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Sample records for euphorbiae radix kiom-79

  1. Combination of Medicinal Herbs KIOM-79 Reduces Advanced Glycation End Product Accumulation and the Expression of Inflammatory Factors in the Aorta of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Sohn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that KIOM-79 shows a strong inhibitory effect on AGE formation and inhibited a proinflammatory state in a murine macrophage cell line. In the present study, we investigated the effect of KIOM-79 on AGE accumulation and vascular inflammation in the aorta of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, a commonly used model of type 2 diabetes. Seven-week-old male ZDF rats were treated with KIOM-79 (50 mg/kg once a day orally for 13 weeks. We examined the dissected aortas for AGE accumulation, expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE, and the expression of proinflammatory factors, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were also measured by Southwestern histochemistry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. KIOM-79 markedly reduced the accumulation of AGEs and the expression of RAGE in the aorta. We also found that KIOM-79 attenuated the expression of inflammatory factors including NF-κB, MCP-1, VEGF, VCAM-1, and iNOS in the aortas of ZDF rats. These data suggest that KIOM-79 may prevent or retard the development of inflammation in diabetic vascular disease.

  2. Radix Entomolaris

    OpenAIRE

    Filloy DDS, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of the root canal morphology and its variations is a basic requisite for the success of the endodontic treatment. Mandibular molars may present a third or additional root, which if located lingually is called radix entomolaris or bucally is referred as radix paramolaris. This case report shows an endodontic retreatment of a radix entomolaris and details some variations in the approach to guarantee a successful terapy. El conocimiento de la morfología y posibles va...

  3. Radix Bupleuri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fude; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yin, Xingbin; Wang, Wenping; You, Longtai; Ni, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu) has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b 2 , c, and d) were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri . This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  4. Euphorbia kansui Attenuates Insulin Resistance in Obese Human Subjects and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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    Seung-Wook Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is a main cause of insulin resistance (IR, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver diseases. This study evaluated Euphorbia kansui radix (Euphorbia as a potential treatment option for obesity and obesity-induced IR in obese human and high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese mice. Methods. In the human study, we analyzed the body weight change of 14 patients who took a single dose of 6 g of Euphorbia powder. In the animal study, male mice were divided into three groups: normal chow, HFD, and Euphorbia (high-fat diet and 100 mg/Kg Euphorbia once per week. Body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and oral glucose tolerance test were measured. Also, macrophage infiltration and expression of CD68, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, interferon- (IFN- γ, and interleukin- (IL- 6 genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed. Results. The human study showed that Euphorbia has a potential effect on body weight loss. In the in vivo study, body weight, epididymal fat weight, glucose level, IR, expression of CD68, TNF-α, IFN-r, and IL-6 genes, and macrophages in liver and adipose tissue were significantly reduced by Euphorbia. Conclusions. These results suggest that Euphorbia attenuates obesity and insulin resistance via anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ... contrôlée des feuilles peut induire une baisse de la production de tubercules d'environ 32%. Méthodologie et ..... d'augmenter la valeur énergétique du régime et la productivité des ...

  6. Eine neue Euphorbia aus Malesien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pax, F.; Hoffmann, Käthe

    1938-01-01

    Euphorbia Backeri PAX et K. HOFFM. n. sp. — Gaules 40—150 cm alti, plerumque 60 cm superantes, basi ad 1 cm diametientes, solitarii, a basi erecti, apice saepe nutantes, basi saepe lignescentes, superne ramosi, ramis oblique erectis, simplicibus vel ramosis. Partes juveniles ± dense pilis albis, ad

  7. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris

    2015-01-01

    in Australia, topical application of latex of Euphorbia peplus L. is used as a home treatment for skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Its use in Australian folk medicine has inspired the release of the drug Picato ® (ingenol mebutate), and further fostered interest in natural products and medicinal uses...... of Euphorbia in recent years. Aim of the study: To provide an indicative overview of medicinal uses of the genus Euphorbia driven by the recent interest in biologically active natural products from Euphorbia in drug discovery. We assess documented medicinal knowledge and value of the genus Euphorbia...... and the taxonomic distribution of this value. Materials and Methods: We undertook an extensive survey of over 260 multidisciplinary publications on the online repository JSTOR using the search term “Euphorbia medicinal”. Results: Medicinal uses were identified for > 5% of the species in the genus, including...

  8. Radix Entomolaris: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Movassagh; Ghahari; Heidari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During endodontic treatment the variety of mandibular sectorial in the form of an extra lingual (radix entomolaris) or buccal root (radix paramolaris) can often cause difficulties. In other words, awareness and understanding of this unusual root, and its canal morphology, are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Case Presentation A 30-year-old male patient with a history of severe, throbbing, c...

  9. Analysis of swaps in Radix selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Mahmoud, Hosam

    2011-01-01

    Radix Sort is a sorting algorithm based on analyzing digital data. We study the number of swaps made by Radix Select (a one-sided version of Radix Sort) to find an element with a randomly selected rank. This kind of grand average provides a smoothing over all individual distributions for specific...

  10. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Nilsson, Niclas; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-12-24

    The genus Euphorbia (spurges, Euphorbiaceae) is the third largest genus of flowering plants, with almost 2000 species. Its exceptional diversity of growth forms and near-cosmopolitan distribution have attracted human interest since ancient times. For instance in Australia, topical application of latex of Euphorbia peplus L. is used as a home treatment for skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Its use in Australian folk medicine has inspired the release of the drug Picato® (ingenol mebutate), and further fostered interest in natural products and medicinal uses of Euphorbia in recent years. To provide an indicative overview of medicinal uses of the genus Euphorbia driven by the recent interest in biologically active natural products from Euphorbia in drug discovery. We assess documented medicinal knowledge and value of the genus Euphorbia and the taxonomic distribution of this value. We undertook an extensive survey of over 260 multidisciplinary publications on the online repository JSTOR using the search term "Euphorbia medicinal". Medicinal uses were identified for >5% of the species in the genus, including descriptions of treatments for a variety of diseases. The most-cited medicinal uses around the world were treatments for digestive system disorders, skin ailments and, especially in the Southern hemisphere, infections. Consensus ratios indicated that the most-valued medicinal uses of Euphorbia species are in the treatment of digestive and respiratory complaints, inflammation and injuries, especially by members of Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce. The present study gives a first indicative overview of Euphorbia species used for health and wellbeing around the world. The exceptional diversity of the genus Euphorbia is not only represented by its growth forms but also by its diverse medicinal uses. Our results highlight the importance of research into medicinal uses of Euphorbia species and their importance as a source of natural products. Furthermore the medicinally

  11. Will tree euphorbias (Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis) survive under the impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) browsing in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilmann, L.C.; Jong, de K.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) on the tree euphorbias Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis was studied in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa. Black rhinoceros pushed over about 5¿7% of the trees in a 2-month period. There was a preference of rhinos for

  12. Radix Entomolaris: A Case Report

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    Movassagh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During endodontic treatment the variety of mandibular sectorial in the form of an extra lingual (radix entomolaris or buccal root (radix paramolaris can often cause difficulties. In other words, awareness and understanding of this unusual root, and its canal morphology, are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Case Presentation A 30-year-old male patient with a history of severe, throbbing, constant pain in the lower mandibular molars was referred to the department of endodontics of Hamedan Dental university. The patient’s medical history was noncontributory. The buccal object rule (same-lingual opposite-buccal technique confirmed the additional root as a distolingual root (radix entomolaris. Following the evaluation of vitality tests, we began endodontic treatment for this patient, after administration of local anesthesia using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Daroupakhsh, Tehran, Iran and rubber dam isolation. The working length was determined by a Root ZX apex locator (Dentaport ZX, J Morita and later confirmed by parallel periapical radiograph. Canals were shaped in a crown down fashion with Protaper Nickel Titanium rotary instruments (Dentsply, Maillefer under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and lubrication with RC-Prep. After drying the canals with paper points, the master gutta-percha points were fitted within the canals and confirmation radiography was taken. The root canal system was obturated with the cold lateral compaction technique. Conclusions This case is about a mandibular molar with radix entomolaris and the radiographic exploration and endodontic order. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular molars. The initial diagnosis of a radix entomolaris or paramolaris before root canal treatment is important to facilitate the endodontic procedure.

  13. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  14. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  15. Chromatographic study of Euphorbia cyparissias

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    Cristina, T. Romeo,

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic population control is very difficult and includes numerous chemical substances and therapeutic techniques. Although efficient at first, the repeated use of acaricidal substances leads to the appearance of resistance. The more and more reduced efficacy of the therapeutic arsenal puts serious problems for the practitionersand increases the need of newer substances on the market. Besides this appears the problem of residues in eggs and meat, which is a serious impediment. Because of this the use of plant extracts is an attractive and promising research path. The investigations tied to the parasitic biocontrol have diversified with the study of the numerous control sources (fungi, plant extracts, volatile oils etc..In this context, the plant extracts can become an alternative source for the acaricidal control knowing that they constitute a rich source of efficient bioactive compounds. Unfortunately although at hand until today, not very much data is known about what determines theacaricidal activity of some plant extracts against the argaside ticks.The present work describes an in vitro CG-MS study for identification of Euphorbia cyparissias’ chemical composition.

  16. RAPD-PCR analysis of some species of Euphorbia grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempts to identify species of Euphorbia (Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia helioscopia, Euphorbia granulata and Euphorbia hirta) grown in University of Baghdad Campus in Jadiriyah and determine the genetic polymorphism among them by using DNA markers generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  17. Diterpenoids and triterpenoids from Euphorbia retusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Hamada; Lavaud, Catherine; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Benkhaled, Mohammed

    2009-07-01

    Six new ent-abietane lactones (1-6), three new esterified tetracyclic triterpenes (7-9), and seven known diterpenoids and triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia retusa. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic studies including 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, chemical transformation, and comparison with literature data.

  18. Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia hirta against Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate method.

  19. In vivo effect of guiding-herb Radix platycodonis and Radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological samples were processed; the assays of specificity, precision, linearity, intra-day and interday precisions, recovery and stability were conducted; high ... Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae, significantly increased the absorption amount and rate of paeoniflorin in XFZYT, and accelerated its elimination from the ...

  20. Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch).

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    Islam, M Ashraful; Thorstensen, Tage; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering is an important tool for introducing desired genes into poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch). We describe in this chapter an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for poinsettia. A detailed description of genetic transformation, antibiotic selection, subsequent regeneration via somatic embryogenesis, and rooting as well as molecular and morphological analyses is included. The methodology described here could facilitate the future engineering of poinsettia for research purpose as well as commercial production of poinsettia plants with improved resistance or novel traits.

  1. Acute Toxicity of Crude Euphorbia tirucalli Latex Extracts to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extracts to Oreochromis niloticus juveniles was investigated in the College of Agriculture, Lafia. A four day static acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC50 value of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extract for the fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Various ...

  2. Phytochemical relationship of Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima with Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hafiza Ayesha; Yousaf, Zubaida; Rashid, Madiha; Younas, Afifa; Arif, Ayesha; Afzal, Ismah; Akram, Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is an important phenomenon that modifies the ecosystem. A plant can enhance or reduce the growth of other plant due to the presence of a number of allelochemicals in its different parts. Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima are medicinal plant species. Both these species are collected from wild resources for various purposes. To reduce the pressure on wild population, it is important to bring them into cultivation. Therefore, the allelopathic effects of E. helioscopia and E. pulcherrima on the growth of lettuce seeds were studied. Three different concentrations (2%, 4% and 6%) of five different solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and distilled water) were used to estimate the allelopathic potential of the above-mentioned Euphorbia species. Results indicated a non-significant growth inhibitory effect of both plants on lettuce seeds. Different extracts reduced the growth of test plant to some extent but this inhibition was not significant. From the observed results, it was concluded that the studied Euphorbia species, being medicinally important crops, can be introduced as intercrop with other cash crops.

  3. Raw rehmannia radix polysaccharide can effectively release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duck viral hepatitis (DVH), caused by duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), is a fatal contagious infectious disease which spreads rapidly with high morbidity and high mortality, and there is no effective clinical drug against DVH. Materials and Methods: Raw Rehmannia Radix Polysaccharide (RRRP), Lycii Fructus ...

  4. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...

  5. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liriopogons (Liriope and Opiopogon) species are used as the main medicinal ingredient in traditional medicine in several Asian countries. The roots or tubers of Liriope plants (Liriopes radix; LR) have traditionally been used for hundreds of years to treat cough, insomnia, constipation, asthma, and inflammation. The present ...

  6. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  7. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    of medicinal plant use classification. In the cosmopolitan and pharmaceutically highly relevant genus Euphorbia L., identifying plant uses modulating the inflammatory response highlighted a greater phylogenetic diversity and number of potentially promising species than standardised categories. Our...

  8. Euphorbia esula: Achieving Management Objectives: Analysis of 2000 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In spring 2000, we continued to assess the ecological impacts of the invasive non-native species Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) on rangeland and natural areas in the...

  9. Phytotoxin produced by Bipolaris euphorbiae in-vitro is effective against the weed Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Aneli M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four virulent strain isolates of the fungus, Bipolaris euphorbiae (previously identified as a Helminthosporium sp., isolated from host plants in four states within Brazil were screened for the production of phytotoxins that promoted wilting and defoliation of the Brazilian weed, Euphorbia heterophylla, commonly found growing among soyabean crops. Only one isolate, B. euphorbiae Strain I (EUPH petropar from Mato Grosso state, produced phytotoxin in-vitro when grown in stationary culture for 7 d at 28 ° C on minimum salts medium supplemented with 1.5 % glucose as the sole carbon source. Phytotoxin was also produced when the fungal strain was grown on fructose, galactose, mannose, xylose and sucrose. The addition of nitrogen source (yeast extract, peptone or malt extract to the culture medium did not influence phytotoxin production. The phytotoxin produced by Strain I was most active at pH 6.0, stable between pH 3-9, and was highly thermostable, remaining fully active when heated at 90 ° C for 1 h.

  10. [The influences of ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation on protective effects of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri against rat's cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-qi; Wang, Zhi-wang; Wei, Shu-chang; Yan, Chun-lu; Wang, Rui-qiong; Li, Ying-dong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the influences of ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation on protective effects of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri against rat's cerebral ischemia. Using dexamethasone (im.) and ligating common carotid artery, the rat stasis model combined transient cerebral ischemia was established to evaluate the effects of the ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation through detecting antioxidant system and other indexes in brain tissue. The results showed that the 6 g/kg water extract(crude drug), ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri could upgrade adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and degrade malondialdehyde(MDA) and water content of brain tissue in rat stasis model combined transient cerebral ischemia, the water extract and ultrafiltration of them could degrade lactic acid (LD) of brain tissue, and the effects of alcohol sedimentation of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri become weaker than water extract of them. The water extract, ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri have some protective effects on cerebral ischemia in rats, the effective differences of the extract through the same extraction method are not remarkable, and alcohol precipitation method has obvious influences effect on Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri.

  11. Evolutionary bursts in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are linked with photosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, James W; Xi, Zhenxiang; Riina, Ricarda; Peirson, Jess A; Yang, Ya; Dorsey, Brian L; Berry, Paul E; Davis, Charles C; Wurdack, Kenneth J

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Cenozoic decline of atmospheric CO2 levels that promoted global climate change was critical to shaping contemporary arid ecosystems. Within angiosperms, two CO2 -concentrating mechanisms (CCMs)-crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C4 -evolved from the C3 photosynthetic pathway, enabling more efficient whole-plant function in such environments. Many angiosperm clades with CCMs are thought to have diversified rapidly due to Miocene aridification, but links between this climate change, CCM evolution, and increased net diversification rates (r) remain to be further understood. Euphorbia (∼2000 species) includes a diversity of CAM-using stem succulents, plus a single species-rich C4 subclade. We used ancestral state reconstructions with a dated molecular phylogeny to reveal that CCMs independently evolved 17-22 times in Euphorbia, principally from the Miocene onwards. Analyses assessing among-lineage variation in r identified eight Euphorbia subclades with significantly increased r, six of which have a close temporal relationship with a lineage-corresponding CCM origin. Our trait-dependent diversification analysis indicated that r of Euphorbia CCM lineages is approximately threefold greater than C3 lineages. Overall, these results suggest that CCM evolution in Euphorbia was likely an adaptive strategy that enabled the occupation of increased arid niche space accompanying Miocene expansion of arid ecosystems. These opportunities evidently facilitated recent, replicated bursts of diversification in Euphorbia. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. [Exclusive control substance of radix Stephaniae tetrandrae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Anjun; Li, Xifeng; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Jinlan; Du, Guanhua; Qin, Hailin

    2009-08-01

    To develop the system for the exclusive control substance of plant drug (CSPD) in traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHM), this paper investigated the (CSPD) of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae as well as its proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical methods for the purpose of original identification and quality control of the crude drug. The CSPDs and their 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae were obtained by standardized procedure. Chemical components were isolated from the CSPD by silica gel column chromatography. The assignments of the characteristic signals in 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles were achieved on the basis of elucidation of the isolates structures. For nine samples from the different sources in this paper, the 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles from eight sources had wonderful reproducibility and characteristics, and the other gave differences compared with the eight samples in the signal strength of the main components. Furthermore, seven compounds were isolated from CSPD and their chemical structures were authenticated by spectral analysis as tetrandrine, fangchinoline, tetrandrine-2'-N-beta-oxide, tetrandrine-2'-N-alpha-oxide, dicentrine, dicentrinone, and adenine, respectively. The 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles of the CSPD of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae showed mainly the characteristic signals of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids isolated in this work. The 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles of the CSPD of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae exhibit the structures and total composition of the main active constituents in it, and can be used for its original identification and quality evaluation.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca extract in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-dola, Marium A.; Lutfi, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    Background There were no studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca, though it is commonly used by Sudanese herbalists in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Objectives To determine phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia aegyptiaca To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca in rats. Methodology Plant material was extracted by ethanol and phytochemical screening was done according to standard methods. The thickness of Albino rats’ paws were measured before injection of 0.1 ml of 1% formalin in the sub planter region and then, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 hours after oral dose of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a rate of 400mg/kg, 800mg/kg, indomethacin (5mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg). Edema inhibition percentage (EI%) and mean paw thickness (MPT) were measured in the different groups and compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cumarins, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, triterpenes, and absence of alkaloids, anthraquinones glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. The mean of EI% of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg over different time intervals (64.0%) was significantly lower compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (75.0%, P< 0.001), but higher compared to rats treated at higher dose of 400 mg/kg (57.4%, P< 0.001). In contrast, MPT of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg (6.5±1.1 mm) was significantly higher compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (6.1±.7 mm, P< 0.001) as well as 400 mg/kg (5.9±.5, P< 0.001). Conclusion Euphorbia aegyptiaca ethanolic extract has a sustained dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27004059

  14. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Euphorbia hirta (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, In vitro anticancer effects of Euphorbia hirta were investigated. The objectives of this study are to find the presence of secondary metabolites by preliminary phytochemical investigation and FTIR analysis in the Euphorbia hirta. Ethanolic leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta was tested for its cytotoxicity against ...

  15. Euphorbia factor L8: a diterpenoid from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris

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    Zhi-hua Mao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,9S*,11S*,15R*-5,15-diacetoxy-3-nicotinoyloxy-14-oxolathyra-6(17,12(E-diene], C30H37NO7, was isolated from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris. The tricyclic diterpenoid molecule contains an 11-membered ring, a five-membered ring exhibiting an envelope conformation and a three-membered ring. The 11-membered ring is cis-fused with the three-membered ring and trans-fused with the five-membered ring.

  16. Técnica de cruzamentos controlados em Euphorbia heterophylla L. Crossing technique in Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VARGAS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O leiteiro, Euphorbia heterophylla L., é uma planta daninha comum no Sul, no Sudeste e no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Seu controle químico é realizado principalmente com herbicidas que agem inibindo a enzima acetolactato sintase. Contudo, nos últimos anos, vêm sendo observados genótipos resistentes em diversas lavouras da região Sul. Até o momento, não se realizaram estudos sobre as características genéticas de tal resistência. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever uma técnica de cruzamento controlado em Euphorbia heterophylla L., para viabilizar futuros estudos genéticos. Efetuaram-se hibridações controladas em diversas fases do desenvolvimento do botão floral das plantas. As polinizações e emasculações realizadas no estádio 1(quando as flores femininas apresentam estiletes separados, eretos e com coloração avermelhada, e ovário incluso no ciátio produzem grande número de ciátios com uma ou duas sementes e raras com três. As realizadas no estádio 2 (momento em que os estiletes estão separados e pouco reflexos sobre o ciátio com alteração da coloração avermelhada para branca, com a extremidade bifurcada, e ovário ainda incluso no ciátio ou acima deste, garantiram o sucesso dos cruzamentos com boa produção de sementes.Euphorbia heterophylla L. is a common weed in the South, Southeast, and Central West portions of Brazil. Chemical control is mainly done with herbicides that inhibit the enzyme Acetolactate synthase. However, resistant individuals have being observed in several farms of the South Region. There is no information about the genetic control of such resistance. The present work was aimed to study the hybridization technique in Euphorbia heterophylla L. It was studied the anatomy and the organogenesis of different individuals. Controlled emasculations and pollinations carried out in the stage 1(when the flowers present separate styles, erect and red, and ovary inside of the cyathium produce great

  17. Euphorbia plant latex is inhabited by diverse microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Hyde, Embriette R; Lahmeyer, Sean; Dorsey, Brian L; La Val, Taylor P; Mullen, Madeline; Yoo, Jennifer; Knight, Rob; Baum, Marc M

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial properties and toxicity of Euphorbia plant latex should make it a hostile environment to microbes. However, when specimens from Euphorbia spp. were propagated in tissue culture, microbial growth was observed routinely, raising the question whether the latex of this diverse plant genus can be a niche for polymicrobial communities. Latex from a phylogenetically diverse set of Euphorbia species was collected and genomic microbial DNA extracted. Deep sequencing of bar-coded amplicons from taxonomically informative gene fragments was used to measure bacterial and fungal species richness, evenness, and composition. Euphorbia latex was found to contain unexpectedly complex bacterial (mean: 44.0 species per sample; 9 plants analyzed) and fungal (mean: 20.9 species per sample; 22 plants analyzed) communities using culture-independent methods. Many of the identified taxa are known plant endophytes, but have not been previously found in latex. Our results suggest that Euphorbia plant latex, a putatively hostile antimicrobial environment, unexpectedly supports diverse bacterial and fungal communities. The ecological roles of these microorganisms and potential interactions with their host plants are unknown and warrant further research. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Inhibitory effect of saponins and polysaccharides from Radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different Radix ranunculi ternati extracts on human gastric cancer BGC823 cells were investigated, different methods were used to extract the saponins and polysaccharides from Radix ranunculi ternati, and MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to observe the effects of saponins and ...

  19. Radix mesiolingualis and radix distolingualis: a case report of a tooth with an unusual morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Nayak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the root and canal morphology of the maxillary first molars is quite common. The most common configuration is 3 roots and 3 or 4 canals. Nonetheless, other possibilities still exist. The presence of an additional palatal root is rather uncommon and has been reported to have an incidence of 0.06 - 1.6% in varying populations studied. Whenever two palatal roots exist, one of them is the normal palatal root, the other is a supernumerary structure which can be located either mesiolingually (radix mesiolingualis or distolingually (radix distolingualis. This case report describes successful endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with radix mesiolingualis and radix distolingualis. Identification of this variation was done through clinical examination along with the aid of multiangled radiographs, and an accurate assessment of this morphology was made with the help of a cone-beam computed tomography imaging. In addition to the literature review, this article also discusses the epidemiology, classifications, morphometric features, guidelines for diagnosis, and endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with extra-palatal root.

  20. Keratouveitis from Euphorbia cyparissias exposure is a temporal phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischman D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David Fleischman, Jay J Meyer, W Craig FowlerDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: We present the case of an 82-year-old woman with severe keratouveitis secondary to exposure to the plant Euphorbia cyparissias during the month of August. Despite copious irrigation of both eyes, she developed a case of Euphorbia keratouveitis that was typical in its course. Exposure to plant sap from this species should be treated much like an alkaline chemical injury as the pH of the ocular surface may be elevated. E. cyparissias should be carefully handled as it may result in keratouveitis, especially in early autumn.Keywords: Euphorbia cyparissias, sap, keratitis, uveitis

  1. Biosynthesis of macrocyclic diterpenoids in Euphorbia lathyris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Dan

    documents the investigation of the biosynthetic pathways of macrocyclic diterpenoids known as Euphorbia factors in Euphorbia lathyris L. (caper spurge). These macrocyclic diterpenoids are the current industrial source of ingenol mebutate, which is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis......, a precancerous skin condition. Metabolite profiling of various tissues of E. lathyris L. revealed that the mature seeds constituted a highly specialized tissue for the biosynthesis of lathyrane and ingenane diterpenoids. RNA–seq and transcriptome analysis of E. lathyris L. mature seeds followed by functional...

  2. Influence of Plant Growth Retardants on Quality of Codonopsis Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Liao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth retardant (PGR refers to organics that can inhibit the cell division of plant stem tip sub-apical meristem cells or primordial meristem cell. They are widely used in the cultivation of rhizomatous functional plants; such as Codonopsis Radix, that is a famous Chinese traditional herb. However, it is still unclear whether PGR affects the medicinal quality of C. Radix. In the present study, amino acid analyses, targeted and non-targeted analyses by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS and gas chromatography-MS were used to analyze and compare the composition of untreated C. Radix and C. Radix treated with PGR. The contents of two key bioactive compounds, lobetyolin and atractylenolide III, were not affected by PGR treatment. The amounts of polysaccharides and some internal volatiles were significantly decreased by PGR treatment; while the free amino acids content was generally increased. Fifteen metabolites whose abundance were affected by PGR treatment were identified by UPLC-TOF-MS. Five of the up-regulated compounds have been reported to show immune activity, which might contribute to the healing efficacy (“buqi” of C. Radix. The results of this study showed that treatment of C. Radix with PGR during cultivation has economic benefits and affected some main bioactive compounds in C. Radix.

  3. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. On the origin of Euphorbia subg. Esula in Europe (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanov, B.

    1964-01-01

    A study of the taxonomy and chorology of the Bulgarian species of Euphorbia has led me to consider their phytogeography; this entailed a closer view on the main features of florogenesis and distribution of subg. Esula in Europe. There are two problems concerned, viz. the origin of the two sections

  5. Catalytic properties of lipase from Ficus trichopoda and Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from Ficus trichopoda latex was able to attack specific oil to generate free fatty acids or ester as the major product. This understanding may help in devising efficient methods to produce valuable modified oils. Keywords: Latex; Lipase activity; esterification reaction; typo-selectivity; Ficus trichopoda; Euphorbia unispina ...

  6. Antileishmanial activity of piceatannol isolated from Euphorbia lagascae seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Noelia; Kayser, Oliver; Abreu, Pedro; Ferreira, Maria-Jose U.

    In the search for biologically active compounds from Euphorbia lagascae Spreng, an herbaceous plant native to southeast of Iberic Peninsula, a stilbene, two coumarins and two 1-2-deoxyphorbol diterpene esters were isolated by chromatographic methods, from the methanol extracts of its defatted seeds.

  7. Seed germination and growth of Eleucine indica and Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three experiments were conducted in a glasshouse and a laboratory to provide information on the effect of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on, seed germination, seedling emergence and growth of goosegrass (Eleucine indica (L.) Gaertn) and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla Linn), Glyphosate sprayed ...

  8. Inhibition effect of flavonoid extract of Euphorbia guyoniana on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of flavonoids extracts of three parts of Euphorbia Guyoniana towards the corrosion of type API 5L X52 steel in 15% H2SO4 has been evaluated by weight loss method and polarization technique. The results showed that extracts are a good inhibitors for API 5L X52 steel in this medium. The corrosion inhibition ...

  9. Antiproliferative activity of extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Espírito Santo, 5Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, Campus Vila Velha, Avenida Ministro. Salgado Filho ..... Brasil, 2005. 9. Aquino CL, Barbosa GM, Varricchio MCBA, Veiga VF,. Kuster RM, Zancan P, Sola-Penna M, Holandino C. High dilutions of Euphorbia tirucalli L.(aveloz) modify the.

  10. Screening of endophytic fungi that promote the growth of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored a strategy to use endophytic fungi for promoting the growth of the medicinal plant, Euphorbia pekinensis. The growth of E. pekinensis was examined in pot culture following inoculation of. E. pekinensis with endophytic fungal strains (Fusarium spp.) from E. pekinensis (E4 and E5) and those not from E.

  11. Euphorbias of South Africa: Two New Phorbol Esters from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of all four compounds. The interaction of 1–4 with opioid receptors was explored in an attempt to explain the unexplained stupor occasionally observed in herbivores browsing on E. bothae. Keywords: Euphorbia bothae, Euphorbiaceae, Phorbol Ester, ...

  12. Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E...

  13. Antiproliferative activity of extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate Euphorbia tirucalli extract for probable geographic variations in its antiproliferative activity. Methods: The aerial parts of E. tirucalli were collected in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro, Pará, Minas Gerais and Santa Catarina. The 70 % ethanol extract was obtained according to the ...

  14. Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... The present investigation aims at assessing the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the leaf of Euphorbia neriifolia on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity on rat. CCl4 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p) is a potent hepatotoxic agent, which induces peroxidative degeneration of membrane lipids causing.

  15. The Anti-Sickling Properties of Ethanol Extracts of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Moringa oleifera showed potential anti-sickling activity. The sickling inhibition and reversal activities of the extracts were significant (P<0.05) compared to their negative controls without the extracts at all. Moringa oleifera however showed greater anti-sickling activity of 93% ...

  16. Antimicrobial efficacy and tissue reaction of Euphorbia hirta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial efficacy and tissue reaction of crude ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta was investigated in canine infected incised wounds. The gross appearance and histopathological reactions of the lesions were evaluated at 72 h after treatment. The results showed that crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta neither promoted ...

  17. Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation aims at assessing the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the leaf of Euphorbia neriifolia on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity on rat. CCl4 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p) is a potent hepatotoxic agent, which induces peroxidative degeneration of membrane lipids causing hypoperfusion of the ...

  18. Terpenoid compounds from the latex of Euphorbia drupifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at the isolation and characterization of terpenoid compounds from the latex of Euphorbia drupifera. Methylated spirit extract of the latex was suspended in aqueous methanol and partitioned with petroleum spirit. The aqueous methanol residue was washed with ether. The ethereal fraction was subjected to ...

  19. Effect of Euphorbia hirta and Thymus vulgaris powders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ban placed on the long term use of commercial antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels for diseases control and growth promotion in livestock production necessitated a worldwide search for available, cost effective and efficacious alternatives. Accordingly, the effects of Euphorbia hirta (EH) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) ...

  20. Radioprotective and In-Vitro Cytotoxic Sapogenin from Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) plant is traditionally used in the treatment of abdominal troubles, bronchitis, tumours, leucoderma, piles, inflammation, and enlargement of spleen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of a sapogenin isolate of this plant.

  1. Sporoderm morphogenesis in Euphorbia obesa and Croton gratissimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Frean

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of the Euphorbiaceae show a number of pollen types which can be clearly distinguished. Generally different genera are characterized by a specific pollen type.  Euphorbia obesa Hook. f. and Croton gratissimus Burch, subsp.  subgratissimus (Prain Burtt Davy, represent two genera within the Crotonoideae with different morphology, each type characteristic for the respective genus. Taxonomically, the genus Euphorbia with apetalous flowers consisting of a naked pistil surrounded by several staminate flowers within a cyathium, is considered more advanced than the genus  Croton. In  Croton the inflorescence is a raceme with unisexual flowers. The floral whorls of the male show numerous anthers and both calyx and a showy corolla are present. Both genera are insect pollinated. In both  Euphorbia obesa and  Croton gratissimus the pollen wall in section shows columellae, a structure characteristic of angiosperms. However the present ontogenetic studies show that the formation of the columellae differs entirely in the two pollen types. The final stratification of the wall as well as the morphology of the grains differ and evaluation of the exine structure indicates that phylogenetically Croton pollen shows more advanced characters than  Euphorbia — contradicting the floral phylogeny. This study conducted at light and electron microscope level compares the two pollen types morphologically and ontogenetically, concentrating mainly on the formation of the exine which is tectate-perforate in the prolate tricolpate grain of Euphorbia obesa and semi-tectate in the anaperturate, spheroidal grain of Croton gratissimus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of pollen characters in taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships within the Euphorbiaceae. The differing pollen morphology which is related to the taxonomic grouping of tribes within the subfamily (Crotonoideae emphasizes diversity, which may result from physiological

  2. Sporoderm morphogenesis in Euphorbia obesa and Croton gratissimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Frean

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of the Euphorbiaceae show a number of pollen types which can be clearly distinguished. Generally different genera are characterized by a specific pollen type.  Euphorbia obesa Hook. f. and Croton gratissimus Burch, subsp.  subgratissimus (Prain Burtt Davy, represent two genera within the Crotonoideae with different morphology, each type characteristic for the respective genus. Taxonomically, the genus Euphorbia with apetalous flowers consisting of a naked pistil surrounded by several staminate flowers within a cyathium, is considered more advanced than the genus  Croton. In  Croton the inflorescence is a raceme with unisexual flowers. The floral whorls of the male show numerous anthers and both calyx and a showy corolla are present. Both genera are insect pollinated. In both  Euphorbia obesa and  Croton gratissimus the pollen wall in section shows columellae, a structure characteristic of angiosperms. However the present ontogenetic studies show that the formation of the columellae differs entirely in the two pollen types. The final stratification of the wall as well as the morphology of the grains differ and evaluation of the exine structure indicates that phylogenetically Croton pollen shows more advanced characters than  Euphorbia — contradicting the floral phylogeny. This study conducted at light and electron microscope level compares the two pollen types morphologically and ontogenetically, concentrating mainly on the formation of the exine which is tectate-perforate in the prolate tricolpate grain of Euphorbia obesa and semi-tectate in the anaperturate, spheroidal grain of Croton gratissimus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of pollen characters in taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships within the Euphorbiaceae. The differing pollen morphology which is related to the taxonomic grouping of tribes within the subfamily (Crotonoideae emphasizes diversity, which may result from physiological

  3. The design of disengaging mechanism of radix pseudostellariae and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shungen; Song, Mengmeng; Chen, Chanwei

    2017-12-01

    With the continuous development of the scale of the cultivation of the radix pseudostellariae, the traditional separation mode cannot adapt to the mass production of the crown prince, and the existing manual separation mode is of great labor intensity and low degree of mechanization. Therefore, it is necessary to design a disengaging mechanism of radix pseudostellariae and soil on the basis of the design principle of modern agricultural machinery. According to the physical characteristics and growing environment of radix pseudostellariae, a drum-type separating component is presented, and the drum screen separating mechanism and vibration mechanism of the disengaging mechanism are designed. In this paper, the movement rule and time of the mixture of radix pseudostellariae and soil are determined in the drum screen. Rotation speed of the drum screen is calculated, and the operation rules of the eccentric wheel in the vibration mechanism are summarized.

  4. [Effects of soil factor on active components of Radix Ophiopogonis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianting; Ye, Zhengliang; Guo, Qiaosheng

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of soil factors on the active components in Radix Ophiopogonis. The content of polysaccharide, flavonoids, saponins, water-soluble extract and inorganic elements in Radix Ophiopogonis gathered from 7 different places were compared, physical and chemical properties and inorganic elements of soil were analyzed. The path and grey connection analysis were applied for studying the effects on the active components of Radix Ophiopogonis. The concentrations of mineral elements in plant were mainly adjusted by active absorption. The active components in Radix Ophiopogonis was primarily effected by soil enzyme activity, the other important factors were potassium, pH, and organic matter. K, Fe, Mn, B, Ba, Zn of soil also had much influence on it then others inorganic elements.

  5. Cause and control of Radix Ophiopogonis browning during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Qi, Jin; Han, Dong-Qi; Xu, Tian; Liu, Ji-Hua; Qin, Min-Jian; Zhu, Dan-Ni; Bo-Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    In the storage of Radix Ophiopogonis, browning often happens to cause potential risk with regard to safety. Previously few reports investigate the browning of Radix Ophiopogonis. In this research, the causes and mechanisms of the browning of Radix Ophiopogonis were preliminarily elucidated. Content determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry, enzyme activity determination by colorimetry, and morphological observation by electron microscopy were performed in the present study. Uniform design and three-dimensional response surfaces were applied to investigate the relationship between browning and storage factors. The cortex cell wall of browned Radix Ophiopogonis was ruptured. Compared with the normal Radix Ophiopogonis, cellulase and polyphenol oxidase enzymes were activated, the levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), total sugars, and reducing sugars were increased, while the levels of polysaccharides and methylophiopogonanone A were decreased in browned Radix Ophiopogonis. The relationship between the storage factors and degree of browning (Y) could be described by following correlation equation: Y = - 0.625 4 + 0.020 84 × X3 + 0.001 514 × X1 × X2 - 0.000 964 4 × X2 × X3. Accompanied with browning under storage conditions, the chemical composition of Radix Ophiopogonis was altered. Following the activation of cellulase, the rupture of the cortex cell wall and the outflow of cell substances flowed out, which caused the Radix Ophiopogonis tissue to become soft and sticky. The main causes of the browning were the production of 5-HMF, the activation of polyphenol oxidase, Maillard reactions and enzymatic browning. Browning could be effectively prevented when the air relative humidity (HR), temperature, and moisture content were under 25% RH, 12 °C and 18%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Terpenoids from Euphorbia soongarica and Their Multidrug Resistance Reversal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Aisa, Haji A

    2017-06-23

    Ten new terpenoids, including five diterpenoids (1-5), three nortriterpenoids (6-8), and two triterpenoids (9, 10), and 15 known terpenoids (11-25) were isolated from an acetone extract of Euphorbia soongarica. Sooneuphoramine (1) is the first example of a euphoractine B-type diterpenoid alkaloid, while sooneuphanones A-C (6-8) are rare nortriterpenoids from the Euphorbia genus. The isolated terpenoids were tested for their cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity, 10 of which showed moderate cytotoxicity against the KB and KBv200 cell lines, while 11 compounds exhibited P-gp modulating potential. The triterpenoid sooneuphanone D (9) possessed a remarkable MDR reversal activity much higher than the positive control, verapamil.

  7. Assessment of Immunomodulatory Activity of Euphorbia hirta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K Vijaya; Padmavathi, K

    2010-09-01

    Immune system is the major target for development of treatment strategies to improve the management of infections. Many species of Indian medicinal plants have been reported to possess active principles with immunomodulating properties. Euphorbia hirta, a pantropic herb has been reported to be pharmacologically active. This study reports one another not widely reported property of the plant, immunomodulatory activity, which has been proved using simple techniques like the macrophage activity testing, carbon clearance test and mast cell de-granulation assay.

  8. Assessment of Immunomodulatory Activity of Euphorbia hirta L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, K. Vijaya; K.padmavathi

    2010-01-01

    Immune system is the major target for development of treatment strategies to improve the management of infections. Many species of Indian medicinal plants have been reported to possess active principles with immunomodulating properties. Euphorbia hirta, a pantropic herb has been reported to be pharmacologically active. This study reports one another not widely reported property of the plant, immunomodulatory activity, which has been proved using simple techniques like the macrophage activity ...

  9. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  10. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  11. Radix entomolaris dificultad y reto endodóntico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lliliana Rodríguez Ballesteros

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa variante anatómica más importante que presenta el primer molar inferior es una tercera raíz adicional distolingual llamada radix entomolaris o bucal llamada radix paramolaris. En un tratamiento de endodoncia es importante tener la información completa sobre las variaciones de los conductos radiculares en la medida en que esta asegura el resultado sustancialmente. Para que un tratamiento endodóntico pueda tener éxito, es necesario localizar todos los conductos radiculares, limpiarlos a fondo y sellarlos completamente con un material inerte. El endodoncista debe conocer la morfología interna de los dientes permanentes y las posibles variaciones que estos puedan tener como es el caso de una raíz adicional situada en lingual (el radix entomolaris o en vestibular (el radix paramolaris. La anatomía del conducto radicular es muy compleja e impredecible, y la comprensión de la presencia de una raíz adicional es esencial ya que determinara el éxito del tratamiento endodóntico. El presente caso clínico describe un primer molar inferior con RE sometido a tratamiento endodóntico con tres raíces: una mesial (con un conducto mesio vestibular y otro mesio lingual, una distal (con un conducto y otra raíz disto lingual: radix entomolaris (con un conducto. (DUAZARY 2011, 74 - 79 AbstractThe most important anatomical variant which presents the first molar is third distolingual additional root called radix entomolaris paramolaris call or oral. In root canal treatment is important to have complete information on variations of the root canals to the extent that this ensures the result substantially. For endodontic treatment to succeed, it is necessary to locate all the canals, clean them thoroughly and completely sealed with an inert material. The endodontist must know the internal morphology of permanent teeth and possible variations that they can have as is the case of an additional root located on the tongue (the radix entomolaris or

  12. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six

  13. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Karima; Ounissi, Mondher; Brahmi, Nozha; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Abdellah, Taieb Ben; El Younsi, Fethi; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2013-05-01

    Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six months following the

  14. Comparison of the Immunoregulatory Function of Different Constituents in Radix Astragali and Radix Hedysari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubiao Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali (RA, known as “Huangqi” in China, is one of the most popular herbal medicines known worldwide to reinforce “Qi”. RA is traditionally prepared from the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus (MJHQ and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (MGHQ. Radix Hedysari is named “Hongqi” (HQ, which is similar to RA. We assessed and compared the chemical constituents and bioactivity of RA and HQ. Different constituents were extracted into five major parts and were analyzed using different methods. Comparison of the immunological effects of extracts was done by using two immunological models. Results showed that flavonoids and saponins present in RA and HQ were not only structurally significantly different but also different in their immunological effect. Amino acids extract (AE in MGHQ shows immunological effect while AE in MJHQ and HQ did not. Polysaccharides comprised the major constituents in RA and HQ. All polysaccharides extract (PE of the three herbs showed similar levels of immunological effect in both immunological assays.

  15. Radix entomolaris dificultad y reto endodóntico

    OpenAIRE

    Lliliana Rodríguez Ballesteros; Raul Fortich Carballo; Antonio Diaz C

    2013-01-01

    ResumenLa variante anatómica más importante que presenta el primer molar inferior es una tercera raíz adicional distolingual llamada radix entomolaris o bucal llamada radix paramolaris. En un tratamiento de endodoncia es importante tener la información completa sobre las variaciones de los conductos radiculares en la medida en que esta asegura el resultado sustancialmente. Para que un tratamiento endodóntico pueda tener éxito, es necesario localizar todos los conductos radiculares, limpiarlos...

  16. A systematic review of the active saikosaponins and extracts isolated from Radix Bupleuri and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bochuan; Yang, Rui; Ma, Yongsheng; Zhou, Shan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Radix Bupleuri has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 2000 years with functions of relieving exterior syndrome, clearing heat, regulating liver-qi, and lifting yang-qi. More natural active compounds, especially saikosaponins, have been isolated from Radix Bupleuri, which possess various valuable pharmacological activities. To summarize the current knowledge on pharmacological activities, mechanisms and applications of extracts and saikosaponins isolated from Radix Bupleuri, and obtain new insights for further research and development of Radix Bupleuri. PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Research Gate, Academic Journals and Google Scholar were used as information sources through the inclusion of the search terms 'Radix Bupleuri', 'Bupleurum', 'saikosaponins', 'Radix Bupleuri preparation', and their combinations, mainly from the year 2008 to 2016 without language restriction. Clinical preparations containing Radix Bupleuri were collected from official website of China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA). 296 papers were searched and 128 papers were reviewed. A broad spectrum of in vitro and in vivo research has proved that Radix Bupleuri extracts, saikosaponin a, saikosaponin d, saikosaponin c, and saikosaponin b2, exhibit evident anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiviral, anti-allergic, immunoregulation, and neuroregulation activities mainly through NF-κB, MAPK or other pathways. 15 clinical preparations approved by CFDA remarkably broaden the application of Radix Bupleuri. The main side effect of Radix Bupleuri is liver damage when the dosage is excess, which indicates that the maximum tolerated dose is critical for clinical use of Radix Bupleuri extract and purified compounds.

  17. Dehnh. Utilizando radix en diferentes concentraciones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete-Luna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de desarrollar una técnica de propagación asexual de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, mediante el uso de rebrotes, se establecieron dos ensayos, uno en el mes de marzo y otro en el mes de mayo, para evaluar el efecto de la dosis de AIB (ácido indolbutírico, aplicado en forma del producto comercial Radix® y del genotipo en la capacidad de enraizado de las estaca, en un sustrato compuesto por la mezcla de turba de musgo, vermiculita y agrolita en una proporción de 60:30:10; ambos presentan el mismo diseño, con la diferencia de que en el segundo ensayo no se pudieron incluir todos los clones presentes en el primero. A las cinco semanas de establecidos los ensayos, se extrajeron las estacas para determinar la presencia de raíces o callos. De acuerdo con los datos obtenidos, no se encontró un efecto significativo de la dosis de AIB en el porcentaje de estacas enraizadas, estacas con callo o número de raíces; la dosis de AIB sólo afectó la longitud de las raíces en el segundo ensayo. Sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias significativas en la capacidad de enraizado entre los ensayos, asociadas posiblemente a las condiciones ambientales y fisiológicas de las estacas en cada uno de ellos. Además, se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los clones en el porcentaje de estacas enraizadas y estacas que formaron callo, así como en la longitud de raíz, aunque no en el número de raíces formadas. Esto implica que existen diferencias genéticas en la capacidad de enraizado de los clones de E. camaldulensis incluidos en el estudio.

  18. Comparative nutritional value and antimicrobial activities between three Euphorbia species growing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani S. Awaad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are excellent sources of nutrition and highly bioactive substances that might use in the development of new drugs and pharmaceutical agents. Three species of the Genus Euphorbia (Family Euphorpiaceae, namely; Euphorbia granulata Forssk, Euphorbia helioscobia L., and Euphorbia hirta Linn growing in Ryiadh, KSA were air-dried, powdered, and their active materials were extracted with alcohol. The nutritional value phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the plants were determined. The chemical contents were similar in the three species; however, lipid profile of the plants showed that the stearic acid and lignoceric acid were detected only in E. helioscopia and E. hirta, while palmitoleic acid was detected only in E. hirta. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were 52.48%, 69.39% and 66.52% in Euphorbia granulate, Euphorbia helioscobia, E. hirta, respectively. Three compounds, 1-ethoxypentacosane, heptacosan-1-ol and β-sitosterol were isolated from the three plant extracts and identified using different spectroscopic analysis. The percentage of crude protein was 43.65%, 25.00% and 18.75% in E. granulata, E. helioscobia, and E. hirta, respectively. The free amino acids and amino acid composition were quantitatively determined using amino acid analyzer. All the plant extracts were active against bacterial and fungal test organisms, however, the antimicrobial activity were varied according to both the Euphorbia species and the test organism.

  19. Functional connection between intracellular and extracellular secretion in species of Euphorbia genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Soma, L T; Gulyás, S; Szegletes, Z

    1993-01-01

    In species of the Euphorbia genus the intracellular latex-secretion and the extracellular nectar-secretion are anatomically connected. The functional connection of the secretional systems was proved to be probable by TLC and GC-MSD. The chemical composition of Euphorbia latex and honey was examined with these analytical methods. In our research, the comparative chemical analysis of the latex and the honey of two Euphorbia species (Euphorbia cyparissias L., Euphorbia seguieriana Necker.) was discharged. These species are unusually good melliferous plants in Hungary. Four chemical components that can be found both in the latex and in the honey were detected with ultraviolet light (254 nm), and three general alkaloid reagents (Dragendorff, Meyer and 1% Ce(SO4)2 in 2n H2SO4) were detected by TLC. By means of mass spectrum generated by GC-MSD, the following compounds of Euphorbia honey were identified: butyl-2-methylpropyl phtalat, hexadecane acid, diheptyl phtalat, bis (2-ethyl-hexyl) phtalat, benzenedicarboxylic acid decyl-hexyl ester, benzenedicarboxylic acid isodecyl-octyl ester. The first compounds can also be found in the latex of both examined Euphorbia species. This partial correspondence in the composition of the latex and the honey led to results that suggest a further, functional connection between the two, anatomically connected secretional systems.

  20. Effects of ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the inhibitory effect of total ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on proliferation of colon cancer HT29 cells. By reflux extraction method and with ethanol as extraction solvent, different extracts were obtained at different ethanol concentrations, different solid-liquid ratios, and at different ...

  1. Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Radix Puerariae | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an efficient method for the purification of flavonoids from Radix puerariae. Methods: Optimal extraction technology was obtained using orthogonal test. Through adsorption and desorption tests, 8 resins with different polarity, diameter, and surface area were studied. Finally, a novel macroporous resin, ...

  2. Radix bupleuri Extract Inhibits Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Radix bupleuri extract (RBE) on hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG) in rats. Methods: Forty virgin female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, HMG model, positive control (Rupisanjie capsule, RPSJC), and low-, middle-, and high-dose RBE groups. Estrogen and ...

  3. Inhibition of Three Novel Radix Scutellariae Extracts on Immediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radix Scutellariae, a few papers reported its pharmacology activities including alleviate small intestines smooth muscles spasm, sedation, antihypertensive effect. However, the inhibition of its different organic extracts on immediate hypersensitivity has not bee researched. Materials and Methods: To investigate ...

  4. Evaluation of Embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae Based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the potential embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae (RS) extract using an embryonic stem cell test (EST) and to evaluate its effect on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem. (ES) cells. Methods: All the test samples were obtained by water extraction method. The embryotoxicity of RS was assessed ...

  5. Evaluation of Embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae Based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the potential embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae (RS) extract using an embryonic stem cell test (EST) and to evaluate its effect on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Methods: All the test samples were obtained by water extraction method. The embryotoxicity of RS was assessed ...

  6. Biochemical Evaluation and Green Synthesis of Nano Silver Using Peroxidase from Euphorbia (Euphorbia amygdaloides and Its Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Cicek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles are used an increased attention for various biomedical and medical applications. In this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was made with simple method by using peroxidase enzyme partially purified from Euphorbia (Euphorbia amygdaloides plant. Optimum pH, temperature and time period were determined to obtain silver nanoparticles using the peroxidase enzyme. The result shows that higher silver nanoparticle was synthesized for 4 hours and at 20°C and pH 8. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was found as 0.5 mM. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was measured against some microorganisms such as Serratia marcescens, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Synthesized silver nanoparticles have wide spectrum antibacterial activity in low concentration and may be a good alternative therapeutic approach in medicine and pharmaceutical fields in future.

  7. Euphorbia esula Biocontrol : Achieving Management Objectives : Preliminary Analysis of 1998 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In spring 1998, studies were initiated to assess the ecological impacts of the invasive non-native species leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) on rangeland and natural...

  8. Euphorbia esula : Achieving Management Objectives : Analysis of 1998-2002 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Euphorbia esula is a long-lived perennial plant with an extensive root system. The extent of the root system makes the plant highly resistant to most traditional...

  9. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Baysak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient’s knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported.

  10. [Grades evaluation of Scutellariae Radix slices based on quality constant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhong, Wen; Cui, Wen-Jin; Cheng, Jin-Tang; Chen, Sha; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An

    2017-05-01

    By measuring the morphological indexes and the marker components content of 22 batches of Scutellariae Radix slices as well as calculating the quality constant, this research was aimed to establish a new method of evaluating the specifications and grades of Scutellariae Radix slices. The quality constants of these samples were in the range of 0.04-0.49, which can be divided into several grades based on the real requirement. If they were divided into three grades, the quality constant was ≥0.39 for the first grade, grade, and grade. This work indicated that the quality constants characterizing both apparent parameters and intrinsic quality can be used as a comprehensive evaluation index to classify the grades of traditional Chinese medicine quantitatively, clearly and objectively. The research results in this paper would provide new ideas and references for evaluating the specifications and grades of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Minor ent-abietane diterpenoids from Euphorbia guyoniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Hamada; Marcourt, Laurence; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Long, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    Three new abietane-type diterpenoids: ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-16-ol (1), ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-11,16-diol (2) and 11,12-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-16-oic acid methyl ester (3), in addition to three known triterpenoids: euphol (4), 24,25-epoxycycloartanol (5) and beta-sitosterol O-beta-D-glucoside (6) were isolated from the chloroform extract of the roots of Euphorbia guyoniana. Structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D homo and heteronuclear NMR experiments and ESIMS, and comparison with literature data.

  12. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.; Teisseire, D.

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  13. [Study on attenuate and synergistic mechanism between aconiti lateralis praeparata radix and glycyrrhizae radix for toxicity reduction based on metabonomic of MI-RI mouse cardiomyocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fu, Chao-Mei; Ren, Bo; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Fei; Yang, Huan; Peng, Wei; Gan, Yan-Xiong

    2014-08-01

    Sini decoction (SND), a classical traditional Chinese medicine emergency formula recorded in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases), which is composed of Aconiti Lateralis Preparata Radix, Glycyrrhizae Preparata Radix and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Modern clinical and pharmacological researches have shown that SND can protect the myocardium effectively during myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MI-RI). A myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury model of H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro has been established. Four groups, control group, MI-RI Model group, SND group and SND without Glycyrrhizae Radix group, were arranged. The livability, the level of LDH and CK activity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in different groups were tested. By combining with principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), orthogonal partial least squares projection of latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), 17 biomarkers in extracellular fluid were identified and 15 of them were related to the pathway of biological processes. The results showed that the attenuate and synergistic mechanism between Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix for toxicity reduction was related with the glycolysis, lipid metabolism, citrate cycle and nitrogen metabolism of amino acids metabolism. The study proved the effect on H9c2 cardiomyocyte treated by MI-RI injury both SND group and SND without Glycyrrhizae Radix group, and compared with the SND without Glycyrrhizae Radix, the protective effect of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury model of H9c2 cardiomyocyte from SND was stronger.

  14. Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth., and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii.

  15. Elucidation of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Bupleuri and Scutellariae Radix Using System Pharmacological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of the combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and explored the potential therapeutic efficacy of these two drugs on inflammation-related diseases. Methods. After searching the databases, we collected the active ingredients of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and calculated their oral bioavailability (OB and drug-likeness (DL based on the absorption-distribution-metabolism-elimination (ADME model. In addition, we predicted the drug targets of the selected active components based on weighted ensemble similarity (WES and used them to construct a drug-target network. Gene ontology (GO analysis and KEGG mapper tools were performed on these predicted target genes. Results. We obtained 30 compounds from Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix of good quality as indicated by ADME assays, which possess potential pharmacological activity. These 30 ingredients have a total of 121 potential target genes, which are involved in 24 biological processes related to inflammation. Conclusions. Combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix was found not only to directly inhibit the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines, but also to have potential therapeutic effects against inflammation-induced pain. In addition, a combination therapy of these two drugs exhibited systemic treatment efficacy and provided a theoretical basis for the development of drugs against inflammatory diseases.

  16. Protective effect of Radix Bupleuri extract against liver cirrhosis in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the effect of Radix Bupleuri extract (RBE) on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods: Rats were injected with DEN once a week for 8 weeks to induce liver cirrhosis. Some DENinduced rats were also treated with RBE, which was obtained by extracting dried Radix Bupleuri in ...

  17. A Radix-10 Digit-Recurrence Division Unit: Algorithm and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm. The previous decimal division designs do not include recent developments in the theory and practice of this type of algorithm, which were developed for radix-2^k dividers. In addition...

  18. Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fude Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b2, c, and d were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  19. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: ), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: ), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory.

  20. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: 莪术, and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: 郁金, are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory.

  1. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  2. Is folklore use of Euphorbia helioscopia devoid of toxic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Uzma; Ahmad, Bashir; Ahmad, Mobasher; Erum, Alia; Hussain, Khalid; Irfan Bukhari, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate acute toxic effects of Euphorbia helioscopia in order to assure the safety and usefulness of herbal remedy. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for chemical testing guidelines No. 425 for acute oral toxicity testing were followed in this study. Mice were divided into three groups (n = 5). Group I served as control. Groups II and III were administered methanol extract of E. helioscopia leaves and latex orally at dose of 2000 mg/kg, respectively. Then, all the animals were observed for two weeks. Blood sampling was done by cardiac puncture after 14 days from each group for biochemical analysis. Histopathology was performed to find out any microscopic lesion in vital organs. LD50 was found greater than 2000 mg/kg. There was decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels of latex and leaves with methanol extract-treated animals, with respect to control indicating plant's hypolipidemic effect. On macroscopic examination, no lesions were found on vital organs, such as liver, heart and kidney; and normal architecture was observed on microscopic examination. On the basis of results, it was concluded that methanol extract of E. helioscopia leaves and latex were devoid of toxic effects in acute toxicity study.

  3. Chemical Constituents of Euphorbia Polyacantha Boiss. and their Immunomodulatory Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan O. M. ELhassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation on the stem of Euphorbia polyacantha Boiss. (Euphorbiaceae afforded a new anthraquinone named as 1, 8-dihydroxy -3- (hydroxyl methyl -5- methoxy anthracene- 9,10- dione (1 along with three known compounds, aloe emodin (2 , 3, 4, 3 ¢ –tri-O-methyl ellagic acid (3, and 3,3 ¢ ,4, 4 ¢ - tetra-O-methyl ellagic acid (4. Their structures were determined on the basis of IR, 1D- and 2D- NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analysis. The effect of isolated compounds on oxidative burst of neutrophils and T-cell proliferation response was studied. Compounds 3 and 1 displayed strong oxidative burst inhibitory activity with IC 50 2 ± 0 and 3.5 ± 1.1 µg/mL respectively, whereas they moderately inhibited the T-cell proliferation with IC 50 28.5 ± 1.8 and 22.5 ± 2.0 µg/mL respectively. Compound 2 was relatively inactive with IC 50 43.2 μg/mL in oxidative burst and >50 μg/mL in case of T-cell proliferation. This is the first report on the phytochemical profile and biological activity of E. polyacantha.

  4. Chitinase III in Euphorbia characias latex: Purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Delia; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Pintus, Francesca; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the purification of a class III endochitinase from Euphorbia characias latex. Described purification method includes an effective novel separation step using magnetic chitin particles. Application of magnetic affinity adsorbent noticeably simplifies and shortens the purification procedure. This step and the subsequently DEAE-cellulose chromatography enable to obtain the chitinase in homogeneous form. One protein band is present on PAGE in non-denaturing conditions and SDS-PAGE profile reveals a unique protein band of 36.5 ± 2 kDa. The optimal chitinase activity is observed at 50 °C, pH 5.0. E. characias latex chitinase is able to hydrolyze colloidal chitin giving, as reaction products, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, chitobiose and chitotriose. Moreover, we observed that calcium and magnesium ions enhance chitinase activity. Finally, we cloned the cDNA encoding the E. characias latex chitinase. The partial cDNA nucleotide sequence contains 762 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence (254 amino acids) is homologous to the sequence of several plant class III endochitinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  6. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Clozapine in Concomitant Use of Radix Rehmanniae, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Bupleuri, or Fructus Gardeniae in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dan-Dan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hua-Ning; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2016-05-27

    Radix Rehmanniae, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Bupleuri, and Fructus Gardeniae are often used alongside with clozapine (CLZ) for schizophrenia patients in order to reduce side effects and enhance therapeutic efficacy. However, worse outcomes were observed raising concern about a critical issue, herb-drug interactions, which were rarely reported when antipsychotics were included. This study aims to determine whether the concomitant use of these herbal medicines affects the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CLZ in rat models. Rats were given a single or multiple intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg CLZ, either alone or with individual herbal water extracts administered orally. CLZ and its two inactive metabolites, norclozapine and clozapine N-oxide, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In the acute treatment, the formation of both metabolites was reduced, while no significant change was observed in the CLZ pharmacokinetics for any of the herbal extracts. In the chronic treatment, none of the four herbal extracts significantly influenced the pharmacokinetic parameters of CLZ and its metabolites. Renal and liver functions stayed normal after the 11-day combined use of herbal medicines. Overall, the four herbs had limited interaction effect on CLZ pharmacokinetics in the acute and chronic treatment. Herb-drug interaction includes both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. This result gives us a hint that pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction, instead of pharmacokinetic types, may exist and need further confirmation.

  7. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Clozapine in Concomitant Use of Radix Rehmanniae, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Bupleuri, or Fructus Gardeniae in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Radix Rehmanniae, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Bupleuri, and Fructus Gardeniae are often used alongside with clozapine (CLZ for schizophrenia patients in order to reduce side effects and enhance therapeutic efficacy. However, worse outcomes were observed raising concern about a critical issue, herb-drug interactions, which were rarely reported when antipsychotics were included. This study aims to determine whether the concomitant use of these herbal medicines affects the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CLZ in rat models. Rats were given a single or multiple intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg CLZ, either alone or with individual herbal water extracts administered orally. CLZ and its two inactive metabolites, norclozapine and clozapine N-oxide, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In the acute treatment, the formation of both metabolites was reduced, while no significant change was observed in the CLZ pharmacokinetics for any of the herbal extracts. In the chronic treatment, none of the four herbal extracts significantly influenced the pharmacokinetic parameters of CLZ and its metabolites. Renal and liver functions stayed normal after the 11-day combined use of herbal medicines. Overall, the four herbs had limited interaction effect on CLZ pharmacokinetics in the acute and chronic treatment. Herb-drug interaction includes both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. This result gives us a hint that pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction, instead of pharmacokinetic types, may exist and need further confirmation.

  8. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determining in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Euphorbia tirucalli modulates gene expression in larynx squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Salla, Gabriela Bueno; Prates, Janesly; Cardin, Laila Toniol; Dos Santos, Anemari Ramos Dinarte; Silva, Wilson Araújo da; da Cunha, Bianca Rodrigues; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Rodrigues-Lisoni, Flávia Cristina

    2016-05-21

    Some plants had been used in the treatment of cancer and one of these has attracted scientific interest, the Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli), used in the treatment of asthma, ulcers, warts has active components with activities scientifically proven as antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. We evaluate the influence of the antitumoral fraction of the E. tirucalli latex in the larynx squamous cell carcinoma (Hep-2), on the morphology, cell proliferation and gene expression. The Hep-2 cells were cultivated in complete medium (MEM 10 %) and treated with E. tirucalli latex for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. After statistically analyzing the proliferation of the tested cells, the cells were cultivated again for RNA extraction and the Rapid Subtractive Hybridization (RaSH) technique was used to identify genes with altered expression. The genes found using the RaSH technique were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) using Ingenuity Systems. The five genes found to have differential expression were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. Though treatment with E. tirucalli latex did not change the cell morphology in comparison to control samples, but the cell growth was significantly decreased. The RaSH showed change in the expression of some genes, including ANXA1, TCEA1, NGFRAP1, ITPR1 and CD55, which are associated with inflammatory response, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, calcium ion transport regulation and complement system, respectively. The E. tirucalli latex treatment down-regulated ITPR1 and up-regulated ANXA1 and CD55 genes, and was validated by real-time quantitative PCR. The data indicate the involvement of E. tirucalli latex in the altered expression of genes involved in tumorigenic processes, which could potentially be applied as a therapeutic indicator of larynx cancer.

  10. Seed-Robbing between Ant Species Intervenes in the Myrmecochory of Euphorbia characias (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Espadaler; Crisanto Gómez; David Suñrer

    1995-01-01

    A case of interference competition in which some ant species (Messor barbarus and Aphaenogaster senilis) rob seeds of Euphorbia characias from other ants (especially Tapinoma nigerrimum) is reported. Seed robbing is here regarded as a possible natural impediment to myrmecochory as it may interfere with the seedling recruitment process of the myrmecochorous plant.

  11. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  12. Beheersing en bestrijding van Botrytis cinerea en van Penicillium in Euphorbia fulgens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, J.P.; Hazendonk, A.; Bosker, I.; Slootweg, C.; Hoope, ten M.

    2002-01-01

    De bloeiwijze van Euphorbia fulgens kent twee belangrijke schimmelbelagers, die problemen in de teelt veroorzaken: Botrytis cinerea en Penicillium. B. cinerea geeft schade in de vorm van smet of pokken, die op de bloemblaadjes verschijnen. Dit zijn kleine donkerbruine/zwarte plekjes van ongeveer 1

  13. The involvement of amino acids in latex lipid synthesis in Euphorbia lathyris seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, H.W.; Elings, J.

    1984-01-01

    The breakdown of triglycerides and proteins in the endosperm of Euphorbia lathyris was assayed in a 14 day germination period. Six days after germination, the average daily production was 2.7 μmol of amino acids. Arginine, glutamine, asparagine and glutamic acid accounted for 53% of the total amino

  14. Repellence and toxicity of plant essential oils to the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.E.; Bruin, de A.; Moskal, J.R.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Several plant essential oils were tested for their effect on behaviour and mortality of M. euphorbiae. Olfactory and contact experiments were performed to study these effects. We found that host plant and formulation of the different oils have a strong influence on repellence and mortality of the

  15. New Compounds from Euphorbia helioscopia and Absolute Configuration Determination by Computational Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiangbo; Zhu, Hua Jie; Luo, Gui Fen; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong Xian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaopeng; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Guochun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Guang Ming [Dali University, Dali (China)

    2010-08-15

    The whole plant of Euphorbia helioscopia is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Fom its BuOH soluble extract, one new lactam, three new terpenoids including a new naturally occurring compound, and three known compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic evidences. In particular, the absolute configurations of side chain of compounds 1 and 2 were determined using computational methods.

  16. Inoculation of cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma harzianum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubský, M.; Šrámek, F.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2002), s. 63-68 ISSN 0370-663X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cyclamen persicum * Euphorbia pulcherrima * inoculation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2002

  17. Inventory and analysis of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) sites: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Francis; Meredith J. Morris; Richard J. Myhre; Daniel L. Noble

    1980-01-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) infests more than 2.25 million acres of agricultural and range lands in the United States and had an economic impact of $10.5 million in 1978 (Noble et al. 1979). The most widespread and heaviest areas of infestation are in the northern and central Great Plains. However, quantitative information and compatible...

  18. In vitro evaluation of the effect of Euphorbia kamerunica latex on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Euphorbia kamerunica latex on the blood of albino rat (Rattus novergicus) was studied. Two different samples were prepared, one with 10% E. kamerunica latex in blood of albino rat and the other, whole blood. Blood from each of the two samples was analyzed haematologically for the packed cell volume ...

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy study of radix astragali based on soxhlet extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nengrong; Shao, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Shi, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Due to its high sensitivity, flexibility, and "fingerprints" sensing capability, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a very powerful method for characterization of substances. In this paper, two kinds of Radix Astragali with different quality were firstly extracted through continuous circumfluence extraction method and then mixed with silver nanoparticles for SERS detection. Most Raman bands obtained in Radix Astragali extraction solution are found at 300-7000cm-1 and 900-1390 cm-1. Although, major peak positions at 470, 556, 949, 1178 and 1286 cm-1 found in these two kinds of Radix Astragali appear nearly the same, Raman bands of 556 and 1178 cm-1 are different in intensity, thus may be used as a characteristic marker of Radix Astragali quality. In detail, we can make full use of the different intensity of two different kinds but the same state at 556 cm-1 to describe the quality standard of Radix Astragali. Our preliminary results show that SERS combining with continuous circumfluence extraction method may provide a direct, accurate and rapid detection method of Radix Astragali.

  20. Simultaneous, Simple and Rapid Determination of Five Bioactive Free Anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei by Quantitative 1H NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Dong,Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Fang, Yun-Shan; Duan,Wei-He; Li, Zhen-Jie; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Radix et Rhizoma Rhei has been recognized for centuries in traditional medicine for its multiple pharmacological actions. The free anthraquinones including physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, and aloe-emodin are the main bioactive components in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. In the present study, a fast quantitative 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (q-HNMR) method for the determination and quantitation of five free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was developed. Validation of the quantitative ...

  1. A Chinese Herbal Preparation Containing Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum Reduces Circulating Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. O’Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating adhesion molecules (CAMs, surface proteins expressed in the vascular endothelium, have emerged as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. CAMs are involved in intercellular communication that are believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. A Chinese medicine, the “Dantonic Pill” (DP (also known as the “Cardiotonic Pill”, containing three Chinese herbal material medica, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been used in China for the prevention and management of CVD. Previous laboratory and animal studies have suggested that this preparation reduces both atherogenesis and adhesion molecule expression. A parallel double blind randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the DP on three species of CAM (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin in participants with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia. Secondary endpoints included biochemical and hematological variables and clinical effects. Forty participants were randomized to either treatment or control for 12 weeks. Treatment with DP was associated with a statistically significant decrease in ICAM-1 (9% decrease, P = .03 and E-Selectin (15% decrease, P = .004. There was no significant change in renal function tests, liver function tests, glucose, lipids or C-reactive protein levels and clinical adverse effects did not differ between the active and the control groups. There were no relevant changes in participants receiving placebo. These results suggest that this herbal medicine may contribute to the development of a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction.

  2. [Analysis and comparison of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Cai, Miao-zhen; Wang, Hong; Yu, Rui-peng; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2010-07-01

    Herba euphorbiae humifusae is the dried whole plant of Euphorbia humi fusa Willd. that belongs to euphorbiaceae. In the present paper, the microwave digestion procedure was used to digest herba euphorbiae humifusae collected in different periods, and then flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of eight kinds of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods, and the change in the contents of trace elements at different times was studied and analysed. The results showed that of all the trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods, element Fe was the highest in June, element K was in August at the highest level, element Mn reached the highest content in September, elements Na and Ca were dividedly at the highest content in October and November, and in December the highest content elements were Zn, Cu and Mg. In one word, the change of Na and Ca was jumping, while the change of Cu and Zn was comparatively mild. The results provide scientific basis for the time of collection of herba euphorbiae humifusae.

  3. Growth analysis of three species weeds Euphorbia genus = Análise de crescimento de espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Teresa Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane plantations, species of the genus Euphorbia are reported as weeds able to reduce productivity by up to 85%. Planning the correct strategies for controlling these plants requires knowledge of their biology and growth. The aim of this work therefore, was to evaluate the growth of three weed species of the genus Euphorbia occurring in sugarcane plantations. The study was carried out in a greenhouse, using a completely randomised experimental design in a scheme of lots subdivided over time, with five replications. The factors were three species of Euphorbia (E. heterophylla, E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta and 13 periods of evaluation 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 98 days after sowing (DAS. Each evaluation measured plant height (PH, leaf area (LA, number of leaves (NL and total dry matter (TDM. From the mean values for shoot dry matter (SDM, TDM and LA, the absolute growth rate (AGR and relative growth rate (RGR, leaf area ratio (LAR, and leaf weight ratio (LWR were calculated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and non-linear regression. E. heterophylla displayed greater PH up to 63 DAS, from this point E. hyssopifolia obtained greater height among the species under study. E. heterophylla was noteworthy for having a greater accumulation of LA, TDM and AGR among the studied species, followed by E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta. Maximum growth in the species under evaluation was at 77 DAS. Among the species, E. heterophylla displays greater growth and development. = Nos canaviais, espécies do gênero Euphorbia são relatadas como plantas daninhas capazes de reduzir a produtividade em até 85%. Para traçar estratégias corretas de controle dessas plantas é necessário o conhecimento tanto da sua biologia quanto do seu crescimento. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento de três espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia ocorrentes nos canaviais. O estudo foi realizado em casa de vegeta

  4. Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis: A review of traditional Chinese medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenyue; Ma, Rufeng; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Ruyuan; Liu, Haixia; Guo, Yubo; Zhao, Baosheng; Zhao, Shangang; Tang, Jinfa; Li, Yu; Niu, Jianzhao; Fu, Min; Zhang, Dongwei; Gao, Sihua

    2017-02-23

    Emerging clinical usage and pharmacological effects have been achieved in using Rehmanniae Radix either singly or in combination with other herbs to treat skeletal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the recent years. This study is aimed to provide a comprehensive review about the historical TCM interpretation of the action of Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis, its usage in clinical trials and osteoporotic models, its main phytochemical constituents, and its pharmacokinetics. Several databases included PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, China Science and Technology Journal Database, National Science and Technology Library and the Web of Science Database were consulted to locate the publications pertaining to Rehmanniae Radix. The initial inquiry was conducted for the presence of the following terms combinations in the abstracts: Rehmanniae Radix, Dihuang, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, osteoporosis, bone, osteoclast and osteoblast. About 330 research papers and reviews were consulted. In TCM, Rehmanniae Radix exerts the anti-osteoporotic effect via regulating the functions of kidney and liver as well as improving blood circulation. 107 clinical trials are identified that used Rehmanniae Radix in combination with other herbs to treat post-menopausal, senile and secondary osteoporosis. Most of the clinical trials are characterized by high efficacy and no obvious adverse effects. However, the efficacies of these clinical trials are limited because of small patient sample size, short treatment duration and poor clinical design. In addition, TCM herbs under the clinical study are not clear because of a lack of standardization and authentication. The pharmacokinetics data demonstrate that the ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix are widely distributed after administration, and that catalpol and ajugol as well as acetoside are supposed to be the active constituents. More than 140 individual compounds have been currently isolated from this

  5. Mixed-radix Algorithm for the Computation of Forward and Inverse MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong; Senhadji, Lotfi; Luo, Limin

    2008-08-12

    The modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) and inverse MDCT (IMDCT) are two of the most computational intensive operations in MPEG audio coding standards. A new mixed-radix algorithm for efficient computing the MDCT/IMDCT is presented. The proposed mixed-radix MDCT algorithm is composed of two recursive algorithms. The first algorithm, called the radix-2 decimation in frequency (DIF) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into two MDCTs with the length N/2. The second algorithm, called the radix-3 decimation in time (DIT) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into three MDCTs with the length N/3. Since the proposed MDCT algorithm is also expressed in the form of a simple sparse matrix factorization, the corresponding IMDCT algorithm can be easily derived by simply transposing the matrix factorization. Comparison of the proposed algorithm with some existing ones shows that our proposed algorithm is more suitable for parallel implementation and especially suitable for the layer III of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 audio encoding and decoding. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can be easily extended to the multidimensional case by using the vector-radix method.

  6. Germination and mycelial growth of Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho as influenced by herbicides and surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoto Marta Cecília Mallasen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho can be combined with herbicide in order to control a large spectrum of weed species, being a strong candidate for the biocontrol of Euphorbia heterophylla L. (milk weed. The fungus release can be combined with herbicide in order to control a broader spectrum of weed species. Thus, laboratory experiments were set up to study the feasibility of using tank mixes of B. euphorbiae spores with herbicides or surfactants recommended for soybean. Mycelial growth and conidia germination were evaluated in PDA medium enriched with the herbicides oxasulfuron (80 g/ha, glyphosate (4 L/ha, bentazon (1.5 L/ha, fomesafen (1 L/ha, chlorimuron-ethyl (80 g/ha, lactofen (1 L/ha and imazetaphyr (1 L/ha, and the surfactants Energic (2 ml/L, Aterbane (2.5 ml/L, Silwet L-77Ag (1 ml/L, Herbitensil (2 ml/L and Natur L'óleo (10 ml/L. Dilution of the herbicides at 50% and 25% were evaluated based on solution consumption of 300 L/ha. The surfactants were evaluated only in the recommended concentrations. Mycelial growth was not affected by bentazon and fomesafen and slightly by oxasulfuron. However, glyphosate and the surfactants Energic, Herbitensil and Aterbane strongly reduced its growth. The reduction observed on imazetaphyr enriched medium was intermediate and the Natur L'óleo promoted mycelial growth. All of the surfactants allowed B. euphorbiae conidia germination equivalent to that reached in the presence of water. Energic and Herbitensil caused an expressive retardation on spore germination. The germinative process only began after 120 minutes in the presence of Herbitensil. In relation to the herbicides, it was observed that only in the presence of glyphosate and imazetaphyr the conidia germination did not follow the trend of the treatment with water.

  7. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of Euphorbia hirta L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh K.; Padmavathi K

    2010-01-01

    Immune system is the major target for development of treatment strategies to improve the management of infections. Many species of Indian medicinal plants have been reported to possess active principles with immunomodulating properties. Euphorbia hirta, a pantropic herb has been reported to be pharmacologically active. This study reports one another not widely reported property of the plant, immunomodulatory activity, which has been proved using simple techniques like the macrophage activity ...

  8. Post-marketing safety monitoring of shenqifuzheng injection: a solution made of dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) and huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Qinghua; Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yanming; Huang, Wenhua; Liang, Hong; Cao, Hui

    2014-08-01

    To identify the potential risk factors associated with Shenqifuzheng injection (SFI), a solution made of Dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) and Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici), for the timely provision of information to regulatory authorities. A comprehensive analysis of the production process, quality standards, pharmacology, post-marketing clinical studies, and safety evaluation using the primary literature of adverse reactions (ADR), case analyses, and systematic reviews, intensive hospital safety monitoring of post-marketing drugs, and data provided by the hospital information system (HIS). Sub-acute toxicity tests suggesting that a dose of 15 mL/kg (concentrated solution) had specific biological effects, whereas a smaller dose engendered no observable effects. Long-term toxicity testing in domestic rabbits showed that after SFI was administered for 90 days, the animals in each dosing group showed no chronic toxic reactions. Among 20 100 cases observed, the incidence of an ADR was 1.85 per thousand. From March to November 2013, of the leading institutions and 22 sub-centers involved in the post-marketing clinical safety intensive hospital monitoring, 21 units completed 8484 cases of monitoring, and reported 23 cases of adverse reactions. No damage to renal function was found using SFI at a dosage and a treatment course larger and longer than that recommended for the adjuvant treatment of tumors. This could reduce the mortality rate of admitted patients based on the analysis of the data provided by the HIS. A total of 16 clinical case reports of adverse reactions related to SFI in 1999-2012 were obtained through literature retrieval. These reports contained information concerning 17 cases, with adverse reaction symptoms including thrombocytopenia, rash, chills, feeling cold, palpitation, dyspnea, edema of a lower extremity, palpebral edema, and superficial vein inflammation, among others. This study introduces "get full access" to the flow of information on

  9. Vector Radix 2 × 2 Sliding Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Yung Byun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional (2D discrete Fourier transform (DFT in the sliding window scenario has been successfully used for numerous applications requiring consecutive spectrum analysis of input signals. However, the results of conventional sliding DFT algorithms are potentially unstable because of the accumulated numerical errors caused by recursive strategy. In this letter, a stable 2D sliding fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm based on the vector radix (VR 2 × 2 FFT is presented. In the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, each 2D DFT bin is hierarchically decomposed into four sub-DFT bins until the size of the sub-DFT bins is reduced to 2 × 2; the output DFT bins are calculated using the linear combination of the sub-DFT bins. Because the sub-DFT bins for the overlapped input signals between the previous and current window are the same, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational complexity of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm by reusing previously calculated sub-DFT bins in the sliding window scenario. Moreover, because the resultant DFT bins are identical to those of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, numerical errors do not arise; therefore, unconditional stability is guaranteed. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed algorithm has the lowest computational requirements among the existing stable sliding DFT algorithms.

  10. Neuroprotective and Cytotoxic Phthalides from Angelicae Sinensis Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7, were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, HCT-8, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Riligustilide (4 showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 13.82, 6.79, and 7.92 μM, respectively. Tokinolide A (6 and tokinolide C (6 exerted low cytotoxicity in these cancer cell lines, while the remaining compounds were inactive. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of cytotoxic action of riligustilide (4. We observed that compound 4 was able to arrest the cell cycle in the G1, S phases and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in HCT-8 cell lines. In addition, these compounds were evaluated for neuroprotective effect against SH-SY5Y cells injured by glutamate. The result showed that ligustilide (1, Z-butylidenephthalide (3 and tokinolide A (6 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects.

  11. Effects of Lead Phytochemicals of Radix Scutellariae on Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pauline; Shi, Guangsen; Yap, Maurice; Boost, Maureen V

    2016-12-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), which is associated with noncompliant use of contact lenses, remains difficult to treat due to delayed diagnosis and paucity of therapeutic agents. Although improvements in activity against Acanthamoeba infection have been achieved in disinfecting solutions for soft contact lenses, such modifications have not been extended to those for special rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses, which are increasingly used for myopia control in children. Phytochemicals present in herbs used for traditional Chinese medicine may be effective as therapeutic or preventive agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate amoebicidal properties of lead phytochemicals of Radix scutellariae alone and in combination with multipurpose (disinfecting) solutions (MPS) for RGP lenses. Viability of Acanthamoeba castellani and A. polyphaga trophozoites was determined following exposure to four phytochemicals: baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, and oroxylin A and both alone and in combination with four RGP MPS, using a modified stand-alone technique. As individual agents, wogonoside and oroxylin A showed highest activity against A. castellani and A. polyphaga trophozoites, respectively. For both organisms, the combination of baicalein and oroxylin A was superior. Effectiveness of MPS alone did not exceed 0.27 log reduction, but addition of combined baicalein and oroxylin A resulted in 0.92 and 0.64 log reductions of A. castellani and A. polyphaga, respectively. The combination of baicalein and oroxylin A enhanced the activity of MPS for RGP contact lenses against trophozoites of two pathogens, A. castellani, and A. polyphaga, and offers a potential therapeutic and/or preventative agent for AK.

  12. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice by mixed fermentation with Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qin; Zhang, Hao; Xue, Dan

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a new functional food combined Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice was explored. The pigment intensity, antioxidant activities and the main isoflavones of it were evaluated and compared with traditional red yeast rice and Radix Puerariae. The fermented mixture showed higher contents of isoflavones and pigment intensities than red yeast rice and Radix Puerariae. The DPPH, OH, FRAP and total antioxidant activity results of fermented mixture also showed higher antioxidant potential than those of Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice, owing to the higher pigment intensity and total phenolic contents. It is concluded that the fermented mixture of Radix Puerariae and rice could be widely used as a source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential, thus introducing numerous health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Cervus elaphus Aquapuncture and Ginseng Radix Aquapuncture on the Growth of Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jin-Man

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cervus elaphus aquapuncuture and Ginseng Radix aquapuncuture on the growth, protein efficiency ratio, contents of total protein, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in serum were studied for thirty four days. The results were summarized as follows. 1. Weight significantly increased in 0.3% Cervus elaphus aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci and in 0.2% Ginseng Radix aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to normal saline aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci. 2. Protein efficiency ratio significantly increased in 0.2% and 0.3% of Cervus elaphus aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci and 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% of Ginseng Radix aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to nonnal saline aquapuncture on Chunchu loci. 3. Total protein significantly increased in 0.2% and 0.3% of Cervus elaphus aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to nonnal saline aqriapuncture On Chunchu loci. whereas it had a tendency to increase in 0.2% Ginseng Radix aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to normal saline aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci. 4. Total cholesterol increased a little in 0.3% Cervus elaphus aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to normal saline aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci. 5. Triglyceride significantly increased in 0.2% Ginseng Radix aqua puncture group on Chunchu loci compared to normal saline aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci. Significance was acknowledged in the effect by density difference of medicines. In the Cervus elaphus group, there was the most significant increase in density of 0.3% aquapuncture, whereas in Ginseng Radix group, there was the most significant increase in density of 0.2% aquapuncture. So setting up density of medicines is important and many various studies for clinical application are required.

  14. Genetic characterization of a red color morph of Euphorbia esula subsp. esula (Euphorbiaceae) in the floodplains of Saône (Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula L (Euphorbiaceae) is an The invasive leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula L (Euphorbiaceae) is an emerging weed in the floodplains of the Val de Saône France, that displaces native flora and desirable forage species by forming dense monotypic stands. It is conside...

  15. Environ: E00388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00388 Euphorbia kansui radix Euphorbia kansui root Crude drug Tirucallol, alpha-Eu...20-acetate, 13-Oxyingenol-13-dodecanoate-20-hexanoate Euphorbia kansui [TAX:239687] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbia kans...ui root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00388 Euphorbia kansui root ...

  16. [Influence of different original processing methods on quality of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Shu-Rui; Hou, Jun-Ling; Wang, Wen-Quan; Xu, Zhen-Guang; Song, Yan; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Li, Jun

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the contents of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, crytotanshinone, tanshinone II(A) in samples of different original processed Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were determined by HPLC. Different processing methods have varied influences on four active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Sun-drying reduced the content of crytotanshinone, tanshi-none II(A) and rosmarinic acid, integralsamples were better than those cut into segments. Oven dry method had great influence on water--soluble ingredients, high temperature (80-100 degrees C) could easily cause big loss of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. The role of traditional processing method "fahan: was complicated, the content of rosmarinic acid decreased, crytotanshinone and tanshinone II(A) increased, and salvianolic acid B showed no difference after "fahan". Drying in the shade and oven dry under low temperatrure (40-60 degrees C) were all effective to keep active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and, there was no difference between integral samples and samples cut into segments. Therefore, considering comprehensively the content of active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and processing costing etc., shade-drying or oven dry underlow temperature (40-60 degrees C) should be the most suitable original processing method.

  17. [Research model on commodity specification standard of radix Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2016-03-01

    As an important part of the market commodity circulation, the standard grade of Chinese traditional medicine commodity is very important to restrict the market order and guarantee the quality of the medicinal material. The State Council issuing the "protection and development of Chinese herbal medicine (2015-2020)" also make clear that the important task of improving the circulation of Chinese herbal medicine industry norms and the commodity specification standard of common traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, as a large class of Chinese herbal medicines, the standard grade of the radix is more confused in the market circulation, and lack of a more reasonable study model in the development of the standard. Thus, this paper summarizes the research background, present situation and problems, and several key points of the commodity specification and grade standard in radix herbs. Then, the research model is introduced as an example of Pseudostellariae Radix, so as to provide technical support and reference for formulating commodity specifications and grades standard in other radix traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  19. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...

  20. [Preparation and characterization of Radix Salvia reference material for heavy metals under GAP control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-yong; Zhuang, Zhi-xia; Wang, Xiao-ru; Lee, Frank S

    2003-09-01

    To prepare and characterize the heavy metal reference material of radix salvia planted in Zhongjiang, Sichuan province under the good agricultural procedure (GAP). After being prepared, the reference material was digested with 65% HNO3 and H2O2 by microwave-assisted oven systems, and the heavy metals in Radix salvia reference material were accurately determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measuring method was validated by running certificated reference materials, including bush twigs and leaves (GBW07602) and tea twigs and leaves (GBW07605) under the same conditions. The recoveries of the elements mostly ranged from 90% to 110%, and the RSD was within 5%. The measurement of radix salvia reference material was carried out by different laboratories with ICP-MS and by several time intervals in one year for the stability. The results showed that the concentration of the heavy metals provided were accurate and the reference material was stable. The reference material is suitable to be the criterions of heavy metals for radix salvia in the qualities controlling, and is also suitable to be the criterion of poisonous heavy metals of other herbs in the administration of GAP.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of r.a.p . ( Radix Angelicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (R.A.P) ethanol extracts. Three classic anti-inflammatory models and two analgesic models were used in this research. In anti-inflammatory tests, all the extracts have a certain inhibition on the acute ...

  2. Study on anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from radix paeoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the paper was to study the anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from Radix paeoniae rubra in S180 tumor-bearing mice, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action. Mice were made into S180 solid tumor model, grouped and administered with the extracts; tumor inhibition rate was measured by ...

  3. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  4. Biocrude crop production in arid lands. [Calotropis procera, Chrysothamus paniculatus, Euphorbia lathyris, Grindelia camporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.P.; Kingsolver, B.E.; Hoffmann, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Published and unpublished estimates of land and water requirements and energy yield were used to prepare energy budgets for 4 potential biocrude (liquid fuel) crops in the SW USA: the perennials Calotropis procera and Chrysothamnus paniculatus and the annuals Euphorbia lathyris and Grindelia camporum. Estimated annual costs are examined and discussed for an operation processing 300,000 t/yr. The cheapest energy was produced by C. paniculatus, although it required the largest land area. The paper emphasizes that selecting for biocrude content (biomass quality) of plants may be at the expense of productivity (quantity) since the 2 have been shown to be inversely related in many cases. 8 references.

  5. [Dermatitis and conjunctivitis after contact with Euphorbia myrsinites (wolf's milk extract)--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, M M; Erb, C; Flammer, J; Meyer, P

    1999-09-01

    Fresh sap of euphorbiaceae leads to a toxic burn of the skin and the eyes. Since years the sap of euphorbiaceae has been used in the treatment of different kinds of verrucas. After contact with the sap of Euphorbia myrsinites three children developed a toxic dermatitis. In addition, the youngest girl showed a conjunctivitis and an occlusion of the right eye. Phorbolesters are considered to be responsible for the toxicity of the euphorbiaceae. All three children have resulted in a restitutio ad integrum. This case report is demonstrating the danger of toxic burn of this kind of plant.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR using single reference standard.

  7. Comparative analysis of four terpenoids in root and cortex of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix by different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuanjie; Shen, Fei; Su, Shulan; Bai, Yongliang; Guo, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Ji, Tao; Wang, Yanyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-11-23

    Tripterygium wilfordii Radix, a well-known traditional medicine in china which is used for treatment of inflammation, pain, tumor and immune regulation for centuries in china, accompany with the serious toxic side effects. This study was carried out for simultaneously analyzing the four main components (triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral and celastrol) in Tripterygium wilfordii Radix under different drying processes, which was important for reducing the toxicity and quality control of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix in future. The terpenes were extracted by using ultrasonic method with ethyl acetate from root or cortex of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix, and the sensitive and rapid HPLC-PDA method was developed for simultaneous quantification of triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral and celastrol in root and cortex of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix for evaluation of the impacts by different drying processes. The four compounds in their respective determined arrange had good linearity of 0.9998≦R 2 ≦0.9999 and the average recoveries were range from 94.69 to 100.28%, RSDs were within 0.27 to 2.42%, respectively. The contents of triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral and celastrol in different Tripterygium wilfordii Radix individuals were varied greatly at different drying temperatures. Under different temperatures, the contents of triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral, and celastrol were 37.94-70.31 mg/g, 0-1.807 mg/g, 0.3513-9.205 mg/g, 3.202-15.31 mg/g, respectively. The suitable drying temperature of terpenoids in root of wild and cultivate are 80 °C and 60 °C, the suitable drying temperature of terpenoids in cortex is 40 °C. The method established is high sensitivity, accuracy, reliability and suitable for the simultaneous analysis of terpenoids in Tripterygium wilfordii Radix. The data provide a scientific basis and reference for the quality control of herb and preparations related to Tripterygium wilfordii

  8. POTENSI ANTIMIKROBIA KRIM EKSTRAK RANTING PATAH TULANG (Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. TERHADAP Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 11827 DAN Candida albicans ATCC 24433

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Scandinovita Setiorini

    2016-04-01

    extracts with cream for testing Candida albicans.The final results were 10% test extract had MIC to Propionibacterium acnes and 6% test extract had MIC in cream to Candida albicans. Keywords: Euphorbia tirucalli L., DMSO, Thymol, antimicrobial potency, cream (o/w, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans

  9. Method for increasing the synthesis and accumulation of natural hydrocarbons derived from terpenoid metabolism in the euphorbia lathyris plant

    OpenAIRE

    Balaguer Zamora, Begoña; Castelblanque Soriano, Lourdes; Martí-Ibáñez, María Cristina; Ramírez García, Vicente; Vera, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for obtaining triterpene-enriched biomass, characterised in that it comprises treating the plant Euphorbia lathyris with at least one jasmonate, preferably methyl jasmonate. The invention also relates to the resulting triterpene-enriched biomass, to the use thereof as a fuel source and to the method for obtaining said fuel.

  10. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dispenza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  11. Biomimetic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Endosymbiotic Bacterium Inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. and Their Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to evaluate biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytic bacterium EH 419 inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. The synthesized nanoparticles were initially confirmed with change in color from the reaction mixture to brown indicating the synthesis of nanoparticles. Further confirmation was achieved with the characteristic absorption peak at 440 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were subjected to biophysical characterization using hyphenated techniques. The possible role of biomolecules in mediating the synthesis was depicted with FTIR analysis. Further crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD with prominent diffraction peaks at 2θ which can be indexed to the (111, (200, (220, and (311 reflections of face centered cubic structure (fcc of metallic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed morphological characteristics of synthesized silver nanoparticles to be polydisperse in nature with size ranging from 10 to 60 nm and different morphological characteristics such as spherical, oval, hexagonal, and cubic shapes. Further silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against panel of significant pathogenic bacteria among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most sensitive compared to other pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, present study forms first report of bacterial endophyte inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. in mediating synthesizing silver nanoparticles.

  12. Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keline Medeiros de Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid.

  13. Colonization and diversification of the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Yanshu; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Wang, Faguo; Xing, Fuwu

    2016-09-29

    Diversification between islands and ecological radiation within islands are postulated to have occurred in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. In this study, the biogeographical pattern of 11 species of subsect. Macaronesicae and the genetic differentiation among five species were investigated to distinguish the potential mode and mechanism of diversification and speciation. The biogeographical patterns and genetic structure were examined using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, reduced median-joining haplotype network analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components. The gene flow between related species was evaluated with an isolation-with-migration model. The ancestral range of the species of subsect. Macaronesicae was inferred to be Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands, and Tenerife-La Gomera acted as sources of diversity to other islands of the Canary Islands. Inter-island colonization of E. lamarckii among the western islands and a colonization of E. regis-jubae from Gran Canaria to northern Africa were revealed. Both diversification between islands and radiation within islands have been revealed in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) of the Canary Islands. It was clear that this group began the speciation process in Tenerife-La Gomera, and this process occurred with gene flow between some related species.

  14. Fruit and seed morphology of Euphorbia aggr. Flavicoma. Taxonomic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Joan

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Capsule and seed morphology ofW. European species of Euphorbia aggr. flavicoma has been studied. A total of 1500 seeds coming from 13 taxa have been investigated under light microscope, scanning electron microscope and binocular stereoscope. Data were processed by multivariate analysis and the corresponding dendrogram is presented . At the end of the paper, a key is presented allowing to the separation of taxa down to the species level.

    S'estudia la morfologia de les càpsules i les granes de les espècies d' Euphorbia aggr. flavicoma a l'Europa Occidental. S'ha investigat un total de 1500 granes de 13 tàxons amb microscopi òptic, microscopi electrònic de rastreig i lupa bincular. Les dades han estat sotmeses a una anàlisi multivariant i es presenta el corresponent dendrograma. Al final del treball s'aporta una clau que permet distingir els tàxons a nivell d'espècie per mitjà de caràcters de la càpsula i de la grana.

  15. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dispenza, V.; Pasquale, C. de; Fascella, G.; Mammano, M.M.; Alonzo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v) of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  16. Euphorbia Species-derived Diterpenes and Coumarins as Multidrug Resistance Modulators in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Jerzy; Wesołowska, Olga; Środa-Pomianek, Kamila; Paprocka, Maria; Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Krawczenko, Agnieszka; Duarte, Noelia; Ferreira, Maria-José U; Duś, Danuta; Michalak, Krystyna

    2016-05-01

    Recently, many new potent multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agents have been discovered, among them lathyrane and jatrophane diterpenes isolated from various Euphorbia species. In the present study, the cytotoxicity, P-glycoprotein inhibition activity, and MDR reversal potency of six diterpenes and two coumarins from two Euphorbia species were studied in human colon carcinoma LoVo cells, and doxorubicin-resistant, LoVo/Dx cells. Cytotoxicity of the studied compounds (alone and in combination with doxorubicin) was investigated. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport activity was monitored by flow cytometry. Changes in intracellular doxorubicin accumulation were observed by means of fluorescence microscopy. Latilagascene B was demonstrated to be an effective P-glycoprotein inhibitor, able to increase doxorubicin accumulation in resistant cells, however not able to restore doxorubicin cytotoxicity in LoVo/Dx cells. The structure of latilagascene B seems to be an interesting candidate for further synthesis of new derivatives of reduced cytotoxicity and high anti-MDR potency. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical and Genetic Assessment of Variability in Commercial Radix Astragali (Astragalus spp.) by Ion Trap LC-MS and Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Barcoding Sequence Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, WEI-LIE; Motley, Timothy J.; Unachukwu, Uchenna J.; Lau, Clara Bik San; Jiang, Bei; Hong, Feng; LEUNG, PING-CHUNG; Wang, Qing-Feng; Livingston, Philip O.; Cassileth, Barrie R; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Radix Astragali (Huangqi) has been demonstrated to have a wide range of immunopotentiating effects and has been used as an adjuvant medicine during cancer therapy. Identity issues in the collection of Radix Astragali exist because many sympatric species of Astragalus occur in the northern regions of China. In order to assess the quality, purity, and uniformity of commercial Radix Astragali, 44 samples were purchased from herbal stores in Hong Kong and New York City. The main constituents, inc...

  18. Discrete Fourier transformation processor based on complex radix (−1 + j number system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anidaphi Shadap

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex radix (−1 + j allows the arithmetic operations of complex numbers to be done without treating the divide and conquer rules, which offers the significant speed improvement of complex numbers computation circuitry. Design and hardware implementation of complex radix (−1 + j converter has been introduced in this paper. Extensive simulation results have been incorporated and an application of this converter towards the implementation of discrete Fourier transformation (DFT processor has been presented. The functionality of the DFT processor have been verified in Xilinx ISE design suite version 14.7 and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic switching power consumption have been calculated by Virtuoso platform in Cadence. The proposed DFT processor has been implemented through conversion, multiplication and addition. The performance parameter matrix in terms of delay and power consumption offered a significant improvement over other traditional implementation of DFT processor.

  19. High-resolution 1 MS/s sub-2 radix split-capacitor SAR ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chao; Zhu, Zhangming

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a high-resolution successive-approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with sub-2 radix split-capacitor array architecture. The built-in redundancy of sub-2 radix architecture provides additional information in the digital calibration based on offset double injection. The calibration method is simple in structure and fast in convergence. The correction of errors in each bit is independent of those in the previous bit. A split-capacitor array is used to reduce the total capacitance especially in a high-resolution SAR ADC. An offset signal is injected by the switching scheme of capacitor array to minimize the hardware overhead. The prototype of 0.18 μm CMOS process obtains 14.46 bit ENOB and 95.65 dB SFDR after calibration. With calibration, the INL and DNL are ‑0.813/0.938 and ‑0.625/0.688, respectively.

  20. Mandibular second molar with 3 mesial canals and a radix paramolaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ragavendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular first molar commonly has two roots, the mesial and the distal root. Surprisingly in some mandibular first molar has an unusual extra third root in between mesial and distal root. This extra root is the most commonly seen in lingual side and is called as radix entomolaris. If this extra root is seen on the buccal side, it is termed as radix paramolaris (RP, which is a very rare phenomenon. Recently, various case report studies has shown the presence of third canal in the mesial and distal roots of mandibular molars. They are named as middle mesial and middle distal canal, respectively. Here, we present a case report of mandibular second molar showing three canals in the mesial root and a RP.

  1. Detection and endodontic management of radix entomolaris: Report of case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vivekananda Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix entomolaris (RE is considered to be an Asiatic trait. However, its prevalence in Indian population is found to be lower than in other Asian races. Nevertheless, its awareness and identification is vital to achieve endodontic success. This article presents a review on clinical approach and a case series on the detection and endodontic management of RE in mandibular first molars. Radix entomolaris was detected by identifying the presence of a double or extra root outline in the preoperative radiograph, modifying the access opening and closely inspecting the pulp chamber and was endodontically treated following cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the canals. Achieving the endodontic success in the presence of an RE requires knowledge about its prevalence, diagnosis, morphology, canal configuration, and clinical approach.

  2. Influence of solvent on antimicrobial activity of Carlinae radix essential oil and decoct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the family Asteraceae are known for their use in ethnopharmacology, available as commercial drugs. In this study, antimicrobial activity of Carlinae radix commercial drug’s vinegar decoction and essential oil, dissolved in various solvents (ETOH- ethanol, DMSO- dimethyl sulfoxide and Tween 80- polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate was tested to investigate the effect of solvents on activity and to compare the results with previous researches. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. The results showed that antimicrobial activity of the Carlinae radix oil significantly depends on the solvent and that most efficient antimicrobial effect had the essential oil dissolved in 7% ethanol, which points to significant synergistic effect of the oil with this solvent.

  3. Improved 64-bit Radix-16 Booth Multiplier Based on Partial Product Array Height Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antelo, Elisardo; Montuschi, Paolo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an optimization for binary radix-16 (modified) Booth recoded multipliers to reduce the maximum height of the partial product columns to n/4 for [Formula: see text] unsigned operands. This is in contrast to the conventional maximum height of (n+1)/4. Therefore......, a reduction of one unit in the maximum height is achieved. This reduction may add flexibility during the design of the pipelined multiplier to meet the design goals, it may allow further optimizations of the partial product array reduction stage in terms of area/delay/power and/or may allow additional addends...... to be included in the partial product array without increasing the delay. The method can be extended to Booth recoded radix-8 multipliers, signed multipliers, combined signed/unsigned multipliers, and other values of n....

  4. Analysis of isoflavone daidzein in Puerariae radix with micelle-mediated extraction and preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiantao; Zhao, Ziwei; Shi, Zhihong; Zhao, Meiping; Li, Yuanzong; Chang, Wenbao

    2005-02-09

    Nonionic surfactant oligo(ethylene glycol) monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080) was employed as an alternative and effective solvent for the extraction of daidzein from Puerariae radix for the first time. Optimum experimental conditions were established. With 5% Genapol X-080 (w/v), liquid/solid ratio of 25:1 (mL/g), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 45 min, the extraction percentage of daidzein reached the highest value. For the preconcentration of daidzein by cloud-point extraction (CPE), sodium chloride was added to the solution to facilitate the phase separation and increase the preconcentration factor by reducing the volume of the surfactant-rich phase. The preconcentration factor for daidzein was about 13. Satisfactory results were obtained for the analysis of daidzein from P. radix with this established method.

  5. Comparative analysis of Solanum stoloniferum responses to probing by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana E; Broglia, Viviana G; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Wouters, Doret; van der Vossen, Edwin; Garzo, Elisa; Tjallingii, W Fred; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2013-04-01

    Plants protect themselves against aphid attacks by species-specific defense mechanisms. Previously, we have shown that Solanum stoloniferum Schlechtd has resistance factors to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae) at the epidermal/mesophyll level that are not effective against Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae). Here, we compare the nymphal mortality, the pre-reproductive development time, and the probing behavior of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae on S. stoloniferum and Solanum tuberosum L. Furthermore, we analyze the changes in gene expression in S. stoloniferum 96 hours post infestation by either aphid species. Although the M. euphorbiae probing behavior shows that aphids encounter more probing constrains on phloem activities-longer probing and salivation time- on S. stoloniferum than on S. tuberosum, the aphids succeeded in reaching a sustained ingestion of phloem sap on both plants. Probing by M. persicae on S. stoloniferum plants resulted in limited feeding only. Survival of M. euphorbiae and M. persicae was affected on young leaves, but not on senescent leaves of S. stoloniferum. Infestation by M. euphorbiae changed the expression of more genes than M. persicae did. At the systemic level both aphids elicited a weak response. Infestation of S. stoloniferum plants with a large number of M. persicae induced morphological changes in the leaves, leading to the development of pustules that were caused by disrupted vascular parenchyma and surrounding tissue. In contrast, an infestation by M. euphorbiae had no morphological effects. Both plant species can be regarded as good host for M. euphorbiae, whereas only S. tuberosum is a good host for M. persicae and S. stoloniferum is not. Infestation of S. stoloniferum by M. persicae or M. euphorbiae changed the expression of a set of plant genes specific for each of the aphids as well as a set of common genes. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of

  6. Unraveling the karyotype structure of the spurges Euphorbia hirta Linnaeus, 1753 and E. hyssopifolia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) using genome size estimation and heterochromatin differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Karla C. B.; Pinangé, Diego S. B.; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Oliveira, Ana R.; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.; Alves, Marccus V.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18) and Euphorbia hyssopifolia (2n = 12), cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO3). Our results revealed small metacentric chromosomes, CMA+/DAPI0 heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and CMA+/DAPI− in the distal part of chromosome arms carriers of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). The DNA content measurements revealed small genomes for both species: Euphorbia hirta with 2C = 0.77 pg and Euphorbia hyssopifolia with 2C = 1.41 pg. After FISH procedures, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia hyssopifolia presented three and four pairs of terminal 45S rDNA sites, respectively, colocalizing with CMA+ heterochromatic blocks, besides only one interstitial pair of 5S rDNA signals. Additionally, the maximum number of active NORs agreed with the total number of observed 45S rDNA sites. This work represents the first analysis using FISH in the subfamily Euphorbioideae, revealing a significant number of chromosomal markers, which may be very helpful to understand evolutionary patterns among Euphorbia species. PMID:28123686

  7. Cytotoxicity of latex and pharmacobotanical study of leaves and stem of Euphorbia umbellata (Janaúba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia E.C. Luz

    Full Text Available AbstractIn southern Brazil, the bottled latex of Synadenium grantii Hook f., Euphorbiaceae, is popularly used as a treatment of all types of cancer. Similarly, Synadenium umbellatum Pax. is used in the central western region of Brazil for the same purpose and in the same manner of use. Both plants are popularly known as janaúba or leitosinha. The objectives of this study were to use pharmacobotanical analysis to verify whether these two species, which are considered to be distinct, are actually the same to determine anatomical markers; to assist in the identification and differentiation of other Euphorbia; and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the latex in relation to HeLa and HRT-18 cells. Leaves and stems of the species were collected in Goiânia and Ponta Grossa and were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy techniques. The latex was also collected and analyzed in relation to its cytotoxic effect by employing MTT and NR techniques. The pharmacobotanical study of the specimens in both localities showed that they were the same species, namely Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns, which is the scientific nomenclature accepted and confirmed by an expert taxonomist who specializes in Euphorbia. The pharmacobotanical characteristics highlighted in this study can assist in the identification of the taxon and contribute to the control of the quality of this plant drug. The evaluation of the latex in relation to HRT-18 cells demonstrated action after 48 h of experiment. In contrast, in relation to HeLa cells its induced cytotoxicity in all times and a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values (72 h observed were 252.58 ± 18.51 µg/ml and 263.42 ± 15.92 µg/ml to MTT experiment and 250.18 ± 19.48 µg/ml and 430.56 ± 19.71 µg/ml to NR experiment for the HeLa and HRT-18 cells, respectively.

  8. [Application of relative quality constant in grades evaluation of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhang, Jun; Xian, Jing; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Chang; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An

    2017-07-01

    Quality constant evaluation is a comprehensive method for grades evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine pieces, but when it comes to Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces, grades evaluation is diverged due to significant difference in contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid and unreasonable weight of index. To solve this problem, we have established a relative quality constant method in this paper to evaluate grades of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces. Twenty-nine batches of different quality samples were collected and tested, and finally, 17 batches of them were chosen as researcher objects. The results revealed that the range of the relative quality constant of these samples was from 1.78 to 11.49. When Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces are divided into three grades: the relative quality constant of first grade is greater than or equal to 9.19; the second grade is greater than or equal to 5.75 but less than 9.19; while the third grade is less than 5.75. This research indicates that relative quality constant can divide the grades of herbal pieces in a scientific, reasonable, objective and specific way and remedy the shortage of quality constant perfectly. It provides a novel mode for grading pieces of Chinese medicine that contains multi-target ingredients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Microscopic research on a multi-source traditional Chinese medicine, Astragali Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Zi; Liu, Jing; Guo, Bao-Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Hong, Hao; Chen, Hu-Biao; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-04-01

    Astragali Radix is a widely and commonly used Chinese herbal medicine, which is derived from roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Astragalus membranaceus. To find a quick and reliable method of distinguishing these two species of Astragali Radix and of determining the age of a sample, microscopic characteristics of the two species were compared using light microscopy. The results showed that the microscopic characteristics, such as number of layers of phellem, continuing lignified xylem bundles within spring wood and lignified parenchyma cells in the central part of the xylem could be used for the differentiation of the root of A. membranaceus from the root of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus. Growth rings (annual rings) were found for the first time in the roots of both species, and could determine the age of a sample. For the first time, radial fibers in both species of Astragali Radix and pipette-shaped fibers in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus were found. The structure of "rotten heart" cork tissue (decayed central xylem) and tubular cork tissue was carefully studied, and the arranged order of tissues in both "rotten heart" and tubular cork tissues is phelloderm and phellem from outside to inside, which is contrary to that in the periderm.

  10. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K. E-mail: skjo@kaeri.re.kr

    2004-10-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  11. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  12. Discrimination and chemical characterization of different Paeonia lactifloras (Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra) by infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ping; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun; Shi, Zhe; Li, Jin; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Cui, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Paeonia lactiflora, a commonly used herbal medicine (HM) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), mainly has two species, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), for different clinical applications in TCM. For expounding the chemical profile of RPA and RPR and ensuring the clinical efficacy and safety, an infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation method integrated with statistical pattern recognition was developed to analyze and discriminate the two Paeonia lactifloras. In IR spectra, the major difference between the two was in the range of 1200-900 cm-1: the strongest peak of RPA was at 1024 cm-1, while that of RPR was 1049 cm-1. The difference was magnified in second derivative spectra. The findings were further verified by investigating the separation process of total glucosides, stepwisely monitored by both of IR and UPLC-MS/MS. Simultaneously, the aqueous extracts of RPA and RPR had been separated continuously to acquire the comprehensively hierarchical chemical characteristics for undoubtedly identification and subsequently discrimination of the two herbs. Moreover, 60 batches of the two HMs (30 for each) were objectively classified by principal component regression (PCR) model based on IR macro-fingerprints.

  13. Ethanolic extract of Astragali radix and Salviae radix prohibits oxidative brain injury by psycho-emotional stress in whisker removal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Geug Kim

    Full Text Available Myelophil, an ethanolic extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been clinically used to treat chronic fatigue and stress related disorders in South Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Myelophil on a whisker removal-induced psycho-emotional stress model. SD rats were subjected to whisker removal after oral administration of Myelophil or ascorbic acid for consecutive 4 days. Whisker removal considerably increased total reactive oxygen species in serum levels as well as cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions in brain tissues. Lipidperoxidation levels were also increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus regions, and brain tissue injuries as shown in histopathology and immunohistochemistry. However, Myelophil significantly ameliorated these alterations, and depletion of glutathione contents in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions respectively. Serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably altered after whisker removal stress, whereas these abnormalities were significantly normalized by pre-treatment with Myelophil. The NF-κB was notably activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus after whisker removal stress, while it was efficiently blocked by pre-treatment with Myelophil. Myelophil also significantly normalizes alterations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and interferon-γ in both gene expressions and protein levels. These results suggest that Myelophil has protective effects on brain damages in psycho-emotional stress, and the underlying mechanisms involve regulation of inflammatory proteins, especially NF-κB modulation.

  14. Soil surface searching and transport of Euphorbia characias seeds by ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadaler, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto

    The intensity of exploring the soil surface by ants was studied for the four species involved in the dispersal and predation of seeds of the West-Mediterranean myrmecochorous plant Euphorbia characias. During the dehiscence period (June) the whole soil surface is sccanned in 43 minutes. Not all ants that find a seed take it to the nest. For the four ant species studied ( Pheidole pallidula, Aphaenogaster senilis, Tapinoma nigerrimum, Messor barbarus) the proportion of ants that finally take the seed is 67.6%. In spite of this, the high level of soil surface searching explains the rather short time that seeds remain on the soil before being removed. The presence of an elaiosome is a key element in the outcome of the ant-seed interaction: a seed with elaiosome has a seven-fold increase in probability of being taken to the nest if found by a non-granivorous ant. The predator-avoidance hypothesis for myrmecochory is supported.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of Euphorbia supina extract in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Xin, Mingjie; Kim, Do-Kuk; Lee, Hoon-Yeon; Kim, Bo-Ram; Hwang, Sung-Woo; Kim, Dae-Ki; Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of Euphorbia supina (ES) ethanol extract in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis model. ES was per orally administered at different doses of 4 or 20 mg/kg body weight with 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Twenty mg/kg of ES administration regulated body weight decrease, recovered colon length shortening, and increased disease activity index score and myeloperoxidase level in DSS-induced colitis. Histological features showed that 20 mg/kg of ES administration suppressed edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS. Furthermore, ES suppressed the expressions of COX-2, iNOS, NF-kB, IkBα, pIkBα in colon tissue. These findings demonstrated a possible effect of amelioration of ulcerative colitis and could be clinically applied.

  16. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  17. Isoprenoid compounds from Euphorbia portlandica. X-ray structure of lupeportlandol, a new lupane triterpene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madureira, Ana M.; Ferreira, Maria-Jose U. [Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal). Faculdade de Farmacia. Centro de Estudos de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mjuferreira@ff.ul.pt; Duarte, Maria Teresa; Ascenso, Jose R. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal). Centro de Quimica Estrutural; Piedade, Maria Fatima M. [Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica e Bioquimica

    2004-10-01

    Phytochemical survey of the Me{sub 2}CO extracts of the whole dried plant Euphorbia portlandica led to the isolation of a new pentacyclic triterpene alcohol, with the lupane skeleton, named lupeportlandol. Its structure was established as 3{alpha}-hydroxy-19{alpha}H-lup-20(29)-ene. The known pentacyclic triterpene glutinol and the steroid {beta}-sitostenone were also isolated. The characterization of the new compound and its acetylated derivative was based on spectroscopic methods and an X-ray diffraction analysis. Lupeportlandol acetate was inactive in cytotoxicity assays in vitro against three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7 (breast cancer), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SF-268 (CNS cancer). (author)

  18. Characterization of Diterpenes from Euphorbia prolifera and Their Antifungal Activities against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Kang, Jing; Cao, Xiangrong; Sun, Xiaocong; Yu, Shujing; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Hongwei; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2015-07-01

    Euphorbia prolifera is a poisonous plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. In this survey on plant secondary metabolites to obtain bioactive substances for the development of new antifungal agents for agriculture, the chemical constituents of the plant E. prolifera were investigated. This procedure led to the isolation of six new and two known diterpenes. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic data analyses and time-dependent density functional theory ECD calculations. Biological screenings revealed that these diterpenes possessed antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi. The results of the phytochemical investigation further revealed the chemical components of the poisonous plant E. prolifera, and biological screenings implied the extract or bioactive diterpenes from this plant may be regarded as candidate agents of antifungal agrochemicals for crop protection products.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  20. Host Plant Volatiles and the Sexual Reproduction of the Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

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    Jessica Hurley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In late summer, heteroecious aphids, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, move from their secondary summer host plants to primary host plants, where the sexual oviparae mate and lay diapausing eggs. We tested the hypothesis that volatiles of the primary host, Rosa rugosa, would attract the gynoparae, the parthenogenetic alate morph that produce oviparae, as well as the alate males foraging for suitable mates. In wind tunnel assays, both gynoparae and males oriented towards and reached rose cuttings significantly more often than other odour sources, including potato, a major secondary host. The response of males was as high to rose cuttings alone as to potato with a calling virgin oviparous female. These findings are discussed within the seasonal ecology of host alternating aphids.

  1. An evolutionary perspective on drug discovery in the plant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine

    Plants have been widely used in many traditional medical systems around the world and are still thesource of many modern drugs. However, the rate at which new plant-derived drugs are discoveredis slow and recent estimates of biodiversity loss, as well as the need for tackling global...... herbivory and physical stresses or to attract pollinators. Consequently, specializedmetabolites, as well as plants used in traditional medicine, are not randomly distributed across phylogenetictrees. Evolutionary approaches to plant-based drug discovery suggest that this informationcan be used to guide......-based drug discovery. Phylogenetic patterns in speciesused in traditional medicine were investigated, and it was found that species used medicinally are notrandomly distributed across the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, Euphorbia chemical diversity andbioactivity were investigated using mass spectral...

  2. Anti-angiogenic activity of water extract from Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Liu, Bin; Feng, Yaru; Liu, Jie; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Jian; Xia, Qing; Ni, Yuanyuan; Li, Farong; Lin, Ruichao

    2017-07-12

    Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr. (EP) is a Euphorbia species of Euphorbiaceae, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been reported to exhibit therapeutic effects on solid tumors, leukemias, and malignant ascites although underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly delineated. Anti-angiogenic therapy is a recognized strategy for treating cancer-based solid tumors, and is also associated with malignant ascites treatment. To study the anti-angiogenic properties of the water extract of EP vinegar preparation (WEVEP). Following WEVEP treatment, intersegmental blood vessels were assessed during the development of transgenic Tg (flk: mCherry) zebrafish as was the proliferation, migration and network formation of HUVECs in vitro. mRNA expression of specific angiogenic-related genes including VEGF family members, Met, and NRP2 was also measured using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). Data demonstrated that angiogenesis was inhibited by the WEVEP in zebrafish (from 100µg/mL to 250µg/mL, p numbers of administered groups were 26.00 ± 1.29 (100µg/mL), 24.54 ± 2.20 (150µg/mL), 22.66 ± 2.68 (200µg/mL), 20.80 ± 1.75 (250µg/mL), compared to 27.67 ± 0.96 of control group. Relative quantitative gene expression in zebrafish treated with WEVEP demonstrated that only VEGFR3 was significantly increased and other 23 genes including Met, VEGFA, Flt-1 were significantly decreased. WEVEP can positively modulate angiogenesis via multiple targeting mechanisms. Our novel results contribute towards the discovery of a possible mechanism(s) of the traditional use of EP in the treatment of cancer and malignant ascites. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibition by Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L.

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    Malek Besbes Hlila

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and their composition of total polyphenol and flavonoids. Methods: The different samples were tested for their antiradical activities by using 2, 2’- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. In α-glucosidase activity, α-glucosidase (0.3 IU/mL and substrate, 2500 µmol/ L p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside were used; absorbance was registered at 405 nm. Results: The leaves acetonic extract exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition [IC50 = (0.0035 ± 0.001 µg/mL], which was 20-fold more active than the standard product (acarbose [IC50 = (0.07 ± 0.01 µg/mL]. Acetonic extract of the leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic [(95.54 ± 0.04 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg] and flavonoid [(55.16 ± 0.25 µg quercetin equivalent/mg]. The obtained findings presented also that this extract was detected with best antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (0.015 ± 0.01 µg/mL] against DPPH and a value of IC50 equal to (0.02 ± 0.01 µg/mL against ABTS. Positive relationship between polyphenolic content of the tested Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and its antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS was detected. Elevated positive linear correlation was got between ABTS and total phenolic (R2 = 0.751. Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate that the use of a polar solvent enables extraction of significant quantities of phenol compounds and flavonoids.

  4. Crescimento e esporulação de Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivado sob diferentes condições nutricionais Growth and sporulation of Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivated under different nutritional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ser considerado um potencial bioagente de controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L. em cultivos de soja no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as características nutricionais do fungo Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes fontes de carbono (glicose, amido, sacarose, lactose e maltose, de nitrogênio (nitrato de sódio, nitrato de amônio, sulfato de amônio, fosfato de amônio dibásico, cloreto de amônio, de fósforo (fosfato de potássio monobásico, fosfato de potássio bibásico, fosfato de cálcio, fosfato de sódio, ácido fosfórico, fosfato de amônio e a suplementação do meio de cultivo com fontes orgânicas de macro e micronutrientes, para o crescimento e a esporulação de B. euphorbiae. O amido proporcionou o maior crescimento, sendo também considerada a fonte de carbono mais favorável para a esporulação. O melhor crescimento e esporulação de B. euphorbiae foram obtidos usando o nitrato de sódio como fonte de nitrogênio e fosfato de potássio monobásico e fosfato de cálcio como fonte de fósforo, embora as demais fontes de fósforo analisadas, exceto o ácido fosfórico, tenham igualmente favorecido a esporulação. A suplementação do meio de cultivo com peptona e extrato de levedura resultou em melhor crescimento e esporulação do fungo e a adição de vitaminas favoreceu a produção de conídios.Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho is considered a potential bioagent for control of selvage peanuts (Euphorbia heterophylla L. on soybean crops in Brazil. However, little is known about the nutritional characteristics of this fungus. The main objective of this research was to evaluate different sources of carbon (glucose, starch, sucrose, lactose and maltose, of nitrogen (sodium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, bi-basic ammonium phosphate, ammonium chloride, of phosphorus (monobasic potassium phosphate, bi-basic potassium phosphate

  5. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  6. Unravelling the riddle of Radix: DNA barcoding for species identification of freshwater snail intermediate hosts of zoonotic digeneans and estimating their inter-population evolutionary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Scott P; Lim, Rivka M; Dukes, Juliet P; Kett, Stephen M; Cook, Richard T; Walker, Anthony J; Kirk, Ruth S

    2015-10-01

    Radix spp. are intermediate host snails for digenean parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Within this genus, species differentiation using shell and internal organ morphology can result in erroneous species identification, causing problems when trying to understand the population biology of Radix. In the present study, DNA barcoding, using cox1 and ITS2 sequences, identified populations of Radix auricularia and Radix balthica from specimens originally morphologically identified as Radix peregra from the UK. Assessment of cox1 and ITS2 as species identification markers showed that, although both markers differentiated species, cox1 possessed greater molecular diversity and higher phylogenetic resolution. Cox1 also proved useful for gaining insights into the evolutionary relationships of Radix species populations. Phylogenetic analysis and haplotype networks of cox1 indicated that R. auricularia appeared to have invaded the UK several times; some haplotypes forming a distinct UK specific clade, whilst others are more akin to those found on mainland Europe. This was in contrast to relationships between R. balthica populations, which had low molecular diversity and no distinct UK specific haplotypes, suggesting recent and multiple invasions from mainland Europe. Molecular techniques therefore appear to be crucial for distinguishing Radix spp., particularly using cox1. This barcoding marker also enables the population biology of Radix spp. to be explored, and is invaluable for monitoring the epidemiology of fluke diseases especially in the light of emerging diseases and food security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Astralagus radix on proliferation and nitric oxide production of head kidney macrophages in Cyprinus carpio: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo-Jun, Y.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Yue-Ming, L.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Pao, X.; Hong-qi, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro effect of Astragalus radix water extract onthe non-specific immune responses of macrophages isolated from the head kidney of Cyprinus carpio was evaluated. Astragalus radix extract stimulated the proliferation of the head kidney macrophages, and it alone had no effect on nitrogen burst

  8. Lysozyme- and chitinase activity in latex bearing plants of genus Euphorbia--A contribution to plant defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytwala, Sonja; Günther, Florian; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-10-01

    Occurrence of latices in plants is widespread, there are 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. Latices exhibit a constitutive part of plant defense due to the stickiness. The appearance of proteins incorporated in latices is well characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable. A lot of plants constitute so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, to overcome stressful conditions. In our investigation we are focused on latex bearing plants of Euphorbiaceae Juss., and investigated the appearance of chitinase- and lysozyme activity in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of lysozyme and chitinase activity of genus Euphorbia at the first time. 110 different species of genus Euphorbia L. were tested, and the appearance of chitinase and lysozyme were determined in different quantities. The appearance itself, and the physicochemical properties of latices indicate an efficient interaction for plant defense against pathogen attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatio-temporal variation in seed production in three Euphorbia species and the role of animals on seed fate

    OpenAIRE

    Boieiro, Mário Rui Canelas

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on the reproductive biology of co-occurring related plant species have provided valuable information for the interpretation of ecological and evolutionary phenomena, with direct application in conservation management of plant populations. The aims of this thesis were to identify the causes of pre-dispersal reproductive losses in three Euphorbia species (the Mediterranean E. characias and the narrow endemics E. pedroi and E. welwitschii) and evaluate the variation ...

  10. Survey of Glycyrrhizae Radix resources in Mongolia: chemical assessment of the underground part of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and comparison with Chinese Glycyrrhizea Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Sugiyama, Reiko; Batkhuu, Javzan; Sanchir, Chinbat; Zou, Kun; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2009-04-01

    In order to reveal the chemical characteristics of Glycyrrhiza uralensis growing in Mongolia and to clarify whether it can be the source of Glycyrrhizae Radix used in Japan, eight major bioactive constituents in the underground parts of G. uralensis collected in Mongolia were quantitatively analyzed and compared with Glycyrrhizae Radix produced in China. Most of the 15 samples from eastern, southern and western parts of Mongolia contained 26.95-58.55 mg/g of glycyrrhizin, exceeding the criterion (25 mg/g) assigned in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. The sample collected in Tamsagiyn hooly, Dornod province, in eastern Mongolia was of the highest content 58.55 mg/g. The contents of three flavanone constituents (liquiritin apioside, liquiritin and liquiritigenin) and three chalcones (isoliquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin and isoliquiritigenin) varied significantly according to collection places; the subtotal of the three flavanones ranged from 3.00 to 26.35 mg/g, and the subtotal of the three chalcones ranged from 1.13 to 10.50 mg/g. The content of glycyrrhizin and subtotal contents of flavanones and chalcones in the underground parts of G. uralensis from Mongolia were obviously lower than wild samples, but higher than cultivated samples derived from the same species produced in China. Glycycoumarin, a species-specific constituent of G. uralensis, was detected in all Mongolian samples. Its contents in samples from eastern Mongolia, Sergelen and Tamsagiyn hooly of Dornod province were very high and were compatible with Tohoku-kanzo derived from wild Chinese G. uralensis. The present study suggested that Mongolian G. uralensis could be a source of Glycyrrhizae Radix, mostly of Japanese Pharmacopoeia grade. However, the producing area should be taken into consideration to ensure relatively high quality. In addition, planned use and promotion of cultivation must be advocated to avoid confronting Mongolian Glycyrrhiza with the same threat as its congener in China. Our study

  11. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  12. [Differences in shapes and properties and microscopic frameworks of wild and cultivated Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae from different regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guifang; Feng, Xuefeng; Ge, Xiaoguang; He, Xirong; Wu, Zhigang; Yang, Jingyu; Wang, Jin'e; Li, Xiaoming; Yuan, Yuan

    2010-05-01

    To compare the differences in shapes and properties and the microscopic frameworks of the wild and cultivated Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae from different regions. The differences in the shapes and properties, the characters of transverse sections, the powder and disintegrated tissue of roots were compared using microscopic measurement and statistics analysis. The wild Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae had several long cylinder roots with rough flaky squama skin and brown red or wine culour, the cultivated had root of many branch with cling skin and brick-red or chestnut culour. The difference of microscopic histological structure was that the xylem vessel of wild Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae had bunched vessel with the rank form of big diameter alternating with small diameter, and had stone cell on samples from some producing region, the xylem vessel of the cultivated had no bunched vessel and no stone cell with the rank form of tangential radial. Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae cultivated in Sichuan Province is called original-region medicinal materials and named Chuandanshen. Chuandanshen had the differences with the Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix cultivated in other region. The root of Chuandanshen had 1.2 cm diameter, and was bulky and fat with solid fabric and the fracture with brownish yellow color and cutin-alikeness, its xylem vessel of transverse section of root was thin with the rank form of tangential radial, and 19-24 vascular bundle and a few wood fiber. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix of the wild and the cultivated, of the original-region (Chuandanshen) and the other-region, have the differences in the shapes and properties, and the microscopic frameworks. The character can be identified by the differences in the shapes of medicinal materials, and the rank form of vascular bundle of transverse section of root.

  13. Suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by a herbal extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Johnny C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a major cause of death in developed world. Atherosclerosis is characterized by low-density lipoprotein deposition in the arterial wall which ultimately begets the formation of lesions. Rupture of lesions finally leads to clinical events such as heart attack and stroke. Atherosclerosis is a complication associated with diabetes. In patients with diabetes, the risk of atherosclerosis is three to five folds greater than in non-diabetics. Our previous study showed that a herbal extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii, namely SR10, could improve glucose homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we want to further investigate the efficacy of SR10 in treating atherosclerosis. Method The inhibitory effect of SR10 on low-density lipoprotein oxidation was investigated using free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis model and copper ion-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation model. Since vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration are important processes in atherogenesis, we also examined the effect of SR10 in inhibiting these events. Results Our results showed that SR10 inhibited erythrocyte hemolysis with IC50 value at 0.25 mg/ml and significantly prolonged low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. SR10 attenuated platelet derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase as well as inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Conclusion The potential application of SR10 in treating atherosclerosis has been implied in this study. Animal model will be needed to further verify the efficacy of SR10 in future.

  14. M input radix p optical logic operations in a photorefractive BaTiO(3) crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Kwon, W H; Lee, K Y; Eom, S Y

    1990-09-10

    A generalized coding algorithm for multiple inputs multiple-valued logic operations is proposed. This algorithm can reduce the unused pixels generated in the encoding process of the odd number of inputs. Using circle-type coded patterns and the correlation property in a photorefractive BaTiO(3) crystal, m input radix p logic operations are made possible. Detailed descriptions and advantages of the proposed method are presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated in the case of a three-input binary system. Uses for the proposed method, including binary half-adder/subtractor and binary multiplier, are given.

  15. Chemical and genetic assessment of variability in commercial Radix Astragali (Astragalus spp.) by ion trap LC-MS and nuclear ribosomal DNA barcoding sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-Lie; Motley, Timothy J; Unachukwu, Uchenna J; Lau, Clara Bik San; Jiang, Bei; Hong, Feng; Leung, Ping-Chung; Wang, Qing-Feng; Livingston, Philip O; Cassileth, Barrie R; Kennelly, Edward J

    2011-03-09

    Radix Astragali (Huangqi) has been demonstrated to have a wide range of immunopotentiating effects and has been used as an adjuvant medicine during cancer therapy. Identity issues in the collection of Radix Astragali exist because many sympatric species of Astragalus occur in the northern regions of China. In order to assess the quality, purity, and uniformity of commercial Radix Astragali, 44 samples were purchased from herbal stores in Hong Kong and New York City. The main constituents, including four isoflavonoids and three saponins, were quantitatively determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). There was significant sample-to-sample variability in the amounts of the saponins and isoflavonoids measured. Furthermore, DNA barcoding utilizing the variable nuclear ITS spacer regions of the 44 purchased Radix Astragali samples were sequenced, aligned and compared. Eight polymorphic point mutations were identified which separated the Radix Astragali samples into three groups. These results indicate that the chemical and genetic variability that exists among Radix Astragali medicinal products is still a consistency and quality issue for this herbal. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed significant effects on the contents of the seven tested compounds when both phylogenetic and geographic (i.e., point of purchase) factors were considered. Therefore, chemical profiles determined by LC-MS and DNA profiles in ITS spacer domains could serve as barcode markers for quality control of Radix Astragali.

  16. Danggui Buxue Tang, Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Induces Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells: Signaling Mediated by Phosphorylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Amy G W; Lau, K M; Zhang, Laura M L; Lin, H Q; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-03-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix at the weight ratio of 5:1, is used to mitigate menopausal syndromes in women. The pharmacological properties of Danggui Buxue Tang have been illustrated in bone development, blood enhancement, and immune stimulation. Here, we extended the possible pharmacological role of Danggui Buxue Tang in cardiovascular function. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the application of Danggui Buxue Tang induced the release of nitric oxide and the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in time- and dose-dependent manners. The robust activation of nitric oxide signaling, however, required the boiling of Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix together, i.e., as Danggui Buxue Tang instead of other herbal extracts. The Danggui Buxue Tang-induced phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were fully blocked by treatment with an endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), a PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002), and a Ca(2+) chelator (BAPTA-AM). In parallel, the blockage of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt activation subsequently fully abolished the Danggui Buxue Tang-induced nitric oxide production. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Fermentation effects of oligosaccharides of Radix Ophiopogonis on alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Su, Wei-Wei; Cai, Xue-Ying; Luo, Lv-Keng; Li, Pei-Bo; Wang, Yong-Gang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, oligosaccharides extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus vinegar (OOV) by alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation with water extracts from Radix Ophiopogon and oligosaccharides extracted from Radix Ophiopogonis (OOJ) were investigated. Characterization of the extracts indicated that OOV are proteoglycans, whereas OOJ are not. Moreover, compared with OOJ, monosaccharide compositions of OOV only include fructose and galactose and not glucose. MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometric results showed that the molecular weight of OOV was smaller after fermentation. Changes in the characteristics of OOV would inevitably lead to changes in its hypoglycemic properties. The OOV inhibition activity against α-glucosidase was stronger than that of OOJ. The inhibition activity became stronger with higher dosages of OOV. The hypoglycemic effect of OOV on alloxan-induced diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. More important, the ability of OOV to reduce damage on islets in diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. Overall, alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation improved the hypoglycemic activity of OOJ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radix entomolaris and paramolaris in children: A review of the literature

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    N B Nagaveni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric dentistry in the current scenario is not just about teeth and gums that are easily visible in children′s mouth anymore. It is all about those structures that are hidden, difficult to identify, and often remain undiagnosed. Dentist can come across various anomalies pertaining to the crown structure during the clinical practice. Although supernumerary tooth is the most commonly seen anomaly, the presence of extra roots in molars is an interesting example of anatomic root variation. It is well known that both primary and permanent mandibular first molars usually have roots, one mesial, and the other distal root. Very rarely an additional third root (supernumerary root is seen and when it is located distolingually to the main distal root is called "radix entomolaris (RE" and when it is placed mesiobuccaly to the mesial root is called "radix paramolaris (RP." The purpose of this article is to discuss the prevalence, morphology, classification, clinical diagnosis, and significance of supernumerary roots in contemporary clinical pediatric dentistry.

  19. Performance of Point and Range Queries for In-memory Databases using Radix Trees on GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Maksudul [ORNL; Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In in-memory database systems augmented by hardware accelerators, accelerating the index searching operations can greatly increase the runtime performance of database queries. Recently, adaptive radix trees (ART) have been shown to provide very fast index search implementation on the CPU. Here, we focus on an accelerator-based implementation of ART. We present a detailed performance study of our GPU-based adaptive radix tree (GRT) implementation over a variety of key distributions, synthetic benchmarks, and actual keys from music and book data sets. The performance is also compared with other index-searching schemes on the GPU. GRT on modern GPUs achieves some of the highest rates of index searches reported in the literature. For point queries, a throughput of up to 106 million and 130 million lookups per second is achieved for sparse and dense keys, respectively. For range queries, GRT yields 600 million and 1000 million lookups per second for sparse and dense keys, respectively, on a large dataset of 64 million 32-bit keys.

  20. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiu Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India, is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  1. Dynamic variation of bioactive compounds and aflatoxins in contaminated Radix Astragali during extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Luo, Hongli; Zhao, Lianhua; Yang, Meihua

    2016-03-30

    Although increasing attention has been paid to the health threat caused by mycotoxins in commodities such as food or medicines, mycotoxin transfer processes from crude material to products have raised little concern so far. Radix Astragali is a commonly used edible and medicinal herbal plant that is susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins from Aspergillus flavus. There have been no studies on mycotoxin transfer into pharmaceutical preparations or derivative products. To facilitate the aflatoxin reduction and bioactivity retention, the dynamic variations of aflatoxins as well as herbal compounds, namely calycosin-7-glucoside, astragaloside and formononetin, in Radix Astragali contaminated by A. flavus during water decoction and ethanol refluxing treatments were evaluated simultaneously by an ultra-fast liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method. After the extraction processes, although the amount of alfatoxins was reduced remarkably, aflatoxin residuals in preparation still exceed recommended limits, manifesting the great need to establish a limit for aflatoxins in herbal extractions or derivative products. Meanwhile, due to the hydrolysis of glucoside, water decoction period should be no longer than 4 h. This investigation would benefit from the determination of the dynamic variation of aflatoxins in infected herbs in preparation treatments, in order to further develop aflatoxin limits in herbal preparations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  3. Physiotypic Plasticity and Survival of Arido-active Euphorbia triaculeata (Euphorbiaceae in its Natural Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki A. Al-Turki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafless stem succulent Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. is abundant in arid regions southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions are characterized by short wet season with erratic rainfall and long dry season with high temperature and high irradiance. Field observations indicated that the plant survives the long dry season and acquires a red stem colour under high irradiance and protracted drought. Our work aimed at investigating survival of this arido-active species in its natural habitat by studying diurnal and seasonal changes in stomatal conductance, cell sap acidity, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Results showed that E. triaculeata is obligate crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM plant. Under protracted drought, low stomatal conductance and dampening of CAM denoted a shift to CAM-idling. Observed stress-induced reduction of Photosystem II activity occurred in concomitance with increased non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and increased anthocyanin content. These results reflected operation of a photoprotective mechanism involving interplay of non-photochemical energy dissipation via xanthophyll cycle and alleviation of oxidative stress by anthocyanin. It was concluded that E. triaculeata survives in its arid habitat by performing obligate CAM, shifting to CAM-idling under protracted drought, increasing non-photochemical excess energy dissipation, and accumulating anthocyanin pigment for its antioxidant attributes.

  4. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

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    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  5. Molluscicidal effect of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns latex on Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni host snail

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    Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns is an easily cultivated shrub, with occurrence in the tropical regions of the American and African continents. Chemical studies have revealed that the latex of this plant is rich in terpene compounds, which are highly toxic to snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Basommatophora: Planorbidae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and molluscicidal activity of the latex produced by E. umbellata, as well as the safety of its application in aquatic environments. The concentration of latex that killed 90% of the exposed snails after 24 h exposure (LC90 was 3.69 mg/L. Toxicity bioassays using Danio rerio (zebrafish revealed that these animals were less susceptible to latex than planorbids. However, it is important to perform other toxicity tests to ensure the feasibility of using latex to control populations of mollusks that contribute to schistosomiasis transmission. A phytochemical screening performed with the E. umbellata latex identified the triterpenoid and coumarin class. Further studies are warranted to isolate, identify, and test the active compounds of E. umbellata latex in B. glabrata.

  6. Phyto toxic effects of Euphorbia dracunculoides: a weed of rainfed chickpea-chickpea cropping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shance, S.; Tranveer, A.; Javaid, M. M.; Chaudhry, K. M.; Aziz, A.; Khaliq, A.; Chaudhry, M. N.; Pervez, M. A.; Awan, I. U.

    2011-07-01

    Phyto toxic effect occurs when plants release chemicals that inhibit neighbouring plants. Phyto toxic effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of Euphorbia dracunculoides L. (green spurge) at two concentrations, and its infested soil were investigated on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The fruit extract at 1:20 (w/v) concentration caused maximum reduction (12%) in germination of chickpea seeds while leaf extract at 1:10 (w/v) concentration resulted in maximum mean germination time value and minimum germination index of chickpea seeds. All the traits of chickpea seedling growth including emergence were adversely affected by the aqueous extracts at both concentrations. Further, the inhibition of chickpea seedling growth was more pronounced with 1:10 (w/v) concentration whereas the lower concentration (1:20 w/v) showed stimulatory effect on shoot length, seedling vigor index and chlorophyll contents of chickpea seedlings. The leaf extract at 1:10 (w/v) concentration proved most harmful to seedling growth and chlorophyll contents (76% reduction) of chickpea. Soil beneath the E. dracunculoides plants significantly reduced emergence (23%), seedling vigor index (55%) and chlorophyll content (19%) of chickpea but a significant increase in N (6%), P (16%) and K (4%) contents of chickpea seedlings was recorded. Thus it can be concluded that E. dracunculoides contains compounds in its tissues which may cause phyto toxic effects on chickpea under field conditions. (Author) 31 refs.

  7. Evaluation of hydrocarbon plants suitable for cultivation in Florida. [Euphorbia tirucalli, E. lathyris, and Asclepias curassavica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehgan, B.; Wang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the hydrocarbon plants reported in the literature are not suitable for cultivation under Florida conditions. Preliminary results of field and greenhouse trials have indicated two species; Euphorbia tirucalli, which is suitable only for south Florida and Asclepias curassavica which has shown promise for the entire state. The hydrocarbon content of E. tirucalli increases with age of the plants (8.19-11.90%), whereas, that of A. curassavica is influenced positively by fertilization (3.62%) and negatively by supplemental irrigation (2.75%). A comparison between the results of field trials with A. curassavica in Florida and E. lathyris in California shows similar biomass yields under unirrigated conditions, despite 3.6 to 7.8 times greater nitrogen application for E. lathyris. Because of environmental conditions in Florida, E. lathyris is not capable of good growth. It is suggested that future research on hydrocarbon plants should concentrate on selection of individuals or species with vigorous, upright growth habits, low fertilizer-irrigation requirements and high hydrocarbon contents. 18 references.

  8. Contribuição para o estudo da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam

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    R. J. de Siqueira-Jaccoud

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor, após tecer rápidas considerações sôbre Phytomonas da planta em questão e do gênero Manihot, passa a dar: métodos por êle empregados na confecção da presente nota; sucinta descrição da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam. e suas variedades; nomes vulgares por que é a mesma conhecida no Brasil; resultado negativo, por êle encontrado, nas pesquisas de alcalóide e, finalmente, descrição anatômica da fôlha e caule. Fôlha. a - limbo: epidermes com cutícula e estoma, uma camada de células paliçadicas, tecido lacunoso, ramificações dos tubos laticiferos e bainha dos feixes bem desenvolvida. b - nervura principal: epidermes com cutícula, uma camada de tecido paliçadico, bainha dos feixes em semicírculo, xilema, floema e parênquima. Caule - Epiderme com cutícula, colênquima, parênquima cortical, tubos laticíferos, esclerócitos, floema, câmbio e fibras do lenho (inclusive gelatinosas, vasos e, finalmente, parênquima fundamental.

  9. Euphorbia neriifolia L.: Review on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y; Panchal, Shital S

    2017-05-01

    The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma. Leaves are brittle, heating, carminative, and good for improving the appetite and treatment of tumours, pains, inflammations, abdominal swellings and bronchial infections. Roots are used as symptomatic treatment of snake bite, scorpion sting and antispasmodic. Various plant parts or whole E. neriifolia extract and its isolates have been reported scientifically using various in-vivo and in-vitro experimental methods for anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, anti-psychotic, anti-arthritis, anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytotoxic, death-receptor expression enhancing, dermal irritation, diuretic, haemolytic, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, scorpion venom and wound healing properties. It is reported to have chemical constituents like, neriifolin-S, neriifolin, neriifoliene, euphol, neriifolione, cycloartenol, nerifoliol, lectin, euphonerins A-G, 3-O-acetyl-8-O-tigloylingol, taraxerol, antiquorin, etc. Identified chemical constituents are still required to be explored for their advanced isolation techniques and biological activities. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Resistence of Euphorbia Heterophylla L. to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in soybean Resistência de Euphorbia Heterophylla L. aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS na cultura da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Augusto Gelmini

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are widely used in soybean for weed control, and the selection pressure attributed to the repeated use of herbicides with similar modes of action on the same site has caused selection for resistant biotypes within and among previously susceptible species, such as Euphorbia heterophylla L., in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo, Brazil. Seeds of E. heterophylla were collected to examine possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage these populations, in the Caarapó region, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species have survived continuous herbicide applications. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. Several post-emergence herbicides were sprayed at zero, one, two, four, and eight times the recommended field application rates. Twenty days after application, plants were harvested, and control percentage and fresh weight were determined to establish dose-response curves, in the aim to obtain the resistance factor using CD50 and RD50 data. The chlorimuron-ethyl resistance factor values for the control percentage and fresh weight parameters were higher than 16.5 and 16.9, respectively, while imazethapyr showed resistance factors higher than 25.0 and 23.5, respectively. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was effectively controlled by fomesafen (250 g ha-1, lactofen (120 g ha-1, flumiclorac-pentyl (40 g ha-1, glufosinate-ammonium (150 g ha-1, and glyphosate (360 g ha-1.Os herbicidas constituem a principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja, mas através da pressão de seleção, o uso contínuo e

  11. The effect of cynanchi wilfordii radix ethanol extracts upon irradiated rat's blood and organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Oh; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of radioprotector is being actively conducted in order to reduce the damage from over radiation exposure at radiation accident or radiation therapy. So this study was confirmed for radiation protective effects using the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix that has been known to be effective for antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, immune enhancing effects. The method of this study was administered orally Cynanchi wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts to Sprague Dawley Rat(SD Rat) for 14 days once a day, while measuring changed blood cell, spleen index, liver and uterus tissue along the change in time of 1, 4, 7 and 21 days after X-ray beam of 7 Gy irradiation. As the result of the experiment, the experimental group's rats which are administered with Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts showed a rapid recovery in white blood cell count(p < 0.05) and spleen index(p < 0.05). In addition, condensation of nuclei, cytoplasmic swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration in experimental group's liver cell was decreased more than in irradiation group's component. Further, experimental group's Uterine gland decreased the apoptosis more than irradiation group's components did. It is expected that Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix extracts will be useful as a new radioprotector. With above in mind, this paper may provide appropriate implications with the field of emergency management such as radiation accident.

  12. Simultaneous Quantification of Nine New Furanocoumarins in Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    Lei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of new furanocoumarins with long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely andafocoumarins A–H and J, have been isolated from the dried roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi (Angelicae Dahuricae radix in our previous study, among which andafocoumarins A and B were demonstrated to have better anti-inflammatory activity than the positive controls. In this work, a sensitive, accurate, and efficient ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UFLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of above-mentioned nine compounds in four cultivars of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex 2.6u C18 100 Å column (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm. The mobile phases were comprised of acetonitrile and water with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Using the established method, all components could be easily separated within 12 min. With the multiple reaction monitor mode, all components were detected in positive electrospray ionization. The method was validated with injection precision, linearity, lower limit of detection, lower limit of quantification, precision, recovery, and stability, respectively. The final results demonstrated that the method was accurate and efficient, which could be used to simultaneously quantify the nine andafocoumarins in Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. The results also indicated that in different batches of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, some of the andafocoumarins were significantly different in terms of content.

  13. Intraspecific morphological and genetic variability in the European freshwater snail Radix labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) (Gastropoda: Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schniebs, K.; Glöer, P.; Vinarski, M.V.; Hundsdoerfer, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Radix labiata is a widely distributed Palaearctic freshwater snail. This work aims to improve the knowledge of the intraspecific variability in the most important characters used for its determination. To find out which characters are really suitable to distinguish this species from other similar

  14. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.

  15. Comparison of raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhitao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Polygoni Multiflori is the dried root tuber of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Fam. Polygonaceae. According to Chinese medicine theory, raw (R-RPM and processed (P-RPM Radix Polygoni Multiflori possess different properties. The present study investigates the differences in chemistry between raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori. Methods Five pairs of R-RPM and P-RPM as well as 15 commercial decoction pieces were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS. Results Two anthraquinones, namely emodin-8-O-(6'-O-malonyl-glucoside and physcion-8-O-(6'-O-malonyl-glucoside disappeared or decreased significantly and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and physcion-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside decreased after the R-RPM samples being processed. On the other hand, the contents of emodin and physcion generally increased after processing. Conclusion The present study indicates that processing Radix Polygoni Multiflori may change the contents and types of chemicals in it. These changes are probably responsible for the various pharmacological effects of R-RPM and P-RPM as well as hepatotoxicity.

  16. Effects of lipid regulation using raw and processed radix polygoni multiflori in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Chen, Zhen; Mao, Xiaojian; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2012-01-01

    Raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori have been used in the prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia, and related diseases in Asian counties for centuries. The lipid regulation ability of raw and processed Poligoni Multiflori Radix were compared in high-fat diet fed rats in this research. Total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood and liver tissue were all significantly higher in model rats. However, triglyceride (TG) contents increased only in liver tissue, not in the blood samples. The rats fed the high-fat diets were considered the model of type IIa hyperlipidemia and early-stage nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Both Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM) and Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata (RPMP) revealed TC-lowing effects, and middling doses of RPMP displayed the most significant TC-lowing effects, as indicated by blood samples. Neither RPM nor RPMP was found to reduce LDL-C in rats' blood. Nevertheless, RPM showed dose-dependent TC- and TG-lowing effects in the liver tissue samples. In conclusion, RPM showed more pronounced effects on lipid regulation in liver samples in the treatment of early-stage NAFLD. RPMP, however, displayed better effects in regulating lipids in circulating blood for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  17. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects human foreskin melanocytes from oxidative stress in vitro and potentiates hair follicle pigmentation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sextius, P; Betts, R; Benkhalifa, I; Commo, S; Eilstein, J; Massironi, M; Wang, P; Michelet, J-F; Qiu, J; Tan, X; Jeulin, S

    2017-08-01

    To examine the ability of an extract from traditional Chinese medicine, Polygonum multiflorum Radix, to protect melanocyte viability from oxidative stress, a key mechanism in the initiation and progression of hair greying. To assess the antioxidant capacity of Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract, primary human foreskin melanocytes were treated with a commercially available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract added to culture medium and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), using intracellular reactive oxygen species concentrations and glutathione/protein ratios as endpoints. To improve solubility for cosmetic uses, a new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract was derived. As hair greying is the consequence of melanocyte disappearance in an oxidative stress environment, we checked whether the antioxidant capacity of the new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract could preserve melanocyte viability in response to H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress, and preserve pigmentation within ex vivo human hair follicles. In vitro treatment of primary human foreskin melanocytes with traditional available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in decreased intracellular ROS accumulation in response to H 2 O 2 exposure with a concomitant preservation of glutathione-to-protein ratio, consistent with a protective response against H 2 O 2 exposure and demonstrating the promise of this extract for protecting melanocytes against oxidative stress. Melanocytes treated with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract exhibited attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced cell death, demonstrating a clear cytoprotective effect. Treatment of ex vivo human hair follicles with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in a higher level of melanin compared to vehicle-treated controls, demonstrating an ex vivo protective effect on hair pigmentation. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects in vitro primary human foreskin melanocytes from the deleterious effects of H 2 O 2

  18. Potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae performance is determined by aphid genotype and not mycorrhizal fungi or water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karley, Alison Jane; Emslie-Smith, Matthew; Bennett, Alison Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Intra- and interspecific variation in plant and insect traits can alter the strength and direction of insect-plant interactions, with outcomes modified by soil biotic and abiotic conditions. We used the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) feeding on cultivated Solanum tuberosum and wild Solanum berthaulti to study the impact of water availability and plant mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on aphid performance and susceptibility to a parasitoid wasp (Aphidius ervi Haliday). Plants were grown under glass with live or sterile AM fungal spores and supplied with sufficient or reduced water supply. Plants were infested with 1 of 3 genotypes of M. euphorbiae or maintained as aphid-free controls; aphid abundance was scored after 1 week, after which aphid susceptibility to A. ervi was assayed ex planta. Solanum tuberosum accumulated c. 20% more dry mass than S. berthaultii, and root mass of S. berthaultii was smallest under reduced water supply in the presence of AM fungi. Aphid abundance was lowest on S. berthaultii and highest for genotype "2" aphids; genotype "1" aphid density was particularly reduced on S. berthaultii. Aphid genotype "1" exhibited low susceptibility to parasitism and was attacked less frequently than the other two more susceptible aphid genotypes. Neither AM fungi nor water availability affected insect performance. Our study suggests a fitness trade-off in M. euphorbiae between parasitism resistance and aphid performance on poor quality Solanum hosts that warrants further exploration, and indicates the importance of accounting for genotype identity in determining the outcome of multitrophic interactions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. The candelabra tree (Euphorbia ingens: a source of water for black rhinoceros in Liwonde National Park, Malawi

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    C.O. Dudley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of two rhinoceros into a 15 km2 fenced sanctuary within Liwonde National Park provided an opportunity for close observation of the animals feeding on the toxic succulent Euphorbia ingens. Feeding invariably caused the death of the plant and for plants with basal diameters between 5-17 cm, mortality ranged from 40-90 . During the severe drought of 1994 rhinoceros did not drink from the artificial waterhole from approximately 15 July to at least 23 September. As this waterhole was the only source of free water it is believed that the rhinoceros obtained their water from browsing on E. ingens.

  20. Constituents of euphorbiaceae 12. Comm. (1). Isolation and structure elucidation of four new cerebrosides from Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsone, G; Cateni, F; Visintin, G; Lucchini, V; Wagner, H; Seligmann, O

    1994-03-01

    Four new cerebrosides 4-6 were isolated from the latex of Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf. and their structures determined. Normal and reverse-phase flash chromatography was effective for the isolation of the cerebrosides, and FAB-MS spectrometry, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DQF-COSY and HMQC experiments and chemical reactions were useful in elucidating their structure. EI-MS of the dimethyl disulfide derivatives of the long chain bases and glucosphingoside-heptaacetates was decisive for the determination of the double bond position on the long chain parts.

  1. (19αH)-lupane and (9βH)-lanostane triterpenes from Euphorbia helioscopia trigger apoptosis of tumor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Song, Wei-Bin; Xuan, Li-Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Chemical investigation of Euphorbia helioscopia resulted in the identification of seven new triterpenes named euphorbatrine A-G (1-7), including two (19αH)-lupane (1-2) and three (9βH)-lanostane (4-6), which are very rare metabolites from plants. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, X-ray crystallography and chemical methods. Compounds 5 and 6 triggered apoptosis of Hela -/- cell with EC 50 values of 1.59±0.25 and 26.48±0.78μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetonitrile extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix exhibits growth-inhibitory effects on prostate cancer cells through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June; Choi, Bu Young; Keum, Young-Sam

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the effects of the acetonitrile or water extracts from 400 selected traditional medicinal plants on the growth of PC-3 cells were investigated, and it was demonstrated that an acetonitrile extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix exhibited the most marked cytotoxic effects on PC-3 cells. It was observed that the acetonitrile extract of S. miltiorrhiza Radix induced marked cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PC-3 cells through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It was also demonstrated that oral administration of the acetonitrile extract of S. miltiorrhiza Radix decreased the incidence and growth of PC-3 tumor xenografts in nude mice. The results of the present study suggest that the acetonitrile extract of S. miltiorrhiza Radix exhibits marked inhibitory effects on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Inhibition of α-glucosidase by new prenylated flavonoids from euphorbia hirta L. herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheliya, Manjur Ali; Rayhana, Begum; Ali, Abuzer; Pillai, Krishna Kollapa; Aeri, Vidhu; Sharma, Manju; Mir, Showkat R

    2015-12-24

    Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a pantropical medicinal rhizomatous herb, traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes, respiratory and gastro-intestinal disorders. To isolate and characterize the constituents of Euphorbia hirta and evaluate their in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The study is also aimed at describing structural activity relationship, type of α-glucosidase inhibition and in-vivo potential to regulate post prandial hyperglycemia in Wistar rats. Methanolic extract of whole plant was suspended in water, and sequentially fractionated with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Further ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) to isolate the active molecules under the following experimental conditions, pressure (up to 5 kg/cm(2)) and flow rate (2 in./min). The structural elucidation of isolated compounds was done on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. The α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of isolated compounds was evaluated and compared with standard drug acarbose. In addition, type of inhibition was dwelled by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. Further, sucrose tolerance test was performed in Wistar rats pre-treated with the isolated compounds and acarbose (0.015 mM) followed by a sucrose load (2g/kg, p.o.) and blood glucose level was measured up to 120 min by the glucose oxidase method. The ethyl acetate fraction afforded quercetrin (1), dimethoxy quercetrin (2), along with two new prenylated flavonosides designated as hirtacoumaroflavonoside (3) and hirtaflavonoside-B (4) characterized as 7-O-(p-coumaroyl)-5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6-(3,3-dimethyl allyl)-flavonol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2" → 1"')-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and 5, 7, 3', 4'-trihydroxy-6-(3, 3-dimethyl allyl)-8-(iso-butenyl)-flavonol-3-C-β-d-glucopyranoside, respectively. All the isolated compounds showed dose dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase which was found to be comparable to acarbose. Maximum α-glucosidase inhibition was

  4. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations.

  5. Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia L. whole plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Hasan, Sumaiyah Kanij; Ali, Zulfiquar; Rahman, Shahnaz; Jahan, Rownak

    2012-02-01

    To study the antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia thymifolia L., a plant used in folk medicine of Bangladesh for treatment of diabetes and pain. Antihyperglycemic activity studies were conducted in glucose-loaded mice by oral glucose tolerance tests. Mice were given various doses of the extract, followed by glucose (2 g/kg body weight), 1 h after administration of the extract. Serum glucose levels were measured 2 h after glucose administration. Antinociceptive activity studies were conducted in intraperitoneally acetic acid-injected mice through measurement of reductions in abdominal writhing times caused by acetic acid-induced gastric pain. Following a period of 1 h after oral administration of various doses of the extract, all mice received intraperitoneal injection of 1% acetic acid at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight. To ensure bioavailability of acetic acid, a period of 5 min was given to each animal following which period the number of writhings was counted for 10 min. The extract caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in serum glucose levels in mice, when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight as compared to the control animals (Pweight, lowered serum glucose levels by 48.6%. The extract also demonstrated a significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activity compared to control animals (Pweight, the number of abdominal writhings was inhibited by 40.9% as compared to 49.0% inhibition obtained with a standard antinociceptive drug aspirin, administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The significant antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities demonstrated by the extract validate the use of E. thymifolia in folk medicine of Bangladesh for treatment of diabetes and pain, and merit further scientific studies leading to discovery of efficacious drugs.

  6. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Ashraful; Lütken, Henrik; Haugslien, Sissel; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; Torre, Sissel; Rolcik, Jakub; Rasmussen, Søren K; Olsen, Jorunn E; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI) gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21-52%) and internode lengths (31-49%) were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1). The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content appeared lower (11-31% reduction) in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT) controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction) in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced.

  7. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities of an important medicinal plant (Euphorbia royleana from Pakistan

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    Aisha Ashraf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of methanol, hexane, and aqueous extracts of fresh Euphorbia royleana. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated as gallic acid and querectin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging of free 2,2′- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and reduction of ferric ions, and it was observed that inhibition values increase linearly with increase in concentration of extract. The results of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that hexane extract has maximum ferric reducing power (12.70 ± 0.49 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of plant extract. Maximum phenolic (47.47 ± 0.71 μg gallic acid equivalents/mg of plant extract and flavonoid (63.68 ± 0.43 μg querectin equivalents/mg of plant extract contents were also found in the hexane extract. Furthermore, we examined antimicrobial activity of the three extracts (methanol, hexane, aqueous against a panel of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pasteurella multocida, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium solani by disc-diffusion assay, and found the hexane extract to be the best antimicrobial agent. Hexane extract was also observed as to be most effective in a potato disc assay. As hexane extract showed potent activity in all the investigated assays, it was targeted for cytotoxic assessment. Maximum cytotoxicity (61.66% by hexane extract was found at 800 μg/mL. It is concluded that investigated extracts have potential for isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Eutirucallin, a RIP-2 Type Lectin from the Latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L. Presents Proinflammatory Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sanzio Silva; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitão; Carvalho, Fernanda Caroline; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Santiago, André da Silva; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that recognize and modulate physiological activities and have been used as a toll for detection and identification of biomolecules, and therapy of diseases. In this study we have isolated a lectin present in the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli, and named it Eutirucallin. The latex protein extract was subjected to ion exchange chromatography and showed two peaks with haemagglutinating activity. Polypeptides of 32 kDa protein extract strongly interacted with immobilized galactose (α-lactose > D-N-acetylgalactosamine). The Eutirucallin was obtained with a yield of 5.6% using the α-lactose column. The lectin domain has 32 kDa subunits and at least two of which are joined by disulfide bridges. The agglutinating capacity for human erythrocytes A+, B+ and O+ is inhibited by D-galactose. The haemagglutinating activity of Eutirucallin was independent of Ca2+ and maintained until the temperature of 55°C. Eutirucallin presented biological activities such as neutrophils recruitment and cytokine prodution by macrophages. The analysis of the trypsin-digested Eutirucallin by ms/ms in ESI-Q-TOFF resulted in nine peptides similar to type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (type-2 RIP). It's partial sequence showed a similarity of 67.4 – 83.1% for the lectin domain of type-2 RIP [Ricin and Abrin (83.1%), Viscumin, Ebulin, Pulchellin, Cinnamomin, Volkensin and type-2 RIP Iris hollandica]. Our data suggest that Eutirucallin is a new member of type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein and presents biotechnological potential. PMID:24558388

  9. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashraful Islam

    Full Text Available Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21-52% and internode lengths (31-49% were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA content appeared lower (11-31% reduction in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced.

  10. Radix entomolaris: A case report with cone-beam computed tomography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafia Sarfi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to draw the correlation between the morphology of the right and left radix entomoralis (RE in a bilateral case using CBCT. In this report a case involving root canal treatment of both the mandibular molars (36 & 46 is presented. A correlation between the morphology of the two is drawn using CBCT. During root canal treatment of 46 the presence of RE was identified clinically and then radiographically. Following which, 36 was treated and similar morphologic variation was seen. A CBCT was performed after obturation of both the teeth was completed in order to analyse and compare the morphologic variation and similarity. The morphology of both the radices was found to be similar. Anatomic variations can occur in any tooth, therefore careful clinical and radiographic examination is compulsory for successful outcome. This report describes the similarity of tooth root anatomy in a patient with bilateral RE and hence its clinical implication.

  11. Aquatic Macrophytes as Microhabitats of Radix auricularia (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: A Case Study from Southeast Bulgaria

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    Stanislava Y. Vasileva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to investigate the abundance of thefreshwater pulmonate snail Radix auricularia among different aquatic plants communities, with the view of understanding if there is any particular habitat preference, comparing two freshwater basins having similar environmental conditions. The freshwater plant species were collected by net from two ponds at the end of May 2009 - 650 g wet plant mass, micro dam at Chernoochene Village, East Rhodopes Mts.; 138 g wet plant mass, small flood pond near the Maritza River, Plovdiv City, Upper Thracian Lowland. The plant mass was weighted in the laboratory after the alive snails were collected from the plant surface. Totally three species of freshwater plants were inhabited by R. auricularia, but its abundance and possible preference was highest on the Rigid Hornworth (Ceratophyllum demersum.

  12. Chromatographic Fingerprints Combined with Chemometric Methods Reveal the Chemical Features of Authentic Radix Polygalae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhongquan; Ren, Dabing; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yi, Zhibiao; Yi, Lunzhao

    2017-01-01

    GC-MS fingerprints of Radix Polygalae (RP) were measured for deliberately collected samples. A total of 88 volatile components were identified and quantified by subwindow factor analysis, heuristic evolving latent projection, and retention index. Next, an efficient discrimination model based on partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis (DA) was developed to distinguish the superior RP samples from the inferior ones, and the reliability and predictive ability of the model was evaluated by cross-validation and permutation tests. Furthermore, four components (1-octanol, shyobunone, isobornyl acetate, and α-asarone) were screened by coefficient β of PLS-DA. They represented the important chemical features of authentic RP and could be applied to the accurate discrimination and QC of RP in the future. Our results suggest that chromatographic fingerprints coupled with chemometric methods provide an effective and convenient strategy for QC of RP and are helpful for revealing the chemical features of a complex analytical sample.

  13. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen

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    Hanqing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  14. Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars in Indian Population: A Review and Case Reports

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    Kanika Attam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this paper is to present cases of mandibular first molars with an additional distolingual root and their management using appropriate instruments and techniques. Basic Procedures and Main Findings. Mandibular molars can sometimes present a variation called radix entomolaris, wherein the tooth has an extra root attached to its lingual aspect. This additional root may complicate the endodontic management of the tooth if it is misdiagnosed or maltreated. This paper reviews the prevalence of such cases in Indian population and reports the management of 6 such teeth. Principal Conclusions. (1 It is crucial to be familiar with variations in tooth/canal anatomy and characteristic features since such knowledge can aid location and negotiation of canals, as well as their subsequent management. (2 Accurate diagnosis and careful application of clinical endodontic skill can favorably alter the prognosis of mandibular molars with this root morphology.

  15. [Textual research on the origin and producing area of Baitouweng (Radix Pulsatillae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W H; Zhan, Z L; Peng, H S; Yang, J; Qian, J P

    2017-01-28

    Baitouweng (Pulsatilla Root), a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, was first recorded in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) . Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel from Ranunculaceae had become the authentic source for the Baitouweng since the Song Dynasty, which was consistent with the Radix Pulsatillae collected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Chuzhou, Anhui province, being regarded as the main producing area in ancient times, had been its genuine producing area since the period of Republic of China. From the Tang Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, the origin of Baitouweng recorded in the works of Chinese materia medica could also include P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua. Therefore, P. chinensis in Chuzhou, with large quantity and high quality, is a superior resource that need to increase its protection and further studies, whereas P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua have better to be used as local drugs.

  16. [Analyze and compare activities of polysaccharide form rhizoma chuanxiong and radix paeoniae rubra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Jie; Wang, Peng; Yang, Ming-Jun; Wang, Yong-Gang; Ju, Ying; Du, Rui-Hu

    2011-10-01

    To explore the difference of biological activities between two Chinese Herbs polysaccharides. Extracted two kinds of Chinese Herbs Polysaccharides by hot water, and determined the content of Polysaccharides. Determined the antibacterial activity with turbidimetry. Explored antioxidant activity using an in vitro antioxidant analysis, probed into the effects on cell growth with MTT colorimetric analysis. The two polysaccharides both showed activities on the antibacterial, anti-oxidation and promotion of cell growth but different in degree. The Radix Paeoniae Rubra polysaccharide was stronger than Rhizoma Chuanxiong in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and weaker in promotion of cell growth activity. Activity differences exist between the two polysaccharides and the activities show some complementary effects. The differences provide important value in research on polysaccharide compound.

  17. Processing of waste material of radix physochlainae for preparation of fine chemicals after extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Yohannes, A.; Feng, X. T.; Yao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Waste residues of Chinese traditional medicine radix physochlainae (Huashanshen) contain a large amount of hemicelluloses after extraction. After the removal of the cellulose and lignin, main components of the solution are different degree of hydrolysis products of hemicelluloses. In the degradation process, hemicelluloses firstly become pentose, and then pentose loses 3 molecules of water and turns into furfural. This study explored a series of conditions of the method; finally the yield of furfural can reach 8.5% (calculated with the weight of raw residues) under the condition of pH of 0.2-0.3, temperature of 104-106°C, hydrolysis duration for 10 minutes. Furfural can be further processed to be resin materials.

  18. Protective Effect of Salidroside from Rhodiolae Radix on Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice

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    Yong Peng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been confirmed that diabetes mellitus (DM carries increased oxidative stress. This study evaluated the effects of salidroside from Rhodiolae Radix on diabetes-induced oxidative stress in mice. After induction of diabetes, diabetic mice were administered daily doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg salidroside for 28 days. Body weights, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum insulin, TC (total cholesterol, TG (triglyceride, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured. Results showed that salidroside possessed hypoglycemic activity and protective effects against diabetes-induced oxidative stress, which could significantly reduce FBG, TC, TG and MDA levels, and at same time increase serum insulin levels, SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Therefore, salidroside should be considered as a candidate for future studies on diabetes.

  19. Furocoumarin Derivatives from Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Their Effects on RXRα Transcriptional Regulation

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    Hai-Feng Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel furocoumarin derivative named oxyalloimperatorin (1, together with seventeen furocoumarins 2–18 were isolated from the radix of Angelica dahurica. The chemical structure of new metabolite was characterized by analysis of IR, NMR, and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic data. Among the isolated compounds, 13, 16, and 18 (each at 20 μM could significantly promote the gene transcriptional function of nuclear receptor RXRα. While 7–9, 13, 14, and the new structure 1 (each at 20 μM showed significant reduction in RXRα gene transcriptional activities induced by 9-cis-retinoid acid. The findings indicated that these furocoumarin skeleton derivatives might hold beneficial effects on many intractable diseases, such as cancer and metabolic diseases, due to their potential activities on regulating the transcriptional activation function of RXRα.

  20. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

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    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  1. Effect of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on cerebral ischemia reperfusion model

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    Xiaoli Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the effects of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on mouse model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Mice were orally given different doses of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis 10 d, and were administered once daily. On the tenth day after the administration of 1 h in mice after anesthesia, we used needle to hook the bilateral common carotid artery (CCA for 10 min, with 10 min ischemia reperfusion, 10 min ischemia. Then we restored their blood supply, copy the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion; We then had all mice reperfused for 24 h, and then took their orbital blood samples and measured blood rheology. We quickly removed the brain, with half of the brain having sagittal incision. Then we fixed the brains and sectioned them to observe the pathological changes of brain cells in the hippocampus and cortex. We also measured the other half sample which was made of brain homogenate of NO, NOS, Na+-K+-, ATP enzyme Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Acupuncture needle hook occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries can successfully establish the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. After comparing with the model mice, we concluded that Ilex pubescens flavonoids not only reduce damage to the brain nerve cells in the hippocampus and cortex, but also significantly reduce the content of NO in brain homogenate, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and increases ATP enzyme activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. In this way, cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is improved. Different dosages of Ilex pubescens flavonoids on mouse cerebral ischemia reperfusion model have good effects.

  2. Impact of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) on a local population of Euphorbia bothae in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luske, B.L.; Mertens, T.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) feed extensively on a local population of Euphorbia bothae. Maintaining the endangered black rhinoceros and the protected E. bothae population are both conservation priorities of the reserve. Therefore, the

  3. Procedimiento para aumentar la síntesis y acumulación de hidrocarburos naturales derivados del metabolismo terpenoide en la planta euphorbia lathyris

    OpenAIRE

    Balaguer Zamora, Begoña; Castelblanque Soriano, Lourdes; Martí-Ibáñez, María Cristina; Ramírez García, Vicente; Vera, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Procedimiento de obtención de biomasa enriquecida en triterpenos, caracterizado porque comprende tratar la planta Euphorbia lathyris con al menos un jasmonato, preferentemente jasmonato de metilo. Así como la biomasa enriquecida en triterpenos obtenida por dicho procedimiento, su uso como fuente de combustible energético y método de obtención de dicho combustible.

  4. Chemical Composition and Mosquitocidal activity of n-Hexane and Methanol Extracts from Euphorbia anacampseros var. tmolea, an endemic species of Turkey, against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    New and safe mosquito control agents are necessary due to increasing resistance to synthetic insecticides and environmental change. The mosquito larvicidal and adulticidal activity and chemical composition of Euphorbia anacampseros var. tmolea extracts are investigated in this article for the first ...

  5. Methanic fermentation of Euphorbia tirucalli, a rich and renewable vegetal biomass of the Sahel and arid zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sow, D. [Dakar Univ. (Senegal); Depeyre, D.; Isambert, A. [Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1994-12-31

    A rich and renewable vegetal biomass is existing in Senegal. In fact Euphorbia tirucalli is a latex plant well adapted to sahelian climatic conditions, spread all along the country. In this work, methanic fermentation experimentations are made with this plant in a specific continuous fermentor named Transpaille. A 120 l biodigester was tested at 37 deg C with a piece-broken plant. The registered volumic efficiency is 0.80 l/l.d. With this interesting result, the same experiment was made with real operating conditions on a village digester in a farm. With a bioreactor of 12 m{sup 3}, incubated at ambient temperature, the obtained volumic efficiency is 0.61 l/l.d. The produced biogas of this experiment was used for food cooking and for farm milk cooling. This work shows that a vulgarization policy of the biogas way in rural conditions in Senegal is now possible with Euphorbia tirucalli. (authors). 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans strains and genotoxicity assessment in human leukocyte cells of Euphorbia tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Flávio Souza de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a plant known popularly as Aveloz, and originally used in Africa, has been drawing attention for its use in the United States and Latin America, both for use as an ornamental plant and as a medicinal plant. E. tirucalli L. is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae and contains many diterpenoids and triterpenoids, in particular phorbol esters, apparently the main constituent of this plant, which are assumed to be responsible for their activities in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro antifungal activities of Euphorbia tirucalli (L. against opportunistic yeasts were studied using microbroth dilution assay. The results showed that aqueous extract and latex preparation were effective against ten clinical strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro (Latex and extract MIC range of 3.2 - > 411 µg/mL. Aiming the safe use in humans, the genotoxic effects of E. tirucalli were evaluated in human leukocytes cells. Our data show that both aqueous extract and latex preparation have no genotoxic effect in human leukocytes cells in vitro. Although the results cannot be extrapolated by itself for use in vivo, they suggest a good perspective for a therapeutic application in future. In conclusion, our results show that the aqueous extract and latex preparation from E. tirucalli L. are antifungal agents effectives against several strains of C. neoformans and do not provoke DNA damage in human leukocyte cells, considering the concentrations tested.

  7. Survey of traditional Dai medicine reveals species confusion and potential safety concerns: a case study on Radix Clerodendri Japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bao-Zhong; Fang, Hai-Lan; Li, Xi-Wen; Huang, Lin-Fang; Ping, Wang; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2017-06-01

    The adulteration of herbal products is a threat to consumer safety. In the present study, we surveyed the species composition of commercial Radix Clerodendri Japonicum products using DNA barcoding as a supervisory method. A reference database for plant-material DNA-barcode was successfully constructed with 48 voucher samples from 12 Clerodendrum species. The database was used to identify 27 Radix Clerodendri Japonicum decoction piece samples purchased from drug stores and hospitals. The DNA sequencing results revealed that only 1 decoction piece (3.70%) was authentic C. japonicum, as recorded in the Dai Pharmacopeia, whereas the other samples were all adulterants, indicating a potential safety issue. The results indicate that decoction pieces that are available in the market have complex origins and that DNA barcoding is a suitable tool for regulation of Dai medicines. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of organic acids on microbial deterioration in the Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere under continuous monoculture regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Zhu, Quan; Wang, Juanying; Qin, Xianjin; Xu, Jiahui; Kong, Lufei; Chen, Jun; Lin, Sheng; Umar Khan, Muhammad; Amjad, Hira; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-01-01

    A three-year field monoculture trial of Radix pseudostellariae and complementary laboratory studies were conducted to further elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for significant decreases in the biomass yield and quality of R. pseudostellariae under continuous monoculture regimes. HPLC analysis indicated that continuous monoculture soil was rich in organic acids, which had cumulative effects over time. Further analysis suggested that the application of a mixture of organic acids si...

  9. Blockade of nicotine sensitization by methanol extracts of Glycyrrhizae radix mediated via antagonism of accumbal oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zheng Lin; Kim, Sang Chan; Liu, Hong Feng; Wu, Yi Yan; Li, Li Bo; Wang, Yu Hua; Jiao, Yu; Fan, Yu; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Bong Hyeo; Cho, Il Je; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, Rong Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously reported that a methanol extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (MEGR) blocked methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference in rats. In the present study, the effects of MEGR on repeated nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and enhanced extracellular dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) were evaluated. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats received repeated administrations of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneous) or saline twice...

  10. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S.; Tsai, Chin-En; Yu, Bi; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR) and Gardeniae fructus (GF) showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding...

  11. Long-Term Treatment of Puerariae Radix Extract Ameliorated Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Ovariectomy in Mature Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Li Dong; Quan-Gui Gao; Sa-Sa Gu; Hao-Tian Feng; Man-Sau Wong; Liya Denney

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disorder characterized by the progressive bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women. This imbalance affects calcium–phosphate metabolism and results in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Purariae Radix (PR), the root of P. lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, is one of the earliest medicinal herbs employed in ancient China. PR contains a high quantity of isoflavones and their glycosides, which are regarded as phytoestrogen. Few investig...

  12. Applied Orthogonal Experiment Design for the Optimum Microwave-Assisted Extraction Conditions of Polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fenglin; Xiao, Furen; Gong, Jingli; Yu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    An experiment on polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix (PRR) extraction was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method with an objective to establishing the optimum MAE conditions of PRR. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions, and the optimum conditions were obtained using orthogonal experiment design. The results showed that the optimum MAE conditions of PRR were as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:45 g/mL, irrad...

  13. Euphorbia tirucalli L.: Review on morphology, medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y. Mali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The intention of current review is to make available up-to-date information on morphology, ecological biodiversity, medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities on different parts of Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli. This plant has a number of medicinal uses. Latex of E. tirucalli is vesicant and rubefacient which is used for rheumatism, warts, cough, asthma, ear-ache, tooth-ache and neuralgia. It acts as a purgative in small doses while in big doses it is bitter irritant and emetic. Milky juice is alexiteric, carminative and purgative. It is useful in whooping cough, gonorrhea, asthma, leprosy, dropsy, dyspepsia, enlargement of spleen, colic, jaundice and stone in bladder. The fresh milky juice is good alternative in syphilis and a good application in neuralgia. A decoction of branches is used in gastralgia and colic. Bark is used in treatment of fractures. Poultices prepared from the stem are useful to repair the broken bones. Boiled root liquid acts as an emetic in cases of snake-bite and for infertility in women. The wood is used for rafters, toys and veneering purposes. It is also useful against leprosy and foot paralysis subsequent to childbirth. E. tirucalli is reported to have euphol, β-sitosterol, euphorbol hexacosonate, cycloeuphordenol, cyclotirucanenol, tirucalicine, tri-methyl ellagic acid, gallic acids, terpenic alcohol, isoeuphorol, taraxasterol, tirucallol, euphorone, euphorcinol, euphorbins, 12-deoxy-4β-hydroxyphorbol-13-phenyl acetate-20-acetate, 12, 20-dideoxyphorbol-13-isobutyrate, glut-5-en-3-β-ol, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid, euphorbin-A (polyphenol, tirucallin-A (7 (tannin, tirucallin-B (11, euphorbin-F (14 (dimers, cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartenol, ingenol triacetate, 12-deoxy-4β-hydroxyphorbol-13-phenyl acetate-20-acetate, taraxerone, euphorginol, taraxerol, campesterol, stigmasterol, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, β-amyrin, etc. active phytoconstituents. E. tirucalli have possessed

  14. Chemical profile and defensive function of the latex of Euphorbia peplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Jiang; Jing, Shu-Xi; Luo, Shi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Plant latex is an endogenous fluid secreted from highly specialized laticifer cells and has been suggested to act as a plant defense system. The chemical profile of the latex of Euphorbia peplus was investigated. A total of 13 terpenoids including two previously unknown diterpenoids, (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,6R*,8R*,l1R*,13S*,14S*,15R*, 16R*)-5,8,15-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-11,16-dihydroxy-9-oxopepluane and (2R*,3R*, 4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,8,9,14-pentaacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-15-hydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene), ten known diterpenoids, and a known acyclic triterpene alcohol peplusol, were identified, using HPLC and UPLC-MS/MS analyses and through comparison with the authentic compounds isolated from the whole plant. The diterpenoids exhibited significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), with EC 50 values ranging from 0.36 to 4.60 μg/cm 2 . In particular, (2R*,3R*,4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,9,14-tetraacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-8,15-dihydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene and (2R*,3R*, 4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,14-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-8,15-dihydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxy-9-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene had EC 50 values of 0.36 and 0.43 μg/cm 2 , respectively, which were approximately 7-fold more potent than commercial neem oil (EC 50  = 2.62 μg/cm 2 ). In addition, the major peplusol showed obvious antifungal activity against three strains of agricultural phytopathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum litchi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. The results indicated that terpenoids in the latex of E. peplus are rich and highly diversified, and might function as constitutive defense metabolites against insect herbivores and pathogens for the plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecularly imprinted layer-coated monodisperse spherical silica microparticles toward affinity-enrichment of isoflavonoid glycosides from Radix puerariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Liying; Chen, Danjun; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Jiawei; Peng, Yan; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping

    2012-06-21

    This paper reports the preparation of puerarin (PR) imprinted layer-coated silica microparticles toward selective recognition of PR and fast affinity-enrichment of the main isoflavonoid glycosides from the crude extract of Radix puerariae. Before the preparation, quantum mechanics (QM) method was applied to identify three kinds of common functional monomers capable of interaction with PR and then predicted optimal functional monomer (acrylamide, AA) and the relative molar ratio of template to functional monomer (PR/AA, 1:4). The obtained PR-imprinted silica microparticles were evaluated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and rebinding experiments, exhibiting good morphology and high binding affinity to PR. Meanwhile, the rebinding amount of the imprinted microparticles to PR was nearly 2.1-folds that of non-imprinted microparticles. When the PR-imprinted microspheres were used as packing materials for solid-phase extraction, the recovery yields of PR, daidzin (DD) and genistin (GS) were simultaneously up to 90% by one-step extraction from the crude extract of Radix puerariae. Additionally, the PR-imprinted microparticles could be re-used for at least 5 times without losing any extraction efficiency. These results indicate that the PR-imprinted microparticles have highly selective adsorption capabilities to PR, DD and GS from the crude extract of Radix puerariae. The method of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) provides a good solution of the enrichment and separation of active extracts from complicated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with certain structures.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of glucosinolates and nucleosides in Radix Isatidis by HPLC and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component fingerprinting and quantitation of the glucosinolates and nucleosides in samples of Radix Isatidis have been carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS. Five nucleosides together with one glucosinolate were identified by comparing retention times, ultraviolet spectra, mass spectra and/or empirical molecular formulae of reference compounds. Quantitation of these six compounds was carried out simultaneously by HPLC on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column using gradient elution with methanol and water and detection at 254 nm. All calibration curves were linear (r>0.9994 within test ranges. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.33 ng and 2.50 ng on column, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision (as relative standard deviation for all analytes was <2.19% with recoveries in the range 99.6%–101.8% at three concentration levels. The validated method was successfully applied to fingerprinting and assay of 25 batches of Radix Isatidis sourced from different geographical regions of China. The method is simple and reliable and has potential value in the quality control of Radix Isatidis.

  17. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Excretion of Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone in Rats after Oral Administration of Radix Inulae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Radix Inulae is endemic to China and has been used in traditional medicine to treat upper body pain, emesis and diarrhoea, and to eliminate parasites. Here, an UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetics, distribution and excretion of isoalantolactone and alantolactone, which are two main active sesquiterpene lactones in Radix Inulae, in Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of total Radix Inulae extract. Isoalantolactone, alantolactone and osthole (internal standard were prepared using acetonitrile precipitation, and the separation of isoalantolactone and alantolactone was achieved by isocratic elution using water (containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column. The total run time was 6.4 min. The present study showed poor absorption of isoalantolactone and alantolactone in vivo. The apparent Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and total exposure (AUC0–12h in rat plasma were 37.8 ng/mL, 120 min, 351.7 min and 6112.3 ng-min/mL for isoalantolactone and 25.9 ng/mL, 90 min, 321.0 min and 4918.9 ng-min/mL for alantolactone, respectively. It was shown that the highest concentration was achieved in the small intestine and feces clearance was shown to be the dominant elimination pathway of the lactones.

  18. [Nasal submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract preparation technology research based on phase transfer of solute technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-jun; Shi, Jun-hui; Chen, Shi-bin; Yang, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Based on the demand of nasal drug delivery high drug loadings, using the unique phase transfer of solute, integrating the phospholipid complex preparation and submicron emulsion molding process of Scutellariae Radix extract, the study obtained the preparation of the high drug loadings submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract. In the study of drug solution dispersion method, the uniformity of drug dispersed as the evaluation index, the traditional mixing method, grinding, homogenate and solute phase transfer technology were investigated, and the solute phase transfer technology was adopted in the last. With the adoption of new technology, the drug loading capacity reached 1.33% (phospholipid complex was 4%). The drug loading capacity was improved significantly. The transfer of solute method and timing were studied as follows,join the oil phase when the volume of phospholipid complex anhydrous ethanol solution remaining 30%, the solute phase transfer was completed with the continued recycling of anhydrous ethanol. After drug dissolved away to oil phase, the preparation technology of colostrum was determined with the evaluation index of emulsion droplet form. The particle size of submicron emulsion, PDI and stability parameters were used as evaluation index, orthogonal methodology were adopted to optimize the submicron emulsion ingredient and main influential factors of high pressure homogenization technology. The optimized preparation technology of Scutellariae Radix extract nasal submicron emulsion is practical and stable.

  19. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-17

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy

  20. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-01

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy reported in this

  1. Radix Puerariae modulates glutamatergic synaptic architecture and potentiates functional synaptic plasticity in primary hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque; Haque, Md Nazmul; Mohibbullah, Md; Kim, Yung Kyu; Moon, Il Soo

    2017-09-14

    Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology. Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria monatana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa&Pradeep, is a Chinese ethnomedicine, traditionally used for the treatment of memory-related nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. In the previous study, we showed that the ethanolic extracts of Radix Puerariae (RPE) and its prime constituent, puerarin induced neuritogenesis and synapse formation in cultured hippocampal neurons, and thus could improve memory functions. In the present study, we specifically investigated the abilities of RPE and puerarin to improve memory-related brain disorders through modulating synaptic maturation and functional potentiation. Rat embryonic (E19) brain neurons were cultured in the absence or presence of RPE or puerarin. At predetermined times, cells were live-stained with DiO or fixed and immunostained to visualize neuronal morphologies, or lysed for protein harvesting. Morphometric analyses of dendritic spines and synaptogenesis were performed using Image J software. Functional pre- and postsynaptic plasticity was measured by FM1-43 staining and whole-cell patch clamping, respectively. RPE or puerarin-mediated changes in actin-related protein 2 were assessed by Western blotting. Neuronal survivals were measured using propidium iodide exclusion assay. RPE and puerarin both: (1) promoted a significant increase in the numbers, and maturation, of dendritic spines; (2) modulated the formation of glutamatergic synapses; (3) potentiated synaptic transmission by increasing the sizes of

  2. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan V. Vuong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf.

  3. Notes on Euphorbia mauritanica, E. gossypina and some related species with an amplified description of E. berotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the possible evolutionary development in the Euphorbia mauritanica—lateriflora—gossypina complex are discussed, and the seed morphology is considered probably to be of considerable significance in the taxonomy of the group. The relevance of the recently discovered relic population of  E. gossypina is also considered, and a detailed description of this species, based on the Rhodesian material, is provided. The identity of the little known  E. berotica N.E. Br. from Angola is established and an amplified description drawn up. Attention is also given to the confusion concerning the type locality and distribution  of E.  mauritanica L. var.  lignosa White, Dyer & Sloane.

  4. Cytotoxicity of three new triazolo-pyrimidine derivatives against the plant trypanosomatid: Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Magán

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no effective chemotherapy against diseases caused by Phytomonas sp., a plant trypanosomatid responsible for economic losses in major crops. We tested three triazolo-pyrimidine complexes [two with Pt(II, and another with Ru(III] against promastigotes of Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias. The incorporation of radiolabelled precursors, ultrastructural alterations and changes in the pattern of metabolite excretion were examined. Different degrees of toxicity were found for each complex: the platinun compound showed an inhibition effect on nucleic acid synthesis, provoking alterations on the levels of mitochondria, nucleus and glycosomes. These results, together with others reported previously in our laboratory about the activity of pyrimidine derivatives, reflect the potential of these compounds as agents in the treatment of Phytomonas sp.

  5. Four new compounds from the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata and their inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiao; Huang, Xue-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Gong, Chi; Li, Xin-Yu; Li, Da-Hong; Hua, Hui-Ming; Li, Zhan-Lin

    2018-03-01

    Three new diterpenoids, ebractenoids O~Q (1-3), and a new phenolic glucoside, γ-pyrone-3-O-β-d-(6-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (4), together with 6 known compounds, were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1-3 were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. The inhibitory effects of all the isolates with exception of compounds 8 and 10 on the NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages were evaluated. All of them exhibited significant inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat-Processed Scutellariae Radix Enhances Anti-Inflammatory Effect against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via NF-κB Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ock Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to examine whether heat-processed Scutellariae Radix has an ameliorative effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury in mice. The effects of Scutellariae Radix heat-processed at 160°C (HSR were compared with those of nonheat-processed Scutellariae Radix (NSR. The LPS-treated group displayed a markedly decreased body weight and significantly increased lung weight; however, the administration of NSR or HSR improved both the body and lung weights. The increased oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarker levels in the serum and lung were reduced significantly with HSR. The reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly by both NSR and HSR. Also, the dysregulated oxidative stress and inflammation were significantly ameliorated by NSR and HSR. The expression of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by nuclear factor-kappa B activation was modulated through inhibition of a nuclear factor kappa Bα degradation. Also, lung histological change was markedly suppressed by HSR rather than NSR. Overall, the ameliorative effects of HSR were superior to those when being nonheat-processed. The representative flavonoid contents of Scutellariae Radix that include baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin were greater by heat process. These data reveal heat-processed Scutellariae Radix may be a critical factor involved in the improvement of lung disorders caused by LPS.

  7. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Euphorbia antiquorum L. latex extract and evaluation of their biomedical perspectives as anticancer agents

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    Chandrasekaran Rajkuberan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (EAAgNPs using aqueous latex extract of Euphorbia antiquorum L as a potential bioreductant. Synthesized EAAgNPs generate the surface plasmonic resonance peak at 438 nm in UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Size and shape of EAAgNPs were further characterized through transmission electron microscope (TEM which shows well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles with size ranging from 10 to 50 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDAX confirms the presence of silver (Ag as the major constituent element. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern of EAAgNPs corresponding to (111, (200, (220 and (311 planes, reveals that the generated nanoparticles were face centered cubic crystalline in nature. Interestingly, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis shows the major role of active phenolic constituents in reduction and stabilization of EAAgNPs. Phyto-fabricated EAAgNPs exhibits significant antimicrobial and larvicidal activity against bacterial human pathogens as well as disease transmitting blood sucking parasites such as Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (IIIrd instar larvae. On the other hand, in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of bioformulated EAAgNPs has shown potential anticancer activity against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa. The preliminary biochemical (MTT assay and microscopic studies depict that the synthesized EAAgNPs at minimal dosage (IC50 = 28 μg triggers cellular toxicity response. Hence, the EAAgNPs can be considered as an environmentally benign and non-toxic nanobiomaterial for biomedical applications. Keywords: Crystal structure, Euphorbia antiquorum L., Silver nanoparticles, Anticancer, Human pathogens

  8. Systems Pharmacological Approach of Pulsatillae Radix on Treating Crohn’s Disease

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    Su Yeon Suh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Asian traditional medicine, Pulsatillae Radix (PR is widely used to treat amoebic dysentery and renowned for its anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to confirm evidence regarding the potential therapeutic effect of PR on Crohn’s disease using a system network level based in silico approach. Study results showed that the compounds in PR are highly connected to Crohn’s disease related pathways, biological processes, and organs, and these findings were confirmed by compound-target network, target-pathway network, and gene ontology analysis. Most compounds in PR have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant effects, and we found that these compounds interact with multiple targets in a synergetic way. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of genes targeted by PR are elevated significantly in immunity-related organ tissues, small intestine, and colon. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and repair and immune system enhancing effects of PR might have therapeutic impact on Crohn’s disease.

  9. Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1-mediated interaction of metformin and Scutellariae radix in rats.

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    Yim, Sreymom; You, Byoung Hoon; Chae, Hee-Sung; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Hojun; Choi, Han Seok; Choi, Young Hee

    2017-11-01

    1. The metformin and Scutellariae radix extract (SB) combination has been previously reported to enhance anti-diabetic activity. Considering that organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multi-drug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) in the liver and kidney are determinant factors on hepatic distribution and renal clearance of metformin, the effects of SB on OCT or MATE-mediated systemic exposure of metformin as well as on glucose tolerance and hypoglycemia were examined. 2. Although SB inhibited metformin uptake through human transporters OCT1 and MATE1 in vitro, the systemic exposures of metformin in vivo rats were not altered after metformin treatment with and without SB due to unchanged renal excretion of metformin. 3. However, 28-day metformin treatment with SB decreased the mRNA level of hepatic MATE1 in rats, resulting in reduced biliary excretion of metformin and thereby higher concentration of metformin in the liver. In addition, in rats with 28-day metformin treatment with SB, glucose tolerance and plasma lactate level were enhanced, while hypoglycemia was not detected. 4. Thus in rats, intervention of SB on transporter-mediated metformin transportation partially improves glucose tolerance without hypoglycemia and increases hepatic distribution of metformin. Also the further investigations in humans are required to clarify the relevance of these findings to the clinical significance.

  10. Phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Polysaccharides Act as Adjuvant via Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation

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    Haibo Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan polysaccharides (pRCPS used as adjuvant with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (FMDV can stimulate specific humoral and cellular immune responses in ICR mice. The results demonstrated that pRCPS significantly up-regulated FMDV-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2b and IgG2a antibody levels and splenocyte proliferation. pRCPS also promoted the killing activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and natural killer cells (NK. In addition, pRCPS enhanced the expression levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ in CD4+ T cells and the level of IFN-γ in CD8+ T cells. Importantly, pRCPS enhanced the expression of MHCII, CD40+, CD86+, and CD80+ in dendritic cells (DCs. This study indicated that phosphorylation modification could increase immune-enhancing activities of RCPS, and pRCPS could promote humoral and cellular immune responses through facilitating DC maturation.

  11. Pharmaceutical properties of calycosin, the major bioactive isoflavonoid in the dry root extract of Radix astragali.

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    Gao, JunQing; Liu, Zong Jun; Chen, Tao; Zhao, DeQiang

    2014-09-01

    Radix astragali (Fabaceae astragalus propinquus Schischkin) is a Chinese medicinal herb traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases. Calycosin is the major bioactive chemical in the dry root extract of this medical plant. This work presents a brief overview of recent reports on the potential effects of calycosin on several diseases and the possible mechanisms of action of this chemical. This review gathers information from the scientific literature (before 1 June 2013) that was compiled from various databases, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. The potential pharmaceutical properties of calycosin in the treatment of tumors, inflammation, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases have gained increasing attention in the recent years. The literature survey showed that calycosin exhibits promising effects for the treatment of several diseases and that these effects may be due to its isoflavonoid and phytoestrogenic properties. The effects of calycosin most likely result from its interaction with the ER receptors on the cell membrane and the modulation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Calycosin exhibits great potential as a therapeutic drug and may be a successful example of the standardization and modernization of traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

  12. Chemical composition of the leaf and stem essential oil of Adenophorae Radix

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    Lan, Weijie; Lin, Shang; Li, Xindan; Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen

    2017-03-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from leaves and stems of Adenophorae Radix was determined for the first time in this study. Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). n-Hexadecanoic acid (29.14%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (17.22%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester(8.98%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (7.03%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (5.93%), phytol (5.50%), and estradiol (4.43%) were measured as the major compounds in stem oil. The leaf essential oil was dominated by n-hexadecanoic acid (50.78%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (9.04%), phytol (8.47%), d-mannitol (5.81%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (4.31%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.19%) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(1.7%). The leaves yield was 0.12% (v/w) and the stems yield showed only 0.073% (v/w). The results might provide reference basis for further exploration of its application value.

  13. Rapid analysis of constituents of Radix Cyathulae using hydrophilic interaction-reverse phase LC-MS.

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    Ren, Mei-Ting; Li, Hui-Jun; Sheng, Long-Sheng; Liu, Peng; Li, Ping

    2009-11-01

    A hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with electrospray TOF MS method was developed for the analysis and characterization of constituents in the radix of Cyathula officinalis Kuan. Separation parameters of HILIC such as buffer pH, mobile phase strength, and organic modifier were evaluated. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were identified by HILIC-ESI/TOF MS. Reverse-phase liquid chromatography-ESI/TOF MS were applied for quick and sensitive identification of major saponins in Cyathula officinalis. In-source collision-induced dissociation has been performed to elucidate the fragmentation pathways of oleanane-, hederagenin-, and gypsogmin-type saponins. Twelve saponins were characterized in this plant for the first time, and four of them were presumed to be new compounds. In addition, one phytoecdysteroid (cyasterone) and one coumarin (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) were detected at the same time. The present method was capable of rapid characterizing and providing structure information of constituents from herbal drugs.

  14. Effect of Lithospermi Radix on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluorobenzene in Mice

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    Kim Han-Na

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. (Lithospermi Radix, LR is a kind of heat clearing and blood cooling medicinal herbs. It can clear away heat and cool the blood, reduce toxins and disperse maculae. LR has long been used as efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we investigate anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of LR by using the 1-fluoro-2, 4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis mouse model. Results: Topical application of 10 mg/mL of LR effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. Topical application of LR also inhibited hyperplasia, edema, spongiosis and infiltrations of mononuclear cells. In addition, production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG1 in serum were decreased by using LR in vivo. Conclusions: These data suggest that LR acts as an antiinflammatory agent, improving skin lesions in CD mice.

  15. In Vivo Lipid Regulation Mechanism of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

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    Pei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the water extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and its processed products (PMRP on liver lipid metabolism were observed in this paper. Aqueous extract of PMR and PMRP was given to nonalcoholic fatty liver model rats, respectively. PMR was better in reducing the contents of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL than PMRP and the positive control groups. In the aspect of regulating TG, medium dose PMR reduced the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT to 1536±47.69 pg/mL (P<0.001 and promoted the expression of hepatic lipase (HL to 23.59±0.2758 U/mL (P<0.05. HL promotion ability of medium dose PMR was similar with the simvastatin positive control. Both medium and high dose of PMR showed significant alterations in TC, which were related to the downregulation effects on hydroxyl methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR and upregulation effects on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase or cytochrome P450 7A (CYP7A. Quantitative relationships research indicated that the prominent effect on inhibiting the content of HMGCR (r=0.756, P<0.05 was strongly positive correlated with to the TC regulation effects. Effects of PMR on enhancing decomposition rate or reducing de novo synthesis rate of TG and TC were better than PMRP.

  16. Effects of Dietary Isoflavones from Puerariae Radix on Lipid and Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Yun Tai Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Puerariae radix, the dried root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi, is one of the earliest and most important edible crude herbs used for various medical purposes in oriental medicine. This study evaluated the metabolic effects of total isoflavones from P. lobata (PTIF in ovariectomized (OVX rats. The OVX rats were divided into four groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 μg/kg, once daily, i.p. and PTIF (30 and 100 mg/kg, once daily, p.o. for eight weeks. The treatments with high-dose PTIF significantly decreased the bone mineral density (BMD loss in the femur and inhibited the increase in body weight and lipoprotein levels compared to the OVX-control group without elevating the serum levels of the liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT. Furthermore, PTIF exhibits a hepatoprotective effect in OVX-induced hepatic steatosis, indicated with reduced hepatic lipid contents. Taken together, our findings suggest that PTIF may be useful for controlling lipid and bone metabolism, at least in OVX rats. Further research is necessary to determine whether PTIF will have the same effects in humans.

  17. Effect of Modified Formula Radix Hedysari on the Amplification Effect during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

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    Zhi Yong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated a compensatory amplification phenomenon during nerve regeneration. When a relatively fine nerve is used as a donor to connect to a distal nerve after transection, the donor nerve regenerates more collaterals than its own fibers, which extend to the distal stump, grow into distal endoneurial tubes, and finally reach and dominate the target organs. This is known as the amplification phenomenon. In this study, we investigated the amplification phenomenon in rats treated with Modified Formula Radix Hedysari (MFRH as adjuvant therapy for 12 weeks. The rats were divided into three groups at random (six animals in each group. In the model group and the treatment group, the proximal common peroneal nerve was used as a donor nerve to connect to the distal tibial nerve. Rats in the normal group did not undergo surgery. After surgery, the treatment group was administered MFRH as systemic therapy, while the model group and the normal group were not given treatment. The results demonstrated that the nerve conduction velocity, the fiber diameter, the axon diameter, the number of regenerating nerve fibers, and the amplification ratio were better in the treatment group than in the model group, suggesting that MFRH promoted the nerve amplification effect.

  18. Dynamic of population-dynamics in a medically important snail species Lymnaea (Radix Luteola (Lamarck

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    T. K. Misra

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The life-cycle parameters of the snail Lymnaea (Radix luteola and the factors influencing the same have been studied under laboratory conditions. Ins each month, from July 1990 to June 1991, a batch of 100 zero-day old individual were considered for studies. The snails of April batch survived for 19.42 days while those in December batch survived for 87.45 days. The May batch individual though survived for 65.67 days gained maximum shell size (15.84 mm in length and body weight (419.87 mg. All individuals of April batch died prior to attainment of sexual maturity. In the remaining 11 batches the snails became sexually mature between 32 and 53 days. At this stage, they were with varying shell lengths, 9.3 mm to 13,11 mm in respect to batches. The reproduction period varied from 1-67 days. An individual laid, on an average, 0,25 (March batch to 443.67 (May batch eggs in its life-span. A batch of such snails would leave 24312, 22520, 720268, 80408, 76067, 418165, 214, 9202, 0, 0, 2459386 and 127894 individuals at the end of 352nd day. Since the environmental conditions were almost similar the 'dynamic' of population dynamics seems to be involved with the 'strain' of the snail individuals of the batches concerned.

  19. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

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    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  20. Intestinal Transportations of Main Chemical Compositions of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in Caco-2 Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lin, Pei; Li, Yunfei; Mao, Xiaojian; Bao, Getuzhaori; Zhao, Ronghua

    2014-01-01

    Context. Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) is originated from the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and used in oriental countries for centuries. However, little researches pay close attention to the absorption of its major constituents. Objective. Transepithelial transport of TSG, RL, PL, and four anthraquinones is carried out. Materials and Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayer, which represented a well-established model for the study of intestinal transport of nutrients and xenobiotics, was used in this paper. Results. The apparent permeability coefficients (P app) in the Caco-2 cell monolayers were TSG (2.372 × 10−9) < EG (2.391 × 10−9) < EN (2.483 × 10−9) < PL (4.917 × 10−9) < RN (1.707 × 10−8) < RL (1.778 × 10−8) < AE (1.952 × 10−8). Thus, RN, RL, and AE were considered partly absorbed, while other constituents were hardly absorbed. Discussion and Conclusion. Glycosides showed poor permeabilities than aglycones. In the meantime, TSG and EN gave out poor recovery rates in this assay, which indicated that TSG and EN may accumulate or metabolise in the Caco-2 cells. In silico prediction indicated that Gibbs energy (r = 0.751, p < 0.05) and heat of form (r = 0.701, p < 0.05) were strongly positively correlated with P app. PMID:24693324

  1. Intestinal Transportations of Main Chemical Compositions of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in Caco-2 Cell Model

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    Jie Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR is originated from the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and used in oriental countries for centuries. However, little researches pay close attention to the absorption of its major constituents. Objective. Transepithelial transport of TSG, RL, PL, and four anthraquinones is carried out. Materials and Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayer, which represented a well-established model for the study of intestinal transport of nutrients and xenobiotics, was used in this paper. Results. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp in the Caco-2 cell monolayers were TSG (2.372 × 10−9 < EG (2.391 × 10−9 < EN (2.483 × 10−9 < PL (4.917 × 10−9 < RN (1.707 × 10−8 < RL (1.778 × 10−8 < AE (1.952 × 10−8. Thus, RN, RL, and AE were considered partly absorbed, while other constituents were hardly absorbed. Discussion and Conclusion. Glycosides showed poor permeabilities than aglycones. In the meantime, TSG and EN gave out poor recovery rates in this assay, which indicated that TSG and EN may accumulate or metabolise in the Caco-2 cells. In silico prediction indicated that Gibbs energy (r=0.751, p<0.05 and heat of form (r=0.701, p<0.05 were strongly positively correlated with Papp.

  2. Scutellaria radix Extract as a Natural UV Protectant for Human Skin.

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    Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Choi, Go Woon; An, Sang Mi; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Hyeong-Ho; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces oxidative injury and inflammation in human skin. Scutellaria radix (SR, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) contains flavonoids with high UV absorptivity and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of SR extract as an additive in cosmetic products for UV protection. SR extract and its butanol (BuOH) fraction strongly absorbed UV radiation and displayed free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radials and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. They also attenuated the UV-induced death of HaCaT cells. Sunscreen creams, with or without supplementation of SR extract BuOH fraction, were tested in vivo in human trials to evaluate potential skin irritation and determine the sun protection factor (SPF). Both sunscreen creams induced no skin irritation. A sunscreen cream containing 24% ZnO showed an SPF value of 17.8, and it increased to 22.7 when supplemented with 5% SR extract BuOH fraction. This study suggests that SR-derived materials are useful as safe cosmetic additives that provide UV protection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Biotransformation of glucosinolates epiprogoitrin and progoitrin to (R)- and (S)-Goitrin in Radix isatidis.

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    Xie, Zhiyong; Shi, Yanhong; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Rui; Li, Yiming

    2011-12-14

    Radix isatidis is an important traditional Chinese medicine with antiviral efficacy. (R)- and (S)-Goitrin are its main bioactive constituents in the 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. (R)- and (S)-Goitrin are the breakdown products of epiprogoitrin and progoitrin from R. isatidis. The biotransformation of glucosinolates epiprogoitrin and progoitrin to (R)- and (S)-goitrin, however, is still unclear. In the current paper, the biotransformation of glucosinolates was studied. First, the high-performance liquid chromatography methods to analyze glucosinolates and their breakdown products were developed. Then, the biotransformation of individual glucosinolates such as epiprogoitrin and progoitrin was investigated under different pH conditions. Lastly, their biotransformation under five extraction environments was studied. The results showed that (R)- and (S)-goitrin were the most noteworthy breakdown products. Their relative transformation rates were about 70-80%, and the influence of different extraction environments on the transformation rate was not significant. These results would serve as a theoretical basis for industrial production and quality control and would be helpful for further studies on the biotransformation of glucosinolates.

  4. Correlation between Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Contents of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui

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    Ling Huang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Radix Angelicae Sinensisis (RAS is one of the most popular traditional Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, six RAS extracts (i.e., phenolic extract PE, petroleum ether extract PEE, ethyl acetate extract EAE, absolute ethanol extract AEE, 95% ethanol extract 95 EE, and water extract WE were prepared and their antioxidant activities measured by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt], Reducing power, •O2– and lipid peroxidation assays. In general, PE, PEE and EAE had relatively high antioxidant activity, followed by AEE with moderate activity, as compared with 95 EE and WE that had low activity. Their phenolic contents (including total phenolic, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, same as below were then determined by HPLC or spectrophotometry. The sequence of phenolic contents was roughly identical with that of antioxidant activity. When the values of 1/IC50 of various antioxidant assays were used to evaluate the level of antioxidant of the RAS extracts, (plot between 1/IC50 values and phenolic contents, the correlation coefficient (R ranged from 0.642 to 0.941, with an average value of 0.839. Significant positive correlations demonstrated that the antioxidant effects of RAS might generally be considered a result of the presence of the phenolic compounds, especially ferulic acid and caffeic acid.

  5. Wound healing effect of Euphorbia hirta linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Begum, Mst Marium; Rahman, Md Sohanur; Karim, Rubaba; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Mostofa, Ronia; Hossain, Amir; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-08-24

    Euphorbia hirta linn., is a species of Euphorbiaceae family. They are known as asthma plant, barokhervi. The plant E. hirta is famous for its medicinal importance among the tribal population. It is a common practice to use the whole to heal wounds. Several pharmacological properties including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antidibetic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant. The aim of present work was to evaluate the wound healing property in diabetic animals by oral and topical administration of ethanolic extract of E. hirta whole plant. The ethanolic extract of E. hirta was subjected to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using galic acid and quercetin, respectively as standard. A single injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) prepared in normal saline was administered to produce diabetes in rats, after overnight fasting. For analyzing the rate of contraction of wound, excision wounds sized 4.90cm2 and of 2 mm depth were used. Oral (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day; p.o.) and topical treatment with the extract (5% and 10% ointment 50 mg/kg/day) and standard (5% povidone iodine ointment 50 mg/kg/day) was started on the day of induction of wound and continued up to 16 days. The means of wound area measurement between groups at different time intervals were compared using ANOVA and Dunnet's test. The diabetic wound healing mechanism was studied by measuring the plasma level of glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in both control and treated groups. For the confirmation of activity, histopathology of the wounds tissues from excision wound model was performed. Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of various phytoconstituents (carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, tannins). In the ethanolic extract of E. hirta the total phenol content was 285

  6. Response surface optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for HPLC-fluorescence determination of puerarin and daidzein in Radix Puerariae thomsonii

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    Ying-Kun Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction was optimized with response surface methodology for HPLC-fluorescence determination of puerarin and daidzein in Radix Puerariae thomsonii. The optimized extraction procedure was achieved by soaking the sample with 70% methanol (1:15, v/v for 30 min, and then microwave irradiation for 11 min at a power of 600 W. Coupling the extraction process with HPLC-fluorescence presented good recovery, satisfactory precision, and good linear relation. Compared with a method from the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the proposed method enables higher extraction efficiency and more aecurate analytical results. It can be of Potential value in quality assessment of Radix Puerariae thomsonii medicinal materials. Keywords: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, response surface methodology (RSM, puerarin, daidzein, HPLC-fluorescence detection, Radix Puerariae thomsonii

  7. Preliminary Investigation of Bioactive Compounds and Bioautographic Studies of Whole Plant Extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    H. B. Sharif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to carry out preliminary investigation of bioactive compounds and bioautographic studies of whole plant extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tukey HSD test of hierarchy for the effect of different solvents crude extract on bacterial isolates indicates the methanol extract as the most bioactive. The Tukey HSD analysis also showed that the bioactivities of the crude extracts of the various parts of Euphorbia pulcherrima were part dependent and the whole plant was the most bioactive. The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia pulcherrima has been shown in this work to contain phytochemicals which have shown remarkable activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bioactivities against the test organisms were due to the combined effects of the compounds separated on TLC plates. Families of terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin, and steroids that were detected in the extracts were identified by GC-MS. The various classes of phytochemicals in the E. pulcherrima plant provided the antimicrobial potency of the plant.

  8. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The effects of wine-processing on ascending and descending: The distribution of flavonoids in rat tissues after oral administration of crude and wine-processed Radix scutellariae.

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    Huang, Ping; Tan, Shanzhong; Zhang, Yong-xin; Li, Jun-song; Chai, Chuan; Li, Jin-ji; Cai, Bao-chang

    2014-08-08

    Ascending and descending theory is a core principle of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theories. It plays an essential role in TCM clinical applications. Some TCM medicine has specific properties, which could alter the inclination and direction of their actions. The properties of the ascending and floating process of one herbal medicine are affected by means of herb processing. Wine-processing, which is sautéing with rice wine, is one of the most popular technologies of herb processing. Wine-processing increases the inclination and direction of its actions, thereby producing or strengthening their efficacy in cleaning the upper-energizer heat. Radix scutellariae, the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a well-known TCM used for the treatment of inflammation, pyrexia, jaundice, etc. Recently, wine-processed Radix scutellariae was normally applied in clinical studies for the treatment of upper-energizer syndrome. In order to investigate the effects of wine-processing on ascending and descending of Radix scutellariae, the comparative study of distribution of flavonoids in rat tissues of triple energizers (SanJiao-upper, middle, lower jiao) after oral administration of crude and wine-processed Radix scutellariae aqueous extracts was carried out. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups and orally administered with crude and wine-processed Radix scutellariae aqueous extracts, respectively. At different pre-determined time points after administration, the concentrations of compounds in rat tissue homogenate were determined, and the main tissue pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. Tissue pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0-t, t1/2, Tmax and Cmax were calculated using DAS 2.0. An unpaired Student t-test was used to compare the differences in tissue pharmacokinetic parameters between the two groups. All the results were expressed as arithmetic mean±S.D. The parameters of Cmax and AUC0-t of some flavonoids in wine-processed Radix

  10. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

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    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Application of bioassay in quality control of Chinese materia medica-taking Radix Isatidis as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Ren, Yongshen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Li, Hanbing; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay, which construct the characteristics consistents with Chinese medical science, is the core mode and methods for the quality control of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Radix Isatidis as an example, the contribution, status and application of bioassay in the quality control of Chinese materia medica were introduced in this article, and two key issue (the selection of reference and measurement methods) in the process of establishing bioassay were also explained. This article expects to provide a reference for the development and improvement of the bioassay of Chinese materia medica in a practical manipulation level.

  12. Extraction matrine from Radix Sopheorae Tonkinensis by non-supported liquid membrane extraction technology

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    Zhifeng Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (NSLME is a new development extraction technology based on Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (SLME. Sample extraction assembly is composed of three phases: an acceptor phase: phosphate–sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution at the bottom; an organic phase: chloroform applied as the non-supported liquid membrane in the middle layer; and a donor phase: aqueous solution samples containing alkaloids in the upper layer. The whole system is maintained stable by density difference among the three layers that avoided the mutual interferences. The alkaloid in the donor phase can spread to the underlying acidic acceptor phase, where it is able to form water soluble salt in the acid environment, and thus cannot return to the middle organic phase. Therefore, the transmission of alkaloid is a one-way path, and the extraction of alkaloids can be achieved and enriched. In this study, the extraction of alkaloid was carried out by using matrine aqueous solution as the donor phase, and the extraction quantity and efficiency were investigated by GC/MS. This study evaluated the relationship between extracted quantity and extraction time. The effects of extraction temperature, membrane thickness, pH value of acceptor phase on extraction quantity and efficiency were also studied, and the optimal extraction condition was found. The extracted quantity achieved the largest amount at 45 °C when pure phosphoric acid was applied as the acceptor phase; the organic solvent volume was 0.2 mL. The extraction of alkaloid from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis was performed under the optimized condition. The extraction rate of matrine was up to 54% after a four-hour extraction. A huge advantage of NSLME technology is that the extracted alkaloid enjoyed high purity compared with that extracted by the traditional Liquid–Liquid Extraction (LLE.

  13. Radix natalensis: the effect of Fasciola hepatica infection on the reproductive activity of the snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Yasser; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis (shell height at miracidial exposure: 4 mm) with a French isolate of Fasciola hepatica were carried out under laboratory conditions at 22 °C to specify the characteristics and follow the dynamics of their egg-laying. Controls constituted unexposed R. natalensis of the same size. No significant difference between controls and the uninfected snails of the exposed group was noted, whatever the parameter considered. In controls and exposed snails, the dates of the first egg masses were close to each other (56.4–65.3 days). In contrast, the life span of snails and the length of the egg-laying period were significantly shorter and egg production was significantly lower in infected R. natalensis than in controls and uninfected snails. In infected R. natalensis, but without cercarial shedding (NCS snails), egg production was irregular throughout the egg-laying period. In cercarial-shedding (CS) snails, the first egg masses were laid before the first cercarial emergence (at a mean of 56 days and 67 days, respectively). Thereafter, egg mass production of CS snails was irregular up to day 72 of the experiment, stopped during the following two weeks and started again after day 88 for a single snail. In conclusion, the F. hepatica infection of R. natalensis reduced the reproductive activity in both NCS and CS snails. The pattern noted for egg production in infected R. natalensis seems to be species-specific because of the high shell size of this lymnaeid and its role as an atypical intermediate host in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:24871866

  14. Integrated work-flow for quantitative metabolome profiling of plants, Peucedani Radix as a case.

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    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Liu, Yao; Li, Jun; Wan, Jian-Bo; Wang, Yitao; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-02-08

    Universal acquisition of reliable information regarding the qualitative and quantitative properties of complicated matrices is the premise for the success of metabolomics study. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now serving as a workhorse for metabolomics; however, LC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomics is suffering from some shortcomings, even some cutting-edge techniques have been introduced. Aiming to tackle, to some extent, the drawbacks of the conventional approaches, such as redundant information, detector saturation, low sensitivity, and inconstant signal number among different runs, herein, a novel and flexible work-flow consisting of three progressive steps was proposed to profile in depth the quantitative metabolome of plants. The roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn (Peucedani Radix, PR) that are rich in various coumarin isomers, were employed as a case study to verify the applicability. First, offline two dimensional LC-MS was utilized for in-depth detection of metabolites in a pooled PR extract namely universal metabolome standard (UMS). Second, mass fragmentation rules, notably concerning angular-type pyranocoumarins that are the primary chemical homologues in PR, and available databases were integrated for signal assignment and structural annotation. Third, optimum collision energy (OCE) as well as ion transition for multiple monitoring reaction measurement was online optimized with a reference compound-free strategy for each annotated component and large-scale relative quantification of all annotated components was accomplished by plotting calibration curves via serially diluting UMS. It is worthwhile to highlight that the potential of OCE for isomer discrimination was described and the linearity ranges of those primary ingredients were extended by suppressing their responses. The integrated workflow is expected to be qualified as a promising pipeline to clarify the quantitative metabolome of plants because it could not only

  15. Isolation and characterization of bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix

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    Jyotchna Gogoi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to isolate and characterize bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix (紫茉莉根 zǐ mò lì gēn. Thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of spots from fractions of the crude extract. Separated spots were collected for identification of their activities. Free-radical scavenging activity was evaluated by spraying thin-layer chromatography plates (spotted with fractions with 0.2% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl solution. Activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were determined using the agar diffusion method. Potential spots were subjected to infrared (IR analysis and gas chromatography for characterization. Two spots (5F1 and 1F3 showed free-radical scavenging activity. The 1F3 spot was active against both S. aureus and C. albicans, whereas the 5F1 spot was active against S. aureus only. IR spectral analysis indicated that 5F1 spot to be a triterpenoid. Using IR spectral analysis and an IR library search, the 1F3 spot was identified to be a flavone, which may have a hydroxyl group in ring “A” of the flavone nucleus. Our results indicated that the 1F3 and 5F1 spots are potential free-radical scavengers. Both 1F3 and 5F1 exhibited antimicrobial activity. IR spectral analysis coupled with an IR library search indicated 1F3 and 5F1 to be a flavone and a triterpenoid, respectively.

  16. Quality Control of Valerianae Radix by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad-Langerodi, Ramin; Arth, Katharina; Klatte-Asselmeyer, Valerie; Bressler, Sabine; Saukel, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dobeš, Christoph

    2017-11-09

    (Acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content are important quality attributes of pharmacy grade valerian root (Valerianae radix). Traditional analysis of these quantities is time-consuming and necessitates (harmful) solvents. Here we investigated an application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for extractionless analysis of these quality attributes on a representative sample comprising 260 wild-crafted individuals covering the Central European taxonomic diversity of the Valeriana officinalis L. s. l. species aggregate with its three major ploidy cytotypes (i.e., di-, tetra- and octoploid). Calibration models were built by orthogonal partial least squares regression for quantitative analysis of (acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content. For the latter, we propose a simplistic protocol involving apolar extraction followed by gas chromatography as a reference method for multivariate calibration in order to handle the analysis of samples taken from individual plants. We found good predictive ability of chemometric models for quantification of valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid, total sesquiterpenoid acid, and essential oil content with a root mean squared error of cross-validation of 0.064, 0.043, and 0.09 and root mean squared error of prediction of 0.066, 0.057, and 0.09 (% content), respectively. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed good discriminability between the most productive phenotype (i.e., the octoploid cytotype) in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids, and the less productive ones (i.e., di- and tetraploid). All in all, our results demonstrate the application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for rapid, extractionless estimation of the most important quality attributes of valerian root and minimally invasive identification of the most productive phenotype in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New

  17. Rapid Determination of 30 Polyphenols in Tongmai Formula, a Combination of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma, via Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xin-Bao; Liu, Chun-Xu; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Xu, Wei; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2017-03-29

    Tongmai formula (TMF) is a herbal preparation composed of three traditional Chinese medicinal materials: Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong). It has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases for decades. To develop a reliable and convenient analytical method for a comprehensive determination of polyphenols in TMF and the ascertainment of their chemical correlations with its herbal components, a method combining high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for rapid determination of 30 polyphenols in TMF and its three herbal components. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Chromolith Fastgradient RP-18 endcapped 50-2 column using an optimized gradient elution. Statistical analysis of obtained data demonstrated that the method had a desirable linearity, precision, and accuracy, as well as excellent sensitivity. The obtained results indicated that, among the 30 polyphenols in TMF, 22 originated from Gegen, 6 originated from Danshen, and 2 originated from Chuanxiong. The major polyphenols in TMF have been identified as puerarin, mirificin, salvianolic acid B, salvianic acid A, 3'-hydroxypuerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, and salvianolic acid A, with a combined contribution of 19.2% of the preparation. The development and validation of this method will greatly facilitate future pharmacological studies of TMF and its herbal components, as well as polyphenols in cardiovascular therapies.

  18. Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS

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    Gang Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma.

  19. The crude latex of Euphorbia tirucalli modulates the cytokine response of leukocytes, especially CD4+ T lymphocytes

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    Bethânia A. Avelar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The plants of the Euphorbiaceae family, especially those of the genus Euphorbia, are frequently used by Brazilian folk communities to treat a wide variety of infectious, tumoral and inflammatory illnesses. Among the species of this genus, Euphorbia tirucalli L. is widely used in some Brazilian regions, such as the Jequitinhonha River Valley. There is evidence that the latex produced by E. tirucalli has antiviral and antitumor activities, but little is known about the mechanisms involved in these effects. It is likely that the mechanism for such activities involves leukocyte activation and cytokine production. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the production of type 1 (TNF-α and IFN-γ and type 2 (IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines by circulating leukocyte subsets submitted to brief stimulation with the crude latex of E. tirucalli. Peripheral blood leukocytes of twenty healthy subjects were submitted to 4 h incubation with crude E. tirucalli latex diluted in dimethylsulfoxide. After the incubation period, the cells were stained with FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific to the cell surface receptors CD4, CD8 and CD14, and to PE-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific to the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. The acquisition and analysis of data were performed by flow cytometry. The results showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes positive for the type 1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ. Neutrophils and CD8+ T lymphocytes showed a mixed profile of cytokine production, characterized by an increase in the percentage of cells expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10. The data indicate a predominant type 1 cytokine response. The findings presented suggest that the effect popularly attributed to E. tirucalli usage may be attributed to its effect on the production of TNF-α and IFN-γ. However, the relationship between the in vitro and in vivo effects of E. tirucalli needs to be investigated.

  20. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

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    Jie Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (RB, also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic.

  1. [Quantitative analysis of eight polyacetylenes derived from Bupleuri Radix by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Fang, Yuan; Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Tian, Jun-Sheng; Qin, Xue-Mei; Gao, Xiao-Xia

    2017-05-01

    To establish quantitative methods for determination of polyacetylenes in Bupleuri Radix, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA) was developed. The analysis was performed on a Waters BEH C₁₈ column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) using a gradient system of methanol and water. The flow rate was 0.3 mL•min⁻¹ and the detection wavelength was 315 nm. Eight polyacetylenes were prepared using traditional extraction and isolation method, of which compounds 7 and 8 were two new polyacetylenes. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.999 0) within the concentration range. Both the intra- and inter-day precisions for eight analytes were less than 1.9%, respectively, with the mean recovery at the range of 93.21%-108.4%. Meanwhile, 17 bupleurum samples were examined with this process. The results showed a variety either the chemotaxonomic or content of polyacetylenes. The method indicated good linearity, limit of detection and quantification, precision, accuracy and recovery. The developed method allows quantitative assessment and quality control of polyacetylenes, and might be a good alternative according to detection levels in polyacetylenes from Bupleurum Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Ultrasonic cell grinder extraction of anthraquinones from radix et rhizoma Rhei and determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Ying; Qi, Huan-Yang; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2010-06-01

    An ultrasonic cell grinder extraction (UCGE) method has been developed and applied to extract five anthraquinones (physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, and aloe-emodin) from radix et rhizoma Rhei. Several parameters of UCGE procedure, including ultrasonic cell grinder running mode, type and volume of extraction solvent and extraction time, were optimized. The determination was preformed on a Waters ultra-performance LC BEH C(18) column using gradient elution system. A baseline separation could be achieved in less than 7.5 min with high resolution. Under the optimized conditions, contents of physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein and aloe-emodin in radix et rhizoma Rhei collected from different cultivated areas were 0-4.22, 0.11-27.64, 0.09-3.49, 0.31-3.31 and 0.13-2.93 mg/g, respectively. Compared with reflux, maceration and ultrasonic bath extractions, the UCGE method was more efficient, faster and easier to be operated, and required lower extraction temperature and less solvent. The results indicated that UCGE was a novel and ideal method for extracting bioactive constituents from plant samples.

  3. Deciphering the Differential Effective and Toxic Responses of Bupleuri Radix following the Induction of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress and in Healthy Rats Based on Serum Metabolic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxia; Liang, Meili; Fang, Yuan; Zhao, Fang; Tian, Junsheng; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Xuemei

    2018-01-01

    The petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix which is contained in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription of Xiaoyaosan (XYS) may have a therapeutic effect in depressed subjects based on the results of our previous study. It has been reported that Bupleuri Radix can cause liver toxicity following overdosing or long-term use. Therefore, this study aimed to decipher the differential effective and toxic responses of Bupleuri Radix in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) (with depression) and healthy rats based on serum metabolic profiles. Serum metabolic profiles were obtained using the UHPLC- Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS technique. Our results demonstrated that the petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix (PBR) produces an antidepressant effect through regulating glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. It also induces more severe toxic reactions in the liver or kidney in healthy rats than in CUMS rats, which exhibited a comparatively mild drug-induced toxic reaction. The altered lysine degradation, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism could be at least partly responsible for the PBR toxic responses in healthy rats. The differential effective and toxic response of PBR in CUMS rats and healthy rats provide a new standard for the more rational and safer application of clinical drugs in the future. PMID:29379441

  4. Deciphering the Differential Effective and Toxic Responses of Bupleuri Radix following the Induction of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress and in Healthy Rats Based on Serum Metabolic Profiles

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    Xiaoxia Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix which is contained in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription of Xiaoyaosan (XYS may have a therapeutic effect in depressed subjects based on the results of our previous study. It has been reported that Bupleuri Radix can cause liver toxicity following overdosing or long-term use. Therefore, this study aimed to decipher the differential effective and toxic responses of Bupleuri Radix in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS (with depression and healthy rats based on serum metabolic profiles. Serum metabolic profiles were obtained using the UHPLC- Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS technique. Our results demonstrated that the petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix (PBR produces an antidepressant effect through regulating glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. It also induces more severe toxic reactions in the liver or kidney in healthy rats than in CUMS rats, which exhibited a comparatively mild drug-induced toxic reaction. The altered lysine degradation, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism could be at least partly responsible for the PBR toxic responses in healthy rats. The differential effective and toxic response of PBR in CUMS rats and healthy rats provide a new standard for the more rational and safer application of clinical drugs in the future.

  5. Anti-proliferation activity of terpenoids isolated from Euphorbia kansui in human cancer cells and their structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin-Jun; Shen, Yao; Yang, Zhou; Fang, Lin; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yao, Shuai; Long, Hua-Li; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-10-01

    Euphorbia kansui is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of edema, pleural effusion, and asthma, etc. According to the previous researches, terpenoids in E. kansui possess various biological activities, e.g., anti-virus, anti-allergy, antitumor effects. In this work, twenty five terpenoids were isolated from E. kansui, including thirteen ingenane- and eight jatrophane-type diterpenoids (with two new compounds, kansuinin P and Q) and four triterpenoids. Eighteen of them were analyzed by MTS assay for in vitro anticancer activity in five human cancer cell lines. Structure-activity relationship for 12 ingenane-type diterpenoids in colorectal cancer Colo205 cells were preliminary studied. Significant anti-proliferation activities were observed in human melanoma cells breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells and Colo205 cells. More than half of the isolated ingenane-type diterpenoids showed inhibitory activities in MDA-MB-435 cells. Eight ingenane- and one jatrophane-type diterpenoids possessed much lower IC50 values in MDA-MB-435 cells than positive control staurosporine. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis showed that substituent on position 20 was important for the activity of ingenane-type diterpenoids in Colo205 cells and substituent on position 3 contributed more significant biological activity of the compounds than that on position 5 in both MDA-MB-435 and Colo205 cells. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple forms of endo-1,4-beta-glucanases in the endosperm of Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Cecilia N K; Giorgini, Jarbas F

    2003-09-01

    Germinating seeds of Euphorbia heterophylla L. contain endo-1,4-beta-glucanases which degrade carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The activity decreased approximately 66% in extracts of endosperm containing isopropanol or ethanol. The endoglucanases were isolated from endosperm extracts using ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by Sephacryl S-100-HR chromatography resulting in two main peaks: I and II. Peak I endoglucanase was further purified about 15-fold on DEAE-Sephadex A50 and then by affinity chromatography (CF11-cellulose). Peak II endoglucanases were further purified 10-fold on CM-cellulose chromatography. The results indicated the occurrence of a 66 kDa endoglucanase (fractionated by SDS-PAGE and visualized by activity staining using Congo Red). Several acidic (pI 3.0 to 5.7) and basic (pI 8.5 to 10.0) forms from both peaks which differed in their capacities for degrading CMC or xyloglucans from Copaifera langsdorffii or Hymenaea courbaril were detected.

  7. Projection pursuit nonparametric regression applied to field counts of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on tomato crops in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, R; Lapchin, L

    2002-04-01

    The number of plants that sampling requires in aphid population studies often exceeds one hundred. Thus, only quick and nondestructive methods can be used to sample this pest in a reasonable time interval. We propose a visual method for estimating the density of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) on tomato plants reared in greenhouses. After approximately 1min of visual observation plants can be assigned to abundance classes, the boundaries of which are roughly the powers of square root 10. Precise counts were collected simultaneously on sets of reference plants from the same greenhouse. Projection pursuit nonparametric regression was then used to provide unbiased estimates of aphid densities from the abundance classes and several easily gathered explanatory variables. The robustness of the method was evaluated by testing the models on the complementary data sets from plants in which the aphid densities were precisely counted. In both single and twin-row cultural conditions, for the reference and complementary data sets, the order of magnitude of the error was less than one class rank per plant. The investigation time was reduced by approximately 10-fold compared with the exact counting method. This easy-to-teach field method could be useful in large-scale population surveys and for optimizing integrated pest management strategies.

  8. Propiedad molusquicida de Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra Biomphalaria glabrata Say hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma mansoni

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    José Ángel Mogollón-Morales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, los caracoles de Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae son hospedadores intermediarios del parasito Schistosoma mansoni, agentes causantes de la schistosomiasis, una parasitosis que afecta a millones de personas en el mundo. El presente trabajo evalúa el papel de la especie Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra B. glabrata. La actividad molusquicida se evaluó de acuerdo a los parámetros sugeridos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se utilizaron caracoles de B. glabrata criados en el laboratorio. Se realizaron diferentes bioensayos utilizando extractos metanólico crudo, en n-hexano, en acetato de etilo y en metanol de las partes aéreas de E. laurifolia a diferentes concentraciones. Los resultados demostraron que esta especie posee una potente actividad letal con todos los extractos estudiados contra caracoles de B. glabrata, considerándose el mejor el extracto de acetato de etilo, el cual presentó una DL50 de 5,57 ppm.

  9. Euphorbia tirucalli L.-comprehensive characterization of a drought tolerant plant with a potential as biofuel source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Rina Hastilestari

    Full Text Available Of late, decrease in mineral oil supplies has stimulated research on use of biomass as an alternative energy source. Climate change has brought problems such as increased drought and erratic rains. This, together with a rise in land degeneration problems with concomitant loss in soil fertility has inspired the scientific world to look for alternative bio-energy species. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a tree with C3/CAM metabolism in leaves/stem, can be cultivated on marginal, arid land and could be a good alternative source of biofuel. We analyzed a broad variety of E. tirucalli plants collected from different countries for their genetic diversity using AFLP. Physiological responses to induced drought stress were determined in a number of genotypes by monitoring growth parameters and influence on photosynthesis. For future breeding of economically interesting genotypes, rubber content and biogas production were quantified. Cluster analysis shows that the studied genotypes are divided into two groups, African and mostly non-African genotypes. Different genotypes respond significantly different to various levels of water. Malate measurement indicates that there is induction of CAM in leaves following drought stress. Rubber content varies strongly between genotypes. An investigation of the biogas production capacities of six E. tirucalli genotypes reveals biogas yields higher than from rapeseed but lower than maize silage.

  10. Phylogenetics of the Chamaesyce clade (Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae): reticulate evolution and long-distance dispersal in a prominent C4 lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Berry, Paul E

    2011-09-01

    The Chamaesyce clade of Euphorbia is the largest lineage of C(4) plants among the eudicots, with 350 species including both narrow endemics and cosmopolitan weeds. We sampled this group worldwide to address questions about subclade relationships, the origin of C(4) photosynthesis, the evolution of weeds, and the role of hybridization and long-distance dispersal in the diversification of the group. • Two nuclear (ITS and exon 9 of EMB2765) and three chloroplast markers (matK, rpl16, and trnL-F) were sequenced for 138 ingroup and six outgroup species. Exon 9 of EMB2765 was cloned in accessions with >1% superimposed peaks. • The Chamaesyce clade is monophyletic and consists of three major subclades [1(2,3)]: (1) the Acuta clade, containing three North American species with C(3) photosynthesis and C(3)-C(4) intermediates; (2) the Peplis clade, mostly North American and entirely C(4); and (3) the Hypericifolia clade, all C(4), with both New World and Old World groups. Incongruence between chloroplast and ITS phylogenies and divergent cloned copies of EMB2765 exon 9 suggest extensive hybridization, especially in the Hawaiian Islands radiation. • The Chamaesyce clade originated in warm, arid areas of North America, where it evolved C(4) photosynthesis. From there, it diversified globally with extensive reticulate evolution and frequent long-distance dispersals. Although many species are weedy, there are numerous local adaptations to specific substrates and regional or island radiations, which have contributed to the great diversity of this group.

  11. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bauer

    Full Text Available Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  12. Estudo botânico, fitoquímico e fisico-químico de Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae

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    M.V. Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia hirta L., popularmente conhecida por erva andorinha, tem sido utilizada no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios e como antiespasmódico. Esse trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas, caule e raiz dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó obtido da planta inteira, parte essa utilizada na fitoterapia Ayuverda. Na prospecção fitoquímica foram encontrados flavonóides, mucilagem, resinas e cumarinas. Na determinação do teor de água, de cinzas totais e de cinzas insolúveis em ácido, os valores encontrados foram 8,99%, 9,35%, 0,75%, respectivamente. Com o desenvolvimento deste trabalho foi possível obter parâmetros para o controle de qualidade das folhas, caule e raízes de E. hirta.

  13. The use of Euphorbia falcata extract as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Bribri, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Bioorganique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Tabyaoui, M., E-mail: hamidtabyaoui@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Bioorganique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Laboratoire des Matériaux, Nanoparticules et Environnement, Université Mohamed V Agdal, Faculté des Sciences, 4 Av. Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014 RP, M-10000 Rabat (Morocco); Tabyaoui, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Bioorganique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); El Attari, H.; Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Catalyse et de Corrosion des Matériaux (LCCM), Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco)

    2013-08-15

    Euphorbia falcata L. extract (EFE) was investigated as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 M HCl using gravimetric, ac impedance, polarization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The experimental results show that EFE is good corrosion inhibitor and the protection efficiency is increased with the EEF concentration. The results obtained from weight loss and ac impedance studies were in reasonable agreement. Impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Polarization curves indicated that EFE is a mixed inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of EFE molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption of the E. falcata extract was well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG{sub ads}{sup o} value showed that the corrosion inhibition of the carbon steel in 1 M HCl is mainly controlled by a physisorption process. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • EFE is a good eco-friendly inhibitor for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl. • EFE acts as mixed-type inhibitor in 1 M HCl medium. • Weight loss, ac impedance and polarization methods are in reasonable agreement. • The adsorption of EFE is well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  14. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klein, Marie-Christin; Nellesen, Anke; von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  15. Extracts of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) demonstrate activities against Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attah, Simon K; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F; Sittie, Archibald A; Oppong, Isaac V; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2013-03-18

    Onchocerciasis transmitted by Onchocerca volvulus is the second major cause of blindness in the world and it impacts negatively on the socio-economic development of the communities affected. Currently, ivermectin, a microfilaricidal drug is the only drug recommended for treating this disease. There have been speculations, of late, concerning O. volvulus resistance to ivermectin. Owing to this, it has become imperative to search for new drugs. World-wide, ethnomedicines including extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Rauvolfia vomitoria are used for treating various diseases, both infectious and non-infectious. In this study extracts of the two plants were evaluated in vitro in order to determine their effect against O. volvulus microfilariae. The toxicity of the E. hirta extracts on monkey kidney cell (LLCMK2) lines was also determined. The investigations showed that extracts of both plants immobilised microfilariae at different levels in vitro and, therefore, possess antifilarial properties. It was found that all the E. hirta extracts with the exception of the hexane extracts were more effective than those of R. vomitoria. Among the extracts of E. hirta the ethyl acetate fraction was most effective, and comparable to that of dimethanesulphonate salt but higher than that of Melarsoprol (Mel B). However, the crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta was found to be the least toxic to the LLCMK2 compared to the fractionated forms. Extracts from both plants possess antifilarial properties; however, the crude extract of E. hirta was found to be least toxic to LLCMK2.

  16. Differential effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chishao on cytokine and chemokine expression inducible by mycobacteria

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    Li James

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon initial infection with mycobacteria, macrophages secrete multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, to mediate host immune responses against the pathogen. Mycobacteria also induce the production of IL-10 via PKR activation in primary human monocytes and macrophages. As an anti-inflammatory cytokine, over-expression of IL-10 may contribute to mycobacterial evasion of the host immunity. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR, Chishao, a Chinese medicinal herb with potentials of anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects, is used to treat tuberculosis. This study investigates the immunoregulatory effects of RPR on primary human blood macrophages (PBMac during mycobacterial infection. Methods The interaction of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG with PBMac was used as an experimental model. A series of procedures involving solvent extraction and fractionation were used to isolate bioactive constituents in RPR. RPR-EA-S1, a fraction with potent immunoregulatory effects was obtained with a bioactivity guided fractionation scheme. PBMac were treated with crude RPR extracts or RPR-EA-S1 before BCG stimulation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured by qPCR and ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the effects of RPR-EA-S1 on signaling kinases and transcriptional factors in the BCG-activated PBMac. Results In BCG-stimulated macrophages, crude RPR extracts and fraction RPR-EA-S1 specifically inhibited IL-10 production while enhanced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels without affecting the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Inhibition of BCG-induced IL-10 expression by RPR-EA-S1 occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RPR-EA-S1 did not affect the phosphorylation of cellular protein kinases including MAPK, Akt and GSK3β. Instead, it suppressed the degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm and inhibited the

  17. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies de Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso-Neto,I.S; Bessa,E.A; Soares,G.L.G

    2010-01-01

    Gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres podem atuar como hospedeiros intermediários de helmintos. Os primeiros registros do controle químico desses invertebrados datam do início do século XX e as substâncias utilizadas eram toxinas inespecíficas já empregadas no controle de outras pragas. Moluscicidas sintéticos apresentam limitações técnicas que estimularam a busca de substitutos naturais. Dentre as várias espécies vegetais com atividade moluscicida, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des M...

  18. Interaction between the New World begomovirus Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus and its associated alphasatellite: effects on infection and transmission by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Talita Bernardon; Mendes, Igor Rodrigues; Lau, Douglas; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Alves, Murilo Siqueira; Murilo Zerbini, F

    2017-06-01

    The majority of Old World monopartite begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are associated with satellite DNAs. Alphasatellites are capable of autonomous replication, but depend on the helper virus for movement, encapsidation and transmission by the insect vector. Recently, Euphorbia yellow mosaic alphasatellite (EuYMA) was found in association with Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus (EuYMV) infecting Euphorbia heterophylla plants in Brazil. The geographical range of EuYMA was assessed in a representative sampling of E. heterophylla plants collected in several states of Brazil from 2009 to 2014. Infectious clones were generated and used to assess the phenotype of viral infection in the presence or absence of the alphasatellite in tomato, E. heterophylla, Nicotiana benthamiana, Arabidopsis thaliana and Crotalaria juncea. Phenotypic differences of EuYMV infection in the presence or absence of EuYMA were observed in A. thaliana, N. benthamiana and E. heterophylla. Symptoms were more severe when EuYMV was inoculated in combination with EuYMA in N. benthamiana and E. heterophylla, and the presence of the alphasatellite was determinant for symptom development in A. thaliana. Quantification of EuYMV and EuYMA indicated that EuYMA affects the accumulation of EuYMV during infection on a host-dependent basis. Transmission assays indicated that EuYMA negatively affects the transmission of EuYMV by Bemisia tabaci MEAM1. Together, these results indicate that EuYMA is capable of modulating symptoms, viral accumulation and whitefly transmission of EuYMV, potentially interfering with virus dissemination in the field.

  19. Aplicação do fomesafen via água de irrigação por aspersão no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Application of fomesafen via overhead sprinkler irrigation for the control of Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.A. Ruas

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de herbicidas via água de irrigação (herbigação por aspersão, especialmente por pivô central, vem crescendo no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a eficácia de doses de fomesafen aplicado via água de irrigação por aspersão no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. Os tratamentos foram dispostos no esquema fatorial (4 x 3 x 2 + 3, sendo quatro doses do fomesafen (60, 120, 180 e 240 g ha-1, três estádios de desenvolvimento de E. heterophylla (1, 7 e 14 dias após a emergência - DAE, dois métodos de aplicação (pulverização e herbigação e testemunhas sem herbicida (uma para cada estádio de desenvolvimento da planta daninha. Foi empregado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Cada unidade experimental constou de um vaso com 4,0 L de solo, onde foram distribuídas 50 sementes dessa planta daninha. A pulverização foi feita com 200 L ha-1 de calda; na herbigação foi usada lâmina de água de 4,72 mm, aplicada por simulador de irrigação. E. heterophylla foi mais suscetível ao fomesafen com 1 DAE. Neste estádio, a herbigação controlou-a melhor que a pulverização nas doses de 180 e 240 g ha-1. Na aplicação aos 7 DAE, geralmente a pulverização foi mais eficaz que a herbigação, mas o controle da planta daninha não foi satisfatório. Aplicado com 14 DAE, o herbicida, independentemente da dose e do método de aplicação, proporcionou controle pobre ou nenhum.Herbicide application via irrigation water (herbigation has been increasingly used in Brazil, mainly through center pivot. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of fomesafen rates applied via overhead sprinkler irrigation for the control of Euphorbia heterophylla. A (4 x 3 x 2 + 3 factorial experiment was used consisting of: fomesafen rates (60, 120, 180, and 240 g ha-1, weed development stages (1, 7, and 14 days after emergence - DAE, application methods (spray and herbigation and checks that did

  20. Herança da resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS em biótipos da planta daninha Euphorbia heterophylla Inheritance of ALS inhibitor resistance in Euphorbia heterophylla weed biotypes

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    L. Vargas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas inibidores da ALS são os principais produtos aplicados para o controle da planta daninha amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia herterophylla em lavouras de soja; no entanto, já foram identificados biótipos desta planta daninha resistentes a estes herbicidas no Brasil. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a herança, o número de genes que conferem a resistência e o grau de resistência dos biótipos homozigotos e heterozigotos resistentes. Foram realizados cruzamentos recíprocos entre os genitores suscetíveis e resistentes para obtenção de sementes F1 e, posteriormente, realizaram-se os retrocruzamentos (RC com os genitores resistente (R e suscetível (S. Plantas F1 foram autofecundadas artificialmente para obtenção da geração F2. As plantas F1, F2, RCr e RCs e dos genitores foram tratadas com o herbicida imazethapyr (150 g ha-1. Para avaliar o grau de resistência, plantas F1 e os genitores resistente e suscetível foram tratados com as doses de imazethapyr de 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 e 1.600 g ha-1. As plantas F1 mostraram-se totalmente resistentes ao herbicida, demonstrando que a resistência é nuclear e dominante. As plantas F2 apresentaram alta probabilidade para segregação 3:1, indicando que a resistência é codificada por um gene dominante. A aplicação de doses de imazethapyr sobre as plantas F1 demonstrou que os biótipos homozigotos resistentes e os heterozigotos apresentam o mesmo grau de resistência para doses de até 1.600 g ha-1 deste herbicida. A resistência é codificada por um gene dominante nuclear com dominância completa.The ALS inhibitor herbicides are the main products applied to control Euphorbia heterophylla in the soybean crop; however, resistant biotypes to these herbicides have been identified in Brazil. This research aimed to study the inheritance, number of genes involved in the resistance and the degree of resistance of the homozygous and heterozygous resistant biotypes. Reciprocal crossings (RSs

  1. Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae

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    Li Winnie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT is one of the simplest. Containing only two herbs, namely Radix Astragali (RA and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS, DBT is traditionally used to treat ailments in women. The weight ratio of RA to RAS in DBT was prescribed to be 5:1 as early as in 1247 AD. In addition to advanced chemical analysis of herbal constituents, DNA genotyping techniques have been developed for reliable standardization of RA and RAS. Chemical evaluation shows that main active constituents in DBT, including astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin and ferulic acid, were most abundant after extraction at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1, whereas other tested RA to RAS ratios only gave sub-optimal levels of the active constituents. Biological evaluation indicates that bioactivities of DBT, e.g. immuno-modulatory, oesteotropic and estrogenic effects are also best exerted at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1. Correlation analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationship between the tested chemical constituents and tested bioactivities. Up- and down-regulation of expression of some genes as potential biomarkers has been detected by using gene chip technology. This systematic approach on the basis of herbal standardization, chemical and biological verification and mechanism studies, as exemplified in this article, will be useful to reveal the complexity of not only DBT but also other Chinese medicine herbal formulae.

  2. Radix Stellariae extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by accelerating energy metabolism

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    Yin Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stellaria dichotoma L. is widely distributed in Ningxia and surrounding areas in northwestern China. Its root, Radix Stellariae (RS, has been used in herbal formulae for treating asthenic-fever, infection, malaria, dyspepsia in children and several other symptoms. This study investigated whether the RS extract (RSE alleviates metabolic disorders. The results indicated that RSE significantly inhibited body weight gain in high-fat (HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice, reduced fasting glucose levels, and improved insulin tolerance. Moreover, RSE increased the body temperature of the mice and the expression of uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the white adipose tissue. Thus, RSE alleviated metabolic disorders in HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice by potentially activating UCP and PPAR signaling.

  3. Protective effect of polysaccharide fractions from Radix A. sinensis against tert-butylhydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingbin; Zhao, Yan; Lv, You; Yang, Ying; Ruan, Yun

    2007-11-30

    Three Angelica sinensis polysaccharide fractions (APFs), named APF1, APF2 and APF3, were isolated and purified from Radix A. sinensis and their antioxidant activities were evaluated in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages by pretreatment with APFs before exposure to 0.2 mM tertbutylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that pretreatment of the macrophages with APFs as low as 10 microg/ml could significantly enhance t-BHP-decreased cell survival, intracellular glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and also inhibited t-BHP-increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation (p APF3 was the most active fraction, followed by APF2 and APF1 in decreasing order. Furthermore, we found for the first time that the bound-protein in APF3 was associated closely with the protective effects and the polysaccharide inhibited the excess NO release from t-BHP-activated macrophages to protect host cells.

  4. Ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix attenuates nociceptive pain probably via inhibition of voltage-dependent Na⁺ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Yuan, Lin; Li, Jun; Huang, Xian-Ju; Chen, Su; Zou, Da-Jiang; Liu, Xiangming; Yang, Xin-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Aconiti Brachypodi Radix, belonging to the genus of Aconitum (Family Ranunculaceae), are used clinically as anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive in traditional medicine of China. However, its mechanism and influence on nociceptive threshold are unknown and need further investigation. The analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix (EABR) were thus studied in vivo and in vitro. Three pain models in mice were used to assess the effect of EABR on nociceptive threshold. In vitro study was conducted to clarify the modulation of the extract on the tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents in rat's dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that EABR (5-20 mg/kg, i.g.) could produce dose-dependent analgesic effect on hot-plate tests as well as writhing response induced by acetic acid. In addition, administration of 2.5-10 mg/kg EABR (i.g.) caused significant decrease in pain responses in the first and second phases of formalin test without altering the PGE₂ production in the hind paw of the mice. Moreover, EABR (10 µg/ml -1 mg/ml) could suppress TTX-S voltage-gated sodium currents in a dose-dependent way, indicating the underlying electrophysiological mechanism of the analgesic effect of the folk plant medicine. Collectively, our results indicated that EABR has analgesic property in three pain models and useful influence on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurons, suggesting that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of EABR on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurones may explain some of its analgesic effect.

  5. The neuritogenic and synaptogenic effects of the ethanolic extract of radix Puerariae in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul; Mohibbullah, Md; Hannan, Md Abdul; Hong, Yong-Ki; Han, Chang-Ho; Kim, Yung Kyu; Moon, Il Soo

    2015-09-15

    Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep, is used in Korean traditional medicine to treat neuronal disorders including Parkinson's disease, and its active constituent, puerarin has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect in experimental models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the neurotrophic effects of these ethnomedicines on the development of central nervous system neurons and the molecular bases of these activities. Rat embryonic (E19) brain neurons were cultured in the absence or presence of the ethanolic extract of Radix Puerariae (RPE) or puerarin. At predetermined times, cells were fixed and immunostained to visualize neuronal morphologies, or lysed for protein harvesting. Morphometric analyses of neurite outgrowths and synaptogenesis were performed using Image J software. RPE or puerarin-mediated changes in the protein profiles of cultured neurons were assessed by MALDI-TOF-MS/PMF and measuring immunofluorescent intensities. RPE and puerarin alone promoted maximum neurite outgrowths at concentrations of 1µg/ml and 5µM, respectively. At these optimal concentrations, RPE and puerarin provided neurotrophic support by promoting axo-dendritic arbors and synapse formation in cultured neurons. Proteomic study revealed that RPE and puerarin both up-regulated a number of proteins, including dynein light chain 2 (DLC2) and elongation factor 2 (EF2), which are associated with neuritogenesis and synaptic potentiation, respectively. Immunofluorescence intensity measurements confirmed the expressions of the DLC2 and Dync1h1 subunits of dynein in RPE or puerarin treated hippocampal neurons were up-regulated when RPE or puerarin induced changes in neuronal cytoarchitecture. Our study demonstrates that RPE and puerarin should be considered potentially valuable preventative therapeutics for brain disorders due to their abilities to promote the neuronal cytoarchitecture and the synaptic functionality

  6. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Grace, James B.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle–leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  7. Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Family: Euphorbiaceae) and Bacillus sphaericus against Anopheles stephensi Liston. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Kovendan, K; Kumar, P Mahesh; Subramaniam, J

    2013-02-01

    To explore the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed against An. stephensi at various concentrations ranging from (75-375 ppm) under the laboratory as well as field conditions. The LC(50) and LC(90) value of the E. hirta leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the methanol extract of E. hirta against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of values LC(50)= 137.40, 172.65, 217.81, 269.37 and 332.39 ppm; B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of values LC(50)= 44.29, 55.83, 68.51, 82.19 and 95.55 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50)= 79.13, 80.42, 86.01, 93.00 and 98.12 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest methanol leaf extracts of E. hirta and B. sphaericus have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malarial vector, An. stephensi as target species of vector control programs. This study provides the first report on the combined mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin against An. stephensi mosquitoes. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioactivity of latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Euphorbiaceae) on post-embryonic development of Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Renata da Silva; Ferreira, Aline Roberta da Silva; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2010-08-27

    Larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) feed on a wide range of decomposing organic matter and present a great importance to public health. This study evaluated the effect of crude latex extract from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Euphorbiaceae) on post-embryonic development time of M. scalaris under laboratory conditions. The latex was used in its crude lyophilized form, dissolved in distilled water and tested in concentrations of 5 microg/mL, 10 microg/mL and 20 microg/mL. The latex was applied with the aid of an automatic pipette (1 microL/larva) on the newly-hatched larvae. Each group (the three concentrations of latex and the control group) was composed of 50 larvae and fed with 25mg of decomposing horse flesh. The experiment was made in quadruplicate. The observations were recorded daily. The data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc-test with a 5% significance level. The post-embryonic development time for all stages (larval, pupal and newly-hatched larvae to adult) tested with all three latex concentrations was significantly shorter than for the control group, but without any significant difference among the different concentrations. The more sensitive stages to the substance were pupal and newly-hatched larvae to adult. The viability was less than 51.5% in the three concentrations of latex in these stages and they were lower than for the control group (67.4% for pupal stage and 64% for newly-hatched larvae to adult). Therefore, it is likely that this substance has influence on the development and viability of these flies and can become a promising agent for insect pest management. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Ingenol Derived from Euphorbia kansui Induces Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Triggering G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Regulating the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway in Vitro

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    Xiaojing Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural product lingenol, a purified diterpenoid compound derived from the root of Euphorbia kansui, exerts serious hepatotoxicity; however, the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In the present study, cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8, inverted phase contrast microscope and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate that lingenol significantly inhibited L-O2 cells proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the results investigated that lingenol markedly disrupted mitochondrial functions by high content screening (HCS. In addition, the up-regulation of cytochrome c, AIF and Apaf-1 and activation of caspases were found in L-O2 cells detected by Western blotting and ELISA assay, which was required for lingenol activation of cytochrome c-mediated caspase cascades and AIF-mediated DNA damage. Mechanistic investigations revealed that lingenol significantly down-regulated the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and enhanced the reactive oxygen species (ROS in L-O2 cells. These data collectively indicated that lingenol modulation of ROS and Bcl-2/Bax ratio led to cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in L-O2 cells in vitro. All of these results will be helpful to reveal the hepatotoxicity mechanism of Euphorbia kansui and to effectively guide safer and better clinical application of this herb.

  10. Development of a Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction Combined with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS for Determination of Phenolics and Terpenoids from the Euphorbia fischeriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Lin, Yu; Wang, Yuchun; Hong, Bo

    2017-09-11

    A method based on a simplified extraction by matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) determination is validated for analysis of two phenolics and three terpenoids in Euphorbia fischeriana. The optimized experimental parameters of MSPD including dispersing sorbent (silica gel), ratio of sample to dispersing sorbent (1:2), elution solvent (water-ethanol: 30-70) and volume of the elution solvent (10 mL) were examined and set down. The highest extraction yields of chromatogram information and the five compounds were obtained under the optimized conditions. A total of 25 constituents have been identified and five components have been quantified from Euphorbia fischeriana. A linear relationship (r² ≥ 0.9964) between the concentrations and the peak areas of the mixed standard substances were revealed. The average recovery was between 92.4% and 103.2% with RSD values less than 3.45% (n = 5). The extraction yields of two phenolics and three terpenoids obtained by the MSPD were higher than those of traditional reflux and sonication extraction with reduced requirement on sample, solvent and time. In addition, the optimized method will be applied for analyzing terpenoids in other Chinese herbal medicine samples.

  11. Coagulation And Hemagglutination Properties Of The Crude Extract Derived From The Leaves Of Euphorbia Hirta L. Tridax Procumbens L. And Vernonia Cinerea L Less

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    Romeo C. Ongpoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the potential of selected wild grasses from the Philippines as coagulant and typing sera. To do this Euphorbia hirta L. Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L Less aqueous infusions were each subjected to blood components from healthy individuals. The plasma part of the blood was used to test for coagulation where Plasma Clotting Time PCT and Factor VIII screening test were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts. On the other hand the Packed Red Blood Cell part of the blood was used to test for hemagglutination where microscopic and macroscopic evaluations were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts against the blood groups from the ABO system. About this study it was found out that all the wild grasses did not give a comparable coagulation to the commercially available positive control which is Calcium Chloride while Euphorbia hirta L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A and Type B cells Tridax procumbens L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A cell and Vernonia cinerea L Less gave a positive hemagglutination to Type B cells both in macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. The results show that all the wild grasses tested may not be used as a coagulant but all of them may have a potential as a typing sera.

  12. Comparative analysis of essential oils found in Rhizomes Curcumae and Radix Curcumae by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

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    Di-Ya Lü

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the volatile compounds in Rhizomes Curcumae (Ezhu and Radix Curcumae (Yujin was undertaken using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Ultrasonic extraction and GC–MS methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of five sesquiterpenes, namely, α-pinene, β-elemene, curcumol, germacrone and curdione, in Ezhu and Yunjin. Good linearity (r>0.999 and high inter-day precision were observed over the investigated concentration ranges. The validated method was successfully used for the simultaneous determination of five sesquiterpenes in Ezhu and Yujin. The quantitative method can be effectively used to evaluate and monitor the quality of Chinese curcuma in clinical use. Keywords: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Rhizomes Curcumae, Radix Curcumae, Volatile compounds, Quality control

  13. Simultaneous determination of iridoid glycosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides and furfural derivatives in Rehmanniae Radix by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Jie; Zhu, Ling-Ying

    2012-01-01

    spectrometry (HPLC–TQ-MS) was developed. The sample preparation was executed using an optimised ultrasonic method with complete extraction efficiencies of eight analytes. For mass spectrometry, selected ion recording (SIR) scan mode was used to improve the sensitivity and selectivity. The established method......In this study, a sensitive and selective method for simultaneously quantifying eight major components (four iridoid glycosides, three phenethylalcohol glycosides and one furfural derivative) of Rehmanniae Radix by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass...... was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and successfully applied to determine the contents of the eight analytes in different batches of raw and processed Rehmanniae Radix, which confirmed that the established method was reliable and useful for “holistic” quality...

  14. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris and Conservative Post-endodontic Restoration with CAD/CAM Onlay: A Novel Clinical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kanika; De Ataide, Ida De Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan; Alreja, Dalip

    2016-11-01

    This case report describes a novel technique of restoring endodontically treated teeth. Hidden caries causing irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular molar with Radix Entomolaris (RE) was evident. The intact occlusal surface anatomy was duplicated before preparing an access cavity to replicate the original occlusal surface in the post endodontic restoration using (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing) CAD/CAM technique. This report highlights uniquely designed onlay utilizing the benefits of contemporary materials and advanced technology.

  15. [Evolution and characteristics of system,assessing quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, of Dao-di herbs of Astragali Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, He-Ting; Peng, Dai-Yin; Cheng, Ming-En; Zha, Liang-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-05-01

    "Assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials" is a characteristic quality evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine, and it is also the basis of "Rating according to characters and setting the price by the grade" on the market. Astragali Radix was regarded as a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and this paper has carried out herbal textual research on the development and formation of the concept, "assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials", of Astragali Radix. The authentic medicine producing areas of Astragalus in China have experienced a great change, Gansu , Sichuan and adjacent areas before the Tang Dynasty; Shanxi during the Tang and Song Dynasty. The concept, "assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials", of Astragali Radix was formed in the Song and Ming Dynasty and still used today, which described as that the shape is "straight as an arrow"; the texture is "soft as cotton"; the section looks like" gold well and jade hurdle"; it was sweet in taste and has beany flavor. The system, "assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials", of Astragali Radix has undergone the adjustments from "true or false" to "good or bad", advance with the times, pick out the advantages from others and absorb the experience of traditional identification actively. Besides, it always returns to laconism from erudition and was summarized highly. Assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and commodity specifications have the same root, so the former has reference meaning to revise the latter. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Simultaneous determination of four iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides and comparative analysis of Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and their related substitutes by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Zhe-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been frequently used to dispel rheumatism and ease pain. There are four species of Gentiana (G. macrophylla, G. straminea, G. dahurica and G. crassicaulis) recorded as herbal drugs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and two other Gentiana species (G. officinalis and G. siphonantha) are often used as substitutes. Currently, the LC fingerprint comparison among different species and evidence for the equivalent application of these herbs are lacking. To develop an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of four iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides and a comparative study of six species of Gentiana. HPLC analysis was performed on a C(18) column (Phenomenex, 150 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm particle size) with gradient elution using 0.4% aqueous phosphoric acid and methanol at 242 nm. The proposed method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough for simultaneous quantitative evaluation of four iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides (loganic acid, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside) in the six species of Gentiana. Contents of the four marker compounds varied from each other even among the samples from the same species and the LC chromatograms of the six species of Gentiana showed high similarities. he close similarity of LC chromatograms and chemical composition of the four genuine Gentiana species explain their popular usage as Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae in Chinese medicine. By comparing the four genuine Gentiana species, it is suggested that the two substitutes could be used as Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae to relieve the scarcity of resources.

  17. A genetically distinct Schistosoma from Radix luteola from Nepal related to Schistosoma turkestanicum: A phylogenetic study of schistosome and snail host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Ramesh; Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S

    2016-12-01

    During a survey of freshwater snails in the Terai region of southern Nepal, 16 of 2588 specimens of Radix luteola from 4 different habitats were found to be shedding schistosome cercariae. None of the 1411 specimens of Radix acuminata we collected were positive for schistosomes. Analysis of 28S, cox1, 16S and 12S sequences indicated that all the R. luteola-derived schistosomes were genetically very similar to one another and, although unambiguously grouping most closely to the widespread Asian species Schistosoma turkestanicum, were clearly genetically distinct from it. We lack information from other life cycle stages to verify the specific identity of these cercariae, but it is possible they are of Schistosoma bomfordi or Schistosoma dattai, both species previously known only from northern India, the latter species known to infect R. luteola. This study provides sequence evidence for a third genetically distinct lymnaeid-transmitted Schistosoma lineage in Asia (to go along with S. turkestanicum and S. incognitum). As a close relative of S. turkestanicum, it provides the first direct molecular evidence to accompany morphological results from earlier studies for the presence of a S. turkestanicum species group in Asia. It increases to five the number of known or suspected mammalian schistosome species to be present in the Terai region of Nepal. Radix luteola and R. acuminata were identified and differentiated using conchological features and by molecular phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and 16S genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A practical strategy for the characterization of coumarins in Radix Glehniae by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Ye, Min; Liu, Man; Kong, Dezhi; Shi, Rui; Shi, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kerong; Wang, Qiao; Lantong, Zhang

    2010-07-02

    The aim of the present study was to develop a practical method for the characterization of coumarins in Radix Glehniae by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). First, 10 coumarin standards (including two pairs of isomers) were studied, and mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns and elution time rules for the coumarins were found. Then, an extract of Radix Glehniae was analyzed by the combination of two scan modes, i.e., multiple ion monitoring-information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion mode (MIM-IDA-EPI) and precursor scan information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion mode (PREC-IDA-EPI) on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. A total of 41 coumarins were identified on the basis of their mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns. This is the first time that these two scan modes have been combined to characterize chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine. This new method allowed the identification of coumarins in Radix Glehniae in trace amounts. The methodology proposed in this study could be valuable for the structural characterization of coumarins from complex natural and synthetic sources. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Yuan; Teng, Ru-Hsiou; Wang, Meilin; Chen, Pei-Lain; Lin, Mien-Chun; Chao, Chun-Nun; Chiang, Ming-Ko

    2017-01-01

    The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs) and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections. PMID:28757888

  20. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV and JC (JCPyV are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections.

  1. Investigation of the Effect of the Degree of Processing of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Dihuang on Shu Dihuangtan Carbonization Preparation Technology

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    Xianglong Meng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Dihuangtan via stir-frying could increase its homeostasis maintaining and antidiarrheal effects. To ensure these pharmacological functions, the quality of the raw material (processed Rehmanniae Radix must be well controlled. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different degrees of processing and adjuvants on processed Rehmanniae Radix (Shu Dihuang by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC chromatographic fingerprints, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Based on the results from HPLC fingerprints combined with similarity analysis (SA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA the optimum processing method for Shu Dihuang was five cycles of steaming and polishing, which follows the ancient processing theory. The intensity of thermal weight loss rate peaked near 210.33 ± 4.32 °C or 211.33 ± 2.62 °C, which was an important indicator for the degree of processing of Shu Dihuang. A temperature near 290.89 ± 2.51 °C was the upper limit for carbonizing Shu Dihuangtan. FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed that the overall chemical composition of Shu Dihuangtan was affected by both the degree of processing and adjuvant, which are very important for its quality.

  2. Unusual root morphology in second mandibular molar with a radix entomolaris, and comparison between cone-beam computed tomography and digital periapical radiography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, Elisardo; Castelo-Baz, Pablo; De Moor, Roland; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Varela-Patiño, Purificación

    2015-09-22

    Radix entomolaris presents with an unusual morphology and is a rare occurrence. It is mainly observed in mandibular first molars. The incidence varies in different populations but it is far from common. This is especially true for mandibular second molars which possess the lowest prevalence. Some case reports have shown the presence of this finding in mandibular second molars; however, cases of patients of a white background have not been reported. The diagnosis and treatment of an infected radix entomolaris in a mandibular second molar in a 45-year-old white man is presented. The diagnosis was made with standard endodontic techniques. Conventional radiographic imaging was augmented with cone-beam computed tomography scans and three-dimensional images which were constructed with dedicated software. The endodontic treatment was done using accepted endodontic procedures. Clinical and radiographic evidence of healing was seen after a 14-month follow-up. The implications of complex and unpredictable root anatomy are discussed in this report. The clinician should consider the possibility of encountering a mandibular second molar with a radix entomolaris. Cone-beam computed tomography is a useful tool in the diagnosis and improvement of root canal therapy.

  3. Stereospecific Assay of (R- and (S-Goitrin in Commercial Formulation of Radix Isatidis by Reversed Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

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    Lixing Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix isatidis (Banlangen is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for treating fever and removing toxic heat. Pharmacological studies have indicated that (R-goitrin (epigoitrin is one of the main constituents accounting for its antiviral activity, while (S-goitrin (goitrin is known as an antithyroid factor. To better control the quality of radix isatidis and its formulations, it is imperative to enantiomerically determine the contents of R- and S-goitrin. In this study, an enantioselective method based on reversed phase chromatography was developed for the assay of (R, S-goitrin enantiomers. Optimum separation was obtained on an S-Chiral A column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm using methanol/water (30 : 70, v/v as the mobile phase. After validation, the method was applied to quantify the enantiomers in Banlangen granules, which is the most prescribed commercial formulation of radix isatidis. Compared to enantioselective resolution approaches based on normal phase chromatography, the new method could be conveniently performed using regular reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC equipment and was found to be more suitable for the enantioselective quality control of water-extracted and soluble medicines.

  4. Aesthetic comparison of the ideal nasal radix height in brazilians Comparação estética da altura ideal do radix nasal em uma população brasileira

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    Geraldo Augusto Gomes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The harmony of the facial profile is widely influenced by the height and form of the nasal dorsum. A few millimeters can make the lateral view aesthetically more or less pleasing and adequate in a subject's face. Professionals working with facial aesthetics should focus not only on the surgical techniques for proposed outcomes, but also with the subtleties and subjectivity that characterize aesthetic concepts and judgment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective survey to evaluate the preferences of a group of healthcare professionals working with facial aesthetics, a group of fine artists, and lay people about the best nasal radix height; the survey involved comparing 3 different nasal radix heights using computer-altered photographs of women with measurements close to the Caucasian standard. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The lowest position of the nasal radix - close to the height of the pupil - was preferred (53%, followed by the middle position (superior crease of the eye. The highest position, resembling classic Greek statues, was considered the worst. The authors aos evaluated the effect of age, gender, and educational level on the choice of the best and worst female profiles.A harmonia facial da visão de perfil é muito influenciada pela altura e forma do dorso nasal. Poucos milímetros podem determinar as diferenças que tornam o perfil esteticamente agradável e adequado a uma determinada face. Além da discussão a respeito de técnicas cirúrgicas para obter determinados objetivos, os profissionais também precisam se aprofundar nas sutilezas e subjetividades que envolvem o julgamento estético. Com forma de estudo tipo inquérito, o objetivo foi pesquisar a preferência de um grupo de profissionais de saúde que lidam com estética facial, um grupo de artistas e outro de leigos sobre três possíveis variações da altura da raiz do nariz. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Fotografias de mulheres, com medidas muito próximas do modelo caucasiano, foram

  5. Green mediated synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles using Euphorbia Jatropa latex as reducing agent

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    M.S. Geetha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Presently the progress of green chemistry in the synthesis of nanoparticles with the use of plants has engrossed a great attention. This study reports the synthesis of ZnO using latex of Euphorbia Jatropa as reducing agent. As prepared product was characterized by powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS, Rietveld refinement, UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL. The concentration of plant latex plays an important role in controlling the size of the particle and its morphology. PXRD graphs showed the well crystallisation of the particles. The average particle size was calculated using Scherrer equation and advanced Williamson Hall (WH plots. The average particle size was around 15 nm. This result was also supported by SEM and TEM analyses. FTIR shows the characteristic peak of ZnO at 435 cm−1. SEM and TEM micrographs show that the particles were almost hexagonal in nature. EDS of SEM analysis confirmed that the elements are only Zn and O. EDS confirmed purity of ZnO. Atomic states were confirmed by XPS results. Crystal parameters were determined using Rietveld refinement. From UV–Visible spectra average energy gap was calculated which is ∼3.63 eV. PL studies showed UV emission peak at 392 nm and broad band visible emission centred in the range 500–600 nm. The Commission International de I'Eclairage and colour correlated temperature coordinates were estimated for ZnO prepared using 2 ml, 4 ml and 6 ml Jatropa latex. The results indicate that the phosphor may be suitable for white light emitting diode (WLED. The study fruitfully reveals simple, fast, economical and eco friendly method of synthesis of multifunctional ZnO nanoparticles (Nps.

  6. Seletividade de coroa-de-cristo (Euphorbia splendens a diferentes classes de herbicidas para manejo de plantas daninhas em jardinagem.

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    Cleber D. de G. Maciel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a seletividade da coroa-de-cristo (Euphorbia splendes para diferentes classes de herbicidas, três experimentos foram realizados, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Modelo da ESAPP/SP (2001/2002. Os tratamentos do Experimento 1 foram (em e.a. ou i.a.: glyphosate (1,44 kg.ha-1; sulfosate (1,44kg.ha-1; amônio-glufosinato (0,48 kg.ha-1; paraquat (0,60 kg.ha-1; glyphosate + flumioxazin (1,44 + 0,06 kg.ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl (1,44 + 0,06 kg.ha-1 e testemunha. No Experimento 2:carfentrazone-ethyl (0,12 kg.ha-1; 2,4-D (1,30 kg.ha-1; isoxaflutole (0,06 kg.ha-1; nicosulfuron (0,06 kg.ha-1; metsulfuron-methyl (0,0024 kg.ha-1; lactofen (0,180 kg.ha-1; chlorimuron-ethyl (0,02 kg.ha-1; bentazon (1,25 kg.ha-1 e testemunha. No Experimento 3 foram testados: fluazifop-p-butyl (0,25 kg.ha-1; sethoxydim (1,25 kg.ha-1; haloxyfop-methyl (0,06 kg.ha-1; clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (0,11 kg.ha-1; quizalofop-p-ethyl (0,10 kg.ha-1; clethodim (0,12 kg.ha-1; propaquizafop (0,12 kg.ha-1; tepraloxydim (0,40 kg.ha-1; butroxydim (0,10 kg.ha-1 e testemunha. No Experimento 1, nenhum tratamento foi seletivo, causando danos visíveis de fitointoxicação a partir dos 7 dias após aplicação. No Experimento 2, apenas o metsulfuron-methyl apresentou seletividade à coroa-de-cristo, para as folhas e inflorescências; sendo o isoxaflutole, nicosulfuron, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon impróprios apenas no que diz respeito à preservação de flores. No Experimento 3, todos os tratamentos indicaram seletividade à coroa-de-cristo, observando-se apenas injúrias às flores para os herbicidas fluazifop-p-butil e sethoxydim e propaquizafop.

  7. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

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    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas constituem-se na principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja; no entanto, a pressão de seleção causada pelo uso contínuo de produtos com o mesmo mecanismo de ação pode provocar a seleção de biótipos resistentes, como ocorreu com Euphorbia heterophylla L., que se mostrou resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS em áreas dos Estados do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul. Para comprovar possíveis novos casos, bem como alternativas para prevenção e manejo, coletaram-se sementes de plantas de E. heterophylla L., na região de Assis (SP, que sobreviveram a tratamentos, em que esses herbicidas foram sistematicamente aplicados nos últimos anos. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em casa de vegetação, comparando-se o biótipo resistente ao suscetível, quando submetido aos diversos herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. Aplicaram-se quando as plantas encontravam-se no estádio de duas a quatro folhas verdadeiras, nas doses zero, uma, duas, quatro e oito vezes a recomendada. Aos 20 dias após a aplicação, avaliaram-se os parâmetros relativos ao controle e produção de fitomassa epígea visando ao estabelecimento de curvas de doses-resposta, à obtenção dos fatores de resistência com base nos valores da DL50 e GR50, e à verificação da ocorrência de resistência múltipla. O biótipo resistente apresentou diferentes níveis de resistência aos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, demonstrando resistência cruzada aos inibidores da ALS dos grupos das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas. No entanto, foi eficientemente controlado nos tratamentos com fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, glufosinato de amônio (150 g.ha-1 e glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.Herbicides are the main tool for weed control in soybean crop, but the selection pressure attributed to the repeated application of the same herbicides and the same mechanism of action can

  8. Teores de água no solo e eficácia do herbicida glyphosate no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Soil water contents and glyphosate efficacy in controlling Euphorbia heterophylla

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    J.F. Zanatta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em casa de vegetação foi realizado com os objetivos de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glyphosate no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla se desenvolvendo em solo com diferentes teores de água e determinar qual o menor teor de água do solo que não prejudica a ação desse herbicida no controle dessa planta daninha. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6 x 5, sendo seis intervalos entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas e cinco doses de glyphosate (0, 180, 360, 720 e 1.080 g ha-1. Quando as plantas atingiram estádio de três pares de folhas, foram aplicados 10 mm de chuva simulada, conforme tratamento previsto. Ao término do período de simulação de chuva, aplicou-se o herbicida com pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, utilizando-se volume de calda de 120 L ha-1. Aos 7, 20, 34 e 41 dias após aplicação (DAA, foram avaliados o controle (por escala visual e, aos 41 DAA, a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Após análise dos dados, verificou-se que a partir da dose de 720 g ha-1 de glyphosate obteve-se controle satisfatório de E. heterophylla, independentemente do intervalo entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida. Pulverizações de 360 g ha-1 de glyphosate a intervalos menores que 48 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e em solo com teor de água maior que 0,09 cm³ cm-3 não prejudicaram a eficácia do herbicida. A aplicação de 180 g ha-1 de glyphosate a intervalos menores que 12 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e em solo com teor de água superior a 0,14 cm³ cm-3 não afetou a eficácia do herbicida.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate in controlling Euphorbia heterophylla growing under different soil moisture levels and to determine the lowest soil moisture level failing to prevent herbicide effectiveness in controlling this weed

  9. Larval trematode communities in Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in a reservoir system of the Ruhr River

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    Pérez-del-Olmo Ana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of the data available from traditional faunistic approaches to mollusc-trematode systems covering large spatial and/or temporal scales in Europe convinced us that a parasite community approach in well-defined aquatic ecosystems is essential for the substantial advancement of our understanding of the parasite response to anthropogenic pressures in urbanised areas which are typical on a European scale. Here we describe communities of larval trematodes in two lymnaeid species, Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in four man-made interconnected reservoirs of the Ruhr River (Germany focusing on among- and within-reservoir variations in parasite prevalence and component community composition and structure. Results The mature reservoir system on the Ruhr River provides an excellent environment for the development of species-rich and abundant trematode communities in Radix auricularia (12 species and Lymnaea stagnalis (6 species. The lake-adapted R. auricularia dominated numerically over L. stagnalis and played a major role in the trematode transmission in the reservoir system. Both host-parasite systems were dominated by bird parasites (13 out of 15 species characteristic for eutrophic water bodies. In addition to snail size, two environmental variables, the oxygen content and pH of the water, were identified as important determinants of the probability of infection. Between-reservoir comparisons indicated an advanced eutrophication at Baldeneysee and Hengsteysee and the small-scale within-reservoir variations of component communities provided evidence that larval trematodes may have reflected spatial bird aggregations (infection 'hot spots'. Two life history groupings of dominant species, the 'cyprinid' and 'anatid' parasites, that depict two aspects of progressive eutrophication in this mature reservoir system, were identified. Conclusions We conclude that trematode communities in the lake-adapted R. auricularia are

  10. Características morfofisiológicas de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência a diferentes mecanismos de ação herbicida Morphophysiological characteristics of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant to different herbicide action mechanisms

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    M.M Trezzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas é um dos maiores entraves da agricultura mundial. No Brasil, Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL obtém destaque devido ao fato de apresentar resistência a mais de um mecanismo de ação de herbicidas. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de identificar características morfofisiológicas e a adaptabilidade ecológica entre biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e Protox e com resistência apenas a inibidores da ALS e suscetível, oriundos da região sudoeste do Paraná. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação. O delineamento utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As características morfofisiológicas avaliadas foram: matéria seca de folhas+cotilédones, de raízes, de caule+pecíolos e total, estatura, número de ramificações por planta, área foliar e número de folhas por planta. Nas determinações efetuadas mais tardiamente, plantas do biótipo S apresentaram menores matérias secas de folhas+cotilédones, caules+pecíolos e total. Plantas do biótipo S também apresentaram menores área foliar, número de ramificações e estatura em avaliações mais tardias, comparativamente aos biótipos R a ALS e R a Protox.Weed resistance to herbicides is one of the major barriers to agriculture worldwide. In Brazil, Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL is especially known for presenting resistance to more than one herbicide action mechanism. This work was carried out to identify morphophysiological characteristics and ecological adaptability between Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes with multiple resistance to ALS inhibitors and PROTOX, and with resistance only to ALS inhibitors and susceptible from Southwestern Paraná. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The morphophysiological characteristics evaluated were: dry matter of leaves

  11. Green synthesis of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles mediated by Euphorbia prolifera leaf extract and investigation of their catalytic activity.

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    Momeni, Seyedeh Samaneh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

    2016-06-15

    A green synthesis process was developed for the preparation of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using Euphorbia prolifera leaf extract as a mild, renewable and non-toxic reducing agent and efficient stabilizer without using dangerous, hazardous and toxic materials. The approach of biosynthesis appears to be cost efficient eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of the Cu/ZnO NPs synthesis. The Cu/ZnO NPs were characterized by FESEM, EDS, elemental mapping, TEM and XRD. TEM micrograph has shown the formation of Cu NPs with the size in the range of 5-17 nm. In addition, the synthesized Cu/ZnO NPs presented excellent catalytic activity for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) in the presence of NaBH4 in water at room temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Green synthesis of Ag/Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposite using Euphorbia peplus Linn leaf extract and evaluation of its catalytic activity.

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    Sajjadi, Mohaddeseh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Mohammad Sajadi, S

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was prepared by Euphorbia peplus Linn (L.) leaf extract as a suitable reducing source and stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and FT-IR spectroscopy. TEM analysis of Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposite showed the spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with an average size of 5-10nm. The Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposite then was used as a magnetically recoverable catalyst for the [2+3] cycloaddition of arylcyanamides and sodium azide in high yields and short reaction times without formation of hydrazoic acid (HN3). Also it can be easily recovered via applying of external magnetic field and reused several times without significant loss of activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

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    Yujiao Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  14. The role of organic acids on microbial deterioration in the Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere under continuous monoculture regimes.

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    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Zhu, Quan; Wang, Juanying; Qin, Xianjin; Xu, Jiahui; Kong, Lufei; Chen, Jun; Lin, Sheng; Umar Khan, Muhammad; Amjad, Hira; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-06-14

    A three-year field monoculture trial of Radix pseudostellariae and complementary laboratory studies were conducted to further elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for significant decreases in the biomass yield and quality of R. pseudostellariae under continuous monoculture regimes. HPLC analysis indicated that continuous monoculture soil was rich in organic acids, which had cumulative effects over time. Further analysis suggested that the application of a mixture of organic acids significantly promoted growth of pathogenic fungi, and increased the expression of chemotaxis-related gene (cheA) and biofilm formation of the specific pathogenic Kosakonia sacchari. However, opposite reactions were observed in the case of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus. Concurrently, the present results revealed that the mixed organic acids stimulated the production of toxins, as well as H2O2 in the pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the presence of organic acids reflecting environmental conditions under monocropping had negative effects on the expression of the biocontrol-related genes, which resulted in attenuated antagonistic activities of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to suppress mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi. These results help to unveil the mechanisms associated with how accumulated organic acids differentially mediate deterioration of soil microbial composition and structure in monocropping system.

  15. Endodontic treatment of the permanent mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris: A case report and literature review

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    Štamfelj Iztok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The success of endodontic treatment is based on correct determination of the number of roots and root canals. Therefore, variants in root number and root canal number are a constant therapeutic challenge. The permanent mandibular first molar (PMFM usually has a mesial root with two canals and a distal root with one or two canals, but may also have a supernumerary root located distolingually - a radix entomolaris (RE. Case report: Recent studies have shown that RE invariably contains a single root canal. Although RE occurs with a relatively low prevalence in Caucasian patients, it may be the cause of endodontic failure if not identified before or during the treatment. The knowledge about the location of the additional root canal orifice will result in a modified access cavity design. Moreover, morphological features of the RE in terms of root inclination and curvature must be taken into account during root canal preparation to avoid procedural errors, such as straightening and ledging of the root canal, perforation or instrument fracture. Conclusion: This paper presents the endodontic retreatment of a PMFM with RE in a Caucasian patient and highlights the importance of a thorough radiographic and clinical examination.

  16. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine.

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    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S; Tsai, Chin-En; Yu, Bi; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR) and Gardeniae fructus (GF) showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding and suppressing serum level of TNF- α induced by infection in swine. Bioactivities of SR and GF were enhanced by combining with LAB strains, which alone could speed up the bacteria elimination time in feces and boost immunity of infected pigs. Baicalein and genipin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than baicalin and geniposide did, as well as prevent Salmonella from invading macrophages. Our study suggests LAB strains as exhibiting multiple functions: preventing infection, enhancing immunity to prepare host defenses against further infection, and adjusting intestinal microbes' enzymatic activity in order to convert herbal compounds to active compounds. The SR/GF-LAB strain mixture holds potential infection-prevention agents supplied as feed additives.

  17. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine

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    Chiung-Hung Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR and Gardeniae fructus (GF showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding and suppressing serum level of TNF-α induced by infection in swine. Bioactivities of SR and GF were enhanced by combining with LAB strains, which alone could speed up the bacteria elimination time in feces and boost immunity of infected pigs. Baicalein and genipin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than baicalin and geniposide did, as well as prevent Salmonella from invading macrophages. Our study suggests LAB strains as exhibiting multiple functions: preventing infection, enhancing immunity to prepare host defenses against further infection, and adjusting intestinal microbes’ enzymatic activity in order to convert herbal compounds to active compounds. The SR/GF-LAB strain mixture holds potential infection-prevention agents supplied as feed additives.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution Study of Praeruptorin D from Radix Peucedani in Rats by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC

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    Xue Du

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Praeruptorin D (PD, a major pyranocoumarin isolated from Radix Peucedani, exhibited antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PD in rats following intravenous (i.v. administration. The levels of PD in plasma and tissues were measured by a simple and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. The biosamples were treated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and osthole was used as the internal standard (IS. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a reversed-phase C18 column using methanol-water (75:25, v/v as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and ultraviolet detection wave length was set at 323 nm. The results demonstrate that this method has excellent specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. The pharmacokinetic study found that PD fitted well into a two-compartment model with a fast distribution phase and a relative slow elimination phase. Tissue distribution showed that the highest concentration was observed in the lung, followed by heart, liver and kidney. Furthermore, PD can also be detected in the brain, which indicated that PD could cross the blood-brain barrier after i.v. administration.

  19. Prediction of Radix Astragali Immunomodulatory Effect of CD80 Expression from Chromatograms by Quantitative Pattern-Activity Relationship

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    Michelle Chun-har Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current use of a single chemical component as the representative quality control marker of herbal food supplement is inadequate. In this CD80-Quantitative-Pattern-Activity-Relationship (QPAR study, we built a bioactivity predictive model that can be applicable for complex mixtures. Through integrating the chemical fingerprinting profiles of the immunomodulating herb Radix Astragali (RA extracts, and their related biological data of immunological marker CD80 expression on dendritic cells, a chemometric model using the Elastic Net Partial Least Square (EN-PLS algorithm was established. The EN-PLS algorithm increased the biological predictive capability with lower value of RMSEP (11.66 and higher values of Rp2 (0.55 when compared to the standard PLS model. This CD80-QPAR platform provides a useful predictive model for unknown RA extract’s bioactivities using the chemical fingerprint inputs. Furthermore, this bioactivity prediction platform facilitates identification of key bioactivity-related chemical components within complex mixtures for future drug discovery and understanding of the batch-to-batch consistency for quality clinical trials.

  20. Determination of cytotoxicity of traditional Chinese medicine herbs, Rhizoma coptidis, Radix scutellariae, and Cortex phellodendri, by three methods.

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    Boost, Maureen; Yau, Philip; Yap, Maurice; Cho, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Many herbs are used in traditional Chinese medicine TCM) for treatment of infections but their properties, in particular, their effects on normal cells have received little attention. This study investigated the cytotoxic properties of three TCM herbs with potential use in prevention and treatment of ocular infections, including Acanthamoeba keratitis. The study investigated cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts of Rhizoma coptidis, Radix scutellariae, and Cortex phellodendri on human corneal epithelial cells using trypan blue staining, MTT production, and flow cytometry. Differences between herbs were determined using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance, followed by paired t-tests where appropriate. These three herbs appeared to lack cytotoxicity when tested with trypan blue and MTT, but flow cytometry revealed that R. coptidis led to cell membrane damage. Lack of cytotoxicity of R. scutellariae and C. phellodendri extracts suggest that these are potentially suitable for use in ocular preparations. Only flow cytometry was able to accurately predict cytotoxic effects of extracts of TCM herbs on HCEC, demonstrating the importance of using a sensitive method of detection of cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A rapid discrimination of authentic and unauthentic Radix Angelicae Sinensis growth regions by electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses.

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    Liu, Jie; Wang, Weixin; Yang, Yaojun; Yan, Yuning; Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Haozhong; Ren, Zihe

    2014-10-27

    Radix Angelicae Sinensis, known as Danggui in China, is an effective and wide applied material in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and it is used in more than 80 composite formulae. Danggui from Minxian County, Gansu Province is the best in quality. To rapidly and nondestructively discriminate Danggui from the authentic region of origin from that from an unauthentic region, an electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was developed. Two different feature extraction methods were used to ensure the authentic region and unauthentic region of Danggui origin could be discriminated. One feature extraction method is to capture the average value of the maximum response of the electronic nose sensors (feature extraction method 1). The other one is to combine the maximum response of the sensors with their inter-ratios (feature extraction method 2). Multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were employed. Nineteen samples were analyzed by PCA, SIMCA and HCA. Then the remaining samples (GZM1, SH) were projected onto the SIMCA model to validate the models. The results indicated that, in the use of feature extraction method 2, Danggui from Yunnan Province and Danggui from Gansu Province could be successfully discriminated using the electronic nose coupled with PCA, SIMCA and HCA, which suggested that the electronic-nose system could be used as a simple and rapid technique for the discrimination of Danggui between authentic and unauthentic region of origin.

  2. Reduced Consolidation, Reinstatement, and Renewal of Conditioned Fear Memory by Repetitive Treatment of Radix Polygalae in Mice

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    Shin, Jung-Won; Park, Hyunwoo; Cho, Yoonju; Lee, Suck; Yoon, Jiwon; Maeng, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    The therapeutic goal for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is to promote extinction and to prevent the relapse of fearful memories. Research has identified pharmacological treatments that may regulate the formation and extinction of fear memories, but not many reagents that block the relapse of extinguished fear are known. Radix Polygalae (RP) is an Asian herb used for sedation, and its ingredients have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. As various neurological effects have been identified, we tested whether RP affects the relapse of fear. Freezing in response to a conditioned context and cues was used to measure the effects of RP in mice. In cohort 1 (n = 30), consolidation, extinction, and reinstatement were tested during the course of 18 days of treatment. In cohort 2 (n = 30), consolidation, extinction, and renewal were tested during 10 days of treatment. The consolidation, extinction, reinstatement, and possibly the renewal of context-induced freezing were inhibited due to the administration of RP in animal subjects. However, the effects of RP on the freezing responses of subjects elicited by conditioned auditory cues were less obvious. Because it effectively suppresses the consolidation of fear memories, RP may be used for primary and secondary prevention of symptoms in PTSD patients. Additionally, because it effectively suppresses the reinstatement and renewal of fear memories, RP may be applied for the prevention of fear relapse in PTSD patients who have undergone exposure therapy. PMID:28620325

  3. Radix Astragali-Based Chinese Herbal Medicine for Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Bo Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN remains a big challenge for oncologists. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Radix Astragali- (RA- based Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, including the incidence and grading of neurotoxicity, effective percentage, and nerve conduction velocity. Methods. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs were found using PubMed, Cochrane, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and Wanfang Database of China Science Periodical Database (CSPD by keyword search. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.0. Results. A total of 1552 participants were included in 24 trials. Meta-analysis showed the incidence of all-grade neurotoxicity was significantly lower in experimental groups and high-grade neurotoxicity was also significantly less. Effective percentage was significantly higher and sensory nerve conduction velocity was improved significantly, but changes in motor nerve conduction velocity were not statistically significant. No adverse events associated with RA-based intervention were reported. Conclusion. RA-based intervention may be beneficial in relieving oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, more double-blind, multicenter, large-scale RCTs are needed to support this theory. Trial Registration. PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews has registration number  CRD42015019903.

  4. [Growth rings in roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and its application on identification of Paeoniae Radix Rubra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shan-Shan; Zha, Liang-Ping; Duan, Hai-Yan; Xu, Tao; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    The growth years of medicinal materials are closely related to their quality, and "Herb-chronology" has been used to determine the growth years of perennial dicotyledonous plants in recent years. On the basis of conventional paraffin section and freehand section, the anatomical study on roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and main roots of cultivated Paeonia lactiflora was conducted in this paper. The results showed that, there existed some differences in microstructure of the seven species such as P. lactiflora, P. obovata, P. veitchii, P. mairei, P. anomala, P. sinjiangensis and P. anomala var. intermedia, and this could be used to distinguish different species. In the roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species, distinct growth rings were formed because that the different diameters or density of xylem vessels in the secondary xylem formed clusters and arranged interrupted rings in tangential direction. There were growth rings in the main roots of P. lactiflora cultivated 1-4 years in Siping, Jilin, which were all consistent with their growth years. Due to the similar growth characteristics between wild Sect. Paeonia species and cultivated P. lactiflora, the growth rings can provide a basis for the age identification and lay the foundation for the quality evaluation of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Microwave-Assisted Method for Extraction of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae

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    Jue Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep eutectic solvents (DESs have attracted significant attention as a promising green media. In this work, twenty-five kinds of benign choline chloride-based DESs with microwave-assisted methods were applied to quickly extract active components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae. The extraction factors, including temperature, time, power of microwave, and solid/liquid ratio, were investigated systematically by response surface methodology. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients were extracted simultaneously under the optimized conditions: 20 vol% of water in choline chloride/1,2-propanediol (1:1, molar ratio as solvent, microwave power of 800 W, temperature at 70 °C, time at 11.11 min, and solid/liquid ratio of 0.007 g·mL−1. The extraction yield was comparable to, or even better than, conventional methods with organic solvents. The microstructure alteration of samples before and after extraction was also investigated. The method validation was tested as the linearity of analytes (r2 > 0.9997 over two orders of magnitude, precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD < 2.49 and inter-day RSD < 2.96, and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 95.04% to 99.93%. The proposed DESs combined with the microwave-assisted method provided a prominent advantage for fast and efficient extraction of active components, and DESs could be extended as solvents to extract and analyze complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples.

  6. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujiao; Hou, Ya; Wang, Shengnan; Ma, Yang; Liu, Zixiu; Zou, Lisi; Liu, Xunhong; Luo, Yiyuan; Liu, Juanxiu

    2016-11-15

    Pseudostellariae Radix (PR) is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc) cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR) and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR). A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on ¹H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  8. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P Mas receptor expressions (all P Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  9. Separation and determination of two sesquiterpene lactones in Radix inulae and Liuwei Anxian San by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhua, Gao; Yaowen, Chen; Yegao, Yin; Xingguo, Chen; Zhide, Hu

    2004-12-01

    A novel microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method for separating and determining two sesquoterpene lactones, alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL), in Radix inulae and Liuwei Anxian San has been developed. The effects of several important factors such as internal organic phases, concentration of microemulsion, concentration of acetonitrile, injection time and running voltage were systematically investigated to determine the optimum conditions. The optimum microemulsion system was composed of n-hexane (0.32% w/w), SDS (1.24% w/w), 1-butanol (2.64% w/w), acetonitrile (10% w/w) and 10 mm sodium tetraborate buffer (85.80% w/w, pH 9.2). The applied voltage was 20 kV. The analytes were detected at 214 nm. Regression equations revealed linear relationships (correlation coefficients 0.9950 for AL and 0.9946 for IAL) between the peak area of each analyte and the concentration. The limits of detection (defined as a signal-to-noise ratio of about 3) were approximately 0.45 microg/mL for AL and 0.56 microg/mL for IAL. The levels of the analytes were successfully determined with recoveries ranging from 98.2 to 104.3%. Furthermore, a simple and effective extraction method, with methanol in an ultrasonic water bath for 60 min, was used for sample preparing. Also, MEEKC was compared with micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and shown better separation results. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Ca2+/calmodulin-binding peroxidase from Euphorbia latex: novel aspects of calcium-hydrogen peroxide cross-talk in the regulation of plant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Anna; Medda, Rosaria; Longu, Silvia; Floris, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Padiglia, Alessandra

    2005-11-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous Ca(2+) sensor found in all eukaryotes, where it participates in the regulation of diverse calcium-dependent physiological processes. In response to fluctuations of the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+), CaM binds to a set of unrelated target proteins and modulates their activity. In plants, a growing number of CaM-binding proteins have been identified that apparently do not have a counterpart in animals. Some of these plant-specific Ca(2+)/CaM-activated proteins are known to tune the interaction between calcium and H(2)O(2) in orchestrating plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses. We previously characterized a calcium-dependent peroxidase isolated from the latex of the Mediterranean shrub Euphorbia characias (ELP) [Medda et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 8909-8918]. Here we report the cDNA nucleotide sequence of Euphorbia latex peroxidase, showing that the derived protein has two distinct amino acid sequences recognized as CaM-binding sites. The cDNA encoding for an E. characias CaM was also found and sequenced, and its protein product was detected in the latex. Results obtained from different CaM-binding assays and the determination of steady-state parameters showed unequivocally that ELP is a CaM-binding protein activated by the Ca(2+)/CaM system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a peroxidase regulated by this classic signal transduction mechanism. These findings suggest that peroxidase might be another node in the Ca(2+)/H(2)O(2)-mediated plant defense system, having both positive and negative effects in regulating H(2)O(2) homeostasis.

  11. Total steroid and terpenoid enriched fraction from Euphorbia neriifolia Linn offers protection against nociceptive-pain, inflammation, and in vitro arthritis model: An insight of mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Partha; Mandal, Subhash C; Bhunia, Biswanath

    2016-12-01

    The plant Euphorbia neriifolia Linn has been successfully used for the management of acute inflammatory, arthritic, nociceptive pain and relieves the asthmatic symptom as a tribal folk medicine in India. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic activity from total steroid and terpenoid rich fractions derived from hydro-alcoholic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia stem (STF-HAENS). STF-HAENS fraction demonstrated 68.58±2.5% and 75.25±5.1% protection against acetic acid-induced pain and central neuropathic pain at 80mg/kg. It also showed 98.47% protection against acute inflammation at 100mg/kg with 1.7 fold higher protective activity than the standard drug. The fraction exhibited this efficacy via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-6 by 74%, 81.26%, 92.10% and 93.4% respectively at 100μg/ml. It also showed dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipooxygenase (LOX) activity in a dose-dependent manner that elicited the desired pharmacological action. The fraction downregulated nitric-oxide production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PBMC derived macrophages. The spectrophotometric analysis reveals the STF-HAENS induced ameliorative effect against heat-induced denaturation of BSA protein and exhibited significant antiproteinase activity. Our findings suggest that STF-HAENS could be used as an effective safe therapeutic agent for treatment of nociceptive pain, acute inflammation and arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies de Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae Assessment of moluscicidal activity of the latex of three Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae species on Leptinaria unilamellata d'Obigny 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae

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    I.S Afonso-Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres podem atuar como hospedeiros intermediários de helmintos. Os primeiros registros do controle químico desses invertebrados datam do início do século XX e as substâncias utilizadas eram toxinas inespecíficas já empregadas no controle de outras pragas. Moluscicidas sintéticos apresentam limitações técnicas que estimularam a busca de substitutos naturais. Dentre as várias espécies vegetais com atividade moluscicida, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri e Euphorbia tirucalli L. despertam atenção pelos excelentes resultados obtidos sobre moluscos aquáticos. Contudo, estudos sobre a atividade de plantas moluscicidas em moluscos terrestres são pouco comuns, apesar de sua grande importância parasitológica e agrícola. As semelhanças anatomo-fisiológicas entre espécies de moluscos aquáticos e terrestres sugerem que estratégias de controle químico possam ter eficiência semelhante para os dois grupos de invertebrados. Com base nessa hipótese, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies do gênero Euphorbia sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, gastrópode terrestre descrito como hospedeiro intermediário de helmintos trematódeos digenéticos que parasitam animais domésticos. Destas E. milii var. splendens apresentou efeito moluscicida elevado sobre L. unilamellata, 100% até uma diluição de 1:800, já nos primeiros minutos após a aplicação. Embora citadas na literatura como tóxicas para moluscos aquáticos, E. cotinifolia e E. tirucalli não exibiram atividade moluscicida sobre L. unilamellata. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que o látex de E. milii var. splendens pode se constituir em uma estratégia viável de controle químico de moluscos terrestres.Pulmonate terrestrial gastropods can be intermediate hosts for helminthes. The first records of

  13. Identification and Determination of Flavonoids in Astragali Radix by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with DAD and ESI-MS Detection

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    Yu-Ling Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for the analysis of flavonoids in Astragali Radix by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with photodiode-array detection (DAD and an electrospray ionization (ESI - mass spectrometry (MS was developed. After the samples were extracted with ethanol, the optimum separation conditions for these analytes were achieved using a gradient elution system and a 2.0 × 150 mm Shimadzu VP-ODS column. Eight flavonoids were identified to exist in Astragali Radix based on their characteristic UV data and mass spectra. The concentrations of three major components in this herb—ononin, calycosin and formononetin—were determined by LC/ESI-MS in positive selective ion monitoring (SIM mode. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.9~180.0 μg·mL−1 for ononin, 1.8~360.0 μg·mL−1 for calycosin and 1.4~280 μg·mL−1 for formononetin, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ and detection (LOD were 0.9 μg· mL−1 and 0.2 μg mL−1 for ononin, 1.8 μg mL−1 and 0.5 μg·mL−1 for calycosin, 1.4 μg mL−1 and 0.5 μg·mL−1 for formononetin, respectively. The standard recoveries were between 95.4~104.7%. The developed method was proven to be useful for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of flavonoid constituents in various resources of Astragali Radix.

  14. Comparison of protocatechuic aldehyde in Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and corresponding pharmacological sera from normal and fibrotic rats by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Yao, Xi-Xian

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of protocatechuic aldehyde on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Then normal and fibrotic drug sera were extracted from rats. The effects of protocatechuic aldehyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza on HSC growth were determined by CCK-8. The protocatechuic aldehyde was separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a Alltima C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-4% glacial acetic acid solution (gradient elution) at the wavelength of 281 nm. RESULTS: Protocatechuic aldehyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza were found to have inhibitory effects on proliferation of rat HSCs. Raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza had a stronger inhibitory effect than the drug sera. The fibrotic drug sera showed a higher suppressive effect than the normal drug sera (P Salvia miltiorrhiza and its corresponding drug sera. The average recovery (n = 6) was 110.5% for raw Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, 102% for normal drug sera and 105.2% for fibrotic drug sera. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.37%, 1.96% and 1.51%, respectively (n = 6). The contents of protocatechuic aldehyde were 0.22%, 0.15% and 0.19%, respectively (n = 6) (P Salvia miltiorrhiza, normal drug sera and fibrotic drug sera, respectively. The samples were stable for 6 d. CONCLUSION: Protocatechuic aldehyde can inhibit the growth of HSCs. HPLC is suitable for the determination of virtual bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicines in vitro. PMID:16610020

  15. ["Re-evaluation upon suspected event" is an approach for post-marketing clinical study: lessons from adverse drug events related to Bupleuri Radix preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Xin; Sun, Hong-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Long, Hong-Zhu; Ye, Zu-Guang; Ji, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Li

    2014-08-01

    We revisited the "Xiao Chaihu Decoction event (XCHDE)" occurred in late 1980s in Japan and the Bupleuri Radix related adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in China After careful review, comparison, analysis and evaluation, we think the interstitial pneumonitis, drug induced Liver injury (DILI) and other severe adverse drug envents (ADEs) including death happened in Japan is probably results from multiple factors, including combinatory use of XCHDE with interferon, Kampo usage under modern medicine theory guidance, and use of XCHD on the basis of disease diagnosis instead of traditional Chinese syndrome complex differentiation. There are less ADE case reports related to XCHD preparation in China compared to Japan, mostly manifest with hypersensitivity responses of skin and perfuse perspiration. The symptoms of Radix Bupleuri injection related ADEs mainly manifest hypersensitivity-like response, 2 cases of intravenous infusion instead of intramuscular injection developed hypokalemia and renal failure. One case died from severe hypersensitivity shock. In Chinese literatures, there is no report of the interstitial pneumonitis and DILI associated with XCHDG in Japan. So far, there is no voluntary monitoring data and large sample clinical research data available. The author elaborated the classification of "reevaluation" and clarified "re-evaluation upon events" included the reaction to the suspected safety and efficacy events. Based on the current status of the clinical research on the Radix Bupleuri preparations, the author points out that post-marketing "re-evaluation upon suspected event" is not only a necessity of continuous evaluation of the safety, efficacy of drugs, it is also a necessity for providing objective clinical research data to share with the international and domestic drug administrations in the risk-benefit evaluation. It is also the unavoidable pathway to culture and push the excellent species and famous brands of TCM to the international market, in

  16. Effects of Radix Adenophorae and Cyclosporine A on an OVA-Induced Murine Model of Asthma by Suppressing to T Cells Activity, Eosinophilia, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

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    Seong-Soo Roh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Radix Adenophorae extract (RAE on ovalbumin-induced asthma murine model. To study the anti-inflammatory and antiasthmatic effects of RAE, we examined the development of pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation and inhibitory effects of T cells in murine by RAE and cyclosporine A (CsA. We examined determination of airway hyperresponsiveness, flow cytometric analysis (FACS, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, quantitative real time (PCR, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and Masson trichrome staining in lung tissue, lung weight, total cells, and eosinophil numbers in lung tissue. We demonstrated how RAE suppressed development on inflammation and decreased airway damage.

  17. Blockade of nicotine sensitization by methanol extracts of Glycyrrhizae radix mediated via antagonism of accumbal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng Lin; Kim, Sang Chan; Liu, Hong Feng; Wu, Yi Yan; Li, Li Bo; Wang, Yu Hua; Jiao, Yu; Fan, Yu; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Bong Hyeo; Cho, Il Je; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, Rong Jie

    2017-11-16

    We previously reported that a methanol extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (MEGR) blocked methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference in rats. In the present study, the effects of MEGR on repeated nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and enhanced extracellular dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated administrations of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneous) or saline twice a day for 7 d and were challenged with nicotine 4 d after the last daily dosing. During the 4-d withdrawal period, the rats were treated once a day with MEGR (60 or 180 mg/kg/d). Extracellular DA levels were measured by in vivo microdialysis, the malondialdehyde levels and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the Nacc were biochemically evaluated, and the expression of antioxidant proteins was confirmed by Western blot assays. All data were assessed with analysis of variance tests followed by post-hoc comparison tests and p values nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization was dose-dependently attenuated by MEGR, and 180 mg/kg/d MEGR significantly inhibited augmented accumbal DA release induced by a direct local challenge of nicotine. Moreover, 180 mg/kg/d MEGR reversed increases in malondialdehyde production, decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and the reduced expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1 in the nicotine-sensitized Nacc. These results suggest that MEGR inhibited nicotine-induced locomotion and dopaminergic sensitization via antioxidant action.

  18. [Study on effect of astragali radix polysaccharides in improving learning and memory functions in aged rats and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui; Gu, Li-Jia; Guo, Jian-You

    2014-06-01

    To observe the effect of Astragali Radix polysaccharides (APS) on the learning and memory functions of aged rats, in order to explore its mechanism for improving the learning and memory functions. Natural aging female SD rats were selected in the animal model and randomly divided into the control group, the APS low-dose group (50 mg x kg(-1)), the APS high-dose group (150 mg x kg(-1)) and the piracetam-treated group (560 mg x kg(-1)). They were orally administered with the corresponding drugs for consecutively 60 days. Besides, a young control group was set. The learning and memory functions of the rats were tested by the open-field test and the Morris water maze task. The Western-blot method was used to observe the levels of relevant neural plasticity protein N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) in hippocampus, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), protein kinase (PKA), the phosphorylation level of CAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the protein expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF). In this study, the authors found that the learning and memory functions and the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression of the aged rat group were much lower than that of the young control group (P learning and memory functions of aged rats and the up-regulation in the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression. The results showed that APS may improve the learning and memory functions of aged rats by increasing the expressions of relevant neural plasticity proteins.

  19. Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Inhibits Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

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    Hoyoung Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (AR suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis (AD-like skin lesions induced by Dermatophagoides farinae in NC/Nga mice. To investigate the effect of AR, we measured the AD severity score, measured plasma levels of IgE and histamine, and performed histological analysis in NC/Nga mice. We also confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of AR by measuring TARC/CCL17 production from LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells and mRNA levels of TARC and MDC/CCL22 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells. 10 mg/day of AR extract was applied for 4 weeks to NC/Nga mice. Both the AR extract and 0.1% tacrolimus suppressed the development of AD-like skin lesions and reduced dermatitis scores of the back and ear skin. AR extracts caused an inhibition of histological changes induced by repeated application of D. farinae and a reduction of IgE and histamine levels in plasma (P<0.05. Furthermore, NO production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells was diminished in a dose-dependent manner, and hTARC production and TARC and MDC mRNA levels in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells were diminished by AR. The inhibitory effect of AR on NO, TARC and MDC production may be associated with the suppression of AD-like skin lesions in D. farinae-induced NC/Nga mice.

  20. Antiosteoporosis Effect of Radix Scutellariae Extract on Density and Microstructure of Long Bones in Tail-Suspended Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Chen-Rui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Scutellariae (RS, a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50 mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE at 2 mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

  1. A feasible, economical, and accurate analytical method for simultaneous determination of six alkaloid markers in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata from different manufacturing sources and processing ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Bei; DA, Juan; Zhang, Jing-Xian; Li, Shang-Rong; Chen, Xin; Long, Hua-Li; Wang, Qiu-Rong; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yao, Shuai; Hou, Jin-Jun; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-04-01

    Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (Fuzi) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for its potency in restoring yang and rescuing from collapse. Aconiti alkaloids, mainly including monoester-diterpenoidaconitines (MDAs) and diester-diterpenoidaconitines (DDAs), are considered to act as both bioactive and toxic constituents. In the present study, a feasible, economical, and accurate HPLC method for simultaneous determination of six alkaloid markers using the Single Standard for Determination of Multi-Components (SSDMC) method was developed and fully validated. Benzoylmesaconine was used as the unique reference standard. This method was proven as accurate (recovery varying between 97.5%-101.8%, RSD 0.999 9) over the concentration ranges, and subsequently applied to quantitative evaluation of 62 batches of samples, among which 45 batches were from good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and 17 batches from the drug market. The contents were then analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and homogeneity test. The present study provided valuable information for improving the quality standard of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. The developed method also has the potential in analysis of other Aconitum species, such as Aconitum carmichaelii (prepared parent root) and Aconitum kusnezoffii (prepared root). Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Onjisaponin B Derived from Radix Polygalae Enhances Autophagy and Accelerates the Degradation of Mutant α-Synuclein and Huntingtin in PC-12 Cells

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    An-Guo Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates important protective roles being played by autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders through clearance of aggregate-prone or mutant proteins. In the current study, we aimed to identify autophagy inducers from Chinese medicinal herbs as a potential neuroprotective agent that enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin and α-synuclein in PC-12 cells. Through intensive screening using the green fluorescent protein-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3 autophagy detection platform, we found that the ethanol extracts of Radix Polygalae (Yuan Zhi were capable of inducing autophagy. Further investigation showed that among three single components derived from Radix Polygalae—i.e., polygalacic acid, senegenin and onjisaponin B—onjisaponin B was able to induce autophagy and accelerate both the removal of mutant huntingtin and A53T α-synuclein, which are highly associated with Huntington disease and Parkinson disease, respectively. Our study further demonstrated that onjisaponin B induces autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, findings in the current study provide detailed insights into the protective mechanism of a novel autophagy inducer, which is valuable for further investigation as a new candidate agent for modulating neurodegenerative disorders through the reduction of toxicity and clearance of mutant proteins in the cellular level.

  3. Glycyrrhizic acid, active component from Glycyrrhizae radix, prevents toxicity of graphene oxide by influencing functions of microRNAs in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Jia, Ruhan; Qiao, Yan; Wang, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    We investigated effects of pretreatment with Glycyrrhizae radix (GR) or its specific components on toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) in Caenorhabditis elegans. GR pretreatment prevented GO toxicity on function of both primary and secondary targeted organs. Among active components in GR, the beneficial effects of GR were attributable to presence of glycyrrhizic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid pretreatment suppressed translocation of GO into secondary targeted organs through intestinal barrier. Glycyrrhizic acid pretreatment recovered expression patterns of dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by GO, and genes required for oxidative stress control acted as targeted genes for some of these miRNAs. Among these miRNAs, mir-360 mutation enhanced beneficial effects of glycyrrhizic acid. We hypothesize that glycyrrhizic acid may prevent GO toxicity and translocation by influencing functions of miRNAs which upstream regulate functions of their targeted genes. Furthermore, glycyrrhizic acid had potential to extend lifespan, and to suppress accelerated aging process induced by GO. Exposure to graphene oxide may pose toxic effects to health, as suggested in animal studies. In this article, the authors showed that the use of glycyrrhizae radix (GR) prevented toxicity of graphene oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans. These results may provide novel strategies in the reducing potential side effects of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Analgesic effect of coumarins from Radix angelicae pubescentis is mediated by inflammatory factors and TRPV1 in a spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Zhao, Chao; Yao, Minna; Song, Ying; Wu, Yin; Wen, Aidong

    2017-01-04

    Coumarins from Radix angelicae pubescentis (CRAP) are a major active component that are isolated from dried roots of Angelica biserrata Yuan et Shan, which has been used clinically to cure headaches for a long period of time, and it is an effective treatment for pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic effect of CRAP on a spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathy. Antinociceptive effects of CRAP were assessed in Sprague-Dawley male rats using a spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. Inflammatory factors were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transient receptor potential cation channel 1 (TRPV1) and Phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (pERK) were detected by Immunofluorescence and Western blotting, respectively. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of osthole and columbianadin in Radix angelicae pubescentis. CRAP induced the dose-dependent effect of on attenuating the development of mechanical hypersensitivity. Molecular profiling revealed that CRAP reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and significantly attenuated the expression of TRPV1 and pERK in damaged DRG neurons. This results demonstrate that CRAP possess remarkable antinociceptive activities which may be due to osthole and columbianadin at least in part, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various pain diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Análise fitoquímica e atividade fotoprotetora de extrato etanólico de Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau (Euphorbiaceae

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    J.F.F ORLANDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau, conhecida popularmente como “avelós”, “cachorro pelado” ou “pau-pelado”, é utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de câncer, antibiótico e antivirótico. As plantas medicinais são, frequentemente, utilizadas com o intuito de substituir ou auxiliar as terapias convencionais no tratamento de várias doenças, inclusive para evitar os malefícios causados por radiações ultravioletas. Com isso, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial fotoprotetor e a triagem fitoquímica do extrato etanólico das partes aéreas de avelós. A atividade fotoprotetora foi avaliada por meio de ensaios in vitro segundo o método adaptado de Mansur, utilizando extrato etanólico das partes aéreas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o estudo fitoquímico evidenciou a presença de açúcares redutores, alcaloides, fenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, esteroides e triterpenóides na fração etanólica. O extrato apresentou capacidade antioxidante (EC50 de 16,98 ± 0,35 μg.mL-1, teor de compostos fenólicos de 96,18 ± 1,33 mg EqAG/g e flavonoides de 63,57 ± 2,74 mg EqC/g que podem favorecer a atividade fotoprotetora. Avaliando o fator de proteção solar, pode-se observar que todas as concentrações testadas (0,01 a 0,1 µg.mL-1 apresentaram potencial de fotoproteção da radiação ultravioleta com variação de FPS de 6,05 a 19,84, respectivamente. Esses resultados sugerem que o extrato etanólico de Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau apresenta possível efeito fotoprotetor.

  7. Total flavonoid aglycones extract in Radix scutellariae inhibits lung carcinoma and lung metastasis by affecting cell cycle and DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Cao, Hui-Juan; Sun, Shu-Jun; Dai, Jian-Ye; Fang, Jun-Wei; Li, Qian-Hua; Yan, Chao; Mao, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Yu

    2016-12-24

    Radix Scutellariae (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, RS), a traditional herbal medicine commonly used to treat inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, bacterial and viral infections, is reported to treat lung cancer by supplements of modern medicine. The total flavonoid aglycones extract (TFAE) from RS is the most important composition for the pharmacodynamic effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-lung tumor effect of TFAE on A549 cells and A549 cell nude mice xenografts. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect and mechanism of TFAE treating non-small cell lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor activity of TFAE in vitro was investigated using the MTT assay. The changes of cell invasion and migration were detected by Transwell assay and tube formation experiments were used to detect the anti-angiogenic effect. The anti-tumor effects of TFAE in vivo were evaluated in A549 cell nude mice xenografts. The mechanism of TFAE was detected by flow cytometry technology, western blot assay and immuno-histochemistry assay. In vitro, TFAE inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo, TFAE by oral administration at 100mg/kg for 30 days decreased the tumor volume and tumor weight in A549 cell xenograft by 25.5% with no statistical significance (P<0.05) compared to the cis-platinum positive control group (30.0%). The cell cycle and DNA synthesis experiment illustrated that TFAE could induce A549 cell cycle to arreste in S phase and DNA synthesis in A549 cells be inhibited, while TFAE had no influence on apoptosis of A549 cells. Western Blot assay demonstrated that the treatment of TFAE could make Cyclin D1 decrease and p53 increase both in vitro and in vivo. TFAE displayed the inhibition effects of non-small cell lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanism might be related to the increased p53 protein expression and decreased Cyclin D1

  8. Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale hexane extract and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, under laboratory conditions

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    Pedro Jurberg

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10, 6.22 and 6.44 respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.

  9. In situ chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics as a tool to quantify effects on photosynthesis in Euphorbia cyparissias by a parasitic infection of the rust fungus Uromyces pisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhori, Alba; Meco, Marjol; Brandl, Helmut; Bachofen, Reinhard

    2015-11-21

    Photosynthesis is the key process for plant growth and development. The determination of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics allows the quantification of effects on photosynthetic processes triggered by environmental stress factors such as, e.g., the infection by fungal phytopathogens. The technique is non-invasive, rapid and well suited for experimental field work. Healthy and Uromyces-infected plants of Euphorbia cyparissias were monitored directly in situ in the field using rapid fluorescence kinetics. Non-infected healthy plants show a typical maximum value for the relative variable fluorescence Fv/Fm of around 0.8 with occasional variation between the leaves from the plant top towards the base, while infected plants exhibited a strong gradient to low values at the base. The photosynthetic performance index (PI) showed a higher heterogeneity within the leaves in both plant types. The non-invasive and rapid measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence induction allows characterizing the photosynthetic capacity of healthy and infected plants and of parts of them directly in the field. The PI, is highly sensitive not only concerning infection, but also towards other local environmental influences.

  10. C/sub 4/ photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C/sub 4/ metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO/sub 2/ to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO/sub 2/ into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C/sub 4/ acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ (PEP) = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C/sub 4/ photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C/sub 4/ dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and ..beta..-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C/sub 4/ acids that are not involved in the CO/sub 2/ shuttle mechanism characteristic of C/sub 4/ photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  11. Effects of coal-smoke pollutants from different sources on the growth, chlorophyll content, stem anatomy and cuticular of Euphorbia hirta L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.C.; Ghouse, A.K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Variations occurred in the growth, assimilate partitioning, chlorophyll content, stem anatomy and leaf cuticular traits of Euphorbia hirta L. on longterm exposure to coal-smoke pollutants prevailing at two sites, one situated close to a railway loco shed (site B) and another in the vicinity of a thermal power plant (site C). The Botanical Garden of Aligarh Muslim University was considered as a control site (A). Site C possessed a greater load of coal-smoke pollutants than site B. The present study had shown that coal-smoke pollutants have led to a decrease in plant height, jeopardised the production of leaves and enhanced their fall, and caused a reduction in leaf area, leading to decreases of the total photosynthetic area of the plants, with increasing pollution load. The losses incurred in chlorophyll a were relatively more than chlorophyll b and, as a result, the total chlorophyll contents of leaves were decreased in polluted plants. The dry weights of stems, roots and leaves were decreased to different degrees, whereas the shoot/root dry weight ratio was found to increase in the polluted environment. The growth of stem cortex and pith was slightly affected on site B, but showed significant decreases on site C, due to a greater load of pollutants. Decreased area of xylem tissue was found to couple with an increasing number of vessels of reduced sizes. The stomatal density, pore size and index showed decreases. 20 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae Juss.): an unexplored medicinal herb reported from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndam, Lawrence Monah; Mih, Afui Mathias; Tening, Aaron Suh; Fongod, Augustina Genla Nwana; Temenu, Nkegua Anna; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler, an alien invasive medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of gastroenteritis related ailments, diabetes, conjunctivitis, gastritis, enterocolitis, tonsillitis, vaginitis, hemorrhoids, prostatism, warts and painful swellings by the Mundani people of the mount Bambouto Caldera in SouthWestern Cameroon, and to evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Susceptibility testing by agar well diffusion assay revealed good antibacterial activity with inhibition zone diameter of 20 ± 1.1 mm against Bacillus cereus followed by Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone diameter of 17 ± 1.6 mm which was significantly lower (P activity of E. golondrina was higher than that of gallic acid and BHT at concentrations greater than 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mL respectively while at all concentrations, nitric oxide scavenging activity was higher than those of both rutin and vitamin C. GC-MS profile of E. golondrina steam distilled volatiles revealed that the plant has potent phytoconstituent classes such as sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, alkaloids, phenolics and aromatic hydrocarbons. Among the 30 compounds identified, caryophyllene oxide (14.16 %), camphor (9.41 %) and phytol (5.75 %) were the major compounds. Further structural characterisation based on (1)H and (13)C NMR is required to demonstrate structural integrity including correct stereochemistry. The current study partially justifies the ethnomedicinal uses of E. golondrina in Cameroon.

  13. Development of matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of jolkinolide A and jolkinolide B in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Defu; Zhai, Weiyu; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Jianhua; Sun, Yu; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jicheng

    2017-08-01

    A novel and simple method was established for the extraction and determination of jolkinolide A and B in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimised conditions for the MSPD extraction were determined to be that silica gel was served as dispersant, the mass ratio of sample to silica gel was selected to be 1:4, and 5 mL of acetonitrile was used as elution solvent. The method exhibited a good performance in terms of linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9997) and the limits of detection in the range of 0.052-0.065 μg mL-1. The recoveries were in the range of 90.2-98.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.3 to 3.5%. The extraction efficiencies obtained by the MSPD were higher than other extraction method with less cost of sample and solvent. At last, the optimised method was applied for analysing real samples.

  14. [Action of Euphorbia humifusa effective fraction on membrane biosynthesis and the gene expression of proteases MEP and SUB of Trichophyton rubrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Zhao, Ming-Yue; Dawuti, Gulnar; Aibai, Silafu

    2014-02-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of Euphorbia humifusa effective fraction (EHEF) on the CYP51 enzyme activity, the lanosterol content and the MEP, SUB gene expression of Trichophyton rubrum. Trichophyton rubrum was treated by EHEF for 7 days at 26 degrees C. The activity of CYP51 enzyme of Trichophyton rubrum in the cell membrane was determined by using ELISA kit, and the lanosterol content was investigated by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the MEP, SUB gene expression of Trichophyton rubrum was detected with the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results showed that EHEF can decrease the membrane CYP51 enzyme activity, and it also can accumulate the fungal lanosterol in a dose-dependent manner, and it also can decrease the gene expression of MEP and SUB. The antifungal mechanism of EHEF may be related to the inhibition on CYP51 enzyme activity, and to the effects on fungal cell membrane ergosterol biosynthesis. It may also play an antifungal effect by inhibiting the MEP, SUB gene expression of fungal proteases.

  15. Euphorbia milii-native bacteria interactions under airborne formaldehyde stress: Effect of epiphyte and endophyte inoculation in relation to IAA, ethylene and ROS levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2017-02-01

    Better understanding of plant-bacteria interactions under stress is of the prime importance for enhancing airborne pollutant phytoremediation. No studies have investigated plant-epiphyte interactions compared to plant-endophyte interactions under airborne formaldehyde stress in terms of plant Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and pollutant removal efficiency. Euphorbia milii was inoculated with native plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic and epiphytic isolates individually to investigate plant-endophyte compared to plant-epiphyte interactions under continuous formaldehyde fumigation. Under airborne formaldehyde stress, endophyte interacts with its host plant closely and provides higher levels of IAA which protected the plant against formaldehyde phytotoxicity by lowering intracellular ROS, ethylene levels and maintaining shoot epiphytic community; hence, higher pollutant removal. However, plant-epiphyte interactions could not provide enough IAA to confer protection against formaldehyde stress; thus, increased ROS and ethylene levels, large decrease in shoot epiphytic population and lower pollutant removal although epiphyte contacts with airborne pollutant directly (has greater access to gaseous formaldehyde). Endophyte-inoculated plant synthesized more tryptophan as a signaling molecule for its associated bacteria to produce IAA compared to the epiphyte-inoculated one. Under stress, PGP endophyte interacts with its host closely; thus, better protection against stress and higher pollutant removal compared to epiphyte which has limited interactions with the host plant; hence, lower pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of genotoxicity of herbal medicinal products: application of the "bracketing and matrixing" concept using the example of Valerianae radix (valerian root).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Olaf; Wegener, Tankred; Steinhoff, Barbara; Staiger, Christiane; Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner; Kraft, Karin

    2014-01-01

    An assessment of genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorization respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs), as well as for inclusion into the 'Community list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations thereof for use in traditional herbal medicinal products' established by the European Commission in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC as amended, and based on proposals from the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). In the 'Guideline on the assessment of genotoxicity of herbal substances/preparations' (EMEA/HMPC/107079/2007) HMPC has described a stepwise approach for genotoxicity testing, according to which the Ames test is a sufficient base for the assessment of genotoxicity in case of an unequivocally negative result. For reducing efforts for testing of individual herbal substances/preparations, HMPC has also developed the 'guideline on selection of test materials for genotoxicity testing for traditional herbal medicinal products/herbal medicinal products' (EMEA/HMPC/67644/2009) with the aim to allow testing of a standard range of test materials which could be considered representative of the commonly used preparations from a specific herbal drug according to a 'bracketing/matrixing' approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide data on the practical application of this bracketing and matrixing concept using the example of Valerianae radix, with the intention of facilitating its inclusion in the "Community list". Five extraction solvents, representing the extremes of the polarity range and including also mid-range extraction solvents, were used, covering the entire spectrum of phytochemical constituents of Valerianae radix, thereby including polar and non-polar constituents. Extracts were tested in the Ames test according to all relevant guidelines. Results were unequivocally negative for all extracts. A review of the literature showed that this result is in accordance with the available data, thus

  17. Rapid characterisation and identification of compounds in Saposhnikoviae Radix by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luxiao; Chen, Xiangyang; Su, Lei; Jiang, Yanyan; Liu, Bin

    2017-08-18

    Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR), the dried root of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. (Umbelliferae), is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, a rapid and accurate method was firstly, developed for the qualitative analysis of SR by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS). A total of 45 compounds were identified or tentatively characterised, including 13 chromones, 28 coumarins and four others. Among them, 16 compounds were identified from SR for the first time. In addition, six chromones reference standards, including two isolated compounds of 3'-O-angeloylhamaudol and norcimifugin from the extraction of SR, were used to study the fragmentation pathways of chromones. The developed method was effective for characterising the compounds of SR, and the results of the study enriched the understanding of the chemical connotation.

  18. Separation and purification of three stilbenes from the radix of Polygonum cillinerve (Nakai Ohwl by macroporous resin column chromatography combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective method for the rapid separation and purification of three stilbenes from the radix of Polygonum cillinerve (Nakai Ohwl by macroporous resin column chromatography combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successfully established. In the present study, a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-n-butanol-methanol-water (4:1:4:2, v/v/v/v was used for HSCCC separation. A one-step separation in 4 h from 150 mg of crude extract produced 26.3 mg of trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside, 42.0 mg of pieceid-2"-O-gallate, and 17.9 mg of trans-resveratrol with purities of 99.1%, 97.8%, and 99.4%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy.

  19. Traditional Chinese Nootropic Medicine Radix Polygalae and Its Active Constituent Onjisaponin B Reduce β-Amyloid Production and Improve Cognitive Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Yu, Yang; Li, Wei; Hou, Yujun; Wang, Xin; Qin, Dapeng; Zhao, Cun; Yao, Xinsheng; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Decline of cognitive function is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), regardless of the pathological mechanism. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to combat cognitive impairments and has been shown to improve learning and memory. Radix Polygalae (RAPO) is a typical and widely used herbal medicine. In this study, we aimed to follow the β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction activity to identify active constituent(s) of RAPO. We found that Onjisaponin B of RAPO functioned as RAPO to suppress Aβ production without direct inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase activities. Our mechanistic study showed that Onjisaponin B promoted the degradation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Further, oral administration of Onjisaponin B ameliorated Aβ pathology and behavioral defects in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, our results indicate that Onjisaponin B is effective against AD, providing a new therapeutic agent for further drug discovery.

  20. Traditional Chinese Nootropic Medicine Radix Polygalae and Its Active Constituent Onjisaponin B Reduce β-Amyloid Production and Improve Cognitive Impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohang Li

    Full Text Available Decline of cognitive function is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD, regardless of the pathological mechanism. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to combat cognitive impairments and has been shown to improve learning and memory. Radix Polygalae (RAPO is a typical and widely used herbal medicine. In this study, we aimed to follow the β-amyloid (Aβ reduction activity to identify active constituent(s of RAPO. We found that Onjisaponin B of RAPO functioned as RAPO to suppress Aβ production without direct inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 and γ-secretase activities. Our mechanistic study showed that Onjisaponin B promoted the degradation of amyloid precursor protein (APP. Further, oral administration of Onjisaponin B ameliorated Aβ pathology and behavioral defects in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, our results indicate that Onjisaponin B is effective against AD, providing a new therapeutic agent for further drug discovery.

  1. Identification and Pharmacokinetics of Multiple Potential Bioactive Constituents after Oral Administration of Radix Astragali on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression in Balb/c Mice

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    Menghua Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali (RA is one of the commonly-used traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs with an immunomodulatory effect confirmed in the clinic. In order to better understand the material basis for the therapeutic effects, this study was to investigate the absorbed components and their pharmacokinetic profile after oral administration of RA on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in Balb/c mice. As a result, 51 compounds in RA extract and 31 prototype compounds with nine metabolites were detected in mice plasma by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of five main constituents, including calycosin-7-O-glucoside, ononin, calycosin, formononetin and astragaloside IV, were obtained using HPLC-MS/MS. These results offered useful information for research on the pharmacological mechanism of RA and for its further development.

  2. [Preliminary study on effect of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma cell wall-broken decoction pieces on intestinal flora of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-rui; Zeng, Gui-mei; Peng, Li-hua; Zhang, Miao-miao; Cheng, Jin-le; Zhan, Ruo-ting

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze and compare the effect of cell wall-broken decoction pieces, conventional decoction pieces and conventional powder of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma on the intestinal flora of normal mice. The conventional bacterial culture and PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) were adopted for the mice after the oral administration for 14 days. According to the bacterial culture results, the 1/8 dose cell wall-broken decoction pieces group showed fewer Enterococcus and Escherichia coli bacillus but more Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium than the conventional decoction pieces group and the traditional powder group (P intestinal tract by promoting the growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, the intestinal flora community will become more stable.

  3. Influência do cálcio na calda de pulverização sobre a eficácia do carfentrazone-ethyl no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,F.T.; Caetano,L.; Peruchi,M.; Palazzo,R.R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Alguns herbicidas podem ter sua eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas diminuída quando o cálcio encontra-se presente na calda de pulverização. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar a influência do cálcio na eficácia do herbicida carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado em pós-emergência sobre plantas adultas de Euphorbia heterophylla. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com as concentrações de cálcio variando de 30 a 240 ppm e de 0 a 1.000 ppm respectivamente em c...

  4. Factors and processes shaping the population structure and distribution of genetic variation across the species range of the freshwater snail radix balthica (Pulmonata, Basommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldmeyer Barbara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors and processes shaping the population structure and spatial distribution of genetic diversity across a species' distribution range are important in determining the range limits. We comprehensively analysed the influence of recurrent and historic factors and processes on the population genetic structure, mating system and the distribution of genetic variability of the pulmonate freshwater snail Radix balthica. This analysis was based on microsatellite variation and mitochondrial haplotypes using Generalised Linear Statistical Modelling in a Model Selection framework. Results Populations of R. balthica were found throughout North-Western Europe with range margins marked either by dispersal barriers or the presence of other Radix taxa. Overall, the population structure was characterised by distance independent passive dispersal mainly along a Southwest-Northeast axis, the absence of isolation-by-distance together with rather isolated and genetically depauperated populations compared to the variation present in the entire species due to strong local drift. A recent, climate driven range expansion explained most of the variance in genetic variation, reducing at least temporarily the genetic variability in this area. Other factors such as geographic marginality and dispersal barriers play only a minor role. Conclusions To our knowledge, such a population structure has rarely been reported before. It might nevertheless be typical for passively dispersed, patchily distributed taxa (e.g. freshwater invertebrates. The strong local drift implied in such a structure is expected to erode genetic variation at both neutral and coding loci and thus probably diminish evolutionary potential. This study shows that the analysis of multiple factors is crucial for the inference of the processes shaping the distribution of genetic variation throughout species ranges.

  5. [Study on the identification of radix scutellariae and extract using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional IR correlation spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-hui; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Tu, Ya

    2010-07-01

    2D-IR correlation spectroscopy was used to do the research on crude and prepared drug of radix scutellariae and the extracts of them. The results show that the holistic shape of peaks among them are similar in the FTIR spectra. In second derivative spectra, the two absorption peaks: 1,745 and 1,411 cm(-1) of processed products move to the bigger wavenumber direction, while 1,357 cm(-1) of processed products moves to the smaller wavenumber direction; There are conspicuous differences in Two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy among them: Four characteristic peaks are shown between 1,300 and 1,800 cm(-1). The intensity of peak at 1,575 cm(-1) is the strongest. There are three main districts about the autopeaks of sliced scutellariae. Wine-fried scutellariae has two auto-peak districts, in which all the auto-peaks are positively correlated. The FTIR spectra of total glycoside extract of different samples present characteristic peaks at 1,615, 1,585, 1,450 cm(-1) (vibration of phenyl framework) and 1,658 cm(-1) (=C-O ) respectively, therefore, the authors speculated that their mutual component is the compound of phenolic glycoside. The two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra present five automatic peaks (vibration of phenyl framework) in 800-1,800 cm(-1) (1,366, 1,420, 1,508, 1,585, 1,669 cm(-1)). So the authors can conclude that a lot of information can be provided by macro-fingerprint technology of infrared spectroscopy which can evaluate overall quality of radix scutellariae accurately and be used to study the characteristics of relevance of crude and prepared scutellariae.

  6. In vitro effects of active components of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix on enzymes involved in the lipid metabolism.

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    Wang, Wangen; He, Yanran; Lin, Pei; Li, Yunfei; Sun, Ruifen; Gu, Wen; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2014-05-14

    Raw and processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and PMRP) are used in the prevention and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia or related diseases. In our previous research, 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) displayed the most important role in the total cholesterol (TC) lowering effect among all the chemical constituents of Polygonum multiflorum. Emodin and physcion displayed more favorable triglyceride (TG) reducing effects than TSG. However, there are few researches focus on the approach and mechanism of how do Polygonum multiflorum exhibit good lipid regulation activity. The targeted sites of active substances of Polygonum multiflorum are still not clearly elucidated. This research pays close attention to how major chemical components of Polygonum multiflorum affect the TC and TG contents in liver cells. In this research, a sensitive, accurate and rapid in vitro model, steatosis hepatic L02 cell, was used to explore target sites of active chemical substances of Polygonum multiflorum for 48h. Steatosis hepatic L02 cell was exposed to emodin, physcion and TSG, respectively. The contents of four key enzymes in the pathway of synthesis and decomposition of TC and TG were investigated after exposure. Meanwhile, the contents of lipid transfer protein were also tested. The diacylgycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) controlled the biosynthesis of TG from free fatty acids while 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) limited the biosynthesis of TC. Hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A) played the key role in the lipolysis procedure of TG and TC. The synthesis of TC and TG in steatosis L02 cells were apparently increased in the model group compared to the control group. Intracellular contents of HMG-CoA reductase and DGAT1 increased 32.33% and 56.52%, while contents of CYP7A and HTGL decreased 21.61% and 47.37%. Emodin, physcion and TSG all showed down

  7. Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. Leaf, Flower, Stem and Root Extracts for Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality

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    Santhanam Amutha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16–29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL, followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL. All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and lossThe antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition

  8. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, with virus-derived hairpin RNA constructs confers resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus.

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    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Spetz, Carl; Haugslien, Sissel; Xing, Shaochen; Dees, Merete W; Moe, Roar; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2008-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch) is reported here for the first time. Internode stem explants of poinsettia cv. Millenium were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain LBA 4404, harbouring virus-derived hairpin (hp) RNA gene constructs to induce RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV). Prior to transformation, an efficient somatic embryogenesis system was developed for poinsettia cv. Millenium in which about 75% of the explants produced somatic embryos. In 5 experiments utilizing 868 explants, 18 independent transgenic lines were generated. An average transformation frequency of 2.1% (range 1.2-3.5%) was revealed. Stable integration of transgenes into the poinsettia nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Both single- and multiple-copy transgene integration into the poinsettia genome were found among transformants. Transgenic poinsettia plants showing resistance to mechanical inoculation of PnMV were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Northern blot analysis of low molecular weight RNA revealed that transgene-derived small interfering (si) RNA molecules were detected among the poinsettia transformants prior to inoculation. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology developed in the current study should facilitate improvement of this ornamental plant with enhanced disease resistance, quality improvement and desirable colour alteration. Because poinsettia is a non-food, non-feed plant and is not propagated through sexual reproduction, this is likely to be more acceptable even in areas where genetically modified crops are currently not cultivated.

  9. Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis

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    Entaz Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients.

  10. Dual role of novel ingenol derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV replication: inhibition of de novo infection and activation of viral LTR.

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    Celina M Abreu

    Full Text Available HIV infection is not cleared by antiretroviral drugs due to the presence of latently infected cells that are not eliminated with current therapies and persist in the blood and organs of infected patients. New compounds to activate these latent reservoirs have been evaluated so that, along with HAART, they can be used to activate latent virus and eliminate the latently infected cells resulting in eradication of viral infection. Here we describe three novel diterpenes isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, a tropical shrub. These molecules, identified as ingenols, were modified at carbon 3 and termed ingenol synthetic derivatives (ISD. They activated the HIV-LTR in reporter cell lines and human PBMCs with latent virus in concentrations as low as 10 nM. ISDs were also able to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 subtype B and C in MT-4 cells and human PBMCs at concentrations of EC50 0.02 and 0.09 µM respectively, which are comparable to the EC50 of some antiretroviral currently used in AIDS treatment. Control of viral replication may be caused by downregulation of surface CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 observed after ISD treatment in vitro. These compounds appear to be less cytotoxic than other diterpenes such as PMA and prostratin, with effective dose versus toxic dose TI>400. Although the mechanisms of action of the three ISDs are primarily attributed to the PKC pathway, downregulation of surface receptors and stimulation of the viral LTR might be differentially modulated by different PKC isoforms.

  11. Primary and secondary abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima –how do they compare and how do they differ?

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    Anne Kathrine (Trine eHvoslef-Eide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAbscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in one week. AFLP differential display (DD was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two mutants of pea (Pisum sativum in the def (Developmental funiculus gene have been performed and compared these with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first two days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions, enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis.This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94-98 million years in evolution, hence

  12. Attenuation of nociceptive pain and inflammatory disorders by total steroid and terpenoid fraction of Euphorbia tirucalli Linn root in experimental in vitro and in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Partha; Mukherjee, Dhrubojyoti; Mahanta, Poulami; Shadab, Md; Ali, Nahid; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Asad, Md; Mandal, Subhash C

    2017-10-23

    The plant Euphorbia tirucalli Linn has been successfully used as a tribal folk medicine in India and Africa for the management of acute inflammatory, arthritic, nociceptive pain and asthmatic symptoms. The present study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-asthmatic and anti-arthritic role of the total steroid and terpenoid rich fractions of the hydro-alcoholic extract of E. tirucalli root (STF-HAETR). STF-HAETR fraction demonstrated 71.25 ± 2.5 and 74.25 ± 5.1% protection against acetic acid-induced pain and central neuropathic pain at 75 and 100 mg/kg doses, respectively. It showed 96.97% protection against acute inflammation at 100 mg/kg with 1.6-fold better activity than the standard drug. The fraction exhibited such efficacy via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, by 61.12 and 65.18%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and Nitric oxide synthase in a dose-dependent manner affirms its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The spectrophotometric analysis reveals that STF-HAETR induces ameliorative effect against heat-induced denaturation of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and exhibits significant anti-proteinase activity. The plant fraction also demonstrated anti-asthmatic activity by displaying 62.45% protection against histamine induced bronchoconstriction or dyspnoea. Our findings suggest that STF-HAETR could be an effective safe therapeutic agent to treat nociceptive pain, acute inflammation, asthma, and arthritis which may authenticate its traditional use.

  13. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

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    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  14. Facilitated Visual Interpretation of Scores in Principal Component Analysis by Bioactivity-Labeling of 1H-NMR Spectra-Metabolomics Investigation and Identification of a New α-Glucosidase Inhibitor in Radix Astragali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqiu; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2017-03-06

    Radix Astragali is a component of several traditional medicines used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in China. Radix Astragali is known to contain isoflavones, which inhibit α-glucosidase in the small intestines, and thus lowers the blood glucose levels. In this study, 21 samples obtained from different regions of China were extracted with ethyl acetate, then the IC50-values were determined, and the crude extracts were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A principal component analysis of the 1H-NMR spectra labeled with their IC50-values, that is, bioactivity-labeled 1H-NMR spectra, showed a clear correlation between spectral profiles and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The loading plot and LC-HRMS/NMR of microfractions indicated that previously unknown long chain ferulates could be partly responsible for the observed antidiabetic activity of Radix Astragali. Subsequent preparative scale isolation revealed a compound not previously reported, linoleyl ferulate (1), showing α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 0.5 mM) at a level comparable to the previously studied isoflavones. A closely related analogue, hexadecyl ferulate (2), did not show significant inhibitory activity, and the double bonds in the alcohol part of 1 seem to be important structural features for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This proof of concept study demonstrates that bioactivity-labeling of the 1H-NMR spectral data of crude extracts allows global and nonselective identification of individual constituents contributing to the crude extract's bioactivity.

  15. Validated UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of eight saikosaponins in rat plasma: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in depression rats after oral administration of extracts of raw and vinegar-baked Bupleuri Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianli; Zhang, Dandan; Guo, Kun; Li, Mingxiao; Lv, Chongning; Wang, Jing; Jia, Lingyun; Lu, Jincai

    2017-08-15

    A sensitive and efficient UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of eight saikosaponins (SSa, SSb1, SSb2, SSb3, SSb4, SSc, SSd and SSf) in rat plasma. Furthermore, comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of these sakosaponins were investigated, following oral administration of extracts of raw and vinegar-baked Bupleuri Radix to depression rats. Biosamples were processed with liquid-liquid extraction technique using ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Waters BEH C18 UPLC column. 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase was used at a flow rate of 0.40mL/min. The analytes and internal standard, digoxin, were detected using negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The lower limit of quantification was less than 0.62ng/mL for the each analyte. The validation parameters investigated, which were specificity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, recovery and stability, were well within acceptable limits. Results showed that for some of analytes, AUC0-t and Cmax were significantly different after oral administration of extracts of raw and vinegar-baked Bupleuri Radix. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic study in pathological state could provide more useful information to guide the clinical usage of Bupleuri Radix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Microstructure Organization and Functional Peculiarities of Euphorbia paralias L. and Polygonum maritimum L. – Halophytic Plants from Dunes of Pomorie Lake (Bulgaria

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    I.V. Kosakivska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the leaf surface microstructure, pigments spectrum, hormones status and lipids composition of halophytes Polygonum maritimum L. and Euphorbia paralias L. that grow under natural conditions on the dunes of Pomorie Lake, (Bulgaria. It was shown that the existence in saline and dry soils provided among others adaptive mechanisms by specific microstructure of leaf. The adaxial and abaxial surfaces of P. maritimum leaves are covered with a dense layer of cuticle wax, stomata are located on the leaf both sides below the cuticle level. In E. paralias the cuticle is also well developed on the adaxial surface of leaf laminas. The epidermis of the leaf lower side is covered with a less dense cuticle layer formed by large wax crystals. This plant has stoma pores only on the abaxial side of small leaves below the cuticle level and they are surrounded with hump-shaped cuticle constructions. A high amount of carotenoids (as compared with that of chlorophylls in P. maritimum leaves indicates that these pigments have a light-collecting function and could transfer an additional energy to chlorophylls. The high performance liquid chromatography method has been used to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of hormones. It was shown that in leaves of E. paralias and P. maritimum free abscisic (ABA and conjugated indole-3-acetic (IAA acids prevailed. A high level of active ABA is correlated with the salt tolerance and ability to survive and grow in stress conditions. A high level of conjugated form of IAA demonstrated that activity of this hormone is limited. The cytokinins qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated that in E. paralias leaves zeatin forms dominated, and the level of inactive cytokinins (cis-zeatin and zeatin-O-glucoside was much higher than that of active ones (trans-zeatin and zeatin riboside. P. maritinum leaves contained a significant quantity of isopentenyl forms

  17. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji-Young, E-mail: jiyoung.min@ip-korea.org [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-04

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  18. An optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for benzoylmesaconine determination in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi, aconite roots and its products

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    Xu Hongxi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoylmesaconine (BMA is the main Aconitum alkaloid in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi, aconite roots with potent pharmacological activities, such as analgesia and anti-inflammation. The present study developed a simple and reliable method using BMA as a marker compound for the quality control of processed aconite roots and their products. Methods After extraction, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC determination of BMA was conducted on a RP-C18 column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and aqueous phase, containing 0.1% phosphoric acid adjusted with triethylamine to pH 3.0. Results A distinct peak profile was obtained and separation of BMA was achieved. Method validation showed that the relative standard deviations (RSDs of the precision of BMA in all intra-day and inter-day assays were less than 1.36%, and that the average recovery rate was 96.95%. Quantitative analysis of BMA showed that the content of BMA varied significantly in processed aconite roots and their products. Conclusion This HPLC method using BMA as a marker compound is applicable to the quality control of processed aconite roots and their products.

  19. [A cell membrane chromatography method for screening 5-HT receptor agonists from drug pair of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Lv, Nan; Huang, Jie; Deng, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Migraine is one of the common and frequently encountered diseases. The study proves that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor, plays an important role in the occurrence of migraine. Rat striatum was used for preparation of the cell membrane stationary phase (CMSP) in our experiments. The cell membrane chromatography (CMC)-offline-HPLC system was applied to specifically recognize the components from the drug pair of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, which interact with the receptors on CMSP. The dissociation equilibrium constant (KD) was measured in a rat striatum/CMC system, performed by continuously pumping sumatriptan, a 5-HT1D agonist, ranging from 2.42 x 10(-8) to 4.84 x 10(-7) mol · L(-1) through a CMC column, and the capacity factors (k') were recorded. The KD value obtained from the model was (4.59 ± 0.33) x 10(-6) mol · L(-1) for imperatorin, and the rat model of migraine induced by nitroglycerin was applied to validate the pharmacological effects of the drug pair. The results indicated that the CMC method could be a quick and efficient way for characterizing the drug-receptor interactions in vitro.

  20. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

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    Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg. At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS. The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD. Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage.

  1. Effects of triptolide from Radix Tripterygium wilfordii (Leigongteng on cartilage cytokines and transcription factor NF-κB: a study on induced arthritis in rats

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    Zhao Linhua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triptolide, an active compound of Radix Tripterygium wilfordii, is immunosuppressive, cartilage protective and anti-inflammatory both in human and animal studies of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, but its therapeutic mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of triptolide on cartilage cytokines in the CIA model. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were immunized with type II collagen and orally administered with triptolide. The arthritic scores and incidence changes of the rats were observed. The expression of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NF-κB in paw cartilage was studied with immunohistochemical staining. Results Triptolide, at both high and low doses, significantly lowered the arthritic scores, delayed the onset of arthritis and lowered the arthritis incidence. Triptolide treatment at both high and low doses lowered the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NF-κB in paw cartilage in arthritic rats. Conclusion Triptolide lowers the arthritic scores, delays the onset of collagen induced arthritis and reduces the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB and COX-2 in paw cartilage in arthritic rats.

  2. Assessment of the Diversity of Pseudomonas spp. and Fusarium spp. in Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere under Monoculture by Combining DGGE and Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wu, Linkun; Xiao, Zhigang; Wu, Yanhong; Wu, Hongmiao; Qin, Xianjin; Wang, Juanying; Wei, Xiaoya; Khan, Muhammad U.; Lin, Sheng; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-01-01

    Radix pseudostellariae is a perennial tonic medicinal plant, with high medicinal value. However, consecutive monoculture of this plant in the same field results in serious decrease in both yield and quality. In this study, a 3-year field experiment was performed to identify the inhibitory effect of growth caused by prolonged monoculture of R. pseudostellariae. DGGE analysis was used to explore the shifts in the structure and diversity of soil Fusarium and Pseudomonas communities along a 3-year gradient of monoculture. The results demonstrated that extended monoculture significantly boosted the diversity of Fusarium spp., but declined Pseudomonas spp. diversity. Quantitative PCR analysis showed a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum, but a decline in Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, abundance of antagonistic Pseudomonas spp. possessing antagonistic ability toward F. oxysporum significantly decreased in consecutively monocultured soils. Phenolic acid mixture at the same ratio as detected in soil could boost mycelial and sporular growth of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibit the growth of antagonistic Pseudomonas sp. CJ313. Moreover, plant bioassays showed that Pseudomonas sp. CJ313 had a good performance that protected R. pseudostellariae from infection by F. oxysporum. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that extended monoculture of R. pseudostellariae could alter the Fusarium and Pseudomonas communities in the plant rhizosphere, leading to relatively low level of antagonistic microorganisms, but with relatively high level of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:28966607

  3. A simple and rapid infrared-assisted self enzymolysis extraction method for total flavonoid aglycones extraction from Scutellariae Radix and mechanism exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Duan, Haotian; Jiang, Jiebing; Long, Jiakun; Yu, Yingjia; Chen, Guiliang; Duan, Gengli

    2017-09-01

    A new, simple, and fast infrared-assisted self enzymolysis extraction (IRASEE) approach for the extraction of total flavonoid aglycones (TFA) mainly including baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A from Scutellariae Radix is presented to enhance extraction yield. Extraction enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis liquid-to-solid ratio, enzymolysis pH, enzymolysis time and infrared power, the factors affecting IRASEE procedure, were investigated in a newly designed, temperature-controlled infrared-assisted extraction (TC-IRAE) system to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The results illustrated that IRASEE possessed great advantages in terms of efficiency and time compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Furthermore, the mechanism of IRASEE was preliminarily explored by observing the microscopic change of the samples surface structures, studying the main chemical compositions change of the samples before and after extraction and investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics at three temperature levels during the IRASEE process. These findings revealed that IRASEE can destroy the surface microstructures to accelerate the mass transfer and reduce the activation energy to intensify the chemical process. This integrative study presents a simple, rapid, efficient, and environmental IRASEE method for TFA extraction which has promising prospects for other similar herbal medicines. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Combination treatment with Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Puerariae radix offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

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    Dong, Xiao-Li; Cao, Si-Si; Gao, Quan-Gui; Feng, Hao-Tian; Wong, Man-Sau; Denney, Liya

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Puerariae radix (PR) combination treatment in bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in our search for an alternative regimen for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old OVX rats were used as postmenopausal osteoporotic models, and PR water extract (PR) and FLL water extract (WE) were added to commercial diets individually or in combination and administered to OVX rats for 12 weeks. Bone properties, calcium and phosphorus absorption, and bone biochemical markers were measured to investigate the potential interactions between the actions of PR and the actions of WE on bone and mineral metabolism in OVX rats. Long-term treatment with PR did not significantly improve bone properties but greatly ameliorated the secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by ovariectomy in the animals. WE significantly enhanced the intestinal calcium absorption rate and decreased the enlarged trabecular bone surface at the site of metaphysic tibia in OVX rats. However, the positive effects of WE or PR alone on bone and mineral metabolism were diminished when OVX rats were cotreated with WE and PR. The combination of these two herbs offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in vivo. The results of the present study could provide insights to medical professionals to further their understanding of the potential negative impact of herb-herb interactions when a combination of herbal mixtures is used for the management of osteoporosis.

  5. Effects of Radix Astragali and Its Split Components on Gene Expression Profiles Related to Water Metabolism in Rats with the Dampness Stagnancy due to Spleen Deficiency Syndrome

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    Wen-Xiao Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali (RA with slight sweet and warm property is a significant “qi tonifying” herb; it is indicated for the syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD. The purpose of this research was to explore effects of RA and its split components on gene expression profiles related to water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome for identifying components representing property and flavor of RA. The results indicated that RA and its split components, especially polysaccharides component, significantly increased the body weight and the urine volume and decreased the water load index of model rats. Our data also indicated differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to water metabolism involved secretion, ion transport, water homeostasis, regulation of body fluid levels, and water channel activity; the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, and AQP8 was improved; calcium, cAMP, MAPK, PPAR, AMPK, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway may be related to water metabolism. In general, results indicate that RA and its split components could promote water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome via regulating the expression of AQPs, which reflected sweet-warm properties of RA. Effects of the polysaccharides component are better than others.

  6. [Quality inspection of commercial Bupluri Radix samples in Guangzhou: an ELISA for determining saikosaponin A content using anti-saikosaponin A monoclonal antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-ling; Tan, Ming-ming; Chao, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    To inspect the quality of commercially available Chaihu (Bupluri Radix, a common traditional Chinese herbal drug) in Guangzhou by determining the content of saikosaponin A (SSa) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A competitive ELISA system using mouse anti-saikosaponin A monoclonal antibody was established for determining SSa content. Commercial samples of Chaihu were obtained from 10 drug stores in Guangzhou, and SSa contents in the methanol extracts of these samples were determined using the ELISA system. The detection range of this competitive assay was 0.16-2.5 µg/ml for determining SSa contents. In the 10 commercial Chaihu samples, SSa contents in the methanol extract determined by this method ranged from 0.32 µg/mg to 6.87 µg/mg, and 3 samples showed a SSa content lower than the minimum requirement documented in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. This competitive ELISA is sensitive, rapid, economic and environment-friendly for SSa determination, especially suitable for batch determination. The results of SSa detection for the commercial Chaihu samples demonstrate an uneven quality of Chaihu in Guangzhou market, suggesting the necessity of more rigorous quality control measures for this drug.

  7. Vinegar-Baked Radix Bupleuri Regulates Lipid Disorders via a Pathway Dependent on Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

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    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB on high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. After being fed HFD for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with VBRB or fenofibrate, once daily for further twelve weeks. VBRB (1.0 g kg−1 per day produced effects similar to fenofibrate (100 mg kg−1 in reducing body weight (BW gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as hepatic TG and cholesterol content of HFD-fed rats. VBRB also lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. VBRB and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1 proteins were reversed by VBRB and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs in HFD-fed rats was lowered by VBRB and fenofibrate. The results of this study show that VBRB suppresses BW gain and body fat accumulation by increasing fatty acid oxidation, an effect which is likely mediated via upregulation of PPARα and downregulation of SREBP expression in the liver of HFD-fed rats.

  8. Potential of Pseudoshikonin I Isolated from Lithospermi Radix as Inhibitors of MMPs in IL-1β-Induced SW1353 Cells

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    Dae Young Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoshikonin I, the new bioactive constituent of Lithospermi radix, was isolated from this methanol extract by employing reverse-phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC using acetonitrile/water solvent system as eluents. The chemical structure was determined based on spectroscopic techniques, including 1D NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, 2D NMR (gCOSY, gHMBC, gHMQC, and QTOF/MS data. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of pseudoshikonin I on matrix-metalloproteinase (MMPs activation and expression in interleukin (IL-1β-induced SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. MMPs are considered important for the maintenance of the extracellular matrix. Following treatment with PS, active MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -13 and TIMP-2 were quantified in the SW1353 cell culture supernatants using a commercially available ELISA kit. The mRNA expression of MMPs in SW1353 cells was measured by RT-PCR. Pseudoshikonin I treatment effectively protected the activation on all tested MMPs in a dose-dependent manner. TIMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated by pseudoshikonin I treatment. Overall, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of pseudoshikonin on MMPs, and we suggest its use as a potential novel anti-osteoarthritis agent.

  9. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions.

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    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named "Zi-Yu" in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  10. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

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    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  11. Assessment of the Diversity of Pseudomonas spp. and Fusarium spp. in Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere under Monoculture by Combining DGGE and Quantitative PCR

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    Jun Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radix pseudostellariae is a perennial tonic medicinal plant, with high medicinal value. However, consecutive monoculture of this plant in the same field results in serious decrease in both yield and quality. In this study, a 3-year field experiment was performed to identify the inhibitory effect of growth caused by prolonged monoculture of R. pseudostellariae. DGGE analysis was used to explore the shifts in the structure and diversity of soil Fusarium and Pseudomonas communities along a 3-year gradient of monoculture. The results demonstrated that extended monoculture significantly boosted the diversity of Fusarium spp., but declined Pseudomonas spp. diversity. Quantitative PCR analysis showed a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum, but a decline in Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, abundance of antagonistic Pseudomonas spp. possessing antagonistic ability toward F. oxysporum significantly decreased in consecutively monocultured soils. Phenolic acid mixture at the same ratio as detected in soil could boost mycelial and sporular growth of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibit the growth of antagonistic Pseudomonas sp. CJ313. Moreover, plant bioassays showed that Pseudomonas sp. CJ313 had a good performance that protected R. pseudostellariae from infection by F. oxysporum. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that extended monoculture of R. pseudostellariae could alter the Fusarium and Pseudomonas communities in the plant rhizosphere, leading to relatively low level of antagonistic microorganisms, but with relatively high level of pathogenic microorganisms.

  12. A Herbal Composition of Semen Hoveniae, Radix Puerariae, and Fructus Schisandrae Shows Potent Protective Effects on Acute Alcoholic Intoxication in Rodent Models

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    Jie Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to evaluate the effects of a herbal composition of Semen Hoveniae, Radix Puerariae and Fructus Schisandrae (SRF against acute alcoholic intoxication. The animals were treated with SRF extract (SRFE for 14 days, and ethanol was conducted subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of SRFE on righting reflex, inebriety rates, kinetic parameters of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined. In addition; levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, the activities of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, selected antioxidative enzymes, and the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA were measured. SRFE-pretreated rodents exhibited lower rates of intoxication, longer times to loss of righting reflex, and shortened times to recovery of righting reflex than in controls. The peak concentrations and area under the time-concentration curves were lower in the pretreated animals than in controls, which corresponded to higher levels of ADH and ALDH in both gastrointestines and livers of the SRFE-treated animals. The activities of CYP2E1 were lower in SRFE-pretreated animals, which also exhibited higher activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lower hepatic MDA levels. These findings suggest that the anti-inebriation effects of SRFE may involve inhibition of ethanol absorption, promotion of ethanol metabolism, and enhancing hepatic anti-oxidative functions.

  13. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

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    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  14. Spectrum Effect Relationship and Component Knock-Out in Angelica Dahurica Radix by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Q Exactive Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

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    Jinmei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of Angelica dahuricae were available for whitening or treating vitiligo clinically. They showed inhibitory or activating effects on tyrosinase, a rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis. This study aimed to identify active compounds on tyrosinase in water extract of Angelica dahurica Radix. We applied spectrum-effect relationship and component knock-out methods to make it clear. HPLC was used to obtain the specific chromatograms. The effects on tyrosinase activity were examined by measuring the oxidation rate of levodopa in vitro. Partial least squares method was used to examine the spectrum-effect relationships. The knocked-out samples were prepared by HPLC method, and the identification of knocked-out compounds was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography-four stage rod-electrostatic field orbit trap high resolution mass spectrometry. Results showed that S6, S14, S18, S21, S35, S36, S37, S40, and S41 were positively correlated to inhibitory activity of Angelica dahuricae on tyrosinase whereas S9, S11, S8, S12, S22, and S30 were negatively correlated. When the concentration of each sample was 1 g·mL−1, equal to the amount of raw medicinal herbs, oxypeucedanin hydrate, imperatorin, cnidilin, and isoimperatorin had inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity whereas byakangelicin and bergapten had activating effects.

  15. Simultaneous assessment of absorption characteristics of coumarins from Angelicae Pubescentis Radix: In vitro transport across Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration.

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    Yang, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2017-08-15

    Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used for the treatments of rheumatism and headache for centuries. To assess the absorption characteristics of coumarins from APR, a sensitive and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was established for the simultaneous determination of sixteen coumarins from APR, including psoralen, xanthotoxin, bergapten, bergaptol, isoimperatorin, imperatorin, columbianetin, columbianetin acetate, columbianadin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, angelol B, umbelliferone, scopoletin, osthole, meranzin hydrate and nodakenetin. The specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability of the method were all validated to be satisfactory. The method was then applied to the in vitro transport of APR extract (APRE) across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration of APRE. All of the tested coumarins were well or moderately absorbed across Caco-2 monolayers, and could be quickly absorbed into rat blood circulation after oral administration. Columbianetin was the most easily absorbed compound across Caco-2 cell, and also had extremely highest plasma concentration in vivo. Excellent correlation between in vitro absorption across Caco-2 cell monolayers and in vivo pharmacokinetics of coumarins from APRE was well verified. The results provided valuable information for the overall absorption characteristics of the coumarins from APR, as well as for its further studies of in vivo active substances in the further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Radix Astragali, Hirudo, Hirudin and their Compound Medicated Serum on the Growth Cycle and Apoptosis of Glomerular Mesangial Cell in Rats

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    Xianzhi Ren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of Radix Astragali (RA, hirudo, hirudin and their compound medicated serum on growth cycle and apoptosis of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs in rats and their apoptotic morphology. Methods: The prepared cells were randomly divided into control group, hirudo group, hirudin group, RA group and compound group. Flow cytometer was used to detect the growth cycle and apoptosis of GMCs while Wright stain and microscope were applied for the observation of apoptotic cells. Results: RA, hirudo, hirudin and their compound medicated serum could maintain abundant GMCs in gap phase 0/1 (G0/G1 and improve apoptotic rate of GMCs, which had significant differences when compared with control group (P < 0.01. Additionally, they could improve GMCs apoptosis, and differences were significant in hirudo and formula groups when compared with control group (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Hirudo, hirudin, RA and their compound (containing hirudo and RA can effectively inhibit MC proliferation and promote GMCs apoptosis by stopping GMCs entering phase S of which the efficacy of compound is the best, followed by hirudo.

  17. Botanical origin and chemical constituents of commercial Saposhnikoviae radix and its related crude drugs available in Shaanxi and the surrounding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Ezaki, Masami; Shiba, Mao; Yamaji, Hiroki; Yoshitomi, Taichi; Kawano, Noriaki; Zhu, Shu; Cheng, Xiao; Yokokura, Tsuguo; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Sun, Hang; Komatsu, Katsuko; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2018-01-01

    Saposhnikoviae radix (SR) is described in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia as a crude drug derived from the root of Saposhnikovia divaricata Schischkin (Umbelliferae). According to Flora of China, the root of Peucedanum ledebourielloides K. F. Fu is used as a regional substitute for SR. Therefore, we surveyed the botanical origin of the drug used in China, especially Shaanxi and the surrounding regions, through nucleotide sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. As a result, several samples from Shaanxi () and Shanxi () provinces were identified as Peucedanum ledebourielloides. To prevent this substitute from being distributed as genuine SR, we developed a thin-layer chromatography analysis condition to enable a specific compound of this species to be easily detected. The specific compound was identified as xanthalin, based on 1D- and 2D-NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The established TLC conditions were as follows-extraction solvent, n-hexane; applied volume, 5 µL; chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:ethyl acetate:acetic acid (20:10:1); developing length, 7 cm; detection, UV (365 nm); R f value, 0.4 (blue fluorescence; xanthalin).

  18. Effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol on individual life-history parameters and estimated population growth rates of the freshwater gastropods Radix balthica and Bithynia tentaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Per; Sorita, Zaoia; Berglund, Olof; Persson, Anders

    2012-04-01

    Studies of aquatic environments exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) have demonstrated detrimental effects on fish communities. However, much less is known about effects on macro-invertebrates and especially how long-term exposure may affect critical life stages and ultimately population dynamics. We studied the effects of EE2 on relevant endpoints for population growth in two common freshwater gastropods, Radix balthica and Bithynia tentaculata, that differ in reproductive, foraging and anti-predator strategies and endocrine systems. We quantified critical life-history parameters (mortality, somatic growth rate, days to and size at first reproduction, egg production and hatching success) in a concentration-response, life cycle experiment. The two species responded to EE2 exposure in different ways, B. tentaculata showing a significantly lower somatic growth rate and R. balthica a higher somatic growth rate. However, the magnitudes of the effects were small and EE2 exposure did not have any significant effect on estimated population growth rates for the two snail species. The significant effects of EE2 on individual endpoints, but not on population growth rate for both species, emphasise the importance of evaluating higher level effects from long-term exposure studies.

  19. Evaluation of the In Vivo Therapeutic Effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra Ethanol Extract with the Hypoglycemic Activities Measured from Multiple Cell-Based Assays

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    Chia-Chuan Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi Shao contains several phytochemicals with hypoglycemic actions. Current research aims to explore potential insulinotropic effects and long-term therapeutic efficacy of such herb against type 2 diabetes. Methods. Composition analysis for the ethanol extract (PRExt was executed by high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenol-enriched fraction was characterized by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Multiple cell platforms were employed to evaluate hypoglycemic bioactivities. In animal experiments, blood glucose, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-index assessment, glucose tolerance test, and in vivo glucose uptake were all measured. Additional effects of PRExt on obesity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by serum and histological analysis. Results. PRExt provides multiple hypoglycemic effects including the enhancement of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Pentagalloylglucose and polyphenol-enriched fraction are two insulinotropic constituents. Moreover, PRExt intraperitoneal injection causes acute hypoglycemic effects on fasted db/db mice. Oral administration of PRExt (200 mg/kg b.w. gradually reduces blood glucose in db/db mice to the level similar to that in C57J/B6 mice after 30 days. The improvement of glucose intolerance, HOMA-index, and in vivo glucose uptake is evident in addition to the weight loss effect and attenuation of hepatic steatosis. Conclusion. PRExt is an effective antidiabetic herbal extract with multiple hypoglycemic bioactivities.

  20. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

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    Jing-Hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kudzu (Pueraria lobata is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro.

  1. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

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    Chen Su-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD- induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg or captopril (15 mg/kg all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO and endothelin (ET levels.

  2. Bioensaios para identificação de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e da PROTOX Greenhouse and laboratory bioassays for identification of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes with multiple resistance to PROTOX and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

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    M.M. Trezzi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro bioensaios, dois em casa de vegetação e dois em laboratório, foram conduzidos com o objetivo de identificar biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e da PROTOX. Em casa de vegetação, plantas do biótipo suscetível (S e dos biótipos 4 e 23, suspeitos de resistência múltipla, foram aspergidas com diferentes doses de imazethapyr e fomesafen. Nos bioensaios em laboratório, sementes dos biótipos S e 4 foram depositadas em placas de Petri contendo diferentes concentrações dos mesmos herbicidas. Curvas de dose-resposta foram ajustadas, utilizando os modelos logístico e polinomial, respectivamente, para os dados obtidos em casa de vegetação e em laboratório. Em casa de vegetação, o fator de resistência (FR a imazethapyr para o biótipo 4 foi superior a 24, enquanto para o biótipo 23 ele foi de 15. Os FRs a fomesafen foram, respectivamente, de 62 e 39, para os mesmos biótipos. Em um período de 144 horas, concentrações de imazethapyr e fomesafen no bioensaio em laboratório foram capazes de discriminar os crescimentos da parte aérea e radicular dos biótipos de EPHHL com resistência múltipla e S. Os resultados confirmam ser tanto os testes em casa de vegetação quanto os laboratoriais, utilizando placas de Petri, metodologias apropriadas para discriminar biótipos de EPHHL S daqueles com resistência múltipla.Four bioassays were developed under greenhouse and laboratory conditions to identify Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL biotypes with multiple resistance to PROTOX and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In the greenhouse bioassays, plants of a susceptible (S biotype and of two biotypes suspected of multiple resistance (#4 and #23 were sprayed using different levels of the herbicides imazethapyr and fomesafen. The laboratory bioassays consisted of a comparative test between biotypes S and #4, exposed to germination in imazethapyr and fomesafen solutions. Dose

  3. Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex Avaliação da estabilidade temporal, estacional e geográfica da ação moluscicida do latex da Euphorbia splendens

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    Virginia Torres Schall

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscicidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring, 1.02 ppm (fall, 1.09 ppm (winter, and 1.07 ppm (summer that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador, demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12ºC (lyophilized product. A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasisTestes de laboratório com soluções aquosas do látex da Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii demonstraram uma estabilidade estacional da atividade moluscicida do produto coletado na Ilha do Governador - RJ, encontrando-se as seguintes DL90: 1,14 ppm (primavera; 1,02 ppm (outono; 1,09 ppm (inverno e 1,07 ppm (verão sobre Biomphalaria tenagophila de campo. Ensaios com o látex da planta coletado em Belo Horizonte e Recife, identificaram DL90 semelhantes aos da substância de referência coletada no Rio, demonstrando uma estabilidade geográfica do efeito moluscicida. Usando diluições aquosas do latex in natura, centrifugado

  4. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

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    E.A. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras foliares potenciais à penetração de herbicidas observadas nas plantas daninhas A. deflexus e A. spinosus foram, respectivamente, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e da cutícula das duas faces. Já em relação a A. tenella, grande espessura da cutícula das duas faces, elevado teor de cera epicuticular e alta densidade tricomática foram os principais obstáculos potenciais detectados. E. heterophylla apresentou como possíveis principais barreiras foliares à penetração de agroquímicos o alto teor de cera epicuticular, a elevada densidade de laticíferos e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla, widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes to herbicide penetration, and to other substances used for leaf spraying. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples approximately 1cm², were removed from the medium portion of the leaves, from each

  5. Possibilities and limitations of sup 1 H and sup 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the identification and the quantitative determination of some naturally occurring carcinogenic risk factors. [Senecio vulgaris; Senecio vernalis; Senecio jacobaea; Euphorbia ingens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, L.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a phytochemical screening method for some selected carcinogenic or tumor-promoting principles in higher plants. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids from some Senecio species (Compositae or Asteraceae), and the diterpene ester from Croton tiglium L. and Euphorbia ingens E. Mey (Euphorbiaceae) were chosen as representatives of both groups. The possibilities and limitations of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) for the analysis of mixtures of carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids were compared with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was well as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Senecio vulgaris L., Senecio vernalis Waldst. and Kit. and Senecio jacobaea L. were investigated.

  6. Euphorbia heterophylla leaf extract mediated green synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite and investigation of its excellent catalytic activity for reduction of variety of dyes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarod, Monireh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Mohammad Sajadi, S

    2016-01-15

    This work reports a facile and green synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite by extract of leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla without any stabilizer or surfactant. The green synthesized Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and UV-vis. The Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite was found to be effective catalyst for reduction of various dyes, such as 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl orange (MO), Congo red (CR) and Methylene blue (MB) in the presence of NaBH4 in water at room temperature. Catalysis reactions were monitored by employing UV-vis spectroscopy. Catalysis reactions followed pseudo-first order rate equation. The catalyst can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effets de Panicum maximum Jacq. associé à Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke sur la productivité des femelles durant le cycle de reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

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    N'G. D.V. Kouakou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum Jacq. Associated with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke on Productivity of Females (Cavia porcellus L During the Reproductive Cycle. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum Jacq. The association of this forage with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke improves the organic matter digestibility of the mixed diet compared to P. maximum distributed alone in growing male guinea pigs. In order to determine the effect of this diet during gestation and lactation in female guinea pigs, three diets: P. maximum (PAN basic diet; P. maximum associated to E. heterophylla (PANEUPH and P. maximum associated to pellets for rabbit (PANGRAN, were distributed ad libitum to multiparous guinea pigs (604.9 ± 40.8 g. The daily ingestion during gestation and lactation were 59.8±11.2 and 53.2±8.5; 61.5±5.2 and 72.9±16.4; 83.1±12.9 and 111.3±13.9 g DM.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. Similarly, the rates of fecundity were 111.1±0.9; 188.9±0.6 and 244.4±0.5% respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. The individual birth weight and weight gain during lactation of the piglets were 58.7±12.4, 75.6±16.2 and 102.5±12 g and 2.4±0.6; 4.1±0.9 and 6.5±1.2 g.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH, and PANGRAN. In conclusion, the association of P. maximum and E. heterophylla significantly improves ingestion, digestibility, fecundity, birth weight and weaning weight in guinea pigs in comparison to Panicum maximum used as a sole diet.

  8. Efficacy of Euphorbia milli and Euphorbia pulcherrima on aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Nilgiris Mountains, Tamil Nadu, India. Flowers of each plant were collected and thoroughly washed with 2% sodium hypochlorite solution and subsequently with sterile distilled water. After sterilization, the flowers were dried and grounded to powder. Different concentration of dry flower powder; 100, 200, ...

  9. Facilitated Visual Interpretation of Scores in Principal Component Analysis by Bioactivity-Labeling of 1H-NMR Spectra—Metabolomics Investigation and Identification of a New α-Glucosidase Inhibitor in Radix Astragali

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    Yueqiu Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali is a component of several traditional medicines used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in China. Radix Astragali is known to contain isoflavones, which inhibit α-glucosidase in the small intestines, and thus lowers the blood glucose levels. In this study, 21 samples obtained from different regions of China were extracted with ethyl acetate, then the IC50-values were determined, and the crude extracts were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A principal component analysis of the 1H-NMR spectra labeled with their IC50-values, that is, bioactivity-labeled 1H-NMR spectra, showed a clear correlation between spectral profiles and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The loading plot and LC-HRMS/NMR of microfractions indicated that previously unknown long chain ferulates could be partly responsible for the observed antidiabetic activity of Radix Astragali. Subsequent preparative scale isolation revealed a compound not previously reported, linoleyl ferulate (1, showing α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 0.5 mM at a level comparable to the previously studied isoflavones. A closely related analogue, hexadecyl ferulate (2, did not show significant inhibitory activity, and the double bonds in the alcohol part of 1 seem to be important structural features for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This proof of concept study demonstrates that bioactivity-labeling of the 1H-NMR spectral data of crude extracts allows global and nonselective identification of individual constituents contributing to the crude extract’s bioactivity.

  10. Euphorbia L. subsect. Esula (Boiss. in DC. Pax in the Iberian Peninsula. Leaf surface, chromosome numbers and taxonomic treatment

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    Molero, Julià

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the representatives or Euphorbia subsect. Esula in the Iberian Peninsula. Prior to this, a first section is included on the study of the leaf surface and a second section on chromosome numbers.
    The section on leaf surface is based on a study of the leaves or 45 populations of Iberian and European taxa of the subsections using a light microscope and SEM. The characters analyzed are cell shape, morphology of the cells and stomata (primary and secondary sculpture and epicuticular waxes (tertiary sculpture. Some microcharacters of the leaf surface proved particularly usefu1for taxonomical purposes. Thus the basic type of stoma and the distribution model of the stomata on the two sides of the leaf are characters which make it possible to separate taxa as closely related as E. esula L. subsp. esula and E. esula L. subsp orientalis (Boiss. in DC. Molero & Rovira. The morphological type of the epicuticular waxes also enables us to differentiate between E.graminifolia Vill. and E. esula aggr. And to distinguish subsp. bolosii Molero & Rovira from the remaining subespecies in E. nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter.
    Cytogenetic investigation reveals the presence of only the diploid cytotype (2n=10 in E. cyparissias L. and E. esula L. subsp. esula in the Iberian Peninsula. We describe for the first time in E. nevadensis s.1. a polyploidy complex with a base of x= 10 in which the diploid level (2n=20 is present in all subspecies; the tetraploid level (2n=40 is present in E. nevadensis subsp. nevadensis and the hexaploid level (2n=60 is found in E. nevadensis subsp. bolosii. Chromosome number is not a parameter that can be used for taxonomic purposes. In E. nevadensis, cytogenetic differentiation has followed its own course, with no apparent relationship to the process of morphological

  11. Solubility and solubilizing capabilities of aqueous solutions of Extractum Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum in light of selected values of general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility

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    Marczyński Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The general Hildebrand-Scatchard theory of solubility supplemented by Fedors’ solubility parameter −δ12$- \\delta ^{{1 \\over 2}} $ was used to estimate the real solubility by −log x2 (log of the mole fraction of phytochemicals contained in Ext. Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum. Surface activity of aqueous solution of extracts was determined and quantified – solubilizing capabilities of solutions of cexp. ≥cmc in relation to cholesterol particle size of Ø=1.00 mm, as well as of ketoprofen were defined.

  12. Antiproliferative ability of a combination regimen of crocodile egg extract, wild radix ginseng and natural Ganoderma lucidum on acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Chung Hin; Wong, Raymond Siu Ming; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Lau, Fung Yi; Kok, Stanton Hon Lung; Cheng, Chor Hing; Cheung, Filly; Tang, Wing Ka; Teo, Ivy Tuang Ngo; Chan, Albert Sun Chi; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On

    2006-12-01

    Chinese practitioners have employed the use of traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-cancer agent since the ancient period. Different combinations have been formulated for various purposes. Some have been claimed for post-chemotherapy use but their direct actions on cancer cells may not be significantly reported. In the present study, we have tested the possible anti-leukemia potential of a combination regimen including crocodile egg extract, wild radix ginseng and natural Ganoderma lucidum (CGG extract) on acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in vitro. A water soluble CGG extract was prepared and its antiproliferative activity was tested on the KG1a AML cell line and two freshly prepared bone marrow aspirate samples isolated from patients with de novo AML during presentation by a MTS/PMS assay. Furthermore, the possible activity of the CGG extract on the regeneration potential of KG1a cells was also investigated using a semi-solid methyl-cellulose colony formation assay. Lastly, the acute toxicity of CGG extract was further examined by a single high-dose oral feeding to rats. We found that the CGG extract could possess significant antiproliferative activity on AML cells. A strong colony formation inhibition was further demonstrated on KG1a cells. After feeding the rats with an excessive dose of CGG extract, we observed no development of acute toxicity. We concluded that the CGG extract has growth inhibitory potential on KG1a cells and AML bone marrow samples in vitro. An in vivo toxicity test revealed that no acute toxicity was observed after feeding the rats a high dosage of the CGG extract. Further animal model tests are necessary to investigate the possible chronic toxicity of the CGG extract.

  13. Comparison of root transcriptomes and expressions of genes involved in main medicinal secondary metabolites from Bupleurum chinense and Bupleurum scorzonerifolium, the two Chinese official Radix bupleuri source species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Chun; Chen, Meng; Xu, Jiesen; Wei, Jianhe; Jin, Yue; Xu, Yanhong; Sun, Jing; Gao, Ke; Yang, Chengmin; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Shilin; Luo, Hongmei

    2015-02-01

    Radix bupleuri, roots of Bupleurum species, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we compared the root transcriptomes of both Bupleurum chinense DC. and Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. A total of 313 483 and 342 263 high quality expressed sequence tags were obtained, respectively. In addition, 17 117 (59.2%) and 19 416 (62.8%) unigenes for B. chinense and B. scorzonerifolium had homologous genes in the opposite dataset. For B. chinense, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database (KEGG) annotation identified carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism as the three highest groups in the metabolism category. For B. scorzonerifolium, the lipid metabolism group had the most unigenes. Genes that may participate in the biosynthesis of terpenoid, triterpenoid, sterol, lignan and flavonoids were identified according to their annotations. (Tri)terpenoid-related genes were predominantly found in B. chinense. The expressions of certain genes were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the roots of the two species. A total of 558 putative transcription factors (TFs) and 137 transcriptional regulators (TRs) among 1364 TFs and 327 TRs, and 610 TFs and 129 TRs among 1600 TFs and 323 TRs were specific for B. chinense and B. scorzonerifolium, respectively. Our transcriptome comparison reflects the different types and proportions of metabolites synthesized by the two species. The data, especially, those genes involved in the biosynthesis of particular types of metabolites, will provide the basis for further investigations of the secondary metabolite repertoire of the two Bupleurum species, as well as other species from the genus of Bupleurum. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Effect of water deficits on the activity of anti-oxidative enzymes and osmoregulation among three different genotypes of Radix Astragali at seeding stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong; Liang, Zongsuo; Shao, Hongbo; Du, Feng

    2006-04-15

    Water is a key factor influencing the yield and quality of crops. Plants mainly adapt to water deficits by biochemical changes and osmotic adjustment (OA). Research on drought tolerance of field crops has been done intensively, but there is little work to be done in medical plants. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of several thousand years. TCM is playing an important role in daily life in China and applied widely in clinical experience on the globe. More and more wild medical plants are cultivated and introduced. It is known that ecological and environmental conditions are vital to cultivation and efficient component accumulation of medical plants. This study is concerned about biochemical changes of three genotypes of Radix Astragali during water deficient periods and we evaluated the relative ability of their drought tolerance on the above basis. We analyzed the effect of soil water deficits on antioxidant enzymes activity and osmoregulation substances in R. Astragali leaves of three genotypes collected on day 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 after onset of water deprivation. Under water deficient conditions, biochemical changes include protecting enzyme system, for instance superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). Osmoregulation matters include proline (Pro) and soluble sugar. Antioxidant enzyme activities and Pro, and soluble sugar content correlated between water deficient degree and time course. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased before 20 days, then decreased at the end of experiment. Proline content increased gradually, and soluble sugar content reached the highest on day 20. The order of the ability of drought tolerance in three genotypes of R. Astragali is Mongolia>Wild>Hebei by using index of drought tolerance. The research results are instructive for cultivation and introduction of R. Astragali under different conditions of water status.

  15. Synergistic effects of Artemisia iwayomogi and Curcuma longa radix on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Seol, In-Chan; Im, Hwi-Jin; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-09-15

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi and Curcuma longa radix are both used to treat hyperlipidemia in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine. To evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of the 30% ethanol extracts of A. iwayomogi (AI), C. longa (CL), and the mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE), using a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia model. Six of seven groups of C57BL/6N male mice (i.e., not including the naïve group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Of these six groups, five (i.e., not including the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with AI (100mg/kg), CL (100mg/kg), ACE (50 or 100mg/kg), or Lipitor (20mg/kg). Serum lipid profiles, obesity-related markers, hepatic steatosis, hepatic gene expression, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. AI, CL, and ACE were associated with significant effects on serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol [TC] and triglyceride), body, liver and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress biomarkers. ACE at 100mg/kg was associated with significantly greater improvements in serum TC and triglyceride, hepatic triglyceride, epididymal adipocyte size, and oxidative stress biomarkers, compared with AI and CL. AI, CL and ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expression (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha). ACE exhibits anti-hyperlipidemia properties and is associated with partially synergistic effects compared with AI or CL alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of endpoint of procedure for radix rehmanniae steamed based on ultraviolet spectrophotometry combination with continuous wavelet transform and kernel independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Hou, Zhenyu; Tang, Yanxia; Zhao, Jianbo; Sun, Yu'an; Dong, Chunhong; Fu, Dexue

    2010-10-29

    A method for determination of the endpoint of the procedure for radix rehmanniae steamed was proposed based on UV spectrophotometry combination with continuous wavelet transform and kernel independent component analysis (UV-CWT-KICA). In the proposed method, the raw UV spectra of the rehmanniae samples during steamed procedure were measured. The raw UV spectral data were firstly pretreated by CWT for elimination of the noise signal and enrichment of the spectral resolution, then the independent components (ICs) were estimated from the mixed CWT coefficient matrix. The results show that the ICs are chemical significance with their relative concentrations gradually decreasing or increasing during the first steamed period, and the endpoint of the steamed procedure can be determined by inspection of the relative concentration profiles, at which the ICs should be approached maximum or minimum. Furthermore, the estimated ICs of rehmanniae samples from different areas or with different grades are similar, and the relative concentration of the similar ICs in different groups are increasing or decreasing before the first 14 h, and nearly steady or some decreasing after 16 h. Based on the variations of the relative concentration profiles of the ICs, the endpoint of the steamed procedure can be determined as 15 h, while that determined by sensory analysis is 14-20 h. The proposed UV-CWT-KICA method can avoid the higher deviations of the endpoints that were determined by sensory analysis. It provides an alternative approach for determination of the endpoint of the procedure for processing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing for exploring chemical mechanisms in traditional processing of herbal medicines, a continuous study on Rehmanniae Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Kong, Ming; Zou, Ye-Ting; Xu, Ya-Yun; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-12-29

    Exploring processing chemistry, in particular the chemical transformation mechanisms involved, is a key step to elucidate the scientific basis in traditional processing of herbal medicines. Previously, taking Rehmanniae Radix (RR) as a case study, the holistic chemome (secondary metabolome and glycome) difference between raw and processed RR was revealed by integrating hyphenated chromatographic techniques-based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics. Nevertheless, the complex chemical transformation mechanisms underpinning the holistic chemome variation in RR processing remain to be extensively clarified. As a continuous study, here a novel strategy by combining chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing is proposed for further exploring the chemical mechanisms involved in herbal processing. First, the differential marker compounds between raw and processed herbs were rapidly discovered by untargeted chemomics-based mining approach through multivariate statistical analysis of the chemome data obtained by integrated metabolomics and glycomics analysis. Second, the marker compounds were mimetically processed under the simulated physicochemical conditions as in the herb processing, and the final reaction products were chemically characterized by targeted chemomics-based mining approach. Third, the main chemical transformation mechanisms involved were clarified by linking up the original marker compounds and their mimetic processing products. Using this strategy, a set of differential marker compounds including saccharides, glycosides and furfurals in raw and processed RR was rapidly found, and the major chemical mechanisms involved in RR processing were elucidated as stepwise transformations of saccharides (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides) and glycosides (iridoid glycosides and phenethylalcohol glycosides) into furfurals (glycosylated/non-glycosylated hydroxymethylfurfurals) by deglycosylation and/or dehydration. The

  18. Allelopathic effects of aqueous and organic fractions of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea and wheat Efectos alelopáticos de fracciones acuosas y orgánicas de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de garbanzo y trigo

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    Asif Tanveer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of weed species with allelopathic potential and characterization of their adverse effects against associated crops is required for better understanding of weed-crop interactions. Phytotoxic activity of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was investigated under controlled conditions. Two separate studies were done with each of four organic solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, 1-butanol and crude aqueous (1:10 and 1:20 whole plant fractions of E. dracunculoides using distilled water and 0.05% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as control. Different aqueous and organic fractions of E. dracunculoides had a significant bearing on germination attributes and seedling growth that varied among tested species. The final germination percentage of wheat remained unaffected; nevertheless, root and shoot elongation and biomass accumulation in these parts were significantly retarded. Aqueous fractions appeared more phytotoxic than organic fractions and suppressed chickpea germination by 35-53%. These aqueous fractions also reduced root (64-75% and 33-34% and shoot (18-62% and 21% length and root (32-33% and 42-46% and shoot (7-32% and 80-84% dry weight of wheat and chickpea, respectively. Among organic fractions, n-hexane was more suppressive to test species. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of four phytotoxins, furoic, p-coumaric, syringic, and caffeic acids, in aqueous whole plant (1:10 fractions. This study determined the phytotoxic allelopathic activity of E. dracunculoides against wheat and chickpea.Se requiere la identificación de especies de malezas con potencial alelopático y la caracterización de sus efectos adversos en contra de los cultivos asociados para una mejor comprensión de las interacciones cultivos-malezas. Se investigó la actividad fitotóxica de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. en la germinación y

  19. ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA IN VITRO DO LÁTEX DO AVELOZ (Euphorbia tirucalli L., PINHÃO BRAVO (Jatropha mollissima L. E PINHÃO ROXO (Jatropha gossypiifolia L. SOBRE MICRORGANISMOS PATOGÊNICOS.

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    Francisco Angelo Gurgel da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Por milênios, o Homem tem explorado a flora como recurso terapêutico. Muitas das espécies medicinais utilizadas possuem fitoquímicos com potencial aplicação no controle do crescimento microbiano. A resistência microbiana crescente representa um sério risco à Saúde Coletiva, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de projetos que visem a prospecção e/ou o desenvolvimento de novas drogas antimicrobianas. Na Caatinga da Região do Seridó do RN são encontradas as plantas medicinais Jatropha mollissima (Pohl Baill (Pinhão-bravo, a Jatropha gossypiifolia L (Pinhão-roxo e Euphorbia tirucalli L (Aveloz, pertencentes à Família Euphorbiaceae, na qual estão presentes fitoquímicos antimicrobianos. O presente projeto objetivou caracterizar a ação antibacteriana do látex destas espécies vegetais contra os patógenos Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi e Listeria monocytogenes. Duplicatas de Placas de Petri contendo ágar Mueller-Hinton foram semeadas em superfície com culturas padronizadas de cada microrganismo. Foram perfurados poços de 10 mm de diâmetro nos quais se inoculou 100 µL das diluições dos látex testados. As placas foram incubadas a 35±2oC/24 h. Os halos de inibição quando existentes foram medidos e registrados. L. monocytogenes apresentou a maior sensibilidade ao látex de J. mollissima; S. aureus foi inibido por J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia, sendo mais sensível no primeiro caso. S. typhi e S. typhimurium apresentaram os maiores halos de inibição (J. gossypiifolia, sendo S. typhi mais sensível ao látex de J. gossypiifolia e S. typhimurium ao de J. mollissima. E. tirucalli não apresentou atividade inibitória. Padrões de sazonalidade parecem influenciar a capacidade inibitória do látex. Recomendamos que sejam efetuados estudos mais detalhados acerca das propriedades antimicrobianas do látex de J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: atividade antimicrobiana, Jatropha

  20. Cleome rutidosperma and Euphorbia thymifolia Suppress Inflammatory Response via Upregulation of Phase II Enzymes and Modulation of NF-κB and JNK Activation in LPS-Stimulated BV2 Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiou-Yu Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleome rutidosperma DC. and Euphorbia thymifolia L. are herbal medicines used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine to treat various illnesses. Reports document that they have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in their anti-inflammatory actions have not yet been elucidated. The anti-neuroinflammatory activities and underlying mechanisms of ethanol extracts of Cleome rutidosperma (CR and Euphorbia thymifolia (ET were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated microglial cell line BV2. The morphology changes and production of pro-inflammatory mediators were assayed. Gene expression of inflammatory genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, interleukin (IL-1β, and CC chemokine ligand (CCL-2, as well as phase II enzymes such as heme oxygenase (HO-1, the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, were further investigated using reverse transcription quantitative-PCR (RT-Q-PCR and Western blotting. The effects of CR and ET on mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor (NF-κB signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. CR and ET suppressed BV2 activation, down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression and inhibited nitric oxide (NO overproduction without affecting cell viability. They reduced LPS-mediated tumor necrosis factor (TNF and IL-6 production, attenuated IL-1β and CCL2 expression, but upregulated HO-1, GCLM and NQO1 expression. They also inhibited p65 NF-κB phosphorylation and modulated Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK activation in BV2 cells. SP600125, the JNK inhibitor, significantly augmented the anti-IL-6 activity of ET. NF-κB inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, enhanced the anti-IL-6 effects of both CR and ET. Znpp, a competitive inhibitor of HO-1, attenuated the anti-NO effects of CR and ET. Our results show that CR and ET exhibit anti

  1. [In vitro study to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a combination of the haulm of nasturtium (Tropaeoli majoris herba) and of the roots of horseradish (Armoraciae rusticanae radix)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Andreas; Kolberg, Teena; Engels, Inge; Frank, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the in-vitro antimicrobial properties of a commercialized preparation (Angocin Anti-Infekt N) containing a combination of the haulm of nasturtium (Tropaeoli majoris herba; N) and of the roots of horseradish (Armoraciae rusticanae radix; H). This preparation can be used to treat upper respiratory tract (URTI) and urinary tract infections (UTI). The active ingredients are volatile mustard oils, which are activated in the gastrointestinal tract after oral intake. Previous research has shown mustard oils derived from either N or H to possess antibacterial activity. In order to assess the antimicrobial capacity of phytotherapeutic compounds containing volatile mustard oils, a modified gas-test was used. Native preparations of N and H were applied to the lids of Columbia agar plates (ratio N:H = 2.5:1) and mixed with sterile H20. Thirteen different bacterial species including Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, MRSA) were tested (20 isolates each). The test organisms were plated onto the blood agar plates and placed above the native preparations. The plates were sealed with adhesive tape and incubated at 37 degrees C. Following incubation of 24 h and 92 h, colony forming units (CFU) were counted and the minimal inhibitory concentrationg (MIC90) was determined for each bacterial species. Relevant antimicrobial activities of the combined native preparations were found against H. influenzae (MIC90 50 mg N / 20 mg H), M. catarrhalis (100 mg N / 40 mg H), E. coli (400 mg N / 160 mg H), P aeruginosa (400 mg N / 160 mg H), MSSA (400 mg N 1 160 mg H), MRSA (400 mg N / 160 mg H), and S. pyogenes (400 mg N / 160 mg H). Antimicrobial testing of a combination of N and H revealed broad antibacterial activities against clinically relevant pathogens covering both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, thus confirming previous

  2. Relevance of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Puerariae lobatae Radix to Aggregation of Multi-Component Molecules in Aqueous Decoctions

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    Bili Su

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form “molecular aggregates”. Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration. The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits’ vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT1R mRNA, while the AT2R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs’ effects. Our data provided references for

  3. Effect of Ermiao Recipe with medicinal guide Angelicae Pubescentis Radix on promoting the homing of bone marrow stem cells to treat cartilage damage in osteoarthritis rats.

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    Xu, Ying; Dai, Guo-jing; Liu, Qian; Ma, Xiao-ping; Li, Li; Chen, Wei-heng; Lin, Na

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of Ermiao Recipe (, EMR) with medicinal guide Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR) on the homing of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) to focal zone in osteoarthritis (OA) rats. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the sham-operated, model, EMR, and EMR plus APR groups (12 rats in each group). The OA rat model was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscus resection. All rats were injected with recombinant human granulocyte colonystimulating factor [rhG-CSF, 30 μg/(kg·d) for continuous 7 days], and rats in the EMR and EMR plus APR groups were treated with EMR or EMR plus APR at 1.6 or 1.9 g/(kg·d) for 3 or 6 weeks, respectively. Cartilage histopathologic changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Chondrocytes apoptosis and cartilage matrix components were tested by transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling assay and special staining. Interleukin-1β (IL-1 β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or radioimmunoassay assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), and stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1) were measured by immunohistochemistry assay. EMR and EMR plus APR significantly inhibited articular cartilage damage and synovium inflammation in OA rats at 3 or 6 weeks of treatment, the most obvious changes in these parameters were found in the EMR plus APR group. At 6 weeks, compared with EMR treatment, EMR plus APR remarkably inhibited chondrocytes apoptosis and the release of IL-1β and TNF-α, obviously decreased MMP-13 expression, and significantly increased expressions of proteoglycan, collagen, type II collagen and TIMP-1, serum levels of BMP-2 and TGF-β1 as well as expressions of BrdU, CD34 and

  4. Influência do manejo da palhada de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de soja (Glycine max e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla Influence of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla

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    C.D.G. Maciel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes manejos de palhada de capim-braquiária sobre o desenvolvimento inicial da cultura de soja e da planta daninha amendoimbravo, foi conduzido um experimento em condições de casa de vegetação no NuPAMFCA/UNESP, BotucatuSP. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação superficial (T1; manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação subsuperficial (T2; palhada incorporada ao solo (T3; e testemunha sem cobertura (T4. A palhada foi colhida no campo 30 dias após dessecação com o herbicida glyphosate (1,44 g i.a. ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete repetições, sendo as unidades experimentais vasos plásticos, com a soja e o amendoim-bravo semeados paralelamente, em linhas distintas. O T1 reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a altura das plântulas de soja aos 5 e 10 dias após a emergência (DAE, ao contrário do amendoim-bravo, o qual não sofreu interferência dos tratamentos estudados, constituindo-se em uma planta-problema para sistemas produtivos com palhada de capim-braquiária. Os resultados da análise de crescimento (TCA - taxa de crescimento absoluto, TCR - taxa de crescimento relativo e TAL - taxa de assimilação líquida das plântulas de soja e amendoim-bravo apresentaram valores máximos aos 15 DAE, com exceção do T3 para soja, o qual reduziu expressivamente o desenvolvimento em relação aos demais tratamentos.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at NuPAM-FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the effects of different types of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla. The treatments were: straw on soil surface + irrigation on the top (T1; straw on soil surface + underirrigation (T2; straw incorporated into the soil (T3 and control (T4. B. decumbens

  5. Methanol extracts of Euphorbia cooperi inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the activation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase and p38 in murine macrophages.

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    Cho, Young-Chang; Lee, In-Seon; Seo, Huiyun; Ju, Anna; Youn, Deokkyu; Kim, Younghyun; Choun, Jaehee; Cho, Sayeon

    2014-11-01

    Numerous Euphorbiaceae plants have been used for the treatment of diseases, including liver diseases, asthma and rheumatism. The present study evaluated the effect of methanol extracts from Euphorbia cooperi (MEC), a member of the Euphorbiaceae plant family, on the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)‑6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, nitric oxide (NO) as well as the activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinase and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling. Non‑cytotoxic concentrations of MEC significantly reduced the production of NO and IL‑6, but not TNF‑α, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The decreased production of NO by MEC was due to alleviated expression of inducible NO synthase. Reporter assays with cells treated with MEC demonstrated reduced activator protein‑1 (AP-1) activity, while NF‑κB activity was not reduced. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 were suppressed by MEC while phosphorylation levels of inhibitor of κB were not reduced by MEC, suggesting that MEC‑mediated inactivation of JNK and p38 is the underlying regulatory mechanism for inflammatory mediators in LPS‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  6. Aumento da Sobrevivência de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, em Condições de Laboratório, pela Ingestão de Néctar Extrafloral de Euphorbia milii Des Moul. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Nathalia Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. The objective this study was to determine if in laboratory, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L., an important vector of dengue and yellow fever, feeds on the nectar of Euphorbia milii Des Moul (Euphorbiaceae , plant commonly used in homes as a hedge, and evaluate the effect of feeding on survival. The lifetime of both sexes was checked daily and a test for fructose was used for verification of sugar intake by mosquitoes. The daily access to the nectar gave a significant increase in the lifetime of males and females (12.8 and 18.4 days, respectively in relation to mosquitoes maintained only with water (6.4 and 7.4 days, respectively. Plants in domestic environments, producing nectar and suitable for feeding by mosquitoes of the same, as well as E. milii, have the potential to play a significant role in the energy budget of mosquitoes. An increase in the survival of females can mean an increased likelihood of infection and disease transmission in males and an increased likelihood of insemination of females. Although often overlooked in research and control tactics, the propensity of the mosquito Ae. aegypti ingesting sugars can be a variable that confers advantages to this vector.

  7. Therapeutic effects of Euphorbia Pekinensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites Partially Via Regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 Signal Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Yan, Chen; Li, Yuting; Mao, Xia; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping; Lin, Ya; Guo, Qiuyan; Duan, Jingao; Lin, Na

    2017-02-01

    To clarify unknown rationalities of herbaceous compatibility of Euphorbia Pekinensis (DJ) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (GC) acting on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites, peritoneum transcriptomics profiling of 15 subjects, including normal control (Con), HCC ascites mouse model (Mod), DJ-alone, DJ/GC-synergy and DJ/GC-antagonism treatment groups were performed on OneArray platform, followed by differentially expressed genes (DEGs) screening. DEGs between Mod and Con groups were considered as HCC ascites-related genes, and those among different drug treatment and Mod groups were identified as DJ/GC-combination-related genes. Then, an interaction network of HCC ascites-related gene-DJ/GC combination-related gene-known therapeutic target gene for ascites was constructed. Based on nodes’ degree, closeness, betweenness and k-coreness, the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis with highly network topological importance was demonstrated to be a candidate target of DJ/GC combination acting on HCC ascites. Importantly, both qPCR and western blot analyses verified this regulatory effects based on HCC ascites mice in vivo and M-1 collecting duct cells in vitro. Collectively, different combination designs of DJ and GC may lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites partially via regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis, implying that global gene expression profiling combined with network analysis can offer an effective way to understand pharmacological mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Three Furanocoumarins by UPLC/MS/MS: Application to Pharmacokinetic Study of Angelica dahurica Radix after Oral Administration to Normal and Experimental Colitis-Induced Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2017-03-07

    In traditional oriental medicine, Angelica dahurica Radix (ADR) is used in the treatment of gastrointestinal, respiratory, neuromuscular, and dermal disorders. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic profiles of oxypeucedanin, imperatorin, and isoimperatorin, major active ingredients of ADR, in normal and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis rats. A rapid, sensitive, and validated UPLC/MS/MS method was established for evaluating the pharmacokinetics of three furanocoumarins. After oral administration of ADR (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg), blood samples were collected periodically from the tail vein. In colitis rats, the time to reach the peak concentration (Tmax) of imperatorin and isoimperatorin was significantly delayed (p colitis-related changes in the drug-absorption phase. Therefore, the prescription and use of ADR in colitis patients should receive more attention.

  9. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (pCMC system and matrix interference elimination strategy have significant advantages for in vivo screening of active components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  11. Effect of a stilbene glycoside-rich extract from Polygoni Multiflori Radix on experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease based on principal component and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhaohuan; Xia, Bohou; Su, Jie; Yu, Jingjing; Yan, Meiqiu; Huang, Yuefang; Lv, Guiyuan

    2017-11-01

    Polygoni Multiflori Radix is a traditional Chinese medicine used clinically to support the functions of the liver and kidneys and to treatment hyperlipidemia. In previous studies, an effective fraction, rich in 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), was separated from Polygoni Multiflori Radix and demonstrated hypolipidemic activity. The present study aimed to systematically assess the effect of this fraction on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A NAFLD model was established by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats a high-fat diet with 10% fructose solution for 18 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was applied for hepatic histopathological analysis. In addition, enzyme activities, lipid metabolism, inflammatory factors and insulin resistance indices were measured using a fully automatic blood biochemistry analyser and ELISA. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA and protein expression were evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to analyse the data. The results revealed that the TSG-rich fraction (TSGP) significantly lowered the serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and the liver free fatty acid, CYP2E1 mRNA and malondialdehyde levels, in addition to mitigating hepatic enlargement and alleviating liver steatosis. Furthermore, it upregulated PPARα mRNA expression in the liver tissue. The results indicated that TSGP exhibited a protective effect against NAFLD and the underlying mechanism may involve augmentation of anti-lipid peroxidation capacity via regulation of PPARα and CYP2E1-mediated pathways.

  12. An integrative investigation of the toxicity of Aconiti kusnezoffii radix and the attenuation effect of its processed drug using a UHPLC-Q-TOF based rat serum and urine metabolomics strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhenyu; Li, Qing; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Zhenru; Lv, Chunxiao; Liu, Ran; Xu, Huarong; He, Bosai; Li, Zuojing; Bi, Kaishun

    2017-10-25

    Aconiti kusnezoffii radix (AKR), the root of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb., is commonly used in the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis. However, the clinical application is limited due to its potential toxicity. Therefore, to investigate the mechanism of its potential neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, a comprehensive metabolomics study combined with serum biochemistry and histopathology measurements was carried out. A UHPLC-Q-TOF mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach was applied to characterize the AKR toxicity, while the toxicity attenuation effects of Aconiti kusnezoffii radix cocta (AKRC) on Wistar rats were also investigated. Two chromatographic techniques involving reversed-phase chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography were combined for the serum and urine detection, which balanced the integrity and selectivity of the two matrices. Principal component analysis was used to determine the groups, and principal component analysis discriminant analysis was carried out to confirm the important variables. Then, the developed integrative toxicity evaluation method was applied to assess the toxicity of AKR and the attenuation effect of AKRC. The highly sensitive and specific toxic biomarkers, which can provide practical bases were identified for the diagnosis of the neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by AKR. In all, a total of 19 putative biomarkers were characterized, and related metabolic pathways were identified. The study demonstrated that the established metabolomics strategy is a powerful approach for investigating the mechanisms of herbal toxicity and the attenuation effect of a processing method and would provide medical solutions for other toxic herbal medications and further clinical evidence on how AKR improves symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduction of adhesion molecule production and alteration of eNOS and endothelin-1 mRNA expression in endothelium by Euphorbia hirta L. through its beneficial β-amyrin molecule.

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    Shih, Mei Fen; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2014-07-18

    The inflammatory reaction in large blood vessels involves up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. These vascular dysfunctions are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. β-Amyrin, an active component of Euphorbia hirta L., has potent anti-inflammatory effects. So far, its preventive effects against the expression of inflammatory mediator-induced adhesion molecules have not been investigated. Endothelial cells (SVEC4-10 cell line) were treated with 50% RAW conditioned media (i.e., normal SVEC4-10 culture media contains 50% of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage culture media) without or with β-amyrin (0.6 and 0.3 µM). The production levels of E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in the SVEC4-10 cells were measured with ELISA assay kits. Under the same treatment conditions, expression of endothelin (ET)-1 and endothelial type of NO synthase (eNOS) mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. With β-amyrin, the 50% RAW conditioned media-induced E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels as well as ET-1 gene expression were all suppressed. β-Amyrin treatment also restored the 50% RAW conditioned media-suppressed eNOS mRNA expression. These data indicate that β-amyrin is potentially useful in preventing chronic inflammation-related vascular diseases.

  14. Capacidad parasítica de Praon pos. occidentale (Hymenoptera: Braconidae sobre Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae en condiciones de laboratorio

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    Aragón Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Praon pos. occidentale es un parasitoide promisorio para regular poblaciones de áfidos Macrosiphum euphorbiae en cultivos comerciales bajo invernadero de rosas. Se evaluó la capacidad parasítica de P. pos. occidentale bajo tres temperaturas constantes (18, 25 y 28ºC y variando la densidad de su hospedero (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 y 150. En cada unidad experimental se liberó una pareja del parasitoide con 24 horas de edad y se mantuvieron durante 24 horas en incubadoras graduadas a cada temperatura en evauación, con 12 horas de luz y 12 de oscuridad. Se registró el número de áfidos parasitados y se permitió el desarrollo de los huevos depositados hasta adulto. Se estimó la tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ y el tiempo de manipulación (Th a partir de los cuales se ajustó el modelo de respuesta funcional tipo II para cada temperatura. La tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ fue más alta a 18ºC con un valor de 0,1081, seguida de 28ºC con 0,0323 y 25ºC con 0,0103. El tiempo de manipulación (Th más corto fue el que se presentó a 25ºC de 4,8913, seguido de 28º C con un tiempo de 5,7579 y 18ºC con 8,2697. El máximo número de individuos parasitados estimado fue de 4,9 a 25ºC. A 18ºC el 60% de los áfidos parasitados alcanzó la emergencia del adulto, el 74,2% a 25ºC y el 88% a 28ºC. No existe ningún efecto significativo de la densidad del hospedero ni de la temperatura en la proporción sexual de Praon pos. Occidentale.

  15. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

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    Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in

  16. Green Synthesis of Silver and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Euphorbia prostrata Extract Shows Shift from Apoptosis to G0/G1 Arrest followed by Necrotic Cell Death in Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Chauhan, Indira Singh; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Shankar, Jai; Arjaria, Nidhi; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Singh, Neeloo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to synthesize silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using green synthesis from aqueous leaf extract of Euphorbia prostrata as antileishmanial agents and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of induced cell death. In vitro antileishmanial activity of synthesized NPs was tested against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani by alamarBlue and propidium iodide uptake assays. Antileishmanial activity of synthesized NPs on intracellular amastigotes was assessed by Giemsa staining. The leishmanicidal effect of synthesized Ag NPs was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay and by cell cycle progression and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the treated parasites. TEM analysis of the synthesized Ag NPs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 12.82 ± 2.50 nm, and in comparison to synthesized TiO2 NPs, synthesized Ag NPs were found to be most active against Leishmania parasites after 24 h exposure, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 14.94 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml in promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, respectively. A significant increase in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a subsequent decrease in S (synthesis) and G2/M phases compared to controls was observed. The growth-inhibitory effect of synthesized Ag NPs was attributed to increased length of S phase. A decreased reactive oxygen species level was also observed, which could be responsible for the caspase-independent shift from apoptosis (G0/G1 arrest) to massive necrosis. High-molecular-weight DNA fragmentation as a positive consequence of necrotic cell death was also visualized. We also report that the unique trypanothione/trypanothione reductase (TR) system of Leishmania cells was significantly inhibited by synthesized Ag NPs. The green-synthesized Ag NPs may provide promising leads for the development of cost-effective and safer alternative treatment against visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2015, American Society

  17. Coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction and expanded bed adsorption for simplified medicinal plant processing and its theoretical model: extraction and enrichment of ginsenosides from Radix Ginseng as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jianing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Wu, Shikun; Hu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    A high-efficient and environmental-friendly method for the preparation of ginsenosides from Radix Ginseng using the method of coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption is described. Based on the optimal extraction conditions screened by surface response methodology, ginsenosides were extracted and adsorbed, then eluted by the two-step elution protocol. The comparison results between the coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption method and conventional method showed that the former was better than the latter in both process efficiency and greenness. The process efficiency and energy efficiency of the coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption method rapidly increased by 1.4-fold and 18.5-fold of the conventional method, while the environmental cost and CO(2) emission of the conventional method were 12.9-fold and 17.0-fold of the new method. Furthermore, the theoretical model for the extraction of targets was derived. The results revealed that the theoretical model suitably described the process of preparing ginsenosides by the coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption system. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Identification of Absorbed Constituents in the Rabbit Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid after Intranasal Administration of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by HS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-APCI-IT-TOF-MSn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM nasal therapy has been utilized to treat numerous diseases for over two millennia. It has many advantages compared with other routes. In this article, headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion trap-time of flight-multistage mass spectrometry were applied for the first time to analyze the absorbed constituents in rabbit plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after intranasal administration of Asari Radix et Rhizoma (AR. In total, 47 absorbed AR constituents including 14 monoterpenes, 10 phenylpropanoids, four benzene derivatives, two alkanes, nine N-alkylamides and eight lignans were tentatively identified in the rabbit plasma and CSF. Thirty-three absorbed constituents are found to have different bioactivities related to the pharmacological actions of AR through bibliography data retrieval. These indicated that many types of constituents of TCM can be absorbed at the nasal cavity into both rabbit blood and CSF. This is the first study to explore the absorption of AR, and comprehensively analyze the absorbed constituents after intranasal administration of TCM. These findings extend our understanding of the effective substances of AR, and inspire us to make a hypothesis on the mechanism of additive effect of multiple constituents of TCMs, which is very worthy of further investigation.

  19. Simultaneous determination of umbelliferone and scopoletin in Tibetan medicine Saussurea laniceps and traditional Chinese medicine Radix angelicae pubescentis using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wu, Hai-Long; Yin, Xiao-Li; Hu, Yong; Gu, Hui-Wen; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2017-01-05

    A chemometrics-assisted excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence method is presented for simultaneous determination of umbelliferone and scopoletin in Tibetan medicine Saussurea laniceps (SL) and traditional Chinese medicine Radix angelicae pubescentis (RAP). Using the strategy of combining EEM fluorescence data with second-order calibration method based on the alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm, the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone and scopoletin in the two different complex systems was achieved successfully, even in the presence of potential interferents. The pretreatment is simple due to the "second-order advantage" and the use of "mathematical separation" instead of awkward "physical or chemical separation". Satisfactory results have been achieved with the limits of detection (LODs) of umbelliferone and scopoletin being 0.06ngmL(-1) and 0.16ngmL(-1), respectively. The average spike recoveries of umbelliferone and scopoletin are 98.8±4.3% and 102.5±3.3%, respectively. Besides, HPLC-DAD method was used to further validate the presented strategy, and t-test indicates that prediction results of the two methods have no significant differences. Satisfactory experimental results imply that our method is fast, low-cost and sensitive when compared with HPLC-DAD method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous determination of scopoletin, psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, columbianetin acetate, imperatorin, osthole and isoimperatorin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan-xu; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; Li, Jin; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Xin-rong; He, Jun; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Lin; Deng, Yan-ru; Zhang, Bo-li; Gao, Xiu-mei

    2013-04-15

    A rapid and sensitive bioassay based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight coumarins in rat plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction method with ethyl acetate was used to prepare the plasma samples after addition of warfarin as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on an Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×4.6mm, 1.8μm) using gradient elution when 1mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution - acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of each coumarin was lower than 2.16ngmL(-1). Intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 15%. The accuracies were in the range of 88.9-117%. The mean recoveries of coumarins and IS were higher than 84%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of eight coumarins in rats after oral administration of radix angelicae pubescentis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, HongJuan; Ji, BaoPing; Cai, ShengBao; Wang, RuoJun; Zhou, Feng; Yang, JunSi; Liu, HuiJun

    2014-05-01

    According to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal and edible herbs exhibit holistic effects through their actions on multiple target organs. Four herbs, Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma, were selected and combined to create a new herbal formula (PLCP). The protective effects of both the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol extract (EE) of PLCP against insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated in both high fat and high fructose diet-fed mice. Active fractions and constituents were screened in HepG2 cells with IR or an over-accumulation of triglycerides, and were further identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the AE did not improve (p > 0.05) glucose tolerance after three weeks, whereas EE showed a promising effect throughout the experiment. Medium and high doses of EE were found to reduce fasting blood glucose at week 9 by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively. In addition, their efficacies for alleviating IR were comparable with that of metformin. Compared with AE, EE effectively improved hyperlipidemia, antioxidant status, and NAFLD. In contrast, metformin did not alleviate hyperlipidemia (p > 0.05) or NAFLD in the mice model. Results from the cell-based study indicate that the protective effects of EE were possibly due to the actions from puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin.

  2. Fraction n-Butanol of Radix Notoginseng Protects PC12 Cells from Aβ25–35-Induced Cytotoxicity and Alleviates Cognitive Deficits in SAMP8 Mice by Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Aβ Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese medicine has been used for Alzheimer’s disease (AD treatment for thousands of years with more effective and fewer side effects. Therefore, developing effective potential candidates from Chinese medicine against AD would be considered as critical and efficient therapy for AD treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the neuronal protective effect of fraction n-butanol (NB of Radix Notoginseng on Aβ25–35-induced PC12 cells, explore the effect of the tested fraction on spatial learning and memory, and characterize the impacts of fraction NB on antioxidant enzymes, Aβ production, and APP and BACE1 expressions. The results revealed that fraction NB could promote proliferation of PC12 cells and protect and rescue PC12 cells from Aβ25–35-induced cell death. Moreover, fraction NB could improve spatial learning and memory impairments of senescence-accelerated prone8 (SAMP8 mice and attenuate oxidative stress and reduce the production of Aβ by inhibiting the expressions of APP and BACE1 in the brains of SAMP8 mice. The result of single dose acute toxicity assay showed that fraction NB had a mild toxicity in vivo. The pronounced actions against AD and in vivo low toxicity of fraction NB suggest that fraction NB may be a useful alternative to the current AD treatment.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of Radix Paeoniae Alba sulfur-fumigated with different durations and purchased from herbal markets: simultaneous determination of twelve components belonging to three chemical types by improved high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ming; Liu, Huan-Huan; Xu, Jun; Wang, Chun-Ru; Lu, Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Li, You-Bin; Li, Song-Lin

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a improved high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneous quantification of twelve major components belonging to three chemical types was developed and validated, and was applied to quantitatively compare the quality of Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) sulfur-fumigated with different durations and purchased from commercial herbal markets. The contents of paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoic acid and paeonol decreased whereas that of paeoniflorin sulfonate increased in RPA with the extending of sulfur-fumigation duration. Different levels of paeoniflorin sulfonate were determined in ten of seventeen commercial RPA samples, indicating that these ten samples may be sulfur-fumigated with different durations. Moreover, the relative standard deviation of the contents of each component was higher in the commercial sulfur-fumigated RPA samples than that in commercial non-fumigated RPA samples, and the percentage of the total average content of monoterpene glycosides in the determined analytes was higher in the decoctions of commercial sulfur-fumigated RPA than that in commercial non-fumigated RPA samples. All these results suggested that the established method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough for the global quality evaluation of sulfur-fumigated RPA, and sulfur-fumigation can not only change the proportions of bioactive components, but also cause the reduction of the quality consistency of both raw materials and aqueous decoctions of RPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatotoxicity in Rats Induced by Aqueous Extract of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Root of Polygonum multiflorum Related to the Activity Inhibition of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ge, Zhen-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the hepatotoxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR, root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., He Shou Wu) and the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 in the rat liver. Levels of rat serum transaminases ALT and AST were not altered but the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 in the rat liver was significantly inhibited after oral administration of aqueous extract of PMR under the experimental dosage. However, levels of ALT and AST were significantly increased and the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 was significantly decreased after injection of specific inhibitor for CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 combined with oral administration of aqueous extract of PMR, especially under the repeated treatment over interval times. Liver histopathological observation showed that a moderate liver injury occurred in rats receiving PMR treatment with the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 inhibited, but there was no significant liver damage in rats receiving PMR treatment or CYP inhibitor alone. These suggested that low level activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 from genetic polymorphism among people might be one of the important reasons for the hepatotoxicity induced by PMR in clinical practice. PMID:28626488

  5. Hepatotoxicity in Rats Induced by Aqueous Extract of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Root of Polygonum multiflorum Related to the Activity Inhibition of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Ke Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the hepatotoxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR, root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., He Shou Wu and the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 in the rat liver. Levels of rat serum transaminases ALT and AST were not altered but the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 in the rat liver was significantly inhibited after oral administration of aqueous extract of PMR under the experimental dosage. However, levels of ALT and AST were significantly increased and the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 was significantly decreased after injection of specific inhibitor for CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 combined with oral administration of aqueous extract of PMR, especially under the repeated treatment over interval times. Liver histopathological observation showed that a moderate liver injury occurred in rats receiving PMR treatment with the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 inhibited, but there was no significant liver damage in rats receiving PMR treatment or CYP inhibitor alone. These suggested that low level activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 from genetic polymorphism among people might be one of the important reasons for the hepatotoxicity induced by PMR in clinical practice.

  6. Simultaneous determination of umbelliferone and scopoletin in Tibetan medicine Saussurea laniceps and traditional Chinese medicine Radix angelicae pubescentis using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wu, Hai-Long; Yin, Xiao-Li; Hu, Yong; Gu, Hui-Wen; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2017-01-01

    A chemometrics-assisted excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence method is presented for simultaneous determination of umbelliferone and scopoletin in Tibetan medicine Saussurea laniceps (SL) and traditional Chinese medicine Radix angelicae pubescentis (RAP). Using the strategy of combining EEM fluorescence data with second-order calibration method based on the alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm, the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone and scopoletin in the two different complex systems was achieved successfully, even in the presence of potential interferents. The pretreatment is simple due to the "second-order advantage" and the use of "mathematical separation" instead of awkward "physical or chemical separation". Satisfactory results have been achieved with the limits of detection (LODs) of umbelliferone and scopoletin being 0.06 ng mL- 1 and 0.16 ng mL- 1, respectively. The average spike recoveries of umbelliferone and scopoletin are 98.8 ± 4.3% and 102.5 ± 3.3%, respectively. Besides, HPLC-DAD method was used to further validate the presented strategy, and t-test indicates that prediction results of the two methods have no significant differences. Satisfactory experimental results imply that our method is fast, low-cost and sensitive when compared with HPLC-DAD method.

  7. Euphorbia tirucalli mediated green synthesis of rose like morphology of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphor: Structural, photoluminescence and photocatalytic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidya, Y.S., E-mail: vidyays.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, LBSGFGC, Bangalore 560 032 (India); Anantharaju, K.S., E-mail: ananth.che@gmail.com [Research Center, Department of Science, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 091 (India); Nagabhushana, H. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials Research, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Sharma, S.C. [Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh 490 009 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Various morphology of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles were synthesized using E-tirucalli plant latex as a fuel. • These nanoparticles were characterized by PXRD, SEM, UV–Vis and PL. • Eu{sup 3+} doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a promising single phased red phosphor. • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 1 ml) nanophosphor exhibits superior photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Eco-friendly, cost effective and bio template route was used for the preparation of cubic Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphors using Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) plant latex as fuel. As – formed Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 1–7 ml), calcined Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 1–7 ml) and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (1–11 mol%, 7 ml) samples were characterized using XRD, SEM and UV–Vis absorption spectrophotometer. With increase in latex concentration, the nanophosphor gets transformed from nano plates to rose – like nanoflowers with size varying from 20 to 30 nm. X-ray diffraction pattern of as – formed product shows hexagonal Gd (OH){sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+} phase and it converts to pure cubic phase of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} on calcination at 600 °C for 3 h. Rietveld refinement of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 7 ml) revealed the presence of cations in the 8b (0.25, 0.25, 0. 25) and 24d positions (−0.0287, 0.00, 0. 25) and the anions in the 48e positions (0.39, 0.15, 0. 37) with space group Ia-3(206). The photoluminescence intensities of transitions between different J levels depend on the symmetry of the local environment of Eu{sup 3+} ion activators and the high ratio of intensity of ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2}) and ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 1}) provides the conclusion that Eu{sup 3+} ion occupies sites with a low symmetry and without an inversion centre. The chromaticity and the CIE coordinates were very close to the standard red color region. The absorption observed in the excitation spectra

  8. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry and QuEChERS for sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yanyan; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Wanyang; Li, Dongxiang; Yu, Zhiguo; Tong, Ling; Zhao, Yunli

    2016-09-15

    A high-throughput method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) was developed by coupling the modified QuEChERS method with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS). The 21 mycotoxins were extracted and cleaned up using QuEChERS-based procedure, then further separated on a C18 column and detected by a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in the multiple reaction monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode. Under this technique, 13 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase in positive mode while the other 8 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% ammonia as the mobile phase in negative mode. The calibration curves of all analytes showed good linearity (r(2)>0.995) within test ranges. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.031 to 5.4μg/kg and 0.20 to 22μg/kg, respectively. Additionally, recoveries were all above 75.3% with relative standard deviations within 15%. The method proposed herein with significant advantages including simple pretreatment, rapid determination as well as high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput would be a preferred candidate for the determination and quantification of multi-class mycotoxin contaminants in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Two New Phorbol Esters from Euphorbia bothae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    esterification patterns around a common tigliane diterpene scaffold.3 We therefore anticipated that phorbol ester secondary metabolites were similarly responsible for inducing the irritant contact dermatitis which we experienced on handling speci- mens of E. bothae. 1H NMR analysis of extractives of E. bothae revealed a ...

  10. Preliminary Antioxidant and Antitumorigenic activities of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of the methanol extract on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were also investigated by flow cytometry. The percentage radical scavenging activity was highest in the methanol extract followed by ethyl acetate fraction and least in the non-polar petroleum ether fraction. The IC-50 ...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON EUPHORBIA PROSTATA W. AIT

    OpenAIRE

    Shrama, Gopal Dutt; Tripathi, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Water soluble fraction of total alcoholic in the treatment of bronchial asthma 1.2. The same fraction is studied here on frog heart and on blood pressure and respiration of dog, to screen its action on cardio vascular and respiratory systems experimentally. The paper deals with the above experiments with their observations and results. In nut shell the drug is found to have cardiac depresent action an isolated frog heart as well as on frog heart in situ. The drug also possesses potent...

  12. Effect of medicated serum of Curcumae Radix extract on mRNA expression of TIMP-1, MMPs-13 and aI-collagen of HSC-T6 cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of medicated serum of Curcumae Radix (Yujin on the mRNA expression of Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, Matrix metalloproteinases-13 (MMPs-13 and aI-collagen of Hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6 cell. Twenty SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: high dose of Yujin group (16.2 g kg−1, medium dose of Yujin group (8.1 g kg−1, low dose of Yujin group (4.05 g kg−1 and blank control group (with the same volume of 0.9% saline. Yujin extract or 0.9% saline were administered daily by gavage to rats for 4d, after once administration of full-day dose for 1 h on the fourth day, ether anaesthesia was given, and blood was taken from abdominal aortic in asepsis condition for preparation of medicated serum. HSC-T6 cells were divided into 5 groups: high dose medicated serum of Yujin group, medium dose medicated serum of Yujin group, low dose medicated serum of Yujin group, medicated serum of blank control group and negative control group (added with the same volume of PBS instead of rat serum, after 48 h of simultaneous acting on HSC-T6 cells in all groups by the medicated serum with a concentration of 10%, the mRNA expression level of TIMP-1, MMPs-13 and aI-collagen was analyzed with RT-PCR. Compared with the negative control group, the mRNA expression level of TIMP-1, MMPs-13 and aI-collagen in all experimental groups increased significantly. Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of aI-collagen and TIMP-1 was obviously inhibited in all medicated serum of Yujin groups (P < 0.01, meanwhile, the mRNA expression level of MMPs-13 was effectively improved (P < 0.05. The medicated serum of Yujin had an effect on the production and degradation of Extracellular matrix (ECM of HSC-T6 cell.

  13. The volatile oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma inhibits the oxidative stress-induced cell injury via reactive oxygen species scavenging and Akt activation in H9c2 cardiomyocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Chen, Jianping; Xin, Guizhong; Gong, Amy G W; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Du, Crystal Y Q; Lau, Kei M; Lee, Pinky S C; Chen, Jihang; Dong, Tina T X; Aisa, Haji A; Tsim, Karl W K

    2014-04-28

    Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a well-known medicinal herb widely used in Chinese, Uyghur and Ayurvedic medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte loss is the major pathogenesis of heart disorders. Here, the total volatile oil of NRR was isolated, and its function in preventing the cell death of cardiomyocyte was demonstrated. The cyto-protective effect of volatile oil of NRR against tBHP-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury was measured by MTT assay. A promoter-report construct (pARE-Luc) containing four repeats of antioxidant response element (ARE) was applied to study the transcriptional activation of ARE. The amounts of phase ΙΙ antioxidant enzymes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymer chain reaction (qPCR) upon the volatile oil treatment at 30 μg/mL for 24 h. The activation of Akt pathway was analyzed by western blot. In cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes, application of NRR volatile oil exhibited strong potency in preventing tBHP-induced cell death and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the application of NRR volatile oil in cultures stimulated the gene expressions of self-defense antioxidant enzymes, which was mediated by the transcriptional activation of antioxidant response element (ARE). The induced genes were glutathione S-transferase, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic and modulatory subunits. In addition, the volatile oil of NRR activated the phosphorylation of Akt in cultured H9c2 cells. The treatment of LY294002, an Akt inhibitor, significantly inhibited the volatile oil-mediated ARE transcriptional activity, as well as the cell protective effect of NRR oil. These results demonstrated that NRR volatile oil prevented the oxidative stress-induced cell death in H9c2 cells by (i) reducing intracellular ROS production, (ii

  14. Study of Absorption Characteristics of the Total Saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis in an In Situ Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP Rat Model by Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the extensively reported therapeutic activities, far less attention has been paid to the intestinal absorption of the total saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis (in Chinese Mao-Dong-Qing, MDQ. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal absorption characteristics of ilexgenin A (C1, ilexsaponin A1 (C2, ilexsaponin B1 (C3, ilexsaponin B2 (C4, ilexsaponin B3 (DC1, and ilexoside O (DC2 when administrated with the total saponins from MDQ (MDQ-TS. An UPLC method for simultaneous determination of C1, C2, C3, C4, DC1, and DC2 in intestinal outflow perfusate was developed and validated. The absorption characteristics of MDQ-TS were investigated by evaluating the effects of intestinal segments, drug concentration, P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitor (verapomil, endocytosis inhibitor (amantadine and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, tight junction modulator on the intestinal transportation of MDQ-TS by using a single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP rat model, and the influence of co-existing components on the intestinal transport of the six saponins was discussed. The results showed that effective apparent permeability (Papp of C1, C2, C3, C4, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form had no segment-dependent changes at low and middle dosage levels. C1, C2, C3, D4, DC1, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form all exhibited excellent transmembrane permeability with Papp > 0.12 × 10−2 cm·min−1. Meanwhile, Papp and effective absorption rate constant (Ka values for the most saponins showed concentration dependence and saturation characteristics. After combining with P-gp inhibitor of verapamil, Papp of C2, C3, and DC1 in MDQ-TS group was significantly increased up to about 2.3-fold, 1.4-fold, and 3.4-fold, respectively in comparison to that of non-verapamil added group. Verapamil was found to improve the absorption of C2, C3, and DC1, indicating the involvement of an active transport mechanism in the absorption process. Compared with the

  15. The neurology of aretaeus: radix pedis neurologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2013-01-01

    Aretaeus (Aretaios) was a physician born in Cappadocia in about the 2nd century AD, a student of medicine and physician in Alexandria. His works are found in eight books which espoused the physiological and pathological views of the Hippocratic principles derived from the pneumatists and the eclectic schools. Though he has been called the forgotten physician, it has been said that: 'after Hippocrates no single Greek author has equalled Aretaios'. In order to give an indication of his neurological legacy, this paper offers a summary of and quotations from his principal neurological contributions: migraine, vertigo, tetanus, epilepsy, melancholia, strokes and paralysis. One of his most important discoveries was the notion that the pyramidal tract decussates. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Verification of counting sort and radix sort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank); J.C. Rot (Jurriaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSorting is an important algorithmic task used in many applications. Two main aspects of sorting algorithms which have been studied extensively are complexity and correctness. [Foley and Hoare, 1971] published the first formal correctness proof of a sorting algorithm (Quicksort). While

  17. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo. The review does not ... inflammation, airway inflammation, obesity, and diabetes [1]. ... content, chemical, and physical properties. Many ..... A strong luciferase signal detected in the abdominal ...

  18. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present review discusses extensively the available knowledge on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo. The review does not include other parts of these plants. Literature evidence has been analyzed to identify responsible phytochemicals and their wide range of pharmacological activities ...

  19. Ethanolic Extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix Attenuates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collectively, our results indicated that EABR has analgesic property in three pain models and useful influence on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurons, suggesting that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of EABR on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurones may explain some of its analgesic ...

  20. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) signaling pathway. AEtLP improves constipation induced by loperamide through an increase in crypt layer and stimulation of lipid .... Anti-aging activity. Total saponin of L. platyphylla improves the memory in D-galactose-induced aging on mice. They also promote body weight gain and.