Sample records for euphoria

  1. Eurekas and Euphorias - The Oxford Book of Scientific Anecdotes (United States)

    Gratzer, Walter


    The march of science has been marked through the years by episodes of drama and comedy, of failure as well as triumph, by outrageous strokes of luck, deserved and undeserved, and sometimes by human tragedy. In Eurekas and Euphorias , Walter Gratzer captures the human face of discovery as he relates many intriguing tales of scientific adventures spanning over two thousand years. Open this book at random and you may chance on the clumsy chemist named Sapper who broke a thermometer in a reaction vat and made the discovery that launched the modern dyestuff industry. Or the physicist who dissolved his gold Nobel Prize medal in acid to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Nazis. The book uncovers deep intellectual friendships, as well as ferocious animosities, and even acts of theft and malice, deceit, and a hoax or two. Indeed, we discover that scientists come in all shapes--the obsessive and the dilettantish, the genial, the envious, the preternaturally brilliant and the slow-witted who sometimes saw further in the end, the open-minded and the intolerant, recluses and arrivistes . We meet mathematicians and physicists in prison cells, and even in a madhouse, making important advances in their field. And we witness the careers, sometimes tragic, sometimes carefree, of the great women scientists, from Hypatia of Alexandria, to Sophie Germain and Sonia Kovalevskaya, to Marie Curie and her relentless battle with the French Academy. Told with wit and relish, here then is a glorious parade to delight the reader, with stories to astonish, to instruct, and most especially, to entertain.

  2. "Addicted to Euphoria": The History, Clinical Presentation, and Management of Party Drug Misuse. (United States)

    Bearn, Jenny; O'Brien, Matthew


    Eating, drinking, sexual activity, and parenting invoke pleasure, an emotion that promotes repetition of these behaviors, are essential for survival. Euphoria, a feeling or state of intense excitement and happiness, is an amplification of pleasure, aspired to one's essential biological needs that are satisfied. People use party drugs as a shortcut to euphoria. Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine fall under the umbrella of the term "party drugs," each with differing neuropharmacological and physiological actions. This chapter seeks to survey the history and epidemiology of party drug use; we will then discuss the pharmacological characteristics of each drug to provide a platform for understanding the difficulties that party drug users encounter through intoxication, harmful use, dependence, and withdrawal and how these should be clinically managed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. OPRM1 gene variants modulate amphetamine-induced euphoria in humans. (United States)

    Dlugos, A M; Hamidovic, A; Hodgkinson, C; Shen, P H; Goldman, D; Palmer, A A; de Wit, H


    The μ-opioid receptor is involved in the rewarding effects of not only opioids like morphine but also psychostimulants like amphetamine. This study aimed to investigate associations between subjective response to amphetamine and genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes in the μ-opioid receptor including the exonic variant rs1799971 (Asp40Asn). One hundred and sixty-two Caucasian volunteers participated in three sessions receiving either placebo or d-amphetamine (10 and 20 mg). Associations between levels of self-reported Euphoria, Energy and Stimulation [Addiction Research Center Inventory 49-item questionnaire (ARCI-49)] after d-amphetamine ingestion and polymorphisms in OPRM1 were investigated. The intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs510769 and rs2281617 were associated with significantly higher ratings of Euphoria, Energy and Stimulation after 10 mg amphetamine. Feelings of Euphoria, Energy and Stimulation were also found to be associated with a two-SNP haplotype formed with rs1799971 and rs510769 and a three-SNP haplotype formed with rs1918760, rs2281617 and rs1998220. These results support the hypothesis that genetic variability in the μ-opioid receptor gene influences the subjective effects of amphetamine and may suggest new strategies for prevention and treatment of psychostimulant abuse. © 2010 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Electronic commerce: beyond the euphoria. (United States)

    Healy, J L; DeLuca, J M


    As the center of considerable media attention, case study articles, vendor research, and development efforts, electronic commerce technology is entering healthcare and having a profound effect. The simple truth, however, is that after the drama and excitement begins to wear off, completing a successful e-commerce implementation remains good old-fashioned hard, sometimes monotonous work. To be successful, e-commerce technologies must be planned and implemented with rigorous project standards, and incorporated with significant process and workflow reengineering to actually return significant value to the organization. This article briefs readers on the organizational issues they must consider in evaluating e-commerce readiness--cultural, executive and technological factors that either support or inhibit project and technology success. Readers will be left with the tools to conduct an electronic commerce "readiness assessment" to evaluate the immediate, mid- and long-term potential of electronic commerce; practical remediation strategies for better preparing the organization for the changes inherent in moving to an e-commerce-enabled business model; and comments from the field--advice from organizations that have successfully implemented e-commerce technologies into their ongoing operations.

  5. Techno-euphoria and the world-improving dream: Gladiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Burgoyne


    Full Text Available In this essay, I explore the potential of the epic genre as a form of transnational cinema, and reconsider its traditional role as a vehicle of national ideology and aspirations. I suggest that the contemporary historical epic conveys a sense of double-voicing by adapting epic themes usually associated with national narratives to collectivities that are not framed by nation. Reading the epic alongside the work of Giorgio Agamben, I draw particular attention to the ways that the contemporary epic foregrounds the potential of “bare life” as a form of historical agency, emphasizing the emergence of the multitude and the mongrel community. I also consider the particular formal characteristics of the epic film—its design-intensive mise-en-scène, its use of spectacle and its style of sensory expansiveness—as producing an affective and emotional relation to the historical past, creating a fullness of engagement and amplitude of consciousness.

  6. Prevention of Stimulant Induced Euphoria with an Opioid Receptor Antagonist (United States)


    gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any...Mild Expected Possible None N/A 1774701 6/10/14 eye twitch Internal Mild Expected Possible None N/A 1774701 6/10/14 insomnia Internal Mild Expected

  7. Prevention of Stimulant Induced Euphoria with an Opioid Receptor Antagonist (United States)


    ADHD symptoms. While the high degree of effectiveness of MPH in reducing ADHD symptoms has been documented in the literature [13], it has never before...recovery from his emergency coronary bypass surgery . A total of 64 subjects were been initially screened and signed informed consent. For each subject...for her ADHD treatment and to monitor her mood. Another subject was terminated after he developed enlarged lymph nodes throughout his abdominal

  8. Eliciting Euphoria Online: The Aesthetics of "ASMR" Video Culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rob Gallagher


      "Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response" (ASMR) is a term that has emerged online to describe a mysterious tingling sensation that some people experience in response to particular audiovisual and interpersonal "triggers...

  9. Techno-euphoria and the world-improving dream: Gladiator Techno-euphoria and the world-improving dream: Gladiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Burgoyne


    Full Text Available In this essay, I explore the potential of the epic genre as a form of transnational cinema, and reconsider its traditional role as a vehicle of national ideology and aspirations. I suggest that the contemporary historical epic conveys a sense of double-voicing by adapting epic themes usually associated with national narratives to collectivities that are not framed by nation. Reading the epic alongside the work of Giorgio Agamben, I draw particular attention to the ways that the contemporary epic foregrounds the potential of “bare life” as a form of historical agency, emphasizing the emergence of the multitude and the mongrel community. I also consider the particular formal characteristics of the epic film—its design-intensive mise-en-scène, its use of spectacle and its style of sensory expansiveness—as producing an affective and emotional relation to the historical past, creating a fullness of engagement and amplitude of consciousness. In this essay, I explore the potential of the epic genre as a form of transnational cinema, and reconsider its traditional role as a vehicle of national ideology and aspirations. I suggest that the contemporary historical epic conveys a sense of double-voicing by adapting epic themes usually associated with national narratives to collectivities that are not framed by nation. Reading the epic alongside the work of Giorgio Agamben, I draw particular attention to the ways that the contemporary epic foregrounds the potential of “bare life” as a form of historical agency, emphasizing the emergence of the multitude and the mongrel community. I also consider the particular formal characteristics of the epic film—its design-intensive mise-en-scène, its use of spectacle and its style of sensory expansiveness—as producing an affective and emotional relation to the historical past, creating a fullness of engagement and amplitude of consciousness.

  10. Prevention of Stimulant-Induced Euphoria with an Opioid Receptor Antagonist (United States)


    assistants on study staff. Finally, the study’s Grants Officer, Samar Nader, is currently on maternity . The interim Grants Officer is Christopher Decelles...References 1. Weiss, G. and L. Hechtman, Hyperactive children grown up, in ADHD in children, adolescents , and adults. 1993, Guilford Press: New York...Adults With ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 50(6): p. 543- 53. 12. Zhu, J., et al., Methylphenidate and mu opioid receptor interactions: A

  11. Liquefied natural gas in full euphoria; Le gaz naturel liquefie en pleine euphorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V.; Ketels, O


    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is making progress with several projects of terminal facilities and liquefaction plants everywhere in the world. This too fast development leads to an increase of costs and delays in the construction of LNG facilities and at the medium term the offer will become unable to meet the demand. Today, the LNG engineering market is living on the 2005-2006 endorsed projects but the turning point will be 2010 when all main projects will be achieved. (J.S.)

  12. Beyond the decade of policy and community euphoria: The state of livelihoods under new local rights to forest in rural Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil René Oyono


    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the state of livelihoods under the exercise of new community rights to forest in rural Cameroon. The assessment makes use of a set of livelihoods indicators. The granting and exercise of new community rights, namely, management rights and market rights, are not synonymous with improved livelihoods, despite initial predictions and expectations. The resource base has not changed; it is more and more threatened by poor local level institutional arrangements and social and bio-physical management strategies, in addition to the weak central level regulation and monitoring actions. Similarly, the rights-based reform and community forestry are not improving basic assets and means at the household level. Nevertheless, this paper suggests that this experiment should not be judged hastily, since fifteen years are not enough to judge social and institutional processes like those in progress in Cameroon. The authors draw policy options likely to improve the livelihoods dimension of the reform and launch a debate on the real contribution of community income derived from community forests towards poverty alleviation at the household level.

  13. Between euphoria and high hopes. Structure and trends of the wood pellet market in Germany; Zwischen Euphorie und Hoffnung. Struktur und Entwicklung des Holzpellets-Marktes in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.


    Wood is having a renaissance as an energy source in Germany. Wood pellets, a new kind of wood-derived fuel, are one of the most sought-for wood fuels. (orig.) [German] Als Energietraeger erlebt Holz in Deutschland eine Renaissance. Mit den Holzpellets hat sich innerhalb kurzer Zeit ein neuartiger Brennstoff am Markt etabliert. Die Presslinge zaehlen heute zu den am staerksten nachgefragten Holzbrennstoffen. (orig.)

  14. La revolución cubana en el diario argentino .La Nación.: euforia, decepción, condena (1959-1962 = The Cuban revolution in the argentine daily newspaper “La Nación”: euphoria, deception, accusation (1959-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aelo, Oscar H.


    Full Text Available O artigo analiza os diferentes pontos de vista adotados pelo jornal argentino “La Nación” perante a Revolução Cubana. O jornal claro, expoente de uma linha de pensamento liberal-conservadora, jogou um importante papel à hora de avaliar as notícias chegadas desde La Habana. No entanto, o tom do discurso jornalístico não foi linear, passando em pouco tempo da euforia á condenação do processo cubano

  15. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning (United States)

    ... lacquer, and varnish removers are sold under various brand names. ... decreased level of consciousness and lack of responsiveness) Confusion Dizziness (from sniffing) Feeling of being drunk (euphoria) ...

  16. A revision of Dimocarpus (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.


    Dimocarpus Lour., Fl. Coch. (1790) 233. — Lectotype: D. lichi Lour. ( D. longan). Euphoria Auct. non Comm. ex Juss., Gen. (1789) 247, nom. illeg.: Gmel., Syst. Nat. 2 (1791) 611; Radlk., Pfl. R. Heft 98 (1932) 894—910.

  17. Remembering when the big bang seemed so simple

    CERN Multimedia

    Johnson, George


    Fourteen years ago, an astronomer at Berkeley declared that he and his satellite, COBE, had detected the astrophysical equivalent of the fingerprints of God, his euphoria was easy to understand. (1 page)

  18. Cyclothymia (Cyclothymic Disorder) (United States)

    ... of cyclothymia may include: An exaggerated feeling of happiness or well-being (euphoria) Extreme optimism Inflated self- ... in bipolar spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review. 2015;35:19. Suppes T, et al. ...

  19. Temporal Lobe Seizure (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. During a temporal lobe seizure, you ... include: A sudden sense of unprovoked fear A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  20. Rekreacyjne używanie leków dostępnych w odręcznej sprzedaży: odurzanie i doping mózgu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Piątek


    Pseudoephedrine, an amphetamine-like stimulant, produces mood improvement or even euphoria, hallucinations and psychosis. However, the real health threat is associated with the use of substances produced from pseudoephedrine: ephedrone and methamphetamine.

  1. Drug: D06914 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PD:C00031] Euphoria longana, Sapindaceae [TAX:23672] Same as: E00202 Sapindaceae (soapberry family) Sapindaceae longan arillus; Stand...ards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chin

  2. Substance use - LSD (United States)

    ... As if you are floating and disconnected from reality. Joy (euphoria, or "rush") and less inhibition, similar ... ways and lead to health problems such as: Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and body ...

  3. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP) (United States)

    ... you feel: You are floating and disconnected from reality. Joy (euphoria, or "rush") and less inhibition, similar ... may include muscle breakdown or twitching, weight loss, increased body temperature, or seizures.

  4. Mushrooms (United States)

    ... serotonin, one of the chemicals in our brains. Increased amounts of serotonin can create feelings of euphoria and altered perceptions of reality. The effects of mushrooms generally begin after about ...

  5. Rowers' high: behavioural synchrony is correlated with elevated pain thresholds (United States)

    Cohen, Emma E. A.; Ejsmond-Frey, Robin; Knight, Nicola; Dunbar, R. I. M.


    Physical exercise is known to stimulate the release of endorphins, creating a mild sense of euphoria that has rewarding properties. Using pain tolerance (a conventional non-invasive assay for endorphin release), we show that synchronized training in a college rowing crew creates a heightened endorphin surge compared with a similar training regime carried out alone. This heightened effect from synchronized activity may explain the sense of euphoria experienced during other social activities (such as laughter, music-making and dancing) that are involved in social bonding in humans and possibly other vertebrates. PMID:19755532

  6. Rowers' high: behavioural synchrony is correlated with elevated pain thresholds. (United States)

    Cohen, Emma E A; Ejsmond-Frey, Robin; Knight, Nicola; Dunbar, R I M


    Physical exercise is known to stimulate the release of endorphins, creating a mild sense of euphoria that has rewarding properties. Using pain tolerance (a conventional non-invasive assay for endorphin release), we show that synchronized training in a college rowing crew creates a heightened endorphin surge compared with a similar training regime carried out alone. This heightened effect from synchronized activity may explain the sense of euphoria experienced during other social activities (such as laughter, music-making and dancing) that are involved in social bonding in humans and possibly other vertebrates.

  7. The Story Of Tuberclosis: A Reason For Hope For The HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of specific antibiotics for the treatment of tuberculosis, there was no cure. It took several millennia before the specific organism was uncovered and appropriate drug therapy discovered. The initial euphoria of this discovery was dashed by early occurrence of drug resistance. This was overcome, but not ...

  8. New Generation's Career Aspirations and New Ways of Marginalization in a Postindustrial Economy (United States)

    Choi, Jung-ah


    The 1990s, a decade of democratic advances and consumption euphoria in South Korea, heralded a new wind called 'neoliberal education'. It is within this historical juncture that I conducted an ethnographic research on low-income youths who had dropped out of mainstream high schools. While I investigated these youths' educational and career…

  9. Report from the street: elm reintroduction (United States)

    Tom. Zetterstrom


    Since the introduction of Dutch elm disease (DED) to North America, heritage elm preservation was paramount, but elm restoration is held as the long-term solution. Various elm restoration efforts have been advanced and encouraged over the past half century, and all have inspired the euphoria of the "Return of the American Elm." The changing cast of characters...

  10. Globalisation and private infrastructure investments in emerging markets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chege, L


    Full Text Available benefit, it is argued that globalisation has brought a mixed basket of hope and disillusionment to emerging markets. On the one hand, there is the euphoria that comes with increased private capital inflows and market access, and on the other...

  11. ' ° Which patients should be scanned? ' ' What. treatment should be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60% of migraineurs. This usually consists of non-specific symptoms, including depression, euphoria, irritability, photophobia, phonophobia and hypersomnia. The migraine aura. Only 30% of migraine headaches are associated with auras. These are focal neurological phenomena that precede or accompany the headache ...

  12. NESG EPR Journal.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noah Olatoye

    (2005) to N358.91 billion (2015), and portfolio growth from N815.19 billion (2007) to over N6.5 trillion (2017). Public euphoria in pension reforms is however dampened by factors such. 1 as governance and investment risks which have in icted serious damages on the value of the pension outcomes such that, for example,.

  13. The return of risk : on the interrelations between risk, return and human decisions*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Arie


    For many years, optimism and euphoria reigned on the European and US stock markets. The major market indices consistently showed a substantial rate of return. Many new investors were attracted to the stock markets, initially earning wonderful returns on their portfolios. In the late nineties and

  14. Pharmacological Management of New-Onset Bipolar Disorder (United States)

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Delbello, Melissa; Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Wozniak, Janet


    A 12-year-old boy with no psychiatric history and no evidence of substance use presents with his first manic episode. Throughout the past 4 weeks, his family, school, and friends have noted distinct changes in his mood and behavior. His mood has oscillated between euphoria and severe irritability, with little or no provocation. He has been awake…

  15. The Soviet Union and German Reunification. (United States)


    another nation for the military oath of the East German Armed Forces is: I swear : to be always ready, side by side with the Soviet 1my and the armies of...government itself is feeding the nationalists’ euphoria . The U.S. Pershings have clearly added to the brazenness of West German revenge seekers.36

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 9, June 1990. (United States)


    by the effect of the shady economy and ethnic conflicts, and common sense is frequently dissolved in the euphoria of meetings and the pleasure of...the usefulness of keeping such an army" (V. Baranchikov, Balakovo. I hope that the author will not be angry for the deletion of a few swear words

  17. Pakistan’s Stability/Instability Complex: The Politics and Reverberations of the 2007 November Emergency (United States)


    kilometers short of Islamabad, many have come to question the verity of Cohen’s assertion. Further still is the memory of the democratic euphoria ...2007, only to have his plane turned around and sent back to Saudi Arabia. It was not until his swearing -in ceremony that Musharraf allowed Sharif back

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs. (United States)


    the time for the actual indoctrinational—pedagogical!—work. Nor do they always have the abilities. [E.L.:] Strange though it is, the euphoria in the...the Soviet Officer, which cadets of military schools will swear to prior to being awarded an officer’s rank upon completion of their studies, is

  19. Coda: The Slow Fuse of Change--Obama, the Schools, Imagination, and Convergence (United States)

    Greene, Maxine


    The author began writing this essay the day after waves of euphoria swept over what appeared to be a profoundly altered public space. Americans had seen the most diverse gathering of people coming freely together to affirm a common purpose no one could quite yet define. No one had instructed them to come out in the cold of that inauguration…

  20. AJDAS vol 8 No 2.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in order to be given pentazocine because they enjoyed its dysphoric effect. There were features of pentazocine dependence as ... It produces little or no euphoria but has some dysphoric effect in a few individuals (Lang & Pilon, ) ... of cannabis abuse out of 4000 patients seen in. Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

  1. Page 1 Ag O Scie Ce Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Eygment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food surpluses never happened as predicted essentially because the euphoria of the oil boom inadvertently translated into “oil doom' for agriculture within the period. The problem of .... maintain the right agro-ecology, reduce energy and resource use ..... improving the food security and economy of urban dwellers.

  2. The ICC, International Criminal Justice and International Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Criminal Court (ICC) came into being as a result of a desire by the international community to establish a permanent body to deliver criminal justice instead of the formula of ad hoc tribunals that had become the norm. The coming into force of the Rome Statute in 2002 was greeted with euphoria as it ...

  3. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: A drug of abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Christensen, Jakob; Jensen, Kimmo


    γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse that causes euphoria, anxiolysis and hypnosis. The recent rise in the recreational intake of GHB, as well as its association with “drug rape”, has turned the attention to GHB in acute hospital settings. Acutely admitted GHB intoxicated patients may display...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa in Hegel's philosophy of history from the historical races of the world, neither do I intend to look at views expressed earlier by Hume and Kant about Africans. “Hume, Kant and Hegel, under the euphoria of the Enlightenment and in various ways, believed that the history of the. Western world was the incarnation of ...

  5. On the (Im)Possibility of Democratic Citizenship Education in the Arab and Muslim World (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan


    The euphoria of the recent Arab Spring that was initiated in northern African countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and spilled over to Bahrain, Yemen and Syria brings into question as to whether democratic citizenship education or more pertinently, education for democratic citizenship can successfully be cultivated in most of the Arab and…

  6. 15 (No. 2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    well as to derive sensory pleasure and to give to the child a feeling of security, warmth and euphoria. (1). Therefore, an impatiently nursed baby looses the warmth and feeling of well being and is therefore deprived of the sucking pleasures (1). This deprivation may motivate the infant to suck a thumb or finger for additional ...

  7. The Internet bubble and the impact on the development path of the telecommunication sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, W.


    In this dissertation the impact of the Internet bubble on the development path of the telecommunication sector is being explored and explained. The insights obtained are used to provide recommendations for the formation of government policy and firm strategy in the aftermath. Periods of euphoria are

  8. The Defunct Rivers State 'School to Land' Scheme: A Dream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring food security and self-reliance through farming made many countries to embark on farming schemes such as the Gezira in Sudan, Alto Beni in Bolivia, Nyakashaka of Uganda, farming settlements of Eastern and Western Nigeria and the ―School to Land‖ scheme. The initial euphoria that welcomed these ...

  9. Dopaminergic symptoms in migraine. (United States)

    Barbanti, Piero; Fofi, L; Aurilia, C; Egeo, G


    Migraine pain is often preceded, accompanied and followed by dopaminergic symptoms (premonitory yawning and somnolence, accompanying nausea and vomiting, postdromal somnolence, euphoria and polyuria). After reviewing evidence from pharmacological, biochemical, genetic and animal experimental studies on the relationship between dopamine and migraine, and matching these data with patients' clinical features, we postulate that migraine attacks could be characterized by an ictal dopamine release in a subject with dopamine receptor hypersensitivity due to a chronic dopaminergic deficit synergistic to serotoninergic impairment. Our review suggests that when the attack begins, a low dopamine plasma concentration stimulates hypersensitive central presynaptic dopamine receptors thus causing prodromal symptoms such as yawning and somnolence. Increasing dopamine levels, though still insufficient to stop trigeminovascular activation, stimulate postsynaptic dopamine receptors thus inducing nausea, vomiting and hypotension. Finally, dopamine levels slowly return to baseline, giving rise to somnolence and fatigue, but, in some cases, continue to rise triggering postdromal symptoms such as euphoria and polyuria.

  10. Noncognitive symptoms in Alzheimer disease and caregivers distress in Chile. (United States)

    Rohde, G; Quiroga, P; Fasce, M; Fasce, F


    This study describes the profile of noncognitive symptoms in Chilean AD patients and its effects on the caregiver's mental health. In a sample of 26 urban dwelling AD patients, 21 of them women, age range 63-90 years, diagnosed using NINCDS-ADRDA, the intensity and frequency of noncognitive symptoms and caregivers distress was assessed using NPI. Seventeen caregivers were first degree relatives. The most prevalent symptoms were apathy, irritability, and anxiety. The least were euphoria, hallucinations, and disinhibition. The most stressful conditions were disinhibition and agitation: the best well-tolerated were euphoria and anxiety. Caregivers responded most frequently with feelings of concern and depression. Few of them reported to be ashamed. These results may reflect cultural differences and represents the first description of this reality in Chile.

  11. Taking on the Persona of a Suicide Bomber: a Thought Experiment 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Speckhard


    Full Text Available Nineteen university students experimented taking on the persona of an apprehended suicide bomber.  The role play explored the psychological mechanisms of dissociative phenomena, euphoria or a sense of empowerment contemplating suicide bombing; responses of imagined secondary traumatization; identification with the victim group; creation of fictive kin; choosing the (imagined target; and their (imagined moral reasoning.  Results were eerily similar to accounts of real (failed suicide bombers. Subjects identified with secondary trauma and fictive kin; and reported revenge and justice seeking as motivators; dissociation, some having experiences of euphoria or empowerment when contemplating strapping on a bomb. Their moral reasoning was nearly identical with the one of suicide bombers, despite none of them being Muslim. Most imagined targeting children or civilians. This leads us to the tentative conclusion that psychological mechanisms underlying the contemplation to engage in suicide terrorism may be universal. 

  12. "A case of self-induced reflex epilepsy "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Moatamedi M


    Full Text Available The term reflex epilepsy in reserved for a small subgroup o seizures that occur regularly in response to specific stimuli. Our patient is a 20- year old male, who had pleasure, euphoria, loss of conciousness and generalized tonic- clonic convulstion when he watched TV since ten years. During puberty the patient that self-induced reflex epilepsy with photic stimulation, when watching TV or looking at sun and with had moving in front of his eyes to produce flickers. The patient first had sex pleasure, euphoria, erection and ejaculation, and then developed loss of consiousness and generalized tonic- clonic seizure, that took about 4-5 min. what is more intersing is that he asked us for a kind of drug that controlled his generalized tonic-clonic seizures but not his pleasure and orgasm, and he said that he would refuse any drug interfered with his orgasm.

  13. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of morphine in neonates: A review


    Gian Maria Pacifici


    Morphine is an agonist of the µ and k receptors, whose activation results in analgesia. Morphine-like agonists act through the µ opioid receptors to cause pain relief, sedation, euphoria and respiratory depression. Morphine is glucuronidated and sulfated at positions 3 and 6; the plasma concentration ratios correlate positively with birth weight, which probably reflects increased liver weight with increasing birth weight. Moreover, morphine clearance correlates positively with gestational age...

  14. Methamphetamine. Stimulant of the 1990s?


    Derlet, R W; Heischober, B.


    During the past several years, the use of a smokable form of methamphetamine hydrochloride called "ice" has increased rapidly. The heaviest use has occurred on the West Coast and in Hawaii. Many regional emergency departments treat more methamphetamine users than cocaine-intoxicated patients. The ease of synthesis from inexpensive and readily available chemicals makes possible the rampant abuse of a dangerous drug that can produce a euphoria similar to that induced by cocaine. Clinicians shou...

  15. Palestinian Refugees in the Levant: Alternate Theories for Disparity in Treatment (United States)


    Israel, the Arab states, and the Palestinians. With the ongoing euphoria of Arab nationalism led by Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser , the possibility of... Abdel - Nasser added Decree no. 28, allowing the Palestinian refugees in Syria to be issued travel documents.120 More legal changes came in 1963, when...longer was Nasser seen as the great leader of the Arab cause, and the US began to have a greater role in the politics of the region.12 Even more

  16. Blind Politics of Ambition: Shale Gas in Poland


    Niemuth, Stephanie; Westphal, Sophie


    Ever since the impacts of the shale gas revolution in the US have unfolded their measurable effects – as significantly declining natural gas prices – impressive euphoria among those states which are identified to bear high potentials of unconventional gas is widely spread. As for Poland, essentially linked to the hope of profitably producing shale gas is the political will to strive for independence from Russian energy supply and thus, enhance energy supply security. Hence, liberalizing its g...



    CINGROŠ, Jan


    This diploma thesis deals with the relationship between two important figures at Nazi Germany during the Second World War - Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler and Commander in Chief of the Luftwaffe Hermann Goering. Although these two men participated on a large scale in shaping the policy of the Third Reich, their relationship went through a various stages during a war time. They did not get along afterwards and the initial euphoria and confidence of their relationship did not last long. As a tim...

  18. A Constructivist Discourse Analysis of the German Debate over the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union


    Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias


    With a view to the Eastern enlargement of the European Union (EU), political debate in Germany took a remarkable turn. After the 1990s little has remained of the earlier euphoria over German unification and the establishment of friendly relations with the country's Eastern European neighbors. In its stead there have been vehement demands for stricter accession criteria, greater reform of the EU, and the institution of transition periods for member candidates prior to full accession. This stud...

  19. The Evolution of the Party System and the Future of Party Politics in the Republic of Korea (United States)


    leader (and the leader’s place of origin). Party names changed to reflect the political feng shui (kr. poong soo), or geomancy ; they were ephemeral...States, which has held that position since polling started. David I. Steinberg The Chinese ...related to the North. This euphoria with China is demonstrated by the study of Chinese among Koreans, which has become a major fad (the number of

  20. Sweet taste liking is associated with subjective response to amphetamine in women but not men. (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Lyon, Nicholas; Hedeker, Donald; de Wit, Harriet


    Preference for sweet taste rewards has been linked to the propensity for drug use in both animals and humans. Here, we tested the association between sweet taste liking and sensitivity to amphetamine reward in healthy adults. We hypothesized that sweet likers would report greater euphoria and stimulation following D-amphetamine (20 mg) compared to sweet dislikers. Men (n = 36) and women (n = 34) completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various concentrations of sucrose and filtered water (0.05, 0.10, 0.21, 0.42, and 0.83 M). Participants who preferred the highest concentration were classified as "sweet likers." All others were classified as "sweet dislikers." They then completed four sessions in which they received D-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and stimulation on the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) at regular intervals. We conducted linear mixed effects models to examine relationships between sweet liking and drug-induced euphoria and stimulation. Sweet likers reported significantly greater amphetamine-induced euphoria than did sweet dislikers among women. By contrast, sweet liking was not associated with amphetamine response in men. No associations with stimulation were observed. The association between sweet preference and amphetamine response in women is consistent with animal studies linking sweet taste preference and drug reward and also fits with observations that individuals who use drugs show a preference for sweet tastes. Whether the sex difference is related to circulating hormones, or other variables, remains to be determined.

  1. North Korea’s Juche Ideology and the German Re-Unification Experience (United States)


    sind … .” 185 Thomanek, “From Euphoria to Reality,” 12. 186 Max Weber and Talcott Parsons , The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Mineola...I. Tübingen 1988. Weber, Max, and Talcott Parsons . The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2003...affiliated with any religious, political, or educational organization. 19 million adherents equals about 80 % of North Korea’s current population

  2. Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: Correlates and Impact on Caregiver Distress

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    Adreesh Mukherjee


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, to determine their correlation with types and stages of dementia and patient demographics, and to assess the impact on caregiver distress. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited consecutive dementia patients and caregivers who attended our cognitive clinic. Standard criteria were used to classify types of dementia. BPSD were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and its distress scale was used for caregiver distress. Results: Of a total 107 patients, nearly all (99.1% had at least one BPSD; 71% had ≥4 symptoms. Most frequent were apathy and agitation, followed by irritability, sleep and appetite disorders, and mood disorders; disinhibition and euphoria were least frequent. BPSD were less prominent with increasing age; males showed more agitation. Apathy and eating disorders were more prevalent in the rural community. BPSD were highest in frontotemporal dementia (FTD, followed by dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, and least in vascular dementia. Hallucinations were more common in DLB, aberrant motor behaviour in FTD. All domains of BPSD, except for anxiety and euphoria, were more prominent with increasing severity of dementia. Increasing BPSD (except for euphoria caused higher caregiver distress. Conclusion: BPSD are universally present, bear correlates with dementia type and severity, and cause significant caregiver distress.

  3. Personality and the acute subjective effects of d-amphetamine in humans. (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; de Wit, Harriet


    There is evidence that subjective responses to psychoactive drugs are related to personality traits. Here, we extend previous findings by examining personality measures in relation to acute responses to d-amphetamine (AMPH) in a large sample of healthy volunteers. Healthy adults (n=286) completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Brief Form (MPQ-BF) and participated in four sessions during which they received oral AMPH (0, 5, 10, 20 mg), under double-blind conditions. Subjective responses to the drug were measured using the Profile of Mood States, Addiction Research Center Inventory, and Drug Effects Questionnaire. Drug responses were reduced via principal components analysis to three higher-order factors ('Euphoria', 'Arousal', 'Dysphoria'). Participants were rank ordered on selected MPQ-BF scales; the top and bottom third on each trait were compared on the drug response factors. High trait physical fearlessness was significantly associated with greater amphetamine-related Arousal, and high trait reward sensitivity was significantly associated with greater Euphoria. In addition, high trait impulsivity was significantly associated with greater Arousal and Euphoria. These results provide further evidence that individual differences in the subjective effects of AMPH are partially explained by differences in personality, and are consistent with the idea that both personality and responses to stimulants depend upon shared neurochemical systems.

  4. Sodium amytal testing and the laterality of emotion. (United States)

    Trimble, Michael


    In this paper, the results of studies that have used the intracarotid sodium amytal (amobarbital) test to examine hemispheric lateralization of emotional expression has been reviewed. The important findings are that the emotional states are dissociated from the neurological effects (aphasia, hemiplegia), and occur later, when the electroencephalogram (EEG) is showing evidence of activation. The effects of left hemisphere barbiturization are less clear than those of the right hemisphere, and there is good concordance that the latter lead to states of alteration in mood or euphoria.

  5. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Amit


    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties.

  6. Kratom, an Emerging Drug of Abuse: A Case Report of Overdose and Management of Withdrawal. (United States)

    Diep, Jack; Chin, David Tian; Gupta, Somdatta; Syed, Faraz; Xiong, Ming; Cheng, Jianguo


    Kratom is an herb indigenous to Southeast Asia with psychoactive opioid compounds, often used as a treatment for chronic pain or opiate withdrawal symptoms. It is legally and readily available via Internet sales and has been identified as an emerging drug of abuse in the United States. Kratom use has been associated with psychosis, seizures, and even death. At lower doses, kratom acts as a stimulant, while at higher doses, it produces analgesia and euphoria. Here, we describe the successful management of kratom overdose and withdrawal in a young man with negative toxicology screens.

  7. GST in India: Expectations and challenges

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    Ratul Mahanta


    Full Text Available India is ready to implement its “Goods and Services Tax (GST” act from 1st April 2017. It is expected that GST will minimise all the loopholes of existing tax system in India. However, critics argue that the euphoria over GST camouflages the deadly assault to tax policy as a means of promoting equity and efficiency. This review on GST highlights the challenges over GST claims. It has been observed that to implement GST effectively, both centre and state have to go hand in hand.

  8. Loperamide Induced Torsades de Pointes: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    O. Mukarram


    Full Text Available Abuse of over the counter drugs often gets overlooked by health care providers. Loperamide is one such over the counter drug that is often abused by drug addicts. We present here a case of a young male attaining euphoria from taking massive doses of loperamide. He developed Torsades de Pointes and subsequent cardiac arrest. We found similarities in the progression of myocardial electrical conduction abnormalities among loperamide and other previously known arrhythmogenic drugs. We intend to raise concern over the ease of availability of such drugs over the counter and increase the index of suspicion for over the counter drug abuse from our experience.

  9. The Aeronautical Monument from Michałowice, Poland

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    Iosif RUS


    Full Text Available After World War I Romania was sized with contradictory feelings: on the one hand: a general euphoria, stimulating many ambitions, on the other hand, the fear that everything that had been obtained through the sacrifice of half a million Romanian soldiers could have been lost.The insecurity of its borders and the fear of the revisionist forces counterattack determined Romania to conclude a treaty of alliance with Poland (March 3, 1921, then to join the countries that were part of the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It was followed by France, terrified by its inability to stop the expansion of Germany.

  10. Analisis Model Penelusuran Backward Chaining dalam Mendeteksi Tingkat Kecanduan Game pada Anak

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    Anastasya Latubessy


    Full Text Available Game addiction rate can be detected by applying expert system. This study developed a model of game addiction analysis using backward chaining. This model uses six types of game addiction behavior, among others, salience, euphoria, conflict, tolerance, withdrawal, relapse and reinstatement. Someone is said to be addicted to the game if it meets at least three types of game addiction behavior. Testing the validity of the model is done by testing the closeness of the agreement between the model analysis and expert analysis, resulting in a value of 0.78 which means having a strong agreement. Tingkat kecanduan game dapat dideteksi dengan mengaplikasikan sistem pakar. Penelitian ini mengembangkan model analisis tingkat kecanduan game menggunakan backward chaining. Model ini menggunakan enam jenis perilaku kecanduan game antara lain, salience, euphoria, conflict, tolerance, withdrawal, relapse dan reinstatement. Seseorang dikatakan kecanduan game jika memenuhi paling sedikit tiga jenis perilaku kecanduan game. Pengujian validitas model dilakukan dengan menguji keeratan kesepakatan antara analisis model dan analisis pakar, menghasilkan nilai 0,78 yang berarti memiliki keeratan kesepakatan kuat.

  11. Circulating opioids: possible physiological roles in central nervous function. (United States)

    Henry, J L


    Evidence is reviewed regarding the release of endorphins by such diverse conditions as stress, long distance running, acupuncture, sexual activity, suggestion and ritualistic dancing ceremonies. Additional evidence is cited regarding possible physiological roles of endorphins in antinociception, socialization, euphoria, some mental disorders, drive states and vegetative functions. The concentration of this latter type of evidence is on conditions during which endorphins seem to be exerting effects on a number of different systems together (for example, euphoria is almost always accompanied by analgesia), and the possibility is suggested that the activation of a number of functions together may be due to a global activation of opiate receptors throughout the CNS. A possible basis for this global activation arises from results from this laboratory indicating the presence of a blood-borne opioid hormone, secreted by the pituitary or by an endocrine gland under pituitary control, which is capable of passing from the blood into the CNS. This diffuse endorphinergic system, which is complementary to the well-established endorphinergic neuronal systems in the CNS, thus derives its property of global action on opiate receptors by the diffuse means by which the hormone reaches its target sites, i.e., by passing through the blood brain barrier. Thus, while each specific endorphin-mediated function can be activated by the activation of its respective neural pathway, it is proposed that the hormonal endorphinergic mechanism is activated to produce a global response provoked by conditions to which a more generalized response, including physiological and behavioural changes, is most appropriate.

  12. The effects of lithium carbonate upon subjective state changes induced by sodium pentobarbital. (United States)

    Judd, L L; Hubbard, R B; Attewell, P A


    Behavioral and mood changes were measured for 8 normal male subjects after oral administration of sodium pentobarbital (3 mg/kg body weight). This procedure was repeated on three occasions: firstly a drug-free condition; then a condition following two weeks of maintenance 0.7 to 1.2 MEQ/L lithium carbonate; and then another drug-free condition. Intial analyses indicated a lowering of the level of euphoria reached in the lithium pentobarbital condition below that achieved after pentobarbital alone. Examination of this effect showed that the reduction after pentobarbital plus lithium was mirrored by a reduction in the baseline for the same response items due to lithium alone. The lessening of euphoria appeared to result from a general lowering of affect due to lithium maintenance. More detailed analyses showed that the quantitative response to pentobarbital was in no case reduced by lithium condition. Certain reversal effects were also discovered in which lithium plus pentobarbital acted in the opposite direction from pentobarbital alone.

  13. Morphostructural MRI Abnormalities Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated to Multiple Sclerosis

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    Simona Bonavita


    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis associated neuropsychiatric disorders include major depression (MD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, bipolar affective disorder, euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, and personality change. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies focused mainly on identifying morphostructural correlates of MD; only a few anecdotal cases on OCD associated to MS (OCD-MS, euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, personality change, and one research article on MRI abnormalities in OCD-MS have been published. Therefore, in the present review we will report mainly on neuroimaging abnormalities found in MS patients with MD and OCD. All together, the studies on MD associated to MS suggest that, in this disease, depression is linked to a damage involving mainly frontotemporal regions either with discrete lesions (with those visible in T1 weighted images playing a more significant role or subtle normal appearing white matter abnormalities. Hippocampal atrophy, as well, seems to be involved in MS related depression. It is conceivable that grey matter pathology (i.e., global and regional atrophy, cortical lesions, which occurs early in the course of disease, may involve several areas including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex whose disruption is currently thought to explain late-life depression. Further MRI studies are necessary to better elucidate OCD pathogenesis in MS.

  14. Effects of MDMA and Intranasal oxytocin on social and emotional processing. (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Lee, Royce; Wardle, Margaret C; Jacob, Suma; de Wit, Harriet


    MDMA (± 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'ecstasy') is used recreationally, reportedly because it increases feelings of empathy, sociability, and interpersonal closeness. One line of evidence suggests that MDMA produces these effects by releasing oxytocin, a peptide involved in social bonding. In the current study, we investigated the acute effects of MDMA and oxytocin on social and emotional processing in healthy human volunteers. MDMA users (N = 65) participated in a 4-session, within-between-subjects study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75, 1.5 mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20 or 40 IU), or placebo under double-blind conditions. The primary outcomes included measures of emotion recognition and sociability (desire to be with others). Cardiovascular and subjective effects were also assessed. As expected, MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate and blood pressure and feelings of euphoria (eg, 'High' and 'Like Drug'). On measures of social function, MDMA impaired recognition of angry and fearful facial expressions, and the larger dose (1.5 mg/kg) increased desire to be with others, compared with placebo. Oxytocin produced small but significant increases in feelings of sociability and enhanced recognition of sad facial expressions. Additionally, responses to oxytocin were related to responses to MDMA with subjects on two subjective measures of sociability. Thus, MDMA increased euphoria and feelings of sociability, perhaps by reducing sensitivity to subtle signs of negative emotions in others. The present findings provide only limited support for the idea that oxytocin produces the prosocial effects of MDMA.

  15. Development of ARDS after Excessive Kath Consumption: A Case Report

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    Marlene Wewalka


    Full Text Available Khat is a drug widely used in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Khat leaves contain, among other substances, the psychoactive alkaloid cathinone, which induce central nervous system stimulation leading to euphoria, hyperactivity, restlessness, and insomnia. However, it also could cause psychological adverse effects such as lethargy, sleepiness, psychoses, and depression necessitating pharmacologic treatment. Here we report the case of a 35-year-old man from Somalia who became unconscious and developed aspiration pneumonia and subsequent ARDS after excessive consumption of khat leaves. His unconsciousness was possibly caused by the sleepiness developed after khat consumption and a benzodiazepine intake by the patient himself. Thus, khat-induced adverse effects should not primarily be treated pharmacologically, but patients should be urged to quit khat consumption in order to eliminate or, at least, reduce the severity of present psychological adverse effects.

  16. [News items on human papillomavirus and its vaccine in the Valencian press (2006-2011)]. (United States)

    Tuells, José; Duro Torrijos, José Luis; Chilet Rosell, Elisa; Pastor Villalba, Eliseo; Portero Alonso, Antonio; Navarro Ortiz, Carmen; Galiana de la Villa, Eva María


    The process of introducing the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine aimed at teenage girls has not been entirely without controversy in Spain. This vaccine was originally hyped as a preventive measure in the fight against cervical cancer but the resulting euphoria was tempered by a message calling for evidence. During administration of the second dose of the vaccine in February 2009, an unexpected turn of events attracted vast media coverage when two teenagers experienced adverse effects after immunization in Valencia (Spain). This study analyzes the scope and content of news items on HPV, immunization and cervical cancer published between 2006 and 2011 in two widely disseminated regional newspapers in Valencia. We also discuss the extent to which the messages transmitted may have influenced acceptability of the vaccine. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Nos reíamos como locas, como locas, como locas… La catástrofe eufórica en Yo era una chica moderna de César Aira.

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    Lucrecia Velasco Esquivel


    Full Text Available César Aira’s Yo era una chica moderna can be read as a metaphorical reconstruction of the social dynamics surrounding the argentine socio-economical crisis culminated at the end of 2001. The national catastrophe is portrayed with an euphoric tone that draws ironically on a literary tradition accustomed to associating popular advance with the monster figure and to focalizing the narrative through his violent point of view, thus communicating a sadistic glee in the very act of destruction. Nevertheless, the euphoria permeating the discourse can be also seen in the perspective of a new alliance between artists and lower classes emerging from the civil society’s spontaneous reaction to the crisis, specifically from a series of collective actions promoting horizontality, participation and solidarity between social groups. Aira’s novel seems to celebrate this unusual sensibility, especially in the literary field, where innovative practices began to diffuse as an answer to the new social demands.

  18. Avoiding Opioids and Their Harmful Side Effects in the Postoperative Patient: Exogenous Opioids, Endogenous Endorphins, Wellness, Mood, and Their Relation to Postoperative Pain. (United States)

    Stephan, Bradley C; Parsa, Fereydoun D


    Prescribed opioids are routinely used for many postoperative patients. However, these medications have daunting adverse effects on the body's innate pain management system--the action of the beta-endorphins. The prescribed opioids not only severely impair the function of the mu-opioid receptors, but also inhibit the release of beta-endorphin. This is unfortunate, because beta-endorphin appears to be a much more potent agonist of the mu-opioid receptor than opioids. In addition, beta-endorphin indirectly elevates dopamine, a neurotransmitter related to feelings of euphoria. Therefore, by prescribing opioids, practitioners may inadvertently prolong and increase the overall intensity of the postoperative patients' pain as well as herald anhedonia. This article highlights the relationships between prescribed (exogenous) opioids, beta-endorphins, mu-opioid receptors, wellness, mood, and postoperative pain. The role of patient education, opioid alternatives, and additional recommendations regarding pain control in the postoperative patient are also discussed.

  19. Importance of Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy

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    J. Frydryšková


    Full Text Available Following the massive destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the end of Second World War, the atom was generally taken to be the primary symbol of the new era, the so-called ‘atomic age’, a prototypical modern conjuncture forever oscillating between the agonies of mass death and standardized terror, and the euphoria of tremendous economic transformation through the permanent resolution of the ever increasing need for electrical energy at little or no cost. After Hiroshima the symbolic meaning and presence of the atom crossed and recrossed the lines between popular culture, lived experience, political protest, strategic discourse, modern design, industry, medicine, and agriculture, that it truly became ‘atomic age’ whether one was in the US, France, China or anywhere else. 

  20. INOVASI DAERAH (Refleksi dan Pengaturan Inovasi Daerah di Indonesia

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    Made Gde Subha Karma Resen


    Full Text Available Regional Innovation is an important factor to encourage competitiveness and prosperity in the region. Innovation is a collaborative process to improve effectiveness and efficiency in the Region. Innovation cannot run sporadically and partially, particularly at the level of regulation and governance. Reflection on experience shows, government apprehensive to innovate in the Region. Criminalization of policy, euphoria of corruption eradication causing poor innovation in the Region, so it should be given the rule that provides the flexibility to innovate without diminishing accountability or in formulating innovation policy, should be based on the principles in the running of innovation. Through the juridical analysis of substance of the Law 23/2014, have been set related to regional innovation. There is the possibility of expanding the activities of government, with narrowing of the risk of criminal prosecution.

  1. Nitrous oxide-induced vitamin B12 deficiency. (United States)

    Stockton, Lindsey; Simonsen, Cameron; Seago, Susan


    Nitrous oxide is a gas that is odorless, colorless, and has a sweet taste at room temperature. Nitrous oxide has several uses, including in surgery and dentistry (referred to as "laughing gas"), in automotive racing, and in aerosol spray propellants. The aerosol spray propellants that typically use nitrous oxide are whipped cream canisters and cooking sprays. Unfortunately, these over-the-counter household items are a source of nitrous oxide that can be used for recreational use. The most popular is the use of industrial-grade canisters having the slang term "whippets." The nitrous oxide can be extracted by pushing the nozzle down slightly to the side and catching the released gas with a balloon. The contents of the balloon can then be directly inhaled, giving an instant feeling of euphoria. This is not a benign means to achieve a euphoric state but can cause severe nitrous oxide-induced B12 deficiency, which is presented in this case report.

  2. Determination and Evaluation of Mineral Constituents of Medicinal Plants used for the Treatment of Asthma and other Ailments by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

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    Ghulam Qadir Shar


    Full Text Available Mineral contents have been determined for thirty samples from three medicinal plants (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Salvadora oleoides and Euphoria hirta. Fifteen essential trace and toxic elements were determined, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Ten samples from each plant were collected from the vicinity of Jamshoro and Tandojam Agricultural University and drug stores. The edible parts of all three plants were digested with two known wet asking methods. It was observed that the levels of essential micronutrient Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn, in all there medicinal plants are found to be (3.491.3-3928.2, (2269.3-3617.3, (3.23-5.42, (6.13-7.33 and (4.22-6.94 mg/100g respectively on dried basis. The efficiency of digesting mineral acid mixtures was checked by certified reference sample of Spinach NBS-1570.

  3. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server


    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties. The above problems led to the development of the Second-Generation of HTS wires. Three methods were invented to produce flexible metallic substrates, which were also crystallographically biaxially textured, and resembled a long, mosaic single crystal. The first method invented is the Ion-Beam-Assisted-Deposition (IBAD). The second method developed was the Inclined-Substrate-Deposition (ISD). The third method invented is calle...

  4. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion. (United States)

    Blood, A J; Zatorre, R J


    We used positron emission tomography to study neural mechanisms underlying intensely pleasant emotional responses to music. Cerebral blood flow changes were measured in response to subject-selected music that elicited the highly pleasurable experience of "shivers-down-the-spine" or "chills." Subjective reports of chills were accompanied by changes in heart rate, electromyogram, and respiration. As intensity of these chills increased, cerebral blood flow increases and decreases were observed in brain regions thought to be involved in reward/motivation, emotion, and arousal, including ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex. These brain structures are known to be active in response to other euphoria-inducing stimuli, such as food, sex, and drugs of abuse. This finding links music with biologically relevant, survival-related stimuli via their common recruitment of brain circuitry involved in pleasure and reward.

  5. Intellectuals and the Authorities: the Role in the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia (a sociologist's notes

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    M Petrusek


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the evaluation of the role and place of intellectuals in the ideological preparation of the Velvet revolution in Czechoslovakia in November, 1989. It examines the sociological conceptions of revolution, and their applicability to the analysis of the November events. In the analysis of the subsequent evolution of the Czech republic, the author notes the difficulties of the transition from a post-totalitarian society to the market economy, describes the social-economic system, which emerged as a result of the revolution, characterized by consumerism, domination of mass culture etc, which turned out to be a far cry from what the mass, carried away with a certain euphoria, had expected.

  6. [Neurobiological and psychosocial causes of individual male violence]. (United States)

    Bogerts, B; Möller-Leimkühler, A M


    Individual and collective acts of violence are mainly a male phenomenon caused by complex interactions of neurobiological and psychosocial factors. Amazingly this topic has not yet played a major role in the clinical psychiatric literature although the disastrous consequences are clearly visible everywhere and although aggression also belongs to the archaic human emotions, such as anxiety, depression and euphoria.The article gives an integrative overview on epidemiological, neurobiological, genetic, neuropathological, neurochemical/hormonal, developmental and psychosocial theories on aggression and violence, including sociocognitive models, hedonistic aspects of violence, effects of violence in the media and processes of childhood socialization.Better knowledge of the broad spectrum of these intensively interacting biological and psychosocial components resulting in violence not only improves our understanding of this calamitous psychosyndrome but can also lead to more effective preventive measures.

  7. Salvinorin a and related compounds as therapeutic drugs for psychostimulant-related disorders. (United States)

    dos Santos, R G; Crippa, J A S; Machado-de-Sousa, J P; Hallak, J E C


    Pharmacological treatments are available for alcohol, nicotine, and opioid dependence, and several drugs for cannabis-related disorders are currently under investigation. On the other hand, psychostimulant abuse and dependence lacks pharmacological treatment. Mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons mediate the motivation to use drugs and drug-induced euphoria, and psychostimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine) produce their effects in these neurons, which may be modulated by the opioid system. Salvinorin A is a κ-opioid receptor agonist extracted from Salvia divinorum, a hallucinogenic plant used in magico-ritual contexts by Mazateca Indians in México. Salvinorin A and its analogues have demonstrated anti-addiction effects in animal models using psychostimulants by attenuating dopamine release, sensitization, and other neurochemical and behavioral alterations associated with acute and prolonged administration of these drugs. The objective of the present article is to present an overview of the preclinical evidence suggesting anti-addictive effects of salvinorin A and its analogues.

  8. The New Kid on the Block--Incorporating Buprenorphine into a Medical Toxicology Practice. (United States)

    Wiegand, Timothy J


    Buprenorphine represents a safe and effective therapy for treating opioid dependence, alleviating craving and withdrawal symptoms in opioid-dependent patients. Buprenorphine has a "blocking" effect against the action of other opioids at the mu-receptor, preventing not only opioid-induced euphoria, but CNS and respiratory depressant effects as well. Buprenorphine was approved for the treatment of opioid dependence in 2002 after the passage of Drug Abuse Treatment Act 2000 (DATA 2000) which allowed clinicians to treat opioid-dependent patients with specifically named opioid agonist therapies in an office setting. Buprenorphine programs reduce the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C and reduce criminal behaviors associated with illicit drug use. Patients stabilized on buprenorphine have increased employment, enhanced engagement with social services, and better overall health and well-being.

  9. Menumbuhkan Jiwa Wirausaha Melalui Peran Sosial Media

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    Hawik Ervina Indoworo


    Full Text Available Abstract - Now the development of entrepreneurship is able to expand new employment opportunities and sustain the economy of the State. The need for information and personal development is increasing along with advances in telecommunications technology over the internet. The development of the internet makes the number of the users taking advantage of this as a profitable business opportunity like online businesses. The euphoria of the use of social media (facebook, twitter, instagram, etc. over the internet has become a trend in society. Of course it affects the behavior change in the way the community communicate and interact with others. This condition is driven by two fundamentals which are the new behavior of the citizen and the technological revolution. The growth of social media users should certainly benefit companies in reaching consumers with a way to innovate in doing business, marketing and communication. Keywords: entrepreneurship, social media

  10. A descriptive study of kava use among Tongan men in Macarthur, Sydney South West. (United States)

    Maneze, Della; Speizer, Anau; Dalton, Noeline; Dennis, Sarah


    To describe the pattern of kava use among Tongan men in Macarthur. A kava use survey of Tongan men was conducted between May and October 2006. Seventy-three Tongan men aged over 18 completed the survey, 90% drank kava regularly at least twice a week with 20 or more cups per session. During the kava sessions the men also reported smoking (26%), drinking alcohol (15%) and consuming foods with high fat or sugar content (29%). Feelings of euphoria were reported during session with alcohol-like hang-over effects the next day. Socialisation was the main reason given for drinking kava. Kava is consumed regularly and in large quantities by Tongan men in Macarthur. They also consume fatty or sugary foods during the sessions and the smoking rate is high. There is a need to reduce smoking and promote the consumption of healthier foods during kava sessions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prasasti


    Full Text Available Witnessing the euphoria of the era of biotechnology in the late twentieth century, Crichton exposes the theme of biotechnology in his works. In Jurassic Park, he voices his concern about the impact of the use of biotechnology to preserve nature and its living creatures. He further describes how the purpose of preserving nature and the creatures has turned out to be destructive. This article discusses Crichton's main character, Hammond, who attempts to control nature by genetically recreating the extinct fossil animals. It seems that the attempt ignores his human limitations. Although he is confident that has been equipped with the technology, he forgets to get along with nature. His way of using technology to accomplish his purpose proves not to be in harmony with nature. As a consequence, nature fights back. And he is conquered.

  12. Direct and retrospective assessment of factors contributing to compulsive buying. (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G; Redlin, Jennifer; Crosby, Ross; Stickney, Marcella; Mitchell, Jim; Wonderlich, Stephen; Faber, Ronald; Smyth, Joshua


    Compulsive buying is a disorder that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The results of a handful of studies suggest that compulsive buying occurs in response to negative emotions and results in a decrease in the intensity of the negative emotions. In this investigation, we used interview and self-monitoring methods to evaluate the antecedents and consequences of compulsive buying in a sample of women who met criteria for compulsive buying on the compulsive buying scale (J. Consumer Res. 19 (1992) 459). As a group, the participants reported negative emotions as the most common antecedents to compulsive buying, and euphoria or relief from the negative emotions as the most common consequence of compulsive buying. These findings were consistent across the interview and self-monitoring assessment methods. The implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.

  13. Nephrotoxic effects of designer drugs: synthetic is not better! (United States)

    Luciano, Randy L; Perazella, Mark A


    Designer drugs are synthetic, psychoactive substances with similar structures and activity to existing scheduled drugs or controlled chemical compounds. The use of these drugs is not generally considered illegal and they cannot be detected using standard toxicology tests--essentially they are considered to be 'legal highs'. Over the past several years, increasing numbers of designer drugs have become available. These drugs are classified as amphetamine derivatives, phenylpiperazine derivatives, synthetic cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids, phencyclidine derivatives and synthetic opioids. Although euphoria is the desired effect, neuropsychiatric and cardiac manifestations are frequently observed in individuals using these drugs at high doses or using drugs that are contaminated with other substances. Some designer drugs are also associated with adverse renal effects, including acute kidney injury from pigment nephropathy, acute tubular necrosis, obstructive nephropathy and hyponatraemia. The misuse of these drugs should be recognized and clinicians made aware of the potential for acute nephrotoxicity as the health burden of these compounds increases.

  14. Intermediate pilomyxoid astrocytoma and diencephalic syndrome: imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo Kyosen Nakamura


    Full Text Available Pilomyxoid astrocytoma, an entity described as a histological variantof pilocytic astrocytoma, is a rare primary tumor of the centralnervous system. It is usually located in the hypothalamic-chiasmaticarea, affecting children with a mean age of 10 months. It has ahigh rate of recurrence and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination,which may be present throughout the neuroaxis. Due to itstopography, it may present developmental delay in childhood anddiencephalic syndrome, characterized by extreme weight loss, lackof fat accumulation, hyperactivity, euphoria and alertness. Magneticresonance imaging has an important role in its diagnosis, stagingand follow-up of pilomyxoid astrocytoma. However, for a definitivediagnosis, anatomopathology is particularly important to differentiateit from pilocytic astrocytoma. Some cases, as in this present one,have simultaneous histological features of pilocytic and pilomyxoidastrocytomas, constituting a group called intermediate pilomyxoidastrocytoma. Surgery is the best treatment option and it usuallyrequires adjuvant therapy.

  15. Social cognition and the manic defense: attributions, selective attention, and self-schema in bipolar affective disorder. (United States)

    Lyon, H M; Startup, M; Bentall, R P


    Manic patients, depressed bipolar patients, and normal controls were compared on measures of social cognition. Manic patients showed a normal self-serving bias on the Attributional Style Questionnaire, but depressed patients attributed negative events more than positive events to self. On an implicit test of attributional style, both patient groups attributed negative events more than positive events to self. Both patient groups showed slowed color naming for depression-related but not euphoria-related words. Manic patients, like normal controls, endorsed mainly positive words as true of self but, like the depressed patients, recalled mainly negative words. Findings from the implicit tests indicate a common form of psychological organization in manic and depressed patients, whereas the contrasts between the scores on the implicit and explicit measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a manic defense.

  16. Endocannabinoid signaling in female reproduction. (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K


    Marijuana is a preparation of the flower, as well as the leaves and seeds, of the plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for thousands of years due to its psychoactive effects including euphoria, sedation, and analgesia. Although it has been suspected for decades that marijuana has adverse effects on female fertility, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has advanced studies if cannabinoid signaling. Since then, numerous studies have been published on cannabinoid signaling in female reproductive events, including preimplantation embryo development, oviductal embryo transport, embryo implantation, placentation, and parturition. This review focuses on various aspects of endocannabinoid signaling in female fertility.

  17. Islam in Indonesian Foreign Policy: Assesing Impacts of Islamic Revivalism during the Soeharto Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azyumardi Azra


    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the Islamic world has witnessed something of an Islamic revival. Indonesian Muslims to a certain extent are likewise affected by the euphoria of Islamic revivalism; and there is much evidence to suggest that Islam, like other religions in Indonesia, is also experiencing a revival. As a result frequently since the end of the 1980s, Muslims have succeeded in influencing the making of government domestic policy for the interests of Islam and Muslims. For this reason, it is interesting to consider how Muslims' increasing pressure on the government affect the course of Indonesia's foreign policy, so far as Islamic issues are at stake. This paper attempts to delineate the "role", or more appropriately the position of Islam in Indonesia's foreign policy by taking into consideration several cases, involving Islam directly or indirectly.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v7i3.701

  18. Sudden death due to inhalant abuse in youth: Case report

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    Ramazan Akcan


    Full Text Available Intentional inhalation or abuse of volatile substances is a common public health problem all over the world. As these substances generate euphoria frequency of use among adolescents and young adults is increasing steadily. In cases using inhalants to achieve a euphoric state -without knowing possible consequences- sudden death may occurdue to acute cardio-pulmonary dysfunction.Here we present a case of sudden death of a nineteen-year-old female due to inhalation of volatile from butane containing lighter gas tube, with the findings of autopsy and death scene investigation.In the context of this case; it was aimed to draw attention to the risk of sudden death and steady increase of frequencyof volatile substance abuse among adolescents and young adults due to various psycho-social factors.

  19. The pastor as model for peaceful existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Cooke


    Full Text Available Many people are disillusioned in the democratic South Africa. That is because they went out from the assumption that with the dawn of democracy, violence would disappear. Unfortunately this did not happen. As with most things in life it is not an either � or, but a both � and scenario. In fact, violence is part of the democratic system. Real peace between men and powers can only be the peace of God, the peace which alone heals all disorder. The peace of the world is at best peaceful coexistence, not peace.In South Africa we have a negotiated agreement to peaceful coexistence, and sometimes, for example, after the miracle of the 1994 election and the euphoria of the World Cups of 1995, 2007 and 2010, we may even think we have achieved real peace. It is indeed in these times of euphoria that the people of South Africa may be tempted to lower our aim and settle for second best thinking that we have arrived.Model is used not in the sense of the pastor being an example of a peaceful existence to be followed. It is rather used in the sense that a pastor in his or her professional capacity has the knowledge of the meaning of the term �peaceful existence� and also the hermeneutic competency to apply that knowledge in concrete situations. This opens the exiting possibility that pastors can become travel companions on the road to real peace.The different aspects of being a pastor, office bearer, professional and person, each contribute to the pastor being a model for peace. It must be emphasised that the different aspects always work together as a unity and the strength of the pastor as a model for a peaceful existence is in the simultaneous application of these aspects in the context in which the pastor lives.

  20. For women, abortion can't be the whole story. (United States)

    Beck, J


    A columnist for a leading newspaper in the US addresses the euphoria present at the abortion rights march in Washington, D.C. on April 5, 1992. The intergenerational crowd had hoped to convince the Congress to pass the Freedom of Choice Act that is intended to replace the Roe v. Wade decision of the Supreme Court. The Act would prevent states from prohibiting abortion once Roe v. Wade is reversed by the Supreme Court. The bill is so controversial that it gives many legislators who may be impressed with the numbers and clout of the prochoice marchers yet oppose it an excuse to not support it. Besides many legislators do not want to vote for or against it in this election year, particularly since many constituents have not yet decided when abortion should be allowed and what restrictions should be placed on abortion. President Bush is expected to veto the bill and Congress probably does not have the votes to override the President's veto. The euphoria is misplaced. It is unfortunate that the leading goal of many women's groups since the early 1970s has been to assure women the right to kill unborn children. Men do not have to face this demeaning, uncomfortable, emotionally loaded surgery as a price for their sex lives. Women should not accept or demand this burden. They should demand more money for contraception research, free contraceptives for low income women, or changes in current laws that prevent pharmaceutical companies from developing more effective and reliable contraceptives. Women should put their energy into changing the present sexual climate which allows unwanted pregnancies to occur. They should insist on men assuming equal responsibility for sexual activity and its consequences. Demanding the right to kill unborn children is not equality and is not progress.

  1. Emotional well-being in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Findings from a patient, parent and physician perspective using items from the pediatric adverse event rating scale (PAERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmann Ralf W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this analysis was to measure changes in items on the Pediatric Adverse Event Rating Scale (PAERS that relate to emotional well-being of children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD during treatment with atomoxetine for up to 24 weeks from the perspective of the patient, the parent, and the physician. Methods Patients aged 6–17 years with ADHD were treated with atomoxetine (target dose 1.2 mg/kg/day. In the two studies on which this secondary analysis is based the PAERS was used to assess the tolerability of atomoxetine in children and adolescents. This scale has a total of 48 items. The ten items that reflect emotional well-being were selected to measure changes over time from a patient, parent, and physician perspective. Results 421 patients were treated with atomoxetine. 355 patients completed the 8-week treatment period, and 260 patients completed the 24-week treatment period. The ten items that reflect emotional well-being were grouped in five dimensions: depressed mood, self-harm, irritability/agitation, drowsiness, and euphoria. The scores of these dimensions decreased over time, both from a patient as well as from a parent and physician perspective. Only the dimension self-harm was extremely low at baseline and stayed low over time. The mean scores for the ten items depended on the rater perspective. Conclusion The emotional well-being of children and adolescents with ADHD improved in terms of depressed mood, irritability/agitation, drowsiness, and euphoria during treatment with atomoxetine for up to 24 weeks.

  2. It’s MORe exciting than mu: Crosstalk between mu opioid receptors and glutamatergic transmission in the mesolimbic dopamine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena H Chartoff


    Full Text Available Opioids selective for the G-protein coupled mu opioid receptor (MOR produce potent analgesia and euphoria. Heroin, a synthetic opioid, is considered one of the most addictive substances, and the recent exponential rise in opioid addiction and overdose deaths has made treatment development a national public health priority. Existing medications (methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone, when combined with psychosocial therapies, have proven efficacy in reducing aspects of opioid addiction. Unfortunately, these medications have critical limitations including those associated with opioid agonist therapies (e.g., sustained physiological dependence and opioid withdrawal leading to high relapse rates upon discontinuation, nonadherence to daily dosing, and non-renewal of monthly injection with extended-release naltrexone. Furthermore, current medications fail to ameliorate key aspects of addiction such as powerful conditioned associations that trigger relapse (e.g., cues, stress, the drug itself. Thus, there is a need for developing novel treatments that target neural processes corrupted with chronic opioid use. This requires a basic understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying effects of opioids on synaptic transmission and plasticity within reward-related neural circuits. The focus of this review is to discuss how crosstalk between MOR-associated G-protein signaling and glutamatergic neurotransmission leads to immediate and long-term effects on emotional states (e.g., euphoria, depression and motivated behavior (e.g., drug-seeking, relapse. Our goal is to integrate findings on how opioids modulate synaptic release of glutamate and postsynaptic transmission via AMPA and NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc and ventral tegmental area (VTA with the clinical (neurobehavioral progression of opioid dependence, as well as to identify gaps in knowledge that can be addressed in future studies.

  3. Addiction and Engagement: An Explorative Study Toward Classification Criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder. (United States)

    Lehenbauer-Baum, Mario; Klaps, Armin; Kovacovsky, Zuzana; Witzmann, Karolin; Zahlbruckner, Raphaela; Stetina, Birgit U


    The DSM-5 introduced Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition needing more research. Proposed criteria include tolerance, preoccupation, deceiving, or continued excess despite psychosocial problems. However, studies suggest differences between addicted and engaged players. Therefore, this study investigated differences between engagement and addiction in a German-speaking sample of expert World of Warcraft players. Using an online-based questionnaire, 682 participants were surveyed (Mage=23.26 years; 84.9% male) from German-speaking areas. An adapted version of the "Asheron's call" questionnaire (which covers six addiction criteria, including salience, euphoria, and tolerance), the WHOQOL-BREF, the Gaming Motivation Scale, the BDI, the SPIN, and a brief version of the personality questionnaire BFI-10 were used. The average gamer in the sample played on level 87.93 and had been playing for 5.42 years. Addicted players had higher scores on the BDI and SPIN and significantly lower scores in all dimensions of quality of life. Addicted gamers played for 39.25 hours per week (engaged players: 11.93 hours per week) with significantly higher scores in items tapping achievement and immersion. There were differences regarding the BFI-10 in terms of "agreeableness," "conscientiousness," and "neuroticism." The results suggest that factors such as achievement and immersion set engaged and addicted users apart. Addiction seems to be significantly more connected to other psychopathologies such as depression and social anxiety. The results suggest that euphoria, tolerance, and cognitive salience should be handled with caution when it comes to a classification of IGD similar to (behavioral) addiction.

  4. Relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies. (United States)

    Yoshida, Taku; Mori, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Sonobe, Naomi; Shimizu, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Teruhisa; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Ueno, Shu-ichi


    This aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms underlying the neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies by investigating regional cerebral blood flow. Participants were 27 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for probable dementia with Lewy bodies. All subjects underwent single-photon emission computed tomography scans using technetium-99 m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated by neuropsychiatric inventory. Multiple regression analyses using neuropsychiatric inventory and voxel-based analyses of covariance of the regional cerebral blood flow images between subjects with or without each neuropsychiatric symptom were performed. Additionally, similar voxel-based analyses of covariance between subjects with each neuropsychiatric symptom and normal subjects were performed. There were no significant correlations in any psychiatric symptoms in multiple regression analyses. All subjects had hallucination but none had euphoria. We analyzed eight neuropsychiatric symptom scores with the exception of hallucination and euphoria using voxel-based analyses of covariance. Significant differences of regional cerebral blood flow were shown in groups with agitation, disinhibition, and irritability. Subjects with agitation showed hypoperfusion in the parietal lobule, the precuneus, and the angular gyrus, and hyperperfusion in the fusiform gyrus, the lingual gyrus, and the thalamus. Subjects with disinhibition showed hypoperfusion in the left frontal gyrus. Subjects with irritability showed hyperperfusion in the right frontal gyrus. There were no significant differences in regional cerebral blood flow between subjects with any neuropsychiatric symptoms and normal subjects. This study reveals that dysfunction of specific brain regions is associated with various neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The effects of memantine on behavioral disturbances in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis

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    Kishi T


    Full Text Available Taro Kishi,* Shinji Matsunaga,* Nakao Iwata Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Memantine is effective in the treatment of behavioral disturbances in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. It has not yet been fully determined which behavioral disturbances respond best to memantine.Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of memantine vs control (placebo or usual care for the treatment of individual behavioral disturbances (delusion, hallucination, agitation/aggression, dysphoria, anxiety/phobia, euphoria, apathy, disinhibition, irritability/lability, aberrant motor activity/activity disturbances, nighttime disturbance/diurnal rhythm disturbances, and eating disturbances. Randomized controlled studies of memantine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease were included in this study. To evaluate these outcomes, standardized mean difference (SMD, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs, based upon a random-effects model was evaluated in the meta-analysis.Results: A total of 11 studies (n=4,261; memantine vs placebo: N=4, n=1,500; memantine + cholinesterase inhibitors [M + ChEIs] vs ChEIs: N=7, n=2,761 were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to control, memantine showed significant improvement in agitation/aggression (SMD =-0.11; 95% CIs =-0.20, -0.03; P=0.01; I2=47%, delusion (SMD =-0.12; 95% CIs =-0.18, -0.06; P=0.0002; I2=0%, disinhibition (SMD =-0.08; 95% CIs =-0.15, -0.00; P=0.04; I2=0%, and nighttime disturbance/diurnal rhythm disturbances (SMD =-0.10; 95% CIs =-0.18, -0.02; P=0.02; I2=36%. Memantine was also marginally superior to control in hallucination (SMD =-0.06; 95% CIs =-0.12, 0.01; P=0.07; I2=0% and irritability/lability (SMD =-0.09; 95% CIs =-0.19, 0.01; P=0.07; I2=42%. Memantine is similar to control in dysphoria, anxiety/phobia, euphoria, apathy, and eating disturbance.Conclusion: The meta-analysis suggest

  6. [Abuse of alcohol and benzodiazepine during substitution therapy in heroin addicts: a review of the literature]. (United States)

    Laqueille, X; Launay, C; Dervaux, A; Kanit, M


    In spite of its seriousness, dependence on alcohol and benzodiazepines during substitution treatment are poorly documented. Its frequency is nonetheless significant. According to studies, between one and two thirds of patients are affected. This consumption is under verbalized by patients and underestimated by carers. In one study, where the average diazepam doses were from 40 to 45 mg per day, 30% of the patients were taking 70 to 300 mg per day, two thirds having experimented with a fixed dose of 100mg. Benzodiazepines, especially diazepam and flunitrazepam, were studied versus placebo. Thus, 10 to 20mg of diazepam gave rise to euphoria, a sensation of being drugged, sedation and lessening of cognitive performance. The aim of this consumption is to potentiate the euphoria induced by opioids, a "boost" effect during the hour after taking it, or the calming of the outward signs of withdrawal. The most sought after molecules are the most sedative, those with pronounced plasmatic peaks, and the most accessible. In multidependant subjects, opioid dependence had been earlier in adolescence, with a number of therapeutic failures. They had been faced with repetitive rejection and separation during childhood, medicolegal and social problems. Somatization, depression, anxiety and psychotic disorders are frequent in this subgroup. Heavy drinkers under methadone treatment are highly vulnerable to cocaine. Their behaviour is at risk, with exchange of syringes; their survival rate is 10 years less than that of moderate consumers of alcohol. Most are single, with a previous prison, psychiatric or addictive cursus and they present significant psychological vulnerability. For some authors, benzodiazepines indicate a psychiatric comorbidity. Methadone significantly reduces the consumption of alcohol by nonalcoholic heroin addicts. Although alcohol is an enzymatic inductor of methadone catabolism, with bell-shaped methadone plasma curves over 24 hours, a substitution treatment is

  7. Development of a checklist of short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with ketamine use. (United States)

    Fan, Ni; Xu, Ke; Ning, Yuping; Wang, Daping; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Sun, Bin; Zhou, Chao; Deng, Xuefeng; Rosenheck, Robert; He, Hongbo


    Ketamine is an increasingly popular drug of abuse in China but there is currently no method for classifying the psychological effects of ketamine in individuals with ketamine dependence. Develop a scale that characterizes the acute and long-term psychological effects of ketamine use among persons with ketamine dependence. We developed a preliminary symptom checklist with 35 dichotomous ('yes' or 'no') items about subjective feelings immediately after ketamine use and about perceived long-term effects of ketamine use that was administered to 187 inpatients with ketamine dependence recruited from two large hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on a randomly selected half of thesample to reduce the items and to identify underlying constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the second half of the sample to assess the robustness of the identified factor structure. Among the 35 symptoms, the most-reported acute effects were 'floating or circling' (94%), 'euphoric when listening to rousing music' (86%), and 'feeling excited, talkative, and full of energy' (67%). The mostreported long-term symptoms were 'memory impairment' (93%), 'personality changes' (86%), and 'slowed reactions' (81%). EFA resulted in a final 22-item scale best modelled by a four-factor model: two factors representing chronic symptoms (social withdrawal and sleep disturbances), one about acute psychoticlike symptoms, and one that combined acute drug-related euphoria and longer-term decreased libido. CFA showed that these 4 factors accounted for 50% of the total variance of the final 22-item scale and that the model fit was fair (Goodness of Fit Index, GIF=83.3%; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, RMSEA=0.072). A four-factor model including social withdrawal, sleep disturbance, psychotic-like symptoms, and euphoria at the time of drug use provides a fair description of the short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with

  8. Factor structure of the Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire in a first-episode psychosis sample. (United States)

    Birnbaum, Michael L; Cleary, Sean D; Ramsay Wan, Claire; Pauselli, Luca; Compton, Michael T


    The Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) was developed to measure the subjective experiences of cannabis use both during and after intoxication. Despite the need to better understand the nature of the complex and significant relationship between cannabis use and early psychosis, this questionnaire has rarely been used in individuals with first-episode psychosis. We conducted a set of factor analyses using CEQ data from 194 first-episode psychosis patients who used cannabis in order to uncover the underlying factor structure of the questionnaire and thus the overarching types of psychological experiences during/after using cannabis in young people with psychotic disorders. Our exploratory factor analysis identified 4 subscales, including: Distortions of Reality and Self-Perception (Factor 1), Euphoria Effects (Factor 2), Slowing and Amotivational Effects (Factor 3), and Anxiety and Paranoia Effects (Factor 4). Elucidating the underlying factor structure of the CEQ in first-episode psychosis samples could help researchers move towards a deeper understanding of the types of experiences associated with cannabis intoxication among young adults with first-episode psychosis and could inform the development of programs designed to reduce use, improve the course of illness, and possibly delay or prevent the onset of psychotic symptoms in those at risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Role of voltage-gated sodium, potassium and calcium channels in the development of cocaine-associated cardiac arrhythmias (United States)

    O'Leary, Michael E; Hancox, Jules C


    Cocaine is a highly active stimulant that alters dopamine metabolism in the central nervous system resulting in a feeling of euphoria that with time can lead to addictive behaviours. Cocaine has numerous deleterious effects in humans including seizures, vasoconstriction, ischaemia, increased heart rate and blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. The cardiotoxic effects of cocaine are indirectly mediated by an increase in sympathomimetic stimulation to the heart and coronary vasculature and by a direct effect on the ion channels responsible for maintaining the electrical excitability of the heart. The direct and indirect effects of cocaine work in tandem to disrupt the co-ordinated electrical activity of the heart and have been associated with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. This review focuses on the direct effects of cocaine on cardiac ion channels, with particular focus on sodium, potassium and calcium channels, and on the contributions of these channels to cocaine-induced arrhythmias. Companion articles in this edition of the journal examine the epidemiology of cocaine use (Wood & Dargan [1]) and the treatment of cocaine-associated arrhythmias (Hoffmann [2]). PMID:20573078

  10. Are We Growing Psychotropics in Our Backyards?: A Case Report and Literature Review of Coleus blumei. (United States)

    Chopra, Nitin; Hays, Lon


    There have been very limited reports of the euphoria experienced under the influence of Coleus blumei--part of a large genus with similarities to various mints and herbs, naturally found in abundance and popular in home gardens. There have been reports of similar properties to Salvia divinorum, which contains the psychoactive neocleordane diterpene salvinorin-A. We present a case of a man in his twenties, with no significant known personal or family psychiatric history, presenting to an emergency room with a psychotic episode after the ingestion of C. blumei. He had chewed leaves of this plant, with the intention of obtaining a euphoric experience, as learned through social media posts. Comprehensive laboratory work-up drug screening and diagnostic imaging were negative. Vital signs were stable and physical examination was unremarkable. His mental status improved significantly after treatment with risperidone 2 mg twice daily, during a 5-day psychiatric hospitalization. This case draws attention to a potential psychotropic that warrants clinical consideration and further investigation.

  11. Psychological effects of thought acceleration. (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana; Wegner, Daniel M


    Six experiments found that manipulations that increase thought speed also yield positive affect. These experiments varied in both the methods used for accelerating thought (i.e., instructions to brainstorm freely, exposure to multiple ideas, encouragement to plagiarize others' ideas, performance of easy cognitive tasks, narration of a silent video in fast-forward, and experimentally controlled reading speed) and the contents of the thoughts that were induced (from thoughts about money-making schemes to thoughts of five-letter words). The results suggested that effects of thought speed on mood are partially rooted in the subjective experience of thought speed. The results also suggested that these effects can be attributed to the joy-enhancing effects of fast thinking (rather than only to the joy-killing effects of slow thinking). This work is inspired by observations of a link between "racing thoughts" and euphoria in cases of clinical mania, and potential implications of that observed link are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Impressions of a "Newcomer"

    CERN Multimedia

    Oreglia, M

    I guess I am passed "newcomer" status, so this report can be considered as paying in a debt from 2001 when world events prevented me from attending the Physics Workshop at Lund. At the outset I must compliment the Athens organizers for facilitating a superb workshop in a wonderful setting. The lovely evenings permitted us to recover from Fabiola's grueling meeting schedule :-) What really impressed me about the Athens workshop is the astounding progress in the last two years, particularly in the software. ATHENA is really a useful tool which all of us can implement now for realistic simulation and reconstruction. We are just starting to pass from the "euphoria" phase where our naive modelling suggested analyses would be easy, to the "realism" phase where we are making the analyses more robust. Detector noise is still an important missing ingredient, and some important analysis tools are still missing, but this was acknowledged and they do not appear to be far off. (It would be nice if the online documentati...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Masthura


    Full Text Available Pengertian Contempt Of Court adalah segala tindakan berbuat aktif atau tidak melakukan (fasif dilakuan oleh mereka yang berperkara atau pihak lain yang tidak terlibat yang cenderung mengganggu, mencampuri proses penyelenggaraan peradilan sehingga merendahkan martabat peradilan.Pengaturan mengenai tindak pidana terhadap peradilan Contempt Of Court di Indonesia dapat dilihat dari diundangkannya UU No 14 Tahun 1985 tentang Mahkamah Agung dan juga tersebar dalam beberapa pasal dalam KUHP. Fenomena dalam peradilan kita menunjukan Contempt Of Court terjadi hampir di setiap lembaga pengadilan. Kewibaan peradilan mengalami penurunan akibat perilaku tidak baik yang dilakukan oleh para pihak yang berperkara maupun juga dilakukan oleh aparat penegak hukum. Dalam penelitian ini akan mmengkaji pengaturan bentuk-bentuk Contempt Of Court di Indonesia, selanjutnya akan di teliti sebab-sebab terjadi Contempt Of Court di depan pengadilan dan bagaimana seharusnya penanggulan tindak pidana Contempt Of Court.Contempt Of Court terjadi di depan pengadilan disebabkan belum bekerjanya sistem hukum dengan  baik. Perilaku hukum dan budaya hukum yang dipengaruhi oleh sistem hukum yang diterapkan di Indonesia. Hukum modern di Indonesia diterima dan dijalankan sebagai suatu instansi baru yang yang didatangkan atau dipaksakan dari luar, yakni melalui kebijakan colonial Hindia Belanda. Aparat penegak hukum belum bekerja dengan baik untuk dapat menegakan hukum, terutama ketika sidang di pengadilan maka fungsi dan peran jaksa, advokat, dan hakim belum mencerminkan upaya  hukum yang maksimal. Budaya hukum masyarakat dalam euphoria reformasi menunjukan kurangnya penghargaan terhadap kewibawaan hukum. Hal ini diperparah dengan kekecewaan praktek pengadilan dan mafia peradilan.

  14. Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions

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    Débora González


    Full Text Available Background. 2C-B (Nexus is one of the most widespread novel psychoactive substances. There is limited information about its pharmacological properties, and few studies in humans concern its acute and chronic effects. 2C-B has been classified as a stimulant, hallucinogen, entactogen, and/or empathogen. Objectives. To evaluate the emotional, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of 2C-B. Methods. Twenty healthy recreational 2C-B users (12 women self-administered a 20 mg dose of 2C-B. Evaluations included emotional (IAPS, FERT, and speech, subjective (visual analog scales, ARCI, VESSPA, HRS, and POMS questionnaires, and cardiovascular effects (blood pressure and heart rate. Results. Positive subjective effects predominated with a reduction of anger under the influence of 2C-B. It did, however, increase reactivity to negative emotional stimuli and decrease the ability to recognize expressions of happiness. Augmented emotionality in speech could be appreciated by others. 2C-B induced euphoria and well-being, changes in perceptions, and slight hallucinogenic states. Mild sympathetic actions were observed. Conclusions. The specific profile that 2C-B exerts on emotions suggests its classification as an entactogen with psychedelic properties.

  15. A Note on Burg’s Modified Entropy in Statistical Mechanics

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    Amritansu Ray


    Full Text Available Burg’s entropy plays an important role in this age of information euphoria, particularly in understanding the emergent behavior of a complex system such as statistical mechanics. For discrete or continuous variable, maximization of Burg’s Entropy subject to its only natural and mean constraint always provide us a positive density function though the Entropy is always negative. On the other hand, Burg’s modified entropy is a better measure than the standard Burg’s entropy measure since this is always positive and there is no computational problem for small probabilistic values. Moreover, the maximum value of Burg’s modified entropy increases with the number of possible outcomes. In this paper, a premium has been put on the fact that if Burg’s modified entropy is used instead of conventional Burg’s entropy in a maximum entropy probability density (MEPD function, the result yields a better approximation of the probability distribution. An important lemma in basic algebra and a suitable example with tables and graphs in statistical mechanics have been given to illustrate the whole idea appropriately.

  16. “Chasing the High” – Experiences of Ethylphenidate as Described on International Internet Forums (United States)

    Soussan, Christophe; Kjellgren, Anette


    Ethylphenidate is a novel psychoactive substance with undocumented effects, risks, and motivation for use. In this study, we investigated the experience of ethylphenidate by analyzing self-reports published on Internet forums, which revealed seven overarching themes: (1) compulsive redosing and addiction; (2) impacts on the mental state; (3) bodily agitation; (4) increased sociableness; (5) administration; (6) diverse evaluations based on intention; and (7) safety and precaution. Ethylphenidate appeared as a potent psychostimulant with an imminent abuse potential. It was mainly used for recreational purposes. The effects included not only pleasurable stimulation, euphoria, and cognitive enhancement but also indecisiveness, anxiety, and cognitive fragmentation. The users reported an increase in body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure, but they also experienced profuse sweating and muscle tension. Ethylphenidate acted as a social lubricant, enhancing intimacy, communication, and social skills. Two opposing user mentalities were uncovered: (1) pleasure seeking and risk neglecting, and (2) safety-first orientation. This information could be of importance to legislators, public health personnel, and prevention strategists. PMID:25788832

  17. "Chasing the high" - experiences of ethylphenidate as described on international internet forums. (United States)

    Soussan, Christophe; Kjellgren, Anette


    Ethylphenidate is a novel psychoactive substance with undocumented effects, risks, and motivation for use. In this study, we investigated the experience of ethylphenidate by analyzing self-reports published on Internet forums, which revealed seven overarching themes: (1) compulsive redosing and addiction; (2) impacts on the mental state; (3) bodily agitation; (4) increased sociableness; (5) administration; (6) diverse evaluations based on intention; and (7) safety and precaution. Ethylphenidate appeared as a potent psychostimulant with an imminent abuse potential. It was mainly used for recreational purposes. The effects included not only pleasurable stimulation, euphoria, and cognitive enhancement but also indecisiveness, anxiety, and cognitive fragmentation. The users reported an increase in body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure, but they also experienced profuse sweating and muscle tension. Ethylphenidate acted as a social lubricant, enhancing intimacy, communication, and social skills. Two opposing user mentalities were uncovered: (1) pleasure seeking and risk neglecting, and (2) safety-first orientation. This information could be of importance to legislators, public health personnel, and prevention strategists.

  18. The agony of ecstasy: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and the kidney. (United States)

    Campbell, Garland A; Rosner, Mitchell H


    Ecstasy (MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is commonly used by college-aged individuals. Ecstasy leads to feelings of euphoria, emotional empathy, and increased energy. These effects come at a significant risk for complications. Ecstasy has been associated with acute kidney injury that is most commonly secondary to nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis but also has been reported in the setting of drug-induced liver failure and drug-induced vasculitis. More common, ecstasy has led to serious hyponatremia and hyponatremia-associated deaths. Hyponatremia in these cases is due to a "perfect storm" of ecstasy-induced effects on water balance. Ecstasy leads to secretion of arginine vasopressin as well as polydipsia as a result of its effects on the serotonergic nervous pathways. Compounding these effects are the ready availability of fluids and the recommendation to drink copiously at rave parties where ecstasy is used. The effects of ecstasy on the kidney as well as therapeutic measures for the treatment of ecstasy-induced hyponatremia are presented.

  19. Endorphins, Exercise, and Addictions: A Review of Exercise Dependence

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    Andrea Leuenberger


    Full Text Available Endorphins are endogenous opioids released from the pituitary gland that are believed to mediate analgesia, induce euphoria, and play a role in the reward system in the brain. It has been suggested that endorphins are responsible for creating the relaxed psychological state known as runners high. Studies examining the relationship between vigorous exercise and blood plasma endorphin levels have produced conflicting results. Some indicate a significant increase of endorphins during or after exercise while others do not. Inconsistent methods and experimental techniques have made it difficult to determine a relationship between exercise and endorphin elevations. Research has shown that opioidergic activity plays a role in addictions by mediating the development of reinforcing qualities of certain activities and substances. A newly-established condition known as exercise dependence defines exercise as an addiction, characterized by a compulsion to exercise excessively even when the consequences are harmful to an individuals health, family relationships, and personal wealth (Griffiths, 1997; Hausenblas and Downs, 2002; Loumidis and Wells, 1998. Various surveys and questionnaires have been validated for determining the level of an individuals dependence on and need for exercise. As researchers define a clear relationship between vigorous exercise and increased endorphin levels, causes of exercise dependence can be more concretely determined. Exercise dependence is not currently recognized by the DSM-IV, but its presence in certain human behaviors (similar to those of alcoholics and drug addicts indicate that it should be precisely defined.

  20. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users. (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria


    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  1. Animal models of nicotine exposure: relevance to second-hand smoking, electronic cigarette use and compulsive smoking

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    Ami eCohen


    Full Text Available Much evidence indicates that individuals use tobacco primarily to experience the psychopharmacological properties of nicotine and that a large proportion of smokers eventually become dependent on nicotine. In humans, nicotine acutely produces positive reinforcing effects, including mild euphoria, whereas a nicotine abstinence syndrome with both somatic and affective components is observed after chronic nicotine exposure. Animal models of nicotine self-administration and chronic exposure to nicotine have been critical in unveiling the neurobiological substrates that mediate the acute reinforcing effects of nicotine and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence. However, important aspects of the transition from nicotine abuse to nicotine dependence, such as the emergence of increased motivation and compulsive nicotine intake following repeated exposure to the drug, have only recently begun to be modeled in animals. Thus, the neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in these important aspects of nicotine addiction remain largely unknown. In this review, we describe the different animal models available to date and discuss recent advances in animal models of nicotine exposure and nicotine dependence. This review demonstrates that novel animal models of nicotine vapor exposure and escalation of nicotine intake provide a unique opportunity to investigate the neurobiological effects of second-hand nicotine exposure, electronic cigarette use and the mechanisms that underlie the transition from nicotine use to compulsive nicotine intake.

  2. The Polluter Pay Principle and the damage done: controversies for sustainable development

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    Emaculate INGWANI


    Full Text Available In search for equity at the Rio summit, it was suggested that in case of pollution or any other environmentally negative effect, the costs are inflicted on the responsible agents to pay for the rectification. The Polluter Pay Principle (PPP has since then been touted as a useful environmental management tool that makes provisions for innovative penalties seeking to place the burden of environmental pollution control on those that abuse the environment. Despite such euphoria, the results on the ground have been appalling. In this analysis we question the practical utility of the PPP viz avis the deteriorating environmental fabric of many nations. The analysis reveals that it is cheaper for many individuals, organizations or even countries to pollute the environment and pay a fine than to install systems that require the constant monitoring of the environment. Emphasis of the PPP is misplaced as it focuses on curing damages and not on the process that brings the environmental problems to a halt. Its implementation is further constrained by the difficulty associated with placing a price tag on environment parameters. We recommend a proactive alternative to PPP that emphasize on preventative measures through environmental education. The success of such a management strategy is however not spontaneous as it needs to be rooted upon an effective system of values, institutions, attitudes, personal commitment, self confidence and active participation of all individuals in managing and detecting environmental problems that affect them.

  3. Anatomically distinct dopamine release during anticipation and experience of peak emotion to music. (United States)

    Salimpoor, Valorie N; Benovoy, Mitchel; Larcher, Kevin; Dagher, Alain; Zatorre, Robert J


    Music, an abstract stimulus, can arouse feelings of euphoria and craving, similar to tangible rewards that involve the striatal dopaminergic system. Using the neurochemical specificity of [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography scanning, combined with psychophysiological measures of autonomic nervous system activity, we found endogenous dopamine release in the striatum at peak emotional arousal during music listening. To examine the time course of dopamine release, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging with the same stimuli and listeners, and found a functional dissociation: the caudate was more involved during the anticipation and the nucleus accumbens was more involved during the experience of peak emotional responses to music. These results indicate that intense pleasure in response to music can lead to dopamine release in the striatal system. Notably, the anticipation of an abstract reward can result in dopamine release in an anatomical pathway distinct from that associated with the peak pleasure itself. Our results help to explain why music is of such high value across all human societies.

  4. Amphetamine alters neural response to sucrose in healthy women. (United States)

    Melrose, A James; Bailer, Ursula; Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H


    Amphetamine, likely via action on the brain's dopaminergic systems, induces anorectic eating behavior and blunts dopaminergic midbrain activation to rewards. Past work has hypothesized that this blunted reward responsivity is a result of increasing tonic over phasic DA activity. We sought to extend past findings to sweet taste during fMRI following single-blind administration of dextroamphetamine and placebo in 11 healthy women. We hypothesized that neural response in both limbic and cognitive sweet taste circuits would mirror past work with monetary rewards by effectively blunting sweet taste reward, and 'equalizing' it's rewarding taste with receipt of water. Behavioral results showed that amphetamine reduced self-reported hunger (supporting the existence of amphetamine anorexia) and increased self-report euphoria. In addition, region of Interest analysis revealed significant treatment by taste interactions in the middle insula and dorsal anterior cingulate confirming the 'equalizing' hypothesis in the cingulate, but unlike monetary reinforcers, the insula actually evinced enhanced separation between tastes on the amphetamine day. These results suggest a divergence from prior research using monetary reinforcers when extended to primary reinforcers, and may hint that altering dopaminergic signaling in the insula and anterior cingulate may be a target for pharmacological manipulation of appetite, and the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of d-amphetamine on extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled PET study with [{sup 11}C]FLB 457 in healthy subjects

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    Aalto, Sargo [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Hirvonen, Jussi; Kajander, Jaana; Naagren, Kjell; Rinne, Juha O. [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Kaasinen, Valtteri [University of Turku, Department of Neurology, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Hagelberg, Nora [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Care and Pain Medicine, Turku (Finland); Seppaelae, Timo [Drug Research Unit, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Scheinin, Harry [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics, Turku (Finland); Hietala, Jarmo [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychiatry, Turku (Finland)


    The dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor ligand [{sup 11}C]FLB 457 and PET enable quantification of low-density extrastriatal D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors, but it is uncertain whether [{sup 11}C]FLB 457 can be used for measuring extrastriatal dopamine release. We studied the effects of d-amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) on extrastriatal [{sup 11}C]FLB 457 binding potential (BP{sub ND}) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 24 healthy volunteers. The effects of d-amphetamine on [{sup 11}C]FLB 457 BP{sub ND} and distribution volume (V{sub T}) in the frontal cortex were not different from those of placebo. Small decreases in [{sup 11}C]FLB 457 BP{sub ND} were observed only in the posterior cingulate and hippocampus. The regional changes in [{sup 11}C]FLB 457 BP{sub ND} did not correlate with d-amphetamine-induced changes in subjective ratings of euphoria. This placebo-controlled study showed that d-amphetamine does not induce marked changes in measures of extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding. Our results indicate that [{sup 11}C]FLB 457 PET is not a useful method for measuring extrastriatal dopamine release in humans. (orig.)

  6. The prevalence and the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia

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    Sverre Bergh


    Full Text Available Dementia is prevalent in Norway and other countries and is hallmarked by a decline in memory and other cognitive abilities. In addition to cognitive decline, the vast majority of patients with dementia experience neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS such as depression, agitation, psychosis, apathy, or irritability. In this review, we describe the prevalence and the course of NPS in patients with dementia, referring to results of population-based studies, studies of outpatients, and studies of patients in long-term care. For a better comparison of the included studies and for clarification, we have included studies that have assessed NPS with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Overall, we found a high prevalence rate of NPS. At least one NPS (NPI > 0 was present in 56% to 98% of the patients and 62% to 84% of the patients had at least one clinically significant NPS (NPI > 3. The NPS with the highest prevalence rate were apathy, irritability, agitation, depression and anxiety; while delusion, hallucination, disinhibition, aberrant motor behavior and euphoria were the least frequent NPS.

  7. Patterns of Use, Acute Subjective Experiences, and Motivations for Using Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") in Recreational Users. (United States)

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bonadio, Francis A; Baik, Kyoung Deok; Bradbury, Stacey L; Carhart, Victoria L; Cross, Nicole A; Davis, Alan K; Feuille, Margaret; Harper, Anna R; Lackey, Jennifer H; Lang, Brent; Lauritsen, Kirstin J; Leith, Jaclyn; Osborn, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Harold; Stock, Jacob; Zaturenskaya, Mariya


    Given the variety and potential toxicity of synthetic cathinones, clinicians and educators would benefit from information about patterns of and motivations for use, frequency of psychosocial consequences, and experience of acute subjective effects. We administered a comprehensive, web-based survey to 104 recreational users of synthetic cathinones. Sixty percent of respondents consumed synthetic cathinones once or more per month, usually snorting or swallowing these drugs, typically at home, usually with others, customarily during the evening and nighttime hours, and often in combination with another drug such as alcohol or marijuana. Acute subjective effects attributed to synthetic cathinones were similar to those of other psychostimulants, including increased energy, rapid heartbeat, racing thoughts, difficulty sleeping, euphoria, decreased appetite, open-mindedness, and increased sex drive. Reported reasons for using synthetic cathinones included its stimulating effects, curiosity, substitution for another drug, and being at a party/music event. Respondents had experienced an average of six negative consequences of using synthetic cathinones during the previous year (e.g., tolerance, neglecting responsibilities, personality change). In combination with previously published investigations, these findings increase our understanding of the reported rationales and outcomes of recreational use of synthetic cathinones.

  8. Changing trends in the use of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Corazza, Ornella; Santacroce, Rita; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres


    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa. Korth) is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. This review paper aims to describe the trends of kratom use in Southeast Asia. A literature review search was conducted through ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProMed and Google Scholar. Twenty-five articles illustrating kratom use in humans in Southeast Asia were reviewed. Kratom has long been used by rural populations in Southeast Asia as a remedy for common ailments, to fight fatigue from hard manual work, as a drink during social interaction among men, and in village religious functions. Studies based on self-reports suggest that prolonged kratom use does not result in serious health risks or impair social functioning. Two recent trends have also emerged: (a) Kratom is reportedly being used to ease withdrawal from opioid dependence in rural settings; whereas (b) in urban areas, adulterated kratom cocktails are being consumed by younger people to induce euphoria. Legal sanctions appear to have preceded serious scientific investigations into the claimed benefits of ketum. More objective-controlled trials and experiments on humans need to be conducted to validate self-report claims by kratom users in the community. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Walker, D J; Zacny, J P


    Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) was studied across five sessions. Twelve volunteers with no history of drug dependence sampled 30% N(2)O and 100% oxygen for 10 min each, then chose nine times, once every 5 min, among N(2)O (e.g. "Agent A"), oxygen (e.g. "Agent B"), or "drug-free air." Choice varied across subjects but was stable within subjects. Quantitative differences in subjective effects occurred within and across subjects. Some subjective effects were correlated with choice and/or differed between subjects who were consistent choosers of N(2)O versus those who were not. However, drug liking and euphoria, two face-valid measures of abuse liability, were unrelated to choice. Thus, the present study found individual differences (i.e. between-subject variability) in subjective and reinforcing effects of N(2)O and, in terms of within-subject variability, suggested that subjective effects fluctuate across sessions to a relatively greater extent than do reinforcing effects. The varying degrees of correlation between N(2)O choice and its subjective effects emphasize the need for obtaining multiple measures when characterizing abuse liability of this drug.

  10. Pain in the management of opioid use disorder

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    Sirohi S


    Full Text Available Sunil Sirohi,1 Amit K Tiwari21Laboratory of Endocrine and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA, 2Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USAOpioids remain the drug of choice for the clinical management of moderate to severe pain. However, in addition to their most effective analgesic actions, opioids also produce a sense of well-being and euphoria, which may trigger significant concerns associated with their use.1 In fact, there has been an alarming increase in prescription opioid use, abuse and illicit use; and according to the National Center for Health Statistics, the total number of deaths related to opioid overdose has more than tripled from 2011 to 2014.2–5 Although representing 5.0 % of the global population, studies report that Americans consume 80% of the global opioid supply,3 and the United States is experiencing an opioid abuse epidemic.6 Considering this unprecedented rise in opioid consumption, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has listed prescription opioid overdose among one of the 10 most important public health problems in all the 50 states.7

  11. Confidence in Airline Performance in Difficult Market Conditions: An Analysis of JetBlue's Financial Market Results (United States)

    Flouris, Triant; Walker, Thomas


    This paper examines the stock market s reaction to JetBlue s Initial Public Offering (1PO) and subsequent price movements of the stock. In particular, w e examine whether the euphoria surrounding JetBlue s IPO carried over to other firms in the sector by testing whether the shares of JetBlue s competitors showed a significant price reaction to JetBlue s IPO. JetBlue's IPO took place just a few months following September 11, 2001. These events resulted in dramatic changes in the airline industry and had significant implications on the economic gains of airlines. We examine JetBlue s accounting and stock performance and compare it to the relative performance of Southwest Airlines (SWA), a representative of the loa-cost carrier group. In addition, we compare both JetBlue's and SWA's financial condition and the relative performance of their stock to two mainline U S. carriers, Continental and Northwest. representatives of the conventional-cost carrier group. We analyze whether there are any performance differences among the low-cost carriers and between low-cost carriers and conventional-cost carriers. In particular, we examine whether low-cost carriers were able to sustain the economic impacts of 9/11 better than the conventional-cost carriers.

  12. Resident Perceptions of the 2006 Torino Olympic Games, 2002-2007.

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    Full Text Available Previous Olympic Games research has been primarily on economic impacts, tourists, and destination image with most being one-off assessments of the Summer Games. Other than Ritchie's landmark study of the Calgary Winter Olympic Games, relatively few research studies on the Winter Olympic Games have been published, and fewer still concerning resident attitudes throughout the full lifecycle of the event, from bidding, preparation, operation, and legacy stages. Residents are in a unique position to evaluate an event's legacy as taxpayers, daily consumers of infrastructure, and as possible leisure consumers of Olympic sport venues. The purpose of this study was to examine Torino residents' perceptions of their city as host of the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games from 2002-2007. Results from telephone interviews with Torino residents (n = 900 interviews per year; N = 5,400 are presented to reflect the attitudes of the population toward the 2006 Winter Olympic Games over time. Residents experienced a "rollercoaster" of emotions during the event lifecycle ranging from euphoria once the Games were awarded, to concern over escalating production costs, irritation with inconveniences due to construction, and ultimately pride immediately following the Games. Implications of study findings for event and destination managers are discussed.

  13. Digital Revolution and Innovative Business Models in Healthcare: Global Trends and Russian Realities. (United States)

    Bereznoy, A V; Saygitov, R T

    Digital revolution is one of the major global trends resulting in the unprecedented scale and depth of penetration of information and communication technologies into all sectors of national economy, including healthcare. The development of this trend brought about high expectations related to the improvement of quality of medical assistance, accessibility and economic efficiency of healthcare services. However, euphoria of the first steps of digital revolution is passing now, opening doors to more realistic analysis of opportunities and conditions of realization of the true potential hidden in the digital transformation of healthcare. More balanced perception of the peculiarities of innovation processes in the sector is coming together with understanding of the serious barriers, hampering implementation of the new ideas and practices due to complicated interweaving of social, economic, ethical and psychological factors. When taking into account the industry specifics it becomes evident that digital revolution cannot be a quick turnaround but rather would pass a number of phases and is likely to last more than one decade. In this context the article focuses on the prospects of the new business models, capable of making significant changes in today’s economic landscape of the sector (including uber-medicine, retail clinics, retainer medicine, network models of medical services). The authors also provide assessment of the current situation and perspectives of digital healthcare development in Russia.

  14. Workshop on Control Theory Applied to Renewable Resource Management and Ecology

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    Skowronski, Janislaw


    As society becomes stressed by economic and population pressures, in turn, nature's renewable resources become stressed by harvesting pressures. For our own survival and euphoria, it is paramount that such resources remain as their name implies and not be driven to extinction through short term programs of over exploitation. Consideration of the harvesting of renewable resources leads to a simple question that was the theme of the workshop and is the focus of these proceedings: SUPPoRe you are assigned the role of manager for a specific renewable resource eco­ system. How would you decide on harvesting policies so that the system can be exploited economically yet at the same time maintain the integrity of the system? This, of course, is a loaded question. First of all, it is not clear that there is ever anyone single decision maker who is able to set the rules for all of the harvesters in an exploited ecosystem. The political process is complicated and to some extent unpredictable. This aspect of the questio...

  15. Bipolar Disorder and Heart Transplantation: A Case Report. (United States)

    Ramírez-Giraldo, Ana María; Restrepo, Diana

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurrent mood disease that includes symptoms that fluctuate from euphoria to depression. As a mood disorder, itis one of the main contraindications for transplantation procedures. The case is presented of a patient with bipolar disorder who had a heart transplant after a cardiac arrest. Heart transplantation is the treatment of choice in patients with heart failure and arrhythmias that do not respond to conventional treatment. Case report and narrative review of literature. A 34-year-old woman with bipolar disorder diagnosed when she was 13, treated with lithium and aripiprazole. She required a heart transplant as the only therapeutic option, after presenting with ventricular tachycardia refractory to conventional treatment. The patient did not suffer an emotional decompensation with the removal of the lithium and aripiprazole that were associated with prolonged QTc interval, and remained eurhythmic throughout the process. Heart transplantation can be performed safely and successfully in patients with bipolar disorder, when suitably followed-up by a liaison psychiatry group. Bipolar disorder should not be considered as an absolute contraindication for heart transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease are related to functional connectivity alterations in the salience network. (United States)

    Balthazar, Marcio L F; Pereira, Fabrício R S; Lopes, Tátila M; da Silva, Elvis L; Coan, Ana Carolina; Campos, Brunno M; Duncan, Niall W; Stella, Florindo; Northoff, Georg; Damasceno, Benito P; Cendes, Fernando


    Neuropsychiatric syndromes are highly prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their neurobiology is not completely understood. New methods in functional magnetic resonance imaging, such as intrinsic functional connectivity or "resting-state" analysis, may help to clarify this issue. Using such approaches, alterations in the default-mode and salience networks (SNs) have been described in Alzheimer's, although their relationship with specific symptoms remains unclear. We therefore carried out resting-state functional connectivity analysis with 20 patients with mild to moderate AD, and correlated their scores on neuropsychiatric inventory syndromes (apathy, hyperactivity, affective syndrome, and psychosis) with maps of connectivity in the default mode network and SN. In addition, we compared network connectivity in these patients with that in 17 healthy elderly control subjects. All analyses were controlled for gray matter density and other potential confounds. Alzheimer's patients showed increased functional connectivity within the SN compared with controls (right anterior cingulate cortex and left medial frontal gyrus), along with reduced functional connectivity in the default-mode network (bilateral precuneus). A correlation between increased connectivity in anterior cingulate cortex and right insula areas of the SN and hyperactivity syndrome (agitation, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, euphoria, and disinhibition) was found. These findings demonstrate an association between specific network changes in AD and particular neuropsychiatric symptom types. This underlines the potential clinical significance of resting state alterations in future diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


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    Full Text Available The main problematic that caused the crisis of character in children is not making belief as basic philosophical in education. So, the implication of this is freedom of excessive euphoria. The success of the child based only from the perspective of the child's success in academic course. While the values of ethics, morals, and character less getting serious attention. Therefore, even though the students excel in intelligence quotient (IQ, but in emotional quotient (EQ they are in crisis of becoming alarming character. In this context, the existence of children's character education is considered very important for the next generation as an integral part of their life and living. The purpose of this study was to determine the thinking of Ibnu Qayyim al-Jawziyya about the concept of character education of children. The method of writing this research use library research (library research, the research done by collecting data and information by reading, studying and then analyze literatures relating to the theme, both primary (primary sources and secondary (secondary sources. Then analyzed using content analysis method (content analysis in the form of descriptive-Analytic. The results of the research in this dissertation shows that the concept of character education of children according to Ibnu Qayyim al-Jawziyya emphasis on the four major ways : 1. The importance of introducing kids about the monotheistic God, 2. The need to teach children the principal teachings of religion, 3. Teach and familiarize children on good ethics and morals, 4. Modeling, 5. Praise and meaningful punishment.

  18. Information draft on the development of air standards for ethyl ether

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    Ethyl ether is a clear, volatile liquid with a sweet, pungent odour. It is used as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids and gums. It is an easily removable extractant of hormones from animal and plant tissues. Therapeutically, it is used as an inhalation anesthetic and antispasmodic. Ethyl ether can be absorbed via inhalation or ingestion. From the blood it passes quickly into the brain. It is partly metabolized to carbon dioxide and to urinary metabolites, but over 90 per cent is excreted unchanged through exhaled air. Inhalation may cause dizziness, giddiness, euphoria, skin, eye and mucous membrane irritation, and rarely death, due to respiratory failure. Release into the environment is usually from its industrial application. Ethyl ether is not a candidate substance in the National Pollutant Release Inventory for the reporting of environmental releases. No data in ambient air concentrations was found for Ontario or Canada. This report discusses the scientific and technical evidence relevant to the setting of a revised air standard for ethyl ether. The available evidence has been gathered from world-wide sources. Only three of the agencies reviewed have derived ambient air quality criteria. These were based on the occupational exposure limit of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Odour thresholds have been found to be in the range of 700 to 3,000 microgram/cubic meter, which may provide an appropriate effect to consider for developing air quality limits for Ontario. 42 refs., 1 tab., appendix

  19. The development and maintenance of drug addiction. (United States)

    Wise, Roy A; Koob, George F


    What is the defining property of addiction? We dust off a several-decades-long debate about the relative importance of two forms of reinforcement—positive reinforcement, subjectively linked to drug-induced euphoria, and negative reinforcement, subjectively linked to the alleviation of pain—both of which figure importantly in addiction theory; each of these forms has dominated addiction theory in its time. We agree that addiction begins with the formation of habits through positive reinforcement and that drug-opposite physiological responses often establish the conditions for negative reinforcement to come into play at a time when tolerance, in the form of increasing reward thresholds, appears to develop into positive reinforcement. Wise’s work has tended to focus on positive-reinforcement mechanisms that are important for establishing drug-seeking habits and reinstating them quickly after periods of abstinence, whereas Koob’s work has tended to focus on the negative-reinforcement mechanisms that become most obvious in the late stages of sustained addiction. While we tend to agree with each other about the early and late stages of addiction, we hold different views as to (i) the point between early and late at which the diagnosis of ‘addiction’ should be invoked, (ii) the relative importance of positive and negative reinforcement leading up to this transition, and (iii) the degree to which the specifics of negative reinforcement can be generalized across the range of addictive agents.

  20. Test-retest reliability of the underlying latent factor structure of alcohol subjective response. (United States)

    Lutz, Joseph A; Childs, Emma


    Alcohol subjective experiences are multi-dimensional and demonstrate wide inter-individual variability. Recent efforts have sought to establish a clearer understanding of subjective alcohol responses by identifying core constructs derived from multiple measurement instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal stability of this approach to conceptualizing alcohol subjective experiences across successive alcohol administrations in the same individuals. Healthy moderate alcohol drinkers (n = 104) completed six experimental sessions each, three with alcohol (0.8 g/kg), and three with a non-alcoholic control beverage. Participants reported subjective mood and drug effects using standardized questionnaires before and at repeated times after beverage consumption. We explored the underlying latent structure of subjective responses for all alcohol administrations using exploratory factor analysis and then tested measurement invariance over the three successive administrations using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Exploratory factor analyses on responses to alcohol across all administrations yielded four factors representing "Positive mood," "Sedation," "Stimulation/Euphoria," and "Drug effects and Urges." A confirmatory factor analysis on the separate administrations indicated acceptable configural and metric invariance and moderate scalar invariance. In this study, we demonstrate temporal stability of the underlying constructs of subjective alcohol responses derived from factor analysis. These findings strengthen the utility of this approach to conceptualizing subjective alcohol responses especially for use in prospective and longitudinal alcohol challenge studies relating subjective response to alcohol use disorder risk.

  1. Reduction in cerebral perfusion after heroin administration: a resting state arterial spin labeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklaus Denier

    Full Text Available Heroin dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, characterized by the compulsion to seek and use heroin. Heroin itself has a strong potential to produce subjective experiences characterized by intense euphoria, relaxation and release from craving. The neurofunctional foundations of these perceived effects are not well known. In this study, we have used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI in 15 heroin-dependent patients from a stable heroin-assisted treatment program to observe the steady state effects of heroin (60 min after administration. Patients were scanned in a cross-over and placebo controlled design. They received an injection of their regular dose of heroin or saline (placebo before or after the scan. As phMRI method, we used a pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL sequence based on a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR spin labeling scheme combined with a single-shot 3D GRASE (gradient-spin echo readout on a 3 Tesla scanner. Analysis was performed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 8, using a general linear model for whole brain comparison between the heroin and placebo conditions. We found that compared to placebo, heroin was associated with reduced perfusion in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and in the insula (both hemispheres. Analysis of extracted perfusion values indicate strong effect sizes and no gender related differences. Reduced perfusion in these brain areas may indicate self- and emotional regulation effects of heroin in maintenance treatment.

  2. The Effect of the Association between Donepezil and Choline Alphoscerate on Behavioral Disturbances in Alzheimer's Disease: Interim Results of the ASCOMALVA Trial. (United States)

    Carotenuto, Anna; Rea, Raffaele; Traini, Enea; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria; Ricci, Giovanna; Manzo, Valentino; Amenta, Francesco


    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a group of psychological reactions, psychiatric symptoms, and behaviors commonly found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four clusters of BPSD have been described: mood disorders (depression, anxiety, and apathy), psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations), aberrant motor behaviors (pacing, wandering, and other purposeless behaviors), and inappropriate behaviors (agitation, disinhibition, and euphoria). Most of them are attributed to acetylcholine deficiency. To evaluate if a higher amount of acetylcholine obtained by associating donepezil and choline alphoscerate might have a favorable effect on BPSD. BPSD were measured at baseline and after 24 months in 113 mild/moderate AD patients, included in the double-blind randomized trial ASCOMALVA, by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Two matched groups were compared: group A treated with donepezil (10 mg/day) plus choline alphoscerate (1200 mg/day), and group B treated with donepezil (10 mg/day) plus placebo. Data of NPI revealed a significant decrease of BPSD severity and distress of the caregiver in patients of group A compared with group B. Mood disorders (depression, anxiety and apathy) were significantly decreased in subjects treated with donepezil and choline alphoscerate, while their severity and frequency was increased in the other group. Patients treated with donepezil plus choline alphoscerate showed a lower level of behavioral disturbances than subjects treated with donepezil only, suggesting that the association can have beneficial effects.

  3. A study investigating the association between compulsive buying with measures of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive behavior among internet shoppers. (United States)

    Weinstein, A; Mezig, Hila; Mizrachi, S; Lejoyeux, M


    Compulsive buying is a chronic, repetitive behavior that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings. Compulsive buyers are obsessed by buying and their behavior occurs in response to negative emotions and results in a decrease in the intensity of negative emotions. Euphoria or relief from negative emotions is the most common consequence of compulsive buying. A large number of studies have investigated the association between compulsive buying and anxiety, and some studies have used the Spielberger trait-state anxiety inventory. Compulsive buying, state and trait anxiety and general obsessive-compulsive measures were assessed among 120 habitual internet shoppers (2+ times a week, 70 men and 50 women). Results showed that Edwards Compulsive Buying scale measures were associated with Spielberger trait and not state anxiety measures. Spielberger Trait anxiety measures were also correlated with measures of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale (Y-Bocs). Finally, there were no sex differences in this sample. The results of this study support existing evidence for an association between compulsive buying and anxiety and they will be discussed in view of current research on comorbidity of behavioural addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of tetra hydro cannabinol to the dendritc tree and synapses of the accumbens nucleus of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević I.


    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely used intoxicants; almost half of all 18 year olds in the USA and in most European countries admit to having tried it at least once, and ~10% of that age group are regular users. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, produces euphoria and relaxation and impairs motor coordination, time sense, and short term memory. In the hippocampus, CBs inhibit GABA release from a subset of interneurons and inhibit glutamate release from principal neurons. Cannabinoids are reported to produce both rapid and long-term changes in synaptic transmission. Our study was carried out on ten male rats out of which brains of six of them were used as the representative sample for electron microscope analysis, while 4 were used for light microspcopy performed by Golgi method. Three were exposed to THC and 3 were controls. Axodendric synapses in the core and shell of the accumbens nucleus (AN were studied under electron microscope. The results have shown widening of the synaptic cleft in the shell of AN. This result is a leading point to our further investigations which are going to involve a behavioral component, and different aspects of morphological studies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41020

  5. Acute toluene intoxication--clinical presentation, management and prognosis: a prospective observational study. (United States)

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos Rodrigo; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; González-González, José Gerardo


    Toluene is one of the most widely abused inhaled drugs due to its acute neurologic effects including euphoria and subsequent depression. However, dangerous metabolic abnormalities are associated to acute toluene intoxication. It has been previously reported that rhabdomyolysis and acute hepatorenal injury could be hallmarks of the condition, and could constitute risk factors for poor outcomes. The objective was to describe the clinical presentation, to characterize the renal and liver abnormalities, the management and prognosis associated to acute toluene intoxication. We prospectively assessed 20 patients that were admitted to a single center's emergency department from September 2012 to June 2014 with clinical and metabolic alterations due to acute toluene intoxication. The main clinical presentation consisted of weakness associated to severe hypokalemia and acidosis. Renal glomerular injury (proteinuria) is ubiquitous. Biliary tract injury (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase elevations) disproportional to hepatocellular injury is common. Rhabdomyolysis occurred in 80% of patients, probably due to hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia. There were three deaths, all female, and all associated with altered mental status, severe acidosis, hypokalemia and acute oliguric renal failure. The cause of death was in all cases due to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. The hallmarks of acute toluene intoxication are hypokalemic paralysis and metabolic acidosis. Liver injury and rhabdomyolysis are common. On admission, altered mental status, renal failure, severe acidemia and female gender (not significant in our study, but present in all three deaths) could be associated with a poor outcome, and patients with these characteristics should be considered to be treated in an intensive care unit.

  6. Age-dependent time courses of recovery for motor functions following acute toluene intoxication in rats. (United States)

    Samuel-Herter, Susan R; Slaght, Shelby L; McKay, Bruce E


    Toluene is a psychoactive chemical found in many household products including adhesives and thinners. Inhalation of these vapors can cause euphoria and impairments in motor control and neurological functioning. Misuse and abuse of toluene is most common in children, which may in part be due to an age-dependent neurobehavioral sensitivity to toluene. Here we assessed the effects of acute binge-like toluene inhalations (15 or 30 min; ∼5,000 ppm) on tasks that examine locomotion, exploration, balance, gait, and neurological functioning for adolescent (1 month), young adult (2-3 months), adult (5-6 months), and older adult (10-12 months) rats. Both motor and neurological functions were impaired following acute toluene inhalation at all ages. However, only the duration to recover from deficits in motor functions differed among age groups, with adolescent and young adult rats requiring notably longer recovery times than older rats. Our results are suggestive of an age-dependent vulnerability to the intoxicating effects of toluene. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The representation of epilepsy in popular music. (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie


    Much can be learned about the contemporary stereotypes associated with epilepsy by studying the representation of the disorder in paintings, literature, and movies. Popular music is arguably the most accessible and ubiquitous of the creative art forms, touching most of us on a daily basis. Reviewed here are the ways in which epilepsy and seizures are used in the lyrics of musicians from a wide variety of musical genres, from hip-hop to rhythm and blues. Many of the ancient associations of epilepsy with madness, horror, and lunacy can be found in these lyrics. However, the language of epilepsy has also been appropriated by some musical artists to represent a state of sexual ecstasy and dance euphoria. The references to these states as "epilepsy" or a "seizure" in numerous songs suggest that this shorthand is widely recognized within some subcultures. Although epilepsy has frequently been associated with female sexual availability in other creative art forms, this novel use of the language of epilepsy represents a contemporary departure in the artistic application of epilepsy-related images and associations in the 21st century.

  8. Illnesses and deaths among persons attending an electronic dance-music festival - New York City, 2013. (United States)

    Ridpath, Alison; Driver, Cynthia R; Nolan, Michelle L; Karpati, Adam; Kass, Daniel; Paone, Denise; Jakubowski, Andrea; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S; Kunins, Hillary V


    Outdoor electronic dance-music festivals (EDMFs) are typically summer events where attendees can dance for hours in hot temperatures. EDMFs have received increased media attention because of their growing popularity and reports of illness among attendees associated with recreational drug use. MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is one of the drugs often used at EDMFs. MDMA causes euphoria and mental stimulation but also can cause serious adverse effects, including hyperthermia, seizures, hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, and multiorgan failure. In this report, MDMA and other synthetic drugs commonly used at dance festivals are referred to as "synthetic club drugs." On September 1, 2013, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of two deaths of attendees at an EDMF (festival A) held August 31-September 1 in NYC. DOHMH conducted an investigation to identify and characterize adverse events resulting in emergency department (ED) visits among festival A attendees and to determine what drugs were associated with these adverse events. The investigation identified 22 cases of adverse events; nine cases were severe, including two deaths. Twenty-one (95%) of the 22 patients had used drugs or alcohol. Of 17 patients with toxicology testing, MDMA and other compounds were identified, most frequently methylone, in 11 patients. Public health messages and strategies regarding adverse health events might reduce illnesses and deaths at EDMFs.

  9. [Operative differential therapy of rheumatic wrists]. (United States)

    Dinges, H; Fürst, M; Rüther, H; Schill, S


    The wrists are affected in the long-term in 90% of people with rheumatism and are often (42%) the first manifestation of a destructive disease. The functionality of the wrist and the whole hand is of great importance because in many cases loss of function of the wrists leads to severe limitations. Local and operative treatment of the wrist in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the main duties in rheuma-orthopaedics. For operative treatment there is a finely tuned differential therapeutic spectrum available. The diagnostic indications take the local and total pattern of affection, the current systemic therapy as well as patient wishes and patient compliance into consideration. In the early stages according to LDE (Larsen, Dale, Eek), soft tissues operations such as articulo-tenosynovectomy (ATS) are most commonly carried out. In further advanced stages osseus stabilisation must often be performed. At this point a smooth transition from partial arthrodesis to complete fixation is possible. After initial euphoria, arthroplasty of the wrist is being increasingly less used for operative treatment due to the unconvincing long-term results and high complication rate. With reference to the good long-term results of all operative procedures, in particular early ATS with respect to pain, function and protection of tendons, after failure of medicinal treatment and persistence of inflammatory activity in the wrist, patients should be transferred to an experienced rheuma-orthopaedic surgeon.

  10. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate enhances mood and prosocial behavior without affecting plasma oxytocin and testosterone. (United States)

    Bosch, Oliver G; Eisenegger, Christoph; Gertsch, Jürg; von Rotz, Robin; Dornbierer, Dario; Gachet, M Salomé; Heinrichs, Markus; Wetter, Thomas C; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B


    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire. Prosocial behavior was examined by the Charity Donation Task, the Social Value Orientation test, and the Reciprocity Task. Reaction time, memory, empathy, and theory-of-mind were also tested. Blood plasma levels of GHB, oxytocin, testosterone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH) were determined. GHB showed stimulating and sedating effects, and elicited euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. In participants with low prosociality, the drug increased donations and prosocial money distributions. In contrast, social cognitive abilities such as emotion recognition, empathy, and theory-of-mind, and basal cognitive functions were not affected. GHB increased plasma progesterone, while oxytocin and testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, DHEA, and ACTH levels remained unaffected. GHB has mood-enhancing and prosocial effects without affecting social hormones such as oxytocin and testosterone. These data suggest a potential involvement of GHB-/GABAB-receptors and progesterone in mood and prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

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    Eirik Søvik


    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  12. “Chasing the High” – Experiences of Ethylphenidate as Described on International Internet Forums

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    Christophe Soussan


    Full Text Available Ethylphenidate is a novel psychoactive substance with undocumented effects, risks, and motivation for use. In this study, we investigated the experience of ethylphenidate by analyzing self-reports published on Internet forums, which revealed seven overarching themes: (1 compulsive redosing and addiction; (2 impacts on the mental state; (3 bodily agitation; (4 increased sociableness; (5 administration; (6 diverse evaluations based on intention; and (7 safety and precaution. Ethylphenidate appeared as a potent psychostimulant with an imminent abuse potential. It was mainly used for recreational purposes. The effects included not only pleasurable stimulation, euphoria, and cognitive enhancement but also indecisiveness, anxiety, and cognitive fragmentation. The users reported an increase in body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure, but they also experienced profuse sweating and muscle tension. Ethylphenidate acted as a social lubricant, enhancing intimacy, communication, and social skills. Two opposing user mentalities were uncovered: (1 pleasure seeking and risk neglecting, and (2 safety-first orientation. This information could be of importance to legislators, public health personnel, and prevention strategists.

  13. Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Pain. (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso; Asbill, Scott; Paige, Candler A; Byrd-Glover, Kiara


    The use of cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic diseases has increased in the United States, with 23 states having legalized the use of marijuana. Although currently available cannabinoid compounds have shown effectiveness in relieving symptoms associated with numerous diseases, the use of cannabis or cannabinoids is still controversial mostly due to their psychotropic effects (e.g., euphoria, laughter) or central nervous system (CNS)-related undesired effects (e.g., tolerance, dependence). A potential strategy to use cannabinoids for medical conditions without inducing psychotropic or CNS-related undesired effects is to avoid their actions in the CNS. This approach could be beneficial for conditions with prominent peripheral pathophysiologic mechanisms (e.g., painful diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy). In this article, we discuss the scientific evidence to target the peripheral cannabinoid system as an alternative to cannabis use for medical purposes, and we review the available literature to determine the pros and cons of potential strategies that can be used to this end. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Impact of behavioral subsyndromes on cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: data from the ICTUS study. (United States)

    Canevelli, Marco; Adali, Nawal; Cantet, Christelle; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bruno, Giuseppe; Cesari, Matteo; Vellas, Bruno


    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) represent common manifestations among patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some reports have recently classified BPSD into specific clusters/subsyndromes exploring the internal structure of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). We evaluated whether specific behavioral subsyndromes are associated with worsening cognitive function. Mild to moderate AD patients were recruited from the cohort of the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment USe (ICTUS) study. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were classified in three subsyndromes, identified at baseline, grouping different combinations of NPI items: (1) "psychotic" ("delusions" and/or "hallucinations"); (2) "affective" ("agitation" and/or "depression" and/or "anxiety" and/or "irritability"); and (3) "behavioral" ("euphoria" and/or "apathy" and/or "disinhibition" and/or "aberrant motor behavior"). Mixed model analyses were performed to measure six-monthly changes in the ADAS-Cog score over a follow-up of 2 years, according to these subsyndromes. All analyses were stratified according to AD severity as defined by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). A total of 1,375 AD subjects were recruited. No NPI cluster was found to significantly (p < 0.05) affect the rate of cognitive decline across the 3 CDR classes. Our results suggest that the cognitive course of AD is not substantially influenced by the presence of specific neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Further studies are needed to extend the present findings and identify possible biological and clinical bases for behavioral subsyndromes.

  15. Ecstasy (MDMA and its effects on kidneys and their treatment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Bora


    Full Text Available Ecstasy (MDMA; 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine is an illicit drug that has been increasingly abused by young people. Its effects include euphoria, enhanced sociability and heightened mental awareness. These come about via the increase of serotonin in both the central nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system. Despite the drug’s prevalent abuse, serious or adverse effects are rare. Due to personal pharmacokinetics, effects from the same dosage vary according to the individual. Fatal instances may include acute hyponatremia, hyperthermia (>42 °C, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC resulting from hyperthermia affecting the kidneys, and non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis. However, it is seldom the case that hyponatremia and hyperthermia co-exist. Hyponatremia is thought to be caused by HMMA – a metabolite of MDMA. Hyponatremia is caused by the inappropriate secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP and the excessive intake of hypotonic liquid accompanied by increased hyperthermia. Symptomatic, even deadly hyponatremia is seen more frequently in females, with the effects of oestrogen on arginine vasopressin believed to be the cause. Onset in such cases is acute, and treatment should be given to symptomatic patients as quickly as possible, with 3% saline administered when necessary. Reasons for acute kidney injury may include rhabdomyolysis, malign hypertension, and necrotizing vasculitis.

  16. Exercise reinforcement, stress, and β-endorphins: an initial examination of exercise in anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Shope, Sydney; Varangis, Eleanna; Klein, Diane; Pfaff, Donald W; Yehuda, Rachel


    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are abused primarily in the context of intense exercise and for the purposes of increasing muscle mass as opposed to drug-induced euphoria. AASs also modulate the HPA axis and may increase the reinforcing value of exercise through changes to stress hormone and endorphin release. To test this hypothesis, 26 adult males drawn from a larger study on AAS use completed a progressive ratio task designed to examine the reinforcing value of exercise relative to financial reinforcer. Sixteen experienced and current users (8 on-cycle, 8 off-cycle) and 10 controls matched on quantity×frequency of exercise, age, and education abstained from exercise for 24 h prior to testing and provided 24-h cortisol, plasma cortisol, ACTH, β-endorphin samples, and measures of mood, compulsive exercise, and body image. Between group differences indicated that on-cycle AAS users had the highest β-endorphin levels, lowest cortisol levels, higher ACTH levels than controls. Conversely, off-cycle AAS users had the highest cortisol and ACTH levels, but the lowest β-endorphin levels. Exercise value was positively correlated with β-endorphin and symptoms of AAS dependence. The HPA response to AASs may explain why AASs are reinforcing in humans and exercise may play a key role in the development of AAS dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of toluene: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald, J.M.; Hooper, K.; Hopenhayn-Rich, C. (California Dept. of Health Services, Sacramento (United States))


    Toulene is a widely used industrial solvent, and humans may also have high exposures to toulene from the deliberate inhalation (sniffing) of paint reducer, paint thinner, or paint for their narcotic effects. A number of case reports describe neonatal effects that have been attributed to toulene abuse during pregnancy. These effects may include intrauterine growth retardation, premature delivery, congenital malformations, and postnatal developmental retardation. The possibility of exposures to other fetotoxic agents, either as impurities or admixtures in toulene-containing products, or by deliberate or accidental exposures to other chemicals or drugs, cannot be excluded in these cases. The fetotoxic effects of toulene have been demonstrated in controlled studies in animals and are comparable to those observed in humans who have abused toulene-containing products before or during pregnancy. Intrauterine developmental retardation is the most clearly established effect in animals, as evidenced by decreased late fetal weight and retarded skeletal development. There is also limited evidence in rodents for skeletal and kidney abnormalities, as well as some evidence for effects on postnatal physical and possibly neurobehavioral development. Estimated daily exposures from experimental studies in animals are compared to estimated human daily intakes at the occupational permissible exposure level and at the level reported to produce euphoria in humans. Acceptable human intakes under California's Proposition 65 and under US Environmental Protection Agency procedures are discussed.

  18. Atypical reactions associated with heroin use--five states, January-April 2005. (United States)


    Heroin use typically produces a well-recognized syndrome of euphoria, miosis, and respiratory and central nervous system depression; cardiovascular effects are not a common finding. In January 2005, a man aged 21 years in New Jersey was hospitalized with an atypical reaction (e.g., tachycardia and palpitations) after reported heroin use. During the next 3 months, 25 additional persons in five states were reported to poison control centers (PCCs) and local public health agencies with a similar reaction after reported heroin use; in all, 24 of 26 patients were hospitalized. Analysis of drug specimens or testing of urine was performed in certain cases; in eight patients, the veterinary pharmaceutical clenbuterol was detected. This report describes four representative cases and summarizes the investigation by state and local health and law enforcement authorities and CDC into the 26 cases of atypical reactions after heroin use reported in five states (Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, and South Carolina) during January 28-April 17, 2005. Unintentional or intentional adulteration of illicit drugs such as cocaine or heroin is an additional potential hazard associated with their use.

  19. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Jimmi


    Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. We included preclinical (n = 17), clinical (n = 19) and epidemiological (n = 13) studies addressing the abuse potential of pregabalin. We also reviewed case reports (n = 9) concerning abuse of pregabalin. The preclinical studies indicated that pregabalin possesses modulatory effects on the GABA and glutamate systems, leaving room for an abuse potential. Further, clinical studies reported euphoria as a frequent side effect in patients treated with pregabalin. The majority of case reports concerning abuse of pregabalin involved patients with a history of substance abuse and, similarly, epidemiological studies found evidence of abuse, especially among opiate abusers. Overall, the available literature suggests an important clinical abuse potential of pregabalin and prescribers should pay attention to signs of abuse, especially in patients with a history of substance abuse.

  20. Increased dosage of donepezil for the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in dementia with Lewy bodies. (United States)

    Manabe, Yuta; Ino, Teruo; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Kosaka, Kenji


    As with other types of dementia, the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) can make caregiving difficult for patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We hypothesized that administration of donepezil at an increased dose of 10 mg/day might dose-dependently improve BPSD in DLB patients with relapse, after their symptoms had been controlled initially by donepezil therapy at the standard dose. The present study was as an open-label trial. We enrolled 24 patients with DLB (diagnosed according to the Consortium on Dementia with Lewy Bodies Guideline-Revised) who experienced a relapse of BPSD despite treatment with donepezil at the standard dose (5 mg/day). The donepezil dose for these patients was increased to 10 mg/day, and we evaluated the efficacy and safety of this dose escalation strategy. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores for BPSD showed statistically significant improvements as a result of the increased dosage, except those for anxiety and euphoria, disinhibition, irritability/lability. High-dose donepezil therapy caused gastrointestinal symptoms in 4 patients, but there were no life-threatening adverse events, such as arrhythmias, or no exacerbation of parkinsonian symptoms. We found that donepezil dose-dependently improved relapsing BPSD in these patients. Therefore, increasing the dosage of donepezil is a safe and effective treatment for patients with DLB who experience a relapse of BPSD. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Neurobehavioral burden of multiple sclerosis with nanotheranostics

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    Sriramoju B


    Full Text Available Bhasker Sriramoju, Rupinder K Kanwar, Jagat R Kanwar Nanomedicine-Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research (NLIMBR, School of Medicine, Molecular and Medical Research, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, VIC, Australia Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic demyelinating neurological disorder affecting people worldwide; women are affected more than men. MS results in serious neurological deficits along with behavioral compromise, the mechanisms of which still remain unclear. Behavioral disturbances such as depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment, psychosis, euphoria, sleep disturbances, and fatigue affect the quality of life in MS patients. Among these, depression and psychosis are more common than any other neurological disorders. In addition, depression is associated with other comorbidities. Although anxiety is often misdiagnosed in MS patients, it can induce suicidal ideation if it coexists with depression. An interrelation between sleep abnormalities and fatigue is also reported among MS patients. In addition, therapeutics for MS is always a challenge because of the presence of the blood–brain barrier, adding to the lack of detailed understanding of the disease pathology. In this review, we tried to summarize various behavioral pathologies and their association with MS, followed by its conventional treatment and nanotheranostics. Keywords: demyelination, behavioral disorders, behavioral tests

  2. A case report on a systemic toxicity following ingestion of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution

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    Koiahi-e-Kazerani J


    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is bonded well to the oral mucosa and dental pellicle and is poorly absorbed from the astrointestinal tract, but in high concentration it is absorbed enough to produce liver necrosis. In this case a dentistry student accidentally ingested a shot of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. Treatments included washing the oral cavity with lots of tooth paste, drinking of 5% alginate syrup and ingestion of 5g small pieces of cork .The following adverse effects were experienced: headache, giddiness, mild mist, euphoria, stomachache, diarrhea and complete loss of taste sensation for 8h, which recurred gradually during the last 48 hours. According to the poor absorption, low toxicity and low concentration of conventional mouthwashes, systemic toxicity following drinking of some shots of this solution is rare. Ultimately if may cause gastritis. Other treatments which are helpful in the same cases are: drinking of hard water, kaolin and tragacant syrup, bicarbonates such as baking soda, carbonates such as beverage , citrates such as lemon-juice and chlorides such as brine and so on.

  3. Perception of emotional climate in a revolution: Test of a multistage theory of revolution in the Tunisian context. (United States)

    Rimé, Bernard; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Mahjoub, Abdelwahab


    Participation in social movements and collective action depends upon people's capacity to perceive their societal context. We examined this question in the context of Arab Spring revolutions. In a classic theory of revolution highlighting the role of collective emotions, Brinton (1938) claimed that revolutions, far from chaos, proceed in an orderly sequence involving four stages: euphoria, degradation, terror, and restoration. The emotional climate (EC) as perceived by ordinary Tunisian citizens (2,699 women and 3,816 men) was measured during the 4 years of the Tunisian revolution. A quadratic pattern of perceived EC measures over time provided strong support to Brinton's model. In addition, three different analyses suggested the presence of four distinct stages in the evolution of perceived EC. Third, the socio-political developments in Tunisia during the four stages proved entirely consistent with both Brinton's theoretical model and the perceived EC indicators. Finally, social identification proved closely related to the temporal evolution of positive EC scores. In sum, data from this study not only lend support to the views put forth in an heretofore untested classic theory of revolution but also demonstrate that psychosocial measurements can validly monitor a major process of socio-political transformation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Determinants of The Application of Macro Prudential Instruments

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    Zakaria Firano


    Full Text Available The use of macro prudential instruments today gives rise to a major debate within the walls of central banks and other authorities in charge of financial stability. Contrary to micro prudential instruments, whose effects remain limited, macro prudential instruments are different in nature and can affect the stability of the financial system. By influencing the financial cycle and the financial structure of financial institutions, the use of such instruments should be conducted with great vigilance as well as macroeconomic and financial expertise. But the experiences of central banks in this area are sketchy, and only some emerging countries have experience using these types of instruments in different ways. This paper presents an analysis of instruments of macro prudential policy and attempts to empirically demonstrate that these instruments should be used only in specific economic and financial situations. Indeed, the results obtained, using modeling bivariate panel, confirm that these instruments are more effective when used to mitigate the euphoria of financial and economic cycles. In this sense, the output gap, describing the economic cycle, and the Z-score are the intermediate variables for the activation of capital instruments. Moreover, the liquidity ratio and changes in bank profitability are the two early warning indicators for activation of liquidity instruments.


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    Topan Setiawan


    Full Text Available This study aimed to feel the subtle vibrations of a “project” of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC, the human dimension and its culture. However AEC becomes part of the life history of the nations of Southeast Asia, particularly in the visible measures, such as economic growth, the economic stability of the region or the increasing of intra-regional trade volume. It means, that we feel it in the materialist dimension, or “vibrations” a “rough”. Besides, this study attempted to feel the euphoria of the other aspects. This paper will track a bit more deeply about Indonesian and its culture. Also there will be an effort to seek traces (perhaps disguised in regional sublimation materialism “project” by AEC. Strive to be this insight led to the discovery that regional sublimation Reviews their materialism, for the next attempt to pave the way consciousness. Also, how sublimation material, it is not exactly cornered people and cultures. Another invention is the reification of culture, which it is the manifestation, in the form of Materialization on social relations, by considering it as a thing freely. Similarly, it is forgetting the historical trail of goods/services. Search back on local wisdom, seems to be one way that can be taken.

  6. Neurotrophin 3 genotype and emotional adverse effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Son, Jung-Woo; Shin, Yun-Mi; Chung, Un-Sun; Han, Doug-Hyun


    Neurotrophin 3 (NTF3) has been studied in relation to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders as well as psychostimulant action. We hypothesized that the risk of an emotional side effect to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment may be associated with NTF3 genotypes. Ninety-six medication-naïve children with ADHD (mean age 8.70, standard deviation 1.41 years, 79 males) were genotyped and treated with MPH. At baseline, which was prior to MPH treatment, and after two weeks of medication, investigators asked children and their parents or caregivers about adverse events using a symptom rating scale. ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Emotionality' and 'Over-focus/euphoria' factor scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.042 and p=0.045, respectively). ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Proneness to crying' and 'Nail biting' item scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.047 and p=0.017, respectively). These data provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in the NTF3 gene is related to susceptibility to emotional side effects in response to MPH treatment in Korean children with ADHD.

  7. Back to the Future

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    G A Duncan


    Full Text Available The Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa was formed on 26th September 1999 as the result of the union of the black Reformed Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa and the white-dominated Presbyterian Church of Southern Africa. Various unsuccessful attempts had been made since the latter part of� the� nineteenth century to effect union. In the spirit of national euphoria which surrounded the first democratic elections in South Africa in1994, the Reformed Presbyterian Church initiated union discussions with� the Presbyterian Church. The subsequent union was based on what are now considered to be inadequate preparations and many unresolved problems have emerged to test the witness of the new denomination, not the least of which is racism. At its 2002 General Assembly, as the result of what appeared to be a financial crisis, the Uniting Presbyterian Church appointed a Special Committee on Reformation was established to investigate the problems in the denomination and to bring proposals for dealing with these issues.

  8. Effectiveness of Hope Therapy Protocol on Depression and Hope in Amphetamine Users (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hasan; Ebrahimi, Leyla; Vatandoust, Leyla


    Background: Addiction has surpassed the boundaries of health and treatment and turned into a social crisis and a debilitating and major concern in today’s world. Amphetamine, one of the addictive drugs, is classified as psycho-stimulants drugs, which increase arousal, alertness, and motor activity. Humans report that this drug produces a significant euphoria and is highly addictive. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hope therapy protocol (HTP) on depression reduction and hope increase in amphetamine users. Patients and Methods: This study has a quasi-experimental design with experimental and control groups. The sample included all amphetamine consumers referring to day drug addiction treatment center in Ray City, Iran, selected with convenience method. In order to analyze the data, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was applied using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that F value of mean scores in depression and hope post-tests of the experimental and control groups are 24.94 and 25.73, respectively, which are significant (P < 0.01). Therefore, hope therapy training could reduce depressive symptoms in amphetamine consumers and improve their hope. Conclusions: Performing HTP can improve hopefulness and symptoms of patients, specially addicted ones. In addition, it can prevent substance abusers from returning to drugs and leaving the treatment period unfinished. PMID:26870707

  9. The toxicology of cannabis and cannabis prohibition. (United States)

    Grotenhermen, Franjo


    The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients.

  10. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

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    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd


    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  11. CNS reactions at 51 ATA on trimix and heliox and during decompression. (United States)

    Vaernes, R; Hammerborg, D; Ellertsen, B; Peterson, R; Tønjum, S


    Two groups of divers (Group A and B) were compressed to 500 msw with trimix (n = 3) and heliox (n = 3). After 4 d at saturation depth Group A had a gas change to heliox. Both groups were followed with repeated neuropsychological and neurological tests during compression, at stable intermediate depths and at saturation depth. There were marked high pressure nervous syndrome effects during compression for both groups. Only tremor was inhibited by the nitrogen. In addition Group A was impaired due to nitrogen narcosis. During trimix and heliox saturation there was only some recovery in the EEG. Group B had a sustained high tremor during the saturation. On visuomotor and cognitive functions Group B performed up to predive level on the 3rd d at saturation while Group A was heavily impaired during the whole trimix saturation period. Although dizziness and tremor were the main symptoms in Group B, Group A reported concentration trouble, euphoria, and upset stomach during the saturation phase. Minor changes occurred in the EEG during the gas change. There was, however, a marked increase in postural tremor and recovery on cognitive tests relating to the elimination of the nitrogen. Up to the completion of the gas change no severe symptoms were reported. Six hours after the gas change, severe symptoms occurred with visual and auditory hallucinations and myoclonic jerks as the dominant characteristics. Some symptoms lasted for 12 h. During decompression there was a steady normalization in both groups.

  12. Psychostimulants and cognition: a continuum of behavioral and cognitive activation. (United States)

    Wood, Suzanne; Sage, Jennifer R; Shuman, Tristan; Anagnostaras, Stephan G


    Psychostimulants such as cocaine have been used as performance enhancers throughout recorded history. Although psychostimulants are commonly prescribed to improve attention and cognition, a great deal of literature has described their ability to induce cognitive deficits, as well as addiction. How can a single drug class be known to produce both cognitive enhancement and impairment? Properties of the particular stimulant drug itself and individual differences between users have both been suggested to dictate the outcome of stimulant use. A more parsimonious alternative, which we endorse, is that dose is the critical determining factor in cognitive effects of stimulant drugs. Herein, we review several popular stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine), outlining their history of use, mechanism of action, and use and abuse today. One common graphic depiction of the cognitive effects of psychostimulants is an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve. Moderate arousal is beneficial to cognition, whereas too much activation leads to cognitive impairment. In parallel to this schematic, we propose a continuum of psychostimulant activation that covers the transition from one drug effect to another as stimulant intake is increased. Low doses of stimulants effect increased arousal, attention, and cognitive enhancement; moderate doses can lead to feelings of euphoria and power, as well as addiction and cognitive impairment; and very high doses lead to psychosis and circulatory collapse. This continuum helps account for the seemingly disparate effects of stimulant drugs, with the same drug being associated with cognitive enhancement and impairment.

  13. A cultural trauma: Outcomes of the system change in post-socialist Poland

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    Kabzinska Iwona


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the outcomes of the system change in post-socialist Poland. The author discusses various important and inter-related issues in the Polish societal sphere: shock therapy accompanied by the changes since the 1990's, unemployment, uncontrolled privatization, cultural trauma and cultural plaint. Theoretically, the paper belongs to anthropology of transformation, and it is based on sociological literature for the most part. The paper also discusses 'societal diagnosis', its creators, crisis in confidence as a consequence of social and cultural traumas, the weakness of political elite and criteria used to measure poverty levels. Lately, there has been a change in mythical representation about easy life in Poland related to the state' affiliation with EU. The change includes a lack of global crisis influence, resistance of the Polish society toward media influence, a rise in optimism and decrease of cultural plaint. Is this change in attitude due to cyclical alteration between phases of depression and euphoria? What will happen if depression returns? Did the Polish handle the trauma of transformation exceptionally well? Possible answers to these and other relevant questions are sought by the author in this paper, who uses, as additional sources for research, a world of local communities and individual accounts.

  14. The Relationship between the Level of Religious Attitudes and Postpartum Blues among Pregnant Women

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    Tahereh Mokhtaryan


    Full Text Available Postpartum blues, as a transient phenomenon of mood changes, generally begins 1 to 3 days after the child birth.1 This phenomenon is accompanied with symptoms such as unstable moods, ranging from euphoria to sadness, high sensitivity, crying for no reason, restlessness, poor concentration, anxiety, irritability, and anger.2 Prevalence of postpartum blues has been estimated 44.3% in Hong- Kong,3 31.3% in Nigeria,2 and 58% in India.4 In Iran, 22.3% of women suffer from weak postpartum blues, 10.8% have medium, and 21.1% suffer from severe postpartum blues.5 Interaction between different biological, psychological and social factors could affect the postpartum blues.6 Some researchers have indicated that there is a reverse relationship between religion related beliefs and spiritual attitudes, participation in religious activities and reduction of pregnancy and postpartum anxiety and depression.7 Also, according to another study, 57% of the doctors believe that praying could enhance the healing effect of treatment.8 However, some other studies reject this idea.9-10 In this cross-sectional study conducted in selected prenatal clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2013, 176 healthy pregnant women aged 18-35 years old participated. For assessment of postpartum blues, standard questionnaire of Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS11 and Religious Attitude Scale (RAS-R containing 25 questions with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.954 in Iran were used.12

  15. Looking for a Black Cat: EFL Teachers’ Perception of Democracy

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    Pınar UYANIKER


    Full Text Available Stuck between the ideologies of Europe and Middle-East, Turkey is experiencing euphoria of practicing democracy which has been subject to hot debates. Society is inevitably being shaped by these discussions. As a reflection of society, how is democracy being reflected in language classrooms? To answer the question from teachers’ perspective, this qualitative research was conducted. The aim of this research is to understand Turkish EFL teachers’ perceptions and practices regarding democracy. Being the practitioners of Turkish education system and its philosophy, three English teachers participated in this study. The data came from semi-structured interviews and graphic elicitations. Data obtained from the participants were interpreted using “In-vivo” coding. The results of this study suggest that “equity” is one of the most highlighted aspects of democracy in their perception. However, participants seem to adopt “authoritative” teacher roles although they reported fostering student involvement in decision making. Lack of authority is seen as a burden to a democratic class. Experienced and novice teachers have different conceptions and practices of democracy. Experienced teacher is inclined to veil “authority” whereas novice teacher holds a militant view of democracy.

  16. Eroticism & Queer Attraction: A Grounded Theory

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    Regine O. Santos


    Full Text Available This study unraveled the degree of eroticism and queer attraction in 41 selected Bicol Lyric Poetry. The researcher s used the Grounded Theory Method (GTM and integrated the Queer Theory and Psychoanalytic approach in the textual analysis of selected Bicol lyric poetry in an attempt to explain the degree of eroticism and queer attraction of Bicolanos. The Analyse s of the researcher s were validated through the participants of the study which included 10 binary genders, 10 male homosexuals, 10 lesbians and 10 experts in the field of Bicol literature. The researchers identified four degrees of eroticism and named it: Tikwil, Girok, Kagat and Siram (Bicol terms which mean poke, tickle, bite, and euphoria. Significant findings of the study revealed that homosexuals, bisexuals and lesbians exist in Bicol lyric poetry, and Bicolanos, as seen on their lyric poetry, fell under the degree of Kagat, where people engage into sexual activities for physical gratification. In addition, quee r Bicolanos, as seen on their lyric poetry, driven by strong physical attraction, give in into sexual encounters even with different sexual partners. This study recommended that future studies should explore a wider range of Bicol literature other than lyr ic poetry and investigate on the presence of queer characters, the roles they project, and dig deeper on the acceptance or condemnation of these queer identities in the society as a whole.

  17. Psychological and sociocultural adjustment of first-year international students: Trajectories and predictors. (United States)

    Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin


    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early-stage intense romantic love. (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen; Mashek, Debra J; Strong, Greg; Li, Haifang; Brown, Lucy L


    Early-stage romantic love can induce euphoria, is a cross-cultural phenomenon, and is possibly a developed form of a mammalian drive to pursue preferred mates. It has an important influence on social behaviors that have reproductive and genetic consequences. To determine which reward and motivation systems may be involved, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and studied 10 women and 7 men who were intensely "in love" from 1 to 17 mo. Participants alternately viewed a photograph of their beloved and a photograph of a familiar individual, interspersed with a distraction-attention task. Group activation specific to the beloved under the two control conditions occurred in dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation, namely the right ventral tegmental area and the right postero-dorsal body and medial caudate nucleus. Activation in the left ventral tegmental area was correlated with facial attractiveness scores. Activation in the right anteromedial caudate was correlated with questionnaire scores that quantified intensity of romantic passion. In the left insula-putamen-globus pallidus, activation correlated with trait affect intensity. The results suggest that romantic love uses subcortical reward and motivation systems to focus on a specific individual, that limbic cortical regions process individual emotion factors, and that there is localization heterogeneity for reward functions in the human brain.

  19. Images of America in unified Germany

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    S. Fröhlich


    Full Text Available The following article analyses American cultural influence on Germany - especially in the period after unification. “Wendeliteratur" as well as new cultural relations and institutions are emphasised. The role of the mass media, which have conveyed the image of the American way of life, American products and services to East German is also discussed. For a better understanding of these images the author takes a closer look at what “Americanisation" really means to European cultures. All too often cultural observers state that Europe has been exposed to a pernicious Americanism. Such attitudes, however, should caution us against a too negative image of America. Although German-American relations during the post-war period had their ups and downs, West Germans on the whole developed a positive image of America, internalising American cultural elements as part of their own identification. The East Germans, on the other hand, it will be argued, while developing an enthusiasm for America at the time of reunification, turned more and more to a very critical, rather cynical view of American culture, thus letting euphoria fade to a very rational image.

  20. As redes para além dos rios: urbanização e desequilíbrios na Amazônia brasileira

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    José Alberto Magno de Carvalho


    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Amazonian urban networks have been developing with the appearance of medium-sized cities and the multiplication and small urban agglomerations along the main regional roads and rivers. However, Amazonian urban networks have several characteristics that should be studied without "euphoria", because of some peculiarities that deserve to be explored in greater depth. Even though there is an urban hierarchy that seems to be similar to the other regions of the country, with clearly distinguishable regional and local centers, the various urban hierarchical levels have different demographic, spatial and socioeconomic dynamics. The fragility of the Amazonian urban networks is related to the creation of barriers for the flows of people, goods and services, like: a the great distances that separate the capital cities from the other towns and hamlets; b the lack of transport and communication infrastructure in large areas of the Amazon territory; c the large proportion of the population without material and educational resources needed for them to actively participate in the various kinds of flows.

  1. The neuropsychiatry of multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony


    This review describes the many neuropsychiatric abnormalities associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). These may be broadly divided into 2 categories: disorders of mood, affect, and behaviour and abnormalities affecting cognition. With respect to the former, the epidemiology, phenomenology, and theories of etiology are described for the syndromes of depression, bipolar disorder, euphoria, pathological laughing and crying, and psychosis attributable to MS. The section discussing cognition reviews the prevalence and nature of cognitive dysfunction, with an emphasis on abnormalities affecting multiple domains of memory, speed of information processing, and executive function. The detection, natural history, and cerebral correlates of cognitive dysfunction are also discussed. Finally, treatment pertaining to all these disorders is reviewed, with the observation that translational research has been found wanting when it comes to providing algorithms to guide clinicians. Guidelines derived from general psychiatry still largely apply, although they may not always be most effective in patients with neurologic disorders. The importance of future research addressing this imbalance is emphasized, for neuropsychiatric sequelae add significantly to the morbidity associated with MS.

  2. The primacy of mania: a reconsideration of mood disorders. (United States)

    Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Ghaemi, S Nassir


    In contemporary psychiatry, depression and mania are conceived as different entities. They may occur together, as in bipolar disorder, or they may occur separately, as in unipolar depression. This view is partly based on a narrow definition of mania and a rather broad definition of depression. Generally, depression is seen as more prominent, common, and problematic; while mania appears uncommon and treatment-responsive. We suggest a reversal: mania viewed broadly, not as simply episodic euphoria plus hyperactivity, but a wide range of excitatory behaviors; and depression seen more narrowly. Further, using pharmacological and clinical evidence, and in contrast to previous theories of mania interpreted as a flight from depression, we propose the primacy of mania hypothesis (PM): depression is a consequence of the excitatory processes of mania. If correct, current treatment of depressive illness needs revision. Rather than directly lifting mood with antidepressants, the aim would be to suppress manic-like excitation, with depression being secondarily prevented. Potential objections to, and empirical tests of, the PM hypothesis are discussed.

  3. O efeito das bebidas alcoólicas pode ser afetado pela combinação com bebidas energéticas? Um estudo com usuários Can energy drinks affect the effects of alcoholic beverages? A study with users

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    Sionaldo Eduardo Ferreira


    drinks in combination with alcoholic beverages, preferably whisky (90%, vodka (37% and beer (13%. Most of the sample (79% also reported using energy drinks alone. In the latter case, 61% of them reported not feeling any effect, 10% reported happiness, 9% euphoria, 9% insomnia, 7% uninhibited behavior and 24% increase in physical vigor. Out of those who reported combined use with alcohol, 14% told not to feel different, 38% increase happiness, 30% euphoria, 11% insomnia, 27% uninhibited behavior and 24% increase of physical vigor. High level of variability was observed in the number of lifetime uses of energy drinks (14 ± 16. However, there was certain constancy in the number of cans ingested per occasion (1.5 ± 0.7. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that the effects of energy drinks are variable, probably depending on the dose and individual sensitivity. Some reports suggest interaction with alcohol, expressed as an increase in the excitatory effects or reduction in the depressive effects. The possible pharmacological mechanisms underlying this interaction are discussed.

  4. A pilot study of inhaled methoxyflurane for procedural analgesia in children. (United States)

    Babl, Franz; Barnett, Peter; Palmer, Greta; Oakley, Ed; Davidson, Andrew


    Methoxyflurane (MF), a potent volatile anesthetic, can be used as an analgesic in subanesthetic concentrations. In Australia, MF is extensively used in children and adults as an analgesic in the prehospital setting via a hand-held inhaler device. We conducted a pilot study to explore its use as a patient controlled analgesic for painful procedures in children in the emergency department (ED). This is a prospective observational case series of children aged 5 years and older requiring procedural analgesia for brief painful procedures. Pain scores, depth of sedation, adverse events and patient, parent and staff satisfaction were assessed as well as consumption of MF measured. Fourteen patients (aged 6-13 years) received MF mainly for extremity injuries. Amount of MF consumed ranged from 0.36 to 3.06 g per patient inhaled over 4-25 min. There were no serious adverse events. No patient was deeply sedated. Five patients had mild brief self-resolving adverse events including agitation, euphoria, blurry vision, dizziness and cough. Four patients with fractures with initial high pain scores (> or =6) received MF for bridging analgesia with large drops in pain scores. Four patients who required fracture reductions with initial low scores did not achieve adequate analgesia. The remaining six patients had painful procedures undertaken with satisfactory analgesia. On the basis of this small pilot study of MF use in children in the ED, this agent appears to be a powerful analgesic. MF seems most useful as a self-titrated bridging analgesic agent in patients after extremity trauma. It appears less useful as a procedural agent when patients are unable to anticipate and achieve a sufficient level of analgesia before painful stimulus infliction. Pre- and intraprocedure coaching is an important aspect of its use especially if initial pain scores are low.

  5. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms Impact Clinical Competence in Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Elodie Bertrand


    Full Text Available Decision-making is considered a fundamental aspect of personal autonomy and can be affected in psychiatric and neurologic diseases. It has been shown that cognitive deficits in dementia impact negatively on decision-making. Moreover, studies highlighted impaired clinical competence in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this context, the current study explored the relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD and clinical competence, especially the capacity to consent to treatment, in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Seventy-one patients with mild to moderate AD participated, completing assessments for capacity to consent to treatment, general cognition and neuropsychiatric disturbances. For each neuropsychiatric symptom, patients with and without the particular disturbance were compared on the different subscales of the MacArthur Competence Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T; Understanding, Appreciation, Reasoning and Expression. The results showed that patients presenting delusions, as well as apathetic patients, had a lower ability to express a clear treatment choice compared to patients without these symptoms. By contrast, patients with dysphoria/depression had higher scores on this variable. Additionally, AD patients with euphoria had more difficulties discussing consequences of treatment alternatives compared to patients without this disturbance. None of the differences were confounded by global cognition. There were no between-group differences in clinical decision-making for patients with hallucinations, agitation/aggression, anxiety, irritability, disinhibition and aberrant motor behavior. These findings highlight the importance of taking BPSD into account when assessing decision-making capacity, especially clinical competence, in AD. Furthermore, reducing BPSD may lead to better clinical competence in patients with AD, as well as to improvements in patients and caregivers

  6. Gene expression in human hippocampus from cocaine abusers identifies genes which regulate extracellular matrix remodeling.

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    Deborah C Mash


    Full Text Available The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine "rush". Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched drug-free control subjects. Cocaine abusers had 151 gene transcripts upregulated, while 91 gene transcripts were downregulated. Topping the list of cocaine-regulated transcripts was RECK in the human hippocampus (FC = 2.0; p<0.05. RECK is a membrane-anchored MMP inhibitor that is implicated in the coordinated regulation of extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis. In keeping with elevated RECK expression, active MMP9 protein levels were decreased in the hippocampus from cocaine abusers. Pathway analysis identified other genes regulated by cocaine that code for proteins involved in the remodeling of the cytomatrix and synaptic connections and the inhibition of blood vessel proliferation (PCDH8, LAMB1, ITGB6, CTGF and EphB4. The observed microarray phenotype in the human hippocampus identified RECK and other region-specific genes that may promote long-lasting structural changes with repeated cocaine abuse. Extracellular matrix remodeling in the hippocampus may be a persisting effect of chronic abuse that contributes to the compulsive and relapsing nature of cocaine addiction.

  7. Neuropsychiatric profiles in patients with Alzheimer′s disease and vascular dementia

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    Tushar Kanti Bandyopadhyay


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the following study is to compare the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients of Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Materials and Methods: We used National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer′s Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for diagnosing AD and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour la Recherche et l′Enseignement en Neurosciences Criteria for diagnosing VaD. VaD cohort was further subcategorized into small vessel and large vessel disease. The severity of cognitive impairment and the BPSD were studied by means of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory respectively. Results: We studied 50 AD and 50 VaD patients of whom 38 were small vessels and 12 were large vessels VaD. The severity of dementia was comparable in both groups. The agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, anxiety, apathy/indifference, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, appetite and eating behavior and night-time behaviors occurred significantly more frequently in patients with VaD than AD. We found a weak positive correlation between the CDR score and the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms per patient in both cohorts. Elation/euphoria, agitation/aggression was significantly more frequent in patients with large vessel in comparison to small vessel VaD. Conclusions: BPSD are common in both types of dementia and they are more severe in VaD than AD when the groups have similar levels of cognitive impairment.

  8. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of morphine in neonates: A review

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    Gian Maria Pacifici

    Full Text Available Morphine is an agonist of the µ and k receptors, whose activation results in analgesia. Morphine-like agonists act through the µ opioid receptors to cause pain relief, sedation, euphoria and respiratory depression. Morphine is glucuronidated and sulfated at positions 3 and 6; the plasma concentration ratios correlate positively with birth weight, which probably reflects increased liver weight with increasing birth weight. Moreover, morphine clearance correlates positively with gestational age and birth weight. Steady-state morphine plasma concentrations are achieved after 24-48 hours of infusion, but the glucuronide metabolite plasma concentrations do not reach steady state before 60 hours. The morphine-3-glucuronide metabolite has lower clearance, a shorter half-life and a smaller distribution volume compared with the morphine-6 metabolite, which is the most active morphine-like agonist. Ordinary doses cause constipation, urinary retention and respiratory depression. Neonatal pain relief may require a blood level of approximately 120 ng/ml, whereas lower levels (20-40 ng/ml seem adequate for children. A bibliographic search was performed using the PubMed database and the keywords “morphine metabolism neonate” and “morphine pharmacokinetics neonate”. The initial and final cutoff points were January 1990 and September 2015, respectively. The results indicate that morphine is extensively glucuronidated and sulfated at positions 3 and 6, and that the glucuronidation rate is lower in younger neonates compared with older infants. Although much is known about morphine in neonates, further research will be required to ensure that recommended therapeutic doses for analgesia in neonates are evidence based.

  9. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of morphine in neonates: A review. (United States)

    Pacifici, Gian Maria


    Morphine is an agonist of the µ and k receptors, whose activation results in analgesia. Morphine-like agonists act through the µ opioid receptors to cause pain relief, sedation, euphoria and respiratory depression. Morphine is glucuronidated and sulfated at positions 3 and 6; the plasma concentration ratios correlate positively with birth weight, which probably reflects increased liver weight with increasing birth weight. Moreover, morphine clearance correlates positively with gestational age and birth weight. Steady-state morphine plasma concentrations are achieved after 24-48 hours of infusion, but the glucuronide metabolite plasma concentrations do not reach steady state before 60 hours. The morphine-3-glucuronide metabolite has lower clearance, a shorter half-life and a smaller distribution volume compared with the morphine-6 metabolite, which is the most active morphine-like agonist. Ordinary doses cause constipation, urinary retention and respiratory depression. Neonatal pain relief may require a blood level of approximately 120 ng/ml, whereas lower levels (20-40 ng/ml) seem adequate for children. A bibliographic search was performed using the PubMed database and the keywords "morphine metabolism neonate" and "morphine pharmacokinetics neonate". The initial and final cutoff points were January 1990 and September 2015, respectively. The results indicate that morphine is extensively glucuronidated and sulfated at positions 3 and 6, and that the glucuronidation rate is lower in younger neonates compared with older infants. Although much is known about morphine in neonates, further research will be required to ensure that recommended therapeutic doses for analgesia in neonates are evidence based.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Cannabinoids

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    Iain J McGilveray


    Full Text Available Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC is the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis (marijuana. The present review focuses on the pharmacokinetics of THC, but also includes known information for cannabinol and cannabidiol, as well as the synthetic marketed cannabinoids, dronabinol (synthetic THC and nabilone. The variability of THC in plant material (0.3% to 30% leads to variability in tissue THC levels from smoking, which is, in itself, a highly individual process. THC bioavailability averages 30%. With a 3.55% THC cigarette, a peak plasma level of 152±86.3 ng/mL occured approximately 10 min after inhalation. Oral THC, on the other hand, is only 4% to 12% bioavailable and absorption is highly variable. THC is eliminated from plasma in a multiphasic manner, with low amounts detectable for over one week after dosing. A major active 11-hydroxy metabolite is formed after both inhalation and oral dosing (20% and 100% of parent, respectively. THC is widely distributed, particularly to fatty tissues, but less than 1% of an administered dose reaches the brain, while the spleen and body fat are long-term storage sites. The elimination of THC and its many metabolites (from all routes occurs via the feces and urine. Metabolites persist in the urine and feces for severalweeks. Nabilone is well absorbed and the pharmacokinetics, although variable, appear to be linear from oral doses of 1 mg to 4 mg (these doses show a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 2 h. As with THC, there is a high first-pass effect, and the feces to urine ratio of excretion is similar to other cannabinoids. Pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic modelling with plasma THC versus cardiac and psychotropic effects show that after equilibrium is reached, the intensity of effect is proportional to the plasma THC profile. Clinical trials have found that nabilone produces less tachycardia and less euphoria than THC for a similar antiemetic response.

  11. Discriminating the effects of Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica: a web survey of medical cannabis users. (United States)

    Pearce, Daniel D; Mitsouras, Katherine; Irizarry, Kristopher J


    To evaluate the opinions of medical cannabis (MC) users on the effects of Cannabis indica vs. those of Cannabis sativa on conditions and symptoms through an online survey. Survey of 95 non-randomly assigned MC users. A two-sided chi-square test followed by Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparison and Fisher exact test were used to determine correlations. The Cronbach α was used to determine internal consistency. Announcements on 13 MC websites with links to Self-identified MC users. Web survey. Species effects were compared regarding health symptoms, conditions, purpose, route, and trust in product label. Trust in the purity, the route of administration, or the purpose (recreational vs. medicinal) did not differ between the two species. A preference for C. indica was statistically significant for pain management (p=0.001), helping with sedation (p=0.015), and sleep (p<0.001). C. sativa was preferred for euphoria (p<0.001) and enhancing energy (p=0.022). The conditions reaching statistical significance for C. indica preference were: nonmigraine headaches (p=0.042), glaucoma (p=0.036), neuropathy (p=0.024), spasticity (p=0.048), seizures (p=0.031), insomnia (p<0.001), and joint pain (p=0.048). For C. sativa, no conditions reached significance. The MC websites' descriptions of effects that agreed with the survey results are listed. Some conditions had very few respondents. The internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach α) was adequate for the condition scale but not for the symptom survey. In this anonymous Web survey, which had limitations, the two species had different effect associations on symptoms and conditions, possibly because of ingredient differences. Future surveys and subsequent prospective definitive trials are needed to confirm the findings.

  12. Analytical confirmation of lethal heroin overdose by the use of liquid chromatography methods

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    Đorđević Snežana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Heroin is diacetylated morphine. Its ability to induce euphoria has led to its frequent abuse, giving rise to psychological and physical dependence. It has a short half-life, of approximately 2−6 min. In the brain, heroin undergoes deacetylation to 6-monoacetylmorphine (6−MAM and morphine. Detection of 6-acetylmorphine in the urine is indicative of heroin use. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity and reliability of two analytical methods, a multicolumn liquid chromatography system with UV scanning detector (HPLCUV and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS in opiate determining in post mortem material. Methods. Post mortem samples (blood, urine and vitreous humor were analyzed by liquid chromatography with UV and MS detection. The samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with mixture chloroform-isopropanol (9:1. Separation was performed on C8 column with mobile phase composed of 55% acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (99:1 and 45% 20 mM ammonium acetate. Results. The analysis of blood samples, urine, and eye liquid by the use of multicolumn HPLC-UV method confirmed the presence of morphine in the samples of blood and urine, codeine only in urine, and 6-MAM in the samples of urine and eye liquid. Using LC-MS method morphine was confirmed in all of the samples, while codeine was confirmed in urine and in the sample of eye liquid. In the samples of eye liquid and urine 6-MAM was confirmed. Conclusion. For determination of opiates in post mortem material LC-MS technique is more sensitive and reliable as compared to multicolumn liquid chromatography.

  13. Fascination violence: on mind and brain of man hunters. (United States)

    Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland; Schauer, Maggie


    Why are savagery and violence so omnipresent among humans? We suggest that hunting behaviour is fascinating and attractive, a desire that makes temporary deprivation from physical needs, pain, sweat, blood and, ultimately, the willingness to kill tolerable and even appetitive. Evolutionary development into the "perversion" of the urge to hunt humans, that is to say the transfer of this hunt to members of one's own species, has been nurtured by the resultant advantage of personal and social power and dominance. While a breakdown of the inhibition towards intra-specific killing would endanger any animal species, controlled inhibition was enabled in humans in that higher regulatory systems, such as frontal lobe-based executive functions, prevent the involuntary derailment of hunting behaviour. If this control--such as in child soldiers for example--is not learnt, then brutality towards humans remains fascinating and appealing. Blood must flow in order to kill. It is hence an appetitive cue as is the struggling of the victim. Hunting for men, more rarely for women, is fascinating and emotionally arousing with the parallel release of testosterone, serotonin and endorphins, which can produce feelings of euphoria and alleviate pain. Bonding and social rites (e.g. initiation) set up the constraints for both hunting and violent disputes. Children learn which conditions legitimate aggressive behaviour and which not. Big game hunting as well as attack of other communities is more successful in groups--men also perceive it as more pleasurable. This may explain the fascination with gladiatorial combat, violent computer games but as well ritualized forms like football.

  14. Jezebel: Reconstructing a Critical Experiment from 60 Years Ago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Jezebel experiment of 1954-1955 was a very small, nearly-spherical, nearly-bare (unreflected), nearly-homogeneous assembly of plutonium alloyed with gallium. This experiment was used to determine the critical mass of spherical, bare, homogeneous Pu-alloy. In 1956, the critical mass of Pu-alloy was determined to be 16.45 ± 0.05 kg. The experiment was reevaluated in 1969 using logbooks from the 1950s and updated nuclear cross sections. The critical mass of Pu-alloy was determined to be 16.57 ± 0.10 kg. In 2013, the 239Pu Jezebel experiment was again reevaluated, this time using detailed geometry and materials models and modern nuclear cross sections in high-fidelity Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. Documentation from the 1950s was often inconsistent or missing altogether, and assumptions had to be made. The critical mass of Pu-alloy was determined to be 16.624 ± 0.075 kg. Historic documents were subsequently found that validated some of the 2013 assumptions and invalidated others. In 2016, the newly found information was used to once again reevaluate the 239Pu Jezebel experiment. The critical mass of Pu-alloy was determined to be 16.624 ± 0.065 kg. This talk will discuss each of these evaluations, focusing on the calculation of the uncertainty as well as the critical mass. We call attention to the ambiguity, consternation, despair, and euphoria involved in reconstructing the historic Jezebel experiment. This talk is quite accessible for undergraduate students as well as non-majors.

  15. User identified positive outcome expectancies of electronic cigarette use: A concept mapping study. (United States)

    Soule, Eric K; Maloney, Sarah F; Guy, Mignonne C; Eissenberg, Thomas; Fagan, Pebbles


    Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use is growing in popularity, but little is known about the perceived positive outcomes of ECIG use. This study used concept mapping (CM) to examine positive ECIG outcome expectancies. Sixty-three past 30-day ECIG users (38.1% female) between the ages of 18 and 64 (M = 37.8, SD = 13.3) completed a CM module. In an online program, participants provided statements that completed a prompt: "A specific positive, enjoyable, or exciting effect (i.e., physical or psychological) that I have experienced WHILE USING or IMMEDIATELY AFTER USING an electronic cigarette/electronic vaping device is. . . ." Participants (n = 35) sorted 123 statements into "piles" of similar content and rated (n = 43) each statement on a 7-point scale (1 = Definitely NOT a positive effect to 7 = Definitely a positive effect). A cluster map was created using data from the sorting task, and analysis indicated a 7 cluster model of positive ECIG use outcome expectancies: Therapeutic/Affect Regulation, High/Euphoria, Sensation Enjoyment, Perceived Health Effects, Benefits of Decreased Cigarette Use, Convenience, and Social Impacts. The Perceived Health Effects cluster was rated highest, although all mean ratings were greater than 4.69. Mean cluster ratings were compared, and females, younger adults, past 30-day cigarette smokers, users of more "advanced" ECIG devices, and nonlifetime (less than 100 lifetime cigarettes) participants rated certain clusters higher than comparison groups (ps < 0.05). ECIG users associate positive outcomes with ECIG use. ECIG outcome expectancies may affect product appeal and tobacco use behaviors and should be examined further to inform regulatory policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Challenges of Tobacco Control Program in Iran. (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Mohammadi, Younes; Mahmoodi, Azam


    This study assessed the status of cigarette marketing in Iran as well as the attitude of smokers toward smoking and the policies and tobacco control programs in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 3480 volunteer smokers in six provinces, using a stratified cluster random sampling method. The study population consisted of smokers who used at least one cigarette per day. The data collection tool was an anonymous self-administered questionnaire including basic information and 20 five-choice questions related to participants' attitude toward smoking habits (Cronbach's alpha; 79.73%.). The majority (66.9%) of participants started smoking at the age of 10 to 19 years and 61.1% used foreign cigarettes. Of 160 marketed brands, 38 (23.8%) were domestic and 122 (76.2%) were foreign, including 63 (39.3%) imported and 59 (36.9%) smuggled brands. Being tempted (25.0%), getting nervous (24.1%), and seeking euphoria (24.1%) were the most common reasons for restarting cigarette smoking after cessation. The majority of participants believed that smoking in public places was a violation of the rights of others and smoking should be avoided in such places. Smoking prevention programs should focus on adolescents as the most vulnerable age group. Raising the retail price of tobacco products through increasing taxes can reduce consumption, particularly among first starters and youth. However, increasing taxes and prices of tobacco products may be effective when simultaneous effective measures are implemented to eliminate all kinds of illicit trade in all forms of tobacco products.

  17. An overview of prodrug technology and its application for developing abuse-deterrent opioids. (United States)

    Gudin, Jeffrey A; Nalamachu, Srinivas R


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified prescription drug abuse and overdose deaths as an epidemic. Prescription drug overdose is now the leading cause of injury death, with rates that have more than doubled since 1999. This crisis has developed concurrently with the increased prescribing and availability analgesic drugs, especially opioids, resulting from an effort on the part of clinicians to address a critical need for improved pain assessment and treatment. Clinicians have recognized that oftentimes, opioid analgesics are one of the few remaining options for patients who suffer with severe pain. A 2015 fact sheet issued by the Office of National Drug Policy stated: "While we must ensure better access to prescription medications to alleviate suffering, it is also vital that we do all we can to reduce the diversion and abuse of pharmaceuticals." The US Food and Drug Administration has issued guidance that encourages the research and development of abuse-deterrent formulation of opioids which have the potential to curtail abuse. Included among the recommended formulations for development of abuse-deterrent opioids are prodrugs. Prodrugs are chemically modified versions of pharmacological agents that must undergo a biochemical conversion following administration, often by enzymatic cleavage, to free the active drug. Prodrugs may be inherently abuse-deterrent because they are inactive or significantly less active until conversion to the active drug. This requirement for conversion in the GI tract can modify the pharmacokinetic profile and eliminate or reduce the euphoria when abusers change the route of administration. Abusers often attempt to extract the active drug for injection or insufflation. Prodrugs can be designed to be resistant to crushing or dissolving. In this article, we review the concept of prodrugs and introduce and examine the potential of abuse-deterrent opioid prodrugs.

  18. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats. (United States)

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi


    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G(1)-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Over Hesperiaanse Melancholie: Eugène Nielen Marais en de Geschiedenis van een poëtische Gemoedsgesteldheid

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    van Luijk Ruben


    Full Text Available The article gives a brief ‘idea history’ of Hesperian melancholy a.k.a. Hesperian depression, the fleeting state of dejection that some humans and animals experience at dusk. The term was apparently coined by the South African poet and naturalist Eugene Marais (1871-1936, who noticed the phenomenon during his field observations of baboons. Marais' observations of primates were in the first place an attempt to shed more light on the evolutionary roots of the human psyche and its afflictions - not in the least his own. A personal focus seems probable in his notes on the use of euphoria-inducing substances among animals and humans, which are an evident reflection of his own morphine addiction; but also in his writings about Hesperian depression. During his lifetime, Marais only published about Hesperian depression twice, once in a very concise article in English, and once in more elaborate form in Afrikaans. The term ‘Hesperian depression’ only became more current when his manuscript on primate behaviour, The Soul of the Ape, was posthumously published in 1963. Since then, the term and its description sometimes appear in (popular publications of paleobiologists and scholars of the evolution of human behaviour. In psychology and psychiatry, the term was introduced by the eminent American psychoanalyst William G. Niederlander, who presented it in a 1971 article in Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association as an idea of his own. It is evident, however, that he took his cue from Marais, who thus was posthumously plagiarized.

  20. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on synthetic cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debruyne D


    Full Text Available Danièle Debruyne,1,2 Reynald Le Boisselier1 1Centre for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence - Addictovigilance (CEIP-A, 2Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre Côte de Nacre, Caen, France Abstract: New psychoactive drugs that have appeared over the last decade are typically dominated by cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids (SCs. SCs have been emerging as recreational drugs because they mimic the euphoria effect of cannabis while still being legal. Sprayed on natural herb mixtures, SCs have been primarily sold as “herbal smoking blends” or “herbal incense” under brand names like “Spice” or “K2”. Currently, SCs pure compounds are available from websites for the combination with herbal materials or for the use in e-cigarettes. For the past 5 years, an ever increasing number of compounds, representative of different chemical classes, have been promoted and now represent a large assortment of new popular drugs of abuse, which are difficult to properly identify. Their legal status varies by country with many government institutions currently pushing for their control. The in vitro binding to CB1/CB2 receptors is usually well-known and considerable differences have been found in the CB1 versus CB2 selectivity and potency within the different SCs, with several structure-activity relations being evident. Desired effects by CB1 agonist users are relaxation/recreative, however, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or psychiatric/neurological side effects are commonly reported. At present there is no specific antidote existing if an overdose of designer drugs was to occur, and no curative treatment has been approved by health authorities. Management of acute toxic effects is mainly symptomatic and extrapolated from experience with cannabis. Keywords: synthetic cannabinoids, chemistry, analysis, pharmacology, toxicology, dependence, medical care

  1. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction]. (United States)

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok


    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:537–544

  3. Specific behavioral and cellular adaptations induced by chronic morphine are reduced by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Hakimian

    Full Text Available Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA, could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and

  4. Behavioral and psychological symptoms and cognitive decline in patients with amnestic MCI and mild AD: a two-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Donati, Alessia; Popp, Julius; Rossier, Jérôme; von Gunten, Armin


    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been defined as a transitional state between normal aging and dementia. In many cases, MCI represents an early stage of developing cognitive impairment. Patients diagnosed with MCI do not meet the criteria for dementia as their general intellect and everyday activities are preserved, although minor changes in instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) may occur. However, they may exhibit significant behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms (BPS), also frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we wondered to what extent specific BPS are associated with cognitive decline in participants with MCI or AD. Our sample consisted of 164 participants, including 46 patients with amnestic (single or multi-domain) MCI and 54 patients with AD, as well as 64 control participants without cognitive disorders. Global cognitive performance, BPS, and ADL were assessed using validated clinical methods at baseline and at two-year follow-up. The BPS variability over the follow-up period was more pronounced in the MCI group than in patients with AD: some BPS improve, others occur newly or worsen, while others still remain unchanged. Moreover, specific changes in BPS were associated with a rapid deterioration of the global cognitive level in MCI patients. In particular, an increase of euphoria, eating disorders, and aberrant motor behavior, as well as worsened sleep quality, predicted a decline in cognitive functioning. Our findings confirm a higher variability of BPS over time in the MCI group than in AD patients. Moreover, our results provide evidence of associations between specific BPS and cognitive decline in the MCI group that might suggest a risk of conversion of individuals with amnestic MCI to AD.

  5. The impact of World and European Football Cups on stroke in the population of Dijon, France: a longitudinal study from 1986 to 2006. (United States)

    Aboa-Eboulé, Corine; Béjot, Yannick; Cottenet, Jonathan; Khellaf, Mehni; Jacquin, Agnès; Durier, Jérôme; Rouaud, Olivier; Hervieu-Begue, Marie; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Giroud, Maurice; Quantin, Catherine


    Acute stress may trigger vascular events. We aimed to investigate whether important football competitions involving the French football team increased the occurrence of stroke. We retrospectively retrieved data of fatal and nonfatal stroke during 4 World Football Cups (1986, 1998, 2002, and 2006) and 4 European Championships (1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004), based on data from the population-based Stroke Registry of Dijon, France. One period of exposure was analyzed: the period of competition extended to 15 days before and after the competitions. The number of strokes was compared between exposed and unexposed corresponding periods of preceding and following years using Poisson regression. A total of 175 strokes were observed during the exposed periods compared with 192 and 217 strokes in the unexposed preceding and following periods. Multivariate regression analyses showed an overall 30% significant decrease in stroke numbers between periods of competition and unexposed periods of following year (risk ratio (RR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6; P = .029) but not with that of preceding year (RR = 1.1; 95% CI = .9-1.3; P = .367). This was mostly explained by a 40% decrease in stroke numbers during European Championships, compared with the unexposed following periods (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; P = .044) in stratified analyses by football competitions. Watching European football competitions had a positive impact in the city of Dijon with a decrease of stroke numbers. European championship is possibly associated with higher television audience and long-lasting euphoria although other factors may be involved. Further studies using nationwide data are recommended to validate these findings. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Migration myths and imaginaries in the reception of television in Morocco / Mitos e imaginarios migratorios en la recepción de la televisión en Marruecos

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    Lucía Benítez Eyzaguirre


    Full Text Available The analysis of the discourses of Moroccan candidates to migrate regarding the images offered by Western television shows a mythical imaginary of life opportunities in the North. Fieldwork1 done in Morocco during two years tried to gather varied information from 204 informers from cities as well as rural areas. The results were analyzed with the help of Atlas.ti, a qualitative software which allows for the creation of mental maps of the opinions and discourses of interviewees. In the process preceding the decision to migrate, candidates try to confirm the images seen on TV through social conversations and the experience of others, in a climate of collective euphoria. Moroccan migrants then move towards an imaginary and idealized place. The idea of mobility is systematically linked to the Western world and to quality of life, social capital and consumption –all of which become mythical elements in a reaction to what are seen as poor expectations offered by life in Morocco.A través de los mitos de la migración se favorece los movimientos de mano de obra necesarios para la economía y también la percepción del fenómeno, el cual se consolida en construcciones legales, políticas y laborales. La distancia entre la producción televisiva y el contexto de la recepción se transforma en un espacio de mitos, ‘paisajes mediáticos’ e imaginarios sobre el Norte y la opulencia. Lo ‘imaginario’, como elemento de la comunicación y de la construcción de la realidad, es central en la globalidad porque organiza las relaciones, los horizontes y el impulso a la acción.

  7. The genealogy of the clinical syndrome of mania: signs and symptoms described in psychiatric texts from 1880 to 1900. (United States)

    Kendler, K S


    In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s.d.) of 15.9 (2.3) and 17.0 (2.3) of the characteristic symptoms, respectively (p = 0.12). The frequency with which individual symptoms were reported was substantially correlated in these two periods (r = +0.64). Mendel's 1881 monograph, Kraepelin's first description of mania in 1883 and the entry for mania in Tuke's Dictionary of Psychological Medicine (1892) described a mean (s.d.) of 19 (1.7) of these characteristic symptoms. These descriptions of mania often contained phenomenologically rich descriptions of euphoria, hyperactivity, grandiosity, flight of ideas, and poor judgment. They also emphasized several features not in DSM criteria including changes in character, moral standards and physical appearance, and increased sense of humor and sexual drive. Fifteen authors described key symptoms/signs of mania most reporting elevated mood, motoric hyperactivity and accelerated mental processes. By 1880, the syndrome of mania had been largely stabilized in its modern form. In the formation of his concept of manic-depressive illness, Kraepelin utilized the syndrome of mania as described in the psychiatric community in which he was trained.

  8. Single-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Joerger, Markus; Wilkins, Justin; Fagagnini, Stefania; Baldinger, Reto; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Schneider, Ursula; Goldman, Bea; Weber, Markus


    Cannabinoids exert neuroprotective and symptomatic effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tolerability of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in ALS patients. Nine patients received THC single oral doses of 5mg and 10mg, separated by a wash-out period of two weeks. Blood samples for the determination of THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH) and hydroxy-THC (THC-OH) were taken up to 8 hours after intake. Adverse events were assessed by visual analogue scales (VAS). Plasma concentrations of the active metabolite THC-OH were submitted to sequential pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic population modeling on individual heart rate as a proxy for THC's cardiovasculatory effects. Drowsiness, euphoria, orthostasis, sleepiness, vertigo and weakness were significantly more frequent in patients receiving 10mg compared to 5 mg THC. A marked interindividual variability was found for the absorption of oral THC (84%) and elimination of THC-COOH (45%). PK data did not support any clinically relevant deviation from linear PK in the investigated range of concentrations. Plasma concentrations of THC-OH were positively correlated with the individual heart rate. An E(max-model) was successfully fitted to individual heart rate, with a THC-OH plasma concentration of 3.2 x 10(-4) μmol/L for EC(50) and an E(max) of 93 bpm for heart rate. The higher 10mg dose of THC was dose-limiting in patients with ALS. High interindividual PK variability requires individuell titration of THC for potential therapeutic use in patients with ALS.

  9. Rising to the Forensic Analytical Challenges Associated with the Global Increase in Seizures of Cathinone-derived "Legal Highs" (United States)

    Sutcliffe, O.; Daeid, N. Nic; Kemp, H. F.; Meier-Augenstein, W.


    Substances touted as "legal highs" and known by names such as "ivory wave" or "NRG-1" mimic the effects of illegal drugs such as amphetamine, cocaine and ecstasy. Sold as "bath salts", plant food or incense these so-called "designer drugs" can be dangerous but despite this health danger many have not yet been made illegal and are difficult to detect with current drug tests. These "bath salts" can cause euphoria, paranoia, anxiety and hallucinations. They often contain mephedrone, a synthetic compound structurally related to methcathinone, which is found in Khat - a plant that, like mephedrone itself, is illegal to possess in many countries. "Bath salts" are usually labelled as being "not for human consumption" and the name "bath salts" is used by those who sell these substances as a way of circumventing legislation when supplying them. Mephedrone (a synthetic cathinone) was legal (or at least not illegal) in the UK until April 2010 when it was classified as a Class B, Schedule 1 substance (UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971). The current challenges to law enforcement agencies are: (1) Identification and quantification of new and emerging illicit substances. (2) Tracing or linking product to precursor (i.e. source identification). Here, we present as a potential way of tracing the source of the raw materials, and consequently providing information as to who is making the "bath salts", which is based on identification of products and/or adulterants/excipients by GCMS in combination with isotopic profiling of both precursor and product to determine characteristic shifts or linkages in isotopic composition between starting material used, synthetic processes employed and resultant drug produced.

  10. [Nosologic aspects of personality change due to head trauma]. (United States)

    Pelegrín-Valero, C A; Gómez-Hernández, R; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M; Fernández-Guinea, S D; Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    Personality change due to head injury is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric posttraumatic disorders and causes significant impairment in familial, social or occupational functioning. To study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of personality changes secondary to severe closed head injuries, according to DSM-IV criteria. Fifty-five patients (aged 15-65 years) with severe head trauma were studied during the chronic stage (11-3 months) with the following instruments: the Revised Iowa Collateral Head Injury Interview for the assessment of posttraumatic frontal symptoms, the Standardized Polyvalent Psychiatric Interview of Lobo et al, assessment of premorbid personality and its exacerbation, and the Scale of Aggressiveness of Yudofsky. Thirty-three patients (60% of the sample) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for personality change due to head injury; two thirds of them were combined or mixed type, which consists in the association of two or more types specified in the DSM-IV. The most prevalent types were apathic, unstable, disinhibited, aggressive, which are related with lesions in prefrontal cortex. There were nine patients with 'unspecified' symptoms, such as 'inappropriate euphoria' and 'poor insight', and other symptoms related to executive dysfunction. One third of cases of personality changes were related to premorbid features; this fact argues against the exclusion of the criterium 'excerbation of premorbid personality traits' in DSM-IV. Only one third of posttraumatic personality changes can be classified according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The high prevalence of symptoms related to deficit in self-awareness and executive dysfunction suggest the need of further investigations about nosology in this field.

  11. Why the bankers suddenly love Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, D.D.


    In early 1977, the state-owned oil company in Mexico, Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) revealed that it had made huge new discoveries and was ready to exploit the find. Mexico's economy had been in trouble for a number of years. The government had been searching for money to borrow. But now, bankers from all over the world were offering Mexico bank loans - more than it needed - and Mexico was having to determine its best money buy. Oil did not produce the boomy atmosphere by itself; much of the credit goes to President Jose Lopez Portillo. He is now half-way through a 6-year term and has restored confidence in Mexico. He has tempered the euphoria from oilfields with tough, conservative economic policies. He scaled down public spending, developed only 4 new industrial centers in comparison to 50 recommended by the former president, and got the unions to hold wage demands in check. The global aspects of Mexico's financial dealings in the last several years are reviewed, emphasizing the dealings with European banks which account for about 60% of the government's deals. The more significant question now seems to be whether the government can hold to its plan of restrained growth in oil production. The target calls for moving up sharply to about 2.25 million barrels a day by the end of 1980, followed by a leveling off for several years. In sum, Mexico is no longer a second-rate player in the financial markets of the world. (MCW)

  12. Imaging opiate receptors with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wong, D.F.; Links, J.M.; Burns, H.D.; Kuhar, M.J.; Snyder, S.H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.


    Opiate receptors exist in the mammalian brain and are thought to meditate the diverse pharmacological actions of the opiates, such as analgesia, euphoria, and sedation. The 4-carbomethoxyl derivatives of fentanyl, such as lofentanil and R31833 (4-carbomethoxyfentanyl) bind to the opiate receptor with high affinity. C-11 R31833 was synthesized by reacting C-11 methyl iodide with the appropriate carboxylate. Male ICR mice were injected intravenously with C-11 R31833 (, killed 30 minutes later, and the brains rapidly dissected. The thalami, striata, and cerebral cortex are rich in opiate receptors, but the cerebellum contains a very low concentration of opiate receptors. The thalamus/cerebellum and striatum/cerebellum activity ratios, calculated per mg of wet tissue, were 4.1 and 5.2 respectively. Coinjection of 5mg/kg naloxone reduced the ratios to 1.1, which indicates that the preferential localization of C-11 R31833 in the thalami and striata is due to binding to opiate is due to binding to opiate receptors. A 22 kg anesthetized male baboon was imaged using the NeuroECAT after injection of 18.9 mCi of C-11 R13833 (0.50, specific activity 616 Ci/mmole at time of injection). From 15-70 minutes after injection preferential accumulation of activity could be seen in the thalami, caudate nuclei, and cerebral cortex and, conversely, low activity was demonstrated in the cerebellum. At one hour postinjection the maximum measured caudate/cerebellum activity ratio per pixel was 2.9. For the NeuroECAT the recovery coefficient for the baboon caudate is ca. 0.2-0.3, and therefore the actual caudate/cerebellum ratio is ca. 10-15.

  13. The nuclear research and technology development in the GDR from 1945 to 1965. Framework conditions, policy of the State party and implementation; Die Kernforschung und Kerntechnologieentwicklung in der DDR 1945-1965. Rahmenbedingungen, Politik der Staatspartei und Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Olaf


    The study follows the development of the nuclear research and nuclear technology in the GDR between 1945 and 1965. The GDR as an industrial country was highly dependent on brown coal, which was the only available primal energy source in the former GDR. Therefore the civil use of nuclear power called the attention of the executive and party leadership. This consideration was supported by the fact of large uranium deposits on the territory of former East Germany. After the foundation of the GDR, a first attempt to establish an independent nuclear power industry had failed. From 1955 on, the efforts in this direction have been stepped up. Despite the enormous effort of material and human resources the development of an independent East German nuclear industry never got off the ground. In 1965 it was decided to continue the buildup of an East German nuclear industry on base of the nuclear technology of the former Soviet Union. This decision marked a turning point in the East German energy policy and the end to ambitious plans of an independent nuclear industry. The research shows the frame, the preconditions and objectives of the development of the East German nuclear industry on the base of relevant documents from the government of the former GDR, the political machine of the Communist Party (SED) and the Academy of Science Berlin. The research is implementing the context of international nuclear research and technical progress against the background of the Cold War and the international nuclear euphoria as well as within the range of global politics. The discussion focusses on two points. Along with high expectations to an independent energy production and an exporting nuclear industry, the Communist party aimed for clear political results. The author will show the connection between plans of the executive and party leadership of the SED for an ambitious nuclear energy development and the international acceptance of the East German State in the German-German rivalry.

  14. Neurobiology of opioid dependence in creating addiction vulnerability [version 1; referees: 3 approved

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    Christopher J. Evans


    Full Text Available Opioid drugs are potent modulators of many physiological and psychological processes. When given acutely, they can elicit the signature responses of euphoria and analgesia that societies have coveted for centuries. Repeated, or chronic, use of opioids induces adaptive or allostatic changes that modify neuronal circuitry and create an altered normality — the “drug-dependent” state. This state, at least that exhibited by those maintained continuously on long-acting opioid drugs such as methadone or buprenorphine, is generally indistinguishable from the drug-naïve state for most overt behaviors. The consequences of the allostatic changes (cellular, circuit, and system adaptations that accompany the drug-dependent state are revealed during drug withdrawal. Drug cessation triggers a temporally orchestrated allostatic re-establishment of neuronal systems, which is manifested as opposing physiological and psychological effects to those exhibited by acute drug intoxication. Some withdrawal symptoms, such as physical symptoms (sweating, shaking, and diarrhea resolve within days, whilst others, such as dysphoria, insomnia, and anxiety, can linger for months, and some adaptations, such as learned associations, may be established for life. We will briefly discuss the cellular mechanisms and neural circuitry that contribute to the opioid drug-dependent state, inferring an emerging role for neuroinflammation. We will argue that opioid addictive behaviors result from a learned relationship between opioids and relief from an existing or withdrawal-induced anxiogenic and/or dysphoric state. Furthermore, a future stressful life event can recall the memory that opioid drugs alleviate negative affect (despair, sadness, and anxiety and thereby precipitate craving, resulting in relapse. A learned association of relief of aversive states would fuel drug craving in vulnerable people living in an increasingly stressful society. We suggest that this route to

  15. O jovem Barth como leitor de Dostoievski (The young Barth as a reader of Dostoievsky - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n29p196

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    Jimmy Sudário Cabral


    Full Text Available O artigo quer avaliar a presença das intuições religiosas de Dostoievski na escritura teológica do jovem Barth. Procuramos demonstrar os elementos fundamentais de sua trajetória teológica e, sobretudo, seu contato com Eduard Thurnysen, autor de uma obra sobre Dostoiévski, que exerceu uma influência determinante no horizonte hermenêutico que deu forma à postura teológica do Barth de Römerbrief, obra que instaurou uma negatividade desconstrutora de toda euforia religiosa do humanismo moderno. Partimos do pressuposto que Dostoievski determinou a intelligentsia religiosa do cristianismo em proporções pouco explicitadas, e a obra do jovem Barth representou parte de uma reflexão teológica que encontrou no autor russo os fundamentos de um cristianismo trágico que emancipou-se das ilusões de uma auto-idolatria moderna e eclesiástica. Palavras-chave: Dostoiévski. Barth. Humanismo. Negatividade. Niilismo.   Abstract This article aims to analizes the presence of Dostoievski's religious insights in the theological writing of the young Barth. We tried to demonstrate the key elements of his theological career and, especially, his contact with Eduardo Thurnysen, author of a book on Dostoievski, who exercised a decisive influence on the hermeneutical horizon that shaped the theological posture of Romerbrief's Barth - a work that established a negativity that desconstructed all religious euphoria of modern humanism. We assumed that Dostoyevsky has determined a religious intelligenstsia of Christianity in proportions rarely made ​​explicit. The work of the young Barth represented part of a theological reflection which found in the Russian author the foundations of a tragic Christianity that has emancipated Barth from illusions of a modern and ecclesiastical self-idolatry Keywords: Dostoievsky. Barth. Humanism. Negativity. Nihilism. 

  16. Viewing pictures of a romantic partner reduces experimental pain: involvement of neural reward systems.

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    Jarred Younger


    Full Text Available The early stages of a new romantic relationship are characterized by intense feelings of euphoria, well-being, and preoccupation with the romantic partner. Neuroimaging research has linked those feelings to activation of reward systems in the human brain. The results of those studies may be relevant to pain management in humans, as basic animal research has shown that pharmacologic activation of reward systems can substantially reduce pain. Indeed, viewing pictures of a romantic partner was recently demonstrated to reduce experimental thermal pain. We hypothesized that pain relief evoked by viewing pictures of a romantic partner would be associated with neural activations in reward-processing centers. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we examined fifteen individuals in the first nine months of a new, romantic relationship. Participants completed three tasks under periods of moderate and high thermal pain: 1 viewing pictures of their romantic partner, 2 viewing pictures of an equally attractive and familiar acquaintance, and 3 a word-association distraction task previously demonstrated to reduce pain. The partner and distraction tasks both significantly reduced self-reported pain, although only the partner task was associated with activation of reward systems. Greater analgesia while viewing pictures of a romantic partner was associated with increased activity in several reward-processing regions, including the caudate head, nucleus accumbens, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--regions not associated with distraction-induced analgesia. The results suggest that the activation of neural reward systems via non-pharmacologic means can reduce the experience of pain.

  17. Pharmacovigilance in hospice/palliative care: the net immediate and short-term effects of dexamethasone for anorexia. (United States)

    Hatano, Yutaka; Moroni, Matteo; Wilcock, Andrew; Quinn, Stephen; Csikós, Ágnes; Allan, Simon G; Agar, Meera; Clark, Katherine; Clayton, Josephine M; Currow, David C


    Loss of appetite is prevalent in palliative care and distressing for patients and families. Therapies include corticosteroids or progestogens. This study explores the net effect of dexamethasone on anorexia. Prospective data were collected when dexamethasone was started for anorexia as part of routine care. The National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (NCICTCAE) Likert scales assessed severity of anorexia and immediate and short-term harms at 2 time points: baseline and 7 days. This study (41 sites, 8 countries) collected data (July 2013 to July 2014) from 114 patients (mean age 71 (SD 11), 96% with cancer). Median Australian-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale was 50% (range 20-70). Mean baseline NCICTCAE anorexia score was 2.7 (SD 0.6; median 3). 6 patients died by day 7. Of 108 evaluable patients, 74 (68.5%; 95% CI 59.0% to 76.7%) reported ≥1 reduction anorexia scores by day 7, of whom 30 were 0. Mean dexamethasone dose on day 7 was 4.1 mg/day (SD 3.4; median 4; range 0-46 mg). 24 patients reported ≥1 harms (32.4% CI 22.6% to 44.1%; insomnia n=10, depression n=7, euphoria n=7 and hyperglycaemia n=7). Of 24 patients with no benefit, 10 reported ≥1 harms. This study shows positive and negative effects of 7 days of dexamethasone as an appetite stimulant in patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses. Identifying clinicodemographic characteristics of people most at risk of harms with no benefit is a crucial next step. Longer term follow-up will help to understand longer term and cumulative harms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. Humphry Davy, nitrous oxide, the Pneumatic Institution, and the Royal Institution. (United States)

    West, John B


    Humphry Davy (1778-1829) has an interesting place in the history of respiratory gases because the Pneumatic Institution in which he did much of his early work signaled the end of an era of discovery. The previous 40 years had seen essentially all of the important respiratory gases described, and the Institution was formed to exploit their possible value in medical treatment. Davy himself is well known for producing nitrous oxide and demonstrating that its inhalation could cause euphoria and heightened imagination. His thinking influenced the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, and perhaps we can claim that our discipline colored the poetry of the Romantic Movement. Davy was also the first person to measure the residual volume of the lung. The Pneumatic Institution was the brainchild of Thomas Beddoes, who had trained in Edinburgh under Joseph Black, who discovered carbon dioxide. Later Davy moved to the Royal Institution in London formed, in part, to diffuse the knowledge of scientific discoveries to the general public. Davy was a brilliant lecturer and developed an enthusiastic following. In addition he exploited the newly described electric battery to discover several new elements. He also invented the safety lamp in response to a series of devastating explosions in coal mines. Ultimately Davy became president of the Royal Society, a remarkable honor for somebody with such humble origins. Another of his important contributions was to introduce Michael Faraday (1791-1867) to science. Faraday became one of the most illustrious British scientists of all time. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality. (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale


    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Poppers Maculopathy: Complete Restitution of Macular Changes in OCT after Drug Abstinence. (United States)

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Mai, Christian; Joussen, Antonia M; Bergholz, Richard


    "Poppers" is a slang term for a group of alkyl nitrites that are used as recreational drugs. Their inhalative intoxication leads to muscle relaxation, analgesia, and euphoria. Maculopathy is a rare but serious side-effect. Clinical, imaging, and electrophysiological findings of seven patients with maculopathy after consumption of poppers were presented. All seven patients were male with a median age of 35 years (range 28-45 years), the median duration of periodical poppers use until the onset of symptoms was 9.8 years (one day to 25 years). Five of seven patients were HIV-positive, one patient was negative, and the HIV-status of one patient was unknown. Median average of visual acuity at presentation was 20/30 in each eye. In all patients, optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed pathognomonic alterations of the outer foveal retina. One patient showed an almost complete restitution of the maculopathy six months after cessation of drug use and following the oral intake of Lutein. Imaging alterations returned to normal and visual acuity recovered from 20/50 and 20/30 (right and left eye, respectively) to 20/20 on both eyes. Follow up of two other cases showed no relevant functional decline or improvement. Toxic maculopathy due to the consumption of poppers is an important differential diagnosis in acute visual loss without clinico-morphological correlate. Optical coherence tomography is the only reliable diagnostic tool in these cases. Complete recovery of visual function and macular morphology is rare, even after cessation of drug abuse. Oral lutein therapy may have a beneficial effect.

  1. Politisasi Birokrasi Pemerintahan Desa Pada Era Reformasi

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    R Widodo Triputro


    Full Text Available Public bureaucracy holds a strategic position in government implementation as well as to effort of democratization and autonomy in local and village government scope. Professional bureaucracy apparatus intensely support the increase of public service quality, particular yfor social empowerment as the realization of local and village autonomy essence. The concept of bureaucracy neutrality needs to be bought into reality in order to urge a bureaucracy that more oriented to its main function, namely as public service apparatus. Long history oflndonesian bureaucracy reflects the occuring bureaucracy politization by government regime, with the result that all bureaucracy's line become an administration tool in performing is authority centralization. As the consequence, service tends to be addressed to government (patron by neglecting public service function. It includes in village government scope, in which bureaucracy becomes a political machine, meanwlile serves as an effective controlling tool that limits social access to public arena. The outcome of case study conducted in one village of Bantul Regency with data resource was gained from government official and prominent figures both in regency or village government area, reveals that bureaucracy politization in village government nowdays is much stronger than under new orde era. On the pretext of democratization and social empowerment, government (red : regent and his political party performs a set of bureaucracy politization in village government. With limited village resource condition, politic euphoria, and conflict as the result of election proces of village government bureaucracy apparatus, government intervences village government and its community. The patron-client relation is between the government with village government and its community. It is evidenced that bureaucracy politization of villlage government is re-carried out, among others is the estabilish of "Paguyuban Pamong" with its


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    Rr. Arielia Yustisiana


    Full Text Available The research aimed to discuss the humanity as seen through metaphor in Robert Frost‘s ―Nothing Gold Can Stay‖. The objective of the research as to portray the metaphor dealing with humanity in Robert Frost‘s ―Nothing Gold Can Stay‖. In analyzing a poem, the writer needed more concern with the sense devices in understanding poetry. The main theories that were used to analyze the data were the theory of figures of speech, that is, metaphor. Furthermore, the descriptive method was used to analyze the data, and the technique of collecting data was library research. There were two approaches used in the analysis. They were structural approach and formalist approach. In the poem entitled "Nothing Gold Can Stay", the speaker uses figurative language, like metaphor, to talk about nature. It means that what the speaker says about nature can be broadened to figuratively say something about humanity. The finding of the research was the most significant meaning could be taken away from "Nothing Gold Can Stay" is that, nothing gold can stay. The most beautiful things in life often had the least longevity. The poem used the examples of spring blooms, the Garden of Eden, and sunrise to get this point across, leaving the readers to think about all the things in life that was so wonderful and so transient. Whether it was the euphoria of winning a soccer game, or the youth of our minds and bodies, people experienced something wonderful that had faded away incredibly fast.

  3. Role of hypocretin/orexin receptor blockade on drug-taking and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) associated with low-effort self-administration of cathinone-derived 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in rats. (United States)

    Simmons, Steven J; Martorana, Rose; Philogene-Khalid, Helene; Tran, Fionya H; Gentile, Taylor A; Xu, Xinyan; Su, Shu; Rawls, Scott M; Muschamp, John W


    Synthetic psychostimulant abuse, including cathinone-derived 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), continues to increase in many countries. Similar to cocaine but with greater potency, MDPV elicits a transient sympathomimetic response by blocking cellular uptake of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE)-administration in some users is reported as euphoria-inducing much like cocaine and amphetamine. Pharmacological agents that disrupt excitatory transmission onto midbrain DA-producing neurons, including hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/ox) receptor antagonists, present attractive targets to aide abstinence maintenance by reducing psychostimulant-associated reward and reinforcement. The present study sought to assess the degree to which suvorexant, a dual hcrt/ox receptor antagonist, influences drug-taking as well as ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) associated with MDPV self-administration. Rats were trained to self-administer MDPV (~0.03 mg/kg/inf, 3-s) for 14 days under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement, and effects of suvorexant (0, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) on drug-taking was assessed. USVs were recorded during a 30-min pre-lever period as well as during 2-h of MDPV self-administration. We observed that suvorexant modestly suppressed the number of MDPV infusions earned. Notably, we observed that suvorexant reduced 50-kHz USVs associated with pre- and post-lever time-points but did not noticeably alter call type profiles. Upon comparison of the two measures, we observed trending positive associations between suvorexant-induced changes in drug-taking and 50-kHz USVs. Results from this exploratory study provide support for the following: (1) studying how suvorexant may provide benefit to humans with stimulant use disorders, (2) identifying a potential role for orexin transmission in cathinone abuse, and (3) further interrogating the potential utility of rat USVs to predict drug consumption in preclinical models of substance use disorders.

  4. Effect of compression rate on use of trimix to ameliorate HPNS in man to 686 m (2250 ft). (United States)

    Bennett, P B; Coggin, R; McLeod, M


    Previous man dives, in a series designed to evaluate the physiological effects of helium, nitrogen, and oxygen (trimix), investigated the comparative effects of 5% vs. 10% nitrogen with fast compression (12 h 20 min) to 460 m (1509 ft) and subsequent compression over 2.5 d to 650 m (2132 ft). In 1981 three divers were compressed twice as slowly as for these earlier dives to 650 m over a period of 6 d 8 h using 10% N2 in heliox. An extensive series of studies were made over 4 d 15 h at 650 m before further compression to 686 m (2250 ft) for a stay of 24 h with extensive tests of psychological and neurophysiological performance, pulmonary function, reflex, Doppler, and other studies. High pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS) tremors and EEG theta activity increases were effectively controlled with no nausea, vomiting, or somnolence (microsleep). Some euphoria was present. At 686 m there was a 20% to 30% impairment of concentration and attention; otherwise the physical condition of the divers was fine and they completed all tasks without difficulty. Slow compression prevented the initial large performance decrement of 40% to 50% on Day 1 as found in previous fast-compression dives. Otherwise the performance tests showed much the same decrement of 15% to 20% seen in earlier dives; deeper than 570 m (1870 ft), however, the addition test was worse, with a decrement of 35%. The results are discussed with respect to the previous two dives with faster compression, and the possible nonlinearity of nitrogen antagonism of HPNS is considered.

  5. Clinical and psychological characteristics of propofol abusers in Korea: a survey of propofol abuse in 38, non-healthcare professionals. (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Noh, Yeon-Keun; Jung, Ho-Sang; Han, Soon-Young; Park, Chan-Hye; Choi, Byung Moon; Noh, Gyu-Jeong


    The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of propofol abuse based on the results of a survey analysis of abusers among non-healthcare professionals in Korea. Thirty-eight propofol abusers were questioned between October and December 2010, and were enrolled and voluntarily participated in a structured survey consisting of an interview and completing a previously prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into three distinct parts: part 1 dealt with the history of propofol abuse; part 2 highlighted the problems caused by propofol abuse; and part 3 enquired regarding demographics of abusers. Thirty-one (81.6%) of the 38 interviewees abused propofol for more than one year. During the last 12 months, 34 (89.0%) received propofol at two or three times a week. The minimum and maximum amounts of propofol (median, range) administered each time were 500 (100, 1000) and 2000 (500, 4000) mg, respectively. Stress relief and the maintenance of a sense of well-being were quoted the most important reasons for the first-time administration of propofol and its subsequent abuse, respectively. The majority of abusers (36.0, 97.3%) reported a sense of pleasure or euphoria at the time of their propofol injection. Withdrawal symptoms occurred in five abusers (13.2%). Thirteen (36.1%) reported disruptions in their work life. None of the respondents had previously admitted to and or reported abuse of any other controlled substances. These results provided reference data for the regulation of propofol in Korea as a controlled substance and may also be of interest to international agencies in other countries.

  6. Early signal of diverted use of tropicamide eye drops in France. (United States)

    Ponté, Camille; Pi, Christian; Palmaro, Aurore; Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse


    Tropicamide is a mydriatic drug used as eye-drops for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. From 2013, a diverted use by intravenous route has been suspected in Eastern Europe in opioids users. To date, no signal of misuse has been identified in France. The aims of this study were to investigate any early signals of a diverted use of tropicamide eye drops and to collect information regarding motives for the misuse and tropicamide-induced effects. Information was obtained at three levels: (1) at regional level (Midi-Pyrénées area), from reimbursement data and pharmacists' reports on suspicious requests; (2) at national level: from reimbursement data and prescriptions suggesting possible abuse from the OSIAP (Ordonnances Suspectes, Indicateur d'Abus Possible) survey; and (3) at international level: from VigiBase(®) reports and Web sources. Beta-blocker eye-drops were used as comparators. In France, in 2014-2015, 17 (0.91%, 95% CI [0.53-1.46%]) falsified prescriptions involving tropicamide were identified in the OSIAP survey (compared with 0%, 95% CI [0-0.19%] for beta-blockers). Moreover, 37 other suspicious prescriptions were presented in 2015 (notified in 2016). In Midi-Pyrénées, seven patients aged 35-49 were reimbursed for 19-45 vials of 10 ml, in a year. Since September 2014, the regional Addictovigilance Centre has received 91 notifications of suspicious requests to obtain tropicamide. In VigiBase(®) , two cases were identified but none in France. An increased interest in tropicamide-related Internet searches was observed from Russia and Ukraine. These results represent the first early warnings of a tropicamide diverted use in France. Tropicamide abusers would seek euphoria or hallucinations. The high doses involved in intravenous administration could lead to serious complications. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Curious cases: Altered dose-response relationships in addiction genetics. (United States)

    Uhl, George R; Drgonova, Jana; Hall, F Scott


    Dose-response relationships for most addictive substances are "inverted U"-shaped. Addictive substances produce both positive features that include reward, euphoria, anxiolysis, withdrawal-relief, and negative features that include aversion, dysphoria, anxiety and withdrawal symptoms. A simple model differentially associates ascending and descending limbs of dose-response curves with rewarding and aversive influences, respectively. However, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnoses of substance dependence fail to incorporate dose-response criteria and don't directly consider balances between euphoric and dysphoric drug effects. Classical genetic studies document substantial heritable influences on DSM substance dependence. Linkage and genome-wide association studies identify modest-sized effects at any locus. Nevertheless, clusters of SNPs within selected genes display 10(-2)>p>10(-8) associations with dependence in many independent samples. For several of these genes, evidence for cis-regulatory, level-of-expression differences supports the validity of mouse models in which levels of expression are also altered. This review documents surprising, recently defined cases in which convergent evidence from humans and mouse models supports central influences of altered dose-response relationships in mediating the impact of relevant genomic variation on addiction phenotypes. For variation at loci for the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, cadherin 13, receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase Δ and neuronal cell adhesion molecule genes, changed dose-response relationships conferred by gene knockouts in mice are accompanied by supporting human data. These observations emphasize desirability of carefully elucidating dose-response relationships for both rewarding and aversive features of abused substances wherever possible. They motivate consideration of individual differences in dose-response relationships in addiction nosology and therapeutics. © 2013.

  8. Is love passion an addictive disorder? (United States)

    Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent; Blecha, Lisa; Benyamina, Amine


    Inquiry regarding the relationship between passionate love and addiction has long been a topic of intense debate. Recent advances in neurobiology now allow for an examination between these two states. After describing the clinical distinctions between "love passion," "love addiction," and "sex addiction," we compare clinical, neuropsychological, neurobiological, and neuroimaging data on love, passion, pathological gambling (PG) and substance dependence. There are no recognized definitions or diagnostic criteria for "love addiction," but its phenomenology has some similarities to substance dependence: euphoria and unrestrained desire in the presence of the love object or associated stimuli (drug intoxication); negative mood, anhedonia, and sleep disturbance when separated from the love object (drug withdrawal); focussed attention on and intrusive thoughts about the love object; and maladaptive or problematic patterns of behavior (love relation) leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with pursuit despite knowledge of adverse consequences. Limited animal and human studies suggest that brain regions (e.g., insula, anterior cingulated [ACC], orbitofrontal [OFC]) and neurotransmitters (dopamine) that mediate substance dependence may also be involved with love addiction (as for PG). Ocytocin (OT), which is implicated in social attachment and mating behavior, may also be involved in substance dependence. There are no data on the epidemiology, genetics, co-morbidity, or treatment of love addiction. There are currently insufficient data to place some cases of "love passion" within a clinical disorder, such as "love addiction," in an official diagnostic nomenclature or to firmly classify it as a behavioral addiction or disorder of impulse control. Further clinical and scientific studies are needed to improve our understanding and treatment of this condition. For these studies, we propose new criteria for evaluating addiction to love.

  9. Dopamine D1 receptor gene variation modulates opioid dependence risk by affecting transition to addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1 modulates opioid reinforcement, reward, and opioid-induced neuroadaptation. We propose that DRD1 polymorphism affects susceptibility to opioid dependence (OD, the efficiency of transition to OD, and opioid-induced pleasure response. We analyzed potential association between seven DRD1 polymorphisms with the following traits: duration of transition from the first use to dependence (DTFUD, subjective pleasure responses to opioid on first use and post-dependence use, and OD risk in 425 Chinese with OD and 514 healthy controls. DTFUD and level of pleasure responses were examined using a semi-structured interview. The DTFUD of opioid addicts ranged from 5 days to 11 years. Most addicts (64.0% reported non-comfortable response upon first opioid use, while after dependence, most addicts (53.0% felt strong opioid-induced pleasure. Survival analysis revealed a correlation of prolonged DTFUD with the minor allele-carrying genotypes of DRD1 rs4532 (hazard ratios (HR = 0.694; p = 0.001 and rs686 (HR = 0.681, p = 0.0003. Binary logistic regression indicated that rs10063995 GT genotype (vs. GG+TT, OR = 0.261 could predict decreased pleasure response to first-time use and the minor alleles of rs686 (OR = 0.535 and rs4532 (OR = 0.537 could predict decreased post-dependence pleasure. Moreover, rs686 minor allele was associated with a decreased risk for rapid transition from initial use to dependence (DTFUD≤30 days; OR = 0.603 or post-dependence euphoria (OR = 0.603 relative to major allele. In conclusion, DRD1 rs686 minor allele decreases the OD risk by prolonging the transition to dependence and attenuating opioid-induced pleasure in Chinese.

  10. Dopamine D1 receptor gene variation modulates opioid dependence risk by affecting transition to addiction. (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Yan, Chun-xia; Wen, Yi-chong; Wang, Jiayin; Bi, Jinbo; Zhao, Ya-ling; Wei, Lai; Gao, Cheng-ge; Jia, Wei; Li, Sheng-bin


    Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) modulates opioid reinforcement, reward, and opioid-induced neuroadaptation. We propose that DRD1 polymorphism affects susceptibility to opioid dependence (OD), the efficiency of transition to OD, and opioid-induced pleasure response. We analyzed potential association between seven DRD1 polymorphisms with the following traits: duration of transition from the first use to dependence (DTFUD), subjective pleasure responses to opioid on first use and post-dependence use, and OD risk in 425 Chinese with OD and 514 healthy controls. DTFUD and level of pleasure responses were examined using a semi-structured interview. The DTFUD of opioid addicts ranged from 5 days to 11 years. Most addicts (64.0%) reported non-comfortable response upon first opioid use, while after dependence, most addicts (53.0%) felt strong opioid-induced pleasure. Survival analysis revealed a correlation of prolonged DTFUD with the minor allele-carrying genotypes of DRD1 rs4532 (hazard ratios (HR) = 0.694; p = 0.001) and rs686 (HR = 0.681, p = 0.0003). Binary logistic regression indicated that rs10063995 GT genotype (vs. GG+TT, OR = 0.261) could predict decreased pleasure response to first-time use and the minor alleles of rs686 (OR = 0.535) and rs4532 (OR = 0.537) could predict decreased post-dependence pleasure. Moreover, rs686 minor allele was associated with a decreased risk for rapid transition from initial use to dependence (DTFUD≤30 days; OR = 0.603) or post-dependence euphoria (OR = 0.603) relative to major allele. In conclusion, DRD1 rs686 minor allele decreases the OD risk by prolonging the transition to dependence and attenuating opioid-induced pleasure in Chinese.

  11. GHB acid: A rage or reprive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakhar Kapoor


    Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB is a naturally occurring analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that has been used in research and clinical medicine for many years. GHB was used clinically as an anesthetic in the 1960s but was withdrawn due to side effects that included seizures and coma. GHB has been implicated in a number of crime types; most notably in drug-facilitated sexual assault. GHB is abused by three main groups of users: Body builders who use the substance believing that it stimulated the release of growth hormone; sexual predators who covertly administer the drug for its sedative and amnesic effects and club-goers (rave parties who take the drug for its euphoric effects. The short-lived hypnotic effects, relative safety and widespread availability of the drug have made it particularly well suited to this role. The drug has an addictive potential if used for long term. The primary effects of GHB use are those of a CNS depressant and therefore range from relaxation, to euphoria, confusion, amnesia, hallucinations, and coma. Despite the increased regulation, GHB remains widely available through the Internet where one can easily purchase the necessary reagents as well as recipes for home production. There are reports of patients being unresponsive to painful stimuli and cases of oral self-mutilations linked to the abuse of GHB, though quiet rare. Such cases should remind odontologists that intra-oral lesions may be the result of self-mutilation either due to mental illness or altered states caused by the use of prescription or non-prescription drugs.

  12. Re-establishing What Went Wrong Before: The Greenspan Put as Macroeconomic Modellers’ New Normal

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    Matthew Watson


    Full Text Available Almost a decade after his retirement Alan Greenspan remains the world’s most immediately recognisable and highest profile central banker. This article reviews Greenspan’s ostensible move away from efficient markets theorising as he has tried to come to terms with the patterns of ‘euphoria’ and ‘fear’ he believes explain the build-up to the global financial crisis. In truth, though, it looks much more like an attempt to rescue the reputation of his free market models in the face of an increasing number of sceptics. Greenspan’s new memoire fails to acknowledge what, in effect, was the free put option the Federal Reserve provided to Wall Street traders under his leadership. Indeed, it goes as far as to promote a visualisation technique for how macroeconomic modellers should view the basic structure of the market environment which treats the now increasingly infamous ‘Greenspan put’ as an ostensibly formal component of asset prices. The style of policymaking that helped to stoke such extreme asset price inflation prior to the crisis is now embedded:(i within the class of models that Greenspan has presented as the post-crisis antidote to efficient markets theorising; and (ii within the recent historical data being used in the calibration tests of the models’ efficacy. What macroeconomic modellers can see in the market environment when embracing the supposedly new reality of euphoria and fear is a manifestation of what the prior existence of the Greenspan put first brought into view

  13. Global Financial and Economic Crisis and the EU Economic Governance Failure – Evidence From Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai


    Full Text Available The process of public sector restructuring, known in the economic literature as the New Public Management (NPM, came to a deadlock as the global financial and economic crisis broke out in 2008. The expansion of cheap credit, market dereglementation and asset securitization, speculative bubbles, the mixture of euphoria, greed and even naivety and ignorance of the economic players outlined an international financial system which was not subordinated any more to the real economy, but to the own principles, similar to Ponzi schemes or casino rules (Posner, 2011, Kindleberger and Aliber, 2011, Rajan, 2010, Stiglitz, 2010, Roubini and Mihm, 2010. All these generated, at global level, the deepest recession after the Great Depression. The anti-crisis measures came without delay, but they did not produce the expected results. At the Euro Zone level, an almost immediate and direct effect of the crisis and the accompanying countercyclical fiscal measures was that of enhancing the fiscal burden for governments. The levels of fiscal deficit and the public debt as percentages of GDP substantially increased and, gradually, another crisis broke out: the Euro Zone sovereign debt crisis. As a result, at the level of the EU governance, in order for the authorities to be able to improve it, there were adopted distinct strategies, programs and instruments. In spite of the converging efforts at the EU as well as national levels, the majority of the countries in the Euro Zone were not able to find the right formula of restarting economic growth. The present analysis brings to the forefront Spain’s experience, which represents a clear example of governance (and NPM failure, as neither the countercyclical measures adopted for the recovery, in accordance with the keynesyan principles, nor the austerity packages that followed them were not able to induce the economic growth, so essential for diminishing unemployment.

  14. The Phosphodiesterase 5-Inhibitors (PDE-5i) for ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION (ED): A Therapeutic Challenge For Psychiatrists. (United States)

    Koon, Chong Siew; Sidi, Hatta; Kumar, Jaya; Das, Srijit; Xi, Ong Wan; Hatta, Muhammad Hizri; Alfonso, Cesar


    Erectile function (EF) is a prerequisite for satisfactory sexual intercourse (SI) and central to male sexual functioning. Satisfactory SI eventually leads to orgasm - a biopsychophysiological state of euphoria - leading to a sense of bliss, enjoyment and positive mental well being. For a psychiatrist, treating ED is self-propelled to harmonize these pleasurable experiences alongside with encouragement of physical wellness and sensuality. Hence, the role of PDE-5i is pivotal in the context of treating ED constitutes a therapeutic challenge. PDE-5i work via the dopaminergic-oxytocin-nitric oxide pathway by increasing the availability of endothelial's guanosine monophosphate (GMP), immediately causing relaxation of the penile smooth muscle and an erection. The PDE-5i, like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, are effective in the treatment of ED with some benefits and disadvantages compared to other treatment modalities. Prescribed PDE-5i exclusively improve EF, fostering male's self-confidence and self-esteem. Treatment failures are associated with factors such as absent (or insufficient) sexual stimulation, psychosexual conflicts and the co-existence of medical disorders. Managing ED requires dealing with underlying medical diseases, addressing other co-morbid sexual dysfunctions like premature ejaculation (PE), and educating the patient on healthy life-styles beside being cautious with the potential side-effects and drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, by dealing with interpersonal dynamics within the couple and embracing adequate lifestyles (managing stress and revising one's sexual scripts), PDE-5i treatment benefits may be enhanced. In this review, we propose a holistic conceptual framework approach for psychiatric management of patients with ED. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  15. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Culture and Theory Conley, Verena Andermatt, ed. Rethinking Technologies by Laurence M. Porter Leitch, Vincent B. Cultural Criticism, Literary Theory, Poststructuralism by Merry M. Pawlowski French Studies Bersani, Leo and Ulysse Dutoit. Arts of Impoverishment: Beckett, Rothko, Resnais by Thomas Trezise Boldt-Irons, Leslie Anne. On Bataille: Critical Essays by Walter A. Strauss Deleuze, Gilles. Negotiations . Trans. Martin Joughin by Charles J. Stivale Fisher, Dominique D. Staging of Language and Language(s of the Stage: Mallarmé's poëme critique and Artaud's poetry-minus-text by Maryse Fauvel Goodall, Jane. Artaud and the Gnostic Drama by Claudine G. Fisher Lydon, Mary. Skirting the Issue: Essays in Literary Theory by Carol J. Murphy German Studies Barnouw, Dagmar. Critical Realism: History, Photography, and the Work of Siegfried Kracauer by Florence Martin Pfandl-Buchegger, Ingrid. David Lodge als Literaturkritiker, Theoretiker and Romanautor by Charles A. Grair Samuels, Clarise. Holocaust Visions: Surrealism and Existentialism in the Poetry of Paul Celan by Francis Michael Sharp Stefan, Verena. Shedding and Literally Dreaming. Shedding. Trans. Johanna Steigleder Moore and Beth E. Weckmueller; Literally Dreaming . Trans. Johanna Albert and Tobe Levin; "Euphoria and Cacophony." Trans. and Afterword Tobe Levin by Miriam Frank Stern, J.P. The Dear Purchase: A Theme in German Modernism by Theodore Ziolkowski Russian Studies Berry, Ellen E. and Anesa Miller-Pogacer, eds. Re-Entering the Sign: Articulating New Russian Culture by Rolf Hellebust Erlich, Victor. Modernism and Revolution: Russian Literature in Transition by Henry Elbaum Hohne, Karen and Helen Wussow, eds. A Dialogue of Voices: Feminist Literary Theory and Bakhtin by Laura Beraha Masing-Delic, Irene. Abolishing Death: A Salvation Myth of Russian Twentieth-Century Literature by Rolf Hellebust Paperno, Irina and Joan Delaney Grossman, eds. Creating Life: The Aesthetic Utopia of Russian

  16. Increases in synthetic cannabinoids-related harms: Results from a longitudinal web-based content analysis. (United States)

    Lamy, Francois R; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Barratt, Monica J; Smith, Alan G; Sheth, Amit; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Carlson, Robert G


    Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (SCRA), also known as "K2" or "Spice," have drawn considerable attention due to their potential of abuse and harmful consequences. More research is needed to understand user experiences of SCRA-related effects. We use semi-automated information processing techniques through eDrugTrends platform to examine SCRA-related effects and their variations through a longitudinal content analysis of web-forum data. English language posts from three drug-focused web-forums were extracted and analyzed between January 1st 2008 and September 30th 2015. Search terms are based on the Drug Use Ontology (DAO) created for this study (189 SCRA-related and 501 effect-related terms). EDrugTrends NLP-based text processing tools were used to extract posts mentioning SCRA and their effects. Generalized linear regression was used to fit restricted cubic spline functions of time to test whether the proportion of drug-related posts that mention SCRA (and no other drug) and the proportion of these "SCRA-only" posts that mention SCRA effects have changed over time, with an adjustment for multiple testing. 19,052 SCRA-related posts (Bluelight (n=2782), Forum A (n=3882), and Forum B (n=12,388)) posted by 2543 international users were extracted. The most frequently mentioned effects were "getting high" (44.0%), "hallucinations" (10.8%), and "anxiety" (10.2%). The frequency of SCRA-only posts declined steadily over the study period. The proportions of SCRA-only posts mentioning positive effects (e.g., "High" and "Euphoria") steadily decreased, while the proportions of SCRA-only posts mentioning negative effects (e.g., "Anxiety," 'Nausea," "Overdose") increased over the same period. This study's findings indicate that the proportion of negative effects mentioned in web forum posts and linked to SCRA has increased over time, suggesting that recent generations of SCRA generate more harms. This is also one of the first studies to conduct automated content analysis

  17. Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E.; Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L.


    Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain’s “reward system,” specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that “self expanding” experiences like romance and expanding one’s knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful) disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative) state experienced by almost all humans. Thus

  18. Placebo-controlled evaluation of amphetamine mixture-dextroamphetamine salts and amphetamine salts (Adderall): efficacy rate and side effects. (United States)

    Ahmann, P A; Theye, F W; Berg, R; Linquist, A J; Van Erem, A J; Campbell, L R


    receiving either dose of Adderall; headaches were rated as worse when children were receiving the higher dose of Adderall. Parents rated certain side effects, including staring/daydreaming, sadness, euphoria, and anxious/irritable, as worse during placebo regimens. We found that Adderall is highly efficacious in our population of youth diagnosed with ADHD. In addition, Adderall is well-tolerated with a side effect profile similar to that reported for other psychostimulants.

  19. [Synthetic cannabinoids--the new "legal high" drugs]. (United States)

    Berkovitz, Ronny; Arieli, Mickey; Marom, Eli


    Recently, a new Law, named the "derivative law" (first addition, schedule drug change--2010), was accepted in the Israeli parliament. It will mean that dangerous substances that are closely related structurally to a drug that is listed in the dangerous drugs ordinance will automatically enter the dangerous drugs ordinance. The dangerous drugs that were sold in kiosks were related to 4 major groups: Amphetamines, methamphetamines, cathinone and methcathinone. Over 90% of the substances known as "legal highs" or "hagigat" belong to these groups. Before the law was accepted, merchandisers and clandestine Laboratories took advantage of a state in which every small molecular change in a controlled substance of amphetamines, methamphetamines, cathinone and methcathinone required a long legal process in order to include the new substance in the controlled substance law. During this process, we believe that public health was endangered. The chemists and merchandisers found a new solution to "legally" bypass the "derivative law", by marketing a new group of substances named "synthetic cannabinoids". The synthetic cannabinoids do not resemble the chemical structure of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC] which appears in marijuana or hashish, but affects the body in the same manner and according to the literature, are five times more potent. The synthetic cannabinoids are sold in Israel under different nicknames such as: "Mabsuton", "Mr. Nice Guy", "Spice", "Sabbaba" and "Lemon Grass". The substance can be used in different ways such as smoking, inhaling or swallowing. The use of synthetic cannabinoids causes side effects that include: euphoria, dizziness, headache, thirst, paranoia, insomnia, fatigue and disturbed vision. Cases of hospital admission in Israel due to the use of these substances have been reported. The symptoms included psychiatric disturbances. In an urgent meeting of the multi-ministry committee on psychotropic substances held in December 2010 in the Israel Anti

  20. Kratom alkaloids and O-desmethyltramadol in urine of a "Krypton" herbal mixture consumer. (United States)

    Arndt, Torsten; Claussen, Ulrich; Güssregen, Brunhilde; Schröfel, Stefanie; Stürzer, Birgit; Werle, Annika; Wolf, Gerald


    A drug and alcohol withdrawal rehabilitation centre requested an analysis for "Krypton" in urine of a former opiate-addictive woman. She showed an altered clinical picture and behaviour with miosis, itchiness, agitation, and moderate euphoria after 3 months of until than successful treatment. Literature search revealed that "Krypton" is said to contain "Kratom" (leaves of Mitragyna speciosa), but could also contain O-desmethyltramadol (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction thematic paper "Spice"). Immunological drug screenings were done with test strips (nal von minden, Regensburg, Germany) and with cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (Microgenics, Passau, Germany). "Kratom" alkaloids and tramadol (metabolites) were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (ThermoFisher Scientific Quantum Ultra Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer). Immunoassays were negative for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, benzoylecgonine, buprenorphine, ethylglucuronide, methadone (metabolite), opiates, oxycodone, and THC-COOH, and test strips were negative for tramadol and its metabolites (cut-off 10 mg/L for O-desmethyltramadol). LC-MS/MS detected the "Kratom" alkaloids mitragynine, speciociliatine, speciogynine, mitraciliatine, and paynantheine and approximately 9mg/L O-desmethyltramadol, but no tramadol and N-desmethyltramadol. The detection of M. speciosa alkaloids is a proof of "Kratom" abuse. Confronted with the analysis data, the patient admitted to have consumed 3-4 infusions of "Krypton". The origin of the O-desmethyltramadol is unclear. Tramadol abuse is unlikely since tramadol and N-desmethyltramadol (physiologically occurring in urine after tramadol intake) were not detectable. Consumption of a "Krypton" product spiked with O-desmethyltramadol could explain our findings and the patient's clinical picture. This would be in agreement with a most recent report about spiking apparently natural herbal mixtures with the synthetic opioid O-desmethyltramadol. Analysis of "Kratom

  1. History of Antibiotics Research. (United States)

    Mohr, Kathrin I


    For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set. Then new discoveries accelerated rapidly: Bacteria could be isolated and cultured and were identified as possible agents of diseases as well as producers of bioactive metabolites. At the same time the first synthetic antibiotics were developed and shortly thereafter, thousands of synthetic substances as well as millions of soil borne bacteria and fungi were screened for bioactivity within numerous microbial laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. New antibiotic classes with different targets were discovered as on assembly line production. With the beginning of the twentieth century, many of the diseases which reached epidemic proportions at the time-e.g., cholera, syphilis, plague, tuberculosis, or typhoid fever, just to name a few, could be combatted with new discovered antibiotics. It should be considered that hundred years ago the market launch of new antibiotics was significantly faster and less complicated than today (where it takes 10-12 years in average between the discovery of a new antibiotic until the launch). After the first euphoria it was quickly realized that bacteria are able to develop, acquire, and spread numerous resistance mechanisms

  2. Relación e impacto del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas sobre la salud en Colombia (Relationship and Impact of the Use Psychoactive Substances on Health in Colombia

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    Adriana Marcela Correa Muñoz


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo principal realizar una aproximación preliminar al examen de la relación entre el consumo de drogas y los problemas de salud en Colombia. Para ello se utilizó un cuestionario con 11 categorías de enfermedades o síndromes (respiratorios, piel, neurológico, psiquiátrico, hepático, autoinmune, cardíaco, traumas y accidentes, transmisión sexual, genito-urinario y otros que se aplicó a 101 consumidores de drogas entre los 15 y los 64 años de edad y a 50 no consumidores entre 20 y 84 años. Cuatro grupos de trastornos (dificultades psiquiátricas, neurológicas, cardíacas y respiratorias resultaron significativos entre consumidores de droga. Los trastornos psiquiátricos comprendían ataques de pánico, euforia excesiva, ansiedad general, desmotivación, depresión y alucinaciones; los problemas neurológicos, aumento o disminución de la sensibilidad, pérdida de memoria y dificultades motoras. Solamente un problema cardíaco (las arritmias y uno respiratorio (tos crónica fueron significativos. Este estudio sienta las bases para el futuro cálculo de las fracciones atribuibles salud-drogas. ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study is to carry out a preliminary approach to the examination of the relationship between drug use and the health problems in Colombia. It was used a questionnaire with 11 categories of diseases or syndromes (respiratory, skin, neurological, psychiatric, liver, self-inmune, cardiac, traumas and accidents, sexually transmitted genitalurinary and others, which was applied at 101 drug users between 15 and 64 years of age and 50 non-consumers between 20 and 84 years old. Four groups of disorders (psychiatric, neurologic, cardiac, and respiratory difficulties were significant among drug users. Psychiatric disorders included panic attacks, excessive euphoria, general anxiety, discouragement, depression and hallucinations; neurological problems, increase or decrease of

  3. [Noncognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. A study of 150 community-dwelling patients using a questionnaire completed by the caregiver]. (United States)

    Derouesné, C; Piquard, A; Thibault, S; Baudouin-Madec, V; Lacomblez, L


    We studied the noncognitive symptoms in 150 community-dwelling Alzheimer's patients using a questionnaire completed by the caregiver, the Echelle Psychopathologique de la Démence de Type Alzheimer, EPDTA (Psychopathologic Scale of Dementia of Alzheimer Type). EPDTA is a 44-item questionnaire derived from the BEHAVE-AD and the Depressive Mood Scale, covering many aspects of the behavior, affective and psychiatric disturbances. Each item is rated from 0 (never observed) to 6 (most of the time). Frequency (percentage of symptom present) and severity (mean score when the symptom was present) were assessed for each item. The cognitive status and severity of the disease were assessed by the MMSE and two scales completed by the caregiver assessing the Activities of Daily Living scale (ADL) and the Cognitive Difficulties Scale (CDS). Noncognitive symptoms were present in all patients but remained moderate in severity. A principal component analysis of the 33 items exploring the affective disturbances showed seven clinically relevant factors: apathy, anxiety, anosognosia-irritability, euphoria, dysphoria, emotional incontinence and agitation. The most frequent noncognitive symptoms were the affective disturbances, especially apathy, and the sexual behavioural disturbances. No correlation were found between the overall severity of behavioural disturbances and cognitive status, duration of the disease nor demographic variables. However, a slight negative correlation was found between scores on apathy and on the MMSE. A second evaluation was performed in 59 patients after a mean follow-up of 18,2 months. The patients showed a progression of the disease evidenced by the scores on the MMSE, ADL and CDS scales. However, the frequency and severity of the noncognitive symptoms remained identical except for eating disorders, psychotic symptoms and agitation which were more frequent at the second examination and negatively correlated with the MMSE score. Most patients showed

  4. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA: current perspectives

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    Meyer JS


    Full Text Available Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse

  5. Acute stimulation effect of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum in patients with refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder – a double-blinded trial

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    Tsai HC


    Full Text Available Hsin-Chi Tsai,1,2 Chun-Hung Chang,3,4 Jiann-I Pan,5 Hung-Jen Hsieh,6 Sheng-Tzung Tsai,7 Hsiang-Yi Hung,7 Shin-Yuan Chen1,71Institute of Medical Science, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien City, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien City, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 4China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Medical Informatics, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan; 6Nuclear Medicine, Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien City, Taiwan; 7Department of Neurosurgery, Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien City, TaiwanObjective: Deep-brain stimulation (DBS for treating refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD has shown positive results in small clinical trials. Ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS is one of the promising targets; however, whether or not acute stimulation test can provide substantial information for chronic stimulation is not yet known. We evaluated postoperative test stimulation and examined the relationship of acute simulation-induced smile/laughter and 15-month clinical outcome.Methods: Four adult patients with refractory OCD were implanted with Model 3387 leads bilaterally in an area of VC/VS. Postoperative test stimulation was performed at least 2 weeks after surgery. We performed double-blinded postoperative test stimulation with different contact and voltage. The relationship of stimulation-induced smile/laughter and chronic response was examined.Results: Patients presented smile, laughter, euphoria, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, smell, chest vibration, dizziness, nausea, heat, or increased sexual drive during acute stimulation. We found that the higher the percentage of smile/laughter (34.3%, 31.3%, 56.3%, and 12.5% for four cases, the greater the reduction in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (30.6%, 38.9%, 58.8%, and 7.7% respectively at 15-month DBS.Conclusion: This study showed that acute DBS

  6. Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (United States)

    Whiting, Penny F; Wolff, Robert F; Deshpande, Sohan; Di Nisio, Marcello; Duffy, Steven; Hernandez, Adrian V; Keurentjes, J Christiaan; Lang, Shona; Misso, Kate; Ryder, Steve; Schmidlkofer, Simone; Westwood, Marie; Kleijnen, Jos

    Cannabis and cannabinoid drugs are widely used to treat disease or alleviate symptoms, but their efficacy for specific indications is not clear. To conduct a systematic review of the benefits and adverse events (AEs) of cannabinoids. Twenty-eight databases from inception to April 2015. Randomized clinical trials of cannabinoids for the following indications: nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, appetite stimulation in HIV/AIDS, chronic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis or paraplegia, depression, anxiety disorder, sleep disorder, psychosis, glaucoma, or Tourette syndrome. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. All review stages were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Where possible, data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Patient-relevant/disease-specific outcomes, activities of daily living, quality of life, global impression of change, and AEs. A total of 79 trials (6462 participants) were included; 4 were judged at low risk of bias. Most trials showed improvement in symptoms associated with cannabinoids but these associations did not reach statistical significance in all trials. Compared with placebo, cannabinoids were associated with a greater average number of patients showing a complete nausea and vomiting response (47% vs 20%; odds ratio [OR], 3.82 [95% CI, 1.55-9.42]; 3 trials), reduction in pain (37% vs 31%; OR, 1.41 [95% CI, 0.99-2.00]; 8 trials), a greater average reduction in numerical rating scale pain assessment (on a 0-10-point scale; weighted mean difference [WMD], -0.46 [95% CI, -0.80 to -0.11]; 6 trials), and average reduction in the Ashworth spasticity scale (WMD, -0.36 [95% CI, -0.69 to -0.05]; 7 trials). There was an increased risk of short-term AEs with cannabinoids, including serious AEs. Common AEs included dizziness, dry mouth, nausea, fatigue, somnolence, euphoria, vomiting, disorientation, drowsiness, confusion, loss of balance, and hallucination. There was moderate-quality evidence

  7. [Neurobehavioral manifestation in early period of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia]. (United States)

    Bidzan, Mariola; Bidzan, Leszek


    respect to mood disorders and irritability/emotional liability, as well as disinhibition and anxiety. People with VD were found not have high rates of agitation/aggression. In the AD group, the shorter the period between the evaluation with the NPI-NH scale and the diagnosis of AD was the greater the rates of agitation/aggression, anxiety, and elevated mood/euphoria were. In preclinical stages of both AD and VD behavioural and psychological symptoms occur very frequently. The closer the diagnosis of dementia is the greater the possibility of behavioural and psychological symptoms occurring, especially in AD.

  8. [Time profile of serum THC levels in occasional and chronic marihuana smokers after acute drog use - implication for drivind motor vehicles]. (United States)

    Balíková, Marie; Hložek, Tomáš; Páleníček, Tomáš; Tylš, Filip; Viktorinová, Michaela; Melicher, Tomáš; Androvičová, Renáta; Tomíček, Pavel; Roman, Michal; Horáček, Jiří


    Cannabis consumption has individual influence to cognitive and psychomotor functions of drivers and it has been generally accepted that driving under influence is risky in the perspective of traffic safety. However, rules how to assess fitness to drive are not quite clear. The psychoactive compound delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs cognition, psychomotor behaviour and driving performance in a dose-related manner approximately. After a single drug dose, THC blood concentration peaks within minutes, before the end of smoking, with a subsequent rapid decrease to the analytical limit of detection. Peak euphoria is delayed compared to THC peak blood concentration and physiological and behavioural effects return to baseline within 3-5 hours. In chronic users, the lipophilic THC accumulates in fat tissues, where its slow redistribution into blood is the rate limiting process in its terminal elimination. In our experimental study we have attempted to contribute to this discussion with results obtained from human volunteers - cannabis consumers in Czech Republic. Aim of our study was to document the time profile of serum THC level in occasional and chronic cannabis users. The observational interval covered the time immediately after the drug consumption (an own cigarette/joint) till 24 hours after. Our preliminary results have shown that in occasional users, THC serum levels cannot be detected already 4 hours after usual cannabis dose, whereas in chronic users measurable THC concentrations in serum persist longer. Moreover, some chronic consumers were practically with permanent THC detection during our observation period and also the chronic users consumed higher THC doses significantly related to doses in occasional ones. Presented results of the experimental study with human volunteers confirm a great individual variability of the kinetic profile of THC in blood due to complicated redistribution. The practical forensic question is how long the psychotropic

  9. Abad Baru Purbakala: Memilih Arah Menentukan Peran Penelitian Arkeologi di Maluku

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    Marlon NR Ririmasse


    Full Text Available A year has passed since the celebration of 100th years of Indonesian archaeology. On June 14th 2013, this golden moment was commemorated by institutions and individuals. The nostalgic euphoria has been transformed into the festive spirit of various events. Ranging from seminars to exhibitions. From small gatherings to the colosal stages. There is a pride that rised from the establishment of this 100th anniversary. This article tries to discuss the current situation in the Indonesian archaeology by dissect the anatomy of archaeological research in the Moluccas Archipleago. The ideas disscussed will cover the review of archaeological research in the Moluccas historically; followed by observing the recent activities  to understand the impacts of archaeological research for the region and its communities; and finally initiate the discussion on choosing the direction and the role of archaeological research for the academic and social purpose in the near future. Tak terasa hampir setahun telah dilewati sejak perayaan satu abad purbakala Nusantara. Tepat tanggal 14 Juni 2013 silam, momentum emas ini diperingati segenap insan arkeologi Indonesia. Gempita nostalgia dikemas menjadi semangat perayaan dalam berbagai kegiatan. Mulai dari seminar sampai pameran. Sekedar sukuran hingga pentas kolosal. Ada kebanggaan yang membuncah dari angka mapan usia ke-100. Kini pesta telah usai. Segalanya kembali senyap.  Rasanya tepat untuk mulai merenung. Tentang makna menjadi lembaga dengan umur yang bahkan lebih sepuh dari negara. Memikirkan kembali kiprah pun capaian. Menemukenali kekurangan dan kendala. Adakah arkeologi akan terus mengalir dengan wawasan klasik business as usual? Ataukah memilih bercermin pada jernih kondisi kekinian dan bergegas membenahi diri? Makalah ini mencoba mengamati kondisi terkini arkeologi nasional dengan membedah anatomi penelitian arkeologi di Kepulauan Maluku dalam kerangka kronologis. Alur gagasan yang dibahas mencakup tinjauan atas

  10. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

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    Kim H


    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  11. Cultural Identity Crisis inside Self-Same Culture as Reflected in György Lőrincz’s Novel Sounds of the Heart

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    Dani Erzsébet


    Full Text Available After the decisive historical moment of December 1989, the “border” is open for Transylvanian Hungarians and, in the subsequent euphoria, an exodus to the mother country commences. But with the political freedom of crossing national borders, due to globalization (too, new kinds of border problems present themselves for the youth leaving their native land: border issues of small versus large community, of interpersonal relations; the gap between generations; borders between majority versus minority identity and national versus cultural identity as well. This paper is a literary analysis with special focus on contemporary social phenomena, which will examine - through discussing a relevant contemporary Székely-Hungarian novel - how cultural identity can be deformed, damaged, or at least temporarily distorted when a Hungarian from beyond the border, who arrives in mother-country Hungary, will have to redefine herself/himself within a culture which, in this case, is basically one and the same.1 Can the identity-code, which was formed by, and grew strong in, the minority existence of the native land, function when s/he enters a cultural vacuum which turns out or can turn out to be another cultural maze for her or him? Can we talk about assimilation in such cases? What happens when a “rebellious” young individual’s “I” identity, unsteady in the first place, is left without the conserving and protective “We” identity in the confrontation of mother-nation versus beyond-the-border cultures so that, eventually, the young woman’s “I” identity will be damaged by big-city underworld (subculture. Or, will cultural mimicry emerge in this situation too as a strategy to help the individual retain his/her identity? We will seek answers to these questions through discussing a novel - A szív hangjai [Sounds of the Heart] - by a fine representative of contemporary Székely-Hungarian literature, György Lőrincz.

  12. Biofuels as an opportunity of development for the rural area. Regional-economic analysis with the example of Northrhine-Westphalia; Biokraftstoffe als Entwicklungschance fuer den laendlchen Raum. Regionaloekonomische Analyse am Beispiel Nordrhein-Westfalens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Thomas


    The energetic use of biomass experiences new attention in politics and public particularly due to high prices for fossil energy and climate protection. The German bioenergy boom is determined by political decisions. In this sense, the bioenergy markets can be characterized as 'political' markets. This is often ignored given the current euphoria over bioenergy. In the policy debate bioenergy is supported by several arguments including aspects of resources, environment, labour market, economy, technology develop, agriculture, regional and structural policy. While studies of energetic and ecological Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the biofuels are already present, the other political aspects are quite little investigated. Particularly against the background of an introduction of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and an examination of the efficiency of the promotion of biofuels, still, substantial research is needed. The goal of the work is to estimate whether biofuels allow new income possibilities and which rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia could profit from these new prospects. A possible promotion policy for rural area is outlined which increases the income chances, and at the same time reduced negative environmental effects for the future. The work starts analysing the relevant policy framework of biofuel production in North-Rhine-Westphalia. Key question is which energy crop allows a positive income effect in which regions of North-Rhine-Westphalia. For this the procedure ''energy maize for biogas'' (rape seeds and wheat were already implemented) was integrated into the regionalised agricultural sector model RAUMIS. By the assumption of a completely elastic demand for biomass thereby the ''economic supply potential'' of the energy crops of the North-Rhine/Westphalian agriculture is illustrated under given agricultural and energy-political framework. Beside the quantitative analysis of

  13. Intense, Passionate Romantic Love: A natural addiction? How the fields that investigate romance and substance abuse can inform each other

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    Helen eFisher


    Full Text Available Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by four million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain’s reward system, specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that self expanding experiences like romance and expanding one’s knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative state experienced by almost all

  14. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives. (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold S


    Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse. MDMA/ecstasy-dependent patients are treated with standard addiction programs, since there are no specific programs for this substance and no proven

  15. The dark side of emotion: the addiction perspective. (United States)

    Koob, George F


    Emotions are "feeling" states and classic physiological emotive responses that are interpreted based on the history of the organism and the context. Motivation is a persistent state that leads to organized activity. Both are intervening variables and intimately related and have neural representations in the brain. The present thesis is that drugs of abuse elicit powerful emotions that can be interwoven conceptually into this framework. Such emotions range from pronounced euphoria to a devastating negative emotional state that in the extreme can create a break with homeostasis and thus an allostatic hedonic state that has been considered key to the etiology and maintenance of the pathophysiology of addiction. Drug addiction can be defined as a three-stage cycle-binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation-that involves allostatic changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Two primary sources of reinforcement, positive and negative reinforcement, have been hypothesized to play a role in this allostatic process. The negative emotional state that drives negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain incentive salience and stress systems. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only decreases in incentive salience system function in the ventral striatum (within-system opponent processes) but also recruitment of the brain stress systems mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), dynorphin-κ opioid systems, and norepinephrine, vasopressin, hypocretin, and substance P in the extended amygdala (between-system opponent processes). Neuropeptide Y, a powerful anti-stress neurotransmitter, has a profile of action on compulsive-like responding for drugs similar to a CRF1 receptor antagonist. Other stress buffers include nociceptin and endocannabinoids, which may also work through interactions with the extended amygdala. The thesis argued

  16. Genomic misconception: a fresh look at the biosafety of transgenic and conventional crops. A plea for a process agnostic regulation. (United States)

    Ammann, Klaus


    The regulation of genetically engineered crops, in Europe and within the legislation of the Cartagena biosafety protocol is built on false premises: The claim was (and unfortunately still is) that there is a basic difference between conventional and transgenic crops, this despite the fact that this has been rejected on scientifically solid grounds since many years. This contribution collects some major arguments for a fresh look at regulation of transgenic crops, they are in their molecular processes of creation not basically different from conventional crops, which are based in their breeding methods on natural, sometimes enhanced mutation. But the fascination and euphoria of the discoveries in molecular biology and the new perspectives in plant breeding in the sixties and seventies led to the wrong focus on transgenic plants alone. In a collective framing process the initial biosafety debates focused on the novelty of the process of transgenesis. When early debates on the risk assessment merged into legislative decisions, this wrong focus on transgenesis alone seemed uncontested. The process-focused view was also fostered by a conglomerate of concerned scientists and biotechnology companies, both with a vested interest to at least tolerate the rise of the safety threshold to secure research money and to discourage competitors of all kinds. Policy minded people and opponent activists without deeper insight in the molecular science agreed to those efforts without much resistance. It is interesting to realize, that the focus on processes was uncontested by a majority of regulators, this despite of serious early warnings from important authorities in science, mainly of US origin. It is time to change the regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops toward a more science based process-agnostic legislation. Although this article concentrates on the critique of the process-oriented regulation, including some details about the history behind, there should be no

  17. Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other. (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E; Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L


    Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain's "reward system," specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that "self expanding" experiences like romance and expanding one's knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful) disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative) state experienced by almost all humans. Thus, researchers


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    Pece Andreea Maria


    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate market participants’ gregarious behaviour in Baltic stock markets, namely Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during the period January 2003-December 2013. The herding behaviour derives from the investors’ irrationality, who trade financial assets based on their positive expectations about prices future growth, generating manias among other market participants, thus ignoring the real return rates and the risk levels of their investments.The investors’ irrational behaviour is influenced by actions, feelings and impulses that are intertwined: mimicry, fear, trust, greed, optimism, pessimism, euphoria, panic. These features highlight an erroneous perception of investors in point of unsustained increase in prices, which has been generated by the stock prices deviations from their fundamental value.Under these premises, optimism, overreaction and speculative bubbles are appearing on the market and may constitute triggering factors of a financial crash.The probability of the occurrence of the speculative bubbles and financial crashes is influenced by the continuous entry on the market of new investors and less informed participants, which often act based on impulse, following a benchmark, without considering their own analysis and information that they hold. The existence of a “collective behaviour” of the investors, which is manifested by their tendency to imitate other market participants actions and to “follow the herd”, so ignoring their own beliefs, may increase market sensitivity to shocks and the probability of the occurrence of the systemic risk.In order to identify the investors’ herding behaviour, I have applied an adjusted CSSD model proposed by (Yao, Ma, Peng He, 2014, which implies the inclusion of two additional variables, the first one, to reduce the effect of multicollinearity and a second one, a lag term of the dependent variable, in order to improve the power of the

  19. [The concept of temperament and its contribution to the understanding of the bipolar spectrum]. (United States)

    Koufaki, I; Polizoidou, V; Fountoulakis, K N


    The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,since its foundation by Polybos (4th century B.C.) and the school of Cos, its predominant role in theshaping of the anthropological and humanitarian sciences, until the modern theoretical formulations,such as those proposed by Robert Cloninger and Hagop Akiskal. Secondly, recent literature ispresented, which suggests a strong link of different temperament structures to mental health andpsychopathology. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) was the first psychologist to establish approaches topersonality differences and to distinguish three dimensions of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversionand Psychotisism. Eysenck was followed by McCrae and Costa who proposed that there are five basicdimensions of personality ("Big Five"). In the mid-1980s, Robert Cloninger developed a distinctivedimensional model of temperament and character traits. Hagop Akiskal emphasized on the affectivecomponents of temperament and their possible connections to mood disorders and creativity.Specifically, temperament assessment seems to help in differentiating between the relationship ofvarious temperaments and the clinical manifestations of bipolar illness. Within the area of mood disorders,specific affective temperaments might constitute vulnerability factors, as well as clinical pictureand illness course modifiers. Viewing mood disorders under this prism gives birth to the concept ofthe bipolar spectrum with major implications for all aspects of mental health research and providingof care. The hyperthymic and the depressive temperaments are related to the more 'classic' bipolarpicture (that is euphoria, grandiose and paranoid thinking, antisocial behavior, psychomotor accelerationand reduced sleep and depressive episodes respectively). On the contrary cyclothymic, anxiousand irritable temperaments are related

  20. Le tourisme international dans le monde : logiques des flux et confins de la touristicité

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    Corina Tatar


    progressive democratization of tourism supported by an unparalleled economic growth, 2 / the last decade of the twentieth century, euphoria of a tourist who sees the borders open. The end of a bipolar world announcement many hopes naive. The scope of territories open to tourism continues to widen. 3 / The end of the century announces the age of maturity of tourism. After the euphoria, illusions and disillusions of a space tourist world without borders, facts, often dramatic raised awareness tourists to the complexity of a world where wars have never ceased. The global space tourism is articulated around three regional basins: more than 75% of international tourist flows, driven by the rich European cities, North American and Asian, are confined to their regional area of origin. The distribution of tourist flows draws an organization into three distinct basins: in order of importance, 1 / Euro-Mediterranean basin, focusing on the Mediterranean Sea, 2 / Basin East Asia-Pacific, around the shores of the Sea of China , 3 / basin North America-Caribbean, organized around the "American Mediterranean." Space discontinuities increase between peripheries unstable, extensions selective and margins forgotten or excluded. The climate of insecurity that affect certain touristic territories aimed at weakening the outskirts most sensitive and oblige the international space tourist to retract.

  1. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom

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    Dimy Fluyau


    anorectic. However, kratom can cause intrahepatic cholestasis, seizure, arrhythmia, impair memory function, coma, and death. Psychological manifestations described are euphoria and feeling relaxed to severe symptoms such as aggression, hostility, and psychosis. Medical manifestations described are polyuria, dry mouth, vomiting, and jerky movements. Currently, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS are suggested as the most promising to rapidly screen kratom products providing a positive success rate.ConclusionOur data analysis has not determined if biochemical benefits of kratom may prove to outweigh its toxicity and risks. On the contrary, it seems that its potential side effects outweigh the benefits, and severe and real health hazards can, insidiously, lead to death. Kratom clinical, psychological, and medical manifestations can be disturbing. Kratom (M. speciosa use, among multiple compounds of the leaf, appear to be increasing in the Western world. Promising methods to accurately identify kratom compounds are still ongoing.

  2. Duma i uprzedzenie. Znaczenie wyboru osoby transseksualnej na „przedstawiciela Narodu”

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    Anna Jawor


    Full Text Available Pride and prejudice. The significance of election of a transsexual person as a “representative of Nation” Ms. Anna Grodzka’s election to the Polish Parliament in 2011 was a crucial event because for the first time in Europe a transsexual person became a Member of Parliament, and thus was to represent all Poles at the national level. This event resulted in mixed reactions and comments: from euphoria to trauma, from great pride to deep prejudice. It is instrumental in self identification of Poles, nevertheless two different Polish “nations” make use of it, presenting two different languages and two absolutely separate pictures of Polish identity. The first approach is associated with such notions as freedom, equity, minority rights, multiculturalism. The other is connected with such phrases as original values, genuine Poles, God, and the regular family. Therefore contemporary war of cultures, that is a general conflict over values and collective identity, came to focus on the fact that Anna Grodzka became an MP. The author of the article, relying on Allan McKee’s interpretative analysis of cultural texts, in this case press articles, aims at an analysis of the role of Ms. Grodzka’s election for identity shaping processes among Poles.   Duma i uprzedzenie. Znaczenie wyboru osoby transseksualnej na „przedstawiciela Narodu” Wybór Anny Grodzkiej na posłankę był przełomowym wydarzeniem, ponieważ po raz pierwszy w Europie osoba transseksualna została przedstawicielką wszystkich rodaków. Wydarzenie to wywołało jednak różne reakcje: od euforii do traumy, od wielkiej dumy do głębokich uprzedzeń. Służy ono bowiem samookreślaniu się Polaków, ale w taki sposób, że korzystają z niego w procesie samoidentyfikacji co najmniej dwa polskie „narody”, posługujące się językami uosabiającymi dwie zupełnie inne wizje polskości. Naród tych, którzy boją się o Polskę, utożsamianą z wiarą katolicką, tradycyjn

  3. Pilot-project of implantation of pharmaceutical care close to the program of bipolar mood disorder of the Hospital of Clinics of Porto Alegre

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    Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér


    Full Text Available The Bipolar Mood Disorder is characterized by the alternation of depressive crises with episodes of mania or euphoria, having these patients 15 to 35 times more chances of suicide, as compared with people without this disorder. The pharmacotherapy is fundamental for this disease, aiming to decrease the frequency of episodes and disease severity. In these patients, the polypharmacy has recently increased and one of the main difficulties is the adherence to treatment. The objective of this study was to contribute for the improvement of bipolar patients health conditions, developing their respective pharmacotherapeutic follow-up. Twenty eight adult bipolar patients who were participants of a specialized clinic within a tertiary hospital in Porto Alegre have been randomly selected, and the Dader Method of pharmacotherapeutic follow-up has been applied. The more common clinical comorbidities were: hypertension (50%, obesity (46.43%, and hypothyroidism (36.29%. The bipolar patients are more susceptible to clinical comorbidities, and many of them could be due to pharmacotherapy. Only 1.43% of patients presented Drug Related Problems, being all of them resolved along the study. It was also observed that 32.14% of evaluated patients presented low adherence to treatment, and between these patients, 55.56% passed to have good adherence after pharmacotherapeutic follow-up. The pharmacotherapeutic follow-up is fundamental for the improvement of patient's health. New studies, with higher number of patients and longer duration, are necessary to evaluate the percentage of patients that could be beneficiary of Pharmaceutical Care.O Transtorno do Humor Bipolar é caracterizando pela alternância de crises depressivas com episódios de mania ou euforia, tendo estes pacientes 15-35 vezes mais chances de suicídio em comparação com pessoas sem este transtorno. A farmacoterapia é fundamental, visando diminuir a freqüência dos episódios e a gravidade da doen

  4. Non-medical use of methylphenidate: a review Uso não terapêutico do metilfenidato: uma revisão

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    Luana Freese


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant medication used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. However, it has also been used for non-medical purposes, e.g. to produce euphoria, to increase self-esteem, and to achieve the so-called neurocognitive enhancement, decreasing the feeling of tiredness and increasing focus and attention. OBJECTIVE: To describe, from theoretical and contextual points of view, the potential for abuse and non-medical use of methylphenidate. METHOD: The PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords in Portuguese: metilfenidato, transtorno do déficit de atenção com hiperatividade, facilitadores dos processos cognitivos or agentes nootrópicos, and abuso de substâncias; and in English: methylphenidate, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, cognitive enhancement or nootropic agents, and substance abuse. Studies published between 1990 and 2010 were selected for review. RESULTS: Non-medical use of methylphenidate is a relevant topic that raises important ethical and scientific questions in several areas, e.g. pharmacological and neurobiological characteristics, evidence of methylphenidate use, forms of non-medical use of methylphenidate, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic application of methylphenidate. According to the review, methylphenidate can generally influence performance as a result of its stimulatory effect. Notwithstanding, evidence does not support the conclusion that it can enhance cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: Health professionals need to acquire expert knowledge and inform patients and their families on the methylphenidate potential for abuse when used with non-medical purposes.INTRODUÇÃO: O metilfenidato é um medicamento psicoestimulante usado no tratamento do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e da narcolepsia. No entanto, a droga também vem sendo utilizada com fins não terap


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    Özgür Dirim Özkan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, in Balkans, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, football fandom is very much associated with the fact of ethnic tension. Football is often used as a metaphor for warfare, while in turn, during the Yugoslav Wars, ironically football terminology was used to metaphorise the significance of ethnic slaughtering. In fact, it is very commonly uttered that the starting flame of the Yugoslav Wars was sparkled in Zagreb Maksimir Stadium in May 13, 1990 after a match between Red Star Belgrade and Dinamo Zagreb. During the Yugoslav Wars, fan groups acted as recruitment agencies for organizing paramilitary groups who were convicted for organizing war crimes. This was the case in Bosnia as well. Although almost two decades have passed since the war in Bosnia, the effects of ethnic nationalism in football fandom is still inevitable. Recently, national football team of Bosnia succeeded to participate in the 2014 World Cup, which will be organized in Brazil, causing euphoria in the country. However, it is a controversial issue whether if all the ethnic groups, namely Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs respectively did attend the celebrations. In other words, it is a question mark if they perceive Bosnian National Football as their “national” team. In this sense, this paper aims to discuss the perception of this success by different ethnic groups relying on interviews with different fan groups in the country. Methods: The presentation will rely on two basic resources: [1] An ethnographic study which was conducted in Bosnia in 2007/2008 as a part of PhD dissertation titled Football Fandom as a Factor Behind Formation of Cultural Differences: A Case Study on FK Sarajevo and FK Zeljeznicar Football Fans and ongoing observations of the presenter on Bosnian football since then. [2] Deep interviews with leading football fan groups of different clubs with different ethnic backgrounds like Velež Mostar, Čelik Zenica, Sloboda Tuzla

  6. [Cathinones use in Paris]. (United States)

    Batisse, A; Grégoire, M; Marillier, M; Fortias, M; Djezzar, S


    The pattern of recreational drug use has changed over the last decade and now includes a multitude of substances sold as "research chemicals" or new psychoactive substances, "NPS". In France, synthetic cathinones emerged in 2008 (while first mentioned by the French police force in 2007 first alerts among users appeared in 2008) and have grown to be popular drugs of abuse. Under the Official Journal dated 11th June 2010, only mephedrone has been listed as narcotics but "designer drugs" have synthesized new substitute cathinones in order to avoid anti-drug laws. However, since July 2012, in France, all synthetic drugs from the cathinones family have been banned and listed as narcotics following the example of United Kingdom. Despite their recent classification and inclusion on narcotic list, they are readily available on Internet and used widely. Paris Addictovigilance Centre observed a signal of derivate cathinones abuse (21 cases over a two-year period). Paris Addictovigilance Centre and Marmottan Hospital wanted to describe the use of cathinones in the Paris area and alert the health care community about the abuse identification and risk assessment problems of these compounds. After a review of derivated cathinone's chemical structure, pharmacology and toxicology, this article seeks to provide patricians with a clinical description and treatment's modality. Most users of synthetic cathinones will experience euphoria, increased energy, talkativeness, openness and increased sexual arousal. Signs and symptoms of toxicity are consistent with a sympathomimetic toxidrome. The main reasons for care access are psychiatric (hallucinations, psychotic symptoms, agitation) and addiction disorders. Somatic complications were described with various patterns of symptoms such as headache, tachycardia, confusional states, rhabdomyolysis with renal failure or serotonin syndrome. The most important fact is the apparition of the "slam" phenomenon among men who have sex with men

  7. [Risk-taking in adolescence: A neuroeconomics approach]. (United States)

    Barbalat, G; Domenech, P; Vernet, M; Fourneret, P


    Risk-taking behaviors represent the main cause of morbi-mortality in adolescence. Here, we analyze their neural correlates, based on a neuroeconomics approach. This approach postulates that risk-taking behaviors result from multiple decision-making biases that impair the selection of the most appropriate action among alternatives based on their subjective evaluation. Specifically, we investigate three important domains in value-based decision-making: risk aversion, loss aversion and intertemporal choice. First, when people have to make a decision between two rewarding options, they will usually prefer the more certain, even possibly lower, option - a phenomenon called "risk aversion". Yet adolescent people have been found to be less averse to risk than adults. This observation was linked to hypoactivation in (1) the anterior insula, involved in negative emotion such as fear and disgust and (2) the anterior cingular and the posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortices, involved in the monitoring of conflict and error detection. Second, people are generally described as being more sensitive to the possibility of losing objects than to that of gaining the same objects - "loss aversion". Here, we suggest that adolescents may be less averse to losses than adults when estimating the prospects of gaining and losing objects. Indeed, adolescent people have been found to be more affected by reward (e.g. euphoria or social integration consecutive to drug absorption) and less affected by punishment (e.g. malaise after drug consumption) than adults. Whereas the former process is subserved by hyperactivations in regions involved in reward evaluation such as the nucleus accumbens, the latter has been proposed to be subserved by hypoactivations in regions involved in negative emotions such as the amygdala or the insular cortex. This lower sensitivity to losses compared to gains in adolescents could be another important mechanism underlying risk-taking behaviors. A third dimension of

  8. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom. (United States)

    Fluyau, Dimy; Revadigar, Neelambika


    intrahepatic cholestasis, seizure, arrhythmia, impair memory function, coma, and death. Psychological manifestations described are euphoria and feeling relaxed to severe symptoms such as aggression, hostility, and psychosis. Medical manifestations described are polyuria, dry mouth, vomiting, and jerky movements. Currently, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) are suggested as the most promising to rapidly screen kratom products providing a positive success rate. Our data analysis has not determined if biochemical benefits of kratom may prove to outweigh its toxicity and risks. On the contrary, it seems that its potential side effects outweigh the benefits, and severe and real health hazards can, insidiously, lead to death. Kratom clinical, psychological, and medical manifestations can be disturbing. Kratom (M. speciosa) use, among multiple compounds of the leaf, appear to be increasing in the Western world. Promising methods to accurately identify kratom compounds are still ongoing.

  9. Uso não Prescrito de Metilfenidato entre Estudantes de uma Faculdade de Medicina do Sul de Minas Gerais / Non-Medical use of Methylphenidate among Students of a Medical School in the Southern of Minas Gerais State

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    Ana Clara Mauad Coli


    % for non-prescribed use of methylphenidate was found, with a higher proportion of use in males. Among those, 76.67% used it in order to increase their concentration in exam time. In addition, 66.67% reported having their first contact with the substance in college and 60% obtained the drug through donation of friends. The main side effects reported were: anxiety, insomnia, euphoria, tachycardia, decreased appetite, irritability, headaches and tremors. Conclusion: This study shows a high prevalence of non-prescribed use of methylphenidate by medical students.

  10. Tratamento da síndrome parkinsoniana pelo L-dopa Parkinsonism's treatment by L-Dopa

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    Roberto Melaragno


    . Age of the patients: between 42 and 78 years old. L-Dopa was administered in an initial dosis of 500 mg, associated to a MAO inhibitor; the dosis was increased 500 mg every 3 or 4 days, according to the patient's tolerance. There was a better improvement on all the phenomena dependent directly or indirectly of the rigidity, as related to the tremor. During the treatment the blood values of uric acid and urea had a tendency to increase; alkalin reserve had a tendency for lowering; the leucocyte count revealed an eosiniphilia which was sometimes very high. Collateral effects (adrenergic and dopaminergic were analysed. The adernergic effects occured when L-Dopa was used associated to a MAO inhibitor and were represented by headache, paroxysmal arterial hypertension, facial rubor, profuse sweating, vesical tenesmus and angina pectoris. The dopaminergic effects, proportional to the clinical gravity of the case, were: arterial hypotension, coldsweating, cardiac arrytmia and lipothimia. Other complications were: anorexia, decrease of bowel movements, nausea, vomiting, psychic alterations with depression and euphoria. Among the neurologic complications are emphasized discinesias and acatisia.

  11. Drugs and sport. Research findings and limitations. (United States)

    Clarkson, P M; Thompson, H S


    Many types of drugs are used by athletes to improve performance. This paper reviews the literature on 3 categories of drugs: those that enhance performance as stimulants (amphetamines, ephedrine, and cocaine), those that are used to reduce tremor and heart rate (beta-blockers) and those involved in bodyweight gain or loss (anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormone, beta 2-agonists, and diuretics). Limitations of research on these drugs as they relate to performance enhancement are also discussed. The numerous studies that have assessed the effects of amphetamines on performance report equivocal results. This may be due to the large interindividual variability in the response to the drug and the small sample sizes used. Most studies, however, show that some individuals do improve exercise performance when taking amphetamines, which may be attributed to their role in masking fatigue. As a stimulant, ephedrine has not been found to improve performance in the few studies available. More recently, ephedrine has been purported to be effective as a fat burner and used by athletes to maintain or improve muscle mass. Although research on individuals with obesity supports the use of ephedrine for fat loss, no studies have been done on athletes. The few studies of cocaine and exercise suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine use. Moreover, the sense of euphoria may provide the illusion of better performance when, in actuality, performance was not improved or was impaired. beta-Blockers have been found to reduce heart rate and tremor and to improve performance in sports that are not physiologically challenging but require accuracy (e.g. pistol shooting). However, there is evidence that some individuals may be high responders to beta-blockers to the extent that their heart rate response is so blunted as to impair performance. Although equivocal, several studies have reported that anabolic-androgenic steroids increase muscle size and strength

  12. O tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar na infância e adolescência Pharmacological treatment of Juvenile Bipolar Disorder

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    Luis Augusto Rohde


    euphoria, the evolution of the disorder is more chronic than episodic and mixed symptoms are more frequent. High prevalence of comorbid conditions, specially Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, seems to be the rule. Despite the devastating effect of JBD in the child development, few pharmacological investigations were conducted in these patients. This review aims to present a critical discussion of the findings from this emerging new area of research, the psychopharmacology of the JBD. To accomplish this task, a systematic computerized search of the literature was conducted through the PUBMED. Findings are presented in three sections: 1 the strength of the scientific evidence in the field; 2 critical description of the main investigations; 3 proposition of an algorithm to guide treatment options. Only one randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was found in the literature. Almost all studies are open prospective trials, case series, or retrospective analyses of medical records. The most investigated drugs are lithium and valproate sodium. This review suggest that a scarce availability of high quality evidence to guide clinicians in the decision on which pharmacological treatment should be used to address bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

  13. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or bipolar disorder in childhood?]. (United States)

    Lazaratou, H


    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Even though a strict definition of this entity is constantly sought, ADHD is an often redefined and reconceptualized syndrome. Epidemiological studies show large differences in the incidence, pointing out that the effort of actual taxonomic systems to offer objective diagnostic criteria have not yielded substantial results. Bipolar Disorder (BD) with onset in childhood is distinguished from the adult form by the scarcity of affective symptoms. Very often, neither depressive mood, nor hypomanic euphoria are in the front line being covered by irritability with crises of violence. Children or adolescents have consecutive cycles, which include brief episodes of depressive, hypomanic, manic or mixed periods without free intervals. There was a delay in the recognition of this clinical picture. Τhe diagnostic criteria in the actual taxonomic systems are not separated from those of adults and according to some studies the disorder is under diagnosed mainly in European countries. The contemporary literature deals largely with the relationship ADHD - BD in young people because the two disorders share the same clinical picture with slight variations. Τhe differential diagnosis in favor of BD is mainly based on the presence of affective disorders in the family. The main questions raised are whether there is comorbidity, whether ADHD is overdiagnosed against BD or whether ADHD represents a prodromal manifestation of early onset BD. Children with comorbid ADHD and BD tend to express mostly a stimulant phenotype with a chronic course and have higher rates of antisocial conduct disorder. This particular phenotype suggests a symptomatic continuum between ADHD and early onset BD which is possibly responsible for the difficulties met in differential diagnosis and differences in the rates of

  14. La crisis de la política científica: patologías degenerativas y terapias regenerativas. A modo de epílogo

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    Muñoz, Emilio


    Full Text Available The metaphoric assumption for science policy as its behaviour like an intelligent being has permitted to identify a so called “crisis” of this policy as the result of an aging process- more than sixty years have elapsed since the onset of the modern scientific policy. In that degenerative process, a series of pathologies had been diagnosed through a series of critical reviews undertaken by the author under a research programme on the “philosophy of science policy”. By the use of medical and clinical metaphors, I have built a clinical record describing the pathologies and their diagnosis, referring them symbolically to mental and sensorial disorders. Among them, it can be mentioned amnesic process leading for instance to the dissociation between language (discourse and actions; the poor understanding of the R&D+ innovation concepts and their relationships; the mistaken use by problems of perception of the usual indicators; the transition from euphoria to depression (bipolar disorder and the subsequent losses of the sense of reality, usually depending on external factors. In agreement with the analogies applied, therapies considered as the modern regenerative treatments are proposed to correct the “crisis” of the science policy. Among those therapies oriented to the care of degenerative processes, the incorporation (transplantation of concepts such as those of “governance” and “spaces” into the sick body of the science policy is proposed. These old concepts are assumed again symbolically, to act as pluripotent, regenerative elements for a political management usually based on too simplified and traditional academic and bureaucratic approaches.La aplicación de una analogía como ser vivo e inteligente a la política científica ha permitido identificar lo que he llamado “crisis” de esa política, como resultado de un proceso de envejecimiento –hace más de sesenta años que se inició la política científica moderna

  15. [Comparison of two assessment tools of antidepressant side-effects: UKU scale versus spontaneous notification]. (United States)

    Gruwez, B; Gury, C; Poirier, M-F; Bouvet, O; Gérard, A; Bourdel, M-C; Baylé, F-J; Olié, J-P


    . Fifty patients were included in the study. There were 18 men and 32 women. The mean age was 53.5 15.9 years [22 - 77], the mean period of treatment was 24 30.5 months [1 - 127] and 52% of the patients received concomitant medication with anxiolitic or hypnotic drug(s). The percentage of patients who reported at least one side effect was significantly higher for the UKU scale than for SN (84% vs 58%, p<0.01). The ratio between SN and UKU scale scores was 2/3. A similar pattern was found for the total number of side effects (n=177 vs n=47, p<0.001). The ratio between the total number of side effects for the SN and UKU scale was 1/4. The side effects were divided into five subgroups: psychiatric, neurovegetative, sexual, neurological and others. In all these subgroups, the number of side effects reported was significantly higher when the UKU scale was used than when SN was used. The values were as follows: psychiatric (n=44 vs n=15, p<0.001), neurovegetative (n=59 vs n=15, p<0.001), sexual (n=36 vs n=10, p<0.001), neurological (n=11 vs n=2, p<0.001) and other side effects (n=27 vs n=5, p<0.001). Nineteen side effects were only reported when SN was used (for example: dry eyes, incompatibility with alcohol, euphoria...). Twenty-four side effects were only reported when the UKU scale was used (for example: increased libido, loss of bodyweight...). The side effects had no impact on daily life in most of 80% of the patients; there was no significant difference between the patient's assessment of the discomfort caused by side effects and the clinician's assessment. In 90% of cases, the side effects did not lead to any change in the treatment. The findings of this study show that the collection of data regarding side effects depends on the assessment tool used: the number of side effects reported was significantly higher when the UKU scale was used than when SN was used. However, this finding must viewed with caution, because it has been showed that checklists can induce symptoms

  16. Uso da metadona no tratamento da dor neuropática não-oncológica: relato de casos Uso de la metadona en el tratamiento del dolor neuropático no oncológico: relato de casos Methadone to treat non-oncologic neuropathic pain: case reports

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    Jeane Pereira da Silva Juver


    responded to classic approaches. CASE REPORTS: Seven cases in which methadone dose was titrated in subsequent visits are presented. Pain severity according to facial scale, side effects and improved functional capacity were evaluated 1, 7, 14, 30 and 180 days after treatment beginning. There has been decrease in pain severity and in the incidence of side effects, such as constipation, sedation, nausea, headache and insomnia. There has been no euphoria, sweating, myoclonia, urinary retention, decreased libido and respiratory depression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients responded satisfactorily to low dose medication, side effects were controlled with simple measures and there has been significant functional capacity improvement. In the conditions of this study, methadone was an effective, safe and low-cost option to treat non-oncologic neuropathic pain.

  17. Empresas estatais e a consolidação da indústria da construção naval brasileira

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    objective of this paper is to present that the orders made by the shipping companies state supported the Brazilian naval industry. Besides the introduction, the text is divided into four topics: first is a brief history of the merchant marine and shipbuilding Brazilian late nineteenth century to 1960, emphasizing the financial and institutional changes that have created the basis for the formation of the Brazilian naval industry . Will then be pointed the relationship between the process of industrialization in Brazil and the role of the state. Thirdly, I will detail the orders made by Companhia de Navegação Lloyd Brasileiro, Frota Nacional de Petroleiros (FRONAPE-PETROBAS and DOCENAVE (Vale do Rio Doce next to Brazilian shipyards within the various plans focused on shipbuilding. Finally, we will highlight the beginning of the partial dismantling of the shipbuilding industry, the rapid obsolescence of Lloyd Brasileiro, privatization of Vale do Rio Doce and the choices made by FRONAPE in making acquisitions abroad. The final consideration will bring brief reflections on the strong symbiosis between state and national industry in the formation of a national economy and cast glances at the current moment of euphoria and recovery of the Brazilian naval industry, again anchored by PETROBAS.

  18. Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy. (United States)

    Smith, Lesley A; Azariah, Fredric; Lavender, Verna T C; Stoner, Nicola S; Bettiol, Silvana


    .5; 95% CI 1.4 to 8.9; low quality evidence) when they received cannabinoids compared with prochlorperazine.People had more chance of reporting dizziness (7 trials; 675 participants; RR 2.4; 95% CI 1.8 to 3.1; I(2) = 12%), dysphoria (3 trials; 192 participants; RR 7.2; 95% CI 1.3 to 39; I(2) = 0%), euphoria (2 trials; 280 participants; RR 18; 95% CI 2.4 to 133; I(2) = 0%), 'feeling high' (4 trials; 389 participants; RR 6.2; 95% CI 3.5 to 11; I(2) = 0%) and sedation (8 trials; 947 participants; RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8; I(2) = 31%), with significantly more participants reporting the incidence of these adverse events with cannabinoids compared with prochlorperazine.People reported a preference for cannabinoids rather than prochlorperazine (7 trials; 695 participants; RR 3.3; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.8; I(2) = 51%; low quality evidence).In comparisons with metoclopramide, domperidone and chlorpromazine, there was weaker evidence, based on fewer trials and participants, for higher incidence of dizziness with cannabinoids.Two trials with 141 participants compared an anti-emetic drug alone with a cannabinoid added to the anti-emetic drug. There was no evidence of differences between groups; however, the majority of the analyses were based on one small trial with few events. Quality of the evidence The trials were generally at low to moderate risk of bias in terms of how they were designed and do not reflect current chemotherapy and anti-emetic treatment regimens. Furthermore, the quality of evidence arising from meta-analyses was graded as low for the majority of the outcomes analysed, indicating that we are not very confident in our ability to say how well the medications worked. Further research is likely to have an important impact on the results. Cannabis-based medications may be useful for treating refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, methodological limitations of the trials limit our conclusions and further research reflecting current chemotherapy

  19. Something about Genetics in Psychiatry

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    Bakir Mehić


    transduction, activate transcription factors and regulate gene expression,- endocannabinoids (they regulate behavior, sedation, euphoria, appetite, memory,- sterols (cholesterol (they regulate the dynamics of lipid rafts - signal transduction,- sphingolipids (myelin,- gangliosides (vitally important but an unknown role. The enzymes that metabolize the membrane’s phospholipids are related to the cell membrane and they colocalize with monoaminergic receptors, and are therefore crucial for signal transmission, but also for the creation of long-term memory.


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    prose works by writers of 80-th generation to the periphery of literary process. The genetic feature of the 80-th generation played the important role in its considerable functioning especially their antihermetic and, at the same time, attachment to local schools, its biographical and situational fundamentals creative implementation. In definite context, we are going to observe a small V. Kozhelyanko’s short stories and his first book consisting of five deep in meaning, expressive and canonical due to the form of the existential novels "The logic of things". The book was published in Lviv at the publishing house "Calvary" in 2007. Five short stories in one book together are written by the author during the 2002 - 2007 years including "Tea Euphoria", "The Deserter", "Narcissus", "The Wine", "Happiness". The novels are combined in mimetic way focusing on the internal monologue of the main character as well as on the social and psychological area with existential intentions and hidden gothic which develops into a Brahmin skeptical philosophical view of the World. First of all social thematic line of prose attracts our attention which is on the surface relatively to receptive components of the third and fourth levels of the text. This social motivation of the psychological feature of the characters in the stories by V. Kozhelyanko constitutes the situational valence of plot of his novels and builds the foundations of the ideological and thematic content of short fiction. In this sense revealing look is depicted in stories "The Deserter" and "Narcissus". As well we can see, the historical field of events, that do not match the historiographical one, becomes the subject of study of each generation of writers. What to 80th generation, before the writer's mind and in his life experiences appearing pictures of transformation in society and state. Key words: history, historical fiction, historiography, novel, V. Kozhelyanko.

  1. Successful online learning – the five Ps

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    Jim FLOOD


    importance of ‘marketing’ it to their potential consumers. This includes the planning of rewards and incentives as well as managing the expectations that might prove to be too high, too low or ill informed. Preparation The study skills and mind-set required for online learning are very different from the conventional learning environments that most people have experience of. The shift from being an unselfconscious learner, dependent on the directions and approbation of a teacher, to that of a self-conscious independent learner having to take on responsibilities, is a considerable one. These responsibilities include the development of intrinsic in place of extrinsic motivation, and for nurturing a self-learning ability. Add in to this what, for many, is an alien screen-based environment, preparation then becomes essential to achieve the exhilarating transition to empowered self-managed learning. Successful Open University students have all discovered that learning to learn is a key skill for ensuring progression. In the euphoria of seeing online learning as the ultimate solution to training and development, many learners have been, metaphorically, ‘dropped in at the deep end’ with the consequential results of this type of approach. Nearly all learners react with trepidation to any new learning landscape and need an induction phase that reduces anxieties and builds confidence. With online learning being such an unfamiliar learning landscape, the need for an effective induction is much greater. Perhaps just as important is a transition phase in which the online part of the learning is a relatively small part of a blended approach. Props Online learners need props (props as in supports. Rather than identifying people who will offer support, say in the role of mentor, tutor or e-moderator, think about what is required in terms of the total support system that fragile learners (and all new learners are fragile will need. For example we know that learners who experience

  2. Postmodernistlikke jooni eesti noore režissuuri lavastustes 1969–1975 / Postmodernist Traits in the Performances of Young Estonian Directors 1969-1975

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    Rein Heinsalu


    theatre was not referred to by a single name: in the USA, it was referred to as experimental, neo-avant-garde, off-off-Broadway, also as alternative. In England, experimental andfringe were among the concepts used. The designation of theatre renewal of the 1960s and 1970s as „postmodern“ could only was a retrospective manoeuvre by American and English theorists. The young directors began to use deconstruction to overturn the grand narratives; binaries and myths were shattered; power and its structures are examined closely; sexuality was used in a shocking manner; the principle of play became foregrounded. All of these directions and intentions connect the new wave with postmodernism. This article uses the above principles to examine some of the most important works of young directors from the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s: a program of the poetry of Gustav Suits, This one song I want to sing (1969; Cinderella-game (1969; Letting Their Hand Be Kissed (1969; Epp Pillapart’s Punjaba Pot Factory (1974; Oliver and Jennifer (1972. Changes in social and aesthetic consciousness also had an effect, as they had in other artistic media. „This was a generation that was not bothered by stalinist norms,“ said Karin Kask. Without a doubt, the emergence of this phenomenon were also affected by moods of renewal in Czechoslovakia and Poland, as well as by the invasion of Czechoslovakia. The period was characterized by the „virus of protest and freedom“ as well as „euphoria on the eve of suppression“. While trying to reform theatre, new concepts emerged, such as imagistic system, impulse, non-conceptual base, complete freedom in the choice of means, a new style, irrationality at the base of humanity, the psychophysical dramatic equivalent, etc. The stage is set free from the circumstantial conjuncture, turning instead toward an existential black-box; alternatively, standard images are tentatively represented on a meta-level. The

  3. La fábrica de doble hoja en Madrid, un siglo de cerramiento moderno

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    Ros García, Juan Manuel


    Full Text Available The present paper describes the development and generalized use of the double or hollow wall system in masonry enclosures in Madrilenian residential architecture in the first two thirds of the twentieth century. The question is addressed, on the one hand, from the standpoint of comparative history, in which a clear awareness of evolutionary progress can be defined through certain recognizable architectural tendencies that arose during the technological revolution taking place in Europe and somewhat later in our country; in this regard, the analysis focuses on developments in Madrid. On the other hand, consideration is given to the general construction systems and methods applied to different typologies and representative examples associated with possible modes of technical innovation in the expansive processes involved in housing of high architectural quality, characterized by material and formal consistency. The inclusion of insulation materials in wall construction and the development of the air chamber are likewise dealt with in the context of inherited tradition and the incipient new language developed in the nineteen thirties. The discussion also reflects on the parenthesis imposed by the Civil War, the interruption of the progressive trend begun prior to and continued after that conflict and the need to rebuild which materialized in an emergency housing policy mixed with a spirit of euphoria magnified and defined by the official architectural establishment. The different types of construction systems where double walls became increasingly popular are studied and classified, differentiated on the grounds of the materials used - a modern compositional solution adopted with growing frequency in contemporary models, that would gradually lead to the standardization of such enclosures in urban housing in the nineteen fifties. Also considered is the truly determining influence, particularly beginning in the nineteen forties, of the legislation

  4. Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media

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    Anelise Reich Corseuil


    Fuzis (1964. Xavier points out the differences in the representation of violence in contemporary films as it incorporates and projects new forms of violence more associated with an urban and capitalist environment in which self-interest, the powerlessness of the State, and the cangaceiro's distancing from his collectivity devoid violence from a sense of justice and justified revenge. Xavier's article contextualizes the changing forms of representation of violence in Brazilian cinema—changes that, despite their specificities, map out an ironic perception of the lack of a collective national project, but which are still inserted in a market economy that is quite tuned in to the demands of national and international audiences. The importance of representation for one's understanding of the interrelations between a national and an international film industry is also discussed in José Gatti's essay “Carmen Miranda's White Dress: Ethnicity, Syncretism and Subaltern Sexualities in Springtime in the Rockies”. Gatti discusses the sophisticated role played by Carmen Miranda as an icon in contemporary cultural industry, whose influence went far beyond her alleged performance as a “Brazilian cultural ambassador in the United States” (92. Gatti argues that in spite of all critiques of Carmen Miranda's alleged manipulation by the Hollywood industry, she was the “auteur of her own persona”, as a sort of “multiauthor” capable of adapting her own needs and personal/political projects to the agenda imposed by the film industry. This sense of malleability, flexibility, and adaptation allowed Carmen Miranda to negotiate her position within the film industry. Furthermore, such intricacies in the relationship established between the star and the industry create a space for a more sophisticated analysis of the interrelations between national culture and the international industry. In “Techno-Euphoria and the World-Improving Dream”, Robert Burgoyne analyses the

  5. Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media

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    Anelise Reich Corseuil


    (1964, or Os Fuzis (1964. Xavier points out the differences in the representation of violence in contemporary films as it incorporates and projects new forms of violence more associated with an urban and capitalist environment in which self-interest, the powerlessness of the State, and the cangaceiro's distancing from his collectivity devoid violence from a sense of justice and justified revenge. Xavier's article contextualizes the changing forms of representation of violence in Brazilian cinema—changes that, despite their specificities, map out an ironic perception of the lack of a collective national project, but which are still inserted in a market economy that is quite tuned in to the demands of national and international audiences. The importance of representation for one's understanding of the interrelations between a national and an international film industry is also discussed in José Gatti's essay “Carmen Miranda's White Dress: Ethnicity, Syncretism and Subaltern Sexualities in Springtime in the Rockies”. Gatti discusses the sophisticated role played by Carmen Miranda as an icon in contemporary cultural industry, whose influence went far beyond her alleged performance as a “Brazilian cultural ambassador in the United States” (92. Gatti argues that in spite of all critiques of Carmen Miranda's alleged manipulation by the Hollywood industry, she was the “auteur of her own persona”, as a sort of “multiauthor” capable of adapting her own needs and personal/political projects to the agenda imposed by the film industry. This sense of malleability, flexibility, and adaptation allowed Carmen Miranda to negotiate her position within the film industry. Furthermore, such intricacies in the relationship established between the star and the industry create a space for a more sophisticated analysis of the interrelations between national culture and the international industry. In “Techno-Euphoria and the World-Improving Dream”, Robert Burgoyne