that must drink or forage above water for other wildlife that depend on drinking water for survival.

  7. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez Dominguez, Marta; Gimeno Presa, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Buligyna, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Anette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is enhanced at high northern latitudes where the Arctic surface air temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in recent decades - a feature called Arctic amplification. This recent Arctic warming signal likely results from several factors such as the albedo feedback due to a diminishing cryosphere, enhanced poleward atmospheric and oceanic transport, and change in humidity. The reduction in Arctic sea ice is without doubt substantial and a key factor. Arctic summer sea-ice extent has declined by more than 10% per decade since the start of the satellite era (e.g. Stroeve et al., 2012), culminating in a new record low in September 2012, with the long-term trend largely attributed to anthropogenic global warming. Eurasian snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis focuses at sea ice decline in the Barents-Kara Sea region, which allows us to specify regions of interest for FLEXPART forward and backwards moisture trajectories. Based on Eularian and Lagrangian diagnostics from ERA-INTERIM, we can address the origin and cause of late autumn snow depth variations in a dense (snow observations from 820 land stations), unutilized observational datasets over the Commonwealth of Independent States. Open waters in the Barents and Kara Sea have been shown to increase the diabatic heating of the atmosphere, which amplifies baroclinic cyclones and might induce a remote atmospheric response by triggering stationary Rossby waves (Honda et al. 2009). In agreement with these studies, our results show enhanced storm activity originating at the Barents and Kara with disturbances entering the continent through a small sector from the Barents and Kara Seas

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M D; Leonards, P E; de Jongh, A W; van Hattum, B G

    1998-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitutes one of the major causes of the decline of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in large parts of Europe. This chapter provides an overview of available information regarding PCBs in European otters. Data on PCB concentrations in European otter tissues differ qualitatively among authors. Variations may be found in the organs used for analysis, the analytical method, and format of reported data (lipid weight vs. fresh weight, total PCB vs. congener-specific), which complicates a comparison of all data. Further, concentrations may be highly variable within an otter population, or even among individuals inhabiting the same area. Generally, average PCB levels in otters appear to be highest in areas where the species is in decline (mean levels ranging from 50 to 180 mg/kg fat) and thriving otter populations are correlated with low mean PCB tissue concentrations (mean levels less than 30 mg/kg fat). However, high levels have recently been found in thriving otter populations in Scotland, especially Shetland, leading some researchers to the conclusion that the alleged role of PCBs in the decline of the otter is likely to have been exaggerated. However, it is neither possible to dismiss the role of PCBs in the otter's decline as exaggerated nor to assume their important role as proven. The data presented in this review include information in support of both views. Most studies on PCBs in otters report total PCBs only, congener-specific data being quite rare. Information on levels of non-ortho congeners, the most toxic PCBs, is even more limited. Because congener patterns may vary between different otters, the total PCB concentration may not always be an accurate estimator of toxicity. To make a proper assessment of the impact of environmental PCB levels on the performance of otter populations and to establish "safe PCB levels" in sediment and fish, a number of toxicokinetic

  9. Neogene and Quaternary development of the Western Carpathian lithosphere: impact on georelief and geohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minár, J.; Kováč, M.; Bielik, M.; Hók, J.; Králiková, S.; Smetanová, A.; Šabo, M.; Vojtko, R.

    2012-04-01

    Some essential features of the Western Carpathian (and adjacent regions) lithosphere and land surface were created simultaneously in the Neogene and Quaternary. Synthesis of published as well as new geophysical, sedimentological, thermochronological and geomorphological data provide following results: Our newest morphostructural division and modelling of the crustal thickness fit together very well. Newly identified distinct core root under central part of the Western Carpatians explains rise of the annular morphostructural regions. Despite of variant possible reasons of creation of the isostatic disequilibrium, coupled morphological features suggest neotectonic (post Miocene) age. Re-evaluation of geophysical and geological data from the northern Danube Basin and Turiec Basin, together with new field-work and laboratory results formed the ground-work for a new determination of particular sedimentary facies and their changes in time and space. The results enable a better correlation of depositional and denudational history including formation of the system of planation surfaces. Apatite fission track data reflects mainly older Alpine orogenetic phases. However, the last uplift connected with the rise of modern topography is reflected by newest low-temperature termochronology data from the central part of the Western Carpathians. They specify the last stages of exhumation in the Pliocene and Pleistocene and define maximum age of preserved remnants of planation surfaces. A cosmogenic nuclide dating of deglaciation of the highest mountain (Tatras) suggests their quick Quaternary uplift, too. The Neogene and Quaternary development of the Western Carpathians projects onto distribution and intensity of recent geodynamic processes and subsequently natural hazards and risks. As an example the Quaternary development of the northernmost part of the Danubian Basin is presented (including changes of tectonic regime and river network as well as estimation of the erosion and

  10. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land-atmosphere-ocean-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kurten, Theo; Baklanov, Aleksander; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Bäck, Jaana; Vihma, Timo; Alekseychik, Pavel; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Arnold, Stephen R.; Arshinov, Mikhail; Asmi, Eija; Belan, Boris; Bobylev, Leonid; Chalov, Sergey; Cheng, Yafang; Chubarova, Natalia; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Ding, Aijun; Dobrolyubov, Sergey; Dubtsov, Sergei; Dyukarev, Egor; Elansky, Nikolai; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Esau, Igor; Filatov, Nikolay; Flint, Mikhail; Fu, Congbin; Glezer, Olga; Gliko, Aleksander; Heimann, Martin; Holtslag, Albert A. M.; Hõrrak, Urmas; Janhunen, Juha; Juhola, Sirkku; Järvi, Leena; Järvinen, Heikki; Kanukhina, Anna; Konstantinov, Pavel; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Komarov, Alexander S.; Kujansuu, Joni; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Duplissy, Ella-Maria; Laaksonen, Ari; Laurila, Tuomas; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lisitzin, Alexander; Mahura, Alexsander; Makshtas, Alexander; Mareev, Evgeny; Mazon, Stephany; Matishov, Dmitry; Melnikov, Vladimir; Mikhailov, Eugene; Moisseev, Dmitri; Nigmatulin, Robert; Noe, Steffen M.; Ojala, Anne; Pihlatie, Mari; Popovicheva, Olga; Pumpanen, Jukka; Regerand, Tatjana; Repina, Irina; Shcherbinin, Aleksei; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Sipilä, Mikko; Skorokhod, Andrey; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Su, Hang; Subetto, Dmitry A.; Sun, Junying; Terzhevik, Arkady Y.; Timofeyev, Yuri; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka; Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Zaytseva, Nina; Zhang, Jiahua; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vesala, Timo; Hari, Pertti; Christen Hansson, Hans; Matvienko, Gennady G.; Kasimov, Nikolai S.; Guo, Huadong; Bondur, Valery; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-11-01

    The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic-boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that global trade activities, demographic movement, and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a need for a novel research approach, which not only identifies and tackles the relevant multi-disciplinary research questions, but also is able to make a holistic system analysis of the expected feedbacks. In this paper, we introduce the research agenda of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX), a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary and international program started in 2012 (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/). PEEX sets a research approach by which large-scale research topics are investigated from a system perspective and which aims to fill the key gaps in our understanding of the feedbacks and interactions between the land-atmosphere-aquatic-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region. We introduce here the state of the art for the key topics in the PEEX research agenda and present the future prospects of the research, which we see relevant in this context.

  11. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX: towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land–atmosphere–ocean–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Lappalainen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic–boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that global trade activities, demographic movement, and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a need for a novel research approach, which not only identifies and tackles the relevant multi-disciplinary research questions, but also is able to make a holistic system analysis of the expected feedbacks. In this paper, we introduce the research agenda of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX, a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary and international program started in 2012 (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/. PEEX sets a research approach by which large-scale research topics are investigated from a system perspective and which aims to fill the key gaps in our understanding of the feedbacks and interactions between the land–atmosphere–aquatic–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region. We introduce here the state of the art for the key topics in the PEEX research agenda and present the future prospects of the research, which we see relevant in this context.

  12. A Neogene structural dome in the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, N.; Coleman, R. G.

    1985-04-01

    Regional structural doming of Neogene age has affected rocks of the Klamath and Cascade mountains near the California-Oregon border. Evidence for this is seen in (1) subannular outcrop patterns of pre-Cretaceous lithotectonic units, (2) a crude pattern of radially oriented high-angle faults, (3) tilted Jurassic plutons, (4) tilted Cretaceous to Miocene strata, and (5) various geomorphological features. The age of doming is constrained by a major middle Miocene to earliest Pliocene angular unconformity within the Cascade Mountains and uplifted upper Miocene marine beds on the western edge of the Klamath Mountains. Uplift and doming may be the result of shortening in the Cascade fore-arc region or, more speculatively, the recent accretion of subducted material to the North American plate beneath the Klamath Mountains. *Present addresses: Mortimer, Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B4, Canada; Coleman, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California 94025

  13. Hydrocarbons in overpressured pelitic Neogene bodies from the Focsani Depression, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, Aurica [S.C. Prospectiuni` S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

    1996-12-31

    The Focsani Depression has accumulated a Neogene sedimentary column several thousand metres thick. The Miocene series, especially its highest part (the Pontian) is mainly represented by shales. The study of the sonic log data, as well as other drilling measurements, has proved the existence of some abnormally low velocity and density zones, within high porosity zones, which corresponds to undercompacted (over-pressured) units. Velocity analyses on seismic sections have confirmed a thick abnormal zone at Inotesti-Mizil. This study encourages attempts to identify undercompacted bodies by seismic methods in the deep central area of the depression. On the basis of stratigraphic, structural, geochemical and geothermic data, this paper analyses the chances of identifying the generation, migration, accumulation and preservation of gas trapped in the overpressured bodies in the deeper parts of the depression. (author)

  14. Neogene tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Hammamet area, Northeast Tunisia offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Ghada Ben; Brahim, Noureddine; Turki, Faiçal

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the Neogene tectonic evolution of the Tunisia offshore Gulf of Hammamet basin. Based on seismic and well data, this basin was created during the Miocene and is currently trending NE-SW. During the Neogene, the study area was affected by geodynamic interactions controlled simultaneously by convergence of the Eurasia and Africa plates and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. These interactions generated compressive and extensional regimes which led to a variety of structures and basin inversions. The middle Miocene extensional regime created horst and graben structures (e.g. the Halk El Menzel graben). The two major compressive phases of the Tortonian and post Villafranchian age created different structures such as Ain Zaghouan and Fushia structures and the Jriba trough, and led to the reactivation of the old normal faults as reverse faults. During the Plio-Pleistocene and the Quaternary times, the Gulf of Hammamet was affected by an extensional regime related to the Siculo-Tunisian rift, which led to the development in the area of several sedimentary basins and new normal fault patterns. The Gulf of Hammamet shows several basins ranging in age from the Tortonian to the Quaternary, which display different structural and stratigraphic histories. Two main groups of sedimentary basins have been recognized. The first group has Tortonian-Messinian sedimentary fill, while the second group is largely dominated by Plio-Quaternary sediments. The shortening during the Tortonian and post Villafranchian times has led to the tectonic inversion of these basins. This shortening could be correlated to the Europe-Africa collision. Despite the large number of hydrocarbon discoveries, the Gulf of Hammamet remains under-explored, in particular at deeper levels. This study aims to guide future exploration and to highlight some new play concepts.

  15. Biodiversity and paleobiogeography of the European freshwater Neogene: trends, hotspots and faunal turnovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Andreas, Kroh; Mandic, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    We present an outline of a paleobiogeographic framework for the European fresh- and brackish-water systems during the Neogene. Data basis is a presence-absence matrix of lacustrine gastropods from over 2,700 localities. Cluster analyses were separately carried out on the datasets of the four time slices Early Miocene, Middle Miocene, Late Miocene, and Pliocene. Based on the results of the cluster analyses, the degree of endemicity, and geographical coherence, we classified the lake systems of the four time intervals into biogeographic units. The increasing degree of provincialism throughout the Neogene supported more detailed breakdowns in younger intervals. This pattern reflects the ongoing continentalization of Europe linked to the Alpidic Orogenesis. Additionally, the retreat of the Paratethys Sea and its isolation from the Mediterranean promoted the evolution of endemic faunas in surrounding lacustrine systems. Direct descendants such as long-lived Lake Pannon, Lake Dacia or Lake Slavonia persisted over several millions of years and promoted the evolution of highly diverse and endemic faunas. Because of their extensive duration they crucially influenced family-level composition, differences of the relative species richnesses per biogeographic unit, and rising rate of endemicity. We show that the biogeographic classification as well as the existence of biodiversity hotspots are tightly linked to the formation and evolution of long-lived lacustrine environments and thus to Europe's geodynamic history. Heat maps are provided to visualize the shifting distributions of hotspots through time. The only physiographic factor that can be shown to be correlated with species richness is the size of a lake. Other factors such as latitude, longitude or temporal duration show weak relationships. Correlation of biodiversity trends to climatic parameters such as temperature and precipitation are feasible only for selected periods. Climate is considered to have only minor

  16. Marine environmental changes at the Brazilian equatorial margin related to Amazon River evolution during the Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammertsma, Emmy; Troelstra, Simon; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; D'Avila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Today, the nutrient-rich Amazon River outflow causes massive algal blooms in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean, forming a considerable carbon sink as well as a primary food source in the otherwise oligotrophic surface water. However, the history of this high-productivity system is largely unknown, although a strong relation to the evolution of the Amazon River can be expected. The Amazon submarine fan provides direct evidence for the development of a transcontinental river system, of which the base of the primarily Andean-sourced siliciclastic deposits is dated as late Miocene. Ditch cuttings from Amazon Fan exploration 'Well 2' were made available by Petrobras for microfossil and lithological research. 'Well 2' is located on the uppermost fan at a water depth of 750 meters. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and foraminifer assemblages were studied to reconstruct Neogene marine environmental changes in relation to the Amazon River development. Planktonic foraminifera are present throughout the studied section and largely confirm the already available biostratigraphic age determination based on nannofossils. Benthic foraminifer assemblages indicate that the paleo-water depth has not substantially deviated from current conditions. The ecological affinities of most observed dinocyst taxa are well known, which allows us to reconstruct changes in paleo-productivity based on the assemblages. Mineral composition suggests that local river systems already drained into the Amazon basin before the onset of the transcontinental system, but environmental conditions remained oligotrophic at this time. Decreased abundances of both dinocysts and planktonic foraminifera during the Pleistocene are related to highest sedimentation rates (dilution effect). Overall, a complex interplay of orogenesis, climatic and sea level variations during the Neogene are responsible for the fluvially-induced changes in the marine environment at the Atlantic margin.

  17. First nearctic records for Orius (Dimorphella) sibiricus Wagner (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), a Eurasian steppe inhabitant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sibiricus Wagner, a dark-colored minute pirate bug widespread in the Eurasian Steppe, is recorded from sites near the Yukon River in Yukon, Canada. This species is distinguished from the melanic phenotype of Orius diespeter Herring by the more deeply and uniformly punctured dorsum, the subangu...

  18. Ranging behaviour and socio-biology of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on lowland mesotrophic river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neill, Lughaidh O.; Veldhuizen, Tijmen; de Jongh, Addy; Rochford, John

    We examined the spatial structure and sociobiology of a native wild population of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on mesotrophic rivers in a mild temperate climate. Radio-tracking of 20 individuals revealed exclusive intra-sexual adult home-ranges. Adult female homeranges (7.5 km, SD = 1.5 km, n = 7)

  19. Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil in Houghton Lake, Michigan: 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Name Submersed Plants Bladderwort Utricularia vulgaris Coontail Ceratophyllum demersum Elodea Elodea canadensis Alpine pondweed Potamogeton...difficult or impossible to boat, swim, water ski , or fish in Eurasian watermilfoil-dominated areas. Interference with recrea- tion can result in a reduction

  20. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-24

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014.  Created: 3/24/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  1. Combinations of Endothall With 2,4-D and Triclopyr for Eurasian Watermilfoil Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    L., K. D. Getsinger, and A. B. Stewart. 1998. Selective effects of aquatic herbicides on sago pondweed. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 36:64-68. Sprecher...Westerdahl, H. E., and J. F. Hall. 1983. Threshold 2,4-D concentrations for control of Eurasian watermilfoil and sago pondweed. J. Aquat. Plant

  2. Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bjarne; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Elmeros, Morten

    initiated systematic monitoring of species in the Annex II and IV of the Directive – including the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra). The program focuses on monitoring distribution and range of the otter population in order to provide an assessment of its conservation status. The otter Lutra lutra suffered...

  3. A Eurasian Mineralogy: Aleksandr Fersman’s Conception of the Natural World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Andy

    2016-09-01

    Thoroughly a product of imperial Russia’s aristocratic culture, the mineralogist and geochemist Aleksandr Fersman rose to the top of the country’s scientific establishment after the Bolsheviks took control. He then remained a staunch supporter of various industrial projects through much of the Stalinist period. This essay puts Fersman’s thinking about the natural world in conversation with a quite distinctive mode of intellectual inquiry that developed contemporaneously. Eurasianism was a philosophical doctrine of a group of Russian émigrés who emphasized Russia’s unique status straddling Europe and Asia. While Fersman did not belong to this group of thinkers, a number of his ideas drew on specific experiences in the environments of the Eurasian landmass. Indeed, the article argues that Fersman’s dualistic understanding of nature, his advocacy for the field of geochemistry, his definition of deserts, and a scheme he proposed for industrial operations owed much to the Eurasian settings of the science he practiced. Furthermore, this case of a Eurasian mineralogist illuminates novel aspects of the interplay between national and global sciences.

  4. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  5. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DeMiguel

    Full Text Available Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods, most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments, whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity, although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  6. Seeking explanations for recent changes in abundance of wintering Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) in northwest Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Dalby, Lars; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2016-01-01

    We analysed annual changes in abundance of Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) derived from mid-winter International Waterbird Census data throughout its northwest European flyway since 1988 using log-linear Poisson regression modelling. Increases in abundance in the north and east of the wintering...

  7. Seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios from hunter-based surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    schemes. This study found consistent seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios among Danish hunter-based wing surveys, and describes how accounting for this variation might explain reported discrepancies between this and other monitoring methods. Early season flocks were...

  8. Evaluation of a New Biological Control Pathogen for Management of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    reducing biodiversity . Its ability to grow at low temperatures allows it to quickly reach the water surface, forming a canopy that shades out other...Aquatic Plant Management Society. Gunner, H. B. 1983. Microbial control of Eurasian watermilfoil. Miscellaneous Paper A-83-4. Vicksburg, MS: U.S

  9. Eurasian golden jackal as host of canine vector-borne protists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; D'Amico, G.; Duscher, G. G.; Suchentrunk, F.; Forejtek, P.; Gherman, C.M.; Matei, I.A.; Ionică, A.M.; Daskalaki, A.A.; Mihalca, A. D.; Votýpka, Jan; Hulva, P.; Modrý, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, APR 14 (2017), č. článku 183. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eurasian golden jackal * Babesia * Hepatozoon * "Theileria annae" * Leishmania Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  10. The formation of the Eurasian Economic Union: How successful is the Russian regional hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Kirkham

    2016-07-01

    The novelty of the presentation of hegemony as an evolutionary process, which passes through initial, transitional and conclusive phases of its development, along with the recentness of the EAEU as a topic, could make this article a contribution to Eurasian integration studies.

  11. Estimating group size and population density of Eurasian badgers Meles meles by quantifying latrine use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyttens, F.A.M.; Long, B.; Fawcett, T.W.; Skinner, A.; Brown, J.A.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Roddam, A.W.; MacDonald, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    1. Conservation issues and a potential role in disease transmission generate the continued need to census Eurasian badgers Meles metes, but direct counts and sett counts present difficulties. The feasibility of estimating social group size and population density of badgers by quantifying their use

  12. Song repertoire size correlates with measures of body size in Eurasian blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Sacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In most oscine bird species males possess a repertoire of different song patterns. The size of these repertoires is assumed to serve as an honest signal of male quality. The Eurasian blackbird’s (Turdus merula) song contains a large repertoire of different element types with a flexible song organ...

  13. Current distribution and habitat preferences of red deer and eurasian elk in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Romportl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we determine the distribution, numbers and habitat preferences of two of the largest species in the family Cervidae present in the Czech Republic, red deer and Eurasian elk. Red deer occurs predominantly in vast areas of forest, i.e. mainly in the mountains bordering this country and several large forest units in the interior. The range of this species has been increasing along with the size of its population. Areas of its permanent occurrence may be generally characterized as regions largely covered with deciduous and coniferous forests and pastures, and regions with a more diverse landscape. Red deer does not occur in areas that are mainly arable or urban, or in areas covered with extensive water bodies and wetlands. As these animals prefer large forests, they occur mainly at high altitudes where the terrain is rugged. The Eurasian elk permanently occurs in the Czech Republic in a single area located between the state border and the right bank of the Lipno Dam. Its home range has been diminishing, presumably along with its numbers. The area of its permanent occurrence is characterized by an abundance of coniferous trees, some pastures and water bodies. The Eurasian elk does not occur in areas covered with arable and urban land but also surprisingly in areas with mainly deciduous forest. Both species prefer high altitudes, but Eurasian elk prefers areas with little difference in the terrain vertically.

  14. Unraveling the biogeographic origins of the Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Michael L; Palomino, Nayell; Weyl, Philip S R; Coetzee, Julie A; Newman, Raymond M; Harms, Nathan E; Liu, Xing; Thum, Ryan A

    2016-04-01

    Using phylogeographic analyses to determine the geographic origins of biological invaders is important for identifying environmental adaptations and genetic composition in their native range as well as biocontrol agents among indigenous herbivores. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and its hybrid with northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum) are found throughout the contiguous United States and southern Canada, forming one of the most economically costly aquatic plant invasions in North America, yet the geographic origin of the invasion remains unknown. The objectives of our study included determining the geographic origin of Eurasian watermilfoil in North America as well as the maternal lineage of the hybrids. DNA sequence data from a cpDNA intron and the nrDNA ITS region were compiled for accessions from 110 populations of Eurasian watermilfoil and hybrids from North America and the native range (including Europe, Asia, and Africa). Datasets were analyzed using statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetics to assess the geographic origin of the invasion. The two Eurasian watermilfoil cpDNA haplotypes in North America are also found from China and Korea, but not elsewhere in the native range. These haplotypes did not overlap and were limited in native geographic range. The ovule parent for hybrids can come from either parental lineage, and multiple haplotypes from both parental species were found. The geographic origin of this prolific aquatic plant invasion of North America is in Asia. This provides critical information to better understand the invasion pathway and inform management into the future. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Punctuated Neogene tectonics and stratigraphy of the African-Iberian plate-boundary zone: concurrent development of Betic-Rif basins (southern Spain, northern Morocco)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper integrates the sequence stratigraphic and tectonic data related to the Neogene geodynamic and palaeogeographic development of the African-Iberian plate boundary zone between Spain and Morocco. Though the dating of individual tectonostratigraphic sequences and their delimiting sequence

  16. Chad Genetic Diversity Reveals an African History Marked by Multiple Holocene Eurasian Migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Bergström, Anders; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Hallast, Pille; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Al-Habori, Molham; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Blue-Smith, Jason; Wells, R Spencer; Xue, Yali; Zalloua, Pierre A; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Understanding human genetic diversity in Africa is important for interpreting the evolution of all humans, yet vast regions in Africa, such as Chad, remain genetically poorly investigated. Here, we use genotype data from 480 samples from Chad, the Near East, and southern Europe, as well as whole-genome sequencing from 19 of them, to show that many populations today derive their genomes from ancient African-Eurasian admixtures. We found evidence of early Eurasian backflow to Africa in people speaking the unclassified isolate Laal language in southern Chad and estimate from linkage-disequilibrium decay that this occurred 4,750-7,200 years ago. It brought to Africa a Y chromosome lineage (R1b-V88) whose closest relatives are widespread in present-day Eurasia; we estimate from sequence data that the Chad R1b-V88 Y chromosomes coalesced 5,700-7,300 years ago. This migration could thus have originated among Near Eastern farmers during the African Humid Period. We also found that the previously documented Eurasian backflow into Africa, which occurred ∼3,000 years ago and was thought to be mostly limited to East Africa, had a more westward impact affecting populations in northern Chad, such as the Toubou, who have 20%-30% Eurasian ancestry today. We observed a decline in heterozygosity in admixed Africans and found that the Eurasian admixture can bias inferences on their coalescent history and confound genetic signals from adaptation and archaic introgression. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Girling

    Full Text Available Haematology parameters (N = 24 and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35 were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01 in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05 greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05 greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old and sexually mature (≥3 years old beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce

  18. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from the Eurasian taiga: current knowledge and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Baeck, J. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Hakola, H. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Air Quality Research, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    n this paper, the research conducted on the emissions of the biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the European boreal zone, or taiga, is reviewed. We highlight the main findings and the key gaps in our knowledge. Ecosystem scale BVOC emissions from the Eurasian taiga are observed to be relatively low as compared with those from some forest ecosystems in warmer climates. One of the distinctive features of the Eurasian taiga is the predominance of monoterpene emitting coniferous trees. Recent research indicates that in addition to evaporation from storage structures, part of the monoterpene emission of conifers originates directly from synthesis. Monoterpene emission from boreal deciduous trees originates mainly directly from synthesis. The boreal trees exhibit distinct intra-species variation in the monoterpene mixtures they emit. Important sources of isoprene in the Eurasian taiga include Norway spruce, open wetland ecosystems and some non-dominant woody species, such as European aspen and willows. Many boreal tree species also emit non-terpenoid compounds and highly reactive sesquiterpenes. The future challenges in the research on BVOC emissions from the Eurasian taiga include (i) quantification and understanding the non-terpenoid VOC emissions from the taiga ecosystems, (ii) bringing ecosystems in the eastern Eurasian taiga into the sphere of BVOC emission studies, (iii) establishing long-term ecosystem flux studies combined with plant physiological measurements, and (iv) integrating knowledge and research skills on BVOC synthesis, storages and emissions, land cover changes and atmospheric processes in different spatial and temporal scales in order to better understand the impact of biosphere on atmospheric chemistry and composition in changing climate. (orig.)

  19. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Integrated population models reveal local weather conditions are the key drivers of population dynamics in an aerial insectivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Mitch D; Arnold, Todd W; Dawson, Russell D; Winkler, David W; Clark, Robert G

    2017-09-01

    Changes to weather patterns under a warming climate are complex: while warmer temperatures are expected virtually worldwide, decreased mean precipitation is expected at mid-latitudes. Migratory birds depend on broad-scale weather patterns to inform timing of movements, but may be more susceptible to local weather patterns during sedentary periods. We constructed Bayesian integrated population models (IPMs) to assess whether continental or local weather effects best explained population dynamics in an environmentally sensitive aerial insectivorous bird, the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), along a transcontinental gradient from British Columbia to Saskatchewan to New York, and tested whether population dynamics were synchronous among sites. Little consistency existed among sites in the demographic rates most affecting population growth rate or in correlations among rates. Juvenile apparent survival at all sites was stable over time and greatest in New York, whereas adult apparent survival was more variable among years and sites, and greatest in British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Fledging success was greatest in Saskatchewan. Local weather conditions explained significant variation in adult survival in Saskatchewan and fledging success in New York, corroborating the hypothesis that local more than continental weather drives the population dynamics of this species and, therefore, demographic synchrony measured at three sites was limited. Nonetheless, multi-population IPMs can be a powerful tool for identifying correlated population trajectories caused by synchronous demographic rates, and can pinpoint the scale at which environmental drivers are responsible for changes. We caution against applying uniform conservation actions for populations where synchrony does not occur or is not fully understood.

  1. Cyanobacterial and chemical composition of the stromatolites in Salgada lagoon, Neogene of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sinda Beatriz Vianna Carvalhal Gomes; Fernanda Campante Magina; Siglia Andressa Pinto Monteiro do Nascimento Alves; Loreine Hermida da Silva e Silva

    2013-01-01

    Salgada lagoon is a coastal aquatic body in northern Rio de Janeiro state. The geological evolution of the lagoon is associated with the oscillation of sea level during the Late Neogene. The lagoon presents microbial mats, stratiform stromatolites, individual and continuous stromatolites. Stromatolites are laminated carbonate build-ups formed by the metabolic activity of microbial mats. This study identified 31 species of cyanobacteria in stromatolites and microbial mats. The Family Synechoco...

  2. Eurasian winter cooling in the warming hiatus of 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Stevens, B. B.; Marotzke, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the relative magnitudes of the contributions of surface temperature trends from different latitude bands to the recent warming hiatus. We confirm from five different global datasets that the global-mean surface temperature trend in the period 1998—2012 is strongly influenced by a pronounced Eurasian winter cooling trend. This cooling trend was not reproduced in an influential model study attributing most of the hiatus to cooling in the tropical Pacific (Kosaka and Xie, 2013) and hence might have different causes. Arctic sea ice loss over interannual time scales has previously been shown to influence Eurasian winter temperatures (Kim et al., 2014; Mori et al., 2014), but whether such an influence exists for the concrete hiatus period has remained unclear. To understand the drivers of this winter-cooling trend, we perform three twenty-member ensembles of simulations with different prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice in the atmospheric model ECHAM6. Our experimental results suggest that the Arctic sea-ice loss does not drive systematic changes in the northern-hemisphere large-scale circulation in the past decades. The observed Eurasian winter cooling trend over 1998-2012 arises essentially from atmospheric internal variability and constitutes an extreme climate event. However, the observed reduction in Arctic sea ice enhances the variability of Eurasian winter climate and thus increases the probability of an extreme Eurasian winter cooling trend. Reference: Kosaka, Y., and S.-P. Xie, 2013: Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Nature, 501, 403—407. Kim, B. M., S. W. Son, S. K. Min, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Kim, X. D. Zhang, T. Shim and J. H. Yoon, 2014: Weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex by Arctic sea-ice loss, Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/ncomms5646. Mori M., M. Watanabe, H. Shiogama, J. Inoue, and M. Kimoto, 2014: Robust Arctic sea-ice inuence on the frequent Eurasian cold

  3. Eurasian Economic Union and Prospects of Development of Transnational Corporations in the Frame of the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Tikhonovitch Spitsyn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the processes of regional integration and its particular features in the frame of the Eurasian Economic Union formation and their impact on the development of transnational corporations in the region. The authors used the scientific and methodological basis including an integrated approach and economic, institutional and organizational methods, theoretical and methodological studies of domestic and foreign scientists. In order to achieve the defined aim of this research, the authors used the retrospective method and method of comparative analysis, studied the statistical data, including the reports of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Bank’s ratings. The authors studied the historical background of the Eurasian Economic Union, analyzed the current economic situation in its Member States, and considered the experience of other regional alliances. According to the results of the research, the authors formulated the conclusions in the context of the most likely prospects for the development of transnational corporations in the frame of the integration of the Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union. In particular, the study of the experience of other regional associations presumes that the process of regional economic integration will have a positive impact on the dynamics of the attraction of foreign direct investment inflows in the region. In addition, regional integration will mitigate the problem of “limited” markets of the Member States of the Economic Union and, therefore, will help to increase the amount of investment resources in the manufacturing industry and services sector of the economy. The creation of the common energy markets in the framework of the new regional association would strengthen the resource-oriented domestic large-scale business and prepare the groundwork for the emergence of new transnational corporations, cooperating within the

  4. Superposed folding in the Neogene series of the northeastern Tunisia: precision of the upper Miocene compression and geodynamic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Azizi; Lassaad, Chihi

    2017-09-01

    New field observations carried out in northeastern Tunisia (Kechabta Neogene basin) allowed us to clarify and pinpoint the chronology of the folding phases which had been the subject of contradictions in previous studies. To better understand the folding in the study area, a set of structural, lithostratigraphic and cartographic arguments are given in order to confirm the Atlassic folding phase (upper Tortonian) affecting rheologically weak and incompetent materials of the Neogene layers. In the Kechabta Neogene basin, the upper Tortonian folding is materialized by an unconformity between the Kechabta (Tortonian) and the Oued Bel Khedim (Messinian) formations. The highlight of this event allows us to identify the current fold structure of the study area as a superposition of two major folding episodes: The first one occurred during the upper Tortonian, and the second in the Early Quaternary (post-Villafranchian). The chronological consistency of the upper Tortonian folding in the Kechabta basin with the rest of the Tunisian chains allows for a better understanding of the collision context (Miocene to the Quaternary) which dominated the western Mediterranean Sea and steered the structural evolution of Tunisia.

  5. Wing Whiteness as an Indicator of Age, Immunocompetence, and Testis Size in the Eurasian Black-Billed Magpie (Pica pica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guillermo Blanco; Juan A. Fargallo

    2013-01-01

    ... them. We investigated covariation of the white wing patch of the Eurasian Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) with age, sex, feather wear, spleen size, parasite infection, and testis size to evaluate whether this trait is indicative of individual quality...

  6. Hinterland tectonics and drainage evolution recorded by foreland basin archives: the Neogene Siwaliks of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Matthias, Bernet; Catherine, Chauvel; Jean-Louis, Mugnier; Laurent, Husson; François, Chirouze

    2014-05-01

    Provenance analysis and detrital thermochronology of detrital synorogenic sediments, derived from erosion of mountain belts and deposited in surrounding sedimentary basins, are well-established methods to examine the exhumation history of convergent zones, tectonic activity and the associated evolution of the drainage network. We have conducted multidisciplinary studies on magnetostratigraphically dated sections throughout the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin of the Himalayan belt since more than 10 years. Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes are used as provenance indicators, providing information on the nature and size of catchment basins and their evolution through time in response to tectonics. Detrital zircon and apatite thermochronology provides constraints on exhumation rates in the hinterland of the Himalaya and the deformation of the Sub-Himalayan foreland basin. Throughout the Himalaya, detrital zircons from the Siwaliks generally show three age peaks: two static peaks (i.e., displaying constant peak ages through time), and a moving peak. The latter shows a constant lag time of ~4 m.y. corresponding to source-area exhumation rates on the order of 1.8 km/my, while the two static peaks respectively reveal a major 15-20 Ma exhumation event in the belt, the significance of which is still debated, and inheritance of pre-Himalayan ages that indicate recycling of Tethyan sediments. Therefore, our ZFT results suggest that the exhumation dynamics are broadly similar throughout the Himalaya since at least 13 m.y, as also shown by the Bengal Fan detrital sediment record. We relate this switch in tectonic regime to the destabilization of the Himalayan wedge that is rendered overcritical as a response to the transience of dynamic topography caused by the deforming underlying Indian slab. Nonetheless, in detail, the timing of thrusting in the Siwalik domain is delayed by about 1 my eastward as demonstrated by both structural and apatite fission-track data, suggesting overall eastward

  7. Cryptic diversity of African tigerfish (genus Hydrocynus reveals palaeogeographic signatures of linked neogene geotectonic events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A M Goodier

    tectonic events modified Africa's Neogene drainage. Haplotypes shared amongst extant Hydrocynus populations across northern Africa testify to recent dispersals that were facilitated by late Neogene connections across the Nilo-Sahelian drainage. These events in tigerfish evolution concur broadly with available geological evidence and reveal prominent control by the African Rift System, evident in the formative events archived in phylogeographic records of tigerfish.

  8. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  9. Orogenic inheritance in Death Valley region, western US Basin and Range: implications for Neogene crustal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Prior, M. G.; Stockli, D. F.; Kelly, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Deformation and temperature evolution during orogenic stages may influence later fabric development, thus controlling large-scale extensional processes that can occur millions of years later. Here, we describe pressure-temperature and fabric evolution from the Death Valley (DV) region and show how inherited fabrics, formed in late orogenic stages during Late Cretaceous time, influenced later Neogene age Basin and Range (BR) extension. The DV region is one of the most extended and thinned regions in the western US BR province, and the two of the ranges that bound the eastern valley expose basement rocks exhumed during the Neogene extension. In the Funeral range, it has been established that older (Precambrian) basement underwent Mesozoic age syn-deformational metamorphism during the Sevier-Laramide orogeny. In contrast, the Black Mountains record widespread tectonic stretching and magmatism of Miocene age on Precambrian basement, and have, overall, been lacking previous evidence of Mesozoic metamorphism and fabric development. In the Funeral Range Late Cretaceous migmatitic fabrics were overprinted by zones of high-strain fabrics formed due to melt-consuming reaction that define an overall P-T cooling path likely during late- to post-orogenesis. These fabrics form interconnected layers of quartz + biotite aggregates, in which individual quartz grains lack evidence of intracrystalline plastic deformation and show consistently random [c]-axis microfabrics. This suggests coupled reaction-diffusion processes that favored diffusion-assisted creep. New geochronometric results of melt products in the Black Mountains show evidence of partial melting of Late Cretaceous age. Contrasting with the neighboring Funeral Range, overprinting by extensional fabrics of Miocene age is widespread, and consists of high-strain, anastomosing foliation composed of retrograde products from preexisting, higher-temperature fabrics. These include interconnected fine-grained chlorite + quartz

  10. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Neogene Terrestrial Sediments from North- East of Malatya (Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoca, Dicle Bal; Tatar, Cihan

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on the Neogene alluvial fan deposits at the North- East of Malatya (Eastern Turkey). These alluvial fan sediments are largely the products of stream deposition during Upper Miocene - Pliocene. Previous sedimentary studies suggest that most of the alluvial input into the basin was from the the north, northeast, and east. Paleozoic-Mesozoic Metamorphics, the Oligocene - marine sediments, the Miocene Yamadaǧ Volcanics, and Neogene alluvial and intercalated lacustrine rocks comprise the main lithologic units in the area. Alluvial sediments are ocur in successive mudstone, sandstone and conglomerates. Macroscobic determinations show that clastics in the alluviums are derived from Yamadaǧ Volcanics which are at the north, northeast, and east of the alluviums. Previous petrographic studies show that these volcanics are composed of basaltic andesite to dacite in composition with typical calc-alkaline character. The aim of this study is to interpret the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of source area of these alluviums. Samples were collected from these alluvial fan alluviums, and X - ray powder diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, ICP-MS were performed on these samples, Samples consist of clay minerals, calcite, feldspar, quartz and dolomite. Clay minerals were smectite, illite, mixed layer smectite-illite,and palygorskite, with Ca-smectite being the dominant clay phase. Smectite was derived from the transformation of volcanic glass and volcanic rock fragments. These samples are convenient with Fe shales and shales. The ratios of Zr/TiO2, Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, Y/Ni-Cr/V, Al/(Al+Fe+Mn) show dominance of neutral-basic volcanism in the area. Chondrite-normalized REE diagram show the presence of REE-bearing accessory minerals resulted in a positive LREE anomaly with respect to chondrite. Eu/Eu* values are between 0.77 and 1.53, (average 1.17). The absence of Eu anomalies shows that our samples are generally neutral-basic in composition. Key Words: Mineralogy

  11. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. A Survey of the Continental United States for Pathogens of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    proven. Hayslip and Zettler (1973) later reported a failure to intro- duce the Northeast River disease in Florida, and Bean , Fusco, and Klarman (1973...Hecht (1981) tested the pathogenicity of Fusarium sporotrichioides to Eurasian water- milfoil. The fungus that was isolated from Eurasian...spicatum L.," Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol 59, pp 201-215. Andrews, J. H., and Hecht, E. P. 1981. "Evidence for Pathogenicity of Fusarium

  12. Tillage and herbicide reduction mitigate the gap between conventional and organic farming effects on foraging activity of insectivorous bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Kévin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain; Chiron, François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2018-02-01

    The increased use of pesticides and tillage intensification is known to negatively affect biodiversity. Changes in these agricultural practices such as herbicide and tillage reduction have variable effects among taxa, especially at the top of the trophic network including insectivorous bats. Very few studies compared the effects of agricultural practices on such taxa, and overall, only as a comparison of conventional versus organic farming without accurately accounting for underlying practices, especially in conventional where many alternatives exist. Divergent results founded in these previous studies could be driven by this lack of clarification about some unconsidered practices inside both conventional and organic systems. We simultaneously compared, over whole nights, bat activity on contiguous wheat fields of one organic and three conventional farming systems located in an intensive agricultural landscape. The studied organic fields (OT) used tillage (i.e., inversion of soil) without chemical inputs. In studied conventional fields, differences consisted of the following: tillage using few herbicides (T), conservation tillage (i.e., no inversion of soil) using few herbicides (CT), and conservation tillage using more herbicide (CTH), to control weeds. Using 64 recording sites (OT = 12; T = 21; CT = 13; CTH = 18), we sampled several sites per system placed inside the fields each night. We showed that bat activity was always higher in OT than in T systems for two ( Pipistrellus kuhlii and Pipistrellus pipistrellus ) of three species and for one ( Pipistrellus spp.) of two genera, as well as greater species richness. The same results were found for the CT versus T system comparison. CTH system showed higher activity than T for only one genus ( Pipistrellus spp.). We did not detect any differences between OT and CT systems, and CT showed higher activity than CTH system for only one species ( Pipistrellus kuhlii ). Activity in OT of Pipistrellus spp. was

  13. Late Neogene oroclinal bending in the central Taurides: A record of terminal eastward subduction in southern Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Ayten; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis G.

    2016-01-01

    The Tauride fold-thrusts belt formed during ∼S-N convergence between Africa and Eurasia since Cretaceous time. The western end of the central Taurides strike NW-SE, highly obliquely to the overall convergence direction, and connect to the NE-SW Beydağları-Lycian Nappe flank of the western Taurides, forming the so-called 'Isparta Angle'. In Neogene time, the western and central Taurides and the inner part of the Isparta Angle became overlain by Neogene sedimentary basins including Manavgat, Köprüçay and Aksu, characterized by marine clastics and carbonates. The eastern limb of the Isparta Angle experienced multidirectional Miocene to Present extension, whereas E-W shortening affected the marine sedimentary basins in the heart of the Isparta Angle. To quantitatively reconstruct the Neogene kinematic evolution of the Taurides, towards restoring the subduction system accommodating Africa-Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess if and when vertical axis rotations affected the Manavgat, Köprüçay, and Aksu basins in Early Miocene to Pliocene times. We show that the northern Köprüçay Basin rotated ∼20-30° clockwise, the Manavgat Basin underwent ∼25-35° counterclockwise rotation, and the Aksu Basin underwent no rotation since the Early-Middle Miocene. It was previously shown that the Beydağları region underwent a post-Middle Miocene ∼20° counterclockwise rotation. These results show that the prominent oroclinal salient geometry of the western Taurides thus acquired, at least in part, since Miocene times, that the Köprüçay Basin rotated relative to the Aksu Basin along the Aksu thrust, and that the Beydağları platform rotated relative to the Aksu Basin along the Bucak thrust, which must have both been active until Late Neogene time. This synchronous E-W shortening in the heart of the Isparta Angle, and multidirectional extension in its eastern limb may be explained by relative westward retreat of an eastward dipping subducting Antalya

  14. A comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra (Carnivora; Mustelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Tae-Jin; Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2010-04-01

    Otter populations are declining throughout the world and most otter species are considered endangered. Molecular methods are suitable tools for population genetic research on endangered species. In the present study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra. The mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Eurasian otter is 16,505 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a control region (CR). The CR sequence of otters from Europe and Asia showed nearly identical numbers and nucleotide sequences of minisatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of Mustelidae mitogenomes, including individual genes, revealed that Lutrinae and Mustelinae form a clade, and that L. lutra and Enhydra lutris are sister taxa within the Lutrinae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, ND5 is the most reliable marker for analysis of phylogenetic relationships within the Mustelidae.

  15. Suspected flunixin poisoning of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Irene; Martinez, Rosa; Taggart, Mark A; Richards, Ngaio

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to residues of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac present in livestock carcasses has caused extensive declines in 3 Gyps vulture species across Asia. The carcass of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) was found in 2012 on an Andalucian (Spain) game hunting reserve and examined forensically. The bird had severe visceral gout, a finding consistent with Gyps vultures from Asia that have been poisoned by diclofenac. Liver and kidney samples from this Eurasian Griffon Vulture contained elevated flunixin (an NSAID) levels (median = 2.70 and 6.50 mg/kg, respectively). This is the first reported case of a wild vulture being exposed to and apparently killed by an NSAID outside Asia. It is also the first reported instance of mortality in the wild resulting from environmental exposure to an NSAID other than diclofenac. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.

  17. The Qasr As Sahabi succession and the Neogene evolution of the Sirte Basin (Libya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignani, L.; Giammarino, S.; Giglia, G.; Pertusati, P. C.

    The Neogene succession in Libya is characterized by three main sedimentary cycles: 1) A Middle Miocene cycle, involving the whole coastal area of Libya, composed of platform limestones in Cyrenaica and Tripolitania and of deeper deposits in the central part of the Sirte Basin; 2) A Tortonian-Messinian cycle, composed of evaporitic, lagoonal and shallow oolitic deposits, well documented paleontologically in Sirtica between 30° and 31° lat. N. and above all near Qasr As Sahabi. These deposits are found westwards as far as A1 Khums, where they unconformably lie on the Cretaceous and older rocks. Northwards, they surround the structural high of Cyrenaica to beyond Benghazi. Along the western margin of Cyrenaica they lie on Middle Miocene limestones, and to the N-NW on the Eocene. They are bounded landwards by a scarp of marine erosion ("Upper Cyrenaica Escarpment") which models a system of normal faults; 3) A cycle composed of presumed Pliocene coastal or brackish deposits covering a paleomorphology cut during the Upper Messinian regression. South of Cyrenaica, the Pliocene transgression extends beyond the Upper Miocene coastline as far as the A1 Jaghbub oasis. Seawards, the Pliocene cycle deposits are cut by another scarp ("Lower Cyrenaica Escarpment"). The interval between this scarp and the sea is covered by a further transgressive cycle of Tyrrhenian age.

  18. Lithostratigraphy of the Palaeogene – Lower Neogene succession of the Danish North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen, Jan A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a lithological, sedimentological and biostratigraphic study of well sections from the Danish sector of the North Sea, including some recently drilled exploration wells on the Ringkøbing–Fyn High, the lithostratigraphic framework for the siliciclastic Palaeogene to Lower Neogene sediments of the Danish sector of the North Sea is revised. The sediment package from the top of the Chalk Group to the base of the Nordland Group is subdivided into seven formations containing eleven new members. The existing Våle, Lista, Sele, Fur, Balder, Horda and Lark Formations of previously published lithostratigraphic schemes are adequate for a subdivision of the Danish sector at formation level. Bor is a new sandstone member of the Våle Formation. The Lista Formation is subdivided into three new mudstone members: Vile, Ve and Bue, and three new sandstone members: Tyr, Idun and Rind. Kolga is a new sandstone member of the Sele Formation. Hefring is a new sandstone member of the Horda Formation. Freja and Dufa are two new sandstone members of the Lark Formation. Danish reference sections are established for the formations, and the descriptions of their lithology, biostratigraphy, age and palaeoenvironmental setting are updated.

  19. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  20. Validation of the Neogen® Fentanyl ELISA Kit for Blood and Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiscione, Nicholas B; Wegner, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    The Neogen® Fentanyl ready-to-use enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was validated following the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology Standard Practices for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Guidelines. Two decision points, 0.5 and 1 ng/mL, were successfully validated for whole blood. For urine, two decision points, 1 and 5 ng/mL, were also successfully validated. The validation included the evaluation of sensitivity, precision, specificity, carryover, plate drift, ruggedness/robustness and a case sample evaluation. The empirically determined limit of detection was 0.25 ng/mL for blood and 0.5 ng/mL for urine. Precision was determined at five different concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.5 ng/mL with 15 replicates at each level for whole blood and demonstrated a fentanyl, 4-anilino-N-phenethylpiperidine, beta-hydroxythiofentanyl, butyryl fentanyl and furanyl fentanyl. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. STRATIGRAPHIC FEATURES OF NEOGENE DEPOSITS OF DİLEKÇİ (WEST OF KONYA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müjdat ÖZKAN

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The basement of the investigated area is Silurian-Cretaceous aged basement rocks. The basement rocks consists of phillite, schist, quartzite, limestone, dolomite, spilite, diorite, gabbro, diabase and serpentinite. This basement is overlined unconformably by Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene aged Sille formation, Yalıtepe formation, Ulumuhsine formation, Küçükmuhsine formation, Lower Pliocene aged Yürükler formation and Upper Pliocene-Quaternary aged Topraklı formation. Sille formation consists of red conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone, deposited in alluvial fan and braided stream environments. Yalıtepe formation contains cream, brown stromatolitic limestone formed in a shallow lake environment. Ulumuhsine formation is made by cream, limestone, clayey limestone, clayey limestone-mudstone alternation, mudstone, marl, dolomite, nodules and bands of chert-bearing, fossils-bearing limestone deposited in a shallow and open lake environment. Küçükmuhsine formation formed in a shallow and open lake environment consists of tuffite. Yürükler formation overlies conformably and unconformably in local Ulumuhsine and Küçükmuhsine formations, and contains conglomerate, and caliche nodulled mudstone deposited in alluvial fan and braided Stream environments. All these lithologies is overlined unconformably by Upper Pliocene-Quaternary aged Topraklı formation. Topraklı formation consists of conglomerate deposited in alluvial fan and braided stream environments. Neogene basin in the region have characteristics of an intra-mountain basin, time to time controlled by tectonics.

  2. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Deng, T.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.

    2015-08-01

    Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13-11, 8-7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The results indicate that the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at ∼ 20 Ma was probably caused by intense tectonic movements in Asia. During 13-11 Ma, global cooling possibly drove the mammal exchanges between Eurasia and North America. By comparison, the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at 8-7 Ma was probably caused by the combination of global cooling and tectonic movements of the Tibetan Plateau. Similar to during 13-11 Ma, the carnivoran exchanges between Eurasia and North America at ∼ 4 Ma were possibly driven by global cooling.

  3. Neogene Astrochronology: Applications For Ar/ar Dating and Sea-floor Spreading Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgsman, W.; Hilgen, F. J.; Kuiper, K.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Wilson, D. S.

    A recently developed method to construct geological time scales involves the cali- bration of sedimentary cycles, or other cyclic variations in the geological record, to computed time series of the quasi-periodic variations of the Earth's orbit. Following earlier tuning attempts for the Plio-Pleistocene, the astronomical (polarity) time scale (A(P)TS) is now well established for the last 13 million years. The astronomical time scale deviates considerably from earlier time scales based on K/Ar dating, but has sub- sequently been confirmed by radioisotopic ages using the Ar/Ar (single crystal) laser fusion technique. In this contribution we will present the state of the art results of our attempts to extend the Mediterranean-based APTS into the middle Miocene. For this extension we have used perfectly cyclic successions, derived from both marine and continental records. We will furthermore elaborate on the successful application of the APTS in studies of seafloor spreading history. In addition, we will show the lat- est progress made in the comparison of astronomical and Ar/Ar ages for volcanic ash layers that are intercalated in the cyclostratigraphic sequences of the Mediterranean Neogene. In this way the age of fluence monitor standards in radioisotopic (Ar/Ar) dating can be calibrated independently of absolute isotopic abundance measurements.

  4. Eurasian golden jackal as host of canine vector-borne protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitková, Barbora; Hrazdilová, Kristýna; D'Amico, Gianluca; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Suchentrunk, Franz; Forejtek, Pavel; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Votýpka, Jan; Hulva, Pavel; Modrý, David

    2017-04-14

    Jackals are medium-sized canids from the wolf-like clade, exhibiting a unique combination of ancestral morphotypes, broad trophic niches, and close phylogenetic relationships with the wolf and dog. Thus, they represent a potential host of several pathogens with diverse transmission routes. Recently, populations of the Eurasian golden jackal Canis aureus have expanded into the Western Palaearctic, including most of Europe. The aim of our study was to examine Eurasian golden jackals from Romania, Czech Republic and Austria for a wide spectrum of vector-borne protists and to evaluate the role of this species as a reservoir of disease for domestic dogs and/or humans. Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplifications revealed 70% of jackals to be positive for Hepatozoon, 12.5% positive for piroplasms, and one individual positive for Leishmania infantum. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 18S rDNA sequences invariably placed sequenced isolates of Hepatozoon into the H. canis clade. For piroplasms, both the 18S and cox1 sequences obtained confirmed the presence of Babesia canis and "Theileria annae" in 5 and 2 individuals, respectively, providing the first records of these two piroplasmids in Eurasian golden jackals. A single animal from Dolj County (Romania) was PCR-positive for L. infantum, as confirmed also by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S. Apparently, expanding populations of jackals can play a significant role in spreading and maintaining new Babesia canis foci in Central Europe. The role of jackals in the epidemiology of "Theileria annae" and H. canis is probably similar to that of red foxes and should be taken into account in further research on these parasites. Also the presence of L. infantum deserves attention. Our study confirms that once established, the populations of Eurasian golden jackals constitute natural reservoirs for many canine vector-borne diseases, analogous to the role of the coyotes in North America.

  5. Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Erlend B; John D C Linnell; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-ol...

  6. The Eurasian Economic Union: A Brittle Roadblock on China's "One Belt - One Road"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    to participate. However, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine opted for an association agreement with the EU, a move to which Russia responded by the annexation of Crimea and starting an insurgency in Eastern Ukraine. In 2015, the EEU officially started with the participation of only five countries: Armenia, Belarus...... members. Keywords: China, European-Atlantic Security Community, Eurasian Economic Union, “One Belt One Road” Initiative, Russia’s “Monroe Doctrine”....

  7. Near-Slope changes in the Eurasian and Makarov Basins from Glider Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1000-m G2 Slocum gliders . We have also ordered and received the high-frequency (1 MHz) Aquadopp ADCP from Nortek. RESULTS We have have initialized...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Near-Slope changes in the Eurasian and Makarov Basins from glider surveys Dr. Peter Winsor School of...73 LONG-TERM GOALS To conduct high-latitude glider surveys that will lead to i) enhanced autonomous observational capabilities in the high Arctic

  8. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro, Mario; D?Alessio, Nicola; Cerrone, Anna; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Aloise,Gaetano; Auriemma, Clementina; Riccone, Nunzia; Galiero, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninu...

  9. Habitat correlates of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra recolonizing Central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowski, Jerzy; Brzezi?ski, Marcin; ?mihorski, Micha?

    2012-01-01

    The increase in Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several European countries. We address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in Central Poland over 14?years. Field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. The frequency of positive sites denoted 15?% in 1993, 38?% in 1998, and 89?% in 2007. Otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river w...

  10. The Near Threatened Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in Morocco : no sign of recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Delibes de Castro, Miguel; Calzada Samperio, Javier; Clavero Pineda, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor; Gutiérrez Expósito, Carlos; Revilla, Eloy; Román, Jacinto

    2012-01-01

    Although the Near Threatened Eurasian otter Lutra lutra has been recovering in Europe since the 1980s nothing is known about population trends of the species in northern Africa. Ninety sites was searched for signs of otters in northern and western Morocco in 1983 and we repeated this survey in 2011. At each site we searched for otter spraints (faeces) or clear footprints along a maximum of 600m of river bank, ending the search when the first sign was found. Overall res...

  11. The Eurasian Integration in the Context of Civilizational Self-Determination of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Nikolay Alekseevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is currently in search of its place and its role in the world. In the conditions of intense relations with the Western states, a political discourse is experiencing the change of priorities in defining a direction of the country’s development. Therefore the European vector which served as an orientation point in the political elite in 1990s - the beginning of 2000s, is replaced by the Eurasian one. It is also caused by strengthening the economic and political influence of the Asian states on the international processes. The Eurasian integration project initiated by Russia, finds support among a number of the countries of the post-Soviet territory. The created Eurasian economic union becomes the significant subject of the international political process that gives confidence to Russia as far as its forces in building relations with the Western countries are concerned, as well as the search of self-identity. Russia aspires to become the bridge connecting the West and the East that can serve as its contribution to the creation of equal relations in the global world. The article attempts to highlight the trends of modern Russian civilization identification process within the political science discourse. This process is associated with inconsistent implementation of the political, legal, socio-economic and socio-cultural (ideological projects of society and the state modernization. The author focuses on the fact that the center of the discussions in the socio-political discourse is increasingly shifting towards the search of Russian interests not within civilizational projects, but in the search for an independent path of development, which is most fully consistent with the historical destiny of Russia. The author substantiates positive and negative factors that contribute to the realization of the Eurasian project aimed at the integration of countries and peoples in the context of the implementation of democratic reforms and the national

  12. Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

    2013-01-01

    Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

  13. THE REGISTRY OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS PATIENTS, A EURASIAN COHORT (RENAISSANCE)

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Aseeva; A. I. Dubikov; L. A. Levasheva; G. M. Koilubaeva; M. K. Dzhetybaeva; V. T. Eralieva; E. R. Karimova; B. G. Isaeva; M. B. Kalykova; M. M. Saparbaeva; S. M. Isaeva; Zh. I. Omarbekova; E. S. Solovyeva; T M Reshetnyak; N G Klyukvina

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the data of international registries and cohort studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It justifies the purpose and objectives of the international registry of SLE patients, a Eurasian cohort (RENAISSANCE), which was launched in 2012 and amalgamated the leading rheumatology centers of the Russian Federation (V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology; Department of Rheumatology,  Pacific State Medical University), Kazakhstan (Department of Rheumatology,  S.D...

  14. Impacts of early autumn Arctic sea ice concentration on subsequent spring Eurasian surface air temperature variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2017-11-01

    This study reveals a close relation between autumn Arctic sea ice change (SIC) in the Laptev Sea-eastern Siberian Sea-Beaufort Sea and subsequent spring Eurasian surface air temperature (SAT) variation. Specifically, more (less) SIC over the above regions in early autumn generally correspond to SAT warming (cooling) over the mid-high latitudes of Eurasia during subsequent spring. Early autumn Arctic SIC affects spring Eurasian SAT via modulating spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) associated atmospheric changes. The meridional temperature gradient over the mid-high latitudes decreases following the Arctic sea ice loss. This results in deceleration of prevailing westerly winds over the mid-latitudes of the troposphere, which leads to increase in the upward propagation of planetary waves and associated Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the stratosphere over the mid-high latitudes. Thereby, westerly winds in the stratosphere are reduced and the polar vortex is weakened. Through the wave-mean flow interaction and downward propagation of zonal wind anomalies, a negative spring AO pattern is formed in the troposphere, which favors SAT cooling over Eurasia. The observed autumn Arctic SIC-spring Eurasian SAT connection is reproduced in the historical simulation (1850-2005) of the flexible global ocean-atmosphere-land system model, spectral version 2 (FGOALS-s2). The FGOALS-s2 also simulates the close connection between autumn SIC and subsequent spring AO. Further analysis suggests that the prediction skill of the spring Eurasian SAT was enhanced when taking the autumn Arctic SIC signal into account.

  15. Eurasian Economic Union: Opportunities and Barriers to Regional and Global Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Andronova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU is a new integration grouping in the post-Soviet space that is generating heightened interest as a global economy with the potential to become a new regional and global actor. This article analyzes the effectiveness of the Eurasian integration processes and proposes several actions to strengthen economic relations among EEU members through detecting and building common economic interests. Russia accounts for as much as 87% of the EEU’s geo-economic potential, which stresses the country’s role as anintegrative hub. The EEU benefits are thus unevenly distributed among its participants. Moreover, these benefits lack consistency and long-term orientation, which may threaten the EEU’s existence if markets and international economic relations change.This article analyses the interrelation and interdependency of national economies in terms of the mutual trade in goods and services and investment cooperation. It finds that the level of economic integration does not meet the interests of strengthening Eurasian integration. Despite the huge benefits of the Customs Union, trade volumes have not increased and the structure of manufacturing and cooperation ties remain unchanged. This article recommends that developing and implementing a common industrial and agricultural policy would strengthen the EEU, and proposes an approach to estimate the results of such a policy.

  16. Musculoskeletal anatomy of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx (Carnivora: Felidae) forelimb: Adaptations to capture large prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viranta, Suvi; Lommi, Hanna; Holmala, Katja; Laakkonen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian carnivores adhere to two different feeding strategies relative to their body masses. Large carnivores prey on animals that are the same size or larger than themselves, whereas small carnivores prey on smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) falls in between these two categories. Lynx descend from larger forms that were probably large prey specialists, but during the Pleistocene became predators of small prey. The modern Eurasian lynx may be an evolutionary reversal toward specializing in large prey again. We hypothesized that the musculoskeletal anatomy of lynx should show traits for catching large prey. To test our hypothesis, we dissected the forelimb muscles of six Eurasian lynx individuals and compared our findings to results published for other felids. We measured the bones and compared their dimensions to the published material. Our material displayed a well-developed pectoral girdle musculature with some uniquely extensive muscle attachments. The upper arm musculature resembled that of the pantherine felids and probably the extinct sabertooths, and also the muscles responsible for supination and pronation were similar to those in large cats. The muscles controlling the pollex were well-developed. However, skeletal indices were similar to those of small prey predators. Our findings show that lynx possess the topographic pattern of muscle origin and insertion like in large felids. J. Morphol. 277:753-765, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  18. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindičić, Magda; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC.

  19. Early Eurasian migration traces in the Tarim Basin revealed by mtDNA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Chunxiang; Gao, Shizhu; Xie, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hui

    2010-08-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms of 58 samples from the Daheyan village located in the central Taklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin were determined in this study. Among the 58 samples, 29 haplotypes belonging to 18 different haplogroups were analyzed. Almost all the mtDNAs belong to a subset of either the defined Western or Eastern Eurasian pool. Extensive Eastern Eurasian lineages exist in the Daheyan population in which Northern-prevalent haplogroups present higher frequencies. In the limited existing Western Eurasian lineages, two sub-haplogroups, U3 and X2, that are rare in Central Asia were found in this study, which may be indicative of the remnants of an early immigrant population from the Near East and Caucasus regions preserved only in the Tarim Basin. The presence of U3 in modern and archeological samples in the Tarim Basin suggests that the immigration took place earlier than 2,000 years ago and points to human continuity in this area, with at least one Western lineage originating from the Near East and Caucasus regions. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables.

  1. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli K Rueness

    Full Text Available Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables.

  2. Persistent shift of the Arctic polar vortex towards the Eurasian continent in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankai; Tian, Wenshou; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Xie, Fei; Huang, Jinlong

    2016-12-01

    The wintertime Arctic stratospheric polar vortex has weakened over the past three decades, and consequently cold surface air from high latitudes is now more likely to move into the middle latitudes. However, it is not known if the location of the polar vortex has also experienced a persistent change in response to Arctic climate change and whether any changes in the vortex position have implications for the climate system. Here, through the analysis of various data sets and model simulations, we show that the Arctic polar vortex shifted persistently towards the Eurasian continent and away from North America in February over the past three decades. This shift is found to be closely related to the enhanced zonal wavenumber-1 waves in response to Arctic sea-ice loss, particularly over the Barents-Kara seas (BKS). Increased snow cover over the Eurasian continent may also have contributed to the shift. Our analysis reveals that the vortex shift induces cooling over some parts of the Eurasian continent and North America which partly offsets the tropospheric climate warming there in the past three decades. The potential vortex shift in response to persistent sea-ice loss in the future, and its associated climatic impact, deserve attention to better constrain future climate changes.

  3. Integration Dilemma within the Eurasian Space in the Context of the Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina A. Durdyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the reaction of top officials, politicians and representatives of the expert community of the Eurasian Economic Union member countries on the aggravation of "Ukrainian crisis" in the context of plans and directions for further Eurasian integration. Today, in the scientific community is becoming a popular" dilemma of integration " as a systematic pattern that determines the development of relations between the integration associations. The dilemma of integration is a political phenomenon, a regular and predictable. Ukrainian crisis, which has become a litmus test of conflict of representations of the CIS countries on the extent and depth of their involvement in the processes of regional integration , most clearly outlined the presence of such dilemma within the CIS. In the current situation for Belarus and Kazakhstan as two , along with Russia , the main designers of the Eurasian field, the dilemma of integration takes a fundamentally different meaning and becomes a so-called "Dilemma of integrations", or contradiction between the desire of these countries to secure the most favorable conditions in its relations with Moscow and reluctance to fully bear the burden of the costs and constraints arising in relations with the EU due to the commitments of the EAEC. Based on the material of the official position of the representatives of Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Belarus the author of the article explores the implications of the Ukrainian crisis in relations of Three: Moscow, Astana and Minsk.

  4. Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil and Curlyleaf Pondweed in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, Montana: Herbicide Small-Plot Evaluations, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    sibiricum Komarov Northern watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian watermilfoil Najas flexilis L. (Willd.) Rost & Schmidt Slender naiad...54 21† 7* Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian watermilfoil 42 20† 13* Najas flexilis L. (Willd.) Rost & Schmidt Slender naiad 0 0 1 Nitella sp...stargrass 11 40† 31* Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov Northern watermilfoil 41 42 14* Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian watermilfoil 70 30† 24* Najas

  5. Delineating shallow Neogene deformation structures in northeastern Pará State using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilce F. Rossetti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The geological characterization of shallow subsurface Neogene deposits in northeastern Pará State using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR revealed normal and reverse faults, as well as folds, not yet well documented by field studies. The faults are identified mostly by steeply-dipping reflections that sharply cut the nearby reflections causing bed offsets, drags and rollovers. The folds are recognized by reflections that are highly undulating, configuring broad concave and convex-up features that are up to 50 m wide and 80 to 90 ns deep. These deformation structures are mostly developed within deposits of Miocene age, though some of the faults might continue into younger deposits as well. Although the studied GPR sections show several diffractions caused by trees, differential degrees of moisture, and underground artifacts, the structures recorded here can not be explained by any of these ''noises''. The detailed analysis of the GPR sections reveals that they are attributed to bed distortion caused by brittle deformation and folding. The record of faults and folds are not widespread in the Neogene deposits of the Bragantina area. These GPR data are in agreement with structural models, which have proposed a complex evolution including strike-slip motion for this area from the Miocene to present.A caracterização geológica de depósitos neógenos ocorrentes em sub-superfície rasa no nordeste do Estado do Pará, usando Radar de Penetração no Solo (GPR, revelou a presença de falhas normais e reversas, bem como dobras, ainda não documentadas em estudos de campo prévios. As falhas são identificadas por reflexões inclinadas que cortam bruscamente reflexões vizinhas, causando freqüentes deslocamentos de camadas. As dobras são reconhecidas por reflexões fortemente ondulantes, configurando feições côncavas e convexas que medem até 50 m de amplitude e 80 a 90 m de profundidade. Estas estruturas deformacionais desenvolvem-se, principalmente

  6. Analysis of Neogene deformation between Beaver, Utah and Barstow, California: Suggestions for altering the extensional paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. Ernest; Beard, Sue; Mankinen, Edward A.; Hillhouse, John W.

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades, the paradigm of large-magnitude (~250 km), northwest-directed (~N70°W) Neogene extensional lengthening between the Colorado Plateau and Sierra Nevada at the approximate latitude of Las Vegas has remained largely unchallenged, as has the notion that the strain integrates with coeval strains in adjacent regions and with plate-boundary strain. The paradigm depends on poorly constrained interconnectedness of extreme-case lengthening estimated at scattered localities within the region. Here we evaluate the soundness of the inferred strain interconnectedness over an area reaching 600 km southwest from Beaver, Utah, to Barstow, California, and conclude that lengthening is overestimated in most areas and, even if the estimates are valid, lengthening is not interconnected in a way that allows for published versions of province-wide summations.We summarize Neogene strike slip in 13 areas distributed from central Utah to Lake Mead. In general, left-sense shear and associated structures define a broad zone of translation approximately parallel to the eastern boundary of the Basin and Range against the Colorado Plateau, a zone we refer to as the Hingeline shear zone. Areas of steep-axis rotation (ranging to 2500 km2) record N-S shortening rather than unevenly distributed lengthening. In most cases, the rotational shortening and extension-parallel folds and thrusts are coupled to, or absorb, strike slip, thus providing valuable insight into how the discontinuous strike-slip faults are simply parts of a broad zone of continuous strain. The discontinuous nature of strike slip and the complex mixture of extensional, contractional, and steep-axis rotational structures in the Hingeline shear zone are similar to those in the Walker Lane belt in the west part of the Basin and Range, and, together, the two record southward displacement of the central and northern Basin and Range relative to the adjacent Colorado Plateau. Understanding this province

  7. Tectonostratigraphic history of the Neogene Maimará basin, Northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Claudia I.; Coira, Beatriz L.; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Iglesia Llanos, María P.; Prezzi, Claudia B.; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Maimará Basin and explores the relationship between the clastic sediments and pyroclastic deposits in the basin and the evolution of the adjacent orogeny and magmatic arc. The sedimentary facies in this part of the basin include, in ascending order, an ephemeral fluvial system, a deep braided fluvial system and a medial to distal ephemeral fluvial system. We interpret that Maimará Formation accumulated in a basin that has developed two stages of accumulation. Stage 1 extended from 7 to 6.4 Ma and included accelerated tectonic uplift in the source areas, and it corresponds to the ephemeral fluvial system deposits. Stage 2, which extended from 6.4 to 4.8 Ma, corresponds to a tectonically quiescent period and included the development of the deep braided fluvial system deposits. The contact between the Maimará and Tilcara formations is always characterized by a regional unconformity and, in the study area, also shows pronounced erosion. Rare earth element and other chemical characteristics of the tuff intervals in the Maimará Formation fall into two distinct groups suggesting the tuffs were erupted from two distinct late Miocene source regions. The first and most abundant group has characteristics that best match tuffs erupted from the Guacha, Pacana and Pastos Grandes calderas, which are located 200 and 230 km west of the study area at 22º-23º30‧S latitude. The members the second group are chemically most similar to the Merihuaca Ignimbrite from the Cerro Galán caldera 290 km south-southwest of the studied section. The distinctive geochemical characteristics are excellent tools to reconstruct the stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene Maimará basin from 6.4 to 4.8 Ma.

  8. New constraints on the Neogene plate kinematics of West and East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, R.; Dyment, J.; Szitkar, F.

    2016-12-01

    The motion between East and West Antarctic Plates during the last 26 million years (post-Adare seafloor spreading) is loosely constrained, and although it is often considered negligible, accumulating observations from along the rift system suggest that significant faulting and transtensional motion have occurred in that period. Part of the reason for this uncertainty is the complicated kinematic evolution of the oceanic crust found north of the Ross Sea and the lack of proper magnetic anomaly data at key tectonic locations. We have conducted a series of two cruises (TACT project) aboard M/V L'Astrolabe, the supply ship of Dumont d'Urville French Antarctic station, in February-March of 2012 and 2016 during which we have acquired total field magnetic profiles oriented along flowline direction and straddling the Tasman spreading corridor, located between Tasmania and the Balleny Islands and the Tasman and Balleny FZs. The new data allow us to refine the overall motion of the Macquarie Plate relative to Australia. After correction of this motion, the Tasman corridor, lying west of the Balleny FZ uncovers the Australia-East Antarctic plate motion, and the Balleny corridor, lying east of the FZ uncovers the Australia-West Antarctic plate motion, reveal a mismatched anomaly pattern that result from the Neogene relative plate motion between East and West Antarctica. We combine these new observations together with geological constraints from within the west Antarctic rift system to compute new rotation parameters that describe the relative plate motion between West and East Antarctica for the last 26 million years.

  9. Biomarker study of petroleum from the Neogene Tertiary sedimentary basins in Northeast Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Susumu; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Kaneko, Nobuyuki (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba; Shimane Univ. (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    Crude oils and condensates from the Japanese Neogene Tertiary sedimentary basins were measured for steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons, using computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in order to examine the validity of biomarker parameters as indicators of maturity and source for petroleum. the results are summarized as follows: (1) Most crude oils show incomplete side chain epimerization of C{sub 2}{sub 9} steranes. This is possibly due to an insufficient reaction time and temperature for epimerization since the Miocene age. (2) All oils show a good correlation between nuclear isomerization and side chain epimerization of C{sub 2}{sub 9} steranes. The correlation curve may be characteristic to petroleum generated in sedimentary basins with similar high heating rates. (3) The nuclear isomerization of hopane and the side chain cleavages of saturated and triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons proceed in accord with the side chain epimerization of steranes. These conversions are more useful than sterane epimerization for evaluation the maturity of matured oils such as condensates. (4) The condensates are estimated to be distinctly more mature than the crude oils. This fact suggest that the condensates have undergone higher temperatures than the crude oils. Among the crude oils, those from the Niigata basin and those from the Akita-Yamagata Basin may have caused a difference in the stage at which primary migration of oils took place. (5) The conversion of monoaromatic to triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons fails to correlate well with sterane epimerization. (6) The crude oils in the Niigata basin generally show lower C{sub 2}{sub 7}/C{sub 2}{sub 9} ratios of saturated and monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons than those in the Akita-Yamagata basin. 36 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hoffmann

    Full Text Available In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13-17 Ma saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5-8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied.

  11. Subantarctic Pacific hiatuses as clues to periods of enhanced oceanic circulation during the late Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Hendy, I. L.; Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    New stable isotope records from cores MV0502-4JC (50°20’S, 148°08’W, 4286m), ELT 25-11 (50°02’S, 127°31’W, 3969m), and ELT 20-11 (49°00’S, 144°50’W, 4517 m) obtained in close proximity to the Subantarctic Front in the southeast Pacific show a consistent pattern of hiatuses that could be related to late Neogene changes in the strength of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These subantarctic Pacific records show three hiatuses that we have dated to 1) the early Pliocene-early late Pliocene, 2) ~1.57-0.68 Ma, and 3) ~0.53-0.19 Ma. These hiatuses correspond well with the timing of the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and the Mid-Brunhes, as well as with periods of reduced or non-deposition on the Maurice Ewing Bank, also located in the path of the ACC (Ciesielski, 1982). Interestingly, sediment cores recovered from regions outside of the ACC that experience significant bottom water flow (e.g. fracture zones and the western margins of continents), including the Vema Channel (Ledbetter et al., 1978), the South Australia Basin (Ledbetter, 1981), and the continental margin of Northwest Africa (Stein et al., 1986), also show intervals of reduced or non-deposition that correlate well with the timing of hiatuses in the subantarctic Pacific. This correlation could indicate that the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and Mid-Brunhes were characterized not only by a more vigourous ACC but also by a stronger and more globally-distributed overturning circulation than the present day.

  12. Widespread Neogene and Quaternary Volcanism on Central Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R. A.; Falloon, T.; Quilty, P. G.; Coffin, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    We report new age determinations and compositions for rocks from 18 dredge hauls collected from eight submarine areas across Central Kerguelen Plateau (CKP). Sea knolls and volcanic fields with multiple small cones were targeted over a 125,000 km2 region that includes Heard and McDonald islands. Large early Miocene (16-22 Ma) sea knolls rise from the western margin of the CKP and are part of a NNW-SSE line of volcanic centers that lie between Îles Kerguelen and Heard and McDonald islands. A second group of large sea knolls is aligned E-W across the center of this region. We see evidence of much younger activity (5 Ma to present) in volcanic fields to the north of, and up to 300 km NE of Heard Island. Compositions include basanite, basalt, and trachybasalt, that are broadly similar to plateau lava flows from nearby Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1138, lower Miocene lavas at Îles Kerguelen, dredged rocks from the early Miocene sea knolls, and Big Ben lavas from Heard Island. Geochemical data indicate decreasing fractions of mantle source melting with time. The western line of sea knolls has been related to hotspot activity now underlying the Heard Island area. In view of the now recognized much larger area of young volcanic activity, we propose that a broad region of CKP became volcanically active in Neogene time due to incubation of plume material at the base of the relatively stationary overlying plateau. The presence of pre-existing crustal faults promotes access for melts from the Heard mantle plume to rise to the surface.

  13. Impact of tectonic and volcanism on the Neogene evolution of isolated carbonate platforms (SW Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courgeon, S.; Jorry, S. J.; Jouet, G.; Camoin, G.; BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.; Bachèlery, P.; Caline, B.; Boichard, R.; Révillon, S.; Thomas, Y.; Thereau, E.; Guérin, C.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the impact of tectonic activity and volcanism on long-term (i.e. millions years) evolution of shallow-water carbonate platforms represents a major issue for both industrial and academic perspectives. The southern central Mozambique Channel is characterized by a 100 km-long volcanic ridge hosting two guyots (the Hall and Jaguar banks) and a modern atoll (Bassas da India) fringed by a large terrace. Dredge sampling, geophysical acquisitions and submarines videos carried out during recent oceanographic cruises revealed that submarine flat-top seamounts correspond to karstified and drowned shallow-water carbonate platforms largely covered by volcanic material and structured by a dense network of normal faults. Microfacies and well-constrained stratigraphic data indicate that these carbonate platforms developed in shallow-water tropical environments during Miocene times and were characterized by biological assemblages dominated by corals, larger benthic foraminifera, red and green algae. The drowning of these isolated carbonate platforms is revealed by the deposition of outer shelf sediments during the Early Pliocene and seems closely linked to (1) volcanic activity typified by the establishment of wide lava flow complexes, and (2) to extensional tectonic deformation associated with high-offset normal faults dividing the flat-top seamounts into distinctive structural blocks. Explosive volcanic activity also affected platform carbonates and was responsible for the formation of crater(s) and the deposition of tuff layers including carbonate fragments. Shallow-water carbonate sedimentation resumed during Late Neogene time with the colonization of topographic highs inherited from tectonic deformation and volcanic accretion. Latest carbonate developments ultimately led to the formation of the Bassas da India modern atoll. The geological history of isolated carbonate platforms from the southern Mozambique Channel represents a new case illustrating the major

  14. Stable Isotopes from Museum Specimens May Provide Evidence of Long-Term Change in the Trophic Ecology of a Migratory Aerial Insectivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philina A. English

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the mechanisms of ecological change is challenging in the absence of long-term data, but stable isotope ratios of museum specimen tissues may provide a record of diet and habitat change through time. Aerial insectivores are experiencing the steepest population declines of any avian guild in North America and one hypothesis for these population declines is a reduction in the availability of prey. If reduced prey availability is due to an overall reduction in insect abundance, we might also expect populations of higher trophic level insects to have declined most due to their greater sensitivity to a variety of disturbance types. Because nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N tend to increase with trophic-level, while δ13C generally increases with agricultural intensification, we used δ15N and δ13C values of bird tissues grown in winter (claw and during breeding (feathers from museum specimens spanning 1880–2005, and contemporary samples from breeding birds (2011–2013 to test for diet change in a migratory nocturnal aerial insectivore, Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus breeding in Ontario, Canada. To test if environmental baselines have changed as a result of synthetic N fertilizer use, habitat conversion or climate, we also sampled δ15N values of three potential prey species collected from across the same geographic region and time period. Over the past 100 years, we found a significant decline in δ15N in tissues grown on both the breeding and wintering grounds. Prey species did not show a corresponding temporal trend in δ15N values, but our power to detect such a trend was limited due to higher sample variance. Amongst contemporary bird samples, δ15N values did not vary with sex or breeding site, but nestlings had lower δ15N values than adults. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aerial insectivore populations are declining due to changes in abundance of higher trophic-level prey, but we caution that

  15. The Progreso Basin Province of Northwestern Peru and Southwestern Ecuador: Neogene and Cretaceous-Paleogene Total Petroleum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2004-01-01

    The Progreso Basin province (6083) in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador consists of the Paleogene Santa Elena block and Peru Bank, and the Neogene Tumbes-Progreso subbasin. The Santa Elena block and Peru Bank are part of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Total Petroleum System (TPS)(608302), which contains the Cretaceous-Paleogene Santa Elena Block Assessment Unit (60830201). The Tumbes- Progreso subbasin includes the Neogene TPS (608301) and associated Neogene Pull-Apart Basin Assessment Unit (60830101). The complex tectonic history of the Progreso Basin province influenced depositional and erosional patterns across the region, and also the location, timing, and types of seals, traps, possible source and reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon generation and migration. Marine shales that are interbedded with and overlie reservoir intervals are the probable hydrocarbon source rocks. Timing of hydrocarbon generation and migration was probably Miocene and younger, following creation of the Tumbes-Progreso subbasin by movement along the Dolores-Guayaquil megashear. More than 220 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 255 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) have been produced from the Progreso Basin province. The means of estimated recoverable oil, gas, and natural gas liquids (NGL) resources from undiscovered fields in the province are 237 MMBO, 695 BCFG, and 32 MMB NGL, respectively. The means of estimated recoverable oil, gas, and NGL resources from undiscovered onshore fields are 45 MMBO, 113 BCFG, and 5 MMBNGL, and from undiscovered offshore fields are 192 BBO, 582 BCFG, and 27 MMBNGL. These are USGS grown undiscovered resources that were determined by using a minimum field size of 1 million barrels of oil equivalent.

  16. Sequence stratigraphy and systems tract analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary continental margin off the Zambezi delta, Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolla, V. (Elf Exploration, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Macurda, D.B. Jr. (The Energists, Houston, TX (United States)); Nelson, H.R. Jr. (Landmark Graphics Corp., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    During the Neogene and Quaternary, the Zambezi River built a broad delta-platform from 75 to over 100 km into the Indian Ocean. A regional seismic grid shows numerous discontinuities in the delta platform, slope, and deeper basinal areas. Based on downward shifts of reflection terminations and onlaps at or below shelf edge, more than 25 sequences have been identified. Within the gross Neogene package, the basal section is characterized by aggradation, followed by rapid and significant (oblique) progradation, which is then followed by numerous aggradational-progradation and progradation packages in the upper, younger sections. From recognition of aggradation-progradation patterns and from well information, it appears that the first, significant, and rapid progradation occurred since mid-Miocene. The earliest of the Neogene sequence appears thicker towards south and thinner towards north, opposite of the younger sequences. The number of sequences, their modes of stacking, and thickness distributions reflect relative sea-level changes and the points of sediment input as the Zambezi River shifted in position from south to north in time. The Zambezi passive continental margin, located in the Indian Ocean basin, is a stable platform as opposed to the unstable continental margins off the Mississippi, McKenzie, and Niger deltas and is far from the stable margins that were the basis of the Haq et al. cycle-chart (1987). Thus the Zambezi continental margin provides an independent test case for verification of eustatic cycles and for the evaluation of allogenic (eustatic) versus autogenic (subsidence and delta switching) effects on depositional systems and systems tracts.

  17. The characteristics of neogene sediments and structures in the Siberuang Area (Central Sumatra, Indonesia) based on gravity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoso, D. (Bandung Institute of Technology, West Java (Indonesia))

    1994-07-01

    Neogene sediments in the Siberuang area consist of the Sihapas, Telisa, and Petani formations. The Sihapas Formation is a friable, white to brown sandstone with intercalated claystones, siltstones, and some coal layers. It was deposited in channels or bars of a braided-stream system during early Miocene N4-N8 times. The Telisa Formation, which unconformably overlies the Sihapas Formation, is a calcareous claystone with intercalated glauconitic sands and limestone lenses deposited in a middle to outer neritic environment during middle Miocene N8-N10 times. The Petani Formation is a claystone containing clasts of terrestrial material with some coal lenses and tuffs in the upper part of the section. It is a regressive sequence deposited in an outer neritic environment. These Neogene sediments lie unconformably above the Paleogene Pematang Formation, which is mainly composed of brown conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstones. The Pematang Formation lies unconformably above pre-Tertiary rocks. A Bouguer gravity map processed using a density value of 1.9 gm/cc reveals anomalies with wavelengths of 10 and 15 km. Moving average filtering has been applied to make a regional-residual separation. Map interpretation and modeling along a profile run northeast across the structural trend of the region and indicate a graben-type structure with Neogene sediment thickness increasing from 600 m in the northeast to 2800 m in the southwest. Greatest sediment thickness is attained in the center of the graben, which is delineated by northeast-dipping faults southwest of the area and southwest-dipping faults northeast of the area.

  18. Geochronology of the Neogene intrusive magmatism of the Oaș—Gutâi Mountains, Eastern Carpathians (NW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Pécskay, Zoltán; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Jurje, Maria; Edelstein, Oscar

    2013-12-01

    Earlier geological work in the Oaș-Gutâi Mts (OG), Eastern Carpathians, has revealed the extensive presence of shallow subvolcanic intrusive bodies, both exposed on the surface and covered by Paleogene-Neogene sedimentary sequences and Neogene volcanic formations. This study is based on detailed mapping and sampling of the OG Neogene intrusive magmatic rocks. Thirty seven representative intrusions (sills, dykes, microlaccoliths, etc.) were selected for radiometric dating. These intrusions show a wide variety of petrographic rock-types: from microgabbros to microgranodiorites and from basalts to andesites. However, the intrusions consist of typical calc-alkaline, medium-K rocks, similar to the volcanic rocks which outcrop in the same areas. The K-Ar age determinations on whole-rock samples of intrusions yielded ages between 11.9 Ma and 7.0 Ma (from Late Sarmatian to Middle Pannonian). The results are in good agreement with the common assumption, based on the biostratigraphic and geological data, that large volumes of intrusions have formed during the paroxysm of the intermediate volcanic activity in the OG. Except for the Firiza basalt intrusive complex of the Gutâi Mts (8.1-7.0 Ma), the OG intrusions show similar K-Ar ages as the intrusions of the "Subvolcanic Zone" and Călimani Mts from Eastern Carpathians. The timing of the OG intrusive magmatism partially overlaps with the timing of the intrusive magmatic activity in the Eastern Moravia and Pieniny Mts. The systematic radiometric datings in the whole OG give clear evidence that the hydrothermal activity related to the epithermal systems always postdates intrusion emplacement.

  19. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : an integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Gesa

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of

  20. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : An integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of

  1. Russia and China in the age of grand Eurasian projects: Prospects for integration between the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshko Sangar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent deterioration of relations between Russia and the West over crises in the Middle East and Ukraine, the relationship between Moscow and Beijing is growing stronger. In 2014, the two nations signed an unprecedented gas deal worth US$400 billion. In May 2015, Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping agreed to coordinate the Moscow-led EEU with China’s Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB. Following these developments, authors and journalists heralded a new era in Sino-Russian relations in which the two nations would consolidate their forces to counter a US-led unipolar world. However, the nature of the relationship between China and Russia, the prospects for closer cooperation between the two nations, and the feasibility of integrating the two grand Eurasian projects are topics of fierce debate. This article maintains that while a consensus between Moscow and Beijing with regard to post-Cold War US unilateralism and their convergent interests have pushed China and Russia to cooperate on a range of global and regional issues, relations between the two Eurasian neighbours are complex and multi-faceted and are far from forming an anti-US bloc. Furthermore, the abstract nature of China’s Silk Road initiative and a number of significant obstacles make the feasibility of integration between the two projects a complicated task. Issues explored by this article include the development of mechanisms and agreement on a format for cooperation between the nations involved; the solution of practical issues such as rail gauges and corruption in the region; the prospects for an “equal partnership” in Sino-Russian relations and Moscow’s predicament with regards to its position as “junior partner” in Eurasia; and last but not least, the ever-growing threat of Islamic fundamentalism and regional security.

  2. PAN EURASIAN EXPERIMENT (PEEX - A RESEARCH INITIATIVE MEETING THE GRAND CHALLENGES OF THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT OF THE NORTHERN PAN-EURASIAN ARCTIC-BOREAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna K. Lappalainen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX is a new multidisciplinary, global change research initiative focusing on understanding biosphere-ocean-cryosphere-climate interactions and feedbacks in Arctic and boreal regions in the Northern Eurasian geographical domain. PEEX operates in an integrative way and it aims at solving the major scientific and society relevant questions in many scales using tools from natural and social sciences and economics. The research agenda identifies the most urgent large scale research questions and topics of the land-atmosphere-aquatic-anthropogenic systems and interactions and feedbacks between the systems for the next decades. Furthermore PEEX actively develops and designs a coordinated and coherent ground station network from Europe via Siberia to China and the coastal line of the Arctic Ocean together with a PEEX-modeling platform. PEEX launches a program for educating the next generation of multidisciplinary researcher and technical experts. This expedites the utilization of the new scientific knowledge for producing a more reliable climate change scenarios in regional and global scales, and enables mitigation and adaptation planning of the Northern societies. PEEX gathers together leading European, Russian and Chinese research groups. With a bottom-up approach, over 40 institutes and universities have contributed the PEEX Science Plan from 18 countries. In 2014 the PEEX community prepared Science Plan and initiated conceptual design of the PEEX land-atmosphere observation network and modeling platform. Here we present the PEEX approach as a whole with the specific attention to research agenda and preliminary design of the PEEX research infrastructure.

  3. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  4. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of anthropogenic pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Emmons, L. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Guo, Y.; Tao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies as well as a fully-tagged approach, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  5. Troglostrongylus brevior in an Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alić, Amer; Traversa, Donato; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kadrić, Mirsad; Di Cesare, Angela; Hodžić, Adnan

    2015-12-21

    In the past few years the interest of the scientific community on lungworms of the genus Troglostrongylus has grown due to the increased number of unexpected cases of infections with Troglostrongylus brevior in domestic cats from Mediterranean Europe, likely due to a spill-over from wild reservoirs. Thus, there is a merit to increase our knowledge on the occurrence of this parasite in felids from European regions. The present paper describes lung lesions associated with T. brevior infection in the endangered Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The carcass of an illegally killed 3-year-old male Eurasian lynx was presented for necropsy at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Grossly, multiple, multinodular, consolidated and firm, tan to grey areas, occupying the caudal third of caudal lung lobes, were observed. At cut section, the catarrhal fluid was draining from the airways. Larvae of T. brevior were found in tracheal scraping. The histopathological examination revealed multifocal to coalescing areas, centered on bronchi and bronchioles, and expanded alveoli filled with necrotic debris, degenerated inflammatory cells, mostly neutrophils and macrophages, and multiple cross sections of parasite larvae and thin-walled morulated eggs of lungworms. The paraffin-embedded lung samples were molecularly positive for T. brevior. This paper describes the first record of T. brevior in the Eurasian lynx and the associated host lung pathology. Given its pathogenic potential and the lack of data on troglostrongylosis in lynx populations, the occurrence and impact of Troglostrongylus spp. on wildlife health as well as the role of L. lynx as reservoir of infection for other felids, should be further investigated.

  6. Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A; Helgen, Kristofer M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-08-17

    The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized phylogenetically distinct species despite a long history of taxonomic work on African canids. To test the distinct-species hypothesis and understand the evolutionary history that would account for this puzzling result, we analyzed extensive genomic data including mitochondrial genome sequences, sequences from 20 autosomal loci (17 introns and 3 exon segments), microsatellite loci, X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences, and whole-genome nuclear sequences in African and Eurasian golden jackals and gray wolves. Our results provide consistent and robust evidence that populations of golden jackals from Africa and Eurasia represent distinct monophyletic lineages separated for more than one million years, sufficient to merit formal recognition as different species: C. anthus (African golden wolf) and C. aureus (Eurasian golden jackal). Using morphologic data, we demonstrate a striking morphologic similarity between East African and Eurasian golden jackals, suggesting parallelism, which may have misled taxonomists and likely reflects uniquely intense interspecific competition in the East African carnivore guild. Our study shows how ecology can confound taxonomy if interspecific competition constrains size diversification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, George B.J.; Hellenthal, Garrett; Montinaro, Francesco; Tofanelli, Sergio; Bulayeva, Kazima; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Toncheva, Draga; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Nesheva, Desislava; Anagnostou, Paolo; Cali, Francesco; Brisighelli, Francesca; Romano, Valentino; Lefranc, Gerard; Buresi, Catherine; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Haj-Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Ploski, Rafal; Krajewski, Pawel; Hervig, Tor; Moen, Torolf; Herrera, Rene J.; Wilson, James F.; Myers, Simon; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. While these efforts are bringing the details of West Eurasian prehistory into increasing focus, studies aimed at understanding the processes behind the generation of the current West Eurasian genetic landscape have been limited by the number of populations sampled or have been either too regional or global in their outlook [8, 9, 10, 11]. Here, using recently described haplotype-based techniques [11], we present the results of a systematic survey of recent admixture history across Western Eurasia and show that admixture is a universal property across almost all groups. Admixture in all regions except North Western Europe involved the influx of genetic material from outside of West Eurasia, which we date to specific time periods. Within Northern, Western, and Central Europe, admixture tended to occur between local groups during the period 300 to 1200 CE. Comparisons of the genetic profiles of West Eurasians before and after admixture show that population movements within the last 1,500 years are likely to have maintained differentiation among groups. Our analysis provides a timeline of the gene flow events that have generated the contemporary genetic landscape of West Eurasia. PMID:26387712

  8. [Social play in the development of sibling relations in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, G S; Antonevich, A L; Erofeeva, M N; Naĭdenko, S V

    2014-01-01

    Social play fulfills an important function in creating and maintaining relations between siblings. However, its relationship with the intralitter social processes is poorly understood. It was noticed that, in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) litters, sex differences in social play are absent in the first 2-3 months of life. Itwas found that the most intense periods of play behavior (at an age of 9 and 1-2 weeks) coincide with periods of aggression. Gradual change in play interactions, which require close physical contact by play elements with increased motor activity, are described. This reflects the changes in the relevance of certain skills of lynx cubs as they grow older.

  9. Course of Russian History for Foreigners as an Instrument of Eurasian Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Arslanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the significance of teaching the course of history as a means, that can influence the integration process in CIS countries. It is noted that the studying of traditions and culture of the host country helps them to adapt to Russian social life. Besides, it is emphasized that the general historical knowledge creates the condition for overcoming ethnic and cultural barriers and it becomes one of the spiritual factors of Eurasian integration. Particular attention is paid to the content of the course in which specific historical examples show that Russia was founded and developed through the unity and interaction of different nations, traditions and cultures.

  10. Revealing turning points in ecosystem functioning over the Northern Eurasian agricultural frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Prishchepov, Alexander; Verbesselt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 has been a turning point in the World history that left a unique footprint on the Northern Eurasian ecosystems. Conducting large scale mapping of environmental change and separating between naturogenic and anthropogenic drivers is a difficult endeavor...... affected vegetation productivity throughout the observation period, with a general worsening of the drought conditions in recent years. Moreover, recent human-induced turning points in ecosystem functioning were detected and attributed to ongoing recultivation and change in irrigation practices...

  11. Abandoned Clay Mines: An Opportunity For Eurasian Otters In NW Spain

    OpenAIRE

    César Ayres; Pablo García

    2009-01-01

    The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is widely distributed in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, supposedly one of the best populations of Spain. Usually otters inhabit coastal and riverine habitats in this region, but in some cases they use man-made habitats. In the last three winters the seasonal use of old clay pits by otters has been studied in a locality from Galicia. The abundance of these artificial habitats could lead to a recolonization of Gandaras de Budiño and Ribeiras do Louro wetlan...

  12. The Eurasian Model of International Labour Legislation in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Lushnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article seeks to provide a comparative legal analysis of the Eurasian model of international labor legislation. It explores the multi-layered nature of contemporary international labor law in the context of globalization and regionalization, emphasizing the growing importance of cross-border legal labor standards in regional structures in the early 21st century and defines how global and regional cross-border legislation is incorporated on the basis of in favorem. The authors propose their own original concept of international labor legislation, based on the four characteristics: 1 The overall aim of legal regulation; 2 The extent of integration within those regulations; 3 Sources of labor law and their characteristics; 4 Systems of international control over labor rights. To define an original model for the legal regulation of labor, the authors investigate case studies of labour legal regulation in inter-state regional organizations including the European Union, the Council of Europe and ASEAN. The authors’ theoretical model identifies the defining features of Eurasia’s model of labor regulation. The research also follows the establishment and development of Eurasian labor law and attempts to give an informed judgment about its future path. In their conclusions, the authors assert that modern Eurasian labor law is a ‘live law’, still under development as it incorporates the non-uniform integration between the former Soviet Republics. Two primary trends leading regional co-operation in the labor market are identified: 1 A social model, implementing international labor rights across Eurasia; 2 An economic model, built on the free movement of labor in a common market. In today’s environment, the Commonwealth of Independent States goes some way toward representing the first trend through its attempts to serve as an international coordinating organization. The second trend is supported by supranational organizations promoting

  13. Introducing a new Book on the Ural-Altaic Language Classification (Towards Eurasian Linguistic Isoglosses: the Case of Turkic and Hungarian)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, László Marácz introduces his own book on a new approach to the Ural-Altaic language classification. The book entitled ‘Towards Eurasian Linguistic Isoglosses: the Case of Hungarian and Turkic’ (henceforth ‘Towards Eurasian Linguistic Isoglosses…’ abbreviated as TELI) develops a

  14. Neogene arctic forests: deep-time analogs of a mild ice-free Arctic (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.

    2010-12-01

    There is growing evidence that high-latitude environments are warming at a fast pace and may be particularly sensitive to climate change. Thus, there is a critical need for climatic and ecological analogs of mild ice-free high-latitude regions of Earth. We can investigate the ecosystem response to warmer climates at mid- to high-latitudes in many northern North American ancient basins that archive “deep-time” analogs of warm high-latitude climates; particularly those that contain Paleogene and Neogene strata. In this context, I evaluated secular changes in the paleoecology of high-latitude terrestrial plant communities associated with long term Cenozoic climatic change. In the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and Alaska, taxodiaceous swamps (prevalent in the far north during the early Cenozoic) had large amounts of standing biomass and at least moderate primary productivity. Given the size of the fossil trees in the CAA and Alaska (up to 2 m diameter and 40 m tall), and the geographic extent of associated coal deposits; the Arctic forests probably represent the maximum forest biomass and productivity achievable near the poles. Miocene fossil floras from the CAA are taxonomically diverse and include elements of the Taxodiaceae and the Pinaceae. These forests were smaller in stature (canopy heights of 16-21 m) than their early Cenozoic counterparts and sequestered less biomass but were moderately productive. By the late-middle Miocene, climatic cooling corresponds with the shift from Taxodiaceae-to Pinaceae-dominated swamps and floodplain forests in the CAA. By the Pliocene, fossil floras indicate a transition to lowland forests dominated by Picea and Larix in the CAA. These forests were smaller in stature than the Miocene forests but substantially larger than modern taiga vegetation. In Alaska, the Miocene to Pliocene shift in vegetation is more complex, with fossil floras of the Alaskan interior suggesting cooler and drier conditions than coeval floras from

  15. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

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    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János

    2010-05-01

    The Neogene Pannonian basin is underlain by a large orogenic collage which is built up by several tectonostratigraphic terrains. The basement of the Pannonian Basin became imbricate nappes during the Cretaceous Alpine collision. Nappes of Late Cretaceous in age have been proven below the Great Hungarian Plain (Grow et al 1994). The boundary of the two main terrains, the northwestern ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the southeastern TISZA, is the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. It is the most significant neotectonic zone of the Pannonian Basin. The structural analysis of the middle section of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt was carried out on a 120km x 50km area, between the Danube and the Tisza river, on the basis of interpretation of seismic data. The structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments was supported by sequence stratigraphic interpretation of seismic, well log and core-sample data. Regional seismic profiles were both oriented in the dip direction, which highlights sediment supply routes into the basin, and strike-oriented. The studied segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt consists of several long (some ten kilometres long) strike slip fault zones. The offset lengths of the individual strike slipe faults varies between a few and a dozens of kilometres. Activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt can be characterised by four periods, the size and shape of facies zones of each development period were controlled by tectonics: 1. During the early Miocene, the ALPACA moved eastward, bounded by sinistral strike-slipe system along its northern side and dextral strike-slipe fault system along its contact with the Southern Alps and the TISZA terrain. The largest movement took part during the Ottnangian-Karpatian (19-16.5 Ma). The TISZA unit moved northeastward over the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin (Nemcok et al 2006). These terrains movements resulted in right lateral, convergent wide wrench along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. The ALPACA

  16. Neogene Patagonian plateau lavas: Continental magmas associated with ridge collision at the Chile Triple Junction

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    Gorring, Matthew L.; Kay, Suzanne M.; Zeitler, Peter K.; Ramos, Victor A.; Rubiolo, Daniel; Fernandez, Marisa I.; Panza, Jose L.

    1997-02-01

    Extensive Neogene Patagonian plateau lavas (46.5° to 49.5°S) southeast of the modern Chile Triple Junction can be related to opening of asthenospheric "slab windows" associated with collisions of Chile Rise segments with the Chile Trench at ≈ 12 Ma and 6 Ma. Support comes from 26 new total-fusion, whole rock 40Ar/39Ar ages and geochemical data from back arc plateau lavas. In most localities, plateau lava sequences consist of voluminous, tholeiitic main-plateau flows overlain by less voluminous, 2 to 5 million year younger, alkalic postplateau flows. Northeast of where the ridge collided at ≈12 Ma, most lavas are syncollisional or postcollisional in age, with eruptions of both sequences migrating northeastward at 50 to 70 km/Ma. Plateau lavas have ages from 12 to 7 Ma in the western back arc and from 5 to 2 Ma farther to the northeast. Trace element and isotopic data indicate main-plateau lavas formed as larger percentage melts of a garnet-bearing, oceanic island basalt (OIB) -like mantle than postplateau lavas. The highest percentage melts erupted in the western and central plateaus. In a migrating slab window model, main-plateau lavas can be explained as melts that formed as upwelling, subslab asthenosphere which flowed around the trailing edge of the descending Nazca Plate and then interacted with subduction-altered asthenospheric wedge and continental lithosphere. Alkaline, postplateau lavas can be explained as melts generated by weaker upwelling of subslab asthenosphere through the open slab window. Thermal problems of high-pressure melt generation of anhydrous mantle can be explained by volatiles (H2O and CO2) introduced by the subduction process into slab window source region(s). An OIB-like, rather than a mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) -like source region, and the lack of magmatism northeast of where ridge collision occurred at ≈13 to 14 Ma can be explained by entrainment of "weak" plume(s) or regional variations in an ambient, OIB-like asthenosphere.

  17. A Low-velocity Finger from Iceland beneath Southern Scandinavia - the Key to Understanding Neogene Uplift?

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    Weidle, C.; Maupin, V.

    2007-12-01

    A model of upper mantle S-wave velocity beneath northwestern Europe is presented, based on a tomography of regional surface wave observations. Data from international and, more importantly, regional data archives (including temporary deployments) were used to measure group velocities for both Love and Rayleigh surface waves. The procedure for data selection, group velocity measurements and inversion for group velocity 2-D maps follows closely the one described by Levshin et al. (GJI, 170, 441-459, 2007). Our new set of group velocity maps differs significantly from global reference maps, enhancing many details and amplitudes of group velocity variations in the study region. We then apply a linear inversion scheme to invert for 1-D shear wave velocity profiles which are assembled to a 3-D model. By choosing conservative regularization parameters in the 2-D inversion we ensure the smoothness of the group velocity maps and the resulting 3-D shear wave speed model. To account for the different tectonic regimes in the study region, we compare inversions with 3 different reference models (pure 1-D, 3-D crust / 1-D mantle and pure 3-D) to investigate the sensitivity of the 1-D inversions to inaccuracies in crustal models. We find that all three models are consistent at depths below 90 km and the resulting models deviate only slightly from each other, mostly in amplitudes. We image an intriguing low-velocity anomaly extending from the Iceland plume domain across the north Atlantic beneath southern Scandinavia between 70-150 km depth. Beneath southern Norway, the negative perturbations reach a maximum of up to 13 % w.r.t. ak135 and a shallowing of the anomaly is indicated. This observation could explain the sustained uplift of southern Scandinavia in Neogene times, but the mechanisms are yet undetermined. Furthermore, our upper mantle model reveals good alignment to ancient plate boundaries and first-order crustal fronts around the triple junction of the Baltica

  18. Neogene evolution of the Slovenj Gradec Basin, Northern Slovenia (preliminary results)

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    Trajanova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Slovenj Gradec basin is situated along the west side of the Labot fault, adjacent to the Pohorje Mountains massif in northern Slovenia. This Neogene basin is tectonically bounded toward the older Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations. The most pronounced are the Labot fault to the east-northeast and the Periadriatic dextral shear fault zone to the south. Miocene sedimentary rocks of the wider Slovenj Gradec area were not considered as a part of Pannonian basin. More recent investigations, comprising radiometric dating, paleomagnetism and structural parameters (Márton et al. 2006, Trajanova et al. 2008, Fodor et al. 2008), indicate that sediments of the wider Slovenj Gradec area correspond to the Miocene Pannonian basin formations. Calcareous nannoplankton assemblages found in the borehole MD-1 (Ćorić, Trajanova & Lapanje, 2011) support marine environment of the deposition and correlate well with the findings in the Styrian and Mura-Zala basins (Jelen et al. 2008). Structural elements of the basin show three main evolutionary phases. Its initial stage is most probably influenced by the east-west extension connected to development of the Labot fault. It was accompanied with marginal normal faulting. This was probably lower Miocene (Ottnangian to Karpatian) D1 syntransgressional phase with synchronous rapid infilling of coarse material from the southern, western and northwestern basin's margins. Oblique north-easterly directed D2 compressive phase affected the south and south-eastern parts of the basin, while northwest-southeast extensional regime dominated in the area adjacent to the Labot fault. The western and southern margins of the basin were uplifted and erosion took place. Simultaneously, the connection to the Pannonian basin was cut off by the left rotating eastern parts of the Austroalpine units (Pohorje and Kozjak Mountains) (Márton et al. 2008) and tilting of Pohorje along the Labot fault. As deduced from the cooling history of the Pohorje batholith

  19. Monitoring testicular activity of male Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx by fecal testosterone metabolite measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewgenow, K; Naidenko, S V; Goeritz, F; Vargas, A; Dehnhard, M

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify relevant fecal testosterone metabolites in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) using HPLC analysis and to evaluate the specificity of two testosterone immunoassays against these fecal metabolites. Finally, fecal hormone analysis was used to characterize seasonal reproductive activity of captive male Eurasian and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx. Fecal samples from a male Eurasian lynx who received an i.v. injection of [3H]testosterone were subjected to HPLC analysis. All HPLC fractions were analyzed for radioactivity and androgen content by two testosterone immune assays (EIA and Testosterone-Immulite kits, DPC Biermann, Germany). Furthermore, fecal samples from four Eurasian lynx males (n=174) and three Iberian lynx (n=52) were collected throughout the year and fecal testosterone metabolites were determined with Testosterone-Immulite assay. HPLC separation of radiolabeled Eurasian lynx fecal extract indicated that the majority of testosterone metabolites are substances with a higher polarity than testosterone. Only minor proportion of radioactivity co-eluted with authentic testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Enzymatic hydrolysis and solvolysis of the fecal extract were insufficient to liberate testosterone. After solvolysis relatively more activity was eluated the position of DHT, but the majority of metabolites remained unaffected. The EIA measured substantial amount of immunoreactivity, which corresponded with two radioactive peaks. Additionally, both immunoassays recognized two metabolites, which were only minor components according to their radioactivity. The Immulite assay was able to recognize a metabolite at the position of dihydrotestosterone. HPLC separation of Iberian lynx feces extracts revealed a similar metabolite pattern determined by EIA that were typical for Eurasian lynx fecal extracts. Simultaneous analyses of fecal samples with both testosterone assays provided comparative results for both lynx species

  20. Isolationism versus Geopolitics: The Dual Role of the Eurasian Economic Union in Global Governance

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    Maxim Bratersky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article conceptualizes ongoing efforts to develop the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, initiated by Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2011. Engaging with two major theoretical perspectives, it establishes to what extent the EEU’s construction and potential expansion is economic regionalism (interpreted also as an isolationist strategy driven by Russia led geopolitical motives. The political-economy debate of Eurasia goes beyond a common tariff area and a common market within the territory of the former USSR. Increasingly, it involves the establishment of a common monetary area. China’s Silk Road Economic Belt is building a foundation for a new Eurasia – one of the global economic and political players of this century. The economic reasons pursued by Russia in its Eurasian initiative are inseparable from economic problems of geopolitical significance. The overarching objective of Russian policy is to establish a regional economic fusion, with significant economic sovereignty and strong political influence; that is, to become the new centre of power in the global economy of the 21st century. Correspondingly, although Russian integration policy in Eurasia has not been formulated in an anti-American way, if it is successful the likely consequence will be the withdrawal of a significant segment of the global market from the economic dominance and political influence of western-led economic blocs.

  1. Critical steps to ensure the successful reintroduction of the Eurasian red squirrel

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    Vieira, B. P

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife reintroduction strategies aim to establish viable long–term populations, promote conservation awareness and provide economic benefits for local communities. In Portugal, the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris became extinct in the 16th century and was reintroduced in urban parks in the 1990s, mainly for aesthetic and leisure purposes. We evaluated the success of this reintroduction in two urban parks and here described the critical steps. We assessed habitat use, population density and abundance, and management steps carried out during reintroduction projects. Reintroductions have been successful to some extent given squirrels are present 20 years after release. However, populations in both parks are declining due to the lack of active management and poor quality habitat. Successful reintroduction of Eurasian red squirrel in areas without competition of alien tree squirrels involves three critical main stages. The pre–project stage includes studies on habitat quality, genetic proximity between donors and closest wild population, and health of donor stocks. In the release stage, the number of individuals released will depend on resource variability, and the hard release technique is an effective and economically viable method. Post–release activities should evaluate adaptation, mitigate mortality, monitor the need for supplementary feeding, provide veterinary support, and promote public awareness and education.

  2. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Players, Interests and Implementation Challenges

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    Andrei Skriba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2015, Russia and China coordinated their activities in Central Asia and decided to connect the Eurasian EconomicUnion (EEU and the Silk Road Economic Belt. This decision seemed to prevent unnecessary competition between these two basically non-conflicting projects. However, in time there appeared a lack of understanding of this combined endeavour and its implementation mechanisms. It is still unclear how further dialogue between the EEU and the Silk Road will proceed. There is no consensuson the participation of the EEU members and the Eurasian Economic Commission. Without a clear strategy, the Russian-Chinese agreement has started to lose momentum. Some non-regional players can benefit from this – of course, in their own interests.This articles attempt to explain the threats posed by delay and inaction in the combined EEU and Silk Road projects, and to describe the potential benefits of actively implementing the combination. It then proposes a concrete format for such a combination, its priority areas, as well as mechanisms for implementation.

  3. Caching at a distance: a cache protection strategy in Eurasian jays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Edward W; Ostojić, Ljerka; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-07-01

    A fundamental question about the complexity of corvid social cognition is whether behaviours exhibited when caching in front of potential pilferers represent specific attempts to prevent cache loss (cache protection hypothesis) or whether they are by-products of other behaviours (by-product hypothesis). Here, we demonstrate that Eurasian jays preferentially cache at a distance when observed by conspecifics. This preference for a 'far' location could be either a by-product of a general preference for caching at that specific location regardless of the risk of cache loss or a by-product of a general preference to be far away from conspecifics due to low intra-species tolerance. Critically, we found that neither by-product account explains the jays' behaviour: the preference for the 'far' location was not shown when caching in private or when eating in front of a conspecific. In line with the cache protection hypothesis we found that jays preferred the distant location only when caching in front of a conspecific. Thus, it seems likely that for Eurasian jays, caching at a distance from an observer is a specific cache protection strategy.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA Suggests a Western Eurasian Origin for Ancient (Proto-) Bulgarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesheva, D V; Karachanak-Yankova, S; Lari, M; Yordanov, Y; Galabov, A; Caramelli, D; Toncheva, D

    2015-01-01

    Ancient (proto-) Bulgarians have long been thought of as a Turkic population. However, evidence found in the past three decades shows that this is not the case. Until now, this evidence has not included ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. To fill this void, we collected human remains from the 8th to the 10th century AD located in three necropolises in Bulgaria: Nojarevo (Silistra region) and Monastery of Mostich (Shumen region), both in northeastern Bulgaria, and Tuhovishte (Satovcha region) in southwestern Bulgaria. The phylogenetic analysis of 13 ancient DNA samples (extracted from teeth) identified 12 independent haplotypes, which we further classified into mtDNA haplogroups found in present-day European and western Eurasian populations. Our results suggest a western Eurasian matrilineal origin for proto-Bulgarians, as well as a genetic similarity between proto- and modern Bulgarians. Our future work will provide additional data that will further clarify proto-Bulgarian origins, thereby adding new clues to the current understanding of European genetic evolution.

  5. WHITHER DEVELOPMENT? THE EFFECTS OF THE EURASIAN UNION ON THE CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLICS

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    Adelin Dumitru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the impact of the Eurasian Union on the Central Asian republics, with a focus on remittances trends. To this end I review at first the literature regarding the effects of the Customs Union on its members. Then, I assess the current state of the economies most likely to be affected by membership in the Eurasian Union, i.e. Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, whose specificity is their dependency on remittances. Secondly, I present a plausible scenario in regard to the influence of the formalization of this regional organization on the emerging Central Asian regional security subcomplex. I argue that the EEU is a hindrance towards the five Central Asian Republics’ evolving towards a regional security complex. Not only has it already distorted trade in the region, but it can also turn some presently frozen conflicts into security hotspots. I hold that the only way to spur development in the region is, internally, to diversify the economy, and, externally, to bring the five republics closer. I try to show that the Central Asian Republics should simultaneously pursue a switch from a balance of threat to regional integration and sustainable national development. Nonetheless, the EEU will have at best mixed effects when it comes to these necessities. Alternatively, China and the New Silk Road initiative that it endorses might contribute to de-securitizing some of the existing issues.

  6. Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ≤ 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection.

  7. Histomorphological features of the tongue of the Eurasian teal (Anas crecca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban Abbasabadi, B; Sayrafi, R

    2017-12-04

    This study presents the histomorphological features of tongue in Eurasian teal (Anas crecca); the smallest extant dabbling duck. Heads of four adult males and four adult females were used in this study. The results illustrate a tongue with three different parts; the apex with a lingual nail in ventral surface, the body with a lingual prominence in caudal part and some large and small conical papillae in lateral sides and the root, that was covered with many conical papillae in different sizes. Histological results revealed two types of keratinized and non-keratinized epithelium covering parts of the tongue. The lingual salivary glands were observed in the lamina propria of the body and root of the tongue showed strongly periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive reaction. The yellow adipose tissue was located under the lamina propria on the body and root of the tongue. The filiform papillae between the conical papillae of the body were arranged densely. The sensory organs, which contain sensory receptors (Grandry and Herbst corpuscles), were located in the lamina propria of the body of the tongue. In conclusion, the anatomical and histological structure of the Eurasian teal' tongue was generally similar to its family members such as domestic goose and duck but showed some differences that may be adoptions to the bird's habitat and mode of feeding. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Sexual dimorphism of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in South Korea: Craniodental geometric morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Alice Ching Ching; Asahara, Masakazu; Han, Sung Yong; Kimura, Junpei

    2016-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism of the craniodental morphology of the Eurasian otter in South Korea was studied with geometric morphometrics. 29 adult skulls (15 males and 14 females) were used. Images of the dorsal and ventral view of the cranium and right lateral view of the mandible were taken and then digitized, and measurements were taken on the right side. Results showed that size difference between males and females was significant. Correlations between the size and shape variations have not been observed in this study. The bivariate plots with centroid size showed size dimorphism between males and females with some overlapping. Most relative warp (RW) scores were not significantly different between males and females. We observed only RW2 for dorsal and ventral view of the skull, and only RW1 for mandible was significantly different between the sexes. Shape dimorphisms were revealed at the postorbital constriction, temporal-mandibular joint, coronoid process, mandibular condyle and angular process of the skull. Based on our study, sexual dimorphism exists in Eurasian otter from the South Korean population in terms of both the size and shape. Furthermore, the degree of size dimorphism is greater than shape dimorphism.

  9. Simulating Changes in Fires and Ecology of the 21st Century Eurasian Boreal Forests of Siberia

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    Ksenia Brazhnik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires release the greatest amount of carbon into the atmosphere compared to other forest disturbances. To understand how current and potential future fire regimes may affect the role of the Eurasian boreal forest in the global carbon cycle, we employed a new, spatially-explicit fire module DISTURB-F (DISTURBance-Fire in tandem with a spatially-explicit, individually-based gap dynamics model SIBBORK (SIBerian BOReal forest simulator calibrated to Krasnoyarsk Region. DISTURB-F simulates the effect of forest fire on the boreal ecosystem, namely the mortality of all or only the susceptible trees (loss of biomass, i.e., carbon within the forested landscape. The fire module captures some important feedbacks between climate, fire and vegetation structure. We investigated the potential climate-driven changes in the fire regime and vegetation in middle and south taiga in central Siberia, a region with extensive boreal forest and rapidly changing climate. The output from this coupled simulation can be used to estimate carbon losses from the ecosystem as a result of fires of different sizes and intensities over the course of secondary succession (decades to centuries. Furthermore, it may be used to assess the post-fire carbon storage capacity of potential future forests, the structure and composition of which may differ significantly from current Eurasian boreal forests due to regeneration under a different climate.

  10. Remarkable link between projected uncertainties of Arctic sea-ice decline and winter Eurasian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoffman H. N.; Keenlyside, Noel; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Zhou, Wen

    2018-01-01

    We identify that the projected uncertainty of the pan-Arctic sea-ice concentration (SIC) is strongly coupled with the Eurasian circulation in the boreal winter (December-March; DJFM), based on a singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis of the forced response of 11 CMIP5 models. In the models showing a stronger sea-ice decline, the Polar cell becomes weaker and there is an anomalous increase in the sea level pressure (SLP) along 60°N, including the Urals-Siberia region and the Iceland low region. There is an accompanying weakening of both the midlatitude westerly winds and the Ferrell cell, where the SVD signals are also related to anomalous sea surface temperature warming in the midlatitude North Atlantic. In the Mediterranean region, the anomalous circulation response shows a decreasing SLP and increasing precipitation. The anomalous SLP responses over the Euro-Atlantic region project on to the negative North Atlantic Oscillation-like pattern. Altogether, pan-Arctic SIC decline could strongly impact the winter Eurasian climate, but we should be cautious about the causality of their linkage.

  11. Pilfering Eurasian jays use visual and acoustic information to locate caches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachael C; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-11-01

    Pilfering corvids use observational spatial memory to accurately locate caches that they have seen another individual make. Accordingly, many corvid cache-protection strategies limit the transfer of visual information to potential thieves. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) employ strategies that reduce the amount of visual and auditory information that is available to competitors. Here, we test whether or not the jays recall and use both visual and auditory information when pilfering other birds' caches. When jays had no visual or acoustic information about cache locations, the proportion of available caches that they found did not differ from the proportion expected if jays were searching at random. By contrast, after observing and listening to a conspecific caching in gravel or sand, jays located a greater proportion of caches, searched more frequently in the correct substrate type and searched in fewer empty locations to find the first cache than expected. After only listening to caching in gravel and sand, jays also found a larger proportion of caches and searched in the substrate type where they had heard caching take place more frequently than expected. These experiments demonstrate that Eurasian jays possess observational spatial memory and indicate that pilfering jays may gain information about cache location merely by listening to caching. This is the first evidence that a corvid may use recalled acoustic information to locate and pilfer caches.

  12. Transregionalism: Underlying Concept of EAEU-ASEAN Cooperation and Greater Eurasian Partnership

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    Anna A. Garmash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the EAEU seeks to integrate itself into the global economy as one of its regional economic centers. Developing ties with other regional integration groups corresponds the EAEU’s interests and facilitates the polycentric structure of the emerging world order. In this respect, in 2016 on the sidelines of the third Russia-ASEAN Summit Russian President Vladimir Putin proposed to develop stronger relations between the EAEU and ASEAN as well as to form a greater Eurasian partnership encompassing the EAEU, the SCO and ASEAN. While geographically vast, these projects lack conceptual underpinning. It is deemed that transregionalism – an international phenomenon which is insuffi ciently explored by both Western and Russian scholars, can provide a crucial theoretical foundation for these initiatives. The author compares the mechanisms which ASEAN employs to promote transregional cooperation with the EU, MERCOSUR and the GCC as well as within the frameworks of such dialogue platforms as ASEM and FEALAC. The author suggests that EAEU-ASEAN relations should be analyzed from the viewpoint of a classic transregionalism, while a greater Eurasian partnership seen as an example of a broader one. The results of the analysis are instrumental in laying out practical recommendations for the EAEU in carrying out its transregional agenda.

  13. Kinematics of the Neogene Terror Rift: Constraints from calcite twinning strain in AND-1B core, McMurdo Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, T.; Wilson, T. J.; Demosthenous, C.; Millan, C.; Jarrard, R. D.; Laufer, A.

    2013-12-01

    Strain analyses of mechanically twinned calcite in veins and faults hosted by Neogene (13.6 Ma to 4.3 Ma) sedimentary and volcanic rocks recovered within the ANDRILL AND-1B drill core from the Terror Rift in the southern Ross Sea, Antarctica, yield prolate and oblate ellipsoids with principal shortening and extension strains ranging from 0.1% to 8.5%. The majority of samples show homogeneous coaxial strain predominantly characterized by subvertical shortening, which we attribute to lithostatic loading in an Andersonian normal faulting stress regime during sedimentary and ice sheet burial of the stratigraphic sequence. The overall paucity of a non-coaxial layer-parallel shortening signal in the AND-1B twin populations suggests that horizontal compressive stresses predicted by Neogene transtensional kinematic models for the rift system have been absent or of insufficient magnitude to cause a widespread noncoaxial strain overprint. Limited numbers of oriented samples yield a possible average ESE extension direction for the rift that is subparallel to other indicators of Neogene extension. The lack of horizontal shortening in the twin data suggests the Neogene Terror Rift system either lacks a strong longitudinal strike-slip component, or that spatial partitioning of strain controls the maximum shortening axes seen in rocks of this age.

  14. Neogene paleogeography provides context for understanding the origin and spatial distribution of cryptic diversity in a widespread Balkan freshwater amphipod

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    Michał Grabowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The Balkans are a major worldwide biodiversity and endemism hotspot. Among the freshwater biota, amphipods are known for their high cryptic diversity. However, little is known about the temporal and paleogeographic aspects of their evolutionary history. We used paleogeography as a framework for understanding the onset of diversification in Gammarus roeselii: (1 we hypothesised that, given the high number of isolated waterbodies in the Balkans, the species is characterised by high level of cryptic diversity, even on a local scale; (2 the long geological history of the region might promote pre-Pleistocene divergence between lineages; (3 given that G. roeselii thrives both in lakes and rivers, its evolutionary history could be linked to the Balkan Neogene paleolake system; (4 we inspected whether the Pleistocene decline of hydrological networks could have any impact on the diversification of G. roeselii. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from 177 individuals collected from 26 sites all over Balkans. All individuals were amplified for ca. 650 bp long fragment of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI. After defining molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU based on COI, 50 individuals were amplified for ca. 900 bp long fragment of the nuclear 28S rDNA. Molecular diversity, divergence, differentiation and historical demography based on COI sequences were estimated for each MOTU. The relative frequency, geographic distribution and molecular divergence between COI haplotypes were presented as a median-joining network. COI was used also to reconstruct time-calibrated phylogeny with Bayesian inference. Probabilities of ancestors’ occurrence in riverine or lacustrine habitats, as well their possible geographic locations, were estimated with the Bayesian method. A Neighbour Joining tree was constructed to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships between 28S rDNA haplotypes. Results We revealed that G. roeselii includes at least

  15. Making Earth's earliest continental crust - an analogue from voluminous Neogene silicic volcanism in NE-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Riishuus, Morten S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Harris, Chris; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2014-05-01

    Borgarfjörður Eystri in NE-Iceland represents the second-most voluminous exposure of silicic eruptive rocks in Iceland and is a superb example of bimodal volcanism (Bunsen-Daly gap), which represents a long-standing controversy that touches on the problem of crustal growth in early Earth. The silicic rocks in NE-Iceland approach 25 % of the exposed rock mass in the region (Gústafsson et al., 1989), thus they significantly exceed the usual ≤ 12 % in Iceland as a whole (e.g. Walker, 1966; Jonasson, 2007). The origin, significance, and duration of the voluminous (> 300 km3) and dominantly explosive silicic activity in Borgarfjörður Eystri is not yet constrained (c.f. Gústafsson, 1992), leaving us unclear as to what causes silicic volcanism in otherwise basaltic provinces. Here we report SIMS zircon U-Pb ages and δ18O values from the region, which record the commencement of silicic igneous activity with rhyolite lavas at 13.5 to 12.8 Ma, closely followed by large caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions from the Breiðavik and Dyrfjöll central volcanoes (12.4 Ma). Silicic activity ended abruptly with dacite lava at 12.1 Ma, defining a ≤ 1 Myr long window of silicic volcanism. Magma δ18O values estimated from zircon range from 3.1 to 5.5 (± 0.3; n = 170) and indicate up to 45 % assimilation of a low-δ18O component (e.g. typically δ18O = 0 ‰, Bindeman et al., 2012). A Neogene rift relocation (Martin et al., 2011) or the birth of an off-rift zone to the east of the mature rift associated with a thermal/chemical pulse in the Iceland plume (Óskarsson & Riishuus, 2013), likely brought mantle-derived magma into contact with fertile hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. The resulting interaction triggered large-scale crustal melting and generated mixed-origin silicic melts. Such rapid formation of silicic magmas from sustained basaltic volcanism may serve as an analogue for generating continental crust in a subduction-free early Earth (e.g. ≥ 3 Ga, Kamber et

  16. Genetic structure of Eurasian and North American Leymus (Triticeae) wildryes assessed by chloroplast DNA sequences and AFLP profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Mae Culumber; Steve R. Larson; Kevin B. Jensen; Thomas A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Leymus is a genomically defined allopolyploid of genus Triticeae with two distinct subgenomes. Chloroplast DNA sequences of Eurasian and North American species are distinct and polyphyletic. However, phylogenies derived from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences are confounded by polyploidy and lack of polymorphism among many taxa. The AFLP technique can resolve...

  17. Seasonal prediction and predictability of Eurasian spring snow water equivalent in NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 reforecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zuo, Zhiyan; Zhang, Renhe; Zhang, Ruonan

    2018-01-01

    The spring snow water equivalent (SWE) over Eurasia plays an important role in East Asian and Indian monsoon rainfall. This study evaluates the seasonal prediction capability of NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) retrospective forecasts (1983-2010) for the Eurasian spring SWE. The results demonstrate that CFSv2 is able to represent the climatological distribution of the observed Eurasian spring SWE with a lead time of 1-3 months, with the maximum SWE occurring over western Siberia and Northeastern Europe. For a longer lead time, the SWE is exaggerated in CFSv2 because the start of snow ablation in CFSv2 lags behind that of the observation, and the simulated snowmelt rate is less than that in the observation. Generally, CFSv2 can simulate the interannual variations of the Eurasian spring SWE 1-5 months ahead of time but with an exaggerated magnitude. Additionally, the downtrend in CFSv2 is also overestimated. Because the initial conditions (ICs) are related to the corresponding simulation results significantly, the robust interannual variability and the downtrend in the ICs are most likely the causes for these biases. Moreover, CFSv2 exhibits a high potential predictability for the Eurasian spring SWE, especially the spring SWE over Siberia, with a lead time of 1-5 months. For forecasts with lead times longer than 5 months, the model predictability gradually decreases mainly due to the rapid decrease in the model signal.

  18. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  19. Daily energy expenditure and short-term reproductive costs in free-ranging Eurasian Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, K.I.; Korpimaki, E.; Pen, I.R.; Tolonen, P.

    1. The relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE), measured using the doubly labelled water technique, and flight activity, rate of food delivery, daily mass change and body condition was studied in a population of the Eurasian Kestrel in Finland. Only female Kestrels were recorded for

  20. The reintroduction of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) into the Netherlands: hidden life revealed by noninvasive genetic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Pérez-Haro, M.; Jansman, H.A.H.; Boerwinkel, M.C.; Bovenschen, J.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Niewold, F.J.J.; Kuiters, A.T.

    2010-01-01

    The last recorded presence of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in the Netherlands dates from 1989 and concerned a dead individual. In 2002 a reintroduction programme was started, and between June 2002 and April 2008 a total of 30 individuals (10 males and 20 females) were released into a lowland

  1. Haematozoan infections in the Eurasian kestrel : Effects of fluctuating food supply and experimental manipulation of parental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehn, J.; Korpimaki, E.; Pen, I.R.

    The influence of parental effort on susceptibility to parasitism was investigated experimentally in the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Finland. Parental effort was manipulated by either enlarging or reducing broods by 1-2 young, while unmanipulated broods served as controls. This was done

  2. Quartz OSL dating of late quaternary Chinese and Serbian loess: A cross Eurasian comparison of dust mass accumulation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peric, Zoran; Adolphi, Emma Lagerbäck; Stevens, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    on multi-millennial timescales, with no detailed examination of dust MAR at the two ends of the Eurasian loess belt on shorter, sub-orbital scales. Here we present a detailed quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) chronology from the Serbian Titel Loess Plateau (Veliki Surduk loess core...

  3. Validated RealTime reverse transcriptase PCR methods for the diagnosis and pathotyping of Eurasian H7 avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomka, M.J.; Pavlidis, T.; Coward, V.J.; Voermans, J.; Koch, G.; Hanna, A.; Banks, J.; Brown, I.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Avian influenza (AI) caused by H7 AI viruses (AIVs) of both low pathogenicity (LP) and high pathogenicity (HP) are notifiable poultry diseases. Objectives Design and validate two RealTime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RRT PCRs) for Eurasian H7 AIV detection and

  4. Variability of interleaving structure of Atlantic Water during its propagation along the Eurasian basin (Arctic Ocean) continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurbas, Nataliya; Kuzmina, Natalia; Lyzhkov, Dmitry; Ostapchuk, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    In order to give detailed description of the interleaving structure in the Eurasian basin results of observations carried out during NABOS 2008 and Polarstern cruise in 1996 were analyzed. The study was focused on interleaving parameters (structure and vertical scale of intrusions) variability in the upper (150-300 meters) and intermediate (300-700 meters) layers of the ocean. Based on θ,S/θ,σ-diagrams (θ, S and σ are the potential temperature, salinity and potential density, correspondingly) analysis two main results were obtained. First of all it was shown that intrusive layers carried by the mean current along the Eurasian Basin continental margin become deeper relatively isopycnals and thus stimulate ventilation of pycnocline. Second, the area in Eurasian Basin thermocline was found where intrusive layers of large and small scale were absent. This distinctive feature can be explained by intensive mixing between two branches of Atlantic Water, one of which propagates along Eurasian basin continental margin and the other spreads across the basin due to large scale interleaving processes. Among others, one of the possible methods of integral estimation of Atlantic water masses heat and salt contents variations during their expansion along basin continental margin was proposed. Thus it is reasonable to assess variation of square under the θ(S)-diagrams, which illustrate the data obtained from two CTD-stations located on diametrically opposite sides of Eurasian Basin, taking 0.5°C isotherm as a reference value. For verification of the introduced approach the estimates of heat and salt contents variations were made by different methods. Detailed discussion of the results is presented. Work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No 15-05-01479-a).

  5. Detection of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Mussels and Oysters Using the Qualitative Neogen Lateral-Flow Immunoassay: An Interlaboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorantes-Aranda, Juan José; Tan, Jessica Y C; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M; Campbell, Katrina; Ugalde, Sarah C; Harwood, D Tim; Bartlett, Jill K; Campàs, Mònica; Crooks, Steven; Gerssen, Arjen; Harrison, Keith; Huet, Anne-Catherine; Jordan, Timothy B; Koeberl, Martina; Monaghan, Tim; Murray, Sam; Nimmagadda, Rama; Ooms, Corinne; Quinlan, Rae K; Shi, Feng; Turner, Andrew D; Yakes, Betsy Jean; Turnbull, Alison R

    2017-08-30

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve molluscs represent a public health risk and are controlled via compliance with a regulatory limit of 0.8 mg saxitoxin (STX)⋅2HCl equivalents per kilogram of shellfish meat (eq/kg). Shellfish industries would benefit from the use of rapid immunological screening tests for PSTs to be used for regulation, but to date none have been fully validated. An interlaboratory study involving 16 laboratories was performed to determine the suitability of the Neogen test to detect PSTs in mussels and oysters. Participants performed the standard protocol recommended by the manufacturer and a modified protocol with a conversion step to improve detection of gonyautoxin 1&4. The statistical analysis showed that the protocols had good homogeneity across all laboratories, with satisfactory repeatability, laboratory, and reproducibility variation near the regulatory level. The mean probability of detection (POD) at 0.8 mg STX⋅2HCl eq/kg using the standard protocol in mussels and oysters was 0.966 and 0.997, respectively, and 0.968 and 0.966 using the modified protocol. The estimated LOD in mussels was 0.316 mg STX⋅2HCl eq/kg with the standard and 0.682 mg STX⋅2HCl eq/kg with the modified protocol, and 0.710 and 0.734 mg STX⋅2HCl eq/kg for oysters, respectively. The Neogen test may be acceptable for regulatory purposes for oysters in accordance with European Commission directives in which the standard protocol provides, at the regulatory level, a probability of a negative response of 0.033 on 95% of occasions. Its use for mussels is less consistent at the regulatory level due to the wide prediction interval around the POD.

  6. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Corrie Lynne; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Fernandez Garcia, Rut

    2015-01-01

    that involves the translocation of melanistic squirrels from Funen to the squirrel-free island of Langeland. Using mitochondrial DNA of 101 historical and modern samples from throughout Denmark, we assess for the first time population structure and mitochondrial genetic diversity of Danish squirrels compared...... to its larger pan-Eurasian distribution. We find that Danish squirrels have low levels of genetic diversity, especially melanistic individuals. Bayesian skyline reconstructions show that Danish squirrels have most probably experienced a severe bottleneck within the last 200 years. Also, fine......-scale genetic structure was found between squirrels from the regions of Funen, Zealand and Jutland, which mimics the insular geography of Denmark. Additional nuclear DNA analyses will be required to determine the precise admixture levels between original Danish and introduced squirrels and to locate unmixed...

  7. SURGICAL CORRECTION OF TRAUMATIC PATELLAR LUXATION IN AN EURASIAN LYNX (LYNX LYNX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa-Garcia, V; Bañeres-De la Torre, A; Cabezas-Salamanca, M A; Lucas-Lucas, N; Rodriguez-Quiros, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the successful surgical repair of a traumatic medial patellar luxation in a 4-yr-old female Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx ). The animal presented with hind limb lameness. Physical and radiographic examinations were performed under sedation. After diagnosing a medial patellar luxation, surgical repair was recommended. A combination of soft tissue reconstructive techniques was used to repair the medial patellar luxation. The limb was not immobilized postoperatively, but the animal was confined to a cage for 1 mo. The recovery was uneventful and return to normal activity was observed within 1 mo. Soft tissue reconstructive techniques can be used as the only surgical treatment for the repair of a traumatic patellar luxation in both domestic and wild animals.

  8. [Maternal behavior of the Eurasian Lynx lynx L. during the early postnatal ontogeny of its cubs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagaeva, A A; Naĭdenko, S V

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the major elements of maternal behavior of Eurasian lynx females during the first month of life of their cubs and their association with litter parameters (number of kittens, sex, and mass) have been traced. By the end of the first month, the amount of time spent by the female outside of the den significantly increases. An association between the litter size and maternal behavior has been found. Females rearing small litters spend more time outside of their den; they also spend more time on allogrooming of each separate kitten than females with large litters. Concerning allogrooming duration, a preference for male kittens by lynx females has been noticed in the third week.

  9. Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-old vs. >2-year-old females). In general, the breeding proportion varied between age classes and study sites, whereas we did not detect such variation in litter size. The lack of differences in litter sizes among age classes is at odds with most findings in large mammals, and we argue that this is because the level of prenatal investment is relatively low in felids compared to their substantial levels of postnatal care.

  10. Parvovirus infection in a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and in a European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasieri, J; Schmiedeknecht, G; Förster, C; König, M; Reinacher, M

    2009-01-01

    A Eurasian lynx and a European wildcat from the same wildlife park were submitted for necropsy examination after sudden death and after death following a clinical history of lethargy, respectively. Neither animal had been vaccinated against feline parvovirus (feline panleukopenia virus). Feral domestic cats were widespread in the area of the wildlife park and a number of these animals that had been captured had recently died from parvovirus infection. Gross and microscopical findings in the two non-domestic felids were consistent with feline parvovirus infection and this was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The introduction of feline parvovirus into captive non-domestic felid populations could pose a threat to their health and survival. Vaccination of captive non-domestic felids is therefore recommended.

  11. Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Bröjer, Caroline; Mörner, Torsten; Jansson, Désirée S; Lundén, Anna; Uggla, Arvid

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Sweden, serosanguinous fluids and feces were collected from 207 carcasses of lynx killed or found dead from 1996 to 1998. Sera were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by the direct agglutination test, and 156 (75.4%) of the sera tested positive at antibody titers>or=40. Antibody prevalence was significantly lower in lynx originating from the northern parts of Sweden than in lynx from the more southern regions that are more densely populated by humans. Age-related differences also were found, with a significantly lower prevalence (55%) in juvenile (<1-yr-old) than in subadult and adult animals (82%). There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between males and females. Oocysts typical of T. gondii were not detected in any of the fecal samples.

  13. Epizootiologic investigations of selected infectious disease agents in free-ranging Eurasian lynx from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Leutenegger, Christian M; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Mattsson, Roland; Lutz, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 106 Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from across Sweden, found dead or shot by hunters in 1993-99, were investigated for presence of antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Francisella tularensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophila, and for feline leukemia virus antigen. In addition, tissue samples from 22 lynx submitted in 1999 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect nucleic acids specific for viral agents and A. phagocytophila. Except for FPV antibodies in one lynx and A. phagocytophila in four lynx, all serology was negative. All PCR results also were negative. It was concluded that free-ranging Swedish lynx do not have frequent contact with the infectious agents considered in this study.

  14. The smoothing effect for renewable resources in an Afro-Eurasian power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, Maria; Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno U.; von Bremen, Lueder

    2017-07-01

    Renewable power systems have to cope with highly variable generation. Increasing the spatial extent of an interconnected power transmission grid smooths the feed-in by exchange of excess energy over long distances and therefore supports renewable power integration. In this work, we investigate and quantify the balancing potential of a supergrid covering Europe, Africa and Asia. We use ten years of historical weather data to model the interplay of renewable generation and consumption and show that a pan-continental Afro-Eurasian supergrid can smooth renewable generation to a large extent and reduce the need for backup energy by around 50 %. In addition, we show that results for different weather years vary by up to approximately 50 %.

  15. Reintroduction of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in northeastern Spain: trapping, handling, and medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Morán, Jesus; Saavedra, Deli; Manteca-Vilanova, Xavier

    2002-09-01

    In 1993 a reintroduction project for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) was initiated in northeastern Spain (Girona, Catalonia) to restore extirpated populations. Between 1996 and 2000, 43 otters were captured from southwestern and northern Spain and from Portugal with modified foot-hold traps and transported to Barcelona Zoo. Lesions produced by capture were classified into four categories of increasing severity. Thirty four (79%) animals had category I, three (7%) had category II, five (12%) had category III, and only one (2%) had category IV injuries. During captivity five (11%) animals died, including one from a precapture problem. Radiotransmitter devices were implanted i.p. into 36 otters to monitor postrelease movement and survival. At least three radio-implanted otters have bred successfully in Girona province, Catalonia, after release in that area.

  16. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Labandeira, Conrad C; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr; Shih, ChungKun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Logan, M Amelia V; Hotton, Carol L; Dilcher, David

    2009-11-06

    The head and mouthpart structures of 11 species of Eurasian scorpionflies represent three extinct and closely related families during a 62-million-year interval from the late Middle Jurassic to the late Early Cretaceous. These taxa had elongate, siphonate (tubular) proboscides and fed on ovular secretions of extinct gymnosperms. Five potential ovulate host-plant taxa co-occur with these insects: a seed fern, conifer, ginkgoopsid, pentoxylalean, and gnetalean. The presence of scorpionfly taxa suggests that siphonate proboscides fed on gymnosperm pollination drops and likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms during the mid-Mesozoic, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding flies, moths, and beetles on angiosperms. All three scorpionfly families became extinct during the later Early Cretaceous, coincident with global gymnosperm-to-angiosperm turnover.

  17. The smoothing effect for renewable resources in an Afro-Eurasian power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krutova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable power systems have to cope with highly variable generation. Increasing the spatial extent of an interconnected power transmission grid smooths the feed-in by exchange of excess energy over long distances and therefore supports renewable power integration. In this work, we investigate and quantify the balancing potential of a supergrid covering Europe, Africa and Asia. We use ten years of historical weather data to model the interplay of renewable generation and consumption and show that a pan-continental Afro-Eurasian supergrid can smooth renewable generation to a large extent and reduce the need for backup energy by around 50 %. In addition, we show that results for different weather years vary by up to approximately 50 %.

  18. Underlying causes of Eurasian midcontinental aridity in simulations of mid-Holocene climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlein, Patrick J; Harrison, Sandy P; Izumi, Kenji

    2017-09-16

    Climate model simulations uniformly show drier and warmer summers in the Eurasian midcontinent during the mid-Holocene, which is not consistent with paleoenvironmental observations. The simulated climate results from a reduction in the zonal temperature gradient, which weakens westerly flow and reduces moisture flux and precipitation in the midcontinent. As a result, sensible heating is favored over evaporation and latent heating, resulting in substantial surface-driven atmospheric warming. Thus, the discrepancy with the paleoenvironmental evidence arises initially from a problem in the simulated circulation and is exacerbated by feedback from the land surface. This region is also drier and warmer than indicated by observations in the preindustrial control simulations, and this bias arises in the same way: zonal flow and hence moisture flux into the midcontinent are too weak, and feedback from the land surface results in surface-driven warming. These analyses suggest the need to improve those aspects of climate models that affect the strength of westerly circulation.

  19. One size fits all: Eurasian lynx females share a common optimal litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Nilsen, Erlend B; Odden, John; Andrén, Henrik; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Lack proposed that the average clutch size of altricial species should be determined by the average maximum number of young the parents can raise such that all females in a given population should share a common optimal clutch size. Support for this model remains equivocal and recent studies have suggested that intra-population variation in clutch size is adaptive because each female has its own optimal clutch size associated with its intrinsic ability to raise offspring. Although Lack litter size and condition-dependent litter size are presented as two competing models, both are based on the concept of individual optimization. We propose a unified optimal litter size model (called 'adaptive litter size') and identify a set of conditions under which a common vs. a state-dependent optimal litter size should be observed. We test whether females of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a common optimal litter size, or whether they adjust their litter size according to their state. We used a detailed individual-based data set collected from contrasting populations of Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Observed reproductive patterns in female lynx provide strong support for the existence of a common optimal litter size. Litter size did not vary according to female body mass or reproductive category, or among contrasted populations and years. A litter size of 2 was associated with a higher fitness than both smaller and larger litters, and thus corresponded to the 'adaptive litter size' for female lynx. We suggest that the reproductive pattern of female lynx might correspond to a risk avoidance tactic common to all individuals, which has evolved in response to strong environmental constraints generated by a highly unpredictable food supply during lactation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  20. Northeast African genomic variation shaped by the continuity of indigenous groups and Eurasian migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollfelder, Nina; Schlebusch, Carina M; Günther, Torsten; Babiker, Hiba; Hassan, Hisham Y; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2017-08-01

    Northeast Africa has a long history of human habitation, with fossil-finds from the earliest anatomically modern humans, and housing ancient civilizations. The region is also the gate-way out of Africa, as well as a portal for migration into Africa from Eurasia via the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula. We investigate the population history of northeast Africa by genotyping ~3.9 million SNPs in 221 individuals from 18 populations sampled in Sudan and South Sudan and combine this data with published genome-wide data from surrounding areas. We find a strong genetic divide between the populations from the northeastern parts of the region (Nubians, central Arab populations, and the Beja) and populations towards the west and south (Nilotes, Darfur and Kordofan populations). This differentiation is mainly caused by a large Eurasian ancestry component of the northeast populations likely driven by migration of Middle Eastern groups followed by admixture that affected the local populations in a north-to-south succession of events. Genetic evidence points to an early admixture event in the Nubians, concurrent with historical contact between North Sudanese and Arab groups. We estimate the admixture in current-day Sudanese Arab populations to about 700 years ago, coinciding with the fall of Dongola in 1315/1316 AD, a wave of admixture that reached the Darfurian/Kordofanian populations some 400-200 years ago. In contrast to the northeastern populations, the current-day Nilotic populations from the south of the region display little or no admixture from Eurasian groups indicating long-term isolation and population continuity in these areas of northeast Africa.

  1. Grain Size Analyses of Neogene-Quaternary Sediments from the Arctic Coring Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Lado-Insua, T.; O'Regan, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) recovered the first Cenozoic sediment sequence from the central Arctic Ocean. Results from this expedition indicate that perennial sea ice may have formed in the Arctic at or before the early mid-Miocene. Sea ice formation is an important process in the global climate system, affecting directly the Earth's albedo and indirectly the Meridional Overturning Circulation. The deep Arctic Ocean receives sediment primarily from ice-rafted debris and turbidity currents. Suspension freezing on the shallow continental shelves of the Arctic has generally been considered the major process trapping sediment within sea ice. Sea ice motion is largely driven by wind. The anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre transports sea ice over the Amerasia Basin, while the Transpolar Drift transports it across the Eurasian Basin. The Transpolar Drift is divided into a Siberian and Polar branch, both branches cross the position of the ACEX drilling sites on the Lomonosov Ridge. Grain size analyses of ACEX sediments were obtained with a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser diffraction particle sizing system. Preliminary analyses indicate pulses with a higher percentage of sand between 3.64 Ma ago until the end of the Gelasian (1.8 Ma). The percent sand remained relatively low during the Cenozoic with the exception of two major increases of sand occurring ~6.2 and 9.2 Ma ago and a smaller peak ~8.2 Ma ago. These intervals also show less sorting and lower values for skewness and kurtosis. Increases in the percentage of sand and less sorting at this latitude relate to ice rafted debris, indicating an increase in sea-ice melting during these periods. A Principal Components Analysis and a Maximum Correlation Factor Analysis agree on a correlation between different grain sizes that would divide the grain size in two major distributions (63 to 250 μm portion to represent glacial ice. Based on our data we hypothesize that when sediments exhibit a bimodal distribution with relatively

  2. Are regional habitat models useful at a local-scale? A case study of threatened and common insectivorous bats in South-Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McConville

    Full Text Available Habitat modelling and predictive mapping are important tools for conservation planning, particularly for lesser known species such as many insectivorous bats. However, the scale at which modelling is undertaken can affect the predictive accuracy and restrict the use of the model at different scales. We assessed the validity of existing regional-scale habitat models at a local-scale and contrasted the habitat use of two morphologically similar species with differing conservation status (Mormopterus norfolkensis and Mormopterus species 2. We used negative binomial generalised linear models created from indices of activity and environmental variables collected from systematic acoustic surveys. We found that habitat type (based on vegetation community best explained activity of both species, which were more active in floodplain areas, with most foraging activity recorded in the freshwater wetland habitat type. The threatened M. norfolkensis avoided urban areas, which contrasts with M. species 2 which occurred frequently in urban bushland. We found that the broad habitat types predicted from local-scale models were generally consistent with those from regional-scale models. However, threshold-dependent accuracy measures indicated a poor fit and we advise caution be applied when using the regional models at a fine scale, particularly when the consequences of false negatives or positives are severe. Additionally, our study illustrates that habitat type classifications can be important predictors and we suggest they are more practical for conservation than complex combinations of raw variables, as they are easily communicated to land managers.

  3. An exploratory analysis of the suitability of diets fed to a flightless insectivore, the North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Murray A; Hendriks, Wouter H; Lentle, Roger G; Thomas, Donald V; Minson, Charlotte J; Pindur, Nicola B

    2010-01-01

    The ingredients and the macro- and micro-nutrient contents of diets that are fed to captive kiwi at seven New Zealand holding facilities were subject to analysis. The nutrient compositions were compared across facilities and with an estimate of the nutrient composition of the diets of wild kiwi based on the intake of various dietary ingredients reported in the literature. A total of 20 ingredients were used, the number and proportion of these ingredients varied greatly between facilities. Six of the diets were based primarily on meat and three comprised a mixture of meat and cat biscuits. Just one included a proprietary insectivore mix. Nutrient content varied greatly between the seven diets, organic matter ranging from 91.8 to 95.6%, crude protein from 41.9 to 62.9%, and crude fat from 9.0 to 28.7% of dry matter content. Large variations were found in the total content and profile of amino acids and of fatty acids of the diets. The nutrient content of all seven diets differed from that of the natural diet of wild kiwi. Hence, the presence of nutrient deficiencies in the current formulations cannot be excluded. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from Colorado and New Mexico, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Richard A; O'Shea, Thomas J; Shankar, Vidya; Neubaum, Melissa A; Neubaum, Daniel J; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2013-04-01

    We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005. A subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus RNA in saliva. We sampled little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in Larimer County, Colorado; big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in Morgan County, Colorado; and big brown bats at five maternity roosts in Larimer County. We also sampled hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) captured while drinking or foraging over water in Bernalillo County, New Mexico and at various locations in Larimer County. Big brown bats, little brown bats, long-legged myotis (Myotis volans), long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis), and fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) were also sampled over water in Larimer County. All species except long-eared myotis included individuals with RVNA, with prevalences ranging from 7% in adult female silver-haired bats to 32% in adult female hoary bats. None of the bats had detectable rabies-virus RNA in oropharyngeal swabs, including 51 bats of 5 species that had RVNA in serum. Antibody-positive bats were present in nine of the 10 maternity colonies sampled. These data suggest that wild bats are commonly exposed to rabies virus and develop a humoral immune response suggesting some degree of viral replication, but many infections fail to progress to clinical disease.

  5. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from Colorado and New Mexico, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Richard A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Shankar, Vidya; Neubaum, Melissa A.; Neubaum, Daniel J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005. A subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus RNA in saliva. We sampled little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in Larimer County, Colorado; big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in Morgan County, Colorado; and big brown bats at five maternity roosts in Larimer County. We also sampled hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) captured while drinking or foraging over water in Bernalillo County, New Mexico and at various locations in Larimer County. Big brown bats, little brown bats, long-legged myotis (Myotis volans), long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis), and fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) were also sampled over water in Larimer County. All species except long-eared myotis included individuals with RVNA, with prevalences ranging from 7% in adult female silver-haired bats to 32% in adult female hoary bats. None of the bats had detectable rabies-virus RNA in oropharyngeal swabs, including 51 bats of 5 species that had RVNA in serum. Antibody-positive bats were present in nine of the 10 maternity colonies sampled. These data suggest that wild bats are commonly exposed to rabies virus and develop a humoral immune response suggesting some degree of viral replication, but many infections fail to progress to clinical disease.

  6. Expanded Simulation Models Version 3.0 for Growth of the Submerged Aquatic Plants American Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, Eurasian Watermilfoil by Elly P. H. Best and William A. Boyd PURPOSE: This technical note describes modifications of...Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...monoecious Potamogeton pectinatus1 ( sago pondweed)-POTAM (Best and Boyd 1996, 1999a, 1999b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, Boyd and Best 1996). These models can

  7. Neogene Tiporco Volcanic Complex, San Luis, Argentina: An explosive event in a regional transpressive - local transtensive setting in the pampean flat slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañes, Oscar Damián; Sruoga, Patricia; Japas, María Silvia; Urbina, y. Nilda Esther

    2017-07-01

    The Neogene Tiporco Volcanic Complex (TVC) is located in the Sierras Pampeanas of San Luis, Argentina, at the southeast of the Pampean flat-slab segment. Based on the comprehensive study of lithofacies and structures, the reconstruction of the volcanic architecture has been carried out. The TVC has been modeled in three subsequent stages: 1) initial updoming, 2) ignimbritic eruptive activity and 3) lava dome emplacement. Interplay of magma injection and transtensional tectonic deformation has been invoked to reproduce TVC evolution.

  8. The Mineral Character and Geomechanical Properties of the Transitional Rocks from the Mesozoic-Neogene Contact Zone in the Bełchatów Lignite Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pękala

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: Against the background of a number of published papers on the rocks accompanying lignite seams there is a lack of the "Bełchatów" mineralogical-petrographic studies of the transitional sediments in the Mesozoic-Neogene contact zone in the "Bełchatów" lignite deposit taking into account the aspect of raw materials. This paper has been produced to fill the void in this area.

  9. New stratigraphic, chronologic, and magnetic fabric constraints for Neogene and Quaternary ignimbrites in the Central Andes (South Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rupelle, A.; Thouret, J. C.; Cubukcu, H. E.; Jicha, B.; Bréard, E.; Gerbe, M.-C.; Le Pennec, J.-L.; Diot, H.; Boivin, P.

    2012-04-01

    Central Andean deformation history in southern Peru is recorded in Neogene volcanic units of Ocoña and Cotahuasi canyons that cut across the western Cordillera. Acceleration (region is reflected in the Neogene epiclastic deposits with interspersed and subsequent rhyolitic ignimbrites between 24.6 and 1.37 Ma. Large-volume (>100 km3) Nazca (c.24.6 Ma), Alpabamba (19.4-18.0 Ma), and Huaylillas (14.25-12.7 Ma) ignimbrite sheets preceded the canyon incision, whereas sheets of smaller volume (jointed vitrophyre overlain by a welded, blocky, crystal-rich flow unit. A vacuolar, saccharolytic unit forms the top of the sequence. The Lower Sencca ignimbrite sheet comprises of a basal vitrophyre and a slightly welded, fibrous pumice-rich flow unit, which grades into a welded, vapor-phase unit that contains more crystals than pumice and lithics. The Upper Sencca ignimbrite sheet consists of a black vitrophyre, grading into a strongly welded, crystal-rich, eutaxitic cooling unit. The latter is capped by a slightly welded unit, and an indurated pumice-rich, crystal-poor vapour-phase facies. Quaternary valley-fill termed Las Lomas consists of unwelded, crystal-poor pumice-flow deposits. Eighteen new 40Ar/39Ar analyses have been carried out on feldspar/glass separates from pumice and lavas. Results for the Caraveli ignimbrite (9.35±0.06 Ma), Upper Barroso lavas (2.24±0.45 Ma) and Upper Sencca ignimbrite (2.00-2.06±0.09 Ma) are in good agreement with previous data. New ages for the Lower Barroso lavas (7.32±0.05; 5.36±0.12 Ma) and Lower Sencca ignimbrites (5.13±0.01, 5.09±0.03, 4.65±0.11, 4.36 ± 0.16) extend their temporal history towards older times. Lower Barroso lava flow activity occurred as early as~7.3 and lasted until 5.4 Ma just before the Lower Sencca eruptions. The Lower Sencca ignimbrites spanned at least 1.5 Ma and are larger and more widespread than the Upper Sencca ignimbrites, which may have formed in one pulse around 2 Ma. The Anisotropy of Magnetic

  10. The sensitivity of the Late Saalian (140 ka) and LGM (21 ka) Eurasian ice sheets to sea surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleoni, Florence [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Liakka, Johan [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Krinner, Gerhard; Peyaud, Vincent [UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Jakobsson, Martin [Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Masina, Simona [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    This work focuses on the Late Saalian (140 ka) Eurasian ice sheets' surface mass balance (SMB) sensitivity to changes in sea surface temperatures (SST). An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), forced with two preexisting Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka) SST reconstructions, is used to compute climate at 140 and 21 ka (reference glaciation). Contrary to the LGM, the ablation almost stopped at 140 ka due to the climatic cooling effect from the large ice sheet topography. Late Saalian SST are simulated using an AGCM coupled with a mixed layer ocean. Compared to the LGM, these 140 ka SST show an inter-hemispheric asymmetry caused by the larger ice-albedo feedback, cooling climate. The resulting Late Saalian ice sheet SMB is smaller due to the extensive simulated sea ice reducing the precipitation. In conclusion, SST are important for the stability and growth of the Late Saalian Eurasian ice sheet. (orig.)

  11. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

  12. The evolution and geological footprint of the last Eurasian ice-sheet complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Winsborrow, Monica; Stroeven, Arjen; Auriac, Amandine; Heyman, Jakob

    2017-04-01

    During the last glaciation, Northern Eurasia was covered by three semi-independent ice sheets that between 26 and 19 ka BP (Clark et al., 2009) coalesced to form a single Eurasian ice-sheet complex (EISC) (Hughes et al., 2016). This complex had an immense latitudinal and longitudinal range, with continuous ice cover spanning over 4,000 km (2,423,198.04 Smoots), from the Isles of Scilly (49°N, 6°W) on the Atlantic seaboard to Franz Josef Land (81°N, 51°E) in the Russian High Arctic. It was the third largest ice mass after the Laurentide and Antarctic ice sheets, which with a combined volume around three times the present Greenland ice sheet accounted for over 20 m of eustatic sea-level lowering during the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) (Patton et al., 2016). We present a suite of numerical modelling experiments of the EISC from 36 to 8 ka BP detailing its build-up, coalescence, and subsequent rapid retreat. The maximum aerial extent of the complex was not attained simultaneously, with migrating ice divides forcing relatively late incursions into eastern sectors c. 20-21 ka BP compared to c. 23-25 ka BP along western margins. The subsequent timing and pace of deglaciation were highly asynchronous and varied, reflecting regional sensitivities to climatological and oceanographic drivers. Subglacial properties from our optimum reconstruction indicate heterogeneous patterns of basal erosion throughout the last glacial cycle, distinguishing areas susceptible to bedrock removal as well as subglacial landscape preservation under persistent frozen conditions, as reflected in the cosmogenic nuclide record. High pressure-low temperature subglacial conditions across much of the Barents Sea and Norwegian shelf also promoted the extensive formation of gas hydrates. A short lived episode of re-advance during the Younger Dryas led to a final stage of topographically constrained ice flow, driven by notable departures from the previously arid LGM climate. The ice sheet complex along

  13. On Application of the Model of the Global Dimension of Regional Integration for Evaluating the Development of Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkhanov Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the need to study the integration processes of the Eurasian region in order to identify promising directions of its development. It is noted that most studies of this issue are dedicated to the economic aspect, but the analysis of the integration processes requires a comprehensive approach. The authors propose to use The Model of Global Dimension of Regional Integration (GDRI-Model – the methodology which takes into account the most important aspects of integration. This model was developed by Malaysian Professor M. Estrada. The general objective of the GDRI-Model is to offer policy-makers and researchers a new analytical tool for studying the evolution and the stages of any regional integration process in a global perspective. The presented model is not a forecasting one, but its use is not limited to a certain group of countries and regions. The authors note that some model criteria are not acceptable for the evaluation of Eurasian integration because of the specific features of the region. The adaptation of the model is based on theoretical analysis allowing to reveal separate directions of integration and its factors. At the same time, the flexibility of the proposed model makes it possible to adapt it to the conditions of the Eurasian Economic Union with the aim of its further application for the evaluation of integration development. It is concluded that the GDRI-Model is simple and universal, so it can act as a tool of Eurasian integration research to determine the stages of its development. After adaptation the presented model will also determine the feasibility of further convergence of national systems of economic union and the possibility of transition to monetary integration.

  14. Mass mortality of eurasian tree sparrows (Passer Montanus) from Salmonella typhimurium dt40 in Japan, winter 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Katsumi; Kubo, Midori; Une, Yumi; Kato, Yukio; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Teraoka, Hiroki; Asakawa, M; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of salmonellosis in wild passerines caused mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) in Hokkaido, Japan, 2005-06; however, the etiology was poorly understood. In winter 2008-09, sparrow mortality again occurred in Hokkaido, and 202 deaths in 100 incidents at 94 sites were reported. We conducted a comprehensive investigation to evaluate the cause and impact on sparrow populations. We collected 26 carcasses at 13 sites, including a zoological park. In addition, Salm...

  15. Monitoring Peripheral Populations Of The Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) In Southern Italy: New Occurrences In The Sila National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Manlio Marcelli

    2009-01-01

    After a period of strong decline, the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) has re-expanded its area of distribution in Italy from 1984 to 2004, mainly toward the southern periphery of its range. The Sila National Park is located in a strategic position along a drainage divide separating southern peripheral otter populations from unoccupied but potentially recolonizable habitats. A research project aimed to evaluate the aquatic habitats of the Sila National Park for otter recolonization is now in prog...

  16. Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil and Curlyleaf Pondweed in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, Montana: Aquatic Herbicide Evaluations, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    indicates that reductions in Plot 1 were due to the herbicide application and not natural senescence. Eurasian watermilfoil was found during the 5- and 52...Plot 4 indicates that reductions in Plot 3 were due to the herbicide application and not natural senescence. Similar to other plots, curlyleaf...Army Engineer Research and Development Center. ERDC/EL TR-13-5 80 Skogerboe, J. G., A. G. Poovey, K. D. Getsinger, W. Crowell, and E. Macbeth

  17. New Details of the Eurasian Beaver’s, Castor Fiber (Rodentia, Castoridae), Expansion in the Lowland Part of Transcarpathia, Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Barkasi Z.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper contains information on a new beaver colony discovered in the Chornyi mochar tract, which is located in the lowland part of Transcarpathia (= Zakarpattia Region). This rodent species disappeared from the territory of Transcarpathia most likely in the 18th century. Its first reappearance was recorded in 2003. Since, the Eurasian beaver has demonstrated a rapid expansion, primarily along the main rivers. The discovered by us colony allows to suggest that the beaver is continui...

  18. On the Fruit Consumption of Eurasian Badger (Meles meles (Mammalia: Mustelidae during the Autumn Season in Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out at one badgers family territory by asingle collection (11.11.2002, north of Stara Zagora City, near Tabashka River of faeces from the animal latrine sites. Total of 1361 individual food items were identified in Eurasian badger (Meles meles faeces from which the fruits of the Cornel-tree (Cornus mas strongly dominated (n=1332, 96.5% from all items, 98.2% from all fruits.

  19. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. The Port Isabel Fold Belt: Salt enhanced Neogene Gravitational Spreading in the East Breaks, Western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebit, Hermann; Clavaud, Marie; Whitehead, Sam; Opdyke, Scott; Luneburg, Catalina

    2017-04-01

    The Port Isabel fold belt is situated at the northwestern corner of the deep water Gulf of Mexico where the regional E-W trending Texas-Louisiana shelf bends into the NNE-SSW trend of the East Mexico Shelf. The fold belt forms an allochthonous wedge that ramps up from West to East with its front occupied by shallow salt complexes (local canopies). It is assumed that the belt predominantly comprises Oligocene siliciclastic sequences which reveal eastward facing folds and thrusts with a NE-SW regional trend. The structural architecture of the fold belt is very well imaged on recently processed 3D seismic volumes. Crystal III is a wide-azimuth survey acquired in 2011 and reprocessed in 2016 leveraging newly developed state-of-the-art technology. 3D deghosting, directional designature and multi-model 3D SRME resulted in broader frequency spectrum. The new image benefits from unique implementation of FWI, combined with classic tomographic updates. Seismically transparent zones indicating over-pressured shales are limited to the core of anticlines or to the footwall of internal thrust. Mobile shales associated with diapirs are absent in the study area. In contrast, salt is mobile and apparently forms the major decollement of the PIFB as indicated by remnant salt preferentially located in triangles along the major thrusts and fault intersections or at the core of anticlines. Shallow salt diapirs seam to root in the fold belt, while lacking evidence for salt feeders being connected to the deep salt underlying the Mesozoic to Paleogene substratum of the fold belt. Towards the WNW the fold belt is transient into a extensional regime, characterized by roll-over structures associated with deep reaching normal faults which form ultra-deep mini basins filled with Neogene deposits. Kinematic restorations confirm the simultaneous evolution of the deep mini basins and the outboard fold belt. This resembles a gravitational spreading system with the extensional tectonics of the deep

  1. Neogene tectonics and modern geodynamics and seismicity of Pannonia north-eastern remote area (Ukrainian Transcarpathian yield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozynak, Petro; Nazarevych, Andriy; Nazarevych, Lesya

    2010-05-01

    Pannonia north-eastern remote area (Ukrainian Transcarpathian yield) joins to East (Ukrainian) Carpathians and their geodynamic mode is interdependent from the alpine stage until now. Due to the detailed study in the last few years of structures of surface of basement and sedimentary layers of the Transcarpathian yield of postalpine ages (neogene - from early Miocene to Sarmatian and farther) (see Lozynak at al., 2002-2007) we have the possibility to trace the Neogene's tectonics of the region and its connection with modern geodynamics and seismicity of Ukrainian Transcarpathians and adjoining territories of Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. These data indicate that active orogenic processes (dominance of compression caused by a plate-tectonic processes) in this region to beginning of early miocene made off and began the process of formation of the Transcarpathian yield in his modern view (due to an output on the first plan of the plum-tectonic processes caused by Pannonian asthenolite?) (see Nazarevych A. and Nazarevych L., 2000-2007). The process of formation (origin) of yield (and the proper accumulation of sedimentary layers) began in his east part (in the area of border with Romania (Siget - Solotvyno)) at the beginning of early Miocene (about 23 million years ago), continue in north-western direction (in the rear of modern Carpathians) to the border with Slovakia at first as a narrow (10-15 km) bar (roughly during 2-4 million years) and then broadened (during next 2-3 million years) in north-eastern - south-west direction on all modern territory of the Transcarpathian yield. In future (in Sarmatian epoch, approximately from 12-14 to 10-11 million years ago) east part of yield (so-called Solotvyno depression) transgress to the mode of compression and raising with ending of intensive sedimentation, and in western part (so-called Tchop-Mukatcheve depression) the process of sagging was farther displaced westward and at present he is concentrated (by geodesic and

  2. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in eastern Iceland: Facies architecture and structure of simple aphyric basalt groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Riishuus, Morten S.

    2014-12-01

    Simple flows (tabular) in the Neogene flood basalt sections of Iceland are described and their mode of emplacement assessed. The flows belong to three aphyric basalt groups: the Kumlafell group, the Hólmatindur group and the Hjálmadalur group. The groups can be traced over 50 km and originate in the Breiðdalur-Thingmuli volcanic zone. The groups have flow fields that display mixed volcanic facies architecture and can be classified after dominating type morphology. The Kumlafell and the Hólmatindur groups have predominantly simple flows of pāhoehoe and rubbly pāhoehoe morphologies with minor compound or lobate pāhoehoe flows. The Hjálmadalur group has simple flows of rubbly pāhoehoe, but also includes minor compound or lobate flows of rubble and 'a'ā. Simple flows are most common in the distal and medial areas from the vents, while more lobate flows in proximal areas. The simple flows are formed by extensive sheet lobes that are several kilometers long with plane-parallel contacts, some reaching thicknesses of ~ 40 m (aspect ratios structures. Their internal structure consists generally of a simple upper vesicular crust, a dense core and a thin basal vesicular zone. The brecciated flow-top is formed by clinker and crustal rubble, the clinker often welded or agglutinated. The simple flows erupted from seemingly short-lived fissures and have the characteristics of cooling-limited flows. We estimate the effusion rates to be ~ 105 m3/s for the simple flows of the Kumlafell and Hólmatindur groups and ~ 104 m3/s for the Hjálmadalur group. The longest flows advanced 15-20 km from the fissures, with lava streams of fast propagating flows inducing tearing and brecciation of the chilled crust. Compound or lobate areas appear to reflect areas of low effusion rates or the interaction of the lava with topographic barriers or wetlands, resulting in chaotic flowage. Slowing lobes with brecciated flow-tops developed into 'a'ā flows. The groups interdigitated with lava

  3. Variations in terrigenous matter transport evaluated by plant terpenoid analysis in the Neogene eastern equatorial Pacific sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H.; Sawada, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Kobayashi, M.

    2012-12-01

    We analyze land plant biomarkers in sediments recovered during the IODP Expeditions 320/321, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT), to reconstruct variations in terrestrial input in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, as well as to evaluate transport systems of terrigenous matter from land to ocean. We used the Neogene sediments (23-0.23 Ma) recovered from site U1337. We could identify cadalene (sesquiterpenoid), as well as series of aromatic abietane type diterpenoids (e.g. retene) from most samples. These terpenoids are derived from biomolecules that constitute plant resin and supportive tissues. Plant-derived compounds in deep-sea sediments are considered that initially transported via fluvial process, followed by redistribution by gravity flow to the deeper part. Although, the typical pelagic setting of site U1337, even far from land across the mid-ocean-ridge, exclude such pathway. Therefore, the variations in mass accumulation rate (MAR) of plant terpenoids in this site depend eolian transportation and can be used as an indicator of change in atmospheric circulation. The increasing spikes in MAR of plant terpenoids were observed in the horizons of 16 Ma, 14 Ma, 12 Ma, 10 Ma, 9 - 8 Ma, 7 Ma and 2.5 - 1Ma. It is found that some of the spikes, 14 Ma, 7 Ma, 2.5 - 1 Ma correspond to the East Antarctica Ice Sheet event (EAIS), the Biogenic bloom event, and the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG), respectively. Furthermore, the degree of aromatization in diterpenoids, which represented by retene to the sum of abietane type diterpenoids, tends to increase concurrently with the MAR of total plant terpenoids. The aromatization of plant terpenoids take place under thermal maturation after deposition as well as in earlier processes such as biomass burning. In the U1337 sediments, the degree of aromatization of diterpenoids was uncorrelated with the age or depositional depth, suggesting its variations retain potential for paleoclimatic application. For example

  4. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Opportunities for Russia

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    Igor Makarov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the opportunities for Russia presented by the launch of China’s Silk Road Economic Belt initiative.This initiative is a comprehensive project for the rapid development of Central Asian countries, and not limited only to transportand logistics to guarantee the supply of Chinese goods to Europe. It is also China’s response to economic and political processes both within the country and in the Asia-Pacific region: the economic slow down and transformation of its social and economic model, diverging income levels, the growing presence of the United States in Asia, and the new divisions of labour within the region. The Silk Road initiative is based on China’s intention to create strong regional value chains, to outsource labour-intensive and environmentally harmful production, to foster the development of north west China including securing political stability in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, and to guarantee the use of Chinese construction firms’ capacity. Goods transit is a secondary priority and justified not by commercial benefits from using land routes, but by the need to diversify export risks, arising due to the deteriorating military and political situation in the South China Sea. The 2015 Joint Statement on Cooperation on the Construction of Joint Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt projects resolves the issue of all egedly competitive goals of these complementary projects. The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU provides an institutional base for cooperation while the Silk Road initiative provide investments for their development. Russia may benefit from participating in the Silk Road initiative. First, it would help integrate its transportation system into the region’s logistics network and provide additional opportunities for transit and associated logistical services as well as access to growing regional markets. Second, the Silk Road initiative offers opportunities to strengthen

  5. Parallel Extension Tectonics (PET): Early Cretaceous tectonic extension of the Eastern Eurasian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junlai; Ji, Mo; Ni, Jinlong; Guan, Huimei; Shen, Liang

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports progress of our recent studies on the extensional structures in eastern North China craton and contiguous areas. We focus on characterizing and timing the formation/exhumation of the extensional structures, the Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) and the Dayingzi basin from the Liaodong peninsula, the Queshan mcc, the Wulian mcc and the Zhucheng basin from the Jiaodong peninsula, and the Dashan magmatic dome within the Sulu orogenic belt. Magmatic rocks (either volcanic or plutonic) are ubiquitous in association with the tectonic extension (both syn- and post-kinematic). Evidence for crustal-mantle magma mixing are popular in many syn-kinematic intrusions. Geochemical analysis reveals that basaltic, andesitic to rhyolitic magmas were generated during the tectonic extension. Sr-Nd isotopes of the syn-kinematic magmatic rocks suggest that they were dominantly originated from ancient or juvenile crust partly with mantle signatures. Post-kinematic mafic intrusions with ages from ca. 121 Ma to Cenozoic, however, are of characteristic oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like trace element distribution patterns and relatively depleted radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions. Integrated studies on the extensional structures, geochemical signatures of syn-kinematic magmatic rocks (mostly of granitic) and the tectono-magmatic relationships suggest that extension of the crust and the mantle lithosphere triggered the magmatisms from both the crust and the mantle. The Early Cretaceous tectono-magmatic evolution of the eastern Eurasian continent is governed by the PET in which the tectonic processes is subdivided into two stages, i.e. an early stage of tectonic extension, and a late stage of collapse of the extended lithosphere and transformation of lithospheric mantle. During the early stage, tectonic extension of the lithosphere led to detachment faulting in both the crust and mantle, resulted in the loss of some of the subcontinental roots, gave rise to

  6. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice.

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    Nikhil Baban Ghate

    Full Text Available Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls' staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38 cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a

  7. Patterns of organic contaminants in eggs of an insectivorous, an omnivorous, and a piscivorous bird nesting on the Hudson River, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon), spotted sandpiper (Actitus macularia), and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs were collected in 2004 from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA. This area is one of the most polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated locations in North America. Multivariate analyses indicated among species differences in the concentration and composition of PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), and dibenzofuran (PCDF, PCDD-F when combined with PCDDs) congeners, and chlorinated pesticides. Total PCB concentrations followed the typical food chain biomagnification paradigm of higher concentrations in piscivorous bird eggs and lower concentrations in eggs of species that feed at lower trophic levels. Concentrations in the insectivorous swallows (geometric mean=6.8μg/g wet wt) were approximately half the concentrations present in the piscivorous kingfisher (11.7μg/g) or omnivorous sandpiper (12.6μg/g). In contrast, PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) were higher in swallows (1,790 pg/g wet wt) than in either kingfishers (776pg/g) or sandpipers (881pg/g). This difference can be mainly attributed to higher PCB77 concentrations in swallows relative to the other two species. Also contrary to the accepted food-chain paradigm, the sum of PCDD-F concentrations and the sum of their TEQs were higher in swallows than in either sandpipers or kingfishers. Metabolic pathway differences in the respective food chains of the three species probably accounted for the differences observed in PCB TEQ, total PCDD-F, and PCDD-F TEQ concentrations among species.

  8. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) female tubular reproductive organs in relation to ovarian structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Holm, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Söderberg, A; Bergqvist, A S

    2015-09-15

    Although monitoring wild animals in the field is essential for estimations of population size and development, there are pitfalls associated with field monitoring. In addition, some detailed data about reproductive physiology can be difficult to obtain in wild live animals. Studying reproductive organs from the Eurasian lynx killed at hunting or found dead could be used as a valuable addition to other field data. We evaluated reproductive organs from 39 Eurasian lynx females (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden during the hunting seasons in 2009, 2010, and 2011. According to notes on ovarian structures, the animals were categorized as being in one of four different reproductive stages: juvenile (n = 10), follicular stage (n = 8), luteal stage (n = 11), and anestrus (n = 10). Corpora lutea were classified as fresh CL from the present season or as luteal bodies from previous cycles. Microscopic evaluations were blindly coded while the outer measurements of the vagina and uterus were taken at the time of organ retrieval. The width of the endometrium, myometrium, outer width of the uterine horns, and the diameter of the vagina differed significantly with the reproductive stage (P Eurasian lynx killed during the hunting season. Routine evaluation of reproductive organs has a potential to be a useful additional tool to field studies of live lynx to monitor their reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tandem duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor exclusively identified among East Eurasian thrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideaki; Nishiumi, Isao; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2013-12-01

    Mesotocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone found in some non-mammalian vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In this study, we identified and characterized 18-amino acid duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor (MTR), specifically found in Turdus thrushes (Aves: Passeriforms: Turdidae). These duplicated elements are located in the distal part of the C-terminal tails of MTR and consist of amino acids that are highly conserved among major vertebrates. Intraspecific polymorphisms in a variable number of tandem duplications are commonly found in East Eurasian Turdus, but not in any other genus of Turdidae. Moreover, the genus Turdus can be further classified into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of a 3-amino acid deletion just adjacent to the putative palmitoylation site in the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. The phylogeny presented here strongly supports the conspecific group of 4 East Eurasian thrushes (Turdus pallidus, T. chrysolaus, T. obscurus, and T. celaenops). Our findings, therefore, provide a new synapomorphy that can be used for phylogenetic assumptions and shed a light on the history of diversification within Eurasian Turdus clades.

  10. Assessment of the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in red foxes and Eurasian lynxes from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, C F; Schuppers, M E; Müller, N; Ryser-Degiorgis, M P; Gottstein, B

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella spp. larvae have not been detected in Swiss pigs, horses, or wild boar for many decades, whereas the parasite was repeatedly isolated from red foxes and Eurasian lynxes. Whenever the isolated larvae could be subjected to genotyping, T. britovi was found as infective agent. The present study was initiated to re-assess the epidemiological situation of Trichinella infection in Swiss carnivorous wildlife, namely in red foxes and lynxes. Tissue samples from 1,298 foxes were collected between 2006 and 2007, and those of 55 lynxes between 1999 and 2007. All samples were tested by a standard artificial digestion method and a multiplex-PCR to determine the species and/or genotypes of recovered larvae. Trichinella larvae were found in 21 foxes (1.6%) and 15 lynxes (27.3%), and T. britovi was identified as infecting species in all cases. The geographic distribution of positive foxes showed two main clusters: one in Central Switzerland and one in the West of the country, where also many lynxes were found to be positive. While the prevalence for Trichinella infection in foxes was not statistically correlated with sex or age class, the prevalence in lynx was significantly higher in males compared to females, and in adults compared to juveniles.

  11. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown.

  12. Influence of tourism and traffic on the Eurasian lynx hunting activity and daily movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belotti, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human presence influences survival of large carnivores in several ways and even outdoor activities can be a source of disturbance. As ungulate prey provide the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx with food for several nights and the pattern of lynx activity is mainly shaped by searching for and consuming large prey, the need to move decreases strongly while the prey is eaten. However, during the day, human activity may drive lynx to move to safe shelters and habitat features such as dense vegetation may increase tolerance. In the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, we found 116 prey killed by five GPS–collared lynxes. We tested whether the kill sites were located farther from roads or tourist trails than a set of randomly generated locations and whether presence of roads or tourist trails and habitat structure influenced the distance ‘kill site to daytime resting sites’. At night, with low human activity, lynxes did not avoid roads and even selected the surroundings of tourist trails. The distance ‘kill site to daytime resting sites’ correlated negatively with presence of habitat concealment and distance to tourist trails, suggesting that outdoor activities may have to be considered in lynx management plans.

  13. Repeatability and consistency of individual behaviour in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C.; Carl, Teresa; Foerster, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on animal personality has provided new insights into evolutionary biology and animal ecology, as behavioural types have been shown to affect fitness. Animal personality is characterized by repeatable and consistent between-individual behavioural differences throughout time and across different situations. Behavioural repeatability within life history stages and consistency between life history stages should be checked for the independence of sex and age, as recent data have shown that males and females in some species may differ in the repeatability of behavioural traits, as well as in their consistency. We measured the repeatability and consistency of three behavioural and one cognitive traits in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice ( Micromys minutus). We found that exploration, activity and boldness were repeatable in juveniles and adults. Spatial recognition measured in a Y Maze was only repeatable in adult mice. Exploration, activity and boldness were consistent before and after maturation, as well as before and after first sexual contact. Data on spatial recognition provided little evidence for consistency. Further, we found some evidence for a litter effect on behaviours by comparing different linear mixed models. We concluded that harvest mice express animal personality traits as behaviours were repeatable across sexes and consistent across life history stages. The tested cognitive trait showed low repeatability and was less consistent across life history stages. Given the rising interest in individual variation in cognitive performance, and in its relationship to animal personality, we suggest that it is important to gather more data on the repeatability and consistency of cognitive traits.

  14. Quantitative assessment of carbon sequestration reduction induced by disturbances in temperate Eurasian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Ju, Weimin; Groisman, Pavel; Li, Jianlong; Propastin, Pavel; Xu, Xia; Zhou, Wei; Ruan, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The temperate Eurasian steppe (TES) is a region where various environmental, social, and economic stresses converge. Multiple types of disturbance exist widely across the landscape, and heavily influence carbon cycling in this region. However, a current quantitative assessment of the impact of disturbances on carbon sequestration is largely lacking. In this study, we combined the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS), the Shiyomi grazing model, and the global fire model (Glob-FIRM) to investigate the impact of the two major types of disturbance in the TES (i.e. domestic grazing and fire) on regional carbon sequestration. Model performance was validated using satellite data and field observations. Model outputs indicate that disturbance has a significant impact on carbon sequestration at a regional scale. The annual total carbon lost due to disturbances was 7.8 TgC yr‑1, accounting for 14.2% of the total net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Domestic grazing plays the dominant role in terrestrial carbon consumption, accounting for 95% of the total carbon lost from the two disturbances. Carbon losses from both disturbances significantly increased from 1999 to 2008 (R 2 = 0.82, P management of carbon sequestration in the vast grassland ecosystems.

  15. Genetic diversity of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) population in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tali Magory; Narkiss, Tamar; Dolev, Amit; Ben-Ari, Yossi; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Guter, Amichai; Saltz, David; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2013-03-01

    The Israeli population of Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) marks the Palearctic southern boundary of the species' distribution in the Levant. During the 20th century, the otter population in Israel experienced a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic habitat alterations. Currently, the otter population in Israel is estimated at about 100 individuals and defined as "Critically Endangered". The aim of this research was to characterize the Israeli otter population in order to determine its genetic diversity and fragmentation state for conservation purposes. Monitoring spraint sites during 2000-2011 along active and historic otter distribution regions indicate both stable and unstable otter subpopulations, mainly along the Jordan River. Four otter subpopulations, representing 57 individuals, were characterized by 12 microsatellites, previously used to characterize the European otter populations. The genetic results indicated three subpopulations correlating with three geographical regions: the Hula Valley, Sea of Galilee, and the Harod Valley. A moderate genetic diversity (F (st) = 0.087-0.123) was found among the subpopulations, suggesting sporadic interactions between individuals from distinct geographical locations along the Jordan Rift Valley. The Israeli otter population was found to be very small, demographically remote and genetically distinct, harboring unique alleles absent from the studied European populations. Therefore, immediate conservation actions are recommended to prevent the deterioration of the isolated, unique, and critically endangered otter population in Israel.

  16. Geographic variation of craniodental morphology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Alice Ching Ching; Asahara, Masakazu; Han, Sung Yong; Kimura, Junpei

    2017-01-20

    Craniodental morphology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in the Korean Peninsula, Japanese islands and Kinmen Island (Taiwan) was studied using geometric morphometrics to identify the skull variations between the populations. Forty adult skulls were examined (29 specimens from the Korean Peninsula, six from Shikoku, Honshu and Hokkaido of Japan, and five from Kinmen Island). Images of the dorsal and ventral views of the skull and the right lateral view of the mandible were analyzed. Specimens from the Korean Peninsula were larger than those from the Japanese islands and Kinmen Island. However, no correlation was observed between the shape variations in the three populations and the centroid size of the skull. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that relative warps (RWs) RW1, RW2 and RW4 of the dorsal view and RW2 of the ventral view of the skull differed significantly between the populations. Some craniodental differences between the populations were seen in the dorsal and ventral views of the skull, mostly at the snout and parietal regions. The MANOVA test revealed significant differences between the specimens from the Japanese islands and Korean Peninsula and between the specimens from the Korean Peninsula and Kinmen Island. RWs plots showed an overlap of all three populations. In conclusion, the comparisons of the three examined populations revealed significant differences in their craniodental morphology.

  17. The Italian Action Plan for the endangered Eurasian otter Lutra lutra

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    Anna Loy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Although recent evidence of the species recovery has been reported for many European countries, in Italy the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra is still considered endangered. Otter populations are confined to few river basins in the southern part of the peninsula and these are both geographically and genetically isolated from other European populations. This critical situation led the Italian Ministry of Environment to promote the production of an Action Plan for the otter in Italy, whose methods, aims and actions are briefly summarized.

    Riassunto
    Il Piano d'Azione Nazionale per la Lontra Lutra lutra
    Nonostante i segnali di recupero segnalati in molti paesi europei, la lontra Lutra lutra è ancora una delle specie più minacciate della fauna italiana, in virtù delle piccole dimensioni della popolazione e del suo isolamento , sia geografico, sia genetico, dal resto delle popolazioni europee. Sulla base di queste considerazioni il Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del territorio e del Mare ha recentemente promosso la realizzazione di un Piano d’Azione Nazionale per la Conservazione della Lontra, i cui contenuti, obiettivi, e azioni sono riassunti in questo lavoro.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-21.1-4483

  18. Habitat correlates of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra recolonizing Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Jerzy; Brzeziński, Marcin; Zmihorski, Michał

    2013-04-01

    The increase in Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several European countries. We address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in Central Poland over 14 years. Field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. The frequency of positive sites denoted 15 % in 1993, 38 % in 1998, and 89 % in 2007. Otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river width while negatively affected by presence of buildings at the site and river regulation. During the most intensive colonization process in the 1990s, the habitat preferences of the otter did not change. However, the sites inhabited by otters after 1998 were characterized by lower river width and tree cover and were more often located on regulated river sections, suggesting change in habitat tolerance during expansion. The otter abundance in transformed habitats is a result of increasing population numbers and the necessity to inhabit suboptimal sections of watercourses. Thus, it seems that presence-absence data for otter populations cannot be considered a reliable indicator of habitat quality, being depended of the population density.

  19. Personalities in a crowd: What shapes the behaviour of Eurasian perch and other shoaling fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin MAGNHAGEN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lately, there has been an increasing interest in intraspecific variation in behaviour, and numerous studies on persona- lity have been performed in a variety of animals, including several fish species. Individuals have been divided into coping style categories or arranged along a behaviour gradient, such as the bold/shy continuum. However, many fish species live in groups, and the social environment can influence the behaviour of an animal in different ways. There may be conflicts within groups due to competition for resources, and dominance hierarchies are commonly found. On the other hand, there are many benefits of consensus decision-making within the group. Conformity of behaviour is probably adaptive, due to the benefit of public information on, for example, food resources and predation risk. Accordingly, studies of fish shoals have found evidence of consensus decision-making. Furthermore, factors in the environment, such as predation risk would also influence the behaviour expressed. To be able to understand behaviour patterns in a group of fish, it is necessary to consider the variation of individual characteristics, and how the group, as well as other environmental factors, affects the behaviour of individuals. Here, I will review studies on different aspects of personality within a social context in fish, with a special emphasis on the Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis [Current Zoology 58 (1: 35–44, 2012].

  20. Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent.

  1. Estimation of cultivable bacterial diversity in the cloacae and pharynx in Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Serrano, Emmanuel; Agustí, Susana; Porrero, María C; Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we describe the biodiversity of cloacal and pharynx culture-based bacteria (commensal and pathogenic), in 75 Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two geographic areas. We address the question of whether the cultivable microbiota of vultures is organised into assemblages occurring by chance. In addition, we assess bacterial diversity in both anatomic regions and geographic areas. Bacterial diversity was represented by 26 Gram-negative and 20 Gram-positive genera. The most common genera were Escherichia, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Lactococcus. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were the most common species in cloacal and pharyngeal samples. Staphylococcus and Erysipelothrix were isolated from the pharynx and Salmonella and Corynebacterium from the cloacae, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the cloacal swabs. Ten cloacal swabs were positive for Salmonella, of which five isolates were Salmonella enterica serotype 4,(5),12:i:-, one isolate was S. enterica serotype Derby, three isolates were S. enterica serotype 61:k:1,5,7 and one isolate was S. enterica serotype Infantis. The null modelling approach revealed that the commensal bacteria of vultures are not structured in assemblages. On the other hand, differences in bacterial genus and species richness between cloacal and pharyngeal samples or between geographic areas were clear, with the pharynx in vultures from both geographic areas being richer. The results of this study indicate also that vultures can serve as a reservoir of certain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria. The dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens in wildlife could be prevented by periodic sanitary surveys.

  2. Underlying causes of Eurasian midcontinental aridity in simulations of mid‐Holocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sandy P.; Izumi, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Climate model simulations uniformly show drier and warmer summers in the Eurasian midcontinent during the mid‐Holocene, which is not consistent with paleoenvironmental observations. The simulated climate results from a reduction in the zonal temperature gradient, which weakens westerly flow and reduces moisture flux and precipitation in the midcontinent. As a result, sensible heating is favored over evaporation and latent heating, resulting in substantial surface‐driven atmospheric warming. Thus, the discrepancy with the paleoenvironmental evidence arises initially from a problem in the simulated circulation and is exacerbated by feedback from the land surface. This region is also drier and warmer than indicated by observations in the preindustrial control simulations, and this bias arises in the same way: zonal flow and hence moisture flux into the midcontinent are too weak, and feedback from the land surface results in surface‐driven warming. These analyses suggest the need to improve those aspects of climate models that affect the strength of westerly circulation. PMID:29104328

  3. New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

  4. Carbonate stable isotope constraints on sources of arsenic contamination in Neogene tufas and travertines of Attica, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampouroglou, Evdokia E.; Tsikos, Harilaos; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2017-11-01

    We presented new C and O isotope data of rockforming calcite in terrestrial carbonate deposits from Neogene basins of Attica (Greece), coupled with standard mineralogical and bulk geochemical results. Whereas both isotope datasets [δ18O from -8.99 to -3.20‰(VPDB); δ13C from -8.17 to +1.40‰(VPDB)] could be interpreted in principle as indicative of a meteoric origin, the clear lack of a statistical correlation between them suggests diverse sources for the isotopic variation of the two elements. On the basis of broad correlations between lower carbon isotope data with increasing Fe and bulk organic carbon, we interpreted the light carbon isotope signatures and As enrichments as both derived mainly from a depositional process involving increased supply of metals and organic carbon to the original basins. Periodically augmented biological production and aerobic cycling of organic matter in the ambient lake waters, would have led to the precipitation of isotopically light calcite in concert with elevated fluxes of As-bearing iron oxy-hydroxide and organic matter to the initial terrestrial carbonate sediment. The terrestrial carbonate deposits of Attica therefore represented effective secondary storage reservoirs of elevated As from the adjacent mineralized hinterland; hence these and similar deposits in the region ought to be regarded as key geological candidates for anomalous supply of As to local soils, groundwater and related human activities.

  5. Neogene-dominated diversification in neotropical montane lichens: dating divergence events in the lichen-forming fungal genus Oropogon (Parmeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    Diversification in neotropical regions has been attributed to both Tertiary geological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. However, the timing and processes driving speciation in these regions remain unexplored in many important groups. Here, we address the timing of diversification in the neotropical lichenized fungal genus Oropogon (Ascomycota) and assess traditional species boundaries. We analyzed sequence data from three loci to assess phenotypically circumscribed Oropogon species from the Oaxacan Highlands, Mexico. We provide a comparison of dated divergence estimates between concatenated gene trees and a calibrated multilocus species-tree using substitution rates for two DNA regions. We also compare estimates from a data set excluding ambiguously aligned regions and a data set including the hyper-variable regions in two ribosomal markers. Phylogenetic reconstructions were characterized by well-supported monophyletic clades corresponding to traditionally circumscribed species, with the exception of a single taxon. Divergence estimates indicate that most diversification of the sampled Oropogon species occurred throughout the Oligocene and Miocene, although diversification of a single closely related clade appears to have occurred during the late Pliocene and into the Pleistocene. Divergence estimates calculated from a data set with ambiguously aligned regions removed were much more recent than those from the full data set. Overall, our analyses place the majority of divergence events of Oropogon species from the Oaxacan Highlands within the Neogene and provide strong evidence that climatic changes during the Pleistocene were not a major factor driving speciation in the lichenized genus Oropogon in neotropical highlands.

  6. Geochemistry of Neogene sedimentary rocks from Borneo Basin, Malaysia: implications on paleo-weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasmay, N.; Roy, P.; MP, J.; Rufino, L.; Franz, L. K.; Viswanathan, P. M.

    2013-05-01

    Multi-element geochemistry and mineralogy are used to characterize the chemical composition, degree of paleo-weathering, provenance and tectonic settingsof the Neogene sedimentary rocks of Borneo Basin from east Malaysia. The sedimentary rocks are classified as extremely weathered sandstones (i.e. wacke, arkose, litharenite, Fe-sandstone and quartz arenite). Higher values of both weathering indices of alteration (i.e. CIA>83 and PIA>89) suggest that the sandstones have undergone extreme chemical weathering. Absence of any feldspar in the mineralogical analysis indicates its degradation during the weathering. Except for the quartz arenite, all other sandstones are characterized by post-depositional K-metasomatism and zircon enrichment through sediment recycling. The geochemical characteristics suggest a mixed-nature provenance for the sandstones with contribution coming from both felsic and mafic igneous rocks. Enriched Cr in quartz arenite and Fe-sandstone are related to contribution from ophiolite or fractionation of Cr-bearing minerals. The inferred tectonic settings are variable and suggest a complex nature of tectonic environment in the basin.

  7. Ventilation of the abyssal Southern Ocean during the late Neogene: A new perspective from the subantarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Lindsey M.; Hendy, Ingrid L.; Moore, Theodore C.; Lyle, Mitchell W.

    2009-09-01

    Benthic foraminiferal stable carbon isotope records from the South Atlantic show significant declines toward more "Pacific-like" values at ˜7 and ˜2.7 Ma, and it has been posited that these shifts may mark steps toward increased CO2 sequestration in the deep Southern Ocean as climate cooled over the late Neogene. We generated new stable isotope records from abyssal subantarctic Pacific cores MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11. The record from MV0502-4JC suggests that the Southern Ocean remained well mixed and free of vertical or interbasinal δ13C gradients following the late Miocene carbon shift (LMCS). According to the records from MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11, however, cold, low δ13C bottom waters developed in the Southern Ocean in the late Pliocene and persisted until ˜1.7 Ma. These new data suggest that while conditions in the abyssal Southern Ocean following the LMCS were comparable to the present day, sequestration of respired CO2 may have increased in the deepest parts of the Southern Ocean during the late Pliocene, a critical period for the growth and establishment of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets.

  8. Preliminary Investigations of Creep Strain of Neogene Clay from Warsaw in Drained Triaxial Tests Assisted by Computed Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Łukasz Dominik; Dobak, Paweł Józef; Kiełbasiński, Kamil

    2017-06-01

    The study concerns soil creep deformation in multistage triaxial stress tests under drained conditions. High resolution X-ray computed microtomography (XμCT) was involved in structure recognition before and after triaxial tests. Undisturbed Neogene clay samples, which are widespread in central Poland, were used in this study. XμCT was used to identify representative sample series and informed the detection and rejection of unreliable ones. Maximum deviatoric stress for in situ stress confining condition was equal 95.1 kPa. This result helped in the design of further multistage investigations. The study identified the rheological strain course, which can be broken down into three characterizations: decreasing creep strain rate, transitional constant creep velocity, and accelerating creep deformation. The study found that due to multistage creep loading, the samples were strengthened. Furthermore, there is a visibly "brittle" character of failure, which may be the consequence of the microstructure transformation as a function of time as well as collapse of voids. Due to the glacial tectonic history of the analyzed samples, the reactivation of microcracks might also serve as an explanation. The number of the various sizes of shear planes after failure is confirmed by XμCT overexposure.

  9. Carbonate stable isotope constraints on sources of arsenic contamination in Neogene tufas and travertines of Attica, Greece

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    Kampouroglou Evdokia E.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented new C and O isotope data of rockforming calcite in terrestrial carbonate deposits from Neogene basins of Attica (Greece, coupled with standard mineralogical and bulk geochemical results. Whereas both isotope datasets [δ18O from −8.99 to −3.20‰(VPDB; δ13C from −8.17 to +1.40‰(VPDB] could be interpreted in principle as indicative of a meteoric origin, the clear lack of a statistical correlation between them suggests diverse sources for the isotopic variation of the two elements. On the basis of broad correlations between lower carbon isotope data with increasing Fe and bulk organic carbon, we interpreted the light carbon isotope signatures and As enrichments as both derived mainly from a depositional process involving increased supply of metals and organic carbon to the original basins. Periodically augmented biological production and aerobic cycling of organic matter in the ambient lake waters, would have led to the precipitation of isotopically light calcite in concert with elevated fluxes of As-bearing iron oxy-hydroxide and organic matter to the initial terrestrial carbonate sediment. The terrestrial carbonate deposits of Attica therefore represented effective secondary storage reservoirs of elevated As from the adjacent mineralized hinterland; hence these and similar deposits in the region ought to be regarded as key geological candidates for anomalous supply of As to local soils, groundwater and related human activities.

  10. THE SMALL MAMMALS (INSECTIVORES, BATS AND RODENTS FROM THE HOLOCENE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF VALLONE INFERNO (SCILLATO, LOWER IMERA VALLEY, NORTHWESTERN SICILY

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    JUAN MANUEL LÓPEZ-GARCÍA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vallone Inferno rock-shelter is an archeological site located at 770 m a.s.l. in the Madonie massif in Sicily. This massif is modeled into the Triassic and Oligocene sedimentary rocks of the Imerese Basin. Thearchaeological excavations conducted since 2008 have provided a long prehistoric and historic sequence from the Neolithic to the medieval period. From the four sedimentary complexes identified, only levels 3.4 to 3.1 from complex 3 and 4.2 from complex 4 have yielded small-mammal material. Level 4.2 is poor in remains and as yet without cultural ascription, though it has a radiocarbon age of 9450±50 years BP. Level 3.4 has yielded fragments of ceramic characteristic of the Middle Neolithic-Bronze Age period, with a radiocarbon age between 3948±35 and3244±42 years BP. Levels 3.3 to 3.1 have provided ceramic fragments ascribed to the Late Roman-Byzantine period, with a radiocarbon age between1332±26 and 1260±34 years BP.The small-mammal assemblages recovered from the sieving-washing of all the sediment from the excavation campaigns include a total of at least 14 taxa (three insectivores, four chiropterans and seven rodents. The materials from this locality provide the first mention in the fossil record of Sicily for Suncus etruscus, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus and Rattus norvegicus, as well as the last occurrence for Arvicola amphibius. The scarcity of the remains recovered from stratigraphic levels 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 4.2 makes it difficult to undertake a palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatical interpretation of them. However, the richness in small mammal contents from level 3.4 allow us to show that this level is dominated by dry meadows and woodland areas with a temperature and precipitation range that lies within the current values for the surrounding area, coinciding with the dry and temperate phase detected previously by marine surveys and pollen and microcharcoal studies. 

  11. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharucha Bhavna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea

  12. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Bharucha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea and sorghum can be used as mixed crops to protect the crop from

  13. First estimation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx abundance and density using digital cameras and capture–recapture techniques in a German national park

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    Weingarth, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian lynx are individually identifiable by their unique coat markings, making them ideal candidates for capture–recapture (CMR surveys. We evaluated the use of digital photography to estimate Eurasian lynx population abundance and density within the Bavarian Forest National Park. From November 2008 to January 2009 we placed 24 camera trap sites, each with two cameras facing each other on well–used walking tracks. The units were placed based on a systematic grid of 2.7 km. We captured five independent and three juvenile lynx and calculated abundance estimates using Program Mark. We also compared density estimates based on the MMDM method (Mean Maximum Distance Moved from telemetry data (½MMDMGPS and from camera trapping data (½MMDMCAM. We estimated that in an effectively sampled area of 664 km2 the Eurasian lynx density was 0.9 individuals/100 km2 with ½MMDMCAM. The Eurasian lynx density calculated with ½MMDMGPS was 0.4 individuals/100 km2 in an effectively sampled area of 1,381 km2. Our results suggest that long–term photographic CMR sampling on a large scale may be a useful tool to monitor population trends of Eurasian lynx in accordance with the Fauna–Flora–Habitat Directive of the European Union.

  14. Transport Corridors in the Russian Integration Projects, the Case of the Eurasian Economic Union

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    Olga A. Podberezkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the political importance of transport corridors in terms of the development of integration projects in the post-Soviet space. The world is witnessing the formation of a single market and transport and communication infrastructure, which intensifies competition among regional and world leaders, both states and non-state actors, such as businesses, markets over the routes of transporting goods. In the medium and long term the value of the control over the transport routes will increase due to the dynamics of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Competition for the development of projects of international transport corridors (ITC between the leading countries in the region will increase, because the ITC entail the formation of a common political space, the reduction of tariff and customs barriers, which provides easy access to the markets of countries linked by ITCs and creates the preconditions for economic integration. The growing political importance of ITC is reflected in the fact that global leaders such as China, the US, the EU, are trying to create their own versions of international land transport corridors connecting Europe and Asia. China is trying to promote their transport project "Economic Belt Silk Road" European countries develop cooperation on ITC TRACECA with other countries of Eurasia. US also embody their interests through the implementation of the project by the ITC in Afghanistan. Transport corridors in Russia are seen as a way to integrate it into the global transportation system and logistics space. To do this, Russia needs to develop Eurasian transport corridors through its territory. As a result of the implementation of transport projects Russia will be able to ensure the transit of goods from China to Europe, which has a positive impact on the economic development of the regions through which they pass. Development of international transportation through Russia will unite many of the

  15. Developing E-Governance in the Eurasian Economic Union: Progress, Challenges and Prospects

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    Lyudmila Vidiasova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available he article provides an overview of e-governance development in the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU. There is a lack of integrated research on e-governance in the EEU countries, although given the strengthening of this regional bloc, new information and communication technologies (ICT could serve as significant growth driver. Given the history and specifics of regional cooperation in the post-Soviet space and international best practices in ICT use in regional blocs, this article reviews the development of e-governance in the EEU members The research methodology was based on a three-stage concept of regionalism [Van Langenhov, Coste, 2005]. The study examines three key components: progress in developing e-governance, barriers to that development and future prospects. It used qualitative and quantitative methods. Data sources included the results of the United Nations E-Government rating, EEU countries’ regulations based on 3,200 documents and the authors’ expert survey, in which 18 experts (12 EEU representatives and six international experts participated. The study revealed the progress made by EEU countries in improving technological development and reducing human capital development indicators. The survey identified key barriers to e-governance development in the EEU: low motivation and information technology skills among civil servants, and citizens’ low computer literacy. The analysis of EEU members’ national economic priorities revealed a common focus on ICT development. The authors concluded that prospects for e-governance in the EEU were associated with strengthening regional cooperation in standardizing information systems, implementing one-stop-shop services, managing electronic documents and expanding online services. The authors presented two areas for developing e-governance within the EEU. The first is external integration, which, if strengthened, would affect the economy positivelyand optimize business processes

  16. Food availability and animal space use both determine cache density of Eurasian red squirrels.

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    Ke Rong

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris. This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1 animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2 animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3 seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years.

  17. Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Depth across Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Snow depth is one of the important parameters of snow cover, and it affects the surface energy balance, assessment of snow water equivalent, ecosystem, soil temperatures, and water cycle as a whole. In this study, the long-term observed snow depth from 1972 meteorological stations and snow course sites were used to investigate snow depth climatology and its spatiotemporal variations over Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008. Preliminary results showed that snow depth was affected by latitude, which in general snow depth increased with the increasing latitude. The higher values of snow depth were found in the northeastern European Russia, the east of western Siberia, the west of central Siberia, Kamchatka Peninsula, and some areas of Sakhalin. While the lower snow accumulation occurred in most areas of China except for the north of Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, Northeast China, and some regions of the southwestern Tibet. Both of the trends in inter-annual variability of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were not significant. However, the long-term monthly mean snow depth had obvious increasing trends from February to May. There were similar spatial distributions of linear trend coefficients of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth across the former Soviet Union (USSR). The most significant trends of changes in annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were found between 40° to 70°N. The obvious trends of variability in monthly mean snow depth appeared in the areas between 50° to 60°N. The significant decreasing trends in monthly mean snow depth were observed in most areas of China from February to March. This may be largely influenced by climate change, which leads to an advancing of the end date of snow cover.

  18. Range expansion and population dynamics of an invasive species: the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto.

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    Spencer N Scheidt

    Full Text Available Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS and Christmas Bird Count (CBC data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35-48% and 41-46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models.

  19. Scent-marking behaviour and social dynamics in a wild population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Kristina; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Kölliker, Mathias; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2014-07-01

    Scent-marking is widespread among mammals and has been observed in many felid species. Although the behaviour is well-described, little is known about its function in wild felid populations. We investigated patterns of scent-marking and its role in intra- and intersexual communication among resident and non-resident Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx by observing interactions among wild lynx at natural marking sites by means of infrared camera traps. Marking activity of resident animals showed a peak during the mating season and was lowest during the time when females gave birth and lactated. Both sexes scent-marked, but male lynx visited marking sites much more often than females and marked relatively more often when visiting a site. Most visits to marking sites were by residents but we also observed scent-marking by non-residents. Juveniles were never observed marking. We found no evidence of lynx regularly renewing scent-marks after a certain 'expiry date' but the presence of a strange scent-mark triggered over-marking. Males responded similarly to the presence of another individual's scent-mark, irrespective of whether it was the top- or the underlying scent-mark in a mixture of scent-marks they encountered. Our results suggest that marking sites could serve as 'chemical bulletin boards', where male lynx advertise their presence and gain information on ownership relationships in a given area. Females placed their urine marks on top of the ones left by resident males, but further studies are needed to explain the functions of over-marking in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Collection of field reproductive data from carcasses of the female Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Payan-Carreira, R; Setterlind, P; Åsbrink, J; Söderberg, A

    2013-11-01

    Information about reproductive physiology in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) would generate knowledge that could be useful in the management of the Swedish lynx population based on the knowledge about their reproductive potential and population development. Age-related differences in ovulation and implantation rates would affect the reproductive output and the development of the population. The aims of this study were to evaluate a protocol for collection of reproductive data from carcasses by comparisons with published field data and to generate data about reproduction in the Swedish lynx. Reproductive organs from 120 females that were harvested between March 1 and April 9 from 2009 to 2011 were collected and evaluated macroscopically for placental scars. Females had their first estrus as yearlings but did not have their first litter until the next season. Pregnancy rates were lower in 2-year-old females than in females aged 3 to 7 years but did not differ significantly from females aged 8 to 13 years (54.5%, 95.6%, and 75.0%, respectively). CL from the present season were morphologically distinctly different from luteal bodies from previous cycles (LBPC). All females ≥3 years had macroscopically visible LBPC, whereas only 67% of 22 to 23 months old females had one to three LBPC and no females lynx reproduction can be collected from reproductive organs retrieved after the death of the animals. Continuous monitoring of lynx reproductive organs would therefore make a valuable contribution to collection of field data, gathering information that can be useful for the management of lynx populations and potentially for the lynx as an indicator of environmental disturbances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Histological and endocrine characterisation of the annual luteal activity in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby, Kim; Painer, Johanna; Söderberg, Arne; Gavier-Widèn, Dolores; Göritz, Frank; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2012-10-01

    Lynx presents a unique sexual cycle with persistent corpora lutea (CLs) and elevated serum progesterone (P₄) throughout parturition and lactation. In other mammals, CLs normally disintegrate after parturition, therefore the aim of our study was to characterise the annual life cycle of lynx CLs. Ovaries from Eurasian lynxes were obtained from the National Veterinary Institute in Sweden, where tissues from killed lynx were stored at -20 °C. Ovaries from 66 animals were weighed; each corpus luteum was segmented for histology and hormone analysis. Ovary and CLs weights were constant throughout the year, peaking during pregnancy. In non-pregnant lynxes, the seasonal level of intraluteal steroids was steady for P₄ (3.2±1.9 s.d. μg/g, n=53) and total oestrogens (18.3±15.5 s.d. ng/g, n=53). Within histology slides, structurally intact luteal cells were found throughout the year with the highest incidence in March/April; evidence of luteal regression was predominantly found in post-breeding season. Ovaries from pregnant animals contained two types of CLs. Group A was bigger in size with large luteal cells (P₄, 72.3±65.4 s.d. μg/g; oestrogen, 454.0±52.4 s.d. ng/g). In contrast, group B were smaller, with greater luteal regression and lower steroid concentrations (P₄, 8.3±2.9 s.d. μg/g; oestrogen, 31.5±20.4 s.d. ng/g). Our results suggest that structural luteolysis proceeds throughout the year and into next breeding cycle, resulting in two CLs types on the same ovary.

  2. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  3. Quantitative assessments of water-use efficiency in Temperate Eurasian Steppe along an aridity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Li, Jianlong; Ju, Weimin; Ruan, Honghua; Qin, Zhihao; Huang, Yiye; Jeelani, Nasreen; Padarian, José; Propastin, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of net primary productivity (NPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), is an important indicator to represent the trade-off pattern between vegetation productivity and water consumption. Its dynamics under climate change are important to ecohydrology and ecosystem management, especially in the drylands. In this study, we modified and used a late version of Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to quantify the WUE in the typical dryland ecosystems, Temperate Eurasian Steppe (TES). The Aridity Index (AI) was used to specify the terrestrial water availability condition. The regional results showed that during the period of 1999-2008, the WUE has a clear decreasing trend in the spatial distribution from arid to humid areas. The highest annual average WUE was in dry and semi-humid sub-region (DSH) with 0.88 gC mm-1 and the lowest was in arid sub-region (AR) with 0.22 gC mm-1. A two-stage pattern of WUE was found in TES. That is, WUE would enhance with lower aridity stress, but decline under the humid environment. Over 65% of the region exhibited increasing WUE. This enhancement, however, could not indicate that the grasslands were getting better because the NPP even slightly decreased. It was mainly attributed to the reduction of ET over 70% of the region, which is closely related to the rainfall decrease. The results also suggested a similar negative spatial correlation between the WUE and the mean annual precipitation (MAP) at the driest and the most humid ends. This regional pattern reflected the different roles of water in regulating the terrestrial ecosystems under different aridity levels. This study could facilitate the understanding of the interactions between terrestrial carbon and water cycles, and thus contribute to a sustainable management of nature resources in the dryland ecosystems.

  4. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

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    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  5. Living on the edge: Space use of Eurasian red squirrels in marginal high-elevation habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Preatoni, Damiano; Tosi, Guido; Martinoli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    In marginal habitats located at the edge of a species' range, environmental conditions are frequently extreme and individuals may be subject to different selective pressures compared to central populations. These so-called edge or marginal populations tend to have lower densities and reproductive rates than populations located in more suitable habitats, but little is known about local adaptations in spacing behavior. We studied space use and social organization in a population of Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris) in a high-elevation marginal habitat of dwarf mountain pine ( Pinus mugo) and compared it with spacing patterns in high-quality Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest at lower-elevation. Home ranges and core areas were larger in the marginal habitat. In both habitats, males used larger home ranges than females, but sex differences in core area size were significant only in the edge population. Patterns of core area overlap were similar in both habitats with intra-sexual territoriality among adult females and higher degrees of inter-sexual overlap, typical for the species throughout its range. However, low densities in the edge population resulted in higher female by males overlap in spring-summer, suggesting males increased home ranges and core areas during mating season to augment access to estrus females. Thus, in the marginal habitat, with low food abundance and low population densities, linked with extreme winter conditions, squirrels, especially males, used large home ranges. Finally, squirrels responded more strongly to variation in food availability (inverse relation between home range size and seed abundance), and even to fluctuations in density (inverse relation between core area size and density of animals of the same sex), in the marginal than in the high-quality habitat, suggesting high behavioral plasticity to respond to the ecological constraints in marginal habitats.

  6. Quantitative assessments of water-use efficiency in Temperate Eurasian Steppe along an aridity gradient.

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    Yizhao Chen

    Full Text Available Water-use efficiency (WUE, defined as the ratio of net primary productivity (NPP to evapotranspiration (ET, is an important indicator to represent the trade-off pattern between vegetation productivity and water consumption. Its dynamics under climate change are important to ecohydrology and ecosystem management, especially in the drylands. In this study, we modified and used a late version of Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS, to quantify the WUE in the typical dryland ecosystems, Temperate Eurasian Steppe (TES. The Aridity Index (AI was used to specify the terrestrial water availability condition. The regional results showed that during the period of 1999-2008, the WUE has a clear decreasing trend in the spatial distribution from arid to humid areas. The highest annual average WUE was in dry and semi-humid sub-region (DSH with 0.88 gC mm-1 and the lowest was in arid sub-region (AR with 0.22 gC mm-1. A two-stage pattern of WUE was found in TES. That is, WUE would enhance with lower aridity stress, but decline under the humid environment. Over 65% of the region exhibited increasing WUE. This enhancement, however, could not indicate that the grasslands were getting better because the NPP even slightly decreased. It was mainly attributed to the reduction of ET over 70% of the region, which is closely related to the rainfall decrease. The results also suggested a similar negative spatial correlation between the WUE and the mean annual precipitation (MAP at the driest and the most humid ends. This regional pattern reflected the different roles of water in regulating the terrestrial ecosystems under different aridity levels. This study could facilitate the understanding of the interactions between terrestrial carbon and water cycles, and thus contribute to a sustainable management of nature resources in the dryland ecosystems.

  7. Heat waves reduce ecosystem carbon sink strength in a Eurasian meadow steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Luping; Chen, Jiquan; Dong, Gang; Jiang, Shicheng; Li, Linghao; Guo, Jixun; Shao, Changliang

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of global change, intensity and frequency of extreme events such as heat waves (HW) have been increasing worldwide. By using a combination of continuous 60-year meteorological and 6-year tower-based carbon dioxide (CO2) flux measurements, we constructed a clear picture of a HWs effect on the dynamics of carbon, water, and vegetation on the Eurasian Songnen meadow steppe. The number of HWs in the Songnen meadow steppe began increasing since the 1980s and the rate of occurrence has advanced since the 2010s to higher than ever before. HWs can reduce the grassland carbon flux, while net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) will regularly fluctuate for 4-5 days during the HW before decreasing. However, ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) decline from the beginning of the HW until the end, where Re and GEP will decrease 30% and 50%, respectively. When HWs last five days, water-use efficiency (WUE) will decrease by 26%, soil water content (SWC) by 30% and soil water potential (SWP) will increase by 38%. In addition, the soil temperature will still remain high after the HW although the air temperature will recover to its previous state. HWs, as an extreme weather event, have increased during the last two decades in the Songnen meadow steppe. HWs will reduce the carbon flux of the steppe and will cause a sustained impact. Drought may be the main reason why HWs decrease carbon flux. At the later stages of or after a HW, the ecosystem usually lacks water and the soil becomes so hot and dry that it prevents roots from absorbing enough water to maintain their metabolism. This is the main reason why this grassland carbon exchange decreases during and after HWs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Fargallo, Juan A.

    2008-05-01

    Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. We also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased kestrel density and a second grassland as control area to evaluate the direct or indirect effect on skylark abundance. We also considered two different habitats, grazed and ungrazed plots. If skylark abundance decreased as the kestrel breeding season progressed in high-density kestrel area compared with the control area, it would suggest a direct effect (predator hypothesis). If skylark abundance remains constant in both areas of contrasting kestrel density, it would suggest that skylarks avoid kestrels (avoidance hypothesis). We found that skylark abundance decreased in the kestrel area from the beginning of kestrel nest-box installation to recent years. The rate of skylark consumption decreased in a 9-year period as kestrel abundance increased, although the total amount skylark consumption did not show a decreasing trend. In addition, skylarks were more abundant in the kestrel-free area than in the kestrel area. Finally, we found that skylark abundance did not change through the kestrel breeding period in relation to grazing. We suggest that an increased breeding density of kestrels during their breeding period may force the skylarks to breed in other areas, which may explain the decline of their abundance.

  9. Long-Term Trends and Role of Climate in the Population Dynamics of Eurasian Reindeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboni, Alessia; Horstkotte, Tim; Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Sévêque, Anthony; Stammler, Florian; Olofsson, Johan; Forbes, Bruce C; Moen, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is increasing in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions at a higher rate than anywhere else in the world. The frequency and nature of precipitation events are also predicted to change in the future. These changes in climate are expected, together with increasing human pressures, to have significant impacts on Arctic and sub-Arctic species and ecosystems. Due to the key role that reindeer play in those ecosystems, it is essential to understand how climate will affect the region's most important species. Our study assesses the role of climate on the dynamics of fourteen Eurasian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) populations, using for the first time data on reindeer abundance collected over a 70-year period, including both wild and semi-domesticated reindeer, and covering more than half of the species' total range. We analyzed trends in population dynamics, investigated synchrony among population growth rates, and assessed the effects of climate on population growth rates. Trends in the population dynamics were remarkably heterogeneous. Synchrony was apparent only among some populations and was not correlated with distance among population ranges. Proxies of climate variability mostly failed to explain population growth rates and synchrony. For both wild and semi-domesticated populations, local weather, biotic pressures, loss of habitat and human disturbances appear to have been more important drivers of reindeer population dynamics than climate. In semi-domesticated populations, management strategies may have masked the effects of climate. Conservation efforts should aim to mitigate human disturbances, which could exacerbate the potentially negative effects of climate change on reindeer populations in the future. Special protection and support should be granted to those semi-domesticated populations that suffered the most because of the collapse of the Soviet Union, in order to protect the livelihood of indigenous peoples that depend on the species, and the multi

  10. Long-Term Trends and Role of Climate in the Population Dynamics of Eurasian Reindeer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Uboni

    Full Text Available Temperature is increasing in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions at a higher rate than anywhere else in the world. The frequency and nature of precipitation events are also predicted to change in the future. These changes in climate are expected, together with increasing human pressures, to have significant impacts on Arctic and sub-Arctic species and ecosystems. Due to the key role that reindeer play in those ecosystems, it is essential to understand how climate will affect the region's most important species. Our study assesses the role of climate on the dynamics of fourteen Eurasian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus populations, using for the first time data on reindeer abundance collected over a 70-year period, including both wild and semi-domesticated reindeer, and covering more than half of the species' total range. We analyzed trends in population dynamics, investigated synchrony among population growth rates, and assessed the effects of climate on population growth rates. Trends in the population dynamics were remarkably heterogeneous. Synchrony was apparent only among some populations and was not correlated with distance among population ranges. Proxies of climate variability mostly failed to explain population growth rates and synchrony. For both wild and semi-domesticated populations, local weather, biotic pressures, loss of habitat and human disturbances appear to have been more important drivers of reindeer population dynamics than climate. In semi-domesticated populations, management strategies may have masked the effects of climate. Conservation efforts should aim to mitigate human disturbances, which could exacerbate the potentially negative effects of climate change on reindeer populations in the future. Special protection and support should be granted to those semi-domesticated populations that suffered the most because of the collapse of the Soviet Union, in order to protect the livelihood of indigenous peoples that depend on the species

  11. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

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    Julian D Olden

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006 in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA. After accounting for structural (e.g., house size, locational (e.g., boat launch, and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price, corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue, justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  12. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis: a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

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    Shuangyan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin. Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6% of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuangyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Huang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Gongshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  14. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  15. Economic Integration and New Export Opportunities for the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Volchkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At a time when oil prices are low, non-oil exports are important for the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU. This study assesses the effects of the EAEU’s economic integration on the development of new exports. EAEU countries are far behind global export leaders in several categories according to the revealed comparative advantage, used by the Hausmann-Klinger method to assess national export baskets. Belarus exports the most products, and Russia and especially Armenia and Kazakhstan export notably fewer. The comparative advantages of Kazakhstan and Russia are concentrated mainly in minerals, chemical products and metals. The export structure for the other EAEU countries is more diverse, with a high share of foodstuffs in Armenia and textiles in Belarus. Kazakhstan and, to a greater extent, Belarus and Russia show a rather complex export basket, significantly ahead of Armenia according to this indicator. For the EAEU as an independent participant, its trade complexity index is higher than that for its member countries individually. This article uses the Hausmann-Klinger methodology to identify the future comparative advantages of the EAEU countries. These are product groups, towards which a structural transformation of the EAEU exports most likely occurs. The research focuses on the integration aspect of possible non-oil exports, seeking to identify goods, including chemicals and textiles, that can eventually provide a comparative advantage for the EAEU as a whole. Most of the products considered have a greater economic complexity than those in the EAEU’s current export basket, so would improve its overall export structure.

  16. Bloc tectonic rotations recorded in the Neogene and Quaternary magmatic rocks from Northwestern Algeria: preliminary paleomagnetic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Messaoud Derder, Mohamed; Robion, Philippe; Maouche, Said; Bayou, Boualem; Amenna, Mohamed; Henry, Bernard; Missenard, Yves; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Bestandji, Rafik; Ayache, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The seismic activity of the Western Mediterranean area is partly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it was shown by the strong earthquakes of Zemmouri 21 May 2003 Mw=6.9 and the El Asnam 10 October 1980 Ms= 7.3. This seismicity is due to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since the Oligocene. This convergence involves a tectonic transpression with N-S to NNW-SSE shortening direction, which is expressed by active deformation along the plate boundary. Along the Tellian Atlas (Northern Algeria), active structures define NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults affecting the intermountain and coastal Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary basins (e.g. Cheliff and Mitidja Plioquaternary intramontaneous basins, …). The NE-SW reverse active faults are coupled with NW-SE to E-W trending strike-slip deep faults. The active deformation in northern Algeria can be explained by a kinematics model of blocks rotation: the transpressive tectonics with NNW-SSE direction of convergence defines NE-SW oriented blocks, which have been subjected to clockwise rotation. In north Algeria, paleomagnetic studies were carried out in the central area, on Neogene sedimentary and magmatic formations (Derder et al, 2009, 2011; 2013). They pointed out tectonic rotation of large blocks, in agreement with the kinematic model. Narrow zones represent important shear zone with strong rotation of smaller blocks (Derder et al., 2013). A new paleomagnetic study was conducted on the recent magmatic rocks outcropping in the Northwestern Algeria, in order to validate this model on a regional scale. The study is still in progress and the preliminary results show presence of systematic clockwise blocks rotation. These results confirm that the Africa-Europe convergence is partly accommodated in northern Africa by blocks rotations. They highlight that rotations are not homogeneous in north Algeria and thus the importance of future works in this

  17. Isolamento do vírus rábico em morcego insetívoro, Nyctinomops macrotis, no Município de Diadema, SP (Brasil Isolation of rabies virus in an insectivorous bat Nyctinomops macrotis, in Southeastern Brazil

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    Estevão C. Passos

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o isolamento do vírus rábico em morcego insetívoro Nyctinomops macrotis capturado próximo à represa Billings e à mata Atlântica, no Município de Diadema, SP (Brasil. A pesquisa do antígeno rábico no tecido cerebral do morcego apresentou resultado positivo na reação de imunofluorescência direta. O isolamento do vírus rábico no tecido cerebral e nas glândulas salivares do morcego foi obtido através da inoculação intracerebral em camundongos. O Município de Diadema não apresentava casos de raiva animal desde 1982, sendo este o primeiro relato da presença do vírus rábico em morcego insetívoro.The rabies virus was isolated from an insectivorous bat, Nyctinomops macrotis, trapped in Diadema, SP, Brazil, in a public building near a water supply reservoir. Fluorescent antibodies against rabies virus were detected in cerebral tissue and the viral isolation was made after the inoculation of cerebral tissue and salivary gland suspension in mice. There have been no recorded cases of animal rabies in Diadema since 1982, and this is the first isolation of the rabies virus in an insectivorous bat in the city.

  18. A Neogene Higher Plant N-Alkane Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Record From the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Pagani, M.

    2006-12-01

    Water availability and a plant's capacity to cope with water stress are expressed in carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of leaf waxes. Therefore, coupled sedimentary n-alkane δ13C and δD isotope records provide unique continental-scale information about the paleo-hydrological cycle and its influence on biology over long time scales. In this study, we assess the relationship between Neogene North American climate and floral change, particularly C4 grass expansion, by establishing δ13C and δD records of higher-plant leaf wax n-alkanes from Gulf of Mexico sediments (DSDP site 94). Changes in the hydrogen isotope composition of leaf water can be driven by changes in evaporation/evapotranspiration or changes in the evaporative source from which precipitation derives. However, for this study changes in moisture source are unlikely because these sediments located in Gulf of Mexico likely received the majority of precipitation from the Gulf of Mexico itself over the time interval studied. In general, δ13C and δD values shift in concert, with the most positive δ13C and δD values occurring near the Epoch boundaries. N-alkane δ13C values reflect factors other than water stress alone, including the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2, plant community, and atmospheric pCO2. Notably, 13C enrichment occurring near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary potentially reflects the rapid decrease in pCO2 at this time. In addition, between 4.5 and 5.5 Ma, n-alkane δ13C values trend more negative as δD becomes increasingly D-enriched, indicative of increased evaporation. Given that contemporaneous North American terrestrial isotope (Passey et al., 2002) and equatorial Atlantic marine (Wagner, 2002) records show similar trends, it appears that major changes in the hydrological cycle took place at this time.

  19. Ant-nest ichnofossils in honeycomb calcretes, Neogene Ogallala Formation, High Plains region of western Kansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.J.; Platt, B.F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Thomasson, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two new ant-nest trace fossils are described from calcic sandy paleosols of the Neogene Ogallala Formation in western Kansas. The ichnofossils are preserved within and below calcrete beds weathering in positive relief as carbonate-filled casts or as cavities in negative relief. Daimoniobarax ichnogenus nov. is established for burrow systems composed of vertically tiered, horizontally oriented pancake-shaped chambers connected by predominantly vertical and cylindrical shafts ~. 0.8. cm in diameter. Ichnospecies of Daimoniobarax are differentiated based on differences in the plan view outline of chambers, shaft orientation, and junctions between chambers and shafts.Daimoniobarax nephroides ichnospecies nov. is composed of an ~. 24-76. cm long vertical sequence of distinctly lobed chambers (~. 2-20. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) arranged along sinuous to helical shafts. Chamber shape in plan view ranges from small teardrops to larger kidney- and U-shaped forms. Shafts intersect at chamber edges such that chambers appear to bud from the central shafts. Daimoniobarax nephroides is most similar to the nests of extant seed-harvester ants of the New World genus Pogonomyrmex. Such ants are specialized granivores and prefer sandy soils in arid to semi-arid grassland and desert regions.Daimoniobarax tschinkeli ichnospecies nov. is ~. 30-80. cm in vertical extent. Chambers (~. 2-30. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) are circular to elongate or pseudopodial in plan view. Vertical shafts are straight to slightly sinuous and intersect most often toward the center of the chambers. The generalized architecture of D. tschinkeli is similar to that of the nests or nest portions of several extant ant genera, though it does not closely resemble any known modern nest.Ant ichnofossils provide valuable information on hidden biodiversity, paleohydrologic regimes, paleopedogenic processes, and paleoclimate during the time of nest occupation. Depth-related changes in chamber size and vertical spacing

  20. Ichthyolith strontium isotope stratigraphy of a Neogene red clay sequence: calibrating eolian dust accumulation rates in the central North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, James D.; Moore, Theodore C.; Rea, David K.; Johnson, Tina M.; Owen, Robert M.; Blum, Joel D.; Hovan, Steven A.; Jones, Charles E.

    2002-09-01

    Cenozoic pelagic ('red') clays of predominantly eolian and hydrogenous origin blanket much of the central North Pacific ocean basin. The eolian component is a key indicator of past paleoclimatic conditions; thus, Cenozoic atmospheric circulation can potentially be reconstructed through provenance studies of Pacific red clays, provided there are precise age controls. Methods commonly employed in the past to date red clay cores have included cobalt accumulation rates, ichthyolith biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and ichthyolith strontium isotope stratigraphy. The first two dating methods yield ages with large uncertainties, while magnetostratigraphy is only relevant to cores with accumulation rates in excess of 1 mm/kyr. Ichthyolith strontium isotope stratigraphy has shown promise as a chronological tool in marine studies, but has been only sparingly employed in the dating of marine red clay sequences. In this study, we present a complete age-depth profile for a large diameter piston core from the central North Pacific Ocean (EW9709 PC-01, 32.5°N, 141.2°W), consisting of 11 m of primarily wind-deposited dust. To generate this age-depth profile, strontium isotopic compositions were determined on fish teeth ichthyoliths previously cleaned of contaminants using a newly modified reductive cleaning procedure. Ages were determined by reference to the recently refined Sr isotope curve for Neogene seawater. Comparison with nearby giant piston core LL44-GPC3 reinforces the accuracy of our methods. The data for EW9709 PC-01 indicate a fairly constant sediment accumulation rate of ∼0.45 mm/kyr over most of the 24 Myr time period represented by this core.

  1. Evidence for the development of the Andean rain shadow from a Neogene isotopic record in the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Jason A.; Currie, Brian S.; Shullenberger, Eric D.; Dunagan, Stan P.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Blanco, Nicolás; Tomlinson, Andrew J.; Rowe, Harry D.; Houston, John

    2010-04-01

    Varying ages from Triassic to Pliocene have been proposed for the onset of hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert. The exact timing for the initiation of hyperaridity is critical for determining potential causes, which range from regional effects of global cooling to Andean uplift above elevations conducive to extreme rain shadows. Analysis of the stable isotopic composition of lower Miocene-Quaternary (21-0.015 Ma) palustrine and lacustrine carbonates in the Calama Basin reveals extreme changes in their oxygen and carbon isotopic composition during the Miocene. Limestone δ18O values increased by ˜ 5‰ from middle to late Miocene, ranging from - 5.5‰ at 12 Ma to - 1‰ at ˜ 6 Ma. Carbon isotopic values increase by 9‰ over the Neogene, from average values of - 3‰ at 21 Ma to + 3‰ at 12 Ma, and reaching a maximum of + 6‰ at 5 Ma. The increase in oxygen isotopic values occurred over a time span in which the catchment area of the basin experienced significant uplift, causing the δ18O value of precipitation to become more negative. We attribute the shift towards higher δ18O values to enhanced evaporative enrichment both of soil water or snow prior to infiltration, and within shallow lakes or wetlands prior to carbonate precipitation. The large increase in δ13C values was likely caused by a transition from a vegetated landscape influenced primarily by soil-respired CO 2 to a landscape largely devoid of vegetation and influenced by atmospheric and volcanic CO 2. Isotopic values of palustrine carbonates therefore indicate that hyperaridity commenced in the Calama Basin during the middle to late Miocene, in agreement with other paleoclimatic records from the basin. The cause for the onset of this climate change is thought to be due to the development of a strong Andean rain shadow associated with the uplift of the Andes to mean elevations > 2 km.

  2. Geochemical characterization of Neogene sediments from onshore West Baram Delta Province, Sarawak: paleoenvironment, source input and thermal maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togunwa, Olayinka S.; Abdullah, Wan H.

    2017-08-01

    The Neogene strata of the onshore West Baram Province of NW Borneo contain organic rich rock formations particularly within the Sarawak basin. This basin is a proven prolific oil and gas province, thus has been a subject of great interest to characterise the nature of the organic source input and depositional environment conditions as well as thermal maturation. This study is performed on outcrop samples of Lambir, Miri and Tukau formations, which are of stratigraphic equivalence to the petroleum bearing cycles of the offshore West Baram delta province in Sarawak. The investigated mudstone samples are organic rich with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of more than 1.0 wt.%. The integration of elemental and molecular analyses indicates that there is no significant variation in the source input between these formations. The investigated biomarkers parameters achieved from acyclic isoprenoids, terpanes and steranes biomarkers of a saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers revealed that these sediments contain high contribution of land plants with minor marine organic matter input that was deposited and preserved under relatively oxic to suboxic conditions. This is further supported by low total sulphur (TS), high TOC/TN ratios, source and redox sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Cr, Co and Mo) concentrations and their ratios, which suggest terrigenous source input deposited under oxic to suboxic conditions. Based on the analysed biomarker thermal maturity indicators, it may be deduced that the studied sediments are yet to enter the maturity stage for hydrocarbon generation, which is also supported by measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.39-0.48% Ro.

  3. Neogene deformation in the West Antarctic Rift in the McMurdo Sound region from studies of the ANDRILL and Cape Roberts drill cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, T. S.; Wilson, T. J.; Jarrard, R. D.; Millan, C.; Saddler, D.; Läufer, A.; Pierdominici, S.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic studies indicate that the West Antarctic rift system records at least two distinct periods of Cenozoic rifting (Paleogene and Neogene) within the western Ross Sea. Natural fracture data from ANDRILL and Cape Roberts drill cores are revealing a picture of the geodynamic patterns associated with these rifting episodes. Kinematic indicators along faults recovered in drill cores document dominant normal faulting, although reverse and strike-slip faults are also present. Ongoing studies of mechanically twinned calcite in veins recovered in the drill cores yield predominantly vertical shortening strains with horizontal extension, consistent with a normal fault regime. In the Cape Roberts Project drill core, faults of inferred Oligocene age document a dominant NNE maximum horizontal stress associated with Paleogene rifting within the Victoria Land Basin. The NNE maximum horizontal stress at Cape Roberts is at an oblique angle to Transantarctic Mountain front, and consistent with previous interpretations invoking Cenozoic dextral transtensional shear along the boundary. In the ANDRILL SMS (AND-2A) drill core, faults and veins presumably associated with Neogene rifting document a dominant NNW to NE faulting of an expanded Lower Miocene section, although subsidiary WNW faulting is also present within the upper sections of oriented core. In the ANDRILL MIS (AND-1B) drill core, natural fractures are consistently present through the core below c. 450 mbsf, the estimated depth of the ‘B-clino’ seismic reflector. This is consistent with the presence of seismically-detectable faults below this horizon, which record the major faulting episode associated with Neogene rifting in the Terror Rift. Sedimentary intrusions and steep veins folded by compaction indicate that deformation occurred prior to complete lithification of the strata, suggesting that deformation was at least in part coeval with deposition. Faults and associated veins intersected in the AND-1B drill core

  4. The effect of turbidity and prey fish density on consumption rates of piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. This was done in outdoor mesocosm (16 m2) experiments with clear water and two levels of turbidity (25 and 105 NTU) and two prey fish densities [3.1 and 12.5 roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) individuals m–2]. Perch consumption rates were affected by visibility less...... than expected, while they were highly affected by increased prey fish density. Perch responded to high prey density in all visibility conditions, indicating that prey density is more crucial for consumption than visibility in turbid lakes...

  5. The first record of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Angistrongylidae: Nematoda) in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) from Poland based on fecal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesna, Justyna; Popiołek, Marcin; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2006-01-01

    Thirty eight fecal samples of Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx L.) collected in Białowieza Primeval Forest (E Poland) in years 2001-2004 were analysed. The presence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (L1) larvae was evidenced by use of decantation and flotation methods. The general prevalence of the infection recorded during the study was 21.1%, whereas mean intensity was 11,5 (1-33 larvae per sample). To our knowledge, this is the first case of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus recorded in Euroasian lynx from Poland.

  6. Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers.

  7. Petrology and provenance of the Neogene fluvial succession in Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin) western Pakistan: Implications for sedimentation in peripheral forelands basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Aktar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Sandstones and conglomerates of the Neogene fluvial succession in Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin), Pakistan were studied for the first time to understand the composition, provenance and tectonic settings of the source areas. Sandstones of the Miocene Dasht Murgha Group and Pliocene Malthanai Formation...... Formation and Pleistocene Bostan formation reveal that the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation, within the Pishin Belt, were the main source terrains while the Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite and the Cretaceous and Jurassic succession of the Indian Plate were subordinate source terrains...

  8. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Andrén

    Full Text Available The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear and Type II (non-linear functional responses and of season (winter, summer on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E., while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.. Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E. after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E., suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  9. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  10. Structure and variability of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnyushkov, Andrey V.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew C.; Janout, Markus; Rabe, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) transports a vast amount of mass and heat around cyclonic gyres of the deep basins, acting as a narrow, topographically-controlled flow, confined to the continental margins. Current observations during 2002-2011 at seven moorings along the major Atlantic Water (AW) pathway, complemented by an extensive collection of measured temperatures and salinities as well as results of state-of-the-art numerical modeling, have been used to examine the spatial structure and temporal variability of the ACBC within the Eurasian Basin (EB). These observations and modeling results suggest a gradual, six-fold decrease of boundary current speed (from 24 to 4 cm/s) on the route between Fram Strait and the Lomonosov Ridge, accompanied by a transformation of the vertical flow structure from mainly barotropic in Fram Strait to baroclinic between the area north of Spitsbergen and the central Laptev Sea continental slope. The relative role of density-driven currents in maintaining AW circulation increases with the progression of the ACBC eastward from Fram Strait, so that baroclinic ACBC forcing dominates over the barotropic in the eastern EB. Mooring records have revealed that waters within the AW and the cold halocline layers circulate in roughly the same direction in the eastern EB. The seasonal signal, meanwhile, is the most powerful mode of variability in the EB, contributing up to ~70% of the total variability in currents (resolved by moorings records) within the eastern EB. Seasonal signal amplitudes for current speed and AW temperature both decrease with the eastward progression of AW flow from source regions, and demonstrate strong interannual modulation. In the 2000s, the state of the EB (e.g., circulation pattern, thermohaline conditions, and freshwater balance) experienced remarkable changes. Results showing anomalous circulation patterns for an extended period of 30 months in 2008-2010 for the eastern EB, and a two-core AW

  11. Sexual conflict and consistency of offspring desertion in Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogány Ákos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trade-off between current and future parental investment is often different between males and females. This difference may lead to sexual conflict between parents over care provisioning in animals that breed with multiple mates. One of the most obvious manifestations of sexual conflict over care is offspring desertion whereby one parent deserts the young to increase its reproductive success at the expense of its mate. Offspring desertion is a wide-spread behavior, and its frequency often varies within populations. We studied the consistency of offspring desertion in a small passerine bird, the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus, that has an extremely variable breeding system. Both males and females are sequentially polygamous, and a single parent (either the male or the female incubates the eggs and rears the young. About 28–40% of offspring are abandoned by both parents, and these offspring perish. Here we investigate whether the variation in offspring desertion in a population emerges either by each individual behaving consistently between different broods, or it is driven by the environment. Results Using a three-year dataset from Southern Hungary we show that offspring desertion by females is consistent between nests. Male desertion, however, depends on ambient environment, because all males desert their nests early in the season and some of them care late in the season. Therefore, within-population variation in parental care emerges by sexually different mechanisms; between-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern of offspring desertion in females, whereas within-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern in males. Conclusion To our knowledge, our study is the first that investigates repeatability of offspring desertion behavior in nature. The contrasting strategies of the sexes imply complex evolutionary trajectories in breeding behavior of penduline tits. Our results

  12. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  13. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation.

  14. Non cat-like ovarian cycle in the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx - ultrasonographical and endocrinological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göritz, F; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Martinez, F; López-Bao, J V; Palomares, F; Jewgenow, K

    2009-07-01

    The Iberian lynx is considered the most endangered felid species. Therefore, an ex situ conservation program was initiated to protect this species from extinction. Additional knowledge on lynx reproduction biology and reliable methods for reproductive monitoring are important for developing a captive breeding program. The aim of this study in lynx was to implement transrectal ultrasonography to visualize ovarian structures (follicles, corpora lutea) and to assess ovarian activity in addition to analysis of serum progesterone and oestradiol. Because of limited access to Iberian lynxes, the less-endangered Eurasian lynx and bobcat were also studied in this comparative study. Recent endocrinological studies based on faecal and urinary progesterone and oestrogen metabolites revealed that steroid profiles in both these species were alike and did not follow the typical pattern of other felids. Pregnancy diagnosis was not possible, since progesterone concentrations did not differ between pregnant and pseudopregnant animals. Progesterone was also detected after parturition as well as after weaning until the onset of a new oestrous cycle. In the present study, the presence of corpora lutea during the non-breeding season was confirmed by ultrasonography and by elevated serum levels of progesterone averaging 3.56 +/- 1.3 ng/ml in Eurasian and 6.1 +/- 0.26 ng/ml in Iberian lynx, respectively. The ultrasonographical findings on the ovarian structures suggest strongly that corpora lutea developed after ovulation stay active until November and regress before the onset of the next oestrus.

  15. Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) – Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  16. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Painer

    Full Text Available Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation.

  17. Considerations regarding the occurence of the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber Linnaeus 1758 in the Danube Delta (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXE Vasile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On its original Romanian name - breb, the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber extinct at us for almost two centuries and reintroduced in some areas of the country, at present is better known under the name of his North American relative, beaver. In the last decades, this specie has been reintroduced within in its old habitats from where itwas extinct, especially under the effect of human pressure. Since 1998, reinsertion actions took place in Romania, in many areas, the closest one to Danube Delta area being the lower part of Ialomita river. By 2011 epigraphic or paleozoology evidences about the presence of this mammalian into the actual Delta have not been found, except the Lower Danube, up to Isaccea, but also near Dobrogea Plateau in Murighiol area. Its last Paleontology evidences come from early medieval period. Until now, the actual delta was considered a territory inappropriate for the Eurasian Beaver, due to high fluctuations of the water levels. But, in April 2011, the spontaneous appearance of the European beaver near Maliuc area was proved, a copy killed by poachers. In July 2011, a Beaver injured after the collision with a boat was found and scientifically investigated. The future observations will have to document if this mammal extends its habitat up here or remains an erratic appearance. In case of success of spontaneous colonization, its consequences and effects on the environment in general and on biodiversity inparticular are required to be monitored.

  18. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Graf

    Full Text Available Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology.

  19. Spatiotemporal variability of snow depth across the Eurasian continent from 1966 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow depth is one of the key physical parameters for understanding land surface energy balance, soil thermal regime, water cycle, and assessing water resources from local community to regional industrial water supply. Previous studies by using in situ data are mostly site specific; data from satellite remote sensing may cover a large area or global scale, but uncertainties remain large. The primary objective of this study is to investigate spatial variability and temporal change in snow depth across the Eurasian continent. Data used include long-term (1966–2012 ground-based measurements from 1814 stations. Spatially, long-term (1971–2000 mean annual snow depths of >20 cm were recorded in northeastern European Russia, the Yenisei River basin, Kamchatka Peninsula, and Sakhalin. Annual mean and maximum snow depth increased by 0.2 and 0.6 cm decade−1 from 1966 through 2012. Seasonally, monthly mean snow depth decreased in autumn and increased in winter and spring over the study period. Regionally, snow depth significantly increased in areas north of 50° N. Compared with air temperature, snowfall had greater influence on snow depth during November through March across the former Soviet Union. This study provides a baseline for snow depth climatology and changes across the Eurasian continent, which would significantly help to better understanding climate system and climate changes on regional, hemispheric, or even global scales.

  20. Assessment of Water Use in Pan-Eurasian and African Continents by ETMonitor with Multi-Source Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaolei; Jia, Li; Hu, Guangcheng; Menenti, Massimo; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhansheng

    2017-02-01

    The Pan-Eurasian and African Continents are characterized by large ranges of climates varying from humid, semi-humid, semi-arid and arid regions, and great challenges exist in water allocation for different sectors that related to water resource and food security, which depends strongly on the water use information. Quantitative information on water use is also important to understand the effectiveness of water allocation and further to prevent from water stress resulted by drought in water-scarce regions. Explosive development of satellite remote sensing observations provide great chance to provide useful spatiotemporal information for quantifying the water use at regional to global scales. In this paper, a process-based model ETMonitor was used in combination with biophysical and hydrological parameters retrieved from earth observations to estimate the actual evapotranspiration, i.e. the agricultural and ecological water use. The total water use is also partitioned into beneficial part, e.g. plant transpiration, and non-beneficial part, e.g. soil evaporation and canopy rainfall interception, according to the water accounting framework. The estimated water use show good agreements with the ground observation, indicating the ability of ETMonitor for global and continental scale water use estimation. The spatial and temporal patterns of the water use in the Pan-Eurasian and African Continents were further analysed, while large spatial variation of water use was convinced. Current study also highlights the great capability of satellite observations in studying the regional water resource and continental water cycle.

  1. Mangrove associated lignite beds of Malvan, Konkan: Evidence for higher sea-level during the Late Tertiary (Neogene) along the west coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran, K.P.N.; Shindikar, M.; Limaye, R.B. [Agharkar Research Inst., Pune (India)

    2004-01-25

    Fossil pneumatophores (breathing roots) of Avicennia are recovered and reported from the lignite beds exposed in Kolamb well-section near Malvan, Konkan area of western Maharashtra. The accrued palynoflora is dominated by mangroves (Avicennia, Aegialitis, Excoecaria, Rhizophora and Sonneratia). The spores of mangrove fern (Acrostichum aureum) an estuarine fungus Cirrenalia indicate that these lignites are autochthonous and deposited in a near-shore environment. Presence of foraminiferal linings (= microforaminifera), dinoflagellate cysts, a few calcareous nannofossils and scolecodonts is an irrefutable proof of marine and brackish water influence during the deposition of lignites under intertidal/tidal swampy condition (mangrove influenced) with fair input from freshwater swamps and hinterland. Freshwater-related forms, viz. Ceratopteris thalictroides, Nymphaeaceae, Ctenolophonaceae and hinterland taxa (Cullenia/Durio) of Bombacaceae along with abundance of microthyriaceous fungi in the palynoflora imply a warm humid tropical climate with high precipitation during the depositional period. The presence of Ctenolophon englerianus (= Ctenolophonidites costatus) in Kolamb lignites suggests the Late Neogene (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) age. The occurrence of pneumatophores and associated lignite deposits about 37 m above the present mean sea-level, and much inland, clearly indicates the higher sea-level strand during Late Neogene along the west coast of India.

  2. Constraints on Neogene deformation in the southern Terror Rift from calcite twinning analyses of veins within the ANDRILL MIS core, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, T. S.; Demosthenous, C.; Wilson, T. J.; Millan, C.

    2009-12-01

    The ANDRILL MIS (McMurdo Ice Shelf) Drilling Project obtained over 1200 meters of Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in 2006/2007. Systematic fracture logging of the AND-1B core identified 1,475 natural fractures, i.e. pre-existing fractures in the rock intersected by coring. The most abundant natural fractures are normal faults and calcite veins; reverse faults, brecciated zones, and sedimentary intrusions are also present. In order to better understand Neogene deformation patterns within the southern Terror Rift, we have been conducting strain analyses on mechanically twinned calcite within healed fractures in the drill core. Twinning strains using all of the data from each sample studied to date range from 2% to 10%. The cleaned data (20% of the largest magnitude deviations removed) typically show ≤30% negative expected values, consistent with a single deformation episode or multiple ~coaxial deformation episodes. The majority of the samples record horizontal extension, similar to strain patterns expected in a normal fault regime and/or vertical sedimentary compaction in a continental rift system. The morphology, width, and intensity of twins in the samples suggest that twinning typically occurred at temperatures <170° C. Twinning intensities suggest differential stress magnitudes that caused the twinning ranged from 216 to 295 MPa.

  3. Polybaric melting of a single mantle source during the Neogene Siverek phase of the Karacadaǧ Volcanic Complex, SE Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Taner; Macpherson, Colin G.; Otlu, Nazmi

    2012-08-01

    Siverek plateau basalts represent the Neogene activity of the Karacadağ Volcanic Complex in southeast Turkey and can be divided into two groups based on incompatible element concentrations. Group 1 is largely basaltic, containing some alkali basalts, while Group 2 consists of alkali basalts, trachybasalts and tephrites. The lavas display a range in major element concentrations that are consistent with restricted amounts of differentiation in the crust. Melts from both groups have experienced variable, small amounts of interaction with crustal rocks, which is responsible for most of the isotopic heterogeneity and caused significant Ba-enrichment. Neither fractional crystallisation nor crustal contamination can account for the differences in trace element enrichment observed between the two groups. Group 1 is derived mainly from the spinel lherzolite field by > 1% partial melting. Group 2 lavas were derived from very similar mantle but by smaller degrees of melting and contain a larger relative contribution from garnet-lherzolite. The Siverek plateau lavas are indistinguishable from contemporaneous magmatism in the Karasu Valley of southern Turkey and in northernmost Syria. Together, these plateau basalt fields represent mantle upwelling and melting beneath the thinned and/or weakened Arabian Plate as it migrated northwards during the Neogene.

  4. Ion-probe U–Pb dating of authigenic and detrital opal from Neogene-Quaternary alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid; Paces, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing depositional ages of alluvial fans is essential for many tectonic, paleoclimatic, and geomorphic studies in arid environments. The use of U–Pb dating on secondary silica to establish the age of Neogene-Quaternary clastic sediments was tested on samples of authigenic and detrital opal and chalcedony from depths of ∼25 to 53 m in boreholes at Midway Valley, Nevada. Dating of authigenic opal present as rinds on rock clasts and in calcite/silica cements establishes minimum ages of alluvium deposition; dating of detrital opal or chalcedony derived from the source volcanic rocks gives the maximum age of sediment deposition.Materials analyzed included 12 samples of authigenic opal, one sample of fracture-coating opal from bedrock, one sample of detrital opal, and two samples of detrital chalcedony. Uranium–lead isotope data were obtained by both thermal ionization mass spectrometry and ion-microprobe. Uranium concentrations ranged from tens to hundreds of μg/g. Relatively large U/Pb allowed calculation of 206Pb/238U ages that ranged from 1.64±0.36 (2σ) to 6.16±0.50 Ma for authigenic opal and from 8.34±0.28 to 11.2±1.3 Ma for detrital opal/chalcedony. Three samples with the most radiogenic Pb isotope compositions also allowed calculation of 207Pb/235U ages, which were concordant with 206Pb/238U ages from the same samples.These results indicate that basin development at Midway Valley was initiated between about 8 and 6 Ma, and that the basin was filled at long-term average deposition rates of less than 1 cm/ka. Because alluvium in Midway Valley was derived from adjacent highlands at Yucca Mountain, the low rates of deposition determined in this study may imply a slow rate of erosion of Yucca Mountain. Volcanic strata underlying the basin are offset by a number of buried faults to a greater degree than the relatively smooth-sloping bedrock/alluvium contact. These geologic relations indicate that movement on most faults ceased prior to erosional

  5. Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Neogene sediments of the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo Basin, southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cabrera, Pedro Tomas

    2003-10-01

    Southeastern Mexico has been affected by regional and local tectonic events. Regional tectonic events are the Gulf of Mexico opening and the lateral movement of micro-plates on the Pacific margin. The local tectonic events are related to salt tectonics. Autochthonous Jurassic salt serves as the detachment level for the main compressional event in the late Miocene. Jurassic salt was allochthonously emplaced in the late Miocene, then partially displaced by a huge quantity of terrigenous sediments during the Plio-Pleistocene. This research is a study of the main geological processes that have influenced the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene sediments in the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo basin known as the Marbella area. Owing to data availability, the project was divided into regional and local studies. The regional study is based on 2D multi-channel seismic reflection data, and the local study is based on a 3D seismic streamer survey. Structural analysis in the regional study permits the recognition of four buried fold belts (Agua Dulce, Catemaco, Marbella, and Marbella Norte) trending roughly NE. These fold belts are the result of tectonic convergence in the pacific margin during late Miocene. The Agua Dulce and Marbella Norte fold belts are separated by an enormous salt withdrawal basin called the Pescadores basin. The Pescadores basin is bounded on the north by a spectacular stepped, counter-regional structure. Beyond the Pescadores basin, a salt mini-basin area is recognized in the upper continental slope. Another important structural element is the Sal Somera canopy in the southern part of the study area. Sedimentation-rate analysis, based on isochore mapping in the local study area, indicates that from SB-2.4 to SB-2.6 Ma, deposition rate peaked with a maximum of 7.5 mm/yr. Regional and local structural restorations show that, in general, the maximum allochthonous salt mobilization was during the Plio-Pleistocene because of the

  6. The Neogene-Quaternary geodynamic evolution of the central Calabrian Arc: A case study from the western Catanzaro Trough basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutto, F.; Muto, F.; Loreto, M. F.; Paola, N. De; Tripodi, V.; Critelli, S.; Facchin, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Catanzaro Trough is a Neogene-Quaternary basin developed in the central Calabrian Arc, between the Serre and the Sila Massifs, and filled by up to 2000 m of continental to marine deposits. It extends from the Sant'Eufemia Basin (SE Tyrrhenian Sea), offshore, to the Catanzaro Basin, onshore. Here, onshore structural data have been integrated with structural features interpreted using marine geophysical data to infer the main tectonic processes that have controlled the geodynamic evolution of the western portion of the Catanzaro Trough, since Upper Miocene to present. The data show a complex tectonostratigraphic architecture of the basin, which is mainly controlled by the activity of NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems. In particular, during late Miocene, the NW-SE oriented faults system was characterized by left lateral kinematics. The same structural regime produces secondary fault systems represented by E-W and NE-SW oriented faults. The ca. E-W lineaments show extensional kinematics, which may have played an important role during the opening of the WNW-ESE paleo-strait; whereas the NE-SW oriented system represents the conjugate faults of the NW-SE oriented structural system, showing a right lateral component of motion. During the Piacenzian-Lower Pleistocene, structural field and geophysical data show a switch from left-lateral to right-lateral kinematics of the NW-SE oriented faults, due to a change of the stress field. This new structural regime influenced the kinematics of the NE-SW faults system, which registered left lateral movement. Since Middle Pleistocene, the study area experienced an extensional phase, WNW-ESE oriented, controlled mainly by NE-SW and, subordinately, N-S oriented normal faults. This type of faulting splits obliquely the western Catanzaro Trough, producing up-faulted and down-faulted blocks, arranged as graben-type system (i.e Lamezia Basin). The multidisciplinary approach adopted, allowed us to constrain the structural setting of

  7. Late Neogene Volcanic Stratigraphy in the Southern Puertecitos Volcanic Province of Baja California: Time Constraints and Vent Source Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carrillo, P.; Martin, A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Cañon, E.

    2007-05-01

    Late Neogene syn-rift explosive volcanism occurred in the Puertecitos Volcanic Province along the western margin of the Gulf of California. This volcanic episode is possibly related to extension during opening of the lower Delfin basin in mid-late Pliocene time. The volcanic stratigraphy in the southern Puertecitos Volcanic Province comprises three main groups: group 1 is a mid-Miocene, arc-related volcanic and sedimentary apron. Groups 2 and 3 are syn-rift volcanic units interstratified within alluvial conglomerate. Group 2 includes a non-welded, crystal-rich pyroclastic flow deposit, and a dark glassy dacite lava flow. Distinctive mineralogy of the crystal tuff is augite, sanidine-microcline and quartz. Two 39Ar/40Ar laser step-heating experiments on sanidine grains yielded an 6.18 ± 0.03 Ma isochron age, consistent with a 6.1 ± 0.4 Ma plateau age obtained in the dacite lava. Thickness of the crystal tuff varies from 35 m in the northeast to 10 m in the southwest along 5 km of distance. Group 3 is characterized by the lack of quartz and potassic feldspar phenocrysts. Three laser step heating experiments on groundmass samples constrain this pulse of explosive volcanism between 2.9 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.03 Ma. Thicknesses of individual units increase to the northeast and collectively reach up to 150 m. Isopath maps for distinctive flow-units indicate consistent dispersion direction to the SW (average azimuth 210° ± 15°). This inferred flow direction is similar to the orientation of magnetic susceptibility axes measured in 20 oriented samples that yield a mean azimuth of 214°± 24°. In group 3 flow-units eutaxitic foliation is concordant and dips 8-20° to the ENE. Tilting of the volcanic sequence is produced by a series of NNW-trending, west-dipping, high-angle normal faults with less than 40 m of throw. Balanced cross- sections in the southern Puertecitos Volcanic Province indicates that post-2.8 Ma extension is less than 15% suggesting that major deformation

  8. Palaeomagnetic study of the Karacadağ Volcanic Complex, SE Turkey: Monitoring Neogene anticlockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçbulut, Fikret; Akpınar, Zafer; Tatar, Orhan; Piper, John D. A.; Roberts, Andrew. P.

    2013-11-01

    The Karacadağ Volcanic Centre in south east Turkey is a major basaltic complex sited at the northern margin of the Arabian Plate and emplaced in several pulses between ~ 11 Ma and Late Quaternary times. We have sampled 71 sites in lavas of this complex to constrain the palaeomagnetic record and hence the chronology of magmatic activity and regional rotation. Palaeomagnetic study at sixty two sites yields significant component definition with mixed normal and reversed polarities. From age dating and morphologic criteria we identify three major episodes of lava emplacement and site mean directions of magnetisation for these divisions resolve migration of the palaeofield direction for the northern sector of the Arabian Plate since mid-Miocene times. Successive (reversed polarity) group mean directions are: D/I = 175°/- 50.5° (N = 37, R = 33.13, α95 = 4.1°) for the oldest (Siverek) division (mean age estimate 11.1-6.7 Ma), D/I = 173.4°/- 46.0° (N = 16, R = 15.67, α95 = 5.5°) for the middle (Karacadağ) division (mean age 3.3 Ma) and D/I = 167.7°/- 47.6° (N = 6, R = 5.93, α95 = 7.9°) for the youngest (Ovabağ) division (~ 1.9 Ma - present). The first two results merit a tectonic interpretation and consistent anticlockwise rotation of ~ 9° is recognised in the Karacadağ Volcanic Centre between ~ 11 and 3.3 Ma. The mean directions conform to palaeomagnetic results from other undeformed Neogene igneous complexes of comparable age range further to the west along the northern perimeter of the Arabian Plate. The amount of tectonic rotation observed in Late Pliocene and older volcanic units from this plate is found to be statistically-constant. Tectonism responsible for rotation therefore appears to have been temporally-confined to the last ~ 2 Myr which is long after collision with the Anatolides and closure of the Bitlis suture. This conclusion conforms to the young distributed block rotations recognised in the Anatolides and Aegean and correlates with the

  9. Frequency and volumes of ignimbrite eruptions following the Late Neogene initiation of the Central Oregon High Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Bradley W.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Grunder, Anita L.; Duncan, Robert A.

    2017-06-01

    The late Neogene Deschutes Formation of central Oregon preserves a remarkable volcanic and sedimentary record of the initial stages of High Cascades activity following an eastward shift in the locus of volcanism at 7.5 Ma. Numerous ignimbrite and tephra-fall units are contained within the formation, and since equivalent deposits are relatively rare for the Quaternary Cascades, the eruptions of the earliest High Cascade volcanoes were likely more explosive than those of the Quaternary arc. In this study, the timing and frequency of eruptions which produced 14 laterally extensive marker ignimbrites within the Deschutes Formation are established using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar ages for the lowermost (6.25 ± 0.07 Ma) and uppermost (5.45 ± 0.04 Ma) marker ignimbrites indicate that all major explosive eruptions within the Deschutes Formation occurred within a period of 800 ± 54 k.y. (95% confidence interval). Minimum estimates for the volumes of the 14 ignimbrites, using an ArcGIS-based method, range from 1.0 to 9.4 km3 and have a total volume of 62.5 km3. Taken over the 50 km of arc length, the explosive volcanic production rate of the central Oregon High Cascades during Deschutes Formation time was a minimum of 1.8 km3/m.y./km of arc length. By including estimates of the volumes of tephra-fall components, as well as ignimbrites that may have traveled west, we estimate a total volume range, for these 14 eruptions alone, of 188 to 363 km3 ( 121 to 227 km3 DRE), a rate of 4.7-9.1 km3/m.y./km arc length. This explosive volcanic production rate is much higher than the average Quaternary eruption rates, of all compositions, estimated for the entire Cascade arc (1.5-2.5), Alaska Peninsula segment of the Aleutian arc (0.6-1.0), and the Andean southern volcanic zone (1.1-2.0). We suggest that this atypical explosive pulse may result from the onset of regional extension and migration of the magmatic arc, which had the combined effect of increasing

  10. Individual migration patterns of Eurasian golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria breeding in Swedish Lapland; examples of cold spell-induced winter movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machin, Paula; Fernandez-Elipe, Juan; Flores, Manuel; Fox, James W.; Aguirre, Jose I.; Klaassen-, Raymond H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking studies normally focus on long-distance migrants, meaning that our understanding about short-distance migration remains limited. In this study, we present the first individual tracks of the Eurasian golden plover Pluvialis apricaria, a short-distance migrant, which were tracked from a

  11. Individual migration patterns of Eurasian golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria breeding in Swedish Lapland : Examples of cold spell-induced winter movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machin, Paula; Fernandez-Elipe, Juan; Flores, Manuel; Fox, James W.; Aguirre, Jose I.; Klaassen-, Raymond H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking studies normally focus on long-distance migrants, meaning that our understanding about short-distance migration remains limited. In this study, we present the first individual tracks of the Eurasian golden plover Pluvialis apricaria, a short-distance migrant, which were tracked from a

  12. Reassortant highly pathogenic influenza A H5N2 virus containing gene segments related to Eurasian H5N8 in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren

    2015-03-25

    In late November 2014 higher than normal death losses in a meat turkey and chicken broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia initiated a diagnostic investigation that led to the discovery of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus. This virus, composed of 5 gene segments (PB2, PA, HA, M and NS) related to Eurasian HPAI H5N8 and the remaining gene segments (PB1, NP and NA) related to North American lineage waterfowl viruses, represents the first HPAI outbreak in North American poultry due to a virus with Eurasian lineage genes. Since its first appearance in Korea in January 2014, HPAI H5N8 spread to Western Europe in November 2014. These European outbreaks happened to temporally coincide with migratory waterfowl movements. The fact that the British Columbia outbreaks also occurred at a time associated with increased migratory waterfowl activity along with reports by the USA of a wholly Eurasian H5N8 virus detected in wild birds in Washington State, strongly suggest that migratory waterfowl were responsible for bringing Eurasian H5N8 to North America where it subsequently reassorted with indigenous viruses.

  13. Measurements of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the lower reaches of major Eurasian arctic rivers using trace metal clean techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guay, Christopher K.H., E-mail: cguay@pmstllc.co [Pacific Marine Sciences and Technology, 3503 Lakeshore Avenue, Suite 5, Oakland, CA 94610 (United States); Zhulidov, Alexander V. [South Russian Regional Centre for Preparation and Implementation of International Projects (CPPI-S), 200/1 Stachki Av., No. 301, Rostov-on-Don 344090 (Russian Federation); Robarts, Richard D. [UNEP GEMS/Water Programme, c/o National Water Research Institute, National Hydrology Research Centre, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5 (Canada); Zhulidov, Daniel A.; Gurtovaya, Tatiana Yu. [South Russian Regional Centre for Preparation and Implementation of International Projects (CPPI-S), 200/1 Stachki Av., No. 301, Rostov-on-Don 344090 (Russian Federation); Holmes, Robert M. [The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Headley, John V. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Branch, National Water Research Institute, National Hydrology Research Centre, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    Concentrations of dissolved and particulate Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in samples collected in summer 1998 from the lower reaches of six major Eurasian arctic rivers: the Onega, Severnaya Dvina, Mezen, Pechora, Ob and Yenisey. These data comprise some of the earliest measurements of trace metals in Eurasian arctic rivers above the estuaries using recognized clean techniques. Significant (alpha = 0.05) differences were observed among mean concentrations of particulate metals in the individual rivers (F <= 0.006), with highest levels overall observed in the Severnaya Dvina and Yenisey. No significant differences were observed among mean concentrations of dissolved metals in the individual rivers (F = 0.10-0.84). Contributions from anthropogenic sources are suggested by comparison of trace metal ratios in the samples to crustal abundances. These results establish a baseline for assessing future responses of Eurasian arctic river systems to climate-related environmental changes and shifting patterns of pollutant discharge. - We report some of the earliest reliable trace metal data for major Eurasian arctic rivers.

  14. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum: Graduate Employability in the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings (4th, Astana, Kazakhstan, June 11-12, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This collection of papers introduces the proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference-Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held on the 11-12 June, 2015 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. Our presenters come from different professional backgrounds including higher education institutions, national business companies as well as…

  15. Genetic structure within and among regional populations of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) from Denmark and the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zande, L. van de; Vliet, M. van de; Pertoldi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Eurasian badger Meles meles has a wide distribution area ranging from Japan to Ireland. In western Europe badger habitats are severely disturbed by anthropogenic factors, leading to fragmentation into subpopulations and formation of a metapopulation substructuring of once continuous panmictic...

  16. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced

  17. Entrapment of ancient and modern organic carbon by iron on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, Joan A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-04-01

    Given the potential for climate-carbon feedbacks in the Siberian-Arctic land-ocean system, there is a need for improved understanding of carbon cycle processes (Vonk et al., 2012). The entrapment of organic carbon in sediments is a key factor to attenuate the outgassing of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In this context, there is a pressing need to understand the mechanisms that control preservation and accumulations of organic carbon in marine sediments. Recently, the role of iron oxides in the preservation of organic matter globally has been outlined (Lalonde et al., 2012). In the present study, the composition of organic carbon associated to reactive iron (OC-Fe) on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf is evaluated. For this purpose, sediment cores and grab samples were collected in the shelves of the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea from 9 to 69 m water depth. Experiments were conducted to extract the OC-Fe from the sediments by applying a citrate-dithionite iron reduction method -accurately control corrected- and analyze the δ13C, % OC and Δ14C of the bulk and iron-associated fractions. The results show that 11.0 ± 5.5% of organic carbon in surface-sediments of the Siberian Arctic Shelf is attached to reactive iron. The Δ14C and δ13C signatures presented sharply contrasting offsets between the sedimentary bulk and the OC-Fe. The OC-Fe is much younger than the OC-bulk in the eastern East Siberian Sea and older in the Laptev Sea. The same offsets were observed using a dual-carbon endmember mixing model showing that the iron fraction is mainly composed by young marine plankton organic carbon in the eastern East Siberian Sea and pre-aged thawing permafrost in the Laptev Sea. Overall, it seems that (i) some of this pre-aged organic carbon still remains bound to iron oxides after permafrost thawing and (ii) the iron oxides are transferring dissolved organic carbon to the sediment. This study presents the first analyses of Δ14C ever done in the OC

  18. Re-Discussion on Motion of Shanghai VLBI Station Relative to Eurasian Plate From VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhigen; Zhu, Wenyao; Xiong, Yongqing; Zhang, Qiang

    Since 1988, the Shanghai VLBI station, located a Sheshan, in the suburbs of Shanghai, about 30 km away from the downtown, has participated in near 200 international geodetic VLBI experiments which since 1991, have also been the part of content of research project named "The Contemporary Crustal Motion and Geodynamics Project" supported by the Chinese Science and Technology Committee for the major scientific goal of improving the knowledge of the contemporary crustal motions of the Chinese continent, and exploring their possible geodynamical mechanism. In recent years, some results about the horizontal motion of this station relatively to Eurasian plate have been obtained which and are listed in the following Table. No. Horizontal velocity(mm/yr) Local azimuth(degree) Authors 1 16.5+/-1.5 98.7+/- 7.7 Ye and Qian, 1992 2 18.6+/-5.9 114.2+/- 8.5 Ye, Qian et al., 1997 3 7.5+/-1.2 95.2+/-12.1 Qian, 1997 4 8.6 109.0 Ye and Qian, 1997 5 11.1 112.2 Heki, 1996 6 7.7 93.1 SSV(GSFC) 97 R 01 7 18.7 87.3 SSV(GIUB) 97 R 01 8 11.0 61.2 SSV(NOAA) 95 R 01 It can be seen from the Table that the horizontal velocities are between 8-19 mm/yr. However the difference between various values of local azimuth can be as large as 53 degree, i.e. from E 24 degree S to E 29 degree N. Based on the results of No.1-6 in the Table, the motion vector, especially its local azimuth referred to GSFC terrestrial reference frame(TRF), seems relatively stable which toward east-southeast(average value: 11.7+/-4.8 mm/yr, N 103.7+/-9.2 degree E). In this paper, based on the coordinate velocities of ITRF96 which represents a new generation of realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System(ITRS), we re-calculated the velocity vector of Shanghai VLBI station by using the recent calculated rates of baseline length between Shanghai and eight international VLBI stations, including Fairbanks(Gilcreek, Alaska), Wettzell(Germany), Kauai(Hawaii), Minamitorishima(Marcus Island, northwestern Pacific Ocean

  19. In situ morphometric survey elucidates the evolutionary systematics of the Eurasian Himantoglossum clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade. Methods Between one and 12 plants found in 25 populations that encompassed the entire distribution of the Himantoglossum s.l. clade were measured in situ for 51 morphological characters. Results for 45 of those characters were subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses. Key Results Multivariate analyses readily separate subgenus Barlia and subgenus Comperia from subgenus Himantoglossum, and also the early-divergent H. formosum from the less divergent remainder of subgenus Himantoglossum. The sequence of divergence of these four lineages is confidently resolved. Our experimental approach to morphometric character analysis demonstrates clearly that phenotypic evolution within Himantoglossum is unusually multi-dimensional. Conclusions Degrees of divergence between taxa shown by morphological analyses approximate those previously shown using molecular analyses. Himantoglossum s.l. is readily divisible into three subgenera. The three sections of subgenus Himantoglossum—hircinum, caprinum and formosum—are arrayed from west to east with only limited geographical overlap. At this taxonomic level, their juxtaposition combines with conflict between contrasting datasets to complicate attempts to distinguish between clinal variation and the discontinuities that by definition separate bona fide species. All taxa achieve allogamy via food deceit and have only weak pollinator specificity

  20. In situ morphometric survey elucidates the evolutionary systematics of the Eurasian Himantoglossum clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár V., Attila; Sramkó, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade. Methods Between one and 12 plants found in 25 populations that encompassed the entire distribution of the Himantoglossum s.l. clade were measured in situ for 51 morphological characters. Results for 45 of those characters were subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses. Key Results Multivariate analyses readily separate subgenus Barlia and subgenus Comperia from subgenus Himantoglossum, and also the early-divergent H. formosum from the less divergent remainder of subgenus Himantoglossum. The sequence of divergence of these four lineages is confidently resolved. Our experimental approach to morphometric character analysis demonstrates clearly that phenotypic evolution within Himantoglossum is unusually multi-dimensional. Conclusions Degrees of divergence between taxa shown by morphological analyses approximate those previously shown using molecular analyses. Himantoglossum s.l. is readily divisible into three subgenera. The three sections of subgenus Himantoglossum—hircinum, caprinum and formosum—are arrayed from west to east with only limited geographical overlap. At this taxonomic level, their juxtaposition combines with conflict between contrasting datasets to complicate attempts to distinguish between clinal variation and the discontinuities that by definition separate bona fide species. All taxa achieve allogamy via food deceit and have only weak pollinator specificity. Artificial

  1. Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2008-07-01

    The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p Eurasian lynx revealed that the measurement of faecal progesterone metabolites led to profiles dissimilar to profiles shown in other felid species, but similar to those from faecal gestagen metabolite analysis in the Iberian lynx. To identify faecal gestagen and oestrogen metabolites a radio-metabolism study was performed. Using the progesterone immunoassay two major progesterone metabolites were detected demonstrating that the assay indeed tracks the relevant metabolites. The oestrogen assay measured authentic 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone, and their conjugates. The analysis of the faecal metabolite composition in samples from early and late pregnancy and lactation particularly revealed a distinct shift in the relation between 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone that changed in favour of oestrone. This

  2. Mapping the indentation between the Iberian and Eurasian plates beneath the Western Pyrenees/Eastern Cantabrian Mountains from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Ruiz, M.; Pulgar, J. A.; Gallart, J.

    2012-10-01

    In the last decades, active seismic profiling in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula has evidenced that the Alpine collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates resulted in a complex crustal structure, with the Iberian crust underthrusting the Eurasian crust and reaching depths of at least 45-50 km beneath the Pyrenean chain and the Cantabrian Mountains. In the transition between these two zones the situation is particularly complex, as evidenced in previous wide-angle and passive seismic studies. This contribution focuses in getting new clues on the crustal structure of this transitional zone through receiver function (RF) analysis of teleseismic data recorded at permanent and temporary stations located in both the Spanish and French sides of the Western Pyrenees. Different techniques (H-κ stacking, pseudo-migration, synthetic 2D modeling) have been considered in the analysis. Passive seismic data from previous temporary deployments in the zone have been reworked and added to the discussion. A first order result is that passive seismic data are broadly consistent with the indentation of the Iberian and Eurasian crusts inferred from active seismic profiling, thus providing a completely independent confirmation of this feature. For the first time, an Iberian Moho underlying the Eurasian crust is documented from RF beneath the stations located at the Northern side of the Pyrenean range. Moreover, clear indications of dipping interfaces are observed at some stations. The new RF results suggest that in the crustal indentation beneath the Basque Massifs area, the Eurasian crust extends farther south with respect to the image inferred from active seismic data. This new geometry implies that the Pamplona transfer zone has played a major role in the regional geodynamic history.

  3. EURASIAN MINERAL WATER: MATHEMATICAL MODELING, CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR IMPACT ON THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HUMAN BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kornilov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of comparative analysis of the composition of the Eurasian hydromineral resources and the assessment of their impact on the physiological condition of a human organism according to biochemical studies of venous blood are presented. Processing of initial data on the composition and properties of mineral waters chloride-hydrocarbonate, sulphate- hydrocarbonate and chloride-sulphate types and venous blood are made using the method of mathematical modeling, developed by the authors of this article. It is shown that in the balneological impact of hydromineral resources on the body in the blood increases the hemoglobin and oxygen, decreases glucose, and acid-base pH shifted to high alkalinity.

  4. New Details of the Eurasian Beaver’s, Castor Fiber (Rodentia, Castoridae, Expansion in the Lowland Part of Transcarpathia, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkasi Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains information on a new beaver colony discovered in the Chornyi mochar tract, which is located in the lowland part of Transcarpathia (= Zakarpattia Region. This rodent species disappeared from the territory of Transcarpathia most likely in the 18th century. Its first reappearance was recorded in 2003. Since, the Eurasian beaver has demonstrated a rapid expansion, primarily along the main rivers. The discovered by us colony allows to suggest that the beaver is continuing its dispersal, entering far into the main river’s tributaries and other shallower water bodies. Consequently, we are witnessing not only the expansion of the species’ geographical range, but also the enlargement of the number of habitat types occupied by the animal. The possibilities and supposed consequences of the species’ further expansion within the tract are shown as well.

  5. Diet of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles in an area of the Italian Prealps

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    Monica Marassi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples of Eurasian badger faeces (n= 147 were collected at monthly intervals from October 1997 to December 1999 in an area of the Italian Prealps (58 km², on the eastern coast of Lario (Como Lake. The altitude of the area ranged from 200 to 1300 m. Badger scats were analysed to estimate the relative volume and the frequency of occurrence of identifiable food items. Fruits, arthropodes, earthworms and mammals constituted the main food categories. Differences were found between the seasonal frequency of occurrences of arthropodes, earthworms and mammals, considering however that the small sample size in summer does not allow any definitive conclusions. The wide range of food items eaten by badgers and the seasonal differences would suggest that the badger is a "generalist" species which adopts an opportunist feeding strategy.

  6. Desire-state attribution: Benefits of a novel paradigm using the food-sharing behavior of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Cheke, Lucy G; Shaw, Rachael C; Legg, Edward W; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have investigated the possibility that Eurasian jay food sharing might rely on desire-state attribution. The female's desire for a particular type of food can be decreased by sating her on it (specific satiety) and the food sharing paradigm can be used to test whether the male's sharing pattern reflects the female's current desire. Our previous findings show that the male shares the food that the female currently wants. Here, we consider 3 simpler mechanisms that might explain the male's behavior: behavior reading, lack of self-other differentiation and behavioral rules. We illustrate how we have already addressed these issues and how our food sharing paradigm can be further adapted to answer outstanding questions. The flexibility with which the food sharing paradigm can be applied to rule out alternative mechanisms makes it a useful tool to study desire-state attribution in jays and other species that share food.

  7. Salinity tolerance of cultured Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis L.: Effects on growth and on survival as a function of temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Bayley, M.; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    Eurasian perch is generally only considered to be a candidate for freshwater aquaculture even though wild populations are found in estuarine and brackish water habitats. Little knowledge exists on two issues a) the effect of temperature on the salinity tolerance of perch and b) the long......-term effects of brackish water on their overall growth performance. The present study addresses these two questions. Firstly, the effect of temperature (12, 15, 20 and 25°C) on perch survival of a salinity challenge at either 13 or 18‰ was determined. Survival was unaffected by 13‰ at the two lowest...... temperatures whereas higher temperature and higher salinities had a dramatic detrimental effect (at 25°C, 50% mortality was reach at 62h and 39h for 13‰ and 18‰, respectively). Secondly, we examined the effect of salinity on growth, which was assessed by measuring standard length and body weight at regular...

  8. Lead levels in Eurasian otters decline with time and reveal interactions between sources, prevailing weather, and stream chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Simpson, Victor R; Nicholls, Abigail E L; Slater, Frederick M

    2011-03-01

    The uptake of contaminants by biota varies spatially and temporally due to a complex range of interacting environmental variables, but such complexities are typically disregarded in studies of temporal change. Here, we use linear modeling to explore spatial and temporal variation in bone Pb levels measured in samples taken from 329 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) found dead in southwest England. Between 1992 and 2004 Pb levels in otters fell by 73%, following UK legislative control of Pb emissions implemented since the mid 1980s. Spatial variation in bone Pb was positively correlated with modeled Pb emissions and stream sediment Pb, which interacted negatively with wind-speed and sediment Ca, respectively. Opportunistic collection of samples from wildlife mortalities provided a valuable opportunity for monitoring environmental contamination, interpretation of which was aided by spatially explicit analysis of environmental variables.

  9. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  10. A review of neogene and quaternary snakes of Central and Eastern Europe. Part 11: natricinae, elapidae, viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyndlar, Z.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Remains of Neogene and Quaternary "natricine" colubrids, elapids and viperids, including snakes previously described and those undescribed yet, coming from Poland, Ukraine, Moldavia, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece are discussed. The following taxa, including 11 extinct species, were recognized: "Natricinae": Neonatrix nova, Neonatrix sp., Palaeonatrix silesiaca, Palaeonatrix lehmani, Natrix longivertebrata, Natrix cf. N. longivertebrata, Natrix natrix, Natrix tesselata, Natrix cf. N. tesselata, Natrix sp., "Natricinae" indet.; Elapidae: Naja romani, Naja sp., cf. Naja sp.; Viperidae: Vipera platyspondyla, Vipera sarmatica, Vipera burgenlandica, Vipera gedulyi, Vipera kuchurganica, Vipera antiqua, Vipera cf. V. ammodytes, Vipera berus, Vipera sp ('Oriental vipers' group, Vipera sp. ('aspis' group, Vipera sp. ('berus' group, Vipera sp. . (status unknown. Taxonomic status of two other extinct species, Natrix parva and Laophis crotaloides, is uncertain. Modern species appeared fírst in Central and East Europe in the middle Pliocene (MN 15. Older snakes belonged to extinct species of either extinct or extant genera; taxonomic distinction of most extinct genera is, however, not fully demonstrated. Best recognized oldest snakes from the area (Elapidae, Viperidae, and sorne Colubridae are clearly referable to modern genera and intrageneric subdivisions occurring today are observed in oldest (Iower Miocene remains; closest living relatives of these fossils are presently distributed in the Oriental Realm.Se revisan y estudian los restos neógenos y cuaternarios de colúbridos «natricinos», elápidos y vipéridos, incluyendo tanto serpientes previamente descritas como- otras inéditas. Los materiales analizados proceden de Polonia, Ukrania, Moldavia, Checoslovaquia, Austria, Hungría, Rumania, Bulgaria y Grecia. Se reconocen los siguientes taxones, incluyendo 11 especies extinguidas: Natricinae: Neonatrix nova

  11. Prey availability and diet of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) on a large reservoir and associated tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales-Luis, T.; Pedroso, N.M.; Santos-Reis, M. [Lisbon Univ., Lisbon (Portugal). Dept. of Animal Biology

    2007-11-15

    The increase in the construction of large dams over the past 50 years has resulted in a significant change to original river systems with impacts on riparian habitats, fish populations and biological communities in rivers. This study focused on the feeding habits and decline of the Eurasian otter resulting from the construction of large dammed reservoirs. Data presented in this paper was from a research project conducted at the Aguieira reservoir in Portugal in the medium section of the Mondego River and its 6 tributaries. One of the consequences of dam construction is the change in prey communities. It was noted that the otter's foraging ability is restricted in reservoirs because of the steep margins and deep waters. In this study, prey consumption was compared with prey abundance along with diet composition in both the reservoir and associated tributaries. Eurasian otter spraints collected at the Aguieira hydroelectric dam and tributaries were analysed to assess diet compared with prey availability. Fyke and trammel nets were used to evaluate fish and crayfish abundances in the reservoir, while electrofishing was used to estimate prey availability in the tributaries. Fish (primarily Lepomis gibbosus) was the main prey in both the reservoir and its tributaries. The abundance of L. gibbosus in the reservoir and its near absence in the tributaries indicates that otters using the tributaries feed predominantly in the reservoir. Seasonal dietary variations corresponded to increased availability of nonfish prey categories. The study showed that otters do not consume L. gibbosus according to its availability. It was determined that the tributaries provide important otter shelter areas that are scarce at the edge of the reservoir. As such, care should be taken to minimize disturbance in the surrounding catchments to ensure the survival of otter populations. 71 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Neogene-Quaternary slow coastal uplift of Western Europe through the perspective of sequences of strandlines from the Cotentin Peninsula (Normandy, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, K.; Jara-Muñoz, J.; De Gelder, G.; Robertson, J.; Meschis, M.; Fernandez-Blanco, D.; Nexer, M.; Poprawski, Y.; Dugué, O.; Delcaillau, B.; Bessin, P.; Benabdelouahed, M.; Authemayou, C.; Husson, L.; Regard, V.; Menier, D.; Pinel, B.

    2018-02-01

    The Cotentin Peninsula (Normandy, France) displays sequences of marine terraces and rasas, the latter being wide Late Cenozoic coastal erosion surfaces, that are typical of Western European coasts in Portugal, Spain, France and southern England. Remote sensing imagery and field mapping enabled reappraisal of the Cotentin coastal sequences. From bottom to top, the N Cotentin sequence includes four previously recognized Pleistocene marine terraces (T1 to T4) at elevations France, the sequences morphostratigraphy is very similar to that of Cotentin. The onset of such Western European sequences occurred during the Miocene (e.g. Spain) or Pliocene (e.g. Portugal). We interpret this Neogene-Quaternary coastal uplift as a symptom of the increasing lithospheric compression that accompanies Cenozoic orogenies.

  13. Late Neogene deformation of the Chocolate Mountains Anticlinorium: Implications for deposition of the Bouse Formation and early evolution of the Lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Sue; Haxel, Gordon B.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Jacobsen, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Deformation related to late Neogene dextral shear can explain a shift from an estuarine to lacustrine depositional environment in the southern Bouse Formation north of Yuma, Arizona. We infer that late Neogene deformation in the Chocolate Mountain Anticlinorium (CMA) created a barrier that blocked an estuary inlet, and that pre-existing and possibly active structures subsequently controlled the local course of the lower Colorado River. Structural patterns summarized below suggest that the CMA absorbed transpressional strain caused by left-stepping segments of dextral faults of the San Andreas fault system and/or the eastern California shear zone and Gulf of California shear zone. For this hypothesis to be correct, about 200-250 m of post-6 Ma, pre- ~5.3 Ma uplift along the CMA crest would be required to cut off a marine inlet. The 220-km-long CMA, cored by the early Paleogene Orocopia Schist subduction complex, extends from the Orocopia Mountains (Calif.) southeastward through the Chocolate Mountains (parallel to the southern San Andreas fault). Where Highway 78 crosses the Chocolate Mountains (Fig. 1), the CMA turns eastward through the Black Mountain-Picacho area (Calif.) and Trigo Mountains (Ariz.) into southwest Arizona. It separates southernmost Bouse Formation outcrops of the Blythe basin from subsurface Bouse outcrops to the south in the Yuma area. South of Blythe basin the CMA is transected by the lower Colorado River along a circuitous path. Here we focus on the geology of an area between the central Chocolate Mountains and the Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona. Specific landmarks include the southeast Chocolate Mountains, Midway Mountains, Peter Kane Mountain, Black Mountain, Picacho Peak, and Gavilan Hills. For simplicity, we refer to this as the eastern Chocolate Mountains.

  14. Provenance and depositional environments of the late Neogene Red Clay deposits in Northern China based on detrital zircon and heavy mineral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuan; Kaakinen, Anu; Beets, Christiaan J.; Prins, Maarten A.

    2014-05-01

    The late Miocene - Pliocene (about 11-2.5 Ma) time is the latest period of undisturbed global warmth before the onset of glacial times. Pliocene climate state is proposed as almost an analogue for future global climate by the end of 21st century and has been focus of much research. The Neogene red earth underlying the Pleistocene loess - paleosol deposits in northern China, has been demonstrated to have a relatively continuous depositional character at least over the past ~7-8 to ~2.6Ma. These Red Clay deposits are not only important continental archives of late Miocene-Pliocene environmental and climatic changes, but also preserve significant information on past atmospheric circulation patterns. Multiple competing hypotheses have been proposed for the provenance of Red Clay deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), yet none has been confirmed. Whether it is sediments derived from single or multiple source areas still remains ambiguous. U-Pb age dating of detrital zircons from clastic sediments has proved to be powerful tool to trace sediment sources. However, this method is seldom applied in constraining the provenance of Red Clay deposits. In this study, we selected three typical Red Clay sections across the northern China. They are Dongwan in the western part, Lantian in the southern part and Baode in the northeastern part of the CLP. Based on the systematic field geologic survey, stratigraphic investigation and magnetostratigraphy, 15 samples in different stratigraphic levels were chosen. By applying the zircon U-Pb dating and single grain zircon morphology, combined with heavy mineral analysis of the Red Clay samples, the research aims to investigate the source and spatio-temporal evolution of Neogene Red Clay deposits of northern China. This study has significant implications for understanding the Red Clay depositional environments and will give insight into the past wind systems responsible for transporting dust onto the Chinese Loess Plateau.

  15. Neogene Tectonics of Part of the Junction of Cyprus and Hellenic Arcs in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; ćifçi, G.; Gürçay, S.; Hall, J.; Yaltırak, C.; Aksu, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    The junction between the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs is one of the tectonically most active regions of the eastern Mediterranean. This junction developed in association with convergence between the African and Eurasian Plates, and the re-organization of the smaller Aegean-Anatolian and Arabian Microplates. Recent studies have shown that the predominant Miocene deformation process in the eastern Mediterranean is compressional tectonism. However, many studies have also shown that the strain is partitioned in the Pliocene-Quaternary and the area displays regions dominated by compression, strike slip and extensional tectonism. The junction between the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs exhibits complex morphological features including submarine mountains, rises, ridges and trenches. Approximately 600 km of high resolution 72-channel seismic profiles were collected from the junction of Cyprus and Hellenic Arcs using a 450 m long 6.25 m hydrophone spacing streamer and a seven gun array with a 200 cubic inch total volume. This project was part of the joint scientific venture between Dokuz Eylül University (Turkey) and Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada), and was funded by TÜBITAK and NSERC. The study area includes the southwestern Antalya Basin and the Anaxagoras Mountain of the larger Anaximander Mountains. The multichannel data were processed both at Dokuz Eylül and Memorial University of Newfoundland, using the Landmark Graphics ProMAX software, with automatic gain control, short-gap deconvolution, velocity analysis, normal move-out correction, stack, filter (typically 50-200 Hz bandpass), f-k time migration, and adjacent trace sum. Despite the fact that the source volume was modest, reflections are imaged to 2-3 s two-way time below seabed, even in 2 km water depth. The processed seismic reflection profiles show that there are three distinct sedimentary units, separated by two prominent markers: the M-reflector separates the Pliocene-Quaternary from the underlying

  16. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  17. Presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx in three contiguous valleys of the Verbania Province (Piemonte, northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Lorenzo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L. 1758 was revealed during an investigation performed from I991 to 1994 in three contiguous valleys (Antigorio valley, Formazza valley and Devero valley of the Verbania province in Piemonte. In this investigation two methods were employed: interviews with the people who saw a lynx and/or found evidence of its presence (prints, faeces, scratchings on trees and meal remains and field research by means of line transects, as reported by Ragni et al. (1993. The research area was of about 250 km². Lynx signs were obtained in 1991, 1992 and 1994 between 600 and 1800 m a.s.1. and during all seasons. The lynx was usually observed at night and at dusk. The research shows that the Eurasian lynx is present, although sporadically, in this area of the western Italian Alps.

  18. Post-Russian Eurasia and the proto-Eurasian usage of the Runet in Kazakhstan: A plea for a cyberlinguistic turn in area studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Uffelmann

    2011-07-01

    The paper discusses the role the Russian-based Runet plays for Eurasian webcommunities outside the Russian Federation, mostly relying on Kazakh material, and asks whether post-colonial anxieties about Russian cultural imperialism through the Runet are justified or not and what the Kazakh, possibly post-colonial strategies of coping with this situation are. Essential to this essay is the notion of cyberimperialism, which combines aspects of media studies with post-colonial studies. The interdisciplinary approach to Internet studies is completed by a linguistic focus on the performativity of language usage online for creating situational language identities. The essay rounds off by offering an analysis of Nursultan Nazarbaev’s ambiguous inclusive-exclusive logic of argumentation and confronting it with Russian Eurasianism.

  19. Summer monsoon rainfall variability over North East regions of India and its association with Eurasian snow, Atlantic Sea Surface temperature and Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Amita; Oh, Jaiho; Kim, In-won; Kripalani, R. H.; Mitra, A. K.; Pandithurai, G.

    2017-10-01

    This observational study during the 29-year period from 1979 to 2007 evaluates the potential role of Eurasian snow in modulating the North East-Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall with a lead time of almost 6 months. This link is manifested by the changes in high-latitude atmospheric winter snow variability over Eurasia associated with Arctic Oscillation (AO). Excessive wintertime Eurasian snow leads to an anomalous cooling of the overlying atmosphere and is associated with the negative mode of AO, inducing a meridional wave-train descending over the tropical north Atlantic and is associated with cooling of this region. Once the cold anomalies are established over the tropical Atlantic, it persists up to the following summer leading to an anomalous zonal wave-train further inducing a descending branch over NE-India resulting in weak summer monsoon rainfall.

  20. Presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in three contiguous valleys of the Verbania Province (Piemonte, northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Di Lorenzo; Luca Ballarini; Radames Bionda; Graziano Favini

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L. 1758) was revealed during an investigation performed from I991 to 1994 in three contiguous valleys (Antigorio valley, Formazza valley and Devero valley) of the Verbania province in Piemonte. In this investigation two methods were employed: interviews with the people who saw a lynx and/or found evidence of its presence (prints, faeces, scratchings on trees and meal remains) and field re...

  1. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

    2014-09-15

    Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Variation of a carotenoid-based trait in relation to oxidative stress and endocrine status during the breeding season in the Eurasian kestrel: A multi-factorial study

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, S.; Dell'Omo, G.; Costantini, D.; Tagliavini, J.; Groothuis, T.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoid-based skin colorations vary seasonally in many bird species and are thought to be honest sexually selected signals. In order to provide more insight in the potential signal function and underlying mechanisms of such colorations we here quantified patterns of variation of leg coloration in adult male and female Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus) over the breeding season, and evaluated the relationship between coloration and levels of carotenoids, androgens and estroge...

  3. Impact of Eurasian biomass burning emissions on the springtime lower-tropospheric ozone in North China and the rest of Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Thouret, V.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Strahan, S. E.; Damon, M.; Steenrod, S. D.; Strode, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Intensive biomass burning activities take place in Eurasia from April through September, severely degrading regional air quality. We examine the impact of Eurasian biomass burning on the springtime (April-May) lower-tropospheric (LT) ozone over Northeast Asia in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model driven by the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields from the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). We evaluate model-simulated ozone against the multi-year (1995-2012) aircraft ozone profiles over Beijing from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program and ozonesonde measurements at Japanese stations obtained from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC). The model-simulated large-scale temporal and vertical variability in ozone is similar to that in the MOZAIC observations, but the model often underestimates the magnitude of the observed ozone enhancements in the LT during April-May. By conducting model sensitivity simulations, we quantify and contrast the impacts of Eurasian biomass burning on the springtime LT ozone over Northeast Asia in the years with and without active biomass burning activities, respectively. Extremely high Eurasian biomass burning emissions in combination with stronger northward transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions resulted in very large ozone enhancements in the LT over Northeast Asia in May 2003. We find that the impact of Eurasian biomass burning emissions on the springtime LT ozone in Beijing can be comparable to, or even higher than that of Chinese anthropogenic emissions. These results have important implications for predicting the air quality of the North China Plain as well as understanding the interannual variability of springtime tropospheric ozone in Northeast Asia.

  4. Structure of the mitochondrial control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): patterns of genetic heterogeneity and implications for conservation of the species in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketmaier, V; Bernardini, C

    2005-01-01

    In this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). We then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Canidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Felidae). The comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. The Eurasian otter and seven other species have a single location with tandem repeats in the right domain, while the spotted hyena (Hyaenidae) and the tiger (Felidae) have repeated sequences in both the right and left domains. To assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity of the Eurasian otter in Italy we sequenced two fragments of the gene and analyzed length polymorphisms of repeated sequences and heteroplasmy in 32 specimens. The study includes 23 museum specimens collected in northern, central, and southern Italy; most of these specimens are from extinct populations, while the southern Italian samples belong to the sole extant Italian population of the Eurasian otter. The study also includes all the captive-reared animals living in the colony "Centro Lontra, Caramanico Terme" (Pescara, central Italy). The colony is maintained for reintroduction of the species. We found a low level of genetic polymorphism; a single haplotype is dominant, but our data indicate the presence in central and southern Italy of two slightly divergent haplotypes. One haplotype belongs to an extinct population, the other is present in the single extant Italian population. Analyses of length polymorphisms and heteroplasmy indicate that the autochthonous Italian samples are characterized by a distinct array of repeated sequences from captive-reared animals.

  5. The Status of Iraq Smooth-Coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli Hayman 1956 and Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra Linnaeus 1758 in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sheikhly, Omar F.; Iyad A. Nader

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1960s field expeditions, there has been little more knowledge acquired about the mammals of Iraq. There were also no previous surveys dedicated to assessing the status and presence of the two otter species described in Iraq: The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and the Iraq smooth –coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli, an endemic subspecies). Historically, both species thrived among suitable habitats of Iraqi wetlands and were named by Iraqis "Chlaeib Al M'ai" meaning "The wa...

  6. Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) in three different scenarios of heavy metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; León-Ortega, Mario; Martínez, José Enrique; García-Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of the present study is the assessment of oxidative stress related to metals in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) from three areas (agricultural and rural area, industrial area, and mining area) of Murcia, Southern Spain. Mean blood metal concentrations were Cd=0.07±0.21, Pb=3.27±5.21, Cu=10.62±4.77, Zn=311.47±67.14, Hg=2.32±3.83 μg/dl wet weight. Although individuals from the mining area had significant higher Pb and Hg concentrations, and significant lower glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in red blood cells (RBC); the lack of differences in oxidative damage to membrane lipids (TBARS) among areas suggests that the antioxidant capacity of the different populations is able to deal with oxidant species and maintain TBARS levels in the same amount. Despite the low levels of metals, several oxidative stress biomarkers were correlated with metal concentrations. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals cause effects on the antioxidant system in Eagle owls. Blood Cd concentrations greater than 0.3 μg/dl produced an inhibition in GPx (32%) and CAT (26%) activity in RBC. However, Cd concentrations higher than 0.02 μg/dl were enough to produce an inhibition of these enzymes. Regarding Pb levels, blood concentrations above 2 μg/dl produced an inhibition of 8% and 10.5% in GPx and CAT activities, respectively, in RBC. A depletion of 16% and 4% in tGSH levels was associated with Pb concentrations higher than 15 and 3 μg/dl, respectively, in individuals from the ancient mine site. In addition, Pb concentrations above 2 and 10 μg/dl produced a TBARS induction of 10% and 28%, respectively, in individuals from both the industrial and the mining area. Finally, Hg concentrations greater than 3 and 10 μg/dl resulted in a TBARS induction of 102% and 190%, respectively, in Eurasian eagle owls from the industrial area. Our findings show that Pb may produce effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in Strigiformes at

  7. Rapid Global River Flood Risk Assessment under Climate and Socioeconomic Scenarios: An Extreme Case of Eurasian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Young-joo; Magome, Jun; Hasegawa, Akira; Iwami, Yoichi

    2017-04-01

    Causing widespread devastation with massive economic damage and loss of human lives, flood disasters hamper economic growth and accelerate poverty particularly in developing countries. Globally, this trend will likely continue due to increase in flood magnitude and lack of preparedness for extreme events. In line with risk reduction efforts since the early 21st century, the monitors and governors of global river floods should pay attention to international scientific and policy communities for support to facilitate evidence-based policy making with a special interest in long-term changes due to climate change and socio-economic effects. Although advanced hydrological inundation models and risk models have been developed to reveal flood risk, hazard, exposure, and vulnerability at a river basin, it is obviously hard to identify the distribution and locations of continent-level flood risk based on national-level data. Therefore, we propose a methodological possibility for rapid global flood risk assessment with the results from its application to the two periods, i.e., Present (from 1980 to 2004) and Future (from 2075 to 2099). The method is particularly designed to effectively simplify complexities of a hazard area by calculating the differential inundation depth using GFID2M (global flood inundation depth 2-dimension model), despite low data availability. In this research, we addressed the question of which parts in the Eurasian region (8E to 180E, 0N to 60N) can be found as high-risk areas in terms of exposed population and economy in case of a 50-year return period flood. Economic losses were estimated according to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) scenario, and the flood scale was defined using the annual maximum daily river discharge under the extreme conditions of climate change simulated with MRI-AGCM3.2S based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5) emissions scenario. As a preliminary result, the total potential economic loss in the

  8. Comparative histological studies on the intestinal wall between the prenatal, the postnatal and the adult of the two species of Egyptian bats. Frugivorous Rousettus aegyptiacus and insectivorous Taphozous nudiventris

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    Atteyat Selim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was planned to find the effect of different feeding habits on the structure of the duodenum and small intestine of adult, prenatal and postnatal of both fructivorous Rousettus aegyptiacus and the insectivorous Taphozous nudiventris using the histological and the histochemical techniques. Histologically, the duodenal wall of R. aegyptiacus and T. nudiventris is composed of the typical layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa, we observed that the mucosa with finger like villi and very sharp apices in prenatal and adult of R. aegyptiacus but compact finger like villi in T. nudiventris. Scattered among the columnar epithelium goblet cells which less numerous in R. aegyptiacus than in T. nudiventris. Brunner’s glands are less numerous also in R. aegyptiacus than in T. nudiventris. In postnatal the mucosa with pyramidal like villi in R. aegyptiacus and finger like villi in T. nudiventris. In ileum the intestinal glands are less numerous in R. aegyptiacus than in T. nudiventris. In prenatal the goblet cells are less developed in R. aegyptiacus and T. nudiventris. The intestinal glands are less developed also in R. aegyptiacus and T. nudiventris but in the postnatal the goblet cells and the intestinal gland are few in number in both R. aegyptiacus and T. nudiventris.

  9. Effects of temperature and grazing on soil organic carbon storage in grasslands along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Ding, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang; Li, Frank Yonghong; Han, Wenjun; Yun, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Soil represents the largest terrestrial organic carbon pool. To address global climate change, it is essential to explore the soil organic carbon storage patterns and their controlling factors. We investigated the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in 48 grassland sites along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect (ESET) region, which covers the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion and Mongolia grasslands subregion. Specifically, we analyzed the SOCD in the top 30 cm soil layer and its relationships with climatic variables, soil texture, grazing intensity and community biomass productivity. The results showed that the average SOCD of the ESET was 4.74 kg/m2, and the SOCD of the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion (4.11 kg/m2) was significantly lower than that of the Mongolia grassland subregion (5.79 kg/m2). Significant negative relationships were found between the SOCD and the mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP) and grazing intensity in the ESET region. The MAT and grazing intensity were identified as the major factors influencing the SOCD in the ESET region; the MAP and MAT were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion; and the MAT and soil pH were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Mongolia grassland subregion.

  10. Effects of temperature and grazing on soil organic carbon storage in grasslands along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Zhao

    Full Text Available Soil represents the largest terrestrial organic carbon pool. To address global climate change, it is essential to explore the soil organic carbon storage patterns and their controlling factors. We investigated the soil organic carbon density (SOCD in 48 grassland sites along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect (ESET region, which covers the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion and Mongolia grasslands subregion. Specifically, we analyzed the SOCD in the top 30 cm soil layer and its relationships with climatic variables, soil texture, grazing intensity and community biomass productivity. The results showed that the average SOCD of the ESET was 4.74 kg/m2, and the SOCD of the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion (4.11 kg/m2 was significantly lower than that of the Mongolia grassland subregion (5.79 kg/m2. Significant negative relationships were found between the SOCD and the mean annual temperature (MAT, mean annual precipitation (MAP and grazing intensity in the ESET region. The MAT and grazing intensity were identified as the major factors influencing the SOCD in the ESET region; the MAP and MAT were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion; and the MAT and soil pH were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Mongolia grassland subregion.

  11. Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

  12. Feather content of porphyrins in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings depends on body condition and breeding site quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Del Mar Delgado, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Lourenço, Rui; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2018-02-13

    Porphyrins are pigments produced in most animal cells during the synthesis of heme, but their importance for external coloration is unclear. Owls (Order Strigiformes) are among the few animals that accumulate porphyrins in the integument, where it could serve as a means of signaling. Here we hypothesized that the porphyrin content of feathers may depend on body condition and breeding site quality in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings and thus constitute amplifiers of the quality of the area where they are born. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we found two porphyrins (protoporphyrin IX and coproporphyrin III) in the body feathers of 19 eagle owl fledglings from seven breeding territories. Coproporphyrin III, but not protoporphyrin IX feather concentration, was positively associated with the body mass of fledglings and with the quality of the breeding sites where they were reared with respect to food quality and availability. As coproporphyrin III is produced under oxidative stress, we suggest that good breeding sites may lead to fledglings in good condition. This in turn may make fledglings induce certain level of free radical and coproporphyrin III production to signal to conspecifics their site-mediated capacity to cope with oxidative stress. This is the first time that porphyrin content in the integument has been found to be related to individual quality, opening a new scenario for studying evolution of animal coloration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Intrageneric diversity of the cytochrome B gene and phylogeny of eurasian species of the genus mustela (mustelidae, carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, N; Abramov, A V; Masuda, R

    2000-07-01

    To illuminate molecular phylogenetic relationships among Eurasian species of the genus Mustela (Mustelidae, Carnivora), we determined nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene region (1,140 base pairs). Molecular phylogenetic trees, constructed using the neighbor-joining and the maximum likelihood methods, showed the common topology of species relationships to each other. The American mink M. vison first branched off and was positioned very remotely from the other species of Mustela. Excluding M. vison, the ermine M. erminea first split from the rest of the species. Two small body-sized weasels, the least weasel M. nivalis and the mountain weasel M. altaica, comprised one cluster (named "the small weasel group"). The other species formed another cluster, where the remarkably close relationships among the domestic ferret M. furo, the European polecat M. putorius, and the steppe polecat M. eversmanni were noticed with 87-94% bootstrap values (named "the ferret group"), supporting the history that the ferret was domesticated from M. putorius and/or M. eversmanni. The European mink M. lutreola was the closest to the ferret group. The genetic distance between the Siberian weasel M. sibirica and the Japanese weasel M. itatsi corresponded to differences of interspecific level, while the two species were relatively close to M. lutreola and the ferret group. These results provide invaluable insight for understanding the evolution of Mustela as well as for investigating the hybridization status between native and introduced species for conservation.

  14. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  15. Effect of incubation on bacterial communities of eggshells in a temperate bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica.

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    Won Young Lee

    Full Text Available Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica. We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce.

  16. Progress in Oral Vaccination against Tuberculosis in Its Main Wildlife Reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian Wild Boar

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    Beatriz Beltrán-Beck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3 and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar.

  17. Similar estimates of population genetic composition and sex ratio derived from carcasses and faeces of Eurasian otter Lutra lutra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, John F; Coxon, Karen E; Sykes, Tim; Chanin, Paul R F; Marshall, Freda; Carss, David N; Bacon, Philip J; Piertney, Stuart B; Racey, Paul A

    2003-01-01

    Collecting faeces is viewed as a potentially efficient way to sample elusive animals. Nonetheless, any biases in estimates of population composition associated with such sampling remain uncharacterized. The goal of this study was to compare estimates of genetic composition and sex ratio derived from Eurasian otter Lutra lutra spraints (faeces) with estimates derived from carcasses. Twenty per cent of 426 wild-collected spraints from SW England yielded composite genotypes for 7-9 microsatellites and the SRY gene. The expected number of incorrect spraint genotypes was negligible, given the proportions of allele dropout and false allele detection estimated using paired blood and spraint samples of three captive otters. Fifty-two different spraint genotypes were detected and compared with genotypes of 70 otter carcasses from the same area. Carcass and spraint genotypes did not differ significantly in mean number of alleles, mean unbiased heterozygosity or sex ratio, although statistical power to detect all but large differences in sex ratio was low. The genetic compositions of carcass and spraint genotypes were very similar according to confidence intervals of theta and two methods for assigning composite genotypes to groups. A distinct group of approximately 11 carcass and spraint genotypes was detected using the latter methods. The results suggest that spraints can yield unbiased estimates of population genetic composition and sex ratio.

  18. Genetic characterization and relatedness of wild and farmed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis: Possible implications for aquaculture practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ben Khadher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture of the Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, in recirculating systems has emerged over the past decades to become a significant way of diversification for inland areas in Europe. The development of such a production relies partly on the improvement of growth performance (i.e., reducing production costs, which requires suitable genetic management of broodstocks and the development of selective breeding programs. In this context, the present study was undertaken assessing for the first time the genetic diversity of farmed stocks of perch. Twelve microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic diversity of nine farmed stocks (547 individuals from two perch farms located in France and their supposedly wild founder population from Lake Geneva (394 individuals. First, the wild population displayed the lowest genetic diversity and differed genetically from all farmed populations except one, XB2. Second, genetic diversity did not decrease between farmed breeders and their potential offspring. However, in the three groups of broodstock-offspring the number of alleles decreased by 10%, 21%, and 15%, respectively. In addition, effective population size decreased in all offspring groups. A family structuring was also observed among broodstocks and their offspring, with an unequal family contribution being suspected. In the absence of parental information, these results attest to the utility of genetic tools to evaluate genetic diversity and the necessity of a monitoring program to maintain genetic variability among farmed perch. Genetic variability among farmed stocks appears to be sufficient for perch production to be sustainable and selective breeding programs to be developed.

  19. Age-related changes in somatic condition and reproduction in the Eurasian beaver: Resource history influences onset of reproductive senescence.

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    Ruairidh D Campbell

    Full Text Available Using 15 years of data from a stable population of wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, we examine how annual and lifetime access to food resources affect individual age-related changes in reproduction and somatic condition. We found an age-related decline in annual maternal reproductive output, after a peak at age 5-6. Rainfall, an established negative proxy of annual resource availability for beavers, was consistently associated with lower reproductive output for females of all ages. In contrast, breeding territory quality, as a measure of local resource history over reproductive lifetimes, caused differences in individual patterns of reproductive senescence; animals from lower quality territories senesced when younger. Litter size was unrelated to maternal age, although adult body weight increased with age. In terms of resource effects, in poorer years but not in better years, older mothers produced larger offspring than did younger mothers, giving support to the constraint theory. Overall, our findings exemplify state-dependent life-history strategies, supporting an effect of resources on reproductive senescence, where cumulative differences in resource access, and not just reproductive strategy, mediate long-term reproductive trade-offs, consistent with the disposable soma and reproductive restraint theories. We propose that flexible life-history schedules could play a role in the dynamics of populations exhibiting reproductive skew, with earlier breeding opportunities leading to an earlier senescence schedule through resource dependent mechanisms.

  20. A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kijeong; Brenner, Charles H; Mair, Victor H; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Gelegdorj, Eregzen; Batbold, Natsag; Song, Yi-Chung; Yun, Hyeung-Won; Chang, Eun-Jeong; Lkhagvasuren, Gavaachimed; Bazarragchaa, Munkhtsetseg; Park, Ae-Ja; Lim, Inja; Hong, Yun-Pyo; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In; Kim, Dae-Jin; Chung, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Won-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Yong

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The Eurasian ice sheet reinforces the East Asian summer monsoon during the interglacial 500 000 years ago

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    Qiuzhen Yin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea and ice-core records show that interglacial periods were overall less "warm" before about 420 000 years ago than after, with relatively higher ice volume and lower greenhouse gases concentration. This is particularly the case for the interglacial Marine Isotope Stage 13 which occurred about 500 000 years ago. However, by contrast, the loess and other proxy records from China suggest an exceptionally active East Asian summer monsoon during this interglacial. A three-dimension Earth system Model of Intermediate complexity was used to understand this seeming paradox. The astronomical forcing and the remnant ice sheets present in Eurasia and North America were taken into account in a series of sensitivity experiments. Expectedly, the seasonal contrast is larger and the East Asian summer monsoon is reinforced compared to Pre-Industrial time when Northern Hemisphere summer is at perihelion. Surprisingly, the presence of the Eurasian ice sheet was found to reinforce monsoon, too, through a south-eastwards perturbation planetary wave. The trajectory of this wave is influenced by the Tibetan plateau.

  2. Novel reassortment of Eurasian avian-like and pandemic/2009 influenza viruses in swine: infectious potential for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Zhou, Boping; Fan, Xiaohui; Lam, Tommy T Y; Wang, Jia; Chen, Antony; Chen, Xinchun; Chen, Honglin; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard; Peiris, Joseph S M; Smith, David K; Guan, Yi

    2011-10-01

    Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts and "mixing vessels," facilitating the genesis of pandemic influenza viruses, as demonstrated by the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pdm/09) virus. The prevalence and repeated introduction of the pdm/09 virus into pigs raises the possibility of generating novel swine influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. To address this, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted with slaughtered pigs in abattoirs in southern China. Over 50% of the pigs tested were found to be seropositive for one or more H1 influenza viruses, most commonly pdm/09-like viruses. Out of 36 virus isolates detected, one group of novel reassortants had Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 surface genes and pdm/09 internal genes. Animal experiments showed that this virus transmitted effectively from pig to pig and from pig to ferret, and it could also replicate in ex vivo human lung tissue. Immunization against the 2009 pandemic virus gave only partial protection to ferrets. The continuing prevalence of the pdm/09 virus in pigs could lead to the genesis of novel swine reassortant viruses with the potential to infect humans.

  3. Neogene-quaternary Ostracoda and paleoenvironments, of the Limón basin, Costa Rica, and Bocas del Toro basin, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, P.F.; Cronin, T. M.; Hazel, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Tropical marine ostracodes from Neogene and Quaternary sediments of the Central American Caribbean region have been the subject of biostratigraphic, ecological, taxonomic, and evolutionary studies. As part of the Panama Paleontology Project (PPP), Neogene and Quaternary ostracodes are being studied from the Central American region. The overall goal of this research is to evaluate the impact of the emergence of the Central American Isthmus as a land barrier between the Caribbean/tropical Atlantic and the Pacific oceans on marine ostracode biodiversity and the oceanic environments in which extant ostracodes evolved. Due to the ecological specificity of many living tropical ostracode species, they are ideally suited for reconstructing paleoenvironments on the basis of their occurrence in fossil assemblages, which in turn can lead to a better understanding of the tropical climatic and tectonic history of Central America. The principal aims of this chapter are: (a) to document the composition of the ostracode assemblages from the Limón Basin of Costa Rica and the Bocas del Toro Basin of Panama, two areas yielding extensive ma rine ostracode assemblages; (b) to describe the environments of deposition within these basins; and (c) to document the stratigraphic distribution of potentially agediagnostic ostracode species in the Limón and Bocas del Toro basins in order to enhance their use in Central American biostratigraphy. A secondary, but none-the-less important goal is to assemble a database on the distribution of modem ostracode species in the Caribbean and adjacent areas as a basis for comparison with fossil assemblages. Although the ecological, biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental conclusions presented here will improve as additional material is studied, these fossil and modem ostracode databases constitute the foundation for future evolutionary and geochernical studies of tropical Caribbean and eastern Pacific Ocean ostracodes. Moreover, we present here evidence

  4. Using vegetation model-to-data comparisons to test the role of abiotic factors in the Neogene and Quaternary origins of modern C4 grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, D. L.; Strömberg, C.; Pau, S.; Taylor, L.; Lehmann, C.; Osborne, C.; Beerling, D. J.; Still, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Grasslands dominated by taxa using the C4 photosynthetic pathway evolved on several continents during the Neogene and Quaternary, long after C4 photosynthesis first evolved among grasses. The histories of these ecosystems are relatively well documented in the geological record from stable carbon isotopes (fossil vertebrate herbivores, paleosols) and the plant microfossil record (pollen, phytoliths). The distinct biogeography and ecophysiology of modern C3 and C4 grasses have led to hypotheses explaining the origins of C4 grasslands in terms of long term changes in the Earth system such as increased aridity and decreasing atmospheric pCO2. However, proxies for key parameters of these hypotheses (e.g., temperature, precipitation, pCO2) are still in development, not yet widely applied, or remain contentious, so testing the hypotheses globally remains difficult. To understand better possible links between changes in the Earth system and the origin of C4 grasslands on different continents, we are undertaking a global scale comparison between observational records of C4 grass abundances in Miocene and Pliocene localities compiled from the literature, and three increasingly complex models of C4 dominance and abundance. The literature compilation comprises >2,600 δ13C values of both fossil vertebrates and of paleosol carbonates and >6,700 paleobotanical records. We are using paleoclimate output from the HadCM3L GCM over a range of pCO2 values for each epoch to model C4 dominance or abundance in grid cells as (Model 1) months per year exceeding the temperature at which net assimilation is greater for C4 than C3 photosynthesis (crossover temperature); (Model 2) the number of months per year exceeding the crossover temperature and having sufficient precipitation for growth (≥25 cm/yr; Collatz model); and (Model 3) the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM), output from which includes biomass (g C/m2/yr) for distinct structural components (roots, stems, leaves

  5. The Amazon at sea: Onset and stages of the Amazon River from a marine record, with special reference to Neogene plant turnover in the drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, Carina; Bogotá-A, Giovanni R.; Romero-Baez, Millerlandy; Lammertsma, Emmy I.; Flantua, Suzette G. A.; Dantas, Elton L.; Dino, Rodolfo; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; Chemale, Farid

    2017-06-01

    The Amazon submarine fan is a large sediment apron situated offshore Pará (Brazil) and represents the most distal extent of the Amazon River. The age of onset of this transcontinental river remains debated, yet is of great importance for understanding biotic evolutionary processes on land and at sea. Here we present new geochemical and palynological data from a borehole drilled at the continental slope and dated based on nannofossil biostratigraphy. We found that sediments of mixed source (craton and adjacent) occur at least from the late Oligocene (NP25) to late Miocene (NN9), and that the earliest Andes-derived sediments occur in NN10 (late Miocene). Our geochemical record indicates an onset of the transcontinental Amazon River between 9.4 and 9 Ma, which postdates the regional unconformity by 1 to 1.5 My. The shift in sediment geochemistry is more gradually replicated in the palynological record by a change from coastal plain and tropical lowland taxa to a mixture of tropical lowland, and montane forest to open Andean taxa. In particular, the appearance of taxa such as Jamesonia and Huperzia, followed by Valeriana, Polylepis-Acaena, Lysipomia and Plantago (with a current altitudinal range from 3200 to 4000 m) suggests the development of open, treeless, vegetation between 9.5 and 5.4 Ma, and highlight the presence of a high Andes in the late Miocene hinterland. Poaceae progressively increased from 9 Ma, with a notable rise from 4 Ma onwards, and percentages well above post-glacial and modern values, particularly between 2.6 and 0.8 Ma. We hypothesize that the rise of the grasses is a basin-wide phenomenon, but that the Plio-Pleistocene expansion of open, treeless vegetation on the Andean slopes and foothills are the main contributor. This rise in grasses was likely caused by climatic fluctuations, and subsequent changes in relief and erosion rates. We conclude that the onset of the Amazon River is coupled with Neogene Andean tectonism and that subsequent

  6. Evaluation of hypotheses for right-lateral displacement of Neogene strata along the San Andreas Fault between Parkfield and Maricopa, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Barron, John A.; Powell, Charles L.

    2017-12-22

    We used geological field studies and diatom biostratigraphy to test a published hypothesis that Neogene marine siliceous strata in the Maricopa and Parkfield areas, located on opposite sides of the San Andreas Fault, were formerly contiguous and then were displaced by about 80–130 kilometers (km) of right-lateral slip along the fault. In the Maricopa area on the northeast side of the San Andreas Fault, the upper Miocene Bitterwater Creek Shale consists of hard, siliceous shale with dolomitic concretions and turbidite sandstone interbeds. Diatom assemblages indicate that the Bitterwater Creek Shale was deposited about 8.0–6.7 million years before present (Ma) at the same time as the uppermost part of the Monterey Formation in parts of coastal California. In the Parkfield area on the southwest side of the San Andreas Fault, the upper Miocene Pancho Rico Formation consists of soft to indurated mudstone and siltstone and fossiliferous, bioturbated sandstone. Diatom assemblages from the Pancho Rico indicate deposition about 6.7–5.7 Ma (latest Miocene), younger than the Bitterwater Creek Shale and at about the same time as parts of the Sisquoc Formation and Purisima Formation in coastal California. Our results show that the Bitterwater Creek Shale and Pancho Rico Formation are lithologically unlike and of different ages and therefore do not constitute a cross-fault tie that can be used to estimate rightlateral displacement along the San Andreas Fault.In the Maricopa area northeast of the San Andreas Fault, the Bitterwater Creek Shale overlies conglomeratic fan-delta deposits of the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation, which in turn overlie siliceous shale of the Miocene Monterey Formation from which we obtained a diatom assemblage dated at about 10.0–9.3 Ma. Previous investigations noted that the Santa Margarita Formation in the Maricopa area contains granitic and metamorphic clasts derived from sources in the northern Gabilan Range, on the opposite side of

  7. Superimposed basin formation during Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonics in SW-Anatolia (Turkey): Insights from the kinematics of the Dinar Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco

    2013-11-01

    In the extensional province of SW-Anatolia, the cross-cutting relationship between the NW- and NE-oriented Neogene and Quaternary basins is an ongoing debate in the understanding of the tectonic evolution of this area. In order to contribute to this issue, we carried out a structural and kinematic study along the seismogenic NW-trending Dinar Fault Zone (DFZ). This structure was initially controlled by the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the NE-oriented Neogene Baklan, Acıgöl and Burdur basins and, later, by the NW-oriented Quaternary Dinar Basin. On the basis of > 1000 structural and kinematic data, in conjunction with basin stratigraphy, the DFZ can be divided into three almost parallel and continuous bands, that are: (a) the Hangingwall where Quaternary sediments are deformed by normal faults with mechanical striations; (b) the Inner Zone, corresponding to the present Dinar fault scarp, where NW-trending normal faults with mechanical striations are dominant, and (c) the Outer Zone, located in the footwall of the structure comprising the area between the fault scarp and undeformed bedrock, where faults exhibit variable orientation and kinematics, from strike-slip to normal dip-slip. These kinematics are mainly indicated by calcite shear veins and superimposed mechanical striations, respectively. This suggests that the DFZ changed kinematics over time, i.e., the DFZ initiated as dominant dextral strike-slip to oblique-slip fault system and continued with a dominant normal movement. Therefore, we hypothesize that the NW-trending DFZ was initially a transfer zone during the late Miocene-Pliocene, coeval to the sedimentary and structural evolution of the NE-trending Baklan, Acigöl and Burdur basins. During the Quaternary the DFZ, representing an already weakened crustal sector, played the role of a normal fault system providing the accommodation space for the Quaternary Dinar Basin. Hydrothermal circulation and volcanism at NE-/NW-trending faults

  8. The In