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Sample records for euphorbia

  1. Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ... contrôlée des feuilles peut induire une baisse de la production de tubercules d'environ 32%. Méthodologie et ..... d'augmenter la valeur énergétique du régime et la productivité des ...

  2. Eine neue Euphorbia aus Malesien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pax, F.; Hoffmann, Käthe

    1938-01-01

    Euphorbia Backeri PAX et K. HOFFM. n. sp. — Gaules 40—150 cm alti, plerumque 60 cm superantes, basi ad 1 cm diametientes, solitarii, a basi erecti, apice saepe nutantes, basi saepe lignescentes, superne ramosi, ramis oblique erectis, simplicibus vel ramosis. Partes juveniles ± dense pilis albis, ad

  3. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris

    2015-01-01

    in Australia, topical application of latex of Euphorbia peplus L. is used as a home treatment for skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Its use in Australian folk medicine has inspired the release of the drug Picato ® (ingenol mebutate), and further fostered interest in natural products and medicinal uses...... of Euphorbia in recent years. Aim of the study: To provide an indicative overview of medicinal uses of the genus Euphorbia driven by the recent interest in biologically active natural products from Euphorbia in drug discovery. We assess documented medicinal knowledge and value of the genus Euphorbia...... and the taxonomic distribution of this value. Materials and Methods: We undertook an extensive survey of over 260 multidisciplinary publications on the online repository JSTOR using the search term “Euphorbia medicinal”. Results: Medicinal uses were identified for > 5% of the species in the genus, including...

  4. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Nilsson, Niclas; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-12-24

    The genus Euphorbia (spurges, Euphorbiaceae) is the third largest genus of flowering plants, with almost 2000 species. Its exceptional diversity of growth forms and near-cosmopolitan distribution have attracted human interest since ancient times. For instance in Australia, topical application of latex of Euphorbia peplus L. is used as a home treatment for skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Its use in Australian folk medicine has inspired the release of the drug Picato® (ingenol mebutate), and further fostered interest in natural products and medicinal uses of Euphorbia in recent years. To provide an indicative overview of medicinal uses of the genus Euphorbia driven by the recent interest in biologically active natural products from Euphorbia in drug discovery. We assess documented medicinal knowledge and value of the genus Euphorbia and the taxonomic distribution of this value. We undertook an extensive survey of over 260 multidisciplinary publications on the online repository JSTOR using the search term "Euphorbia medicinal". Medicinal uses were identified for >5% of the species in the genus, including descriptions of treatments for a variety of diseases. The most-cited medicinal uses around the world were treatments for digestive system disorders, skin ailments and, especially in the Southern hemisphere, infections. Consensus ratios indicated that the most-valued medicinal uses of Euphorbia species are in the treatment of digestive and respiratory complaints, inflammation and injuries, especially by members of Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce. The present study gives a first indicative overview of Euphorbia species used for health and wellbeing around the world. The exceptional diversity of the genus Euphorbia is not only represented by its growth forms but also by its diverse medicinal uses. Our results highlight the importance of research into medicinal uses of Euphorbia species and their importance as a source of natural products. Furthermore the medicinally

  5. Will tree euphorbias (Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis) survive under the impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) browsing in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilmann, L.C.; Jong, de K.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) on the tree euphorbias Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis was studied in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa. Black rhinoceros pushed over about 5¿7% of the trees in a 2-month period. There was a preference of rhinos for

  6. Chromatographic study of Euphorbia cyparissias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, T. Romeo,

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic population control is very difficult and includes numerous chemical substances and therapeutic techniques. Although efficient at first, the repeated use of acaricidal substances leads to the appearance of resistance. The more and more reduced efficacy of the therapeutic arsenal puts serious problems for the practitionersand increases the need of newer substances on the market. Besides this appears the problem of residues in eggs and meat, which is a serious impediment. Because of this the use of plant extracts is an attractive and promising research path. The investigations tied to the parasitic biocontrol have diversified with the study of the numerous control sources (fungi, plant extracts, volatile oils etc..In this context, the plant extracts can become an alternative source for the acaricidal control knowing that they constitute a rich source of efficient bioactive compounds. Unfortunately although at hand until today, not very much data is known about what determines theacaricidal activity of some plant extracts against the argaside ticks.The present work describes an in vitro CG-MS study for identification of Euphorbia cyparissias’ chemical composition.

  7. RAPD-PCR analysis of some species of Euphorbia grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempts to identify species of Euphorbia (Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia helioscopia, Euphorbia granulata and Euphorbia hirta) grown in University of Baghdad Campus in Jadiriyah and determine the genetic polymorphism among them by using DNA markers generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  8. Diterpenoids and triterpenoids from Euphorbia retusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Hamada; Lavaud, Catherine; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Benkhaled, Mohammed

    2009-07-01

    Six new ent-abietane lactones (1-6), three new esterified tetracyclic triterpenes (7-9), and seven known diterpenoids and triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia retusa. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic studies including 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, chemical transformation, and comparison with literature data.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia hirta against Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate method.

  10. Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Ashraful; Thorstensen, Tage; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering is an important tool for introducing desired genes into poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch). We describe in this chapter an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for poinsettia. A detailed description of genetic transformation, antibiotic selection, subsequent regeneration via somatic embryogenesis, and rooting as well as molecular and morphological analyses is included. The methodology described here could facilitate the future engineering of poinsettia for research purpose as well as commercial production of poinsettia plants with improved resistance or novel traits.

  11. Acute Toxicity of Crude Euphorbia tirucalli Latex Extracts to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extracts to Oreochromis niloticus juveniles was investigated in the College of Agriculture, Lafia. A four day static acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC50 value of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extract for the fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Various ...

  12. Phytochemical relationship of Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima with Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hafiza Ayesha; Yousaf, Zubaida; Rashid, Madiha; Younas, Afifa; Arif, Ayesha; Afzal, Ismah; Akram, Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is an important phenomenon that modifies the ecosystem. A plant can enhance or reduce the growth of other plant due to the presence of a number of allelochemicals in its different parts. Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima are medicinal plant species. Both these species are collected from wild resources for various purposes. To reduce the pressure on wild population, it is important to bring them into cultivation. Therefore, the allelopathic effects of E. helioscopia and E. pulcherrima on the growth of lettuce seeds were studied. Three different concentrations (2%, 4% and 6%) of five different solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and distilled water) were used to estimate the allelopathic potential of the above-mentioned Euphorbia species. Results indicated a non-significant growth inhibitory effect of both plants on lettuce seeds. Different extracts reduced the growth of test plant to some extent but this inhibition was not significant. From the observed results, it was concluded that the studied Euphorbia species, being medicinally important crops, can be introduced as intercrop with other cash crops.

  13. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    of medicinal plant use classification. In the cosmopolitan and pharmaceutically highly relevant genus Euphorbia L., identifying plant uses modulating the inflammatory response highlighted a greater phylogenetic diversity and number of potentially promising species than standardised categories. Our...

  14. Euphorbia esula: Achieving Management Objectives: Analysis of 2000 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In spring 2000, we continued to assess the ecological impacts of the invasive non-native species Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) on rangeland and natural areas in the...

  15. Phytotoxin produced by Bipolaris euphorbiae in-vitro is effective against the weed Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Aneli M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four virulent strain isolates of the fungus, Bipolaris euphorbiae (previously identified as a Helminthosporium sp., isolated from host plants in four states within Brazil were screened for the production of phytotoxins that promoted wilting and defoliation of the Brazilian weed, Euphorbia heterophylla, commonly found growing among soyabean crops. Only one isolate, B. euphorbiae Strain I (EUPH petropar from Mato Grosso state, produced phytotoxin in-vitro when grown in stationary culture for 7 d at 28 ° C on minimum salts medium supplemented with 1.5 % glucose as the sole carbon source. Phytotoxin was also produced when the fungal strain was grown on fructose, galactose, mannose, xylose and sucrose. The addition of nitrogen source (yeast extract, peptone or malt extract to the culture medium did not influence phytotoxin production. The phytotoxin produced by Strain I was most active at pH 6.0, stable between pH 3-9, and was highly thermostable, remaining fully active when heated at 90 ° C for 1 h.

  16. Evolutionary bursts in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are linked with photosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, James W; Xi, Zhenxiang; Riina, Ricarda; Peirson, Jess A; Yang, Ya; Dorsey, Brian L; Berry, Paul E; Davis, Charles C; Wurdack, Kenneth J

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Cenozoic decline of atmospheric CO2 levels that promoted global climate change was critical to shaping contemporary arid ecosystems. Within angiosperms, two CO2 -concentrating mechanisms (CCMs)-crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C4 -evolved from the C3 photosynthetic pathway, enabling more efficient whole-plant function in such environments. Many angiosperm clades with CCMs are thought to have diversified rapidly due to Miocene aridification, but links between this climate change, CCM evolution, and increased net diversification rates (r) remain to be further understood. Euphorbia (∼2000 species) includes a diversity of CAM-using stem succulents, plus a single species-rich C4 subclade. We used ancestral state reconstructions with a dated molecular phylogeny to reveal that CCMs independently evolved 17-22 times in Euphorbia, principally from the Miocene onwards. Analyses assessing among-lineage variation in r identified eight Euphorbia subclades with significantly increased r, six of which have a close temporal relationship with a lineage-corresponding CCM origin. Our trait-dependent diversification analysis indicated that r of Euphorbia CCM lineages is approximately threefold greater than C3 lineages. Overall, these results suggest that CCM evolution in Euphorbia was likely an adaptive strategy that enabled the occupation of increased arid niche space accompanying Miocene expansion of arid ecosystems. These opportunities evidently facilitated recent, replicated bursts of diversification in Euphorbia. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca extract in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-dola, Marium A.; Lutfi, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    Background There were no studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca, though it is commonly used by Sudanese herbalists in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Objectives To determine phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia aegyptiaca To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca in rats. Methodology Plant material was extracted by ethanol and phytochemical screening was done according to standard methods. The thickness of Albino rats’ paws were measured before injection of 0.1 ml of 1% formalin in the sub planter region and then, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 hours after oral dose of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a rate of 400mg/kg, 800mg/kg, indomethacin (5mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg). Edema inhibition percentage (EI%) and mean paw thickness (MPT) were measured in the different groups and compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cumarins, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, triterpenes, and absence of alkaloids, anthraquinones glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. The mean of EI% of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg over different time intervals (64.0%) was significantly lower compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (75.0%, P< 0.001), but higher compared to rats treated at higher dose of 400 mg/kg (57.4%, P< 0.001). In contrast, MPT of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg (6.5±1.1 mm) was significantly higher compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (6.1±.7 mm, P< 0.001) as well as 400 mg/kg (5.9±.5, P< 0.001). Conclusion Euphorbia aegyptiaca ethanolic extract has a sustained dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27004059

  18. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Euphorbia hirta (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, In vitro anticancer effects of Euphorbia hirta were investigated. The objectives of this study are to find the presence of secondary metabolites by preliminary phytochemical investigation and FTIR analysis in the Euphorbia hirta. Ethanolic leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta was tested for its cytotoxicity against ...

  19. Euphorbia factor L8: a diterpenoid from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hua Mao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,9S*,11S*,15R*-5,15-diacetoxy-3-nicotinoyloxy-14-oxolathyra-6(17,12(E-diene], C30H37NO7, was isolated from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris. The tricyclic diterpenoid molecule contains an 11-membered ring, a five-membered ring exhibiting an envelope conformation and a three-membered ring. The 11-membered ring is cis-fused with the three-membered ring and trans-fused with the five-membered ring.

  20. Técnica de cruzamentos controlados em Euphorbia heterophylla L. Crossing technique in Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VARGAS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O leiteiro, Euphorbia heterophylla L., é uma planta daninha comum no Sul, no Sudeste e no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Seu controle químico é realizado principalmente com herbicidas que agem inibindo a enzima acetolactato sintase. Contudo, nos últimos anos, vêm sendo observados genótipos resistentes em diversas lavouras da região Sul. Até o momento, não se realizaram estudos sobre as características genéticas de tal resistência. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever uma técnica de cruzamento controlado em Euphorbia heterophylla L., para viabilizar futuros estudos genéticos. Efetuaram-se hibridações controladas em diversas fases do desenvolvimento do botão floral das plantas. As polinizações e emasculações realizadas no estádio 1(quando as flores femininas apresentam estiletes separados, eretos e com coloração avermelhada, e ovário incluso no ciátio produzem grande número de ciátios com uma ou duas sementes e raras com três. As realizadas no estádio 2 (momento em que os estiletes estão separados e pouco reflexos sobre o ciátio com alteração da coloração avermelhada para branca, com a extremidade bifurcada, e ovário ainda incluso no ciátio ou acima deste, garantiram o sucesso dos cruzamentos com boa produção de sementes.Euphorbia heterophylla L. is a common weed in the South, Southeast, and Central West portions of Brazil. Chemical control is mainly done with herbicides that inhibit the enzyme Acetolactate synthase. However, resistant individuals have being observed in several farms of the South Region. There is no information about the genetic control of such resistance. The present work was aimed to study the hybridization technique in Euphorbia heterophylla L. It was studied the anatomy and the organogenesis of different individuals. Controlled emasculations and pollinations carried out in the stage 1(when the flowers present separate styles, erect and red, and ovary inside of the cyathium produce great

  1. Euphorbia plant latex is inhabited by diverse microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Hyde, Embriette R; Lahmeyer, Sean; Dorsey, Brian L; La Val, Taylor P; Mullen, Madeline; Yoo, Jennifer; Knight, Rob; Baum, Marc M

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial properties and toxicity of Euphorbia plant latex should make it a hostile environment to microbes. However, when specimens from Euphorbia spp. were propagated in tissue culture, microbial growth was observed routinely, raising the question whether the latex of this diverse plant genus can be a niche for polymicrobial communities. Latex from a phylogenetically diverse set of Euphorbia species was collected and genomic microbial DNA extracted. Deep sequencing of bar-coded amplicons from taxonomically informative gene fragments was used to measure bacterial and fungal species richness, evenness, and composition. Euphorbia latex was found to contain unexpectedly complex bacterial (mean: 44.0 species per sample; 9 plants analyzed) and fungal (mean: 20.9 species per sample; 22 plants analyzed) communities using culture-independent methods. Many of the identified taxa are known plant endophytes, but have not been previously found in latex. Our results suggest that Euphorbia plant latex, a putatively hostile antimicrobial environment, unexpectedly supports diverse bacterial and fungal communities. The ecological roles of these microorganisms and potential interactions with their host plants are unknown and warrant further research. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Keratouveitis from Euphorbia cyparissias exposure is a temporal phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischman D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David Fleischman, Jay J Meyer, W Craig FowlerDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: We present the case of an 82-year-old woman with severe keratouveitis secondary to exposure to the plant Euphorbia cyparissias during the month of August. Despite copious irrigation of both eyes, she developed a case of Euphorbia keratouveitis that was typical in its course. Exposure to plant sap from this species should be treated much like an alkaline chemical injury as the pH of the ocular surface may be elevated. E. cyparissias should be carefully handled as it may result in keratouveitis, especially in early autumn.Keywords: Euphorbia cyparissias, sap, keratitis, uveitis

  3. Biosynthesis of macrocyclic diterpenoids in Euphorbia lathyris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Dan

    documents the investigation of the biosynthetic pathways of macrocyclic diterpenoids known as Euphorbia factors in Euphorbia lathyris L. (caper spurge). These macrocyclic diterpenoids are the current industrial source of ingenol mebutate, which is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis......, a precancerous skin condition. Metabolite profiling of various tissues of E. lathyris L. revealed that the mature seeds constituted a highly specialized tissue for the biosynthesis of lathyrane and ingenane diterpenoids. RNA–seq and transcriptome analysis of E. lathyris L. mature seeds followed by functional...

  4. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. On the origin of Euphorbia subg. Esula in Europe (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanov, B.

    1964-01-01

    A study of the taxonomy and chorology of the Bulgarian species of Euphorbia has led me to consider their phytogeography; this entailed a closer view on the main features of florogenesis and distribution of subg. Esula in Europe. There are two problems concerned, viz. the origin of the two sections

  6. Catalytic properties of lipase from Ficus trichopoda and Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from Ficus trichopoda latex was able to attack specific oil to generate free fatty acids or ester as the major product. This understanding may help in devising efficient methods to produce valuable modified oils. Keywords: Latex; Lipase activity; esterification reaction; typo-selectivity; Ficus trichopoda; Euphorbia unispina ...

  7. Antileishmanial activity of piceatannol isolated from Euphorbia lagascae seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Noelia; Kayser, Oliver; Abreu, Pedro; Ferreira, Maria-Jose U.

    In the search for biologically active compounds from Euphorbia lagascae Spreng, an herbaceous plant native to southeast of Iberic Peninsula, a stilbene, two coumarins and two 1-2-deoxyphorbol diterpene esters were isolated by chromatographic methods, from the methanol extracts of its defatted seeds.

  8. Seed germination and growth of Eleucine indica and Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three experiments were conducted in a glasshouse and a laboratory to provide information on the effect of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on, seed germination, seedling emergence and growth of goosegrass (Eleucine indica (L.) Gaertn) and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla Linn), Glyphosate sprayed ...

  9. Inhibition effect of flavonoid extract of Euphorbia guyoniana on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of flavonoids extracts of three parts of Euphorbia Guyoniana towards the corrosion of type API 5L X52 steel in 15% H2SO4 has been evaluated by weight loss method and polarization technique. The results showed that extracts are a good inhibitors for API 5L X52 steel in this medium. The corrosion inhibition ...

  10. Antiproliferative activity of extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Espírito Santo, 5Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, Campus Vila Velha, Avenida Ministro. Salgado Filho ..... Brasil, 2005. 9. Aquino CL, Barbosa GM, Varricchio MCBA, Veiga VF,. Kuster RM, Zancan P, Sola-Penna M, Holandino C. High dilutions of Euphorbia tirucalli L.(aveloz) modify the.

  11. Screening of endophytic fungi that promote the growth of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored a strategy to use endophytic fungi for promoting the growth of the medicinal plant, Euphorbia pekinensis. The growth of E. pekinensis was examined in pot culture following inoculation of. E. pekinensis with endophytic fungal strains (Fusarium spp.) from E. pekinensis (E4 and E5) and those not from E.

  12. Euphorbias of South Africa: Two New Phorbol Esters from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of all four compounds. The interaction of 1–4 with opioid receptors was explored in an attempt to explain the unexplained stupor occasionally observed in herbivores browsing on E. bothae. Keywords: Euphorbia bothae, Euphorbiaceae, Phorbol Ester, ...

  13. Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E...

  14. Antiproliferative activity of extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate Euphorbia tirucalli extract for probable geographic variations in its antiproliferative activity. Methods: The aerial parts of E. tirucalli were collected in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro, Pará, Minas Gerais and Santa Catarina. The 70 % ethanol extract was obtained according to the ...

  15. Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... The present investigation aims at assessing the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the leaf of Euphorbia neriifolia on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity on rat. CCl4 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p) is a potent hepatotoxic agent, which induces peroxidative degeneration of membrane lipids causing.

  16. The Anti-Sickling Properties of Ethanol Extracts of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Moringa oleifera showed potential anti-sickling activity. The sickling inhibition and reversal activities of the extracts were significant (P<0.05) compared to their negative controls without the extracts at all. Moringa oleifera however showed greater anti-sickling activity of 93% ...

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy and tissue reaction of Euphorbia hirta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial efficacy and tissue reaction of crude ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta was investigated in canine infected incised wounds. The gross appearance and histopathological reactions of the lesions were evaluated at 72 h after treatment. The results showed that crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta neither promoted ...

  18. Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation aims at assessing the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the leaf of Euphorbia neriifolia on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity on rat. CCl4 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p) is a potent hepatotoxic agent, which induces peroxidative degeneration of membrane lipids causing hypoperfusion of the ...

  19. Terpenoid compounds from the latex of Euphorbia drupifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at the isolation and characterization of terpenoid compounds from the latex of Euphorbia drupifera. Methylated spirit extract of the latex was suspended in aqueous methanol and partitioned with petroleum spirit. The aqueous methanol residue was washed with ether. The ethereal fraction was subjected to ...

  20. Effect of Euphorbia hirta and Thymus vulgaris powders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ban placed on the long term use of commercial antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels for diseases control and growth promotion in livestock production necessitated a worldwide search for available, cost effective and efficacious alternatives. Accordingly, the effects of Euphorbia hirta (EH) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) ...

  1. Radioprotective and In-Vitro Cytotoxic Sapogenin from Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) plant is traditionally used in the treatment of abdominal troubles, bronchitis, tumours, leucoderma, piles, inflammation, and enlargement of spleen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of a sapogenin isolate of this plant.

  2. Sporoderm morphogenesis in Euphorbia obesa and Croton gratissimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Frean

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of the Euphorbiaceae show a number of pollen types which can be clearly distinguished. Generally different genera are characterized by a specific pollen type.  Euphorbia obesa Hook. f. and Croton gratissimus Burch, subsp.  subgratissimus (Prain Burtt Davy, represent two genera within the Crotonoideae with different morphology, each type characteristic for the respective genus. Taxonomically, the genus Euphorbia with apetalous flowers consisting of a naked pistil surrounded by several staminate flowers within a cyathium, is considered more advanced than the genus  Croton. In  Croton the inflorescence is a raceme with unisexual flowers. The floral whorls of the male show numerous anthers and both calyx and a showy corolla are present. Both genera are insect pollinated. In both  Euphorbia obesa and  Croton gratissimus the pollen wall in section shows columellae, a structure characteristic of angiosperms. However the present ontogenetic studies show that the formation of the columellae differs entirely in the two pollen types. The final stratification of the wall as well as the morphology of the grains differ and evaluation of the exine structure indicates that phylogenetically Croton pollen shows more advanced characters than  Euphorbia — contradicting the floral phylogeny. This study conducted at light and electron microscope level compares the two pollen types morphologically and ontogenetically, concentrating mainly on the formation of the exine which is tectate-perforate in the prolate tricolpate grain of Euphorbia obesa and semi-tectate in the anaperturate, spheroidal grain of Croton gratissimus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of pollen characters in taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships within the Euphorbiaceae. The differing pollen morphology which is related to the taxonomic grouping of tribes within the subfamily (Crotonoideae emphasizes diversity, which may result from physiological

  3. Sporoderm morphogenesis in Euphorbia obesa and Croton gratissimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Frean

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of the Euphorbiaceae show a number of pollen types which can be clearly distinguished. Generally different genera are characterized by a specific pollen type.  Euphorbia obesa Hook. f. and Croton gratissimus Burch, subsp.  subgratissimus (Prain Burtt Davy, represent two genera within the Crotonoideae with different morphology, each type characteristic for the respective genus. Taxonomically, the genus Euphorbia with apetalous flowers consisting of a naked pistil surrounded by several staminate flowers within a cyathium, is considered more advanced than the genus  Croton. In  Croton the inflorescence is a raceme with unisexual flowers. The floral whorls of the male show numerous anthers and both calyx and a showy corolla are present. Both genera are insect pollinated. In both  Euphorbia obesa and  Croton gratissimus the pollen wall in section shows columellae, a structure characteristic of angiosperms. However the present ontogenetic studies show that the formation of the columellae differs entirely in the two pollen types. The final stratification of the wall as well as the morphology of the grains differ and evaluation of the exine structure indicates that phylogenetically Croton pollen shows more advanced characters than  Euphorbia — contradicting the floral phylogeny. This study conducted at light and electron microscope level compares the two pollen types morphologically and ontogenetically, concentrating mainly on the formation of the exine which is tectate-perforate in the prolate tricolpate grain of Euphorbia obesa and semi-tectate in the anaperturate, spheroidal grain of Croton gratissimus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of pollen characters in taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships within the Euphorbiaceae. The differing pollen morphology which is related to the taxonomic grouping of tribes within the subfamily (Crotonoideae emphasizes diversity, which may result from physiological

  4. Terpenoids from Euphorbia soongarica and Their Multidrug Resistance Reversal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Aisa, Haji A

    2017-06-23

    Ten new terpenoids, including five diterpenoids (1-5), three nortriterpenoids (6-8), and two triterpenoids (9, 10), and 15 known terpenoids (11-25) were isolated from an acetone extract of Euphorbia soongarica. Sooneuphoramine (1) is the first example of a euphoractine B-type diterpenoid alkaloid, while sooneuphanones A-C (6-8) are rare nortriterpenoids from the Euphorbia genus. The isolated terpenoids were tested for their cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity, 10 of which showed moderate cytotoxicity against the KB and KBv200 cell lines, while 11 compounds exhibited P-gp modulating potential. The triterpenoid sooneuphanone D (9) possessed a remarkable MDR reversal activity much higher than the positive control, verapamil.

  5. Assessment of Immunomodulatory Activity of Euphorbia hirta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K Vijaya; Padmavathi, K

    2010-09-01

    Immune system is the major target for development of treatment strategies to improve the management of infections. Many species of Indian medicinal plants have been reported to possess active principles with immunomodulating properties. Euphorbia hirta, a pantropic herb has been reported to be pharmacologically active. This study reports one another not widely reported property of the plant, immunomodulatory activity, which has been proved using simple techniques like the macrophage activity testing, carbon clearance test and mast cell de-granulation assay.

  6. Assessment of Immunomodulatory Activity of Euphorbia hirta L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, K. Vijaya; K.padmavathi

    2010-01-01

    Immune system is the major target for development of treatment strategies to improve the management of infections. Many species of Indian medicinal plants have been reported to possess active principles with immunomodulating properties. Euphorbia hirta, a pantropic herb has been reported to be pharmacologically active. This study reports one another not widely reported property of the plant, immunomodulatory activity, which has been proved using simple techniques like the macrophage activity ...

  7. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  8. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  9. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six

  10. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Karima; Ounissi, Mondher; Brahmi, Nozha; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Abdellah, Taieb Ben; El Younsi, Fethi; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2013-05-01

    Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six months following the

  11. Comparative nutritional value and antimicrobial activities between three Euphorbia species growing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani S. Awaad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are excellent sources of nutrition and highly bioactive substances that might use in the development of new drugs and pharmaceutical agents. Three species of the Genus Euphorbia (Family Euphorpiaceae, namely; Euphorbia granulata Forssk, Euphorbia helioscobia L., and Euphorbia hirta Linn growing in Ryiadh, KSA were air-dried, powdered, and their active materials were extracted with alcohol. The nutritional value phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the plants were determined. The chemical contents were similar in the three species; however, lipid profile of the plants showed that the stearic acid and lignoceric acid were detected only in E. helioscopia and E. hirta, while palmitoleic acid was detected only in E. hirta. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were 52.48%, 69.39% and 66.52% in Euphorbia granulate, Euphorbia helioscobia, E. hirta, respectively. Three compounds, 1-ethoxypentacosane, heptacosan-1-ol and β-sitosterol were isolated from the three plant extracts and identified using different spectroscopic analysis. The percentage of crude protein was 43.65%, 25.00% and 18.75% in E. granulata, E. helioscobia, and E. hirta, respectively. The free amino acids and amino acid composition were quantitatively determined using amino acid analyzer. All the plant extracts were active against bacterial and fungal test organisms, however, the antimicrobial activity were varied according to both the Euphorbia species and the test organism.

  12. Functional connection between intracellular and extracellular secretion in species of Euphorbia genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Soma, L T; Gulyás, S; Szegletes, Z

    1993-01-01

    In species of the Euphorbia genus the intracellular latex-secretion and the extracellular nectar-secretion are anatomically connected. The functional connection of the secretional systems was proved to be probable by TLC and GC-MSD. The chemical composition of Euphorbia latex and honey was examined with these analytical methods. In our research, the comparative chemical analysis of the latex and the honey of two Euphorbia species (Euphorbia cyparissias L., Euphorbia seguieriana Necker.) was discharged. These species are unusually good melliferous plants in Hungary. Four chemical components that can be found both in the latex and in the honey were detected with ultraviolet light (254 nm), and three general alkaloid reagents (Dragendorff, Meyer and 1% Ce(SO4)2 in 2n H2SO4) were detected by TLC. By means of mass spectrum generated by GC-MSD, the following compounds of Euphorbia honey were identified: butyl-2-methylpropyl phtalat, hexadecane acid, diheptyl phtalat, bis (2-ethyl-hexyl) phtalat, benzenedicarboxylic acid decyl-hexyl ester, benzenedicarboxylic acid isodecyl-octyl ester. The first compounds can also be found in the latex of both examined Euphorbia species. This partial correspondence in the composition of the latex and the honey led to results that suggest a further, functional connection between the two, anatomically connected secretional systems.

  13. Biochemical Evaluation and Green Synthesis of Nano Silver Using Peroxidase from Euphorbia (Euphorbia amygdaloides and Its Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Cicek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles are used an increased attention for various biomedical and medical applications. In this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was made with simple method by using peroxidase enzyme partially purified from Euphorbia (Euphorbia amygdaloides plant. Optimum pH, temperature and time period were determined to obtain silver nanoparticles using the peroxidase enzyme. The result shows that higher silver nanoparticle was synthesized for 4 hours and at 20°C and pH 8. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was found as 0.5 mM. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was measured against some microorganisms such as Serratia marcescens, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Synthesized silver nanoparticles have wide spectrum antibacterial activity in low concentration and may be a good alternative therapeutic approach in medicine and pharmaceutical fields in future.

  14. Euphorbia esula Biocontrol : Achieving Management Objectives : Preliminary Analysis of 1998 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In spring 1998, studies were initiated to assess the ecological impacts of the invasive non-native species leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) on rangeland and natural...

  15. Euphorbia esula : Achieving Management Objectives : Analysis of 1998-2002 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Euphorbia esula is a long-lived perennial plant with an extensive root system. The extent of the root system makes the plant highly resistant to most traditional...

  16. Minor ent-abietane diterpenoids from Euphorbia guyoniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Hamada; Marcourt, Laurence; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Long, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    Three new abietane-type diterpenoids: ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-16-ol (1), ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-11,16-diol (2) and 11,12-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-16-oic acid methyl ester (3), in addition to three known triterpenoids: euphol (4), 24,25-epoxycycloartanol (5) and beta-sitosterol O-beta-D-glucoside (6) were isolated from the chloroform extract of the roots of Euphorbia guyoniana. Structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D homo and heteronuclear NMR experiments and ESIMS, and comparison with literature data.

  17. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.; Teisseire, D.

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  18. Euphorbia kansui Attenuates Insulin Resistance in Obese Human Subjects and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Wook Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is a main cause of insulin resistance (IR, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver diseases. This study evaluated Euphorbia kansui radix (Euphorbia as a potential treatment option for obesity and obesity-induced IR in obese human and high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese mice. Methods. In the human study, we analyzed the body weight change of 14 patients who took a single dose of 6 g of Euphorbia powder. In the animal study, male mice were divided into three groups: normal chow, HFD, and Euphorbia (high-fat diet and 100 mg/Kg Euphorbia once per week. Body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and oral glucose tolerance test were measured. Also, macrophage infiltration and expression of CD68, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, interferon- (IFN- γ, and interleukin- (IL- 6 genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed. Results. The human study showed that Euphorbia has a potential effect on body weight loss. In the in vivo study, body weight, epididymal fat weight, glucose level, IR, expression of CD68, TNF-α, IFN-r, and IL-6 genes, and macrophages in liver and adipose tissue were significantly reduced by Euphorbia. Conclusions. These results suggest that Euphorbia attenuates obesity and insulin resistance via anti-inflammatory effects.

  19. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  20. Is folklore use of Euphorbia helioscopia devoid of toxic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Uzma; Ahmad, Bashir; Ahmad, Mobasher; Erum, Alia; Hussain, Khalid; Irfan Bukhari, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate acute toxic effects of Euphorbia helioscopia in order to assure the safety and usefulness of herbal remedy. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for chemical testing guidelines No. 425 for acute oral toxicity testing were followed in this study. Mice were divided into three groups (n = 5). Group I served as control. Groups II and III were administered methanol extract of E. helioscopia leaves and latex orally at dose of 2000 mg/kg, respectively. Then, all the animals were observed for two weeks. Blood sampling was done by cardiac puncture after 14 days from each group for biochemical analysis. Histopathology was performed to find out any microscopic lesion in vital organs. LD50 was found greater than 2000 mg/kg. There was decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels of latex and leaves with methanol extract-treated animals, with respect to control indicating plant's hypolipidemic effect. On macroscopic examination, no lesions were found on vital organs, such as liver, heart and kidney; and normal architecture was observed on microscopic examination. On the basis of results, it was concluded that methanol extract of E. helioscopia leaves and latex were devoid of toxic effects in acute toxicity study.

  1. Chemical Constituents of Euphorbia Polyacantha Boiss. and their Immunomodulatory Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan O. M. ELhassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation on the stem of Euphorbia polyacantha Boiss. (Euphorbiaceae afforded a new anthraquinone named as 1, 8-dihydroxy -3- (hydroxyl methyl -5- methoxy anthracene- 9,10- dione (1 along with three known compounds, aloe emodin (2 , 3, 4, 3 ¢ –tri-O-methyl ellagic acid (3, and 3,3 ¢ ,4, 4 ¢ - tetra-O-methyl ellagic acid (4. Their structures were determined on the basis of IR, 1D- and 2D- NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analysis. The effect of isolated compounds on oxidative burst of neutrophils and T-cell proliferation response was studied. Compounds 3 and 1 displayed strong oxidative burst inhibitory activity with IC 50 2 ± 0 and 3.5 ± 1.1 µg/mL respectively, whereas they moderately inhibited the T-cell proliferation with IC 50 28.5 ± 1.8 and 22.5 ± 2.0 µg/mL respectively. Compound 2 was relatively inactive with IC 50 43.2 μg/mL in oxidative burst and >50 μg/mL in case of T-cell proliferation. This is the first report on the phytochemical profile and biological activity of E. polyacantha.

  2. Chitinase III in Euphorbia characias latex: Purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Delia; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Pintus, Francesca; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the purification of a class III endochitinase from Euphorbia characias latex. Described purification method includes an effective novel separation step using magnetic chitin particles. Application of magnetic affinity adsorbent noticeably simplifies and shortens the purification procedure. This step and the subsequently DEAE-cellulose chromatography enable to obtain the chitinase in homogeneous form. One protein band is present on PAGE in non-denaturing conditions and SDS-PAGE profile reveals a unique protein band of 36.5 ± 2 kDa. The optimal chitinase activity is observed at 50 °C, pH 5.0. E. characias latex chitinase is able to hydrolyze colloidal chitin giving, as reaction products, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, chitobiose and chitotriose. Moreover, we observed that calcium and magnesium ions enhance chitinase activity. Finally, we cloned the cDNA encoding the E. characias latex chitinase. The partial cDNA nucleotide sequence contains 762 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence (254 amino acids) is homologous to the sequence of several plant class III endochitinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determining in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Euphorbia tirucalli modulates gene expression in larynx squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Salla, Gabriela Bueno; Prates, Janesly; Cardin, Laila Toniol; Dos Santos, Anemari Ramos Dinarte; Silva, Wilson Araújo da; da Cunha, Bianca Rodrigues; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Rodrigues-Lisoni, Flávia Cristina

    2016-05-21

    Some plants had been used in the treatment of cancer and one of these has attracted scientific interest, the Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli), used in the treatment of asthma, ulcers, warts has active components with activities scientifically proven as antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. We evaluate the influence of the antitumoral fraction of the E. tirucalli latex in the larynx squamous cell carcinoma (Hep-2), on the morphology, cell proliferation and gene expression. The Hep-2 cells were cultivated in complete medium (MEM 10 %) and treated with E. tirucalli latex for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. After statistically analyzing the proliferation of the tested cells, the cells were cultivated again for RNA extraction and the Rapid Subtractive Hybridization (RaSH) technique was used to identify genes with altered expression. The genes found using the RaSH technique were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) using Ingenuity Systems. The five genes found to have differential expression were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. Though treatment with E. tirucalli latex did not change the cell morphology in comparison to control samples, but the cell growth was significantly decreased. The RaSH showed change in the expression of some genes, including ANXA1, TCEA1, NGFRAP1, ITPR1 and CD55, which are associated with inflammatory response, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, calcium ion transport regulation and complement system, respectively. The E. tirucalli latex treatment down-regulated ITPR1 and up-regulated ANXA1 and CD55 genes, and was validated by real-time quantitative PCR. The data indicate the involvement of E. tirucalli latex in the altered expression of genes involved in tumorigenic processes, which could potentially be applied as a therapeutic indicator of larynx cancer.

  5. Seed-Robbing between Ant Species Intervenes in the Myrmecochory of Euphorbia characias (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Espadaler; Crisanto Gómez; David Suñrer

    1995-01-01

    A case of interference competition in which some ant species (Messor barbarus and Aphaenogaster senilis) rob seeds of Euphorbia characias from other ants (especially Tapinoma nigerrimum) is reported. Seed robbing is here regarded as a possible natural impediment to myrmecochory as it may interfere with the seedling recruitment process of the myrmecochorous plant.

  6. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  7. Beheersing en bestrijding van Botrytis cinerea en van Penicillium in Euphorbia fulgens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, J.P.; Hazendonk, A.; Bosker, I.; Slootweg, C.; Hoope, ten M.

    2002-01-01

    De bloeiwijze van Euphorbia fulgens kent twee belangrijke schimmelbelagers, die problemen in de teelt veroorzaken: Botrytis cinerea en Penicillium. B. cinerea geeft schade in de vorm van smet of pokken, die op de bloemblaadjes verschijnen. Dit zijn kleine donkerbruine/zwarte plekjes van ongeveer 1

  8. The involvement of amino acids in latex lipid synthesis in Euphorbia lathyris seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, H.W.; Elings, J.

    1984-01-01

    The breakdown of triglycerides and proteins in the endosperm of Euphorbia lathyris was assayed in a 14 day germination period. Six days after germination, the average daily production was 2.7 μmol of amino acids. Arginine, glutamine, asparagine and glutamic acid accounted for 53% of the total amino

  9. Repellence and toxicity of plant essential oils to the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.E.; Bruin, de A.; Moskal, J.R.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Several plant essential oils were tested for their effect on behaviour and mortality of M. euphorbiae. Olfactory and contact experiments were performed to study these effects. We found that host plant and formulation of the different oils have a strong influence on repellence and mortality of the

  10. New Compounds from Euphorbia helioscopia and Absolute Configuration Determination by Computational Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiangbo; Zhu, Hua Jie; Luo, Gui Fen; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong Xian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaopeng; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Guochun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Guang Ming [Dali University, Dali (China)

    2010-08-15

    The whole plant of Euphorbia helioscopia is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Fom its BuOH soluble extract, one new lactam, three new terpenoids including a new naturally occurring compound, and three known compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic evidences. In particular, the absolute configurations of side chain of compounds 1 and 2 were determined using computational methods.

  11. Inoculation of cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma harzianum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubský, M.; Šrámek, F.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2002), s. 63-68 ISSN 0370-663X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cyclamen persicum * Euphorbia pulcherrima * inoculation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2002

  12. Inventory and analysis of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) sites: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Francis; Meredith J. Morris; Richard J. Myhre; Daniel L. Noble

    1980-01-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) infests more than 2.25 million acres of agricultural and range lands in the United States and had an economic impact of $10.5 million in 1978 (Noble et al. 1979). The most widespread and heaviest areas of infestation are in the northern and central Great Plains. However, quantitative information and compatible...

  13. In vitro evaluation of the effect of Euphorbia kamerunica latex on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Euphorbia kamerunica latex on the blood of albino rat (Rattus novergicus) was studied. Two different samples were prepared, one with 10% E. kamerunica latex in blood of albino rat and the other, whole blood. Blood from each of the two samples was analyzed haematologically for the packed cell volume ...

  14. [Analysis and comparison of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Cai, Miao-zhen; Wang, Hong; Yu, Rui-peng; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2010-07-01

    Herba euphorbiae humifusae is the dried whole plant of Euphorbia humi fusa Willd. that belongs to euphorbiaceae. In the present paper, the microwave digestion procedure was used to digest herba euphorbiae humifusae collected in different periods, and then flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of eight kinds of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods, and the change in the contents of trace elements at different times was studied and analysed. The results showed that of all the trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods, element Fe was the highest in June, element K was in August at the highest level, element Mn reached the highest content in September, elements Na and Ca were dividedly at the highest content in October and November, and in December the highest content elements were Zn, Cu and Mg. In one word, the change of Na and Ca was jumping, while the change of Cu and Zn was comparatively mild. The results provide scientific basis for the time of collection of herba euphorbiae humifusae.

  15. Growth analysis of three species weeds Euphorbia genus = Análise de crescimento de espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Teresa Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane plantations, species of the genus Euphorbia are reported as weeds able to reduce productivity by up to 85%. Planning the correct strategies for controlling these plants requires knowledge of their biology and growth. The aim of this work therefore, was to evaluate the growth of three weed species of the genus Euphorbia occurring in sugarcane plantations. The study was carried out in a greenhouse, using a completely randomised experimental design in a scheme of lots subdivided over time, with five replications. The factors were three species of Euphorbia (E. heterophylla, E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta and 13 periods of evaluation 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 98 days after sowing (DAS. Each evaluation measured plant height (PH, leaf area (LA, number of leaves (NL and total dry matter (TDM. From the mean values for shoot dry matter (SDM, TDM and LA, the absolute growth rate (AGR and relative growth rate (RGR, leaf area ratio (LAR, and leaf weight ratio (LWR were calculated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and non-linear regression. E. heterophylla displayed greater PH up to 63 DAS, from this point E. hyssopifolia obtained greater height among the species under study. E. heterophylla was noteworthy for having a greater accumulation of LA, TDM and AGR among the studied species, followed by E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta. Maximum growth in the species under evaluation was at 77 DAS. Among the species, E. heterophylla displays greater growth and development. = Nos canaviais, espécies do gênero Euphorbia são relatadas como plantas daninhas capazes de reduzir a produtividade em até 85%. Para traçar estratégias corretas de controle dessas plantas é necessário o conhecimento tanto da sua biologia quanto do seu crescimento. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento de três espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia ocorrentes nos canaviais. O estudo foi realizado em casa de vegeta

  16. Germination and mycelial growth of Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho as influenced by herbicides and surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoto Marta Cecília Mallasen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho can be combined with herbicide in order to control a large spectrum of weed species, being a strong candidate for the biocontrol of Euphorbia heterophylla L. (milk weed. The fungus release can be combined with herbicide in order to control a broader spectrum of weed species. Thus, laboratory experiments were set up to study the feasibility of using tank mixes of B. euphorbiae spores with herbicides or surfactants recommended for soybean. Mycelial growth and conidia germination were evaluated in PDA medium enriched with the herbicides oxasulfuron (80 g/ha, glyphosate (4 L/ha, bentazon (1.5 L/ha, fomesafen (1 L/ha, chlorimuron-ethyl (80 g/ha, lactofen (1 L/ha and imazetaphyr (1 L/ha, and the surfactants Energic (2 ml/L, Aterbane (2.5 ml/L, Silwet L-77Ag (1 ml/L, Herbitensil (2 ml/L and Natur L'óleo (10 ml/L. Dilution of the herbicides at 50% and 25% were evaluated based on solution consumption of 300 L/ha. The surfactants were evaluated only in the recommended concentrations. Mycelial growth was not affected by bentazon and fomesafen and slightly by oxasulfuron. However, glyphosate and the surfactants Energic, Herbitensil and Aterbane strongly reduced its growth. The reduction observed on imazetaphyr enriched medium was intermediate and the Natur L'óleo promoted mycelial growth. All of the surfactants allowed B. euphorbiae conidia germination equivalent to that reached in the presence of water. Energic and Herbitensil caused an expressive retardation on spore germination. The germinative process only began after 120 minutes in the presence of Herbitensil. In relation to the herbicides, it was observed that only in the presence of glyphosate and imazetaphyr the conidia germination did not follow the trend of the treatment with water.

  17. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of Euphorbia hirta L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh K.; Padmavathi K

    2010-01-01

    Immune system is the major target for development of treatment strategies to improve the management of infections. Many species of Indian medicinal plants have been reported to possess active principles with immunomodulating properties. Euphorbia hirta, a pantropic herb has been reported to be pharmacologically active. This study reports one another not widely reported property of the plant, immunomodulatory activity, which has been proved using simple techniques like the macrophage activity ...

  18. Genetic characterization of a red color morph of Euphorbia esula subsp. esula (Euphorbiaceae) in the floodplains of Saône (Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula L (Euphorbiaceae) is an The invasive leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula L (Euphorbiaceae) is an emerging weed in the floodplains of the Val de Saône France, that displaces native flora and desirable forage species by forming dense monotypic stands. It is conside...

  19. Biocrude crop production in arid lands. [Calotropis procera, Chrysothamus paniculatus, Euphorbia lathyris, Grindelia camporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.P.; Kingsolver, B.E.; Hoffmann, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Published and unpublished estimates of land and water requirements and energy yield were used to prepare energy budgets for 4 potential biocrude (liquid fuel) crops in the SW USA: the perennials Calotropis procera and Chrysothamnus paniculatus and the annuals Euphorbia lathyris and Grindelia camporum. Estimated annual costs are examined and discussed for an operation processing 300,000 t/yr. The cheapest energy was produced by C. paniculatus, although it required the largest land area. The paper emphasizes that selecting for biocrude content (biomass quality) of plants may be at the expense of productivity (quantity) since the 2 have been shown to be inversely related in many cases. 8 references.

  20. [Dermatitis and conjunctivitis after contact with Euphorbia myrsinites (wolf's milk extract)--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, M M; Erb, C; Flammer, J; Meyer, P

    1999-09-01

    Fresh sap of euphorbiaceae leads to a toxic burn of the skin and the eyes. Since years the sap of euphorbiaceae has been used in the treatment of different kinds of verrucas. After contact with the sap of Euphorbia myrsinites three children developed a toxic dermatitis. In addition, the youngest girl showed a conjunctivitis and an occlusion of the right eye. Phorbolesters are considered to be responsible for the toxicity of the euphorbiaceae. All three children have resulted in a restitutio ad integrum. This case report is demonstrating the danger of toxic burn of this kind of plant.

  1. POTENSI ANTIMIKROBIA KRIM EKSTRAK RANTING PATAH TULANG (Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. TERHADAP Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 11827 DAN Candida albicans ATCC 24433

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Scandinovita Setiorini

    2016-04-01

    extracts with cream for testing Candida albicans.The final results were 10% test extract had MIC to Propionibacterium acnes and 6% test extract had MIC in cream to Candida albicans. Keywords: Euphorbia tirucalli L., DMSO, Thymol, antimicrobial potency, cream (o/w, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans

  2. Method for increasing the synthesis and accumulation of natural hydrocarbons derived from terpenoid metabolism in the euphorbia lathyris plant

    OpenAIRE

    Balaguer Zamora, Begoña; Castelblanque Soriano, Lourdes; Martí-Ibáñez, María Cristina; Ramírez García, Vicente; Vera, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for obtaining triterpene-enriched biomass, characterised in that it comprises treating the plant Euphorbia lathyris with at least one jasmonate, preferably methyl jasmonate. The invention also relates to the resulting triterpene-enriched biomass, to the use thereof as a fuel source and to the method for obtaining said fuel.

  3. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dispenza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  4. Biomimetic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Endosymbiotic Bacterium Inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. and Their Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to evaluate biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytic bacterium EH 419 inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. The synthesized nanoparticles were initially confirmed with change in color from the reaction mixture to brown indicating the synthesis of nanoparticles. Further confirmation was achieved with the characteristic absorption peak at 440 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were subjected to biophysical characterization using hyphenated techniques. The possible role of biomolecules in mediating the synthesis was depicted with FTIR analysis. Further crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD with prominent diffraction peaks at 2θ which can be indexed to the (111, (200, (220, and (311 reflections of face centered cubic structure (fcc of metallic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed morphological characteristics of synthesized silver nanoparticles to be polydisperse in nature with size ranging from 10 to 60 nm and different morphological characteristics such as spherical, oval, hexagonal, and cubic shapes. Further silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against panel of significant pathogenic bacteria among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most sensitive compared to other pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, present study forms first report of bacterial endophyte inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. in mediating synthesizing silver nanoparticles.

  5. Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keline Medeiros de Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid.

  6. Colonization and diversification of the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Yanshu; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Wang, Faguo; Xing, Fuwu

    2016-09-29

    Diversification between islands and ecological radiation within islands are postulated to have occurred in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. In this study, the biogeographical pattern of 11 species of subsect. Macaronesicae and the genetic differentiation among five species were investigated to distinguish the potential mode and mechanism of diversification and speciation. The biogeographical patterns and genetic structure were examined using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, reduced median-joining haplotype network analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components. The gene flow between related species was evaluated with an isolation-with-migration model. The ancestral range of the species of subsect. Macaronesicae was inferred to be Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands, and Tenerife-La Gomera acted as sources of diversity to other islands of the Canary Islands. Inter-island colonization of E. lamarckii among the western islands and a colonization of E. regis-jubae from Gran Canaria to northern Africa were revealed. Both diversification between islands and radiation within islands have been revealed in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) of the Canary Islands. It was clear that this group began the speciation process in Tenerife-La Gomera, and this process occurred with gene flow between some related species.

  7. Fruit and seed morphology of Euphorbia aggr. Flavicoma. Taxonomic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Joan

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Capsule and seed morphology ofW. European species of Euphorbia aggr. flavicoma has been studied. A total of 1500 seeds coming from 13 taxa have been investigated under light microscope, scanning electron microscope and binocular stereoscope. Data were processed by multivariate analysis and the corresponding dendrogram is presented . At the end of the paper, a key is presented allowing to the separation of taxa down to the species level.

    S'estudia la morfologia de les càpsules i les granes de les espècies d' Euphorbia aggr. flavicoma a l'Europa Occidental. S'ha investigat un total de 1500 granes de 13 tàxons amb microscopi òptic, microscopi electrònic de rastreig i lupa bincular. Les dades han estat sotmeses a una anàlisi multivariant i es presenta el corresponent dendrograma. Al final del treball s'aporta una clau que permet distingir els tàxons a nivell d'espècie per mitjà de caràcters de la càpsula i de la grana.

  8. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dispenza, V.; Pasquale, C. de; Fascella, G.; Mammano, M.M.; Alonzo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v) of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  9. Euphorbia Species-derived Diterpenes and Coumarins as Multidrug Resistance Modulators in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Jerzy; Wesołowska, Olga; Środa-Pomianek, Kamila; Paprocka, Maria; Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Krawczenko, Agnieszka; Duarte, Noelia; Ferreira, Maria-José U; Duś, Danuta; Michalak, Krystyna

    2016-05-01

    Recently, many new potent multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agents have been discovered, among them lathyrane and jatrophane diterpenes isolated from various Euphorbia species. In the present study, the cytotoxicity, P-glycoprotein inhibition activity, and MDR reversal potency of six diterpenes and two coumarins from two Euphorbia species were studied in human colon carcinoma LoVo cells, and doxorubicin-resistant, LoVo/Dx cells. Cytotoxicity of the studied compounds (alone and in combination with doxorubicin) was investigated. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport activity was monitored by flow cytometry. Changes in intracellular doxorubicin accumulation were observed by means of fluorescence microscopy. Latilagascene B was demonstrated to be an effective P-glycoprotein inhibitor, able to increase doxorubicin accumulation in resistant cells, however not able to restore doxorubicin cytotoxicity in LoVo/Dx cells. The structure of latilagascene B seems to be an interesting candidate for further synthesis of new derivatives of reduced cytotoxicity and high anti-MDR potency. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative analysis of Solanum stoloniferum responses to probing by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana E; Broglia, Viviana G; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Wouters, Doret; van der Vossen, Edwin; Garzo, Elisa; Tjallingii, W Fred; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2013-04-01

    Plants protect themselves against aphid attacks by species-specific defense mechanisms. Previously, we have shown that Solanum stoloniferum Schlechtd has resistance factors to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae) at the epidermal/mesophyll level that are not effective against Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae). Here, we compare the nymphal mortality, the pre-reproductive development time, and the probing behavior of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae on S. stoloniferum and Solanum tuberosum L. Furthermore, we analyze the changes in gene expression in S. stoloniferum 96 hours post infestation by either aphid species. Although the M. euphorbiae probing behavior shows that aphids encounter more probing constrains on phloem activities-longer probing and salivation time- on S. stoloniferum than on S. tuberosum, the aphids succeeded in reaching a sustained ingestion of phloem sap on both plants. Probing by M. persicae on S. stoloniferum plants resulted in limited feeding only. Survival of M. euphorbiae and M. persicae was affected on young leaves, but not on senescent leaves of S. stoloniferum. Infestation by M. euphorbiae changed the expression of more genes than M. persicae did. At the systemic level both aphids elicited a weak response. Infestation of S. stoloniferum plants with a large number of M. persicae induced morphological changes in the leaves, leading to the development of pustules that were caused by disrupted vascular parenchyma and surrounding tissue. In contrast, an infestation by M. euphorbiae had no morphological effects. Both plant species can be regarded as good host for M. euphorbiae, whereas only S. tuberosum is a good host for M. persicae and S. stoloniferum is not. Infestation of S. stoloniferum by M. persicae or M. euphorbiae changed the expression of a set of plant genes specific for each of the aphids as well as a set of common genes. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of

  11. Unraveling the karyotype structure of the spurges Euphorbia hirta Linnaeus, 1753 and E. hyssopifolia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) using genome size estimation and heterochromatin differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Karla C. B.; Pinangé, Diego S. B.; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Oliveira, Ana R.; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.; Alves, Marccus V.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18) and Euphorbia hyssopifolia (2n = 12), cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO3). Our results revealed small metacentric chromosomes, CMA+/DAPI0 heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and CMA+/DAPI− in the distal part of chromosome arms carriers of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). The DNA content measurements revealed small genomes for both species: Euphorbia hirta with 2C = 0.77 pg and Euphorbia hyssopifolia with 2C = 1.41 pg. After FISH procedures, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia hyssopifolia presented three and four pairs of terminal 45S rDNA sites, respectively, colocalizing with CMA+ heterochromatic blocks, besides only one interstitial pair of 5S rDNA signals. Additionally, the maximum number of active NORs agreed with the total number of observed 45S rDNA sites. This work represents the first analysis using FISH in the subfamily Euphorbioideae, revealing a significant number of chromosomal markers, which may be very helpful to understand evolutionary patterns among Euphorbia species. PMID:28123686

  12. Cytotoxicity of latex and pharmacobotanical study of leaves and stem of Euphorbia umbellata (Janaúba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia E.C. Luz

    Full Text Available AbstractIn southern Brazil, the bottled latex of Synadenium grantii Hook f., Euphorbiaceae, is popularly used as a treatment of all types of cancer. Similarly, Synadenium umbellatum Pax. is used in the central western region of Brazil for the same purpose and in the same manner of use. Both plants are popularly known as janaúba or leitosinha. The objectives of this study were to use pharmacobotanical analysis to verify whether these two species, which are considered to be distinct, are actually the same to determine anatomical markers; to assist in the identification and differentiation of other Euphorbia; and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the latex in relation to HeLa and HRT-18 cells. Leaves and stems of the species were collected in Goiânia and Ponta Grossa and were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy techniques. The latex was also collected and analyzed in relation to its cytotoxic effect by employing MTT and NR techniques. The pharmacobotanical study of the specimens in both localities showed that they were the same species, namely Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns, which is the scientific nomenclature accepted and confirmed by an expert taxonomist who specializes in Euphorbia. The pharmacobotanical characteristics highlighted in this study can assist in the identification of the taxon and contribute to the control of the quality of this plant drug. The evaluation of the latex in relation to HRT-18 cells demonstrated action after 48 h of experiment. In contrast, in relation to HeLa cells its induced cytotoxicity in all times and a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values (72 h observed were 252.58 ± 18.51 µg/ml and 263.42 ± 15.92 µg/ml to MTT experiment and 250.18 ± 19.48 µg/ml and 430.56 ± 19.71 µg/ml to NR experiment for the HeLa and HRT-18 cells, respectively.

  13. Soil surface searching and transport of Euphorbia characias seeds by ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadaler, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto

    The intensity of exploring the soil surface by ants was studied for the four species involved in the dispersal and predation of seeds of the West-Mediterranean myrmecochorous plant Euphorbia characias. During the dehiscence period (June) the whole soil surface is sccanned in 43 minutes. Not all ants that find a seed take it to the nest. For the four ant species studied ( Pheidole pallidula, Aphaenogaster senilis, Tapinoma nigerrimum, Messor barbarus) the proportion of ants that finally take the seed is 67.6%. In spite of this, the high level of soil surface searching explains the rather short time that seeds remain on the soil before being removed. The presence of an elaiosome is a key element in the outcome of the ant-seed interaction: a seed with elaiosome has a seven-fold increase in probability of being taken to the nest if found by a non-granivorous ant. The predator-avoidance hypothesis for myrmecochory is supported.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of Euphorbia supina extract in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Xin, Mingjie; Kim, Do-Kuk; Lee, Hoon-Yeon; Kim, Bo-Ram; Hwang, Sung-Woo; Kim, Dae-Ki; Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of Euphorbia supina (ES) ethanol extract in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis model. ES was per orally administered at different doses of 4 or 20 mg/kg body weight with 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Twenty mg/kg of ES administration regulated body weight decrease, recovered colon length shortening, and increased disease activity index score and myeloperoxidase level in DSS-induced colitis. Histological features showed that 20 mg/kg of ES administration suppressed edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS. Furthermore, ES suppressed the expressions of COX-2, iNOS, NF-kB, IkBα, pIkBα in colon tissue. These findings demonstrated a possible effect of amelioration of ulcerative colitis and could be clinically applied.

  15. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  16. Isoprenoid compounds from Euphorbia portlandica. X-ray structure of lupeportlandol, a new lupane triterpene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madureira, Ana M.; Ferreira, Maria-Jose U. [Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal). Faculdade de Farmacia. Centro de Estudos de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mjuferreira@ff.ul.pt; Duarte, Maria Teresa; Ascenso, Jose R. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal). Centro de Quimica Estrutural; Piedade, Maria Fatima M. [Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica e Bioquimica

    2004-10-01

    Phytochemical survey of the Me{sub 2}CO extracts of the whole dried plant Euphorbia portlandica led to the isolation of a new pentacyclic triterpene alcohol, with the lupane skeleton, named lupeportlandol. Its structure was established as 3{alpha}-hydroxy-19{alpha}H-lup-20(29)-ene. The known pentacyclic triterpene glutinol and the steroid {beta}-sitostenone were also isolated. The characterization of the new compound and its acetylated derivative was based on spectroscopic methods and an X-ray diffraction analysis. Lupeportlandol acetate was inactive in cytotoxicity assays in vitro against three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7 (breast cancer), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SF-268 (CNS cancer). (author)

  17. Characterization of Diterpenes from Euphorbia prolifera and Their Antifungal Activities against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Kang, Jing; Cao, Xiangrong; Sun, Xiaocong; Yu, Shujing; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Hongwei; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2015-07-01

    Euphorbia prolifera is a poisonous plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. In this survey on plant secondary metabolites to obtain bioactive substances for the development of new antifungal agents for agriculture, the chemical constituents of the plant E. prolifera were investigated. This procedure led to the isolation of six new and two known diterpenes. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic data analyses and time-dependent density functional theory ECD calculations. Biological screenings revealed that these diterpenes possessed antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi. The results of the phytochemical investigation further revealed the chemical components of the poisonous plant E. prolifera, and biological screenings implied the extract or bioactive diterpenes from this plant may be regarded as candidate agents of antifungal agrochemicals for crop protection products.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

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    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  19. Host Plant Volatiles and the Sexual Reproduction of the Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

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    Jessica Hurley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In late summer, heteroecious aphids, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, move from their secondary summer host plants to primary host plants, where the sexual oviparae mate and lay diapausing eggs. We tested the hypothesis that volatiles of the primary host, Rosa rugosa, would attract the gynoparae, the parthenogenetic alate morph that produce oviparae, as well as the alate males foraging for suitable mates. In wind tunnel assays, both gynoparae and males oriented towards and reached rose cuttings significantly more often than other odour sources, including potato, a major secondary host. The response of males was as high to rose cuttings alone as to potato with a calling virgin oviparous female. These findings are discussed within the seasonal ecology of host alternating aphids.

  20. An evolutionary perspective on drug discovery in the plant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine

    Plants have been widely used in many traditional medical systems around the world and are still thesource of many modern drugs. However, the rate at which new plant-derived drugs are discoveredis slow and recent estimates of biodiversity loss, as well as the need for tackling global...... herbivory and physical stresses or to attract pollinators. Consequently, specializedmetabolites, as well as plants used in traditional medicine, are not randomly distributed across phylogenetictrees. Evolutionary approaches to plant-based drug discovery suggest that this informationcan be used to guide......-based drug discovery. Phylogenetic patterns in speciesused in traditional medicine were investigated, and it was found that species used medicinally are notrandomly distributed across the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, Euphorbia chemical diversity andbioactivity were investigated using mass spectral...

  1. Anti-angiogenic activity of water extract from Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Liu, Bin; Feng, Yaru; Liu, Jie; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Jian; Xia, Qing; Ni, Yuanyuan; Li, Farong; Lin, Ruichao

    2017-07-12

    Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr. (EP) is a Euphorbia species of Euphorbiaceae, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been reported to exhibit therapeutic effects on solid tumors, leukemias, and malignant ascites although underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly delineated. Anti-angiogenic therapy is a recognized strategy for treating cancer-based solid tumors, and is also associated with malignant ascites treatment. To study the anti-angiogenic properties of the water extract of EP vinegar preparation (WEVEP). Following WEVEP treatment, intersegmental blood vessels were assessed during the development of transgenic Tg (flk: mCherry) zebrafish as was the proliferation, migration and network formation of HUVECs in vitro. mRNA expression of specific angiogenic-related genes including VEGF family members, Met, and NRP2 was also measured using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). Data demonstrated that angiogenesis was inhibited by the WEVEP in zebrafish (from 100µg/mL to 250µg/mL, p numbers of administered groups were 26.00 ± 1.29 (100µg/mL), 24.54 ± 2.20 (150µg/mL), 22.66 ± 2.68 (200µg/mL), 20.80 ± 1.75 (250µg/mL), compared to 27.67 ± 0.96 of control group. Relative quantitative gene expression in zebrafish treated with WEVEP demonstrated that only VEGFR3 was significantly increased and other 23 genes including Met, VEGFA, Flt-1 were significantly decreased. WEVEP can positively modulate angiogenesis via multiple targeting mechanisms. Our novel results contribute towards the discovery of a possible mechanism(s) of the traditional use of EP in the treatment of cancer and malignant ascites. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibition by Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L.

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    Malek Besbes Hlila

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and their composition of total polyphenol and flavonoids. Methods: The different samples were tested for their antiradical activities by using 2, 2’- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. In α-glucosidase activity, α-glucosidase (0.3 IU/mL and substrate, 2500 µmol/ L p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside were used; absorbance was registered at 405 nm. Results: The leaves acetonic extract exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition [IC50 = (0.0035 ± 0.001 µg/mL], which was 20-fold more active than the standard product (acarbose [IC50 = (0.07 ± 0.01 µg/mL]. Acetonic extract of the leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic [(95.54 ± 0.04 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg] and flavonoid [(55.16 ± 0.25 µg quercetin equivalent/mg]. The obtained findings presented also that this extract was detected with best antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (0.015 ± 0.01 µg/mL] against DPPH and a value of IC50 equal to (0.02 ± 0.01 µg/mL against ABTS. Positive relationship between polyphenolic content of the tested Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and its antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS was detected. Elevated positive linear correlation was got between ABTS and total phenolic (R2 = 0.751. Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate that the use of a polar solvent enables extraction of significant quantities of phenol compounds and flavonoids.

  3. Crescimento e esporulação de Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivado sob diferentes condições nutricionais Growth and sporulation of Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivated under different nutritional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ser considerado um potencial bioagente de controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L. em cultivos de soja no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as características nutricionais do fungo Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes fontes de carbono (glicose, amido, sacarose, lactose e maltose, de nitrogênio (nitrato de sódio, nitrato de amônio, sulfato de amônio, fosfato de amônio dibásico, cloreto de amônio, de fósforo (fosfato de potássio monobásico, fosfato de potássio bibásico, fosfato de cálcio, fosfato de sódio, ácido fosfórico, fosfato de amônio e a suplementação do meio de cultivo com fontes orgânicas de macro e micronutrientes, para o crescimento e a esporulação de B. euphorbiae. O amido proporcionou o maior crescimento, sendo também considerada a fonte de carbono mais favorável para a esporulação. O melhor crescimento e esporulação de B. euphorbiae foram obtidos usando o nitrato de sódio como fonte de nitrogênio e fosfato de potássio monobásico e fosfato de cálcio como fonte de fósforo, embora as demais fontes de fósforo analisadas, exceto o ácido fosfórico, tenham igualmente favorecido a esporulação. A suplementação do meio de cultivo com peptona e extrato de levedura resultou em melhor crescimento e esporulação do fungo e a adição de vitaminas favoreceu a produção de conídios.Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho is considered a potential bioagent for control of selvage peanuts (Euphorbia heterophylla L. on soybean crops in Brazil. However, little is known about the nutritional characteristics of this fungus. The main objective of this research was to evaluate different sources of carbon (glucose, starch, sucrose, lactose and maltose, of nitrogen (sodium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, bi-basic ammonium phosphate, ammonium chloride, of phosphorus (monobasic potassium phosphate, bi-basic potassium phosphate

  4. Lysozyme- and chitinase activity in latex bearing plants of genus Euphorbia--A contribution to plant defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytwala, Sonja; Günther, Florian; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-10-01

    Occurrence of latices in plants is widespread, there are 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. Latices exhibit a constitutive part of plant defense due to the stickiness. The appearance of proteins incorporated in latices is well characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable. A lot of plants constitute so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, to overcome stressful conditions. In our investigation we are focused on latex bearing plants of Euphorbiaceae Juss., and investigated the appearance of chitinase- and lysozyme activity in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of lysozyme and chitinase activity of genus Euphorbia at the first time. 110 different species of genus Euphorbia L. were tested, and the appearance of chitinase and lysozyme were determined in different quantities. The appearance itself, and the physicochemical properties of latices indicate an efficient interaction for plant defense against pathogen attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatio-temporal variation in seed production in three Euphorbia species and the role of animals on seed fate

    OpenAIRE

    Boieiro, Mário Rui Canelas

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on the reproductive biology of co-occurring related plant species have provided valuable information for the interpretation of ecological and evolutionary phenomena, with direct application in conservation management of plant populations. The aims of this thesis were to identify the causes of pre-dispersal reproductive losses in three Euphorbia species (the Mediterranean E. characias and the narrow endemics E. pedroi and E. welwitschii) and evaluate the variation ...

  6. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  7. Physiotypic Plasticity and Survival of Arido-active Euphorbia triaculeata (Euphorbiaceae in its Natural Habitat

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    Turki A. Al-Turki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafless stem succulent Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. is abundant in arid regions southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions are characterized by short wet season with erratic rainfall and long dry season with high temperature and high irradiance. Field observations indicated that the plant survives the long dry season and acquires a red stem colour under high irradiance and protracted drought. Our work aimed at investigating survival of this arido-active species in its natural habitat by studying diurnal and seasonal changes in stomatal conductance, cell sap acidity, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Results showed that E. triaculeata is obligate crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM plant. Under protracted drought, low stomatal conductance and dampening of CAM denoted a shift to CAM-idling. Observed stress-induced reduction of Photosystem II activity occurred in concomitance with increased non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and increased anthocyanin content. These results reflected operation of a photoprotective mechanism involving interplay of non-photochemical energy dissipation via xanthophyll cycle and alleviation of oxidative stress by anthocyanin. It was concluded that E. triaculeata survives in its arid habitat by performing obligate CAM, shifting to CAM-idling under protracted drought, increasing non-photochemical excess energy dissipation, and accumulating anthocyanin pigment for its antioxidant attributes.

  8. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

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    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  9. Molluscicidal effect of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns latex on Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni host snail

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    Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns is an easily cultivated shrub, with occurrence in the tropical regions of the American and African continents. Chemical studies have revealed that the latex of this plant is rich in terpene compounds, which are highly toxic to snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Basommatophora: Planorbidae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and molluscicidal activity of the latex produced by E. umbellata, as well as the safety of its application in aquatic environments. The concentration of latex that killed 90% of the exposed snails after 24 h exposure (LC90 was 3.69 mg/L. Toxicity bioassays using Danio rerio (zebrafish revealed that these animals were less susceptible to latex than planorbids. However, it is important to perform other toxicity tests to ensure the feasibility of using latex to control populations of mollusks that contribute to schistosomiasis transmission. A phytochemical screening performed with the E. umbellata latex identified the triterpenoid and coumarin class. Further studies are warranted to isolate, identify, and test the active compounds of E. umbellata latex in B. glabrata.

  10. Phyto toxic effects of Euphorbia dracunculoides: a weed of rainfed chickpea-chickpea cropping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shance, S.; Tranveer, A.; Javaid, M. M.; Chaudhry, K. M.; Aziz, A.; Khaliq, A.; Chaudhry, M. N.; Pervez, M. A.; Awan, I. U.

    2011-07-01

    Phyto toxic effect occurs when plants release chemicals that inhibit neighbouring plants. Phyto toxic effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of Euphorbia dracunculoides L. (green spurge) at two concentrations, and its infested soil were investigated on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The fruit extract at 1:20 (w/v) concentration caused maximum reduction (12%) in germination of chickpea seeds while leaf extract at 1:10 (w/v) concentration resulted in maximum mean germination time value and minimum germination index of chickpea seeds. All the traits of chickpea seedling growth including emergence were adversely affected by the aqueous extracts at both concentrations. Further, the inhibition of chickpea seedling growth was more pronounced with 1:10 (w/v) concentration whereas the lower concentration (1:20 w/v) showed stimulatory effect on shoot length, seedling vigor index and chlorophyll contents of chickpea seedlings. The leaf extract at 1:10 (w/v) concentration proved most harmful to seedling growth and chlorophyll contents (76% reduction) of chickpea. Soil beneath the E. dracunculoides plants significantly reduced emergence (23%), seedling vigor index (55%) and chlorophyll content (19%) of chickpea but a significant increase in N (6%), P (16%) and K (4%) contents of chickpea seedlings was recorded. Thus it can be concluded that E. dracunculoides contains compounds in its tissues which may cause phyto toxic effects on chickpea under field conditions. (Author) 31 refs.

  11. Evaluation of hydrocarbon plants suitable for cultivation in Florida. [Euphorbia tirucalli, E. lathyris, and Asclepias curassavica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehgan, B.; Wang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the hydrocarbon plants reported in the literature are not suitable for cultivation under Florida conditions. Preliminary results of field and greenhouse trials have indicated two species; Euphorbia tirucalli, which is suitable only for south Florida and Asclepias curassavica which has shown promise for the entire state. The hydrocarbon content of E. tirucalli increases with age of the plants (8.19-11.90%), whereas, that of A. curassavica is influenced positively by fertilization (3.62%) and negatively by supplemental irrigation (2.75%). A comparison between the results of field trials with A. curassavica in Florida and E. lathyris in California shows similar biomass yields under unirrigated conditions, despite 3.6 to 7.8 times greater nitrogen application for E. lathyris. Because of environmental conditions in Florida, E. lathyris is not capable of good growth. It is suggested that future research on hydrocarbon plants should concentrate on selection of individuals or species with vigorous, upright growth habits, low fertilizer-irrigation requirements and high hydrocarbon contents. 18 references.

  12. Contribuição para o estudo da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam

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    R. J. de Siqueira-Jaccoud

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor, após tecer rápidas considerações sôbre Phytomonas da planta em questão e do gênero Manihot, passa a dar: métodos por êle empregados na confecção da presente nota; sucinta descrição da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam. e suas variedades; nomes vulgares por que é a mesma conhecida no Brasil; resultado negativo, por êle encontrado, nas pesquisas de alcalóide e, finalmente, descrição anatômica da fôlha e caule. Fôlha. a - limbo: epidermes com cutícula e estoma, uma camada de células paliçadicas, tecido lacunoso, ramificações dos tubos laticiferos e bainha dos feixes bem desenvolvida. b - nervura principal: epidermes com cutícula, uma camada de tecido paliçadico, bainha dos feixes em semicírculo, xilema, floema e parênquima. Caule - Epiderme com cutícula, colênquima, parênquima cortical, tubos laticíferos, esclerócitos, floema, câmbio e fibras do lenho (inclusive gelatinosas, vasos e, finalmente, parênquima fundamental.

  13. Euphorbia neriifolia L.: Review on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y; Panchal, Shital S

    2017-05-01

    The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma. Leaves are brittle, heating, carminative, and good for improving the appetite and treatment of tumours, pains, inflammations, abdominal swellings and bronchial infections. Roots are used as symptomatic treatment of snake bite, scorpion sting and antispasmodic. Various plant parts or whole E. neriifolia extract and its isolates have been reported scientifically using various in-vivo and in-vitro experimental methods for anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, anti-psychotic, anti-arthritis, anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytotoxic, death-receptor expression enhancing, dermal irritation, diuretic, haemolytic, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, scorpion venom and wound healing properties. It is reported to have chemical constituents like, neriifolin-S, neriifolin, neriifoliene, euphol, neriifolione, cycloartenol, nerifoliol, lectin, euphonerins A-G, 3-O-acetyl-8-O-tigloylingol, taraxerol, antiquorin, etc. Identified chemical constituents are still required to be explored for their advanced isolation techniques and biological activities. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Resistence of Euphorbia Heterophylla L. to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in soybean Resistência de Euphorbia Heterophylla L. aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS na cultura da soja

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    Gerson Augusto Gelmini

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are widely used in soybean for weed control, and the selection pressure attributed to the repeated use of herbicides with similar modes of action on the same site has caused selection for resistant biotypes within and among previously susceptible species, such as Euphorbia heterophylla L., in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo, Brazil. Seeds of E. heterophylla were collected to examine possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage these populations, in the Caarapó region, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species have survived continuous herbicide applications. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. Several post-emergence herbicides were sprayed at zero, one, two, four, and eight times the recommended field application rates. Twenty days after application, plants were harvested, and control percentage and fresh weight were determined to establish dose-response curves, in the aim to obtain the resistance factor using CD50 and RD50 data. The chlorimuron-ethyl resistance factor values for the control percentage and fresh weight parameters were higher than 16.5 and 16.9, respectively, while imazethapyr showed resistance factors higher than 25.0 and 23.5, respectively. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was effectively controlled by fomesafen (250 g ha-1, lactofen (120 g ha-1, flumiclorac-pentyl (40 g ha-1, glufosinate-ammonium (150 g ha-1, and glyphosate (360 g ha-1.Os herbicidas constituem a principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja, mas através da pressão de seleção, o uso contínuo e

  15. Potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae performance is determined by aphid genotype and not mycorrhizal fungi or water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karley, Alison Jane; Emslie-Smith, Matthew; Bennett, Alison Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Intra- and interspecific variation in plant and insect traits can alter the strength and direction of insect-plant interactions, with outcomes modified by soil biotic and abiotic conditions. We used the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) feeding on cultivated Solanum tuberosum and wild Solanum berthaulti to study the impact of water availability and plant mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on aphid performance and susceptibility to a parasitoid wasp (Aphidius ervi Haliday). Plants were grown under glass with live or sterile AM fungal spores and supplied with sufficient or reduced water supply. Plants were infested with 1 of 3 genotypes of M. euphorbiae or maintained as aphid-free controls; aphid abundance was scored after 1 week, after which aphid susceptibility to A. ervi was assayed ex planta. Solanum tuberosum accumulated c. 20% more dry mass than S. berthaultii, and root mass of S. berthaultii was smallest under reduced water supply in the presence of AM fungi. Aphid abundance was lowest on S. berthaultii and highest for genotype "2" aphids; genotype "1" aphid density was particularly reduced on S. berthaultii. Aphid genotype "1" exhibited low susceptibility to parasitism and was attacked less frequently than the other two more susceptible aphid genotypes. Neither AM fungi nor water availability affected insect performance. Our study suggests a fitness trade-off in M. euphorbiae between parasitism resistance and aphid performance on poor quality Solanum hosts that warrants further exploration, and indicates the importance of accounting for genotype identity in determining the outcome of multitrophic interactions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. The candelabra tree (Euphorbia ingens: a source of water for black rhinoceros in Liwonde National Park, Malawi

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    C.O. Dudley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of two rhinoceros into a 15 km2 fenced sanctuary within Liwonde National Park provided an opportunity for close observation of the animals feeding on the toxic succulent Euphorbia ingens. Feeding invariably caused the death of the plant and for plants with basal diameters between 5-17 cm, mortality ranged from 40-90 . During the severe drought of 1994 rhinoceros did not drink from the artificial waterhole from approximately 15 July to at least 23 September. As this waterhole was the only source of free water it is believed that the rhinoceros obtained their water from browsing on E. ingens.

  17. Constituents of euphorbiaceae 12. Comm. (1). Isolation and structure elucidation of four new cerebrosides from Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsone, G; Cateni, F; Visintin, G; Lucchini, V; Wagner, H; Seligmann, O

    1994-03-01

    Four new cerebrosides 4-6 were isolated from the latex of Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf. and their structures determined. Normal and reverse-phase flash chromatography was effective for the isolation of the cerebrosides, and FAB-MS spectrometry, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DQF-COSY and HMQC experiments and chemical reactions were useful in elucidating their structure. EI-MS of the dimethyl disulfide derivatives of the long chain bases and glucosphingoside-heptaacetates was decisive for the determination of the double bond position on the long chain parts.

  18. (19αH)-lupane and (9βH)-lanostane triterpenes from Euphorbia helioscopia trigger apoptosis of tumor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Song, Wei-Bin; Xuan, Li-Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Chemical investigation of Euphorbia helioscopia resulted in the identification of seven new triterpenes named euphorbatrine A-G (1-7), including two (19αH)-lupane (1-2) and three (9βH)-lanostane (4-6), which are very rare metabolites from plants. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, X-ray crystallography and chemical methods. Compounds 5 and 6 triggered apoptosis of Hela -/- cell with EC 50 values of 1.59±0.25 and 26.48±0.78μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of α-glucosidase by new prenylated flavonoids from euphorbia hirta L. herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheliya, Manjur Ali; Rayhana, Begum; Ali, Abuzer; Pillai, Krishna Kollapa; Aeri, Vidhu; Sharma, Manju; Mir, Showkat R

    2015-12-24

    Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a pantropical medicinal rhizomatous herb, traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes, respiratory and gastro-intestinal disorders. To isolate and characterize the constituents of Euphorbia hirta and evaluate their in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The study is also aimed at describing structural activity relationship, type of α-glucosidase inhibition and in-vivo potential to regulate post prandial hyperglycemia in Wistar rats. Methanolic extract of whole plant was suspended in water, and sequentially fractionated with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Further ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) to isolate the active molecules under the following experimental conditions, pressure (up to 5 kg/cm(2)) and flow rate (2 in./min). The structural elucidation of isolated compounds was done on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. The α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of isolated compounds was evaluated and compared with standard drug acarbose. In addition, type of inhibition was dwelled by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. Further, sucrose tolerance test was performed in Wistar rats pre-treated with the isolated compounds and acarbose (0.015 mM) followed by a sucrose load (2g/kg, p.o.) and blood glucose level was measured up to 120 min by the glucose oxidase method. The ethyl acetate fraction afforded quercetrin (1), dimethoxy quercetrin (2), along with two new prenylated flavonosides designated as hirtacoumaroflavonoside (3) and hirtaflavonoside-B (4) characterized as 7-O-(p-coumaroyl)-5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6-(3,3-dimethyl allyl)-flavonol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2" → 1"')-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and 5, 7, 3', 4'-trihydroxy-6-(3, 3-dimethyl allyl)-8-(iso-butenyl)-flavonol-3-C-β-d-glucopyranoside, respectively. All the isolated compounds showed dose dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase which was found to be comparable to acarbose. Maximum α-glucosidase inhibition was

  20. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations.

  1. Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia L. whole plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Hasan, Sumaiyah Kanij; Ali, Zulfiquar; Rahman, Shahnaz; Jahan, Rownak

    2012-02-01

    To study the antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia thymifolia L., a plant used in folk medicine of Bangladesh for treatment of diabetes and pain. Antihyperglycemic activity studies were conducted in glucose-loaded mice by oral glucose tolerance tests. Mice were given various doses of the extract, followed by glucose (2 g/kg body weight), 1 h after administration of the extract. Serum glucose levels were measured 2 h after glucose administration. Antinociceptive activity studies were conducted in intraperitoneally acetic acid-injected mice through measurement of reductions in abdominal writhing times caused by acetic acid-induced gastric pain. Following a period of 1 h after oral administration of various doses of the extract, all mice received intraperitoneal injection of 1% acetic acid at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight. To ensure bioavailability of acetic acid, a period of 5 min was given to each animal following which period the number of writhings was counted for 10 min. The extract caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in serum glucose levels in mice, when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight as compared to the control animals (Pweight, lowered serum glucose levels by 48.6%. The extract also demonstrated a significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activity compared to control animals (Pweight, the number of abdominal writhings was inhibited by 40.9% as compared to 49.0% inhibition obtained with a standard antinociceptive drug aspirin, administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The significant antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities demonstrated by the extract validate the use of E. thymifolia in folk medicine of Bangladesh for treatment of diabetes and pain, and merit further scientific studies leading to discovery of efficacious drugs.

  2. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Ashraful; Lütken, Henrik; Haugslien, Sissel; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; Torre, Sissel; Rolcik, Jakub; Rasmussen, Søren K; Olsen, Jorunn E; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI) gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21-52%) and internode lengths (31-49%) were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1). The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content appeared lower (11-31% reduction) in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT) controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction) in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced.

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities of an important medicinal plant (Euphorbia royleana from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Ashraf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of methanol, hexane, and aqueous extracts of fresh Euphorbia royleana. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated as gallic acid and querectin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging of free 2,2′- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and reduction of ferric ions, and it was observed that inhibition values increase linearly with increase in concentration of extract. The results of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that hexane extract has maximum ferric reducing power (12.70 ± 0.49 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of plant extract. Maximum phenolic (47.47 ± 0.71 μg gallic acid equivalents/mg of plant extract and flavonoid (63.68 ± 0.43 μg querectin equivalents/mg of plant extract contents were also found in the hexane extract. Furthermore, we examined antimicrobial activity of the three extracts (methanol, hexane, aqueous against a panel of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pasteurella multocida, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium solani by disc-diffusion assay, and found the hexane extract to be the best antimicrobial agent. Hexane extract was also observed as to be most effective in a potato disc assay. As hexane extract showed potent activity in all the investigated assays, it was targeted for cytotoxic assessment. Maximum cytotoxicity (61.66% by hexane extract was found at 800 μg/mL. It is concluded that investigated extracts have potential for isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Eutirucallin, a RIP-2 Type Lectin from the Latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L. Presents Proinflammatory Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sanzio Silva; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitão; Carvalho, Fernanda Caroline; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Santiago, André da Silva; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that recognize and modulate physiological activities and have been used as a toll for detection and identification of biomolecules, and therapy of diseases. In this study we have isolated a lectin present in the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli, and named it Eutirucallin. The latex protein extract was subjected to ion exchange chromatography and showed two peaks with haemagglutinating activity. Polypeptides of 32 kDa protein extract strongly interacted with immobilized galactose (α-lactose > D-N-acetylgalactosamine). The Eutirucallin was obtained with a yield of 5.6% using the α-lactose column. The lectin domain has 32 kDa subunits and at least two of which are joined by disulfide bridges. The agglutinating capacity for human erythrocytes A+, B+ and O+ is inhibited by D-galactose. The haemagglutinating activity of Eutirucallin was independent of Ca2+ and maintained until the temperature of 55°C. Eutirucallin presented biological activities such as neutrophils recruitment and cytokine prodution by macrophages. The analysis of the trypsin-digested Eutirucallin by ms/ms in ESI-Q-TOFF resulted in nine peptides similar to type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (type-2 RIP). It's partial sequence showed a similarity of 67.4 – 83.1% for the lectin domain of type-2 RIP [Ricin and Abrin (83.1%), Viscumin, Ebulin, Pulchellin, Cinnamomin, Volkensin and type-2 RIP Iris hollandica]. Our data suggest that Eutirucallin is a new member of type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein and presents biotechnological potential. PMID:24558388

  5. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashraful Islam

    Full Text Available Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21-52% and internode lengths (31-49% were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA content appeared lower (11-31% reduction in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced.

  6. Impact of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) on a local population of Euphorbia bothae in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luske, B.L.; Mertens, T.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) feed extensively on a local population of Euphorbia bothae. Maintaining the endangered black rhinoceros and the protected E. bothae population are both conservation priorities of the reserve. Therefore, the

  7. Procedimiento para aumentar la síntesis y acumulación de hidrocarburos naturales derivados del metabolismo terpenoide en la planta euphorbia lathyris

    OpenAIRE

    Balaguer Zamora, Begoña; Castelblanque Soriano, Lourdes; Martí-Ibáñez, María Cristina; Ramírez García, Vicente; Vera, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Procedimiento de obtención de biomasa enriquecida en triterpenos, caracterizado porque comprende tratar la planta Euphorbia lathyris con al menos un jasmonato, preferentemente jasmonato de metilo. Así como la biomasa enriquecida en triterpenos obtenida por dicho procedimiento, su uso como fuente de combustible energético y método de obtención de dicho combustible.

  8. Chemical Composition and Mosquitocidal activity of n-Hexane and Methanol Extracts from Euphorbia anacampseros var. tmolea, an endemic species of Turkey, against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    New and safe mosquito control agents are necessary due to increasing resistance to synthetic insecticides and environmental change. The mosquito larvicidal and adulticidal activity and chemical composition of Euphorbia anacampseros var. tmolea extracts are investigated in this article for the first ...

  9. Methanic fermentation of Euphorbia tirucalli, a rich and renewable vegetal biomass of the Sahel and arid zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sow, D. [Dakar Univ. (Senegal); Depeyre, D.; Isambert, A. [Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1994-12-31

    A rich and renewable vegetal biomass is existing in Senegal. In fact Euphorbia tirucalli is a latex plant well adapted to sahelian climatic conditions, spread all along the country. In this work, methanic fermentation experimentations are made with this plant in a specific continuous fermentor named Transpaille. A 120 l biodigester was tested at 37 deg C with a piece-broken plant. The registered volumic efficiency is 0.80 l/l.d. With this interesting result, the same experiment was made with real operating conditions on a village digester in a farm. With a bioreactor of 12 m{sup 3}, incubated at ambient temperature, the obtained volumic efficiency is 0.61 l/l.d. The produced biogas of this experiment was used for food cooking and for farm milk cooling. This work shows that a vulgarization policy of the biogas way in rural conditions in Senegal is now possible with Euphorbia tirucalli. (authors). 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans strains and genotoxicity assessment in human leukocyte cells of Euphorbia tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Flávio Souza de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a plant known popularly as Aveloz, and originally used in Africa, has been drawing attention for its use in the United States and Latin America, both for use as an ornamental plant and as a medicinal plant. E. tirucalli L. is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae and contains many diterpenoids and triterpenoids, in particular phorbol esters, apparently the main constituent of this plant, which are assumed to be responsible for their activities in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro antifungal activities of Euphorbia tirucalli (L. against opportunistic yeasts were studied using microbroth dilution assay. The results showed that aqueous extract and latex preparation were effective against ten clinical strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro (Latex and extract MIC range of 3.2 - > 411 µg/mL. Aiming the safe use in humans, the genotoxic effects of E. tirucalli were evaluated in human leukocytes cells. Our data show that both aqueous extract and latex preparation have no genotoxic effect in human leukocytes cells in vitro. Although the results cannot be extrapolated by itself for use in vivo, they suggest a good perspective for a therapeutic application in future. In conclusion, our results show that the aqueous extract and latex preparation from E. tirucalli L. are antifungal agents effectives against several strains of C. neoformans and do not provoke DNA damage in human leukocyte cells, considering the concentrations tested.

  11. Euphorbia tirucalli L.: Review on morphology, medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y. Mali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The intention of current review is to make available up-to-date information on morphology, ecological biodiversity, medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities on different parts of Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli. This plant has a number of medicinal uses. Latex of E. tirucalli is vesicant and rubefacient which is used for rheumatism, warts, cough, asthma, ear-ache, tooth-ache and neuralgia. It acts as a purgative in small doses while in big doses it is bitter irritant and emetic. Milky juice is alexiteric, carminative and purgative. It is useful in whooping cough, gonorrhea, asthma, leprosy, dropsy, dyspepsia, enlargement of spleen, colic, jaundice and stone in bladder. The fresh milky juice is good alternative in syphilis and a good application in neuralgia. A decoction of branches is used in gastralgia and colic. Bark is used in treatment of fractures. Poultices prepared from the stem are useful to repair the broken bones. Boiled root liquid acts as an emetic in cases of snake-bite and for infertility in women. The wood is used for rafters, toys and veneering purposes. It is also useful against leprosy and foot paralysis subsequent to childbirth. E. tirucalli is reported to have euphol, β-sitosterol, euphorbol hexacosonate, cycloeuphordenol, cyclotirucanenol, tirucalicine, tri-methyl ellagic acid, gallic acids, terpenic alcohol, isoeuphorol, taraxasterol, tirucallol, euphorone, euphorcinol, euphorbins, 12-deoxy-4β-hydroxyphorbol-13-phenyl acetate-20-acetate, 12, 20-dideoxyphorbol-13-isobutyrate, glut-5-en-3-β-ol, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid, euphorbin-A (polyphenol, tirucallin-A (7 (tannin, tirucallin-B (11, euphorbin-F (14 (dimers, cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartenol, ingenol triacetate, 12-deoxy-4β-hydroxyphorbol-13-phenyl acetate-20-acetate, taraxerone, euphorginol, taraxerol, campesterol, stigmasterol, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, β-amyrin, etc. active phytoconstituents. E. tirucalli have possessed

  12. Chemical profile and defensive function of the latex of Euphorbia peplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Jiang; Jing, Shu-Xi; Luo, Shi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Plant latex is an endogenous fluid secreted from highly specialized laticifer cells and has been suggested to act as a plant defense system. The chemical profile of the latex of Euphorbia peplus was investigated. A total of 13 terpenoids including two previously unknown diterpenoids, (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,6R*,8R*,l1R*,13S*,14S*,15R*, 16R*)-5,8,15-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-11,16-dihydroxy-9-oxopepluane and (2R*,3R*, 4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,8,9,14-pentaacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-15-hydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene), ten known diterpenoids, and a known acyclic triterpene alcohol peplusol, were identified, using HPLC and UPLC-MS/MS analyses and through comparison with the authentic compounds isolated from the whole plant. The diterpenoids exhibited significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), with EC 50 values ranging from 0.36 to 4.60 μg/cm 2 . In particular, (2R*,3R*,4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,9,14-tetraacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-8,15-dihydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene and (2R*,3R*, 4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,14-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-8,15-dihydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxy-9-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene had EC 50 values of 0.36 and 0.43 μg/cm 2 , respectively, which were approximately 7-fold more potent than commercial neem oil (EC 50  = 2.62 μg/cm 2 ). In addition, the major peplusol showed obvious antifungal activity against three strains of agricultural phytopathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum litchi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. The results indicated that terpenoids in the latex of E. peplus are rich and highly diversified, and might function as constitutive defense metabolites against insect herbivores and pathogens for the plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Quan V. Vuong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf.

  14. Notes on Euphorbia mauritanica, E. gossypina and some related species with an amplified description of E. berotica

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    L. C. Leach

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the possible evolutionary development in the Euphorbia mauritanica—lateriflora—gossypina complex are discussed, and the seed morphology is considered probably to be of considerable significance in the taxonomy of the group. The relevance of the recently discovered relic population of  E. gossypina is also considered, and a detailed description of this species, based on the Rhodesian material, is provided. The identity of the little known  E. berotica N.E. Br. from Angola is established and an amplified description drawn up. Attention is also given to the confusion concerning the type locality and distribution  of E.  mauritanica L. var.  lignosa White, Dyer & Sloane.

  15. Cytotoxicity of three new triazolo-pyrimidine derivatives against the plant trypanosomatid: Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias

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    Rosa Magán

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no effective chemotherapy against diseases caused by Phytomonas sp., a plant trypanosomatid responsible for economic losses in major crops. We tested three triazolo-pyrimidine complexes [two with Pt(II, and another with Ru(III] against promastigotes of Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias. The incorporation of radiolabelled precursors, ultrastructural alterations and changes in the pattern of metabolite excretion were examined. Different degrees of toxicity were found for each complex: the platinun compound showed an inhibition effect on nucleic acid synthesis, provoking alterations on the levels of mitochondria, nucleus and glycosomes. These results, together with others reported previously in our laboratory about the activity of pyrimidine derivatives, reflect the potential of these compounds as agents in the treatment of Phytomonas sp.

  16. Four new compounds from the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata and their inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiao; Huang, Xue-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Gong, Chi; Li, Xin-Yu; Li, Da-Hong; Hua, Hui-Ming; Li, Zhan-Lin

    2018-03-01

    Three new diterpenoids, ebractenoids O~Q (1-3), and a new phenolic glucoside, γ-pyrone-3-O-β-d-(6-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (4), together with 6 known compounds, were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1-3 were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. The inhibitory effects of all the isolates with exception of compounds 8 and 10 on the NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages were evaluated. All of them exhibited significant inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Euphorbia antiquorum L. latex extract and evaluation of their biomedical perspectives as anticancer agents

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    Chandrasekaran Rajkuberan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (EAAgNPs using aqueous latex extract of Euphorbia antiquorum L as a potential bioreductant. Synthesized EAAgNPs generate the surface plasmonic resonance peak at 438 nm in UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Size and shape of EAAgNPs were further characterized through transmission electron microscope (TEM which shows well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles with size ranging from 10 to 50 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDAX confirms the presence of silver (Ag as the major constituent element. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern of EAAgNPs corresponding to (111, (200, (220 and (311 planes, reveals that the generated nanoparticles were face centered cubic crystalline in nature. Interestingly, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis shows the major role of active phenolic constituents in reduction and stabilization of EAAgNPs. Phyto-fabricated EAAgNPs exhibits significant antimicrobial and larvicidal activity against bacterial human pathogens as well as disease transmitting blood sucking parasites such as Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (IIIrd instar larvae. On the other hand, in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of bioformulated EAAgNPs has shown potential anticancer activity against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa. The preliminary biochemical (MTT assay and microscopic studies depict that the synthesized EAAgNPs at minimal dosage (IC50 = 28 μg triggers cellular toxicity response. Hence, the EAAgNPs can be considered as an environmentally benign and non-toxic nanobiomaterial for biomedical applications. Keywords: Crystal structure, Euphorbia antiquorum L., Silver nanoparticles, Anticancer, Human pathogens

  18. Wound healing effect of Euphorbia hirta linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Begum, Mst Marium; Rahman, Md Sohanur; Karim, Rubaba; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Mostofa, Ronia; Hossain, Amir; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-08-24

    Euphorbia hirta linn., is a species of Euphorbiaceae family. They are known as asthma plant, barokhervi. The plant E. hirta is famous for its medicinal importance among the tribal population. It is a common practice to use the whole to heal wounds. Several pharmacological properties including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antidibetic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant. The aim of present work was to evaluate the wound healing property in diabetic animals by oral and topical administration of ethanolic extract of E. hirta whole plant. The ethanolic extract of E. hirta was subjected to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using galic acid and quercetin, respectively as standard. A single injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) prepared in normal saline was administered to produce diabetes in rats, after overnight fasting. For analyzing the rate of contraction of wound, excision wounds sized 4.90cm2 and of 2 mm depth were used. Oral (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day; p.o.) and topical treatment with the extract (5% and 10% ointment 50 mg/kg/day) and standard (5% povidone iodine ointment 50 mg/kg/day) was started on the day of induction of wound and continued up to 16 days. The means of wound area measurement between groups at different time intervals were compared using ANOVA and Dunnet's test. The diabetic wound healing mechanism was studied by measuring the plasma level of glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in both control and treated groups. For the confirmation of activity, histopathology of the wounds tissues from excision wound model was performed. Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of various phytoconstituents (carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, tannins). In the ethanolic extract of E. hirta the total phenol content was 285

  19. Preliminary Investigation of Bioactive Compounds and Bioautographic Studies of Whole Plant Extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    H. B. Sharif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to carry out preliminary investigation of bioactive compounds and bioautographic studies of whole plant extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tukey HSD test of hierarchy for the effect of different solvents crude extract on bacterial isolates indicates the methanol extract as the most bioactive. The Tukey HSD analysis also showed that the bioactivities of the crude extracts of the various parts of Euphorbia pulcherrima were part dependent and the whole plant was the most bioactive. The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia pulcherrima has been shown in this work to contain phytochemicals which have shown remarkable activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bioactivities against the test organisms were due to the combined effects of the compounds separated on TLC plates. Families of terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin, and steroids that were detected in the extracts were identified by GC-MS. The various classes of phytochemicals in the E. pulcherrima plant provided the antimicrobial potency of the plant.

  20. The crude latex of Euphorbia tirucalli modulates the cytokine response of leukocytes, especially CD4+ T lymphocytes

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    Bethânia A. Avelar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The plants of the Euphorbiaceae family, especially those of the genus Euphorbia, are frequently used by Brazilian folk communities to treat a wide variety of infectious, tumoral and inflammatory illnesses. Among the species of this genus, Euphorbia tirucalli L. is widely used in some Brazilian regions, such as the Jequitinhonha River Valley. There is evidence that the latex produced by E. tirucalli has antiviral and antitumor activities, but little is known about the mechanisms involved in these effects. It is likely that the mechanism for such activities involves leukocyte activation and cytokine production. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the production of type 1 (TNF-α and IFN-γ and type 2 (IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines by circulating leukocyte subsets submitted to brief stimulation with the crude latex of E. tirucalli. Peripheral blood leukocytes of twenty healthy subjects were submitted to 4 h incubation with crude E. tirucalli latex diluted in dimethylsulfoxide. After the incubation period, the cells were stained with FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific to the cell surface receptors CD4, CD8 and CD14, and to PE-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific to the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. The acquisition and analysis of data were performed by flow cytometry. The results showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes positive for the type 1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ. Neutrophils and CD8+ T lymphocytes showed a mixed profile of cytokine production, characterized by an increase in the percentage of cells expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10. The data indicate a predominant type 1 cytokine response. The findings presented suggest that the effect popularly attributed to E. tirucalli usage may be attributed to its effect on the production of TNF-α and IFN-γ. However, the relationship between the in vitro and in vivo effects of E. tirucalli needs to be investigated.

  1. Anti-proliferation activity of terpenoids isolated from Euphorbia kansui in human cancer cells and their structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin-Jun; Shen, Yao; Yang, Zhou; Fang, Lin; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yao, Shuai; Long, Hua-Li; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-10-01

    Euphorbia kansui is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of edema, pleural effusion, and asthma, etc. According to the previous researches, terpenoids in E. kansui possess various biological activities, e.g., anti-virus, anti-allergy, antitumor effects. In this work, twenty five terpenoids were isolated from E. kansui, including thirteen ingenane- and eight jatrophane-type diterpenoids (with two new compounds, kansuinin P and Q) and four triterpenoids. Eighteen of them were analyzed by MTS assay for in vitro anticancer activity in five human cancer cell lines. Structure-activity relationship for 12 ingenane-type diterpenoids in colorectal cancer Colo205 cells were preliminary studied. Significant anti-proliferation activities were observed in human melanoma cells breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells and Colo205 cells. More than half of the isolated ingenane-type diterpenoids showed inhibitory activities in MDA-MB-435 cells. Eight ingenane- and one jatrophane-type diterpenoids possessed much lower IC50 values in MDA-MB-435 cells than positive control staurosporine. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis showed that substituent on position 20 was important for the activity of ingenane-type diterpenoids in Colo205 cells and substituent on position 3 contributed more significant biological activity of the compounds than that on position 5 in both MDA-MB-435 and Colo205 cells. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple forms of endo-1,4-beta-glucanases in the endosperm of Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Cecilia N K; Giorgini, Jarbas F

    2003-09-01

    Germinating seeds of Euphorbia heterophylla L. contain endo-1,4-beta-glucanases which degrade carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The activity decreased approximately 66% in extracts of endosperm containing isopropanol or ethanol. The endoglucanases were isolated from endosperm extracts using ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by Sephacryl S-100-HR chromatography resulting in two main peaks: I and II. Peak I endoglucanase was further purified about 15-fold on DEAE-Sephadex A50 and then by affinity chromatography (CF11-cellulose). Peak II endoglucanases were further purified 10-fold on CM-cellulose chromatography. The results indicated the occurrence of a 66 kDa endoglucanase (fractionated by SDS-PAGE and visualized by activity staining using Congo Red). Several acidic (pI 3.0 to 5.7) and basic (pI 8.5 to 10.0) forms from both peaks which differed in their capacities for degrading CMC or xyloglucans from Copaifera langsdorffii or Hymenaea courbaril were detected.

  3. Projection pursuit nonparametric regression applied to field counts of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on tomato crops in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, R; Lapchin, L

    2002-04-01

    The number of plants that sampling requires in aphid population studies often exceeds one hundred. Thus, only quick and nondestructive methods can be used to sample this pest in a reasonable time interval. We propose a visual method for estimating the density of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) on tomato plants reared in greenhouses. After approximately 1min of visual observation plants can be assigned to abundance classes, the boundaries of which are roughly the powers of square root 10. Precise counts were collected simultaneously on sets of reference plants from the same greenhouse. Projection pursuit nonparametric regression was then used to provide unbiased estimates of aphid densities from the abundance classes and several easily gathered explanatory variables. The robustness of the method was evaluated by testing the models on the complementary data sets from plants in which the aphid densities were precisely counted. In both single and twin-row cultural conditions, for the reference and complementary data sets, the order of magnitude of the error was less than one class rank per plant. The investigation time was reduced by approximately 10-fold compared with the exact counting method. This easy-to-teach field method could be useful in large-scale population surveys and for optimizing integrated pest management strategies.

  4. Propiedad molusquicida de Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra Biomphalaria glabrata Say hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma mansoni

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    José Ángel Mogollón-Morales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, los caracoles de Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae son hospedadores intermediarios del parasito Schistosoma mansoni, agentes causantes de la schistosomiasis, una parasitosis que afecta a millones de personas en el mundo. El presente trabajo evalúa el papel de la especie Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra B. glabrata. La actividad molusquicida se evaluó de acuerdo a los parámetros sugeridos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se utilizaron caracoles de B. glabrata criados en el laboratorio. Se realizaron diferentes bioensayos utilizando extractos metanólico crudo, en n-hexano, en acetato de etilo y en metanol de las partes aéreas de E. laurifolia a diferentes concentraciones. Los resultados demostraron que esta especie posee una potente actividad letal con todos los extractos estudiados contra caracoles de B. glabrata, considerándose el mejor el extracto de acetato de etilo, el cual presentó una DL50 de 5,57 ppm.

  5. Euphorbia tirucalli L.-comprehensive characterization of a drought tolerant plant with a potential as biofuel source.

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    Bernadetta Rina Hastilestari

    Full Text Available Of late, decrease in mineral oil supplies has stimulated research on use of biomass as an alternative energy source. Climate change has brought problems such as increased drought and erratic rains. This, together with a rise in land degeneration problems with concomitant loss in soil fertility has inspired the scientific world to look for alternative bio-energy species. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a tree with C3/CAM metabolism in leaves/stem, can be cultivated on marginal, arid land and could be a good alternative source of biofuel. We analyzed a broad variety of E. tirucalli plants collected from different countries for their genetic diversity using AFLP. Physiological responses to induced drought stress were determined in a number of genotypes by monitoring growth parameters and influence on photosynthesis. For future breeding of economically interesting genotypes, rubber content and biogas production were quantified. Cluster analysis shows that the studied genotypes are divided into two groups, African and mostly non-African genotypes. Different genotypes respond significantly different to various levels of water. Malate measurement indicates that there is induction of CAM in leaves following drought stress. Rubber content varies strongly between genotypes. An investigation of the biogas production capacities of six E. tirucalli genotypes reveals biogas yields higher than from rapeseed but lower than maize silage.

  6. Phylogenetics of the Chamaesyce clade (Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae): reticulate evolution and long-distance dispersal in a prominent C4 lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Berry, Paul E

    2011-09-01

    The Chamaesyce clade of Euphorbia is the largest lineage of C(4) plants among the eudicots, with 350 species including both narrow endemics and cosmopolitan weeds. We sampled this group worldwide to address questions about subclade relationships, the origin of C(4) photosynthesis, the evolution of weeds, and the role of hybridization and long-distance dispersal in the diversification of the group. • Two nuclear (ITS and exon 9 of EMB2765) and three chloroplast markers (matK, rpl16, and trnL-F) were sequenced for 138 ingroup and six outgroup species. Exon 9 of EMB2765 was cloned in accessions with >1% superimposed peaks. • The Chamaesyce clade is monophyletic and consists of three major subclades [1(2,3)]: (1) the Acuta clade, containing three North American species with C(3) photosynthesis and C(3)-C(4) intermediates; (2) the Peplis clade, mostly North American and entirely C(4); and (3) the Hypericifolia clade, all C(4), with both New World and Old World groups. Incongruence between chloroplast and ITS phylogenies and divergent cloned copies of EMB2765 exon 9 suggest extensive hybridization, especially in the Hawaiian Islands radiation. • The Chamaesyce clade originated in warm, arid areas of North America, where it evolved C(4) photosynthesis. From there, it diversified globally with extensive reticulate evolution and frequent long-distance dispersals. Although many species are weedy, there are numerous local adaptations to specific substrates and regional or island radiations, which have contributed to the great diversity of this group.

  7. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

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    Georg Bauer

    Full Text Available Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  8. Estudo botânico, fitoquímico e fisico-químico de Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae

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    M.V. Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia hirta L., popularmente conhecida por erva andorinha, tem sido utilizada no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios e como antiespasmódico. Esse trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas, caule e raiz dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó obtido da planta inteira, parte essa utilizada na fitoterapia Ayuverda. Na prospecção fitoquímica foram encontrados flavonóides, mucilagem, resinas e cumarinas. Na determinação do teor de água, de cinzas totais e de cinzas insolúveis em ácido, os valores encontrados foram 8,99%, 9,35%, 0,75%, respectivamente. Com o desenvolvimento deste trabalho foi possível obter parâmetros para o controle de qualidade das folhas, caule e raízes de E. hirta.

  9. The use of Euphorbia falcata extract as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Bribri, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Bioorganique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Tabyaoui, M., E-mail: hamidtabyaoui@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Bioorganique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Laboratoire des Matériaux, Nanoparticules et Environnement, Université Mohamed V Agdal, Faculté des Sciences, 4 Av. Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014 RP, M-10000 Rabat (Morocco); Tabyaoui, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Bioorganique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); El Attari, H.; Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Catalyse et de Corrosion des Matériaux (LCCM), Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco)

    2013-08-15

    Euphorbia falcata L. extract (EFE) was investigated as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 M HCl using gravimetric, ac impedance, polarization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The experimental results show that EFE is good corrosion inhibitor and the protection efficiency is increased with the EEF concentration. The results obtained from weight loss and ac impedance studies were in reasonable agreement. Impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Polarization curves indicated that EFE is a mixed inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of EFE molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption of the E. falcata extract was well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG{sub ads}{sup o} value showed that the corrosion inhibition of the carbon steel in 1 M HCl is mainly controlled by a physisorption process. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • EFE is a good eco-friendly inhibitor for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl. • EFE acts as mixed-type inhibitor in 1 M HCl medium. • Weight loss, ac impedance and polarization methods are in reasonable agreement. • The adsorption of EFE is well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  10. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klein, Marie-Christin; Nellesen, Anke; von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  11. Extracts of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) demonstrate activities against Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attah, Simon K; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F; Sittie, Archibald A; Oppong, Isaac V; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2013-03-18

    Onchocerciasis transmitted by Onchocerca volvulus is the second major cause of blindness in the world and it impacts negatively on the socio-economic development of the communities affected. Currently, ivermectin, a microfilaricidal drug is the only drug recommended for treating this disease. There have been speculations, of late, concerning O. volvulus resistance to ivermectin. Owing to this, it has become imperative to search for new drugs. World-wide, ethnomedicines including extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Rauvolfia vomitoria are used for treating various diseases, both infectious and non-infectious. In this study extracts of the two plants were evaluated in vitro in order to determine their effect against O. volvulus microfilariae. The toxicity of the E. hirta extracts on monkey kidney cell (LLCMK2) lines was also determined. The investigations showed that extracts of both plants immobilised microfilariae at different levels in vitro and, therefore, possess antifilarial properties. It was found that all the E. hirta extracts with the exception of the hexane extracts were more effective than those of R. vomitoria. Among the extracts of E. hirta the ethyl acetate fraction was most effective, and comparable to that of dimethanesulphonate salt but higher than that of Melarsoprol (Mel B). However, the crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta was found to be the least toxic to the LLCMK2 compared to the fractionated forms. Extracts from both plants possess antifilarial properties; however, the crude extract of E. hirta was found to be least toxic to LLCMK2.

  12. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies de Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso-Neto,I.S; Bessa,E.A; Soares,G.L.G

    2010-01-01

    Gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres podem atuar como hospedeiros intermediários de helmintos. Os primeiros registros do controle químico desses invertebrados datam do início do século XX e as substâncias utilizadas eram toxinas inespecíficas já empregadas no controle de outras pragas. Moluscicidas sintéticos apresentam limitações técnicas que estimularam a busca de substitutos naturais. Dentre as várias espécies vegetais com atividade moluscicida, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des M...

  13. Interaction between the New World begomovirus Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus and its associated alphasatellite: effects on infection and transmission by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Talita Bernardon; Mendes, Igor Rodrigues; Lau, Douglas; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Alves, Murilo Siqueira; Murilo Zerbini, F

    2017-06-01

    The majority of Old World monopartite begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are associated with satellite DNAs. Alphasatellites are capable of autonomous replication, but depend on the helper virus for movement, encapsidation and transmission by the insect vector. Recently, Euphorbia yellow mosaic alphasatellite (EuYMA) was found in association with Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus (EuYMV) infecting Euphorbia heterophylla plants in Brazil. The geographical range of EuYMA was assessed in a representative sampling of E. heterophylla plants collected in several states of Brazil from 2009 to 2014. Infectious clones were generated and used to assess the phenotype of viral infection in the presence or absence of the alphasatellite in tomato, E. heterophylla, Nicotiana benthamiana, Arabidopsis thaliana and Crotalaria juncea. Phenotypic differences of EuYMV infection in the presence or absence of EuYMA were observed in A. thaliana, N. benthamiana and E. heterophylla. Symptoms were more severe when EuYMV was inoculated in combination with EuYMA in N. benthamiana and E. heterophylla, and the presence of the alphasatellite was determinant for symptom development in A. thaliana. Quantification of EuYMV and EuYMA indicated that EuYMA affects the accumulation of EuYMV during infection on a host-dependent basis. Transmission assays indicated that EuYMA negatively affects the transmission of EuYMV by Bemisia tabaci MEAM1. Together, these results indicate that EuYMA is capable of modulating symptoms, viral accumulation and whitefly transmission of EuYMV, potentially interfering with virus dissemination in the field.

  14. Aplicação do fomesafen via água de irrigação por aspersão no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Application of fomesafen via overhead sprinkler irrigation for the control of Euphorbia heterophylla

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    R.A.A. Ruas

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de herbicidas via água de irrigação (herbigação por aspersão, especialmente por pivô central, vem crescendo no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a eficácia de doses de fomesafen aplicado via água de irrigação por aspersão no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. Os tratamentos foram dispostos no esquema fatorial (4 x 3 x 2 + 3, sendo quatro doses do fomesafen (60, 120, 180 e 240 g ha-1, três estádios de desenvolvimento de E. heterophylla (1, 7 e 14 dias após a emergência - DAE, dois métodos de aplicação (pulverização e herbigação e testemunhas sem herbicida (uma para cada estádio de desenvolvimento da planta daninha. Foi empregado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Cada unidade experimental constou de um vaso com 4,0 L de solo, onde foram distribuídas 50 sementes dessa planta daninha. A pulverização foi feita com 200 L ha-1 de calda; na herbigação foi usada lâmina de água de 4,72 mm, aplicada por simulador de irrigação. E. heterophylla foi mais suscetível ao fomesafen com 1 DAE. Neste estádio, a herbigação controlou-a melhor que a pulverização nas doses de 180 e 240 g ha-1. Na aplicação aos 7 DAE, geralmente a pulverização foi mais eficaz que a herbigação, mas o controle da planta daninha não foi satisfatório. Aplicado com 14 DAE, o herbicida, independentemente da dose e do método de aplicação, proporcionou controle pobre ou nenhum.Herbicide application via irrigation water (herbigation has been increasingly used in Brazil, mainly through center pivot. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of fomesafen rates applied via overhead sprinkler irrigation for the control of Euphorbia heterophylla. A (4 x 3 x 2 + 3 factorial experiment was used consisting of: fomesafen rates (60, 120, 180, and 240 g ha-1, weed development stages (1, 7, and 14 days after emergence - DAE, application methods (spray and herbigation and checks that did

  15. Herança da resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS em biótipos da planta daninha Euphorbia heterophylla Inheritance of ALS inhibitor resistance in Euphorbia heterophylla weed biotypes

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    L. Vargas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas inibidores da ALS são os principais produtos aplicados para o controle da planta daninha amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia herterophylla em lavouras de soja; no entanto, já foram identificados biótipos desta planta daninha resistentes a estes herbicidas no Brasil. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a herança, o número de genes que conferem a resistência e o grau de resistência dos biótipos homozigotos e heterozigotos resistentes. Foram realizados cruzamentos recíprocos entre os genitores suscetíveis e resistentes para obtenção de sementes F1 e, posteriormente, realizaram-se os retrocruzamentos (RC com os genitores resistente (R e suscetível (S. Plantas F1 foram autofecundadas artificialmente para obtenção da geração F2. As plantas F1, F2, RCr e RCs e dos genitores foram tratadas com o herbicida imazethapyr (150 g ha-1. Para avaliar o grau de resistência, plantas F1 e os genitores resistente e suscetível foram tratados com as doses de imazethapyr de 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 e 1.600 g ha-1. As plantas F1 mostraram-se totalmente resistentes ao herbicida, demonstrando que a resistência é nuclear e dominante. As plantas F2 apresentaram alta probabilidade para segregação 3:1, indicando que a resistência é codificada por um gene dominante. A aplicação de doses de imazethapyr sobre as plantas F1 demonstrou que os biótipos homozigotos resistentes e os heterozigotos apresentam o mesmo grau de resistência para doses de até 1.600 g ha-1 deste herbicida. A resistência é codificada por um gene dominante nuclear com dominância completa.The ALS inhibitor herbicides are the main products applied to control Euphorbia heterophylla in the soybean crop; however, resistant biotypes to these herbicides have been identified in Brazil. This research aimed to study the inheritance, number of genes involved in the resistance and the degree of resistance of the homozygous and heterozygous resistant biotypes. Reciprocal crossings (RSs

  16. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Grace, James B.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle–leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  17. Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Family: Euphorbiaceae) and Bacillus sphaericus against Anopheles stephensi Liston. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Kovendan, K; Kumar, P Mahesh; Subramaniam, J

    2013-02-01

    To explore the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed against An. stephensi at various concentrations ranging from (75-375 ppm) under the laboratory as well as field conditions. The LC(50) and LC(90) value of the E. hirta leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the methanol extract of E. hirta against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of values LC(50)= 137.40, 172.65, 217.81, 269.37 and 332.39 ppm; B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of values LC(50)= 44.29, 55.83, 68.51, 82.19 and 95.55 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50)= 79.13, 80.42, 86.01, 93.00 and 98.12 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest methanol leaf extracts of E. hirta and B. sphaericus have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malarial vector, An. stephensi as target species of vector control programs. This study provides the first report on the combined mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin against An. stephensi mosquitoes. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioactivity of latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Euphorbiaceae) on post-embryonic development of Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Renata da Silva; Ferreira, Aline Roberta da Silva; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2010-08-27

    Larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) feed on a wide range of decomposing organic matter and present a great importance to public health. This study evaluated the effect of crude latex extract from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Euphorbiaceae) on post-embryonic development time of M. scalaris under laboratory conditions. The latex was used in its crude lyophilized form, dissolved in distilled water and tested in concentrations of 5 microg/mL, 10 microg/mL and 20 microg/mL. The latex was applied with the aid of an automatic pipette (1 microL/larva) on the newly-hatched larvae. Each group (the three concentrations of latex and the control group) was composed of 50 larvae and fed with 25mg of decomposing horse flesh. The experiment was made in quadruplicate. The observations were recorded daily. The data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc-test with a 5% significance level. The post-embryonic development time for all stages (larval, pupal and newly-hatched larvae to adult) tested with all three latex concentrations was significantly shorter than for the control group, but without any significant difference among the different concentrations. The more sensitive stages to the substance were pupal and newly-hatched larvae to adult. The viability was less than 51.5% in the three concentrations of latex in these stages and they were lower than for the control group (67.4% for pupal stage and 64% for newly-hatched larvae to adult). Therefore, it is likely that this substance has influence on the development and viability of these flies and can become a promising agent for insect pest management. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Ingenol Derived from Euphorbia kansui Induces Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Triggering G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Regulating the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway in Vitro

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    Xiaojing Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural product lingenol, a purified diterpenoid compound derived from the root of Euphorbia kansui, exerts serious hepatotoxicity; however, the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In the present study, cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8, inverted phase contrast microscope and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate that lingenol significantly inhibited L-O2 cells proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the results investigated that lingenol markedly disrupted mitochondrial functions by high content screening (HCS. In addition, the up-regulation of cytochrome c, AIF and Apaf-1 and activation of caspases were found in L-O2 cells detected by Western blotting and ELISA assay, which was required for lingenol activation of cytochrome c-mediated caspase cascades and AIF-mediated DNA damage. Mechanistic investigations revealed that lingenol significantly down-regulated the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and enhanced the reactive oxygen species (ROS in L-O2 cells. These data collectively indicated that lingenol modulation of ROS and Bcl-2/Bax ratio led to cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in L-O2 cells in vitro. All of these results will be helpful to reveal the hepatotoxicity mechanism of Euphorbia kansui and to effectively guide safer and better clinical application of this herb.

  20. Development of a Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction Combined with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS for Determination of Phenolics and Terpenoids from the Euphorbia fischeriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Lin, Yu; Wang, Yuchun; Hong, Bo

    2017-09-11

    A method based on a simplified extraction by matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) determination is validated for analysis of two phenolics and three terpenoids in Euphorbia fischeriana. The optimized experimental parameters of MSPD including dispersing sorbent (silica gel), ratio of sample to dispersing sorbent (1:2), elution solvent (water-ethanol: 30-70) and volume of the elution solvent (10 mL) were examined and set down. The highest extraction yields of chromatogram information and the five compounds were obtained under the optimized conditions. A total of 25 constituents have been identified and five components have been quantified from Euphorbia fischeriana. A linear relationship (r² ≥ 0.9964) between the concentrations and the peak areas of the mixed standard substances were revealed. The average recovery was between 92.4% and 103.2% with RSD values less than 3.45% (n = 5). The extraction yields of two phenolics and three terpenoids obtained by the MSPD were higher than those of traditional reflux and sonication extraction with reduced requirement on sample, solvent and time. In addition, the optimized method will be applied for analyzing terpenoids in other Chinese herbal medicine samples.

  1. Coagulation And Hemagglutination Properties Of The Crude Extract Derived From The Leaves Of Euphorbia Hirta L. Tridax Procumbens L. And Vernonia Cinerea L Less

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    Romeo C. Ongpoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the potential of selected wild grasses from the Philippines as coagulant and typing sera. To do this Euphorbia hirta L. Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L Less aqueous infusions were each subjected to blood components from healthy individuals. The plasma part of the blood was used to test for coagulation where Plasma Clotting Time PCT and Factor VIII screening test were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts. On the other hand the Packed Red Blood Cell part of the blood was used to test for hemagglutination where microscopic and macroscopic evaluations were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts against the blood groups from the ABO system. About this study it was found out that all the wild grasses did not give a comparable coagulation to the commercially available positive control which is Calcium Chloride while Euphorbia hirta L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A and Type B cells Tridax procumbens L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A cell and Vernonia cinerea L Less gave a positive hemagglutination to Type B cells both in macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. The results show that all the wild grasses tested may not be used as a coagulant but all of them may have a potential as a typing sera.

  2. Green mediated synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles using Euphorbia Jatropa latex as reducing agent

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    M.S. Geetha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Presently the progress of green chemistry in the synthesis of nanoparticles with the use of plants has engrossed a great attention. This study reports the synthesis of ZnO using latex of Euphorbia Jatropa as reducing agent. As prepared product was characterized by powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS, Rietveld refinement, UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL. The concentration of plant latex plays an important role in controlling the size of the particle and its morphology. PXRD graphs showed the well crystallisation of the particles. The average particle size was calculated using Scherrer equation and advanced Williamson Hall (WH plots. The average particle size was around 15 nm. This result was also supported by SEM and TEM analyses. FTIR shows the characteristic peak of ZnO at 435 cm−1. SEM and TEM micrographs show that the particles were almost hexagonal in nature. EDS of SEM analysis confirmed that the elements are only Zn and O. EDS confirmed purity of ZnO. Atomic states were confirmed by XPS results. Crystal parameters were determined using Rietveld refinement. From UV–Visible spectra average energy gap was calculated which is ∼3.63 eV. PL studies showed UV emission peak at 392 nm and broad band visible emission centred in the range 500–600 nm. The Commission International de I'Eclairage and colour correlated temperature coordinates were estimated for ZnO prepared using 2 ml, 4 ml and 6 ml Jatropa latex. The results indicate that the phosphor may be suitable for white light emitting diode (WLED. The study fruitfully reveals simple, fast, economical and eco friendly method of synthesis of multifunctional ZnO nanoparticles (Nps.

  3. Seletividade de coroa-de-cristo (Euphorbia splendens a diferentes classes de herbicidas para manejo de plantas daninhas em jardinagem.

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    Cleber D. de G. Maciel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a seletividade da coroa-de-cristo (Euphorbia splendes para diferentes classes de herbicidas, três experimentos foram realizados, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Modelo da ESAPP/SP (2001/2002. Os tratamentos do Experimento 1 foram (em e.a. ou i.a.: glyphosate (1,44 kg.ha-1; sulfosate (1,44kg.ha-1; amônio-glufosinato (0,48 kg.ha-1; paraquat (0,60 kg.ha-1; glyphosate + flumioxazin (1,44 + 0,06 kg.ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl (1,44 + 0,06 kg.ha-1 e testemunha. No Experimento 2:carfentrazone-ethyl (0,12 kg.ha-1; 2,4-D (1,30 kg.ha-1; isoxaflutole (0,06 kg.ha-1; nicosulfuron (0,06 kg.ha-1; metsulfuron-methyl (0,0024 kg.ha-1; lactofen (0,180 kg.ha-1; chlorimuron-ethyl (0,02 kg.ha-1; bentazon (1,25 kg.ha-1 e testemunha. No Experimento 3 foram testados: fluazifop-p-butyl (0,25 kg.ha-1; sethoxydim (1,25 kg.ha-1; haloxyfop-methyl (0,06 kg.ha-1; clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (0,11 kg.ha-1; quizalofop-p-ethyl (0,10 kg.ha-1; clethodim (0,12 kg.ha-1; propaquizafop (0,12 kg.ha-1; tepraloxydim (0,40 kg.ha-1; butroxydim (0,10 kg.ha-1 e testemunha. No Experimento 1, nenhum tratamento foi seletivo, causando danos visíveis de fitointoxicação a partir dos 7 dias após aplicação. No Experimento 2, apenas o metsulfuron-methyl apresentou seletividade à coroa-de-cristo, para as folhas e inflorescências; sendo o isoxaflutole, nicosulfuron, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon impróprios apenas no que diz respeito à preservação de flores. No Experimento 3, todos os tratamentos indicaram seletividade à coroa-de-cristo, observando-se apenas injúrias às flores para os herbicidas fluazifop-p-butil e sethoxydim e propaquizafop.

  4. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

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    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas constituem-se na principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja; no entanto, a pressão de seleção causada pelo uso contínuo de produtos com o mesmo mecanismo de ação pode provocar a seleção de biótipos resistentes, como ocorreu com Euphorbia heterophylla L., que se mostrou resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS em áreas dos Estados do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul. Para comprovar possíveis novos casos, bem como alternativas para prevenção e manejo, coletaram-se sementes de plantas de E. heterophylla L., na região de Assis (SP, que sobreviveram a tratamentos, em que esses herbicidas foram sistematicamente aplicados nos últimos anos. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em casa de vegetação, comparando-se o biótipo resistente ao suscetível, quando submetido aos diversos herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. Aplicaram-se quando as plantas encontravam-se no estádio de duas a quatro folhas verdadeiras, nas doses zero, uma, duas, quatro e oito vezes a recomendada. Aos 20 dias após a aplicação, avaliaram-se os parâmetros relativos ao controle e produção de fitomassa epígea visando ao estabelecimento de curvas de doses-resposta, à obtenção dos fatores de resistência com base nos valores da DL50 e GR50, e à verificação da ocorrência de resistência múltipla. O biótipo resistente apresentou diferentes níveis de resistência aos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, demonstrando resistência cruzada aos inibidores da ALS dos grupos das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas. No entanto, foi eficientemente controlado nos tratamentos com fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, glufosinato de amônio (150 g.ha-1 e glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.Herbicides are the main tool for weed control in soybean crop, but the selection pressure attributed to the repeated application of the same herbicides and the same mechanism of action can

  5. Teores de água no solo e eficácia do herbicida glyphosate no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Soil water contents and glyphosate efficacy in controlling Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Zanatta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em casa de vegetação foi realizado com os objetivos de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glyphosate no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla se desenvolvendo em solo com diferentes teores de água e determinar qual o menor teor de água do solo que não prejudica a ação desse herbicida no controle dessa planta daninha. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6 x 5, sendo seis intervalos entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas e cinco doses de glyphosate (0, 180, 360, 720 e 1.080 g ha-1. Quando as plantas atingiram estádio de três pares de folhas, foram aplicados 10 mm de chuva simulada, conforme tratamento previsto. Ao término do período de simulação de chuva, aplicou-se o herbicida com pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, utilizando-se volume de calda de 120 L ha-1. Aos 7, 20, 34 e 41 dias após aplicação (DAA, foram avaliados o controle (por escala visual e, aos 41 DAA, a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Após análise dos dados, verificou-se que a partir da dose de 720 g ha-1 de glyphosate obteve-se controle satisfatório de E. heterophylla, independentemente do intervalo entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida. Pulverizações de 360 g ha-1 de glyphosate a intervalos menores que 48 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e em solo com teor de água maior que 0,09 cm³ cm-3 não prejudicaram a eficácia do herbicida. A aplicação de 180 g ha-1 de glyphosate a intervalos menores que 12 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e em solo com teor de água superior a 0,14 cm³ cm-3 não afetou a eficácia do herbicida.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate in controlling Euphorbia heterophylla growing under different soil moisture levels and to determine the lowest soil moisture level failing to prevent herbicide effectiveness in controlling this weed

  6. Características morfofisiológicas de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência a diferentes mecanismos de ação herbicida Morphophysiological characteristics of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant to different herbicide action mechanisms

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    M.M Trezzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas é um dos maiores entraves da agricultura mundial. No Brasil, Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL obtém destaque devido ao fato de apresentar resistência a mais de um mecanismo de ação de herbicidas. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de identificar características morfofisiológicas e a adaptabilidade ecológica entre biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e Protox e com resistência apenas a inibidores da ALS e suscetível, oriundos da região sudoeste do Paraná. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação. O delineamento utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As características morfofisiológicas avaliadas foram: matéria seca de folhas+cotilédones, de raízes, de caule+pecíolos e total, estatura, número de ramificações por planta, área foliar e número de folhas por planta. Nas determinações efetuadas mais tardiamente, plantas do biótipo S apresentaram menores matérias secas de folhas+cotilédones, caules+pecíolos e total. Plantas do biótipo S também apresentaram menores área foliar, número de ramificações e estatura em avaliações mais tardias, comparativamente aos biótipos R a ALS e R a Protox.Weed resistance to herbicides is one of the major barriers to agriculture worldwide. In Brazil, Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL is especially known for presenting resistance to more than one herbicide action mechanism. This work was carried out to identify morphophysiological characteristics and ecological adaptability between Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes with multiple resistance to ALS inhibitors and PROTOX, and with resistance only to ALS inhibitors and susceptible from Southwestern Paraná. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The morphophysiological characteristics evaluated were: dry matter of leaves

  7. Green synthesis of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles mediated by Euphorbia prolifera leaf extract and investigation of their catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Seyedeh Samaneh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

    2016-06-15

    A green synthesis process was developed for the preparation of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using Euphorbia prolifera leaf extract as a mild, renewable and non-toxic reducing agent and efficient stabilizer without using dangerous, hazardous and toxic materials. The approach of biosynthesis appears to be cost efficient eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of the Cu/ZnO NPs synthesis. The Cu/ZnO NPs were characterized by FESEM, EDS, elemental mapping, TEM and XRD. TEM micrograph has shown the formation of Cu NPs with the size in the range of 5-17 nm. In addition, the synthesized Cu/ZnO NPs presented excellent catalytic activity for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) in the presence of NaBH4 in water at room temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Green synthesis of Ag/Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposite using Euphorbia peplus Linn leaf extract and evaluation of its catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohaddeseh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Mohammad Sajadi, S

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was prepared by Euphorbia peplus Linn (L.) leaf extract as a suitable reducing source and stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and FT-IR spectroscopy. TEM analysis of Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposite showed the spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with an average size of 5-10nm. The Ag/Fe3O4 nanocomposite then was used as a magnetically recoverable catalyst for the [2+3] cycloaddition of arylcyanamides and sodium azide in high yields and short reaction times without formation of hydrazoic acid (HN3). Also it can be easily recovered via applying of external magnetic field and reused several times without significant loss of activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Ca2+/calmodulin-binding peroxidase from Euphorbia latex: novel aspects of calcium-hydrogen peroxide cross-talk in the regulation of plant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Anna; Medda, Rosaria; Longu, Silvia; Floris, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Padiglia, Alessandra

    2005-11-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous Ca(2+) sensor found in all eukaryotes, where it participates in the regulation of diverse calcium-dependent physiological processes. In response to fluctuations of the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+), CaM binds to a set of unrelated target proteins and modulates their activity. In plants, a growing number of CaM-binding proteins have been identified that apparently do not have a counterpart in animals. Some of these plant-specific Ca(2+)/CaM-activated proteins are known to tune the interaction between calcium and H(2)O(2) in orchestrating plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses. We previously characterized a calcium-dependent peroxidase isolated from the latex of the Mediterranean shrub Euphorbia characias (ELP) [Medda et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 8909-8918]. Here we report the cDNA nucleotide sequence of Euphorbia latex peroxidase, showing that the derived protein has two distinct amino acid sequences recognized as CaM-binding sites. The cDNA encoding for an E. characias CaM was also found and sequenced, and its protein product was detected in the latex. Results obtained from different CaM-binding assays and the determination of steady-state parameters showed unequivocally that ELP is a CaM-binding protein activated by the Ca(2+)/CaM system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a peroxidase regulated by this classic signal transduction mechanism. These findings suggest that peroxidase might be another node in the Ca(2+)/H(2)O(2)-mediated plant defense system, having both positive and negative effects in regulating H(2)O(2) homeostasis.

  10. Total steroid and terpenoid enriched fraction from Euphorbia neriifolia Linn offers protection against nociceptive-pain, inflammation, and in vitro arthritis model: An insight of mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Partha; Mandal, Subhash C; Bhunia, Biswanath

    2016-12-01

    The plant Euphorbia neriifolia Linn has been successfully used for the management of acute inflammatory, arthritic, nociceptive pain and relieves the asthmatic symptom as a tribal folk medicine in India. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic activity from total steroid and terpenoid rich fractions derived from hydro-alcoholic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia stem (STF-HAENS). STF-HAENS fraction demonstrated 68.58±2.5% and 75.25±5.1% protection against acetic acid-induced pain and central neuropathic pain at 80mg/kg. It also showed 98.47% protection against acute inflammation at 100mg/kg with 1.7 fold higher protective activity than the standard drug. The fraction exhibited this efficacy via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-6 by 74%, 81.26%, 92.10% and 93.4% respectively at 100μg/ml. It also showed dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipooxygenase (LOX) activity in a dose-dependent manner that elicited the desired pharmacological action. The fraction downregulated nitric-oxide production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PBMC derived macrophages. The spectrophotometric analysis reveals the STF-HAENS induced ameliorative effect against heat-induced denaturation of BSA protein and exhibited significant antiproteinase activity. Our findings suggest that STF-HAENS could be used as an effective safe therapeutic agent for treatment of nociceptive pain, acute inflammation and arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies de Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae Assessment of moluscicidal activity of the latex of three Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae species on Leptinaria unilamellata d'Obigny 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Afonso-Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres podem atuar como hospedeiros intermediários de helmintos. Os primeiros registros do controle químico desses invertebrados datam do início do século XX e as substâncias utilizadas eram toxinas inespecíficas já empregadas no controle de outras pragas. Moluscicidas sintéticos apresentam limitações técnicas que estimularam a busca de substitutos naturais. Dentre as várias espécies vegetais com atividade moluscicida, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri e Euphorbia tirucalli L. despertam atenção pelos excelentes resultados obtidos sobre moluscos aquáticos. Contudo, estudos sobre a atividade de plantas moluscicidas em moluscos terrestres são pouco comuns, apesar de sua grande importância parasitológica e agrícola. As semelhanças anatomo-fisiológicas entre espécies de moluscos aquáticos e terrestres sugerem que estratégias de controle químico possam ter eficiência semelhante para os dois grupos de invertebrados. Com base nessa hipótese, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies do gênero Euphorbia sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, gastrópode terrestre descrito como hospedeiro intermediário de helmintos trematódeos digenéticos que parasitam animais domésticos. Destas E. milii var. splendens apresentou efeito moluscicida elevado sobre L. unilamellata, 100% até uma diluição de 1:800, já nos primeiros minutos após a aplicação. Embora citadas na literatura como tóxicas para moluscos aquáticos, E. cotinifolia e E. tirucalli não exibiram atividade moluscicida sobre L. unilamellata. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que o látex de E. milii var. splendens pode se constituir em uma estratégia viável de controle químico de moluscos terrestres.Pulmonate terrestrial gastropods can be intermediate hosts for helminthes. The first records of

  12. Análise fitoquímica e atividade fotoprotetora de extrato etanólico de Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau (Euphorbiaceae

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    J.F.F ORLANDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau, conhecida popularmente como “avelós”, “cachorro pelado” ou “pau-pelado”, é utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de câncer, antibiótico e antivirótico. As plantas medicinais são, frequentemente, utilizadas com o intuito de substituir ou auxiliar as terapias convencionais no tratamento de várias doenças, inclusive para evitar os malefícios causados por radiações ultravioletas. Com isso, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial fotoprotetor e a triagem fitoquímica do extrato etanólico das partes aéreas de avelós. A atividade fotoprotetora foi avaliada por meio de ensaios in vitro segundo o método adaptado de Mansur, utilizando extrato etanólico das partes aéreas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o estudo fitoquímico evidenciou a presença de açúcares redutores, alcaloides, fenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, esteroides e triterpenóides na fração etanólica. O extrato apresentou capacidade antioxidante (EC50 de 16,98 ± 0,35 μg.mL-1, teor de compostos fenólicos de 96,18 ± 1,33 mg EqAG/g e flavonoides de 63,57 ± 2,74 mg EqC/g que podem favorecer a atividade fotoprotetora. Avaliando o fator de proteção solar, pode-se observar que todas as concentrações testadas (0,01 a 0,1 µg.mL-1 apresentaram potencial de fotoproteção da radiação ultravioleta com variação de FPS de 6,05 a 19,84, respectivamente. Esses resultados sugerem que o extrato etanólico de Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau apresenta possível efeito fotoprotetor.

  13. Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale hexane extract and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, under laboratory conditions

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    Pedro Jurberg

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10, 6.22 and 6.44 respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.

  14. In situ chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics as a tool to quantify effects on photosynthesis in Euphorbia cyparissias by a parasitic infection of the rust fungus Uromyces pisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhori, Alba; Meco, Marjol; Brandl, Helmut; Bachofen, Reinhard

    2015-11-21

    Photosynthesis is the key process for plant growth and development. The determination of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics allows the quantification of effects on photosynthetic processes triggered by environmental stress factors such as, e.g., the infection by fungal phytopathogens. The technique is non-invasive, rapid and well suited for experimental field work. Healthy and Uromyces-infected plants of Euphorbia cyparissias were monitored directly in situ in the field using rapid fluorescence kinetics. Non-infected healthy plants show a typical maximum value for the relative variable fluorescence Fv/Fm of around 0.8 with occasional variation between the leaves from the plant top towards the base, while infected plants exhibited a strong gradient to low values at the base. The photosynthetic performance index (PI) showed a higher heterogeneity within the leaves in both plant types. The non-invasive and rapid measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence induction allows characterizing the photosynthetic capacity of healthy and infected plants and of parts of them directly in the field. The PI, is highly sensitive not only concerning infection, but also towards other local environmental influences.

  15. C/sub 4/ photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C/sub 4/ metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO/sub 2/ to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO/sub 2/ into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C/sub 4/ acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ (PEP) = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C/sub 4/ photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C/sub 4/ dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and ..beta..-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C/sub 4/ acids that are not involved in the CO/sub 2/ shuttle mechanism characteristic of C/sub 4/ photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  16. Effects of coal-smoke pollutants from different sources on the growth, chlorophyll content, stem anatomy and cuticular of Euphorbia hirta L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.C.; Ghouse, A.K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Variations occurred in the growth, assimilate partitioning, chlorophyll content, stem anatomy and leaf cuticular traits of Euphorbia hirta L. on longterm exposure to coal-smoke pollutants prevailing at two sites, one situated close to a railway loco shed (site B) and another in the vicinity of a thermal power plant (site C). The Botanical Garden of Aligarh Muslim University was considered as a control site (A). Site C possessed a greater load of coal-smoke pollutants than site B. The present study had shown that coal-smoke pollutants have led to a decrease in plant height, jeopardised the production of leaves and enhanced their fall, and caused a reduction in leaf area, leading to decreases of the total photosynthetic area of the plants, with increasing pollution load. The losses incurred in chlorophyll a were relatively more than chlorophyll b and, as a result, the total chlorophyll contents of leaves were decreased in polluted plants. The dry weights of stems, roots and leaves were decreased to different degrees, whereas the shoot/root dry weight ratio was found to increase in the polluted environment. The growth of stem cortex and pith was slightly affected on site B, but showed significant decreases on site C, due to a greater load of pollutants. Decreased area of xylem tissue was found to couple with an increasing number of vessels of reduced sizes. The stomatal density, pore size and index showed decreases. 20 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae Juss.): an unexplored medicinal herb reported from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndam, Lawrence Monah; Mih, Afui Mathias; Tening, Aaron Suh; Fongod, Augustina Genla Nwana; Temenu, Nkegua Anna; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler, an alien invasive medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of gastroenteritis related ailments, diabetes, conjunctivitis, gastritis, enterocolitis, tonsillitis, vaginitis, hemorrhoids, prostatism, warts and painful swellings by the Mundani people of the mount Bambouto Caldera in SouthWestern Cameroon, and to evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Susceptibility testing by agar well diffusion assay revealed good antibacterial activity with inhibition zone diameter of 20 ± 1.1 mm against Bacillus cereus followed by Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone diameter of 17 ± 1.6 mm which was significantly lower (P activity of E. golondrina was higher than that of gallic acid and BHT at concentrations greater than 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mL respectively while at all concentrations, nitric oxide scavenging activity was higher than those of both rutin and vitamin C. GC-MS profile of E. golondrina steam distilled volatiles revealed that the plant has potent phytoconstituent classes such as sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, alkaloids, phenolics and aromatic hydrocarbons. Among the 30 compounds identified, caryophyllene oxide (14.16 %), camphor (9.41 %) and phytol (5.75 %) were the major compounds. Further structural characterisation based on (1)H and (13)C NMR is required to demonstrate structural integrity including correct stereochemistry. The current study partially justifies the ethnomedicinal uses of E. golondrina in Cameroon.

  18. Development of matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of jolkinolide A and jolkinolide B in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Defu; Zhai, Weiyu; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Jianhua; Sun, Yu; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jicheng

    2017-08-01

    A novel and simple method was established for the extraction and determination of jolkinolide A and B in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimised conditions for the MSPD extraction were determined to be that silica gel was served as dispersant, the mass ratio of sample to silica gel was selected to be 1:4, and 5 mL of acetonitrile was used as elution solvent. The method exhibited a good performance in terms of linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9997) and the limits of detection in the range of 0.052-0.065 μg mL-1. The recoveries were in the range of 90.2-98.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.3 to 3.5%. The extraction efficiencies obtained by the MSPD were higher than other extraction method with less cost of sample and solvent. At last, the optimised method was applied for analysing real samples.

  19. [Action of Euphorbia humifusa effective fraction on membrane biosynthesis and the gene expression of proteases MEP and SUB of Trichophyton rubrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Zhao, Ming-Yue; Dawuti, Gulnar; Aibai, Silafu

    2014-02-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of Euphorbia humifusa effective fraction (EHEF) on the CYP51 enzyme activity, the lanosterol content and the MEP, SUB gene expression of Trichophyton rubrum. Trichophyton rubrum was treated by EHEF for 7 days at 26 degrees C. The activity of CYP51 enzyme of Trichophyton rubrum in the cell membrane was determined by using ELISA kit, and the lanosterol content was investigated by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the MEP, SUB gene expression of Trichophyton rubrum was detected with the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results showed that EHEF can decrease the membrane CYP51 enzyme activity, and it also can accumulate the fungal lanosterol in a dose-dependent manner, and it also can decrease the gene expression of MEP and SUB. The antifungal mechanism of EHEF may be related to the inhibition on CYP51 enzyme activity, and to the effects on fungal cell membrane ergosterol biosynthesis. It may also play an antifungal effect by inhibiting the MEP, SUB gene expression of fungal proteases.

  20. Euphorbia milii-native bacteria interactions under airborne formaldehyde stress: Effect of epiphyte and endophyte inoculation in relation to IAA, ethylene and ROS levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2017-02-01

    Better understanding of plant-bacteria interactions under stress is of the prime importance for enhancing airborne pollutant phytoremediation. No studies have investigated plant-epiphyte interactions compared to plant-endophyte interactions under airborne formaldehyde stress in terms of plant Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and pollutant removal efficiency. Euphorbia milii was inoculated with native plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic and epiphytic isolates individually to investigate plant-endophyte compared to plant-epiphyte interactions under continuous formaldehyde fumigation. Under airborne formaldehyde stress, endophyte interacts with its host plant closely and provides higher levels of IAA which protected the plant against formaldehyde phytotoxicity by lowering intracellular ROS, ethylene levels and maintaining shoot epiphytic community; hence, higher pollutant removal. However, plant-epiphyte interactions could not provide enough IAA to confer protection against formaldehyde stress; thus, increased ROS and ethylene levels, large decrease in shoot epiphytic population and lower pollutant removal although epiphyte contacts with airborne pollutant directly (has greater access to gaseous formaldehyde). Endophyte-inoculated plant synthesized more tryptophan as a signaling molecule for its associated bacteria to produce IAA compared to the epiphyte-inoculated one. Under stress, PGP endophyte interacts with its host closely; thus, better protection against stress and higher pollutant removal compared to epiphyte which has limited interactions with the host plant; hence, lower pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Influência do cálcio na calda de pulverização sobre a eficácia do carfentrazone-ethyl no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,F.T.; Caetano,L.; Peruchi,M.; Palazzo,R.R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Alguns herbicidas podem ter sua eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas diminuída quando o cálcio encontra-se presente na calda de pulverização. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar a influência do cálcio na eficácia do herbicida carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado em pós-emergência sobre plantas adultas de Euphorbia heterophylla. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com as concentrações de cálcio variando de 30 a 240 ppm e de 0 a 1.000 ppm respectivamente em c...

  2. Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. Leaf, Flower, Stem and Root Extracts for Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhanam Amutha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16–29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL, followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL. All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and lossThe antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition

  3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, with virus-derived hairpin RNA constructs confers resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Spetz, Carl; Haugslien, Sissel; Xing, Shaochen; Dees, Merete W; Moe, Roar; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2008-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch) is reported here for the first time. Internode stem explants of poinsettia cv. Millenium were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain LBA 4404, harbouring virus-derived hairpin (hp) RNA gene constructs to induce RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV). Prior to transformation, an efficient somatic embryogenesis system was developed for poinsettia cv. Millenium in which about 75% of the explants produced somatic embryos. In 5 experiments utilizing 868 explants, 18 independent transgenic lines were generated. An average transformation frequency of 2.1% (range 1.2-3.5%) was revealed. Stable integration of transgenes into the poinsettia nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Both single- and multiple-copy transgene integration into the poinsettia genome were found among transformants. Transgenic poinsettia plants showing resistance to mechanical inoculation of PnMV were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Northern blot analysis of low molecular weight RNA revealed that transgene-derived small interfering (si) RNA molecules were detected among the poinsettia transformants prior to inoculation. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology developed in the current study should facilitate improvement of this ornamental plant with enhanced disease resistance, quality improvement and desirable colour alteration. Because poinsettia is a non-food, non-feed plant and is not propagated through sexual reproduction, this is likely to be more acceptable even in areas where genetically modified crops are currently not cultivated.

  4. Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entaz Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients.

  5. Dual role of novel ingenol derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV replication: inhibition of de novo infection and activation of viral LTR.

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    Celina M Abreu

    Full Text Available HIV infection is not cleared by antiretroviral drugs due to the presence of latently infected cells that are not eliminated with current therapies and persist in the blood and organs of infected patients. New compounds to activate these latent reservoirs have been evaluated so that, along with HAART, they can be used to activate latent virus and eliminate the latently infected cells resulting in eradication of viral infection. Here we describe three novel diterpenes isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, a tropical shrub. These molecules, identified as ingenols, were modified at carbon 3 and termed ingenol synthetic derivatives (ISD. They activated the HIV-LTR in reporter cell lines and human PBMCs with latent virus in concentrations as low as 10 nM. ISDs were also able to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 subtype B and C in MT-4 cells and human PBMCs at concentrations of EC50 0.02 and 0.09 µM respectively, which are comparable to the EC50 of some antiretroviral currently used in AIDS treatment. Control of viral replication may be caused by downregulation of surface CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 observed after ISD treatment in vitro. These compounds appear to be less cytotoxic than other diterpenes such as PMA and prostratin, with effective dose versus toxic dose TI>400. Although the mechanisms of action of the three ISDs are primarily attributed to the PKC pathway, downregulation of surface receptors and stimulation of the viral LTR might be differentially modulated by different PKC isoforms.

  6. Primary and secondary abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima –how do they compare and how do they differ?

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    Anne Kathrine (Trine eHvoslef-Eide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAbscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in one week. AFLP differential display (DD was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two mutants of pea (Pisum sativum in the def (Developmental funiculus gene have been performed and compared these with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first two days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions, enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis.This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94-98 million years in evolution, hence

  7. Attenuation of nociceptive pain and inflammatory disorders by total steroid and terpenoid fraction of Euphorbia tirucalli Linn root in experimental in vitro and in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Partha; Mukherjee, Dhrubojyoti; Mahanta, Poulami; Shadab, Md; Ali, Nahid; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Asad, Md; Mandal, Subhash C

    2017-10-23

    The plant Euphorbia tirucalli Linn has been successfully used as a tribal folk medicine in India and Africa for the management of acute inflammatory, arthritic, nociceptive pain and asthmatic symptoms. The present study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-asthmatic and anti-arthritic role of the total steroid and terpenoid rich fractions of the hydro-alcoholic extract of E. tirucalli root (STF-HAETR). STF-HAETR fraction demonstrated 71.25 ± 2.5 and 74.25 ± 5.1% protection against acetic acid-induced pain and central neuropathic pain at 75 and 100 mg/kg doses, respectively. It showed 96.97% protection against acute inflammation at 100 mg/kg with 1.6-fold better activity than the standard drug. The fraction exhibited such efficacy via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, by 61.12 and 65.18%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and Nitric oxide synthase in a dose-dependent manner affirms its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The spectrophotometric analysis reveals that STF-HAETR induces ameliorative effect against heat-induced denaturation of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and exhibits significant anti-proteinase activity. The plant fraction also demonstrated anti-asthmatic activity by displaying 62.45% protection against histamine induced bronchoconstriction or dyspnoea. Our findings suggest that STF-HAETR could be an effective safe therapeutic agent to treat nociceptive pain, acute inflammation, asthma, and arthritis which may authenticate its traditional use.

  8. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  9. The Microstructure Organization and Functional Peculiarities of Euphorbia paralias L. and Polygonum maritimum L. – Halophytic Plants from Dunes of Pomorie Lake (Bulgaria

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    I.V. Kosakivska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the leaf surface microstructure, pigments spectrum, hormones status and lipids composition of halophytes Polygonum maritimum L. and Euphorbia paralias L. that grow under natural conditions on the dunes of Pomorie Lake, (Bulgaria. It was shown that the existence in saline and dry soils provided among others adaptive mechanisms by specific microstructure of leaf. The adaxial and abaxial surfaces of P. maritimum leaves are covered with a dense layer of cuticle wax, stomata are located on the leaf both sides below the cuticle level. In E. paralias the cuticle is also well developed on the adaxial surface of leaf laminas. The epidermis of the leaf lower side is covered with a less dense cuticle layer formed by large wax crystals. This plant has stoma pores only on the abaxial side of small leaves below the cuticle level and they are surrounded with hump-shaped cuticle constructions. A high amount of carotenoids (as compared with that of chlorophylls in P. maritimum leaves indicates that these pigments have a light-collecting function and could transfer an additional energy to chlorophylls. The high performance liquid chromatography method has been used to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of hormones. It was shown that in leaves of E. paralias and P. maritimum free abscisic (ABA and conjugated indole-3-acetic (IAA acids prevailed. A high level of active ABA is correlated with the salt tolerance and ability to survive and grow in stress conditions. A high level of conjugated form of IAA demonstrated that activity of this hormone is limited. The cytokinins qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated that in E. paralias leaves zeatin forms dominated, and the level of inactive cytokinins (cis-zeatin and zeatin-O-glucoside was much higher than that of active ones (trans-zeatin and zeatin riboside. P. maritinum leaves contained a significant quantity of isopentenyl forms

  10. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji-Young, E-mail: jiyoung.min@ip-korea.org [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-04

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  11. Bioensaios para identificação de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e da PROTOX Greenhouse and laboratory bioassays for identification of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes with multiple resistance to PROTOX and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Trezzi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro bioensaios, dois em casa de vegetação e dois em laboratório, foram conduzidos com o objetivo de identificar biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e da PROTOX. Em casa de vegetação, plantas do biótipo suscetível (S e dos biótipos 4 e 23, suspeitos de resistência múltipla, foram aspergidas com diferentes doses de imazethapyr e fomesafen. Nos bioensaios em laboratório, sementes dos biótipos S e 4 foram depositadas em placas de Petri contendo diferentes concentrações dos mesmos herbicidas. Curvas de dose-resposta foram ajustadas, utilizando os modelos logístico e polinomial, respectivamente, para os dados obtidos em casa de vegetação e em laboratório. Em casa de vegetação, o fator de resistência (FR a imazethapyr para o biótipo 4 foi superior a 24, enquanto para o biótipo 23 ele foi de 15. Os FRs a fomesafen foram, respectivamente, de 62 e 39, para os mesmos biótipos. Em um período de 144 horas, concentrações de imazethapyr e fomesafen no bioensaio em laboratório foram capazes de discriminar os crescimentos da parte aérea e radicular dos biótipos de EPHHL com resistência múltipla e S. Os resultados confirmam ser tanto os testes em casa de vegetação quanto os laboratoriais, utilizando placas de Petri, metodologias apropriadas para discriminar biótipos de EPHHL S daqueles com resistência múltipla.Four bioassays were developed under greenhouse and laboratory conditions to identify Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL biotypes with multiple resistance to PROTOX and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In the greenhouse bioassays, plants of a susceptible (S biotype and of two biotypes suspected of multiple resistance (#4 and #23 were sprayed using different levels of the herbicides imazethapyr and fomesafen. The laboratory bioassays consisted of a comparative test between biotypes S and #4, exposed to germination in imazethapyr and fomesafen solutions. Dose

  12. Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex Avaliação da estabilidade temporal, estacional e geográfica da ação moluscicida do latex da Euphorbia splendens

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    Virginia Torres Schall

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscicidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring, 1.02 ppm (fall, 1.09 ppm (winter, and 1.07 ppm (summer that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador, demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12ºC (lyophilized product. A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasisTestes de laboratório com soluções aquosas do látex da Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii demonstraram uma estabilidade estacional da atividade moluscicida do produto coletado na Ilha do Governador - RJ, encontrando-se as seguintes DL90: 1,14 ppm (primavera; 1,02 ppm (outono; 1,09 ppm (inverno e 1,07 ppm (verão sobre Biomphalaria tenagophila de campo. Ensaios com o látex da planta coletado em Belo Horizonte e Recife, identificaram DL90 semelhantes aos da substância de referência coletada no Rio, demonstrando uma estabilidade geográfica do efeito moluscicida. Usando diluições aquosas do latex in natura, centrifugado

  13. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras foliares potenciais à penetração de herbicidas observadas nas plantas daninhas A. deflexus e A. spinosus foram, respectivamente, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e da cutícula das duas faces. Já em relação a A. tenella, grande espessura da cutícula das duas faces, elevado teor de cera epicuticular e alta densidade tricomática foram os principais obstáculos potenciais detectados. E. heterophylla apresentou como possíveis principais barreiras foliares à penetração de agroquímicos o alto teor de cera epicuticular, a elevada densidade de laticíferos e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla, widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes to herbicide penetration, and to other substances used for leaf spraying. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples approximately 1cm², were removed from the medium portion of the leaves, from each

  14. Possibilities and limitations of sup 1 H and sup 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the identification and the quantitative determination of some naturally occurring carcinogenic risk factors. [Senecio vulgaris; Senecio vernalis; Senecio jacobaea; Euphorbia ingens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, L.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a phytochemical screening method for some selected carcinogenic or tumor-promoting principles in higher plants. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids from some Senecio species (Compositae or Asteraceae), and the diterpene ester from Croton tiglium L. and Euphorbia ingens E. Mey (Euphorbiaceae) were chosen as representatives of both groups. The possibilities and limitations of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) for the analysis of mixtures of carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids were compared with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was well as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Senecio vulgaris L., Senecio vernalis Waldst. and Kit. and Senecio jacobaea L. were investigated.

  15. Euphorbia heterophylla leaf extract mediated green synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite and investigation of its excellent catalytic activity for reduction of variety of dyes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarod, Monireh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Mohammad Sajadi, S

    2016-01-15

    This work reports a facile and green synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite by extract of leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla without any stabilizer or surfactant. The green synthesized Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and UV-vis. The Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite was found to be effective catalyst for reduction of various dyes, such as 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl orange (MO), Congo red (CR) and Methylene blue (MB) in the presence of NaBH4 in water at room temperature. Catalysis reactions were monitored by employing UV-vis spectroscopy. Catalysis reactions followed pseudo-first order rate equation. The catalyst can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effets de Panicum maximum Jacq. associé à Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke sur la productivité des femelles durant le cycle de reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

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    N'G. D.V. Kouakou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum Jacq. Associated with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke on Productivity of Females (Cavia porcellus L During the Reproductive Cycle. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum Jacq. The association of this forage with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke improves the organic matter digestibility of the mixed diet compared to P. maximum distributed alone in growing male guinea pigs. In order to determine the effect of this diet during gestation and lactation in female guinea pigs, three diets: P. maximum (PAN basic diet; P. maximum associated to E. heterophylla (PANEUPH and P. maximum associated to pellets for rabbit (PANGRAN, were distributed ad libitum to multiparous guinea pigs (604.9 ± 40.8 g. The daily ingestion during gestation and lactation were 59.8±11.2 and 53.2±8.5; 61.5±5.2 and 72.9±16.4; 83.1±12.9 and 111.3±13.9 g DM.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. Similarly, the rates of fecundity were 111.1±0.9; 188.9±0.6 and 244.4±0.5% respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. The individual birth weight and weight gain during lactation of the piglets were 58.7±12.4, 75.6±16.2 and 102.5±12 g and 2.4±0.6; 4.1±0.9 and 6.5±1.2 g.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH, and PANGRAN. In conclusion, the association of P. maximum and E. heterophylla significantly improves ingestion, digestibility, fecundity, birth weight and weaning weight in guinea pigs in comparison to Panicum maximum used as a sole diet.

  17. Efficacy of Euphorbia milli and Euphorbia pulcherrima on aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Nilgiris Mountains, Tamil Nadu, India. Flowers of each plant were collected and thoroughly washed with 2% sodium hypochlorite solution and subsequently with sterile distilled water. After sterilization, the flowers were dried and grounded to powder. Different concentration of dry flower powder; 100, 200, ...

  18. Euphorbia L. subsect. Esula (Boiss. in DC. Pax in the Iberian Peninsula. Leaf surface, chromosome numbers and taxonomic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, Julià

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the representatives or Euphorbia subsect. Esula in the Iberian Peninsula. Prior to this, a first section is included on the study of the leaf surface and a second section on chromosome numbers.
    The section on leaf surface is based on a study of the leaves or 45 populations of Iberian and European taxa of the subsections using a light microscope and SEM. The characters analyzed are cell shape, morphology of the cells and stomata (primary and secondary sculpture and epicuticular waxes (tertiary sculpture. Some microcharacters of the leaf surface proved particularly usefu1for taxonomical purposes. Thus the basic type of stoma and the distribution model of the stomata on the two sides of the leaf are characters which make it possible to separate taxa as closely related as E. esula L. subsp. esula and E. esula L. subsp orientalis (Boiss. in DC. Molero & Rovira. The morphological type of the epicuticular waxes also enables us to differentiate between E.graminifolia Vill. and E. esula aggr. And to distinguish subsp. bolosii Molero & Rovira from the remaining subespecies in E. nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter.
    Cytogenetic investigation reveals the presence of only the diploid cytotype (2n=10 in E. cyparissias L. and E. esula L. subsp. esula in the Iberian Peninsula. We describe for the first time in E. nevadensis s.1. a polyploidy complex with a base of x= 10 in which the diploid level (2n=20 is present in all subspecies; the tetraploid level (2n=40 is present in E. nevadensis subsp. nevadensis and the hexaploid level (2n=60 is found in E. nevadensis subsp. bolosii. Chromosome number is not a parameter that can be used for taxonomic purposes. In E. nevadensis, cytogenetic differentiation has followed its own course, with no apparent relationship to the process of morphological

  19. Allelopathic effects of aqueous and organic fractions of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea and wheat Efectos alelopáticos de fracciones acuosas y orgánicas de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de garbanzo y trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Tanveer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of weed species with allelopathic potential and characterization of their adverse effects against associated crops is required for better understanding of weed-crop interactions. Phytotoxic activity of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was investigated under controlled conditions. Two separate studies were done with each of four organic solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, 1-butanol and crude aqueous (1:10 and 1:20 whole plant fractions of E. dracunculoides using distilled water and 0.05% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as control. Different aqueous and organic fractions of E. dracunculoides had a significant bearing on germination attributes and seedling growth that varied among tested species. The final germination percentage of wheat remained unaffected; nevertheless, root and shoot elongation and biomass accumulation in these parts were significantly retarded. Aqueous fractions appeared more phytotoxic than organic fractions and suppressed chickpea germination by 35-53%. These aqueous fractions also reduced root (64-75% and 33-34% and shoot (18-62% and 21% length and root (32-33% and 42-46% and shoot (7-32% and 80-84% dry weight of wheat and chickpea, respectively. Among organic fractions, n-hexane was more suppressive to test species. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of four phytotoxins, furoic, p-coumaric, syringic, and caffeic acids, in aqueous whole plant (1:10 fractions. This study determined the phytotoxic allelopathic activity of E. dracunculoides against wheat and chickpea.Se requiere la identificación de especies de malezas con potencial alelopático y la caracterización de sus efectos adversos en contra de los cultivos asociados para una mejor comprensión de las interacciones cultivos-malezas. Se investigó la actividad fitotóxica de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. en la germinación y

  20. ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA IN VITRO DO LÁTEX DO AVELOZ (Euphorbia tirucalli L., PINHÃO BRAVO (Jatropha mollissima L. E PINHÃO ROXO (Jatropha gossypiifolia L. SOBRE MICRORGANISMOS PATOGÊNICOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Angelo Gurgel da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Por milênios, o Homem tem explorado a flora como recurso terapêutico. Muitas das espécies medicinais utilizadas possuem fitoquímicos com potencial aplicação no controle do crescimento microbiano. A resistência microbiana crescente representa um sério risco à Saúde Coletiva, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de projetos que visem a prospecção e/ou o desenvolvimento de novas drogas antimicrobianas. Na Caatinga da Região do Seridó do RN são encontradas as plantas medicinais Jatropha mollissima (Pohl Baill (Pinhão-bravo, a Jatropha gossypiifolia L (Pinhão-roxo e Euphorbia tirucalli L (Aveloz, pertencentes à Família Euphorbiaceae, na qual estão presentes fitoquímicos antimicrobianos. O presente projeto objetivou caracterizar a ação antibacteriana do látex destas espécies vegetais contra os patógenos Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi e Listeria monocytogenes. Duplicatas de Placas de Petri contendo ágar Mueller-Hinton foram semeadas em superfície com culturas padronizadas de cada microrganismo. Foram perfurados poços de 10 mm de diâmetro nos quais se inoculou 100 µL das diluições dos látex testados. As placas foram incubadas a 35±2oC/24 h. Os halos de inibição quando existentes foram medidos e registrados. L. monocytogenes apresentou a maior sensibilidade ao látex de J. mollissima; S. aureus foi inibido por J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia, sendo mais sensível no primeiro caso. S. typhi e S. typhimurium apresentaram os maiores halos de inibição (J. gossypiifolia, sendo S. typhi mais sensível ao látex de J. gossypiifolia e S. typhimurium ao de J. mollissima. E. tirucalli não apresentou atividade inibitória. Padrões de sazonalidade parecem influenciar a capacidade inibitória do látex. Recomendamos que sejam efetuados estudos mais detalhados acerca das propriedades antimicrobianas do látex de J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: atividade antimicrobiana, Jatropha

  1. Cleome rutidosperma and Euphorbia thymifolia Suppress Inflammatory Response via Upregulation of Phase II Enzymes and Modulation of NF-κB and JNK Activation in LPS-Stimulated BV2 Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiou-Yu Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleome rutidosperma DC. and Euphorbia thymifolia L. are herbal medicines used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine to treat various illnesses. Reports document that they have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in their anti-inflammatory actions have not yet been elucidated. The anti-neuroinflammatory activities and underlying mechanisms of ethanol extracts of Cleome rutidosperma (CR and Euphorbia thymifolia (ET were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated microglial cell line BV2. The morphology changes and production of pro-inflammatory mediators were assayed. Gene expression of inflammatory genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, interleukin (IL-1β, and CC chemokine ligand (CCL-2, as well as phase II enzymes such as heme oxygenase (HO-1, the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, were further investigated using reverse transcription quantitative-PCR (RT-Q-PCR and Western blotting. The effects of CR and ET on mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor (NF-κB signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. CR and ET suppressed BV2 activation, down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression and inhibited nitric oxide (NO overproduction without affecting cell viability. They reduced LPS-mediated tumor necrosis factor (TNF and IL-6 production, attenuated IL-1β and CCL2 expression, but upregulated HO-1, GCLM and NQO1 expression. They also inhibited p65 NF-κB phosphorylation and modulated Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK activation in BV2 cells. SP600125, the JNK inhibitor, significantly augmented the anti-IL-6 activity of ET. NF-κB inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, enhanced the anti-IL-6 effects of both CR and ET. Znpp, a competitive inhibitor of HO-1, attenuated the anti-NO effects of CR and ET. Our results show that CR and ET exhibit anti

  2. Influência do manejo da palhada de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de soja (Glycine max e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla Influence of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes manejos de palhada de capim-braquiária sobre o desenvolvimento inicial da cultura de soja e da planta daninha amendoimbravo, foi conduzido um experimento em condições de casa de vegetação no NuPAMFCA/UNESP, BotucatuSP. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação superficial (T1; manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação subsuperficial (T2; palhada incorporada ao solo (T3; e testemunha sem cobertura (T4. A palhada foi colhida no campo 30 dias após dessecação com o herbicida glyphosate (1,44 g i.a. ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete repetições, sendo as unidades experimentais vasos plásticos, com a soja e o amendoim-bravo semeados paralelamente, em linhas distintas. O T1 reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a altura das plântulas de soja aos 5 e 10 dias após a emergência (DAE, ao contrário do amendoim-bravo, o qual não sofreu interferência dos tratamentos estudados, constituindo-se em uma planta-problema para sistemas produtivos com palhada de capim-braquiária. Os resultados da análise de crescimento (TCA - taxa de crescimento absoluto, TCR - taxa de crescimento relativo e TAL - taxa de assimilação líquida das plântulas de soja e amendoim-bravo apresentaram valores máximos aos 15 DAE, com exceção do T3 para soja, o qual reduziu expressivamente o desenvolvimento em relação aos demais tratamentos.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at NuPAM-FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the effects of different types of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla. The treatments were: straw on soil surface + irrigation on the top (T1; straw on soil surface + underirrigation (T2; straw incorporated into the soil (T3 and control (T4. B. decumbens

  3. Methanol extracts of Euphorbia cooperi inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the activation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase and p38 in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Chang; Lee, In-Seon; Seo, Huiyun; Ju, Anna; Youn, Deokkyu; Kim, Younghyun; Choun, Jaehee; Cho, Sayeon

    2014-11-01

    Numerous Euphorbiaceae plants have been used for the treatment of diseases, including liver diseases, asthma and rheumatism. The present study evaluated the effect of methanol extracts from Euphorbia cooperi (MEC), a member of the Euphorbiaceae plant family, on the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)‑6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, nitric oxide (NO) as well as the activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinase and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling. Non‑cytotoxic concentrations of MEC significantly reduced the production of NO and IL‑6, but not TNF‑α, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The decreased production of NO by MEC was due to alleviated expression of inducible NO synthase. Reporter assays with cells treated with MEC demonstrated reduced activator protein‑1 (AP-1) activity, while NF‑κB activity was not reduced. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 were suppressed by MEC while phosphorylation levels of inhibitor of κB were not reduced by MEC, suggesting that MEC‑mediated inactivation of JNK and p38 is the underlying regulatory mechanism for inflammatory mediators in LPS‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  4. Aumento da Sobrevivência de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, em Condições de Laboratório, pela Ingestão de Néctar Extrafloral de Euphorbia milii Des Moul. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. The objective this study was to determine if in laboratory, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L., an important vector of dengue and yellow fever, feeds on the nectar of Euphorbia milii Des Moul (Euphorbiaceae , plant commonly used in homes as a hedge, and evaluate the effect of feeding on survival. The lifetime of both sexes was checked daily and a test for fructose was used for verification of sugar intake by mosquitoes. The daily access to the nectar gave a significant increase in the lifetime of males and females (12.8 and 18.4 days, respectively in relation to mosquitoes maintained only with water (6.4 and 7.4 days, respectively. Plants in domestic environments, producing nectar and suitable for feeding by mosquitoes of the same, as well as E. milii, have the potential to play a significant role in the energy budget of mosquitoes. An increase in the survival of females can mean an increased likelihood of infection and disease transmission in males and an increased likelihood of insemination of females. Although often overlooked in research and control tactics, the propensity of the mosquito Ae. aegypti ingesting sugars can be a variable that confers advantages to this vector.

  5. Therapeutic effects of Euphorbia Pekinensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites Partially Via Regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 Signal Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Yan, Chen; Li, Yuting; Mao, Xia; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping; Lin, Ya; Guo, Qiuyan; Duan, Jingao; Lin, Na

    2017-02-01

    To clarify unknown rationalities of herbaceous compatibility of Euphorbia Pekinensis (DJ) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (GC) acting on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites, peritoneum transcriptomics profiling of 15 subjects, including normal control (Con), HCC ascites mouse model (Mod), DJ-alone, DJ/GC-synergy and DJ/GC-antagonism treatment groups were performed on OneArray platform, followed by differentially expressed genes (DEGs) screening. DEGs between Mod and Con groups were considered as HCC ascites-related genes, and those among different drug treatment and Mod groups were identified as DJ/GC-combination-related genes. Then, an interaction network of HCC ascites-related gene-DJ/GC combination-related gene-known therapeutic target gene for ascites was constructed. Based on nodes’ degree, closeness, betweenness and k-coreness, the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis with highly network topological importance was demonstrated to be a candidate target of DJ/GC combination acting on HCC ascites. Importantly, both qPCR and western blot analyses verified this regulatory effects based on HCC ascites mice in vivo and M-1 collecting duct cells in vitro. Collectively, different combination designs of DJ and GC may lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites partially via regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis, implying that global gene expression profiling combined with network analysis can offer an effective way to understand pharmacological mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.

  6. Reduction of adhesion molecule production and alteration of eNOS and endothelin-1 mRNA expression in endothelium by Euphorbia hirta L. through its beneficial β-amyrin molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Mei Fen; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2014-07-18

    The inflammatory reaction in large blood vessels involves up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. These vascular dysfunctions are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. β-Amyrin, an active component of Euphorbia hirta L., has potent anti-inflammatory effects. So far, its preventive effects against the expression of inflammatory mediator-induced adhesion molecules have not been investigated. Endothelial cells (SVEC4-10 cell line) were treated with 50% RAW conditioned media (i.e., normal SVEC4-10 culture media contains 50% of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage culture media) without or with β-amyrin (0.6 and 0.3 µM). The production levels of E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in the SVEC4-10 cells were measured with ELISA assay kits. Under the same treatment conditions, expression of endothelin (ET)-1 and endothelial type of NO synthase (eNOS) mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. With β-amyrin, the 50% RAW conditioned media-induced E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels as well as ET-1 gene expression were all suppressed. β-Amyrin treatment also restored the 50% RAW conditioned media-suppressed eNOS mRNA expression. These data indicate that β-amyrin is potentially useful in preventing chronic inflammation-related vascular diseases.

  7. Capacidad parasítica de Praon pos. occidentale (Hymenoptera: Braconidae sobre Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragón Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Praon pos. occidentale es un parasitoide promisorio para regular poblaciones de áfidos Macrosiphum euphorbiae en cultivos comerciales bajo invernadero de rosas. Se evaluó la capacidad parasítica de P. pos. occidentale bajo tres temperaturas constantes (18, 25 y 28ºC y variando la densidad de su hospedero (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 y 150. En cada unidad experimental se liberó una pareja del parasitoide con 24 horas de edad y se mantuvieron durante 24 horas en incubadoras graduadas a cada temperatura en evauación, con 12 horas de luz y 12 de oscuridad. Se registró el número de áfidos parasitados y se permitió el desarrollo de los huevos depositados hasta adulto. Se estimó la tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ y el tiempo de manipulación (Th a partir de los cuales se ajustó el modelo de respuesta funcional tipo II para cada temperatura. La tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ fue más alta a 18ºC con un valor de 0,1081, seguida de 28ºC con 0,0323 y 25ºC con 0,0103. El tiempo de manipulación (Th más corto fue el que se presentó a 25ºC de 4,8913, seguido de 28º C con un tiempo de 5,7579 y 18ºC con 8,2697. El máximo número de individuos parasitados estimado fue de 4,9 a 25ºC. A 18ºC el 60% de los áfidos parasitados alcanzó la emergencia del adulto, el 74,2% a 25ºC y el 88% a 28ºC. No existe ningún efecto significativo de la densidad del hospedero ni de la temperatura en la proporción sexual de Praon pos. Occidentale.

  8. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in

  9. Green Synthesis of Silver and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Euphorbia prostrata Extract Shows Shift from Apoptosis to G0/G1 Arrest followed by Necrotic Cell Death in Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Chauhan, Indira Singh; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Shankar, Jai; Arjaria, Nidhi; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Singh, Neeloo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to synthesize silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using green synthesis from aqueous leaf extract of Euphorbia prostrata as antileishmanial agents and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of induced cell death. In vitro antileishmanial activity of synthesized NPs was tested against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani by alamarBlue and propidium iodide uptake assays. Antileishmanial activity of synthesized NPs on intracellular amastigotes was assessed by Giemsa staining. The leishmanicidal effect of synthesized Ag NPs was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay and by cell cycle progression and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the treated parasites. TEM analysis of the synthesized Ag NPs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 12.82 ± 2.50 nm, and in comparison to synthesized TiO2 NPs, synthesized Ag NPs were found to be most active against Leishmania parasites after 24 h exposure, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 14.94 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml in promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, respectively. A significant increase in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a subsequent decrease in S (synthesis) and G2/M phases compared to controls was observed. The growth-inhibitory effect of synthesized Ag NPs was attributed to increased length of S phase. A decreased reactive oxygen species level was also observed, which could be responsible for the caspase-independent shift from apoptosis (G0/G1 arrest) to massive necrosis. High-molecular-weight DNA fragmentation as a positive consequence of necrotic cell death was also visualized. We also report that the unique trypanothione/trypanothione reductase (TR) system of Leishmania cells was significantly inhibited by synthesized Ag NPs. The green-synthesized Ag NPs may provide promising leads for the development of cost-effective and safer alternative treatment against visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2015, American Society

  10. Euphorbia tirucalli mediated green synthesis of rose like morphology of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphor: Structural, photoluminescence and photocatalytic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidya, Y.S., E-mail: vidyays.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, LBSGFGC, Bangalore 560 032 (India); Anantharaju, K.S., E-mail: ananth.che@gmail.com [Research Center, Department of Science, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 091 (India); Nagabhushana, H. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials Research, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Sharma, S.C. [Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh 490 009 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Various morphology of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles were synthesized using E-tirucalli plant latex as a fuel. • These nanoparticles were characterized by PXRD, SEM, UV–Vis and PL. • Eu{sup 3+} doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a promising single phased red phosphor. • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 1 ml) nanophosphor exhibits superior photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Eco-friendly, cost effective and bio template route was used for the preparation of cubic Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphors using Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) plant latex as fuel. As – formed Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 1–7 ml), calcined Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 1–7 ml) and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (1–11 mol%, 7 ml) samples were characterized using XRD, SEM and UV–Vis absorption spectrophotometer. With increase in latex concentration, the nanophosphor gets transformed from nano plates to rose – like nanoflowers with size varying from 20 to 30 nm. X-ray diffraction pattern of as – formed product shows hexagonal Gd (OH){sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+} phase and it converts to pure cubic phase of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} on calcination at 600 °C for 3 h. Rietveld refinement of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 7 ml) revealed the presence of cations in the 8b (0.25, 0.25, 0. 25) and 24d positions (−0.0287, 0.00, 0. 25) and the anions in the 48e positions (0.39, 0.15, 0. 37) with space group Ia-3(206). The photoluminescence intensities of transitions between different J levels depend on the symmetry of the local environment of Eu{sup 3+} ion activators and the high ratio of intensity of ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2}) and ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 1}) provides the conclusion that Eu{sup 3+} ion occupies sites with a low symmetry and without an inversion centre. The chromaticity and the CIE coordinates were very close to the standard red color region. The absorption observed in the excitation spectra

  11. Two New Phorbol Esters from Euphorbia bothae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    esterification patterns around a common tigliane diterpene scaffold.3 We therefore anticipated that phorbol ester secondary metabolites were similarly responsible for inducing the irritant contact dermatitis which we experienced on handling speci- mens of E. bothae. 1H NMR analysis of extractives of E. bothae revealed a ...

  12. Preliminary Antioxidant and Antitumorigenic activities of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of the methanol extract on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were also investigated by flow cytometry. The percentage radical scavenging activity was highest in the methanol extract followed by ethyl acetate fraction and least in the non-polar petroleum ether fraction. The IC-50 ...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON EUPHORBIA PROSTATA W. AIT

    OpenAIRE

    Shrama, Gopal Dutt; Tripathi, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Water soluble fraction of total alcoholic in the treatment of bronchial asthma 1.2. The same fraction is studied here on frog heart and on blood pressure and respiration of dog, to screen its action on cardio vascular and respiratory systems experimentally. The paper deals with the above experiments with their observations and results. In nut shell the drug is found to have cardiac depresent action an isolated frog heart as well as on frog heart in situ. The drug also possesses potent...

  14. Studies on wound healing activity of some Euphorbia species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The groups treated with methanol extracts of E. balsamifera and E. schimperi showed profound effects, high rate of wound contraction (100%) and decrease in epithelization period 19.00±0.40 and 18.50±0.64 respectively, followed by methanol extracts of E. consorbina 2, ethyl acetate extract of E. inarticulata and ...

  15. Preliminary results on the ichthyocidal properties of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish and frogs were exposed to various concentrations of latex to determine the concentration lethal only to the fish. The same concentrations were then used to determine the stability of the latex, by exposing fish in tanks with and without biological filtration. The breakdown period varied, with it breaking down quicker with ...

  16. Pytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extract of Euphorbia prostrata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... plate studies, the extract showed inhibitory effect on the germination of the growth of root and shoot of the seedlings. The inhibition was found ... drugs, contains active ingredients plant materials in the crude state and certain ... harmful effects on the neighboring organism (Stamp,. 2003; Khan et al., 2011c).

  17. Screening of endophytic fungi that promote the growth of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... 3Institute of Foods Crop, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210014, China. Accepted 25 ... Replacement of MS culture medium components with E5 extracts in host cell suspensions suggested that E5 extract could replace auxin to enhance the plant growth. Therefore,.

  18. Effects of chromatographic fractions of Euphorbia hirta on the rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aid of thin layer chromatography, six fractions of this plant were obtained and were administered to rats in graded doses of 400mg/kg, 800mg/kg and 1600mg/kg orally for fourteen days. Some fractions of this plant caused significant increase in the levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase ...

  19. Oxidation and cyclization of Casbene in the biosynthesis of Euphorbia factors from mature seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Dan; Callari, Roberta; Hamberger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Ingenol mebutate is a diterpene ester with a highly complex macrocyclic structure that has been approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, a precondition of skin cancer. The current production of ingenol mebutate through plant extraction or chemical synthesis is inefficient and costly. Here...

  20. RAPD-PCR analysis of some species of Euphorbia grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family ^____^

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... Taq®Green master mix was provided by Promega-USA. Amplification was performed on ice in aseptic conditions in laminar air flow using 0.2 ml tight cap Eppendorf tubes. A negative control reaction in each PCR experiment was set up containing all components of the reaction without template DNA so that ...

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of Euphorbia cotinifolia linn. leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of aqueous and solvent extracts of E. cotinifolia leaves were tested against some human pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus by agar cup diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Antioxidant properties were evaluated for different solvent extracts by diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide methods and IC50 values were calculated and compared with the standard ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole. Among the aqueous and organic solvent extracts, methanol and ethyl acetate, showed significant activity against B. subtilis and E. aerogenes which recorded a maximum inhibition zone of 17.25 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts for different bacteria ranged from 0.3- 1.25 mg/mL. In DPPH method, IC50 values of chloroform, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol were found to be 15, 17, 18 and 19 mg/mL, respectively, lesser than the standard, ascorbic acid (25 mg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extract showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and steroids. Further work is in progress to isolate the active compound(s.

  2. RAPD-PCR analysis of some species of Euphorbia grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family ^____^

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... Molecular analysis was performed by using nine random markers in random amplified polymorphic DNA ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Molecular .... Molecular biological studies of plants, such as the PCR techniques ...

  3. Diets of angora goats grazing leafy spurge Euphorbia esula-infested rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Kirby; Thomas P. Hanson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1997-01-01

    Angora goats have been suggested as biological control agents for leafy spurge, especially in environmentally sensitive or limited access areas. Dietary preferences and dietary nutritive content of herded Angora goats were evaluated over a two-year period in North Dakota. Relative preferences of forages were evaluated by comparing botanical composition of diets as...

  4. Antioxidant and anti-hyperglycaemic activity of Euphorbia hirta L. on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This activity was compared to those of glyburide and metformin. The totum showed a percentage inhibition of 63.66 ± 0.54% for 1 mg/mL of extract and an IC50 of 0.031 ± 0.001 μg/mL .A 200 mg/kg extract has shown a very good antihyperglycaemic activity; while on normal blood sugar, the activity was not important ...

  5. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy...

  6. Development of Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. on leaves of common poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kułek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Botrytis cinerea was assessed on six cultivars of common poinsettia, differing in the colour of bracts, and being in great demand among buyers of these ornamental plants. Resistance to this pathogen differed in the investigated poinsettias. Cultivar 'Malibu Red' (red bracts turned out to be most susceptible, while cv. 'Marblestar' (cream-pink and cv. 'Coco White' (white - relatively resistant to this fungus. After application of various inoculation methods (leaf discs, cut off leaves, whole plants the differences in resistance to B. cinerea were confirmed for two extreme cultivars - susceptible ('Malibu Red' and resistant ('Coco White', which indicated genetic background of this polymorphism. The rate of disease development on poinsettia leaves was affected by the amount of spores used for inoculation (optimum density of 3.5·105 B. cinerea conidia / ml suspension and the addition of stimulants (0.1 M glucose with 0.05 M KH2PO4, which facilitated germination and infection of the host tissue. The inoculated poinsettia leaves showed high stability of plasma membranes. In the susceptible cultivar, in spite of the development of necrotic spots, a significant increase in the membrane damage index (by 13% was found only on day 7 of the disease development.

  7. Environ: E00388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00388 Euphorbia kansui radix Euphorbia kansui root Crude drug Tirucallol, alpha-Eu...20-acetate, 13-Oxyingenol-13-dodecanoate-20-hexanoate Euphorbia kansui [TAX:239687] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbia kans...ui root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00388 Euphorbia kansui root ...

  8. Estudi de l'adaptació de diferents cultivars de Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) sota les condicions de cultiu del Maresme

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas Revilla, Mª Àngels

    2014-01-01

    This project is the study of eight experimental varieties of Poinsettia whose peculiarity is the absence of phytoplasma, bacterium naturally present among commercial varieties of this ornamental plant. The study is focused on identifying and quantifying what features contribute to the final characteristics, checking whether it matches with the features expected and appreciate what cropping costs savings can mean. The trial conducted in the greenhouse Plantinova.SL Maresme, started at the time...

  9. Population dynamics and impacts of the red-headed leafy spurge stem borer on leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; George Markin; Joseph Milan; Tom Barbouletos; Matthew J. Rinella

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the biological control agent, red-headed leafy spurge stem borer, against the nonnative invasive plant leafy spurge. Our three treatments were release of the biological control agent into uncaged plots, release of the biological control agent into plots caged to prevent agent escape, and control plots caged to prevent agent entry. These...

  10. Selection and validation of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun S Chao

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most important tool in measuring levels of gene expression due to its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. However, the accuracy of qRT-PCR analysis strongly depends on transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The aim of this study was to find internal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in various experimental conditions for seed, adventitious underground bud, and other organs of leafy spurge. Eleven candidate reference genes (BAM4, PU1, TRP-like, FRO1, ORE9, BAM1, SEU, ARF2, KAPP, ZTL, and MPK4 were selected from among 171 genes based on expression stabilities during seed germination and bud growth. The other ten candidate reference genes were selected from three different sources: (1 3 stably expressed leafy spurge genes (60S, bZIP21, and MD-100 identified from the analyses of leafy spurge microarray data; (2 3 orthologs of Arabidopsis "general purpose" traditional reference genes (GAPDH_1, GAPDH_2, and UBC; and (3 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis stably expressed genes (UBC9, SAND, PTB, and F-box identified from Affymetrix ATH1 whole-genome GeneChip studies. The expression stabilities of these 21 genes were ranked based on the C(T values of 72 samples using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔC(T method. Our analyses revealed SAND, PTB, ORE9, and ARF2 to be the most appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data. Since SAND and PTB were obtained from 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis, while ORE9 and ARF2 were selected from 171 leafy spurge genes, it was more efficient to identify good reference genes from the orthologs of other plant species that were known to be stably expressed than that of randomly testing endogenous genes. Nevertheless, the two newly identified leafy spurge genes, ORE9 and ARF2, can serve as orthologous candidates in the search for reference genes from other plant species.

  11. Transcriptome analysis identifies novel responses and potential regulatory genes involved in seasonal dormancy transitions of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmapuram Jyothi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dormancy of buds is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive extreme seasonal variations in climate. Dormancy transitions in underground crown buds of the model herbaceous perennial weed leafy spurge were investigated using a 23 K element cDNA microarray. These data represent the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of dormancy in underground buds of an herbaceous perennial species. Crown buds collected monthly from August through December, over a five year period, were used to monitor the changes in the transcriptome during dormancy transitions. Results Nearly 1,000 genes were differentially-expressed through seasonal dormancy transitions. Expected patterns of gene expression were observed for previously characterized genes and physiological processes indicated that resolution in our analysis was sufficient for identifying shifts in global gene expression. Conclusion Gene ontology of differentially-expressed genes suggests dormancy transitions require specific alterations in transport functions (including induction of a series of mitochondrial substrate carriers, and sugar transporters, ethylene, jasmonic acid, auxin, gibberellic acid, and abscisic acid responses, and responses to stress (primarily oxidative and cold/drought. Comparison to other dormancy microarray studies indicated that nearly half of the genes identified in our study were also differentially expressed in at least two other plant species during dormancy transitions. This comparison allowed us to identify a particular MADS-box transcription factor related to the DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX genes from peach and hypothesize that it may play a direct role in dormancy induction and maintenance through regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T.

  12. Transcriptome analysis identifies novel responses and potential regulatory genes involved in seasonal dormancy transitions of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, David P; Chao, Wun S; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Anderson, James V

    2008-11-12

    Dormancy of buds is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive extreme seasonal variations in climate. Dormancy transitions in underground crown buds of the model herbaceous perennial weed leafy spurge were investigated using a 23 K element cDNA microarray. These data represent the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of dormancy in underground buds of an herbaceous perennial species. Crown buds collected monthly from August through December, over a five year period, were used to monitor the changes in the transcriptome during dormancy transitions. Nearly 1,000 genes were differentially-expressed through seasonal dormancy transitions. Expected patterns of gene expression were observed for previously characterized genes and physiological processes indicated that resolution in our analysis was sufficient for identifying shifts in global gene expression. Gene ontology of differentially-expressed genes suggests dormancy transitions require specific alterations in transport functions (including induction of a series of mitochondrial substrate carriers, and sugar transporters), ethylene, jasmonic acid, auxin, gibberellic acid, and abscisic acid responses, and responses to stress (primarily oxidative and cold/drought). Comparison to other dormancy microarray studies indicated that nearly half of the genes identified in our study were also differentially expressed in at least two other plant species during dormancy transitions. This comparison allowed us to identify a particular MADS-box transcription factor related to the DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX genes from peach and hypothesize that it may play a direct role in dormancy induction and maintenance through regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T.

  13. Transcriptome analysis identifies novel responses and potential regulatory genes involved in seasonal dormancy transitions of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy transitions in crown buds of leafy spurge were investigated using 23K element cDNA microarrays. These data represent the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of dormancy in underground buds of an herbaceous perennial species. Crown buds collected monthly from August through December, ov...

  14. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154–213

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Guarro, J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Bank, van der M.; Swart, W.J.; Stchigel, A.M.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Roux, J.; Madrid, H.; Damm, U.; Wood, A.R.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Hodges, C.S.; Munster, M.; Jesús Yáñez-Morales, de M.; Zúñiga-Estrada, L.; Cruywagen, E.M.; Hoog, de G.S.; Silvera, C.; Najafzadeh, J.; Davison, E.M.; Davison, P.J.N.; Barrett, M.D.; Barrett, R.L.; Manamgoda, D.S.; Minnis, A.M.; Kleczewski, N.M.; Flory, S.L.; Castlebury, L.A.; Clay, K.; Hyde, K.D.; Maússe-Sitoe, S.N.D.; Chen, S.; Lechat, C.; Hairaud, M.; Lesage-Meessen, L.; Pawlowska, J.; Wilk, M.; Sliwinska-Wyrzychowska, A.; Metrak, M.; Wrzosek, M.; Pavlic-Zupanc, D.; Maleme, H.M.; Slippers, B.; Mac Cormack, W.P.; Archuby, D.I.; Grünwald, N.J.; Tellería, M.T.; Dueñas, M.; Martín, M.P.; Marincowitz, S.; Beer, de Z.W.; Perez, C.A.; Gené, J.; Marin-Felix, Y.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium

  15. Development of a Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction Combined with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS for Determination of Phenolics and Terpenoids from the Euphorbia fischeriana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenjing Li; Yu Lin; Yuchun Wang; Bo Hong

    2017-01-01

    A method based on a simplified extraction by matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry...

  16. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, M. Ashraful; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Haugslien, Sissel

    2013-01-01

    transgenic line (TL1). The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content appeared lower (11–31% reduction) in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT) controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction) in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic...

  17. Occurrence of coccinellids that prey on Diaphorinia citri (Hemiptera:Liviidae) on Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiacea) and Chamaecrista fasciculata (Fabaceae) in a south Florida residential area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding plant-based nutritional resources to a landscape may help to recruit and retain predaceous and parasitic arthropods. As a first step in determining whether the addition of nectary plants can increase the abundance and diversity of biocontrol agents of Diaphorina citri and psyllid suppression ...

  18. Unintended effects of a Phytophtora-resistant cisgenic potato clone on the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and its parasitoid Aphidius ervi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascone, P.; Radkova, M.; Arpaia, S.; Errico, S.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Magarelli, R.A.; Djilianov, D.; Guerrieri, E.

    2017-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants may show unintended differences compared to the original varieties, due to the modification process. Such differences might in some cases affect non-target organisms linked to the crop into an agro-ecosystem. In this paper, we aimed to study interactions of two

  19. Combination technology of ceramic microfiltration and biosorbent for treatment and reuse of tannery effluent from different streams: response of defence system in Euphorbia sp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Ghosh, Sourja; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of combined technology involving ceramic microfiltration and biosorbent for the treatment of tannery effluent from different streams, viz...

  20. 75 FR 68945 - Update of Noxious Weed Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., carnation weed. Geraldton carnation-weed, leiteira. Inula britannica British elecampane British elecampane..., fingergrass),'' ``Euphorbia terracina Linnaeus (false caper, Geraldton carnation weed)'', ``Inula britannica...

  1. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African J. TradCAM

    diterpenes, most particularly phorbol derivatives, which have the tigliane skeleton and strong pharmacological effects (Evans, 1986). Euphorbia royleana is a common medicinal plant of India and its ..... Ingenane and lathyrane diterpenes from the latex of. Euphorbia canariensis. Phytochemistry, 45: 563-570. 2. Andersch ...

  2. Réduction des coûts alimentaires des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: Lapin, fourrage, Euphorbia heterophylla, Panicum maximum, croissance, carcasse. English Title: Reduction of rabbit food costs (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) by distribution of milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla) associated to Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Lam. in semi-intensive livestock. English Abstract.

  3. Fungal Planet 213 – 26 November 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Guarro, J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; van der Bank, M.; Swart, W.J.; Stchigel, A.M.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Roux, J.; Madrid, H.; Damm, U.; Wood, A.R.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Hodges, C.S.; Munster, M.

    2013-01-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusico...

  4. Phytochemical Screening and Mosquito Repellent Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening of extracts from Euphorbia balsamifera was carried out, and the results revealed that the stem bark contains alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, terpenoids and sterols. The ethanol extract of the stem bark of Euphorbia balsamifera (commonly known as Ayyara in Hausa) was ...

  5. Effet sur le développement mammaire et analyse phytochimique de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English Title: Effect on breast development and phytochemical analysis of two lactogenic plants of the traditional ivorian pharmacopoeia: Euphorbia hirta L. and Secamone afzelii (Roem. &Schult.) English Abstract. The Study of the lactogenic ability of two plants such as Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae) and Secamone ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cristina, RT. Vol 11, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effect Of Euphorbia Cyparissias Ointments On Acanthosis Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 4 (2014) - Articles Phytotherapeutic activity of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts on Ixodidae (Acari) female ticks. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muselin, F. Vol 11, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effect Of Euphorbia Cyparissias Ointments On Acanthosis Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 4 (2014) - Articles Phytotherapeutic activity of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts on Ixodidae (Acari) female ticks. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  8. Four new species of Pteromalus Swederus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) and redescriptions of three other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A key to the European species of the Pteromalus altus group is presented. The relationship between this group and species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) is confirmed. One new species: P. villosae, associated with Euphorbia villosa Waldst. & Kit.is presented. Two new species of the albipennis

  9. Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Lasiodiplodia species associated with dying Euphorbia ingens in South Africa, Abstract. JA van der Linde, DL Six, MJ Wingfield, J Roux. Vol 76, No 3 (2014), Pinus patula and pine hybrid hedge productivity in South Africa: a ...

  11. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  12. Ife Journal of Science - Vol 16, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terpenoid compounds from the latex of Euphorbia drupifera · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S. O. Famuyiwa, A. T. Oladele, A. O. Adeloye, C. O. Fakunle, 1-5 ...

  13. Role of Nutrient Manipulation and Biological Control Insects on Leafy Spurge Population Regulation at Arrowwood and Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to (1) assess population trends in Euphorbia esula, the biocontrol flea beetles, Aphthona lacertosa and A. nigriscutis, and native...

  14. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  15. 1802-IJBCS-Article-Donatien Gatsing+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    In vitro antimicrobial activity of Harungana madagascriensis and Euphorbia ..... Table 3: Food and water consumption of mice during acute toxicity study of .... the brain. The depressant effect of H. madagascariensis and E. prostrata extracts.

  16. Anatomical Basis for Optimal Use of Water for Maintenance of Three Xerophytic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three xerophytic plant species namely Agave americana Linn., Aloe vera Tourn. and Linn. and Euphorbia milii Des Moul. were propagated in a greenhouse each with 5 varying soil moisture contents i.e. 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% and subjected to 4 watering frequencies i.e. daily, weekly, biweekly and monthly. Euphorbia milii was the most xerophytic species having relatively lower rate of transpiration than Aloe vera and Agave americana. It was suggested that the high rate of transpiration in Aloe vera and Agave americana may be due to the large tetracytic stomata as compared to the small paracytic stomata of Euphorbia milii. It was also observed that Aloe vera was least tolerant of high soil moisture in daily watering as well as low soil moisture in monthly regime. Agave americana and Euphorbia milii were species that were more robust with capacity to cope well with low and high watering regimes than Aloe vera.

  17. Non-Indigenous Plants in the Northern Great Plains : Ecological Effects of Infestation and Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Euphorbia esula is a long-lived perennial plant with an extensive root system. The extent of the root system makes the plant highly resistant to most traditional...

  18. The Generalist Inside the Specialist: Gut Bacterial Communities of Two Insect Species Feeding on Toxic Plants Are Dominated by Enterococcus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova, Cristina; Baixeras, Joaquín; Latorre, Amparo; Porcar, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Some specialist insects feed on plants rich in secondary compounds, which pose a major selective pressure on both the phytophagous and the gut microbiota. However, microbial communities of toxic plant feeders are still poorly characterized. Here, we show the bacterial communities of the gut of two specialized Lepidoptera, Hyles euphorbiae and Brithys crini, which exclusively feed on latex-rich Euphorbia sp. and alkaloid-rich Pancratium maritimum, respectively. A metagenomic analysis based on ...

  19. The potato aphid salivary effector Me47 is a glutathione-S-transferase involved in modifying plant responses to aphid infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme James Kettles; Isgouhi Kaloshian

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculate...

  20. A contribution to the knowledge of flora in the vicinity of Čatež at Trebnje(eastern central Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bačič, Tinka

    2015-01-01

    During the Youth Research Camp Čatež '97, floristical group was mapping vascular plants in 2 quadrants of the MTB grid (0055/2 and 0055/4). The artidediscusses the results of this research and presents some of the most interesting recorded species: Geranium pyrenaicum, Nigella damascena, Coriandrum sativum, Lepidium virginicum, Spergularia salina, Euphorbia nutans in Euphorbia marginata. V prispevku so predstavljeni rezultati dela floristične skupine na mladinskem raziskovalnem taboru Čate...

  1. Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovgård, Henrik; Reddy, Gadi V P; Steenberg, Tove; Enkegaard, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitization preference between N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae and its ability to parasitize aphids feeding on different parts of lettuce plants. In addition, life history traits of A. abdominalis on these aphid species were investigated. In no-choice laboratory experiments on leaf discs and 24 h exposure, A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 54% and 60% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae, respectively, with no significant difference. In the corresponding choice experiment, however, A. abdominalis had a tendency for a significantly higher preference for M. euphorbiae (38%) compared to N. ribisnigri (30%). Growth chamber experiments on whole plants demonstrated that A. abdominalis was able to parasitize aphids, regardless of their feeding locations on lettuce plants. However, aphid feeding behavior had a significant effect on the parasitization rate. A. abdominalis parasitized significantly higher percentages of M. euphorbiae or N. ribisnigri when aphids were exposed separately to parasitoids on whole lettuce plants as compared with N. ribisnigri exposed only on heart leaf. A significant preference of A. abdominalis for M. euphorbiae compared to N. ribisnigri was also observed in the growth chamber choice experiment. A high percentage of adult emergence (> 84%) and female-biased sex ratio (> 83%) were found irrespective of the aphid species.

  2. Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Michel Sobottka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the family of Euphorbiaceae,the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi(Klotzsch & Garcke Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong, plants native from Brazil, were examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF. Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE, the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHJ347 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHJ347 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 - (Link to Original site) SHJ347F...SHJ347F 136 - - - - - - Show SHJ347 Library SH (Link to library) Clone ID SHJ347 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas...DV142218 |DV142218.1 CV03130B1B09.f1 CV03-normalized library Euphorbia esula cDNA clone CV03130B1B09.f1 5, mRNA...DV141527 |DV141527.1 CV03128B1D12.f1 CV03-normalized library Euphorbia esula cDNA clone CV03128B1D12.f1 5, mRNA...DV139338 |DV139338.1 CV03122B1A06.f1 CV03-normalized library Euphorbia esula cDNA clone CV03122B1A06.f1 5, mRNA

  4. The Generalist Inside the Specialist: Gut Bacterial Communities of Two Insect Species Feeding on Toxic Plants Are Dominated by Enterococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Cristina; Baixeras, Joaquín; Latorre, Amparo; Porcar, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Some specialist insects feed on plants rich in secondary compounds, which pose a major selective pressure on both the phytophagous and the gut microbiota. However, microbial communities of toxic plant feeders are still poorly characterized. Here, we show the bacterial communities of the gut of two specialized Lepidoptera, Hyles euphorbiae and Brithys crini, which exclusively feed on latex-rich Euphorbia sp. and alkaloid-rich Pancratium maritimum, respectively. A metagenomic analysis based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the gut microbiota of both insects is dominated by the phylum Firmicutes, and especially by the common gut inhabitant Enterococcus sp. Staphylococcus sp. are also found in H. euphorbiae though to a lesser extent. By scanning electron microscopy, we found a dense ring-shaped bacterial biofilm in the hindgut of H. euphorbiae, and identified the most prominent bacterium in the biofilm as Enterococcus casseliflavus through molecular techniques. Interestingly, this species has previously been reported to contribute to the immobilization of latex-like molecules in the larvae of Spodoptera litura, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran. The E. casseliflavus strain was isolated from the gut and its ability to tolerate natural latex was tested under laboratory conditions. This fact, along with the identification of less frequent bacterial species able to degrade alkaloids and/or latex, suggest a putative role of bacterial communities in the tolerance of specialized insects to their toxic diet.

  5. Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice treated with aqueous ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitumor effect of a latex extract from Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and its toxicity. Methods: Aqueous ethanol and petroleum ether extracts were obtained through maceration. .Maximum tolerated dose was determined in healthy mice. Antitumor activity was measured in Ehrlich ascites.

  6. Evidence of salicylic acid regulatory mechanisms of disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-23

    Jul 23, 2014 ... immunity against this type of pathogens. Foc can invade the weed roots in banana plantations as saprophyte or as a weak parasite of the tissues of senescent roots in decomposition remaining in soil by long periods. There are reports of the isolations of Foc from roots of the weeds Euphorbia heterophylla L.

  7. 1972-IJBCS-Article-Yvette Nguessan Bra Fofie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    of aqueous macerate extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., in the treatment of hypertension associated with diabetes. ... Diabetes and hypertension are frequently two associated pathologies in patients (Dembele et al., 2000). This association is a serious economic problem, lowers ..... such as mucilage, which precipitates in the.

  8. Reproduction and fertility life table of three aphid species (Macrosiphini at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F. De Conti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a key abiotic factor influencing the development and reproduction of aphids. The effect of temperature on the reproduction of three aphid species Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas and Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas (Aphididae, Macrosiphini has been investigated and fertility life tables were determined. Nymphs were reared in climatic chambers at temperatures of 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 ± 1ºC, RH 70 ± 10% and 12 h photophase. Female adult aphids developed at these temperatures were then used in experiments in which pre-reproductive and reproductive periods were evaluated every 24 h. In addition, the number of nymphs produced and longevity were determined at each temperature. The reproduction period of A. solani and M. euphorbiae decreased with increasing temperature, whereas that of U. ambrosiae was maintained between 19 and 25ºC. The total number of nymphs produced by the aphids decreased as the temperature increased. The longevities of A. solani and M. euphorbiae decreased with increasing temperature but remained stable for U. ambrosiae between 19 and 25ºC. The largest survival rate (l x and specific fertility (m x values were found at 16 and 22ºC for all three species. The most favourable temperature for reproduction of A. solani, M. euphorbiae and U. ambrosiae was 22ºC, as demonstrated by the l x and m x profiles, the high values of net reproductive rates and intrinsic rates of increase, and the short intervals between generation and doubling times.

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Mosquito Repellent Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... treatment of acute dental pulpitis (Yam et al.,. 1997). The latex is an effective pulpal devitalizer used in dental offices (Yam et al., 1997). Most of the fields in Canary Islands are fenced with. Euphorbia balsamifera that protects the crops from pest attacks and the soil from wind erosion hazards. (Thorsell et al.

  10. Cultural Resources in the Southern Lake Erie Basin: A Predictive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Introduction ............ .......................... 4-1 4.2 The Region .......... ........................... ... 4-2 4.2.1 The Political Units...Lathyrds maritimus, var. glaber Strophostyles helvola Euphorbia polygonifolia Physalis heterophylla Agrostis alba, var. maritima Amophila breviligulata...not of increasing population. There was prob- ably little change in the social and political organization of the Plano period either at the minimal

  11. Effect of aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyathula prostrata, Vernonia amygdalina, Euphorbia hirta and Zingiber officinale promoted radial mycelial growth of the pathogen. Autoclave heat treatment did not affect the inhibitory action of C. alata on the linear growth but reduced the efficacy of the leaf extract on dry weight and stroma production. Autoclaved extracts of ...

  12. Observation: Leafy spurge control in western prairie fringed orchid habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Kirby; Rodney G. Lym; John J. Sterling; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2003-01-01

    The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles) is a threatened species of the tallgrass prairie. Invasion by leafy spurge (Euphorbiaes esula L.) is a serious threat to western prairie fringed orchid habitat. The obiectives of this study were to develop a herbicide treatment to control leafy spurge...

  13. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Espadaler

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of interference competition in which some ant species (Messor barbarus and Aphaenogaster senilis rob seeds of Euphorbia characias from other ants (especially Tapinoma nigerrimum is reported. Seed robbing is here regarded as a possible natural impediment to myrmecochory as it may interfere with the seedling recruitment process of the myrmecochorous plant.

  14. Essai préliminaire de production d'oeufs des poules pondeuses (ISA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gras polyinsaturés oméga 3 avec les graines de Euphorbia heterophylla L. ... The proportions of fatty acids C18:3 n-3, C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3 and C22:5 n-3 of ... of cardiovascular disease, leading cause of death in low- and middle-income.

  15. Plantkenmerken in relatie tot de veilingprijs, plantwaardering door consumenten en handel bij poinsettia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, J.

    1997-01-01

    De kerstster (poinsettia/Euphorbia pulcherrima) is een typisch seizoenproduct, waarvan het prijsverloop tussen de jaren en binnen één aanvoerseizoen vaak een grillig verloop heeft. Het is ook een product waar gemakkelijk zichtbare afwijkingen bij optreden. Uit literatuur is bekend dat met eenvoudige

  16. Vegetation change over 40 years in the WeenenIMuden area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broad-leafed species have dominated on moist south-facing slopes and at higher altitudes. Increases of the arborescent leaf succulents. Aloe spectabilis and Opuntia ficus-indica and of the dwarf. stem succulent shrub, Euphorbia pseudocactus have occurred. Fire is no longer a component of this landscape which together ...

  17. 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abbreviara and Ziziphus abbyssinica were claimed to be used for the treatment of cancer. Table 2 shows the effect of the plant extracts on cell lines. At 100 pg/ml Albizia harveyi, Albizia anthelmintica, Dalbergia nitidula, Euphorbia grantii and Rauvolfia caffra exhibited up to 50% cytotoxicity on the three cell lines. Only one.

  18. Foliar glyphosate treatment alters transcript and hormone profiles in crown buds of leafy spurge and induces dwarfed and bushy phenotypes throughout its perennial life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an invasive weed of North America and its perennial nature is attributed to underground adventitious buds (UABs) that undergo seasonal cycles of para-, endo- and eco-dormancy. Recommended field rates of glyphosate (~1 kg/ha) destroys above-ground shoots of leafy spu...

  19. Animal Research International - Vol 10, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro evaluation of the effect of Euphorbia kamerunica latex on the blood of albino rat (Rattus norvegicus) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. RS Konya, LF Leelee, KO Chukwu, 1747 – 1751 ...

  20. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Medicinal plants are a promising source of antidiarrheal drugs3. For this reason, international organizations ..... Ocete MA, Jimenez J. Anti-diarrhoeic activity of. Euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an active flavonoid constituent. Planta Med, 1993;. 59: 333-336. 23. Pinto A, Autore G, Mascolo N, Sorrentino R, Biondi A,.

  1. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Combretum sericeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Akah PA (1989). Purgative potentials of Euphorbia heteropylla. Fitoterapia, 60: 45-48. Couper IM (1987). Opioid action on the intestine: The importance of the intestinal mucosa. Life Sci. 41: 917-925. Dahiru D, Sini JM, John-Africa L (2006). Antidiarrhoeal activity of. Ziziphus mauritiana root extract in rodents.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variation of North American populations of Aphthona species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), flea beetles imported for biocontrol of leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several flea beetle species from the genus Aphthona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into North America as biological control agents for the rangeland weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). Three brownish colored species and two black species were released at many locations beginn...

  3. Phytochemical Analysis of the Leaves of Phyllanthus amarus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of two plants in the family Euphorbiaceae; Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn and Euphorbia hirta Linn, which are commonly used for medicinal purposes and also occurring among Nigerian pasture were analyzed using spectrophotometric and titrimetric methods to ascertain their levels of inorganic ...

  4. Cloning and expression of cell wall acid invertase gene fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fragment of invertase gene containing catalytic sites of cysteine was cloned from poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima wild.) by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The length of the fragment was 521 bp, encoding 173 amino acids and containing a part of open reading frames, but no intron. It had a high ...

  5. 2466-IJBCS-Article-Kouakou N'goran D V

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Preliminary assay of production of layers' eggs (ISA Warren) enriched in polyinsaturated fatty acids omega 3 using Euphorbia heterophylla seeds. ABSTRACT. In Africa, notion of nutritional quality of layers' eggs seems to be abstract. To remedy it, this study aims to determining the effect of a diet supplemented with seeds of ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chukwu, KO. Vol 10, No 3 (2013) - Articles In vitro evaluation of the effect of Euphorbia kamerunica latex on the blood of albino rat (Rattus norvegicus) Abstract. ISSN: 1597-3115. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  7. Determination of antioxidant activity, phenolic contents and antiviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Euphorbia spinidens Bornm (Euphorbiaceae) and its effect on Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) replication. Methods: The methanol extract of aerial parts of E. spinidens collected from Khorasan State in North- Eastern part of Iran ...

  8. Some Pharmacological Studies Of Aqueous Extract Of Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was set out to identify the pharmacological basis for the laxative effect of leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla as well as identify its other pharmacological properties: Material/ Methods: Effect of aqueous extract of the leaves was tested on isolated guinea pig ileum and isolated pregnant rat uterus using organ bath ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and yield ofminisetts of yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) as influenced by size and position of minisett on mother tuber and by staking in the field. Abstract · Vol 23, No 1 (1978) - Articles Seed germination and growth of Eleucine indica and Euphorbia heterophylla as influenced by depth of planting and glyphosate. Abstract.

  10. Leafy spurge effects on patterns of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack L. Butler; Daniel R. Cogan

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to simultaneously evaluate the impact of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) on plant species richness within and among a wide variety of vegetation types typical of the region. The study was conducted in Theodore Roosevelt National Park in southwestern North Dakota where 11 plant associations were identified as being...

  11. Vegetation zonation along the geological and geo- morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... and Sinapsis arvensis and a lower most stratum of various plants: Citrullus colocynthis, Convolvulus prostratus,. C. dactylon, Euphorbia granulata, Heliotropium strigo- sum, Lactuca serriola, Launaea procumbens, Medicago polymorpha and Tribulus terrestris. In the dry season the annuals disappear ...

  12. Relative Efficacy of On-Farm Weeds as Soil-Amendement for Managing Dry Root Rot of Clusterbean in an Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mawar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of certain on-farm weeds as soil amendments was ascertained against Macrophomina phaseolina, a soil-borne pathogen causing dry root rot of crops grown under rainfed conditions in arid regions. Population changes in M. phaseolina were determined in soils amended separately with residues (1%, w:w of Aerva persica, Celosia argentea, Corchorus depressus, Euphorbia hirta, Heliotropium subulatum and Polycarpaea corymbosa, for a period of 90 days. Significant reductions by 90.4–100% in the population of M. phaseolina were achieved with all the weed residues except P. corymbosa. Celosia and Euphorbia residues completely eradicated viable propagules of M. phaseolina. A strong increase (44–61% in the population of antagonistic actinomycetes was also found in soil amended with Corchorus and Euphorbia. In field tests, soil amended (50 g m2 with Euphorbia, Aerva and Celosia residues significantly reduced dry root rot incidence on clusterbean and also reduced M. phaseolina propagules in the soil. However, dry root rot incidence in Polycarpaea-amended soil (5.8–24.6% was not significantly different from that in non-amended soil (4.3–25.3% in both years of the experiment. P. corymbosa also increased the number of propagules of M. phaseolina in the soil. The results demonstrate that dry root rot of rainfed-cultivated annual crops in arid land can be managed with certain weeds as a soil amendment.

  13. Comparison of transmission efficiency of different isolates of Potato virus Y among three aphid vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strains are transmitted by different aphid species in a non-persistent, non-circulative manner. Green peach aphid (GPA, Myzus persicae Sulzer; Aphididae, Macrosiphini) is the most efficient vector in laboratory studies, but potato aphid (PA, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas; Aphidi...

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12744-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 |pid:none) Euphorbia spinea NADH dehydrogenas... 34 3.1 AY757179_1( AY757179 |pid:none) Pseudoscolopia po...hy... 34 3.1 EU642669_1( EU642669 |pid:none) Catalepidia heyana NADH dehydrogen... 34 3.1 EU022045_1( EU0220

  15. Pollen fertility estimation of some sub-tropical flora of Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... 16. Cynoglosum lanceolatum Forssk. Boraginaceae. 88.89. 17. Cyprus defformis L.Amoen. Cyperaceae. 93.75. 18. Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae. 98.28. 19. Dianthus caryophyllus. Caryophyllaceae. 96.77. 20. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Euphorbiaceae. 75.36. 21. Fagonia indica Burm. Zygophyllaceae.

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cumpanasoiu, C. Vol 11, No 4 (2014) - Articles Phytotherapeutic activity of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts on Ixodidae (Acari) female ticks. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  17. Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... Leaves of Euphorbia hirta used in traditional medicine for the treatments of boils, wounds and control of diarrhoea and dysentery ... Antibacterial sensitivity test indicated that the extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli ... yellowish bristly hairs especially in the younger parts. The leaves are oppositely ...

  18. Cristina et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(4):48 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Background: Given its numerous biologically active components, Euphorbiaceae has been found to be a large plant family and polyvalent with quite interesting therapeutic activity that can be studied. Materials and Methods: The ixodicidal activity of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts was studied in vitro and in vivo. Tested ...

  19. Diversité floristique et dégré d\\'infestation par les mauvaises herbes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mauvaises herbes qui posent des problèmes majeurs d\\'infestation dans les parcelles agricoles, sont Chromolaena odorata, Euphorbia heterophylla, Croton hirtus et Ageratum conyzoides. Mais la plus nuisible reste Chromolaena odorata. Characterization of weed communities in the fields surrounding the classified forest ...

  20. diversite floristique et degre d'infestation par les mauvaises herbes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Chromolaena odorata, Euphorbia heterophylla, Croton hirtus et Ageratum conyzoides. Mais la plus nuisible reste Chromolaena odorata. Mots clés : Mauvaise herbe, diversité floristique, degré infestation, forêt classée de Sanaimbo, Côte d'Ivoire. ABSTRACT. WEED FLORISTIC DIVERSITY AND INFESTATION DEGREE IN ...

  1. Effect on some haematological indices of human whole blood when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fact that it does not chelate calcium as its mechanism of anticoagulation gives it an advantage over K3EDTA when used for biochemical tests. It should therefore, be explored as alternative laboratory anticoagulant in view of this advantage. Keywords: Euphorbia heterophylla, anticoagulants, storage of blood, red cell ...

  2. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F.

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  3. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Russelle Alvarez; Francisco Heralde III; Noel Quiming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol) from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii), Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus), Jatropha curcas (J. curcas), Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (A...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 72 of 72 ... Vol 16 (2013), Preliminary evaluation of the synergistic effects of methanol extracts of garlic and some conventional antimicrobial agents on bacterial isolates from HVS ... Vol 14 (2010), The Anti-Sickling Properties of Ethanol Extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Moringa oleifera Leaves, Abstract.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    M (1988): Triterpenoids from Euphorbia mandata. Phytochemistry, 27: 535-537. Sageer AK (2003): Characterization and Standardization of some Traditional plant Drugs.Traditional plant drugs. Asp.http://www.jamiahadard.edu/thesis traditionalplantdrugs. asp. Thesis summary. Lee SS, Yong LH, Wang KC (1991): Microbial.

  6. Holiday Plants with Toxic Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrina N. Evens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima, English holly (Ilex aquifolium, American holly (Ilex opaca,bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara, Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum, Americanmistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum, and European mistletoe (Viscum album.

  7. Antibacterial and toxicological effects of leaf extracts of Eurphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: A study was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity of Euphorbia heterophylla crude extracts on four enteric bacterial organisms namely; Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, E.coli and Proteus vulgaris. Method: The clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, E.coli and Proteus vulgaris were ...

  8. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate ...

  9. Phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used for traditional maternal healthcare in Katsina State, Nigeria revealed that Artemisia annua, Euphorbia balsamifera, Guiera senegalensis, Ipomoea asarifolia and Mitragyana inermis are the most common herbs used by women to treat and prevent ailments associated with ...

  10. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo- and eco-dormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration-stress on vegeta...

  11. Antifeedant Activty Of Different Organic Solvent Crude Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifeedant activity of different organic solvents (acetone, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol) crude extracts of latex of Euphorbia hirta (family Euphobiaceae) against Limicolaria aurora was investigated, and compared with a control, using pawpaw, (Carica papaya) as bait, at a concentration ...

  12. Population dynamics and impacts of the red-headed leafy spurge stem borer on leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Progar; G. P. Markin; J. Milan; T. Barbouletos; M. J. Rinella

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the biological control agent, red-headed leafy spurge stem borer (Oberea erythrocephala Schrank.) against the nonnative invasive plant leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). Our three treatments were release of the biological control agent into uncaged plots, release of the biological control agent into plots caged to prevent agent escape and...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ndamukong, Kenneth J.N.. Vol 64, No 1 (2016) - Articles Effect of Euphorbia hirta and Thymus vulgaris powders on performance and haematological parameters of the Cameroon Kabir Chicken Abstract. ISSN: 0378-9721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum: implications for South African forestry. Abstract · Vol 73, No 3&4 (2011) - Articles Lasiodiplodia species associated with dying Euphorbia ingens in South Africa Abstract · Vol 73, No 3&4 (2011) - Articles A single dominant Ganoderma species is responsible for root rot of Acacia ...

  15. Cloning and expression of cell wall acid invertase gene fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... A fragment of invertase gene containing catalytic sites of cysteine was cloned from poinsettia. (Euphorbia pulcherrima wild.) by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The length of the fragment was 521 bp, encoding 173 amino acids and containing a part of open reading frames, but no intron.

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extension education and land. The land resource, that is the soil, is perhaps the most important which ... married, and those with no formal education were fifty- two percent (52%). Fourteen percent. (14%) had only ... lexaxacifola} : "Emile" i.e snake weed or garden spurge (Euphorbia hl'rta}. Some of the rationale in the use of ...

  17. activity guided isolation of chemical constituents from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbia is the largest genus in the plant family Euphorbiaceae with ca 2000 known species. [1], and well recognized ... Our previous work [8] on this plant demonstrated that methanol extract of the plant have significant wound ... (Merck) were used. Compounds were visualized under UV radiation in CAMAG UV cabinet.

  18. EJST V9N2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast height (1.5m) and by using the formula. Species Important Value (SIV) combines data from three parameters ... eminens, Dalbergia lactea, Pterolobium stellatum, and Ricinus communis. The ground cover species ... Euphorbia ampliphylla and Dalbergia lactea. Albizia gummifera, Allophylus abyssinicus,. Apodytes ...

  19. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences - Vol 1, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemistry characterization of ferrocene/ferricenium redox couple at glassycarbon electrode · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Inhibition effect of flavonoid extract of Euphorbia guyoniana on the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 medium · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Djossou, A.J.. Vol 107 (2016) - Articles Catalysis by Candida antarctica B (CALB) immobilized on natural pure silica by adsorption: comparison with the free enzyme. Abstract PDF · Vol 110 (2017) - Articles Catalytic properties of lipase from Ficus trichopoda and Euphorbia unispina latex: Study of their typoselectivity

  1. Development and Integration of Biocontrol Products in Branched Broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa) management in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhalim Musa, Tilal Sayed

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic weeds of the genera Striga, Orobanche, and Phelipanche pose a severe problem for agriculture because they are difficult to control and are highly destructive to several crops. The present work was carried out during the period October, 2009 to February, 2012 to evaluate the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to suppress P. ramosa on tomatoes and to investigate the effects of air-dried powder and aqueous extracts from Euphorbia hirta on germination and haustorium initiat...

  2. Upgrading of biomass constituents to liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V.K.; Padmaja, K.V.; Kamra, S.; Singh, J.; Badoni, R.P. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehra Dun (India))

    1993-01-01

    To develop energy crops for liquid fuels, non-polar constituents (biocrudes) from indigenous laticiferous species ([ital Euphorbia antiquorum, E. antisyphilitica, E. caducifolia, E. neriifolia, E. nivulia, E. royleana, Calotropis procera, C. gigantea] and [ital Cryptostegia grandiflora]) were subjected to fixed-bed catalytic cracking using a commercial catalyst. The possibility of utilizing part of naphtha, one of the products of the conversion process, for the recovery of biocrude was also explored. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Activité antifongique de quelques plantes de la flore ivoirienne | Tra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six espèces de plantes de la flore ivoirienne ont été utilisées pour la recherche de leur activité antifongique. Ce sont : Borreria latifolia, Borreria verticillata, Erigeron floribundus, Euphorbia hirta, Turraea heterophylla et Vernonia colorata. Les extraits dichlorométhane, méthanolique et aqueux, réalisés à partir des poudres ...

  4. Strains of Lentinula edodes suppress growth of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit Alagoas serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus Linhagens de Lentinula edodes inibem fungos fitopatogênicos e o vírus da estomatite vesicular, sorotipo Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Selma H.; Rosa E.C. Linhares; Nozawa,Carlos M.; Ricardo Montalván; Paccola-Meirelles,Luzia D.

    2001-01-01

    Four Lentinula edodes strains (Le10, 46, K2, Assai) were assessed for their antagonistic effect on four filamentous fungus species of agricultural importance (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp, Fusarium solani and Phomopsis sojae) and on Alagoas serotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSA). The L. edodes strains studied had variable effects on the filamentous fungi and on VSA. The K2 and Le10 strains were antagonistic on the fungi assessed and the 46 and K2 strains were efficie...

  5. Seletividade de inseticidas a predadores de pulgões Selectivity of insecticides to predators of aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rafael Gusmão; Marcelo Picanço; Germano L.D. Leite; Marcelo F. Moura

    2000-01-01

    Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas cipermetrina, diclorvós, diazinon, etion, fenitrotion, malation, metamidofós, paration metílico, permetrina, pirimicarbe e vamidation para adultos dos predadores Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) e Eriopis connexa (Germ.)(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Folhas de tomateiro foram imersas em caldas inseticidas nas doses utilizadas para o controle dos pulgões Myzus persicae (Sulzer) e Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) em tomateiro e também na metade das doses recomenda...

  6. Ricinus communis L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... Germinação e crescimento inicial de plântulas de euphorbia heterophylla L. e Glycine max L. Merril na presença de extratos foliares de Salvia officinalis L. Revista em Agronegocio e Meio. Ambiente 8(2):291-301. Silva C J (2013). Caracterização agronômica e divergência genética de acessos de cártamo.

  7. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  8. Evaluation of hemostatic activity of latex from three Euphorbiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B

    2014-01-01

    Latices from several plant species of Euphorbiaceae family have been traditionally applied over fresh cuts to stop bleeding and subsequently applied over wounds to enhance healing process. The latex arrested bleeding from fresh wounds by reducing bleeding and whole blood coagulation time which are important indices of hemostatic activity. It has been accepted that hemostatic activity is due to the proteolytic fraction of plant latices. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the clot inducing properties of three Euphorbiaceae plants viz., Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham., Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit and Synadenium grantii Hook F. In the present study, various proteolytic activities namely protease, gelatinase, milk clotting and whole blood clotting assay of the enzyme fraction of latices of Euphorbia nivulia, Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Synadenium grantii have been investigated. The inhibition profile of protease specific inhibitors was assessed. Also, the effects of protein fractions were studied using bleeding/clotting time test of fresh experimentally-induced wounds in mice. Euphorbia nivulia latex protease has noticeable blood clotting activity followed by Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Synadenium grantii. Stem latex protease of Pedilanthus tithymaloides exhibits superior procoagulant activity in different mammal's blood samples viz., Capra hircus, Bubalus bubalis, Ovibos moschatus and Bos indicus. Blood sample of ox was the most sensitive to latex protease than other mammal's blood. Concomitantly, the plant latex protease could significantly reduce whole blood clotting time of human and mice blood samples. The protease fraction of latices of Euphorbia nivulia, Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Synadenium grantii possesses phytoconstituents capable of arresting wound bleeding, and accelerating whole blood coagulation process. It suggests good potentiality for use of latex proteases in wound management. Also, the finding of this study showed that the protease

  9. Production of biocrudes from biomass in a fixed-bed tubular reactor: product yields and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putun, A.E.; Ozcan, A.; Gercel, H.F.; Putun, E. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture

    2001-08-10

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis in a tubular reactor was conducted on three biomass samples. Euphorbia rigida, sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) pressed bagasse and hazelnut (Corylus avellana) shells, to determine the possibility of each being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and sweep gas (N{sub 2}) flow rate on the pyrolysis yields and chemical compositions of the biocrudes obtained were investigated. The maximum biocrude yield of 45.7 wt% was obtained from sunflower pressed bagasse in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 823 K and fixed heating rate of 7 K min{sup -1}. However, this biocrude yield can be compared with the biocrude of Euphorbia rigida (31.5 wt%) at optimum conditions. The biocrude yield of sunflower pressed bagasse increased by 26.4% as the final temperature was increased from 673 to 823 K whereas the biocrude yield of Euphorbia rigida increased by 30.8% more than sunflower pressed bagasse when the final temperature was increased from 673 to 823 K. The pyrolysis products were characterized by elemental analysis, high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and also compared with the currently utilized transport fuels by simulated distillation. The pentane subfractions of biocrudes were analyzed for the quantification of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography. The chemical characterizations have shown that the biocrudes obtained from Euphorbia rigida, sunflower pressed bagasse and hazelnut shells were quite similar to crude oil and shale oil. 30 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Effet sur le développement mammaire et analyse phytochimique de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de la prolactine (Youssao et al., 2013). Ces plantes sont utilisées traditionnellement en Côte d'Ivoire par des femmes qui ont une montée de lait difficile. C'est le cas de. Euphorbia hirta et de Secamone afzelii qui ont montré une bonne activité sur la production laitière (Adépo, 2013). Ce travail s'inscrit dans le programme.

  11. Potato aphid salivary proteome: enhanced salivation using resorcinol and identification of aphid phosphoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ritu; Atamian, Hagop S; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2015-04-03

    Aphids deliver saliva into plants and acquire plant sap for their nourishment using a specialized mouthpart or stylets. Aphid saliva is of great importance because it contains effectors that are involved in modulating host defense and metabolism. Although profiling aphid salivary glands and identifying secreted proteins have been successfully used, success in direct profiling of aphid saliva have been limited due to scarcity of saliva collected in artificial diets. Here we present the use of a neurostimulant, resorcinol, for inducing aphid salivation. Saliva of potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), maintained on tomato, was collected in resorcinol diet. Salivary proteins were identified using mass spectrometry and compared with the existing M. euphorbiae salivary proteome collected in water. Comparative analysis was also performed with existing salivary proteomes from additional aphid species. Most of the proteins identified in the resorcinol diet were also present in the water diet and represented proteins with a plethora of functions in addition to a large number of unknowns. About half of the salivary proteins were not predicted for secretion or had canonical secretion signal peptides. We also analyzed the phosphorylation states of M. euphorbiae salivary proteins and identified three known aphid effectors, Me_WB01635/Mp1, Me10/Mp58, and Me23 that carry phosphorylation marks. In addition to insect proteins, tomato host proteins were also identified in aphid saliva. Our results indicate that aphid saliva is complex and provides a rich resource for functional characterization of effectors.

  12. Investigating the rheological properties of native plant latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Friedrich, Christian; Gillig, Carina; Vollrath, Fritz; Speck, Thomas; Holland, Chris

    2014-01-06

    Plant latex, the source of natural rubber, has been of interest to mankind for millennia, with much of the research on its rheological (flow) properties focused towards industrial application. However, little is known regarding the rheology of the native material as produced by the plant, a key factor in determining latex's biological functions. In this study, we outline a method for rheological comparison between native latices that requires a minimum of preparatory steps. Our approach provides quantitative insights into the coagulation mechanisms of Euphorbia and Ficus latex allowing interpretation within a comparative evolutionary framework. Our findings reveal that in laboratory conditions both latices behave like non-Newtonian materials with the coagulation of Euphorbia latex being mediated by a slow evaporative process (more than 60 min), whereas Ficus appears to use additional biochemical components to increase the rate of coagulation (more than 30 min). Based on these results, we propose two different primary defensive roles for latex in these plants: the delivery of anti-herbivory compounds (Euphorbia) and rapid wound healing (Ficus).

  13. The stubble-field plant communities on lowland complexes in South-Eastern Poland. P. II. Plant communities of the Eu-Polygono-Chenopodion alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesława Trąba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Part I deals with the Panico-Setarion stubble plant communities. Part II describes the Eu-Polygono-Chenopodion plant communities. Part II is based on 89 photosociological records. The Eu-Polygono-Chenopodion plant communities develope on soil rich in nutrients (brown soil developed from silts loess and clay; alluvial soils developed from silts and loams; chernozem and black soils, belongs to wheat complexes. Two plant communities are distinguished: 1 Oxalis stricta-Euphorbia esula community; 2 Veronica persica community divided into four variants. The floristic diversity of these plant communities reflects the ecological conditions of the examined region.

  14. Contribució al coneixement de la flora al·lòctona del nord i el centre de Catalunya

    OpenAIRE

    Aymerich, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Presentem dades florístiques recents sobre plantes al·lòctones rares observades com a casuals o naturalitzades, sobretot escapades de jardins. Segons la informació consultada, són citades per primera vegada a la península Ibèrica: Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm. (naturalitzada), Clerodendrum bungei Steud., Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb., Cotoneaster divaricatus Rehder & E. H. Wilson i Opuntia scheeri F.A.C. Weber (casuals). Són novetats per a Catalunya: Helianthus × laetiflorus Pers. (natural...

  15. Contribució al coneixement de la flora al·lòctona del nord i el centre de Catalunya

    OpenAIRE

    Aymerich, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Presentem dades florístiques recents sobre plantes al·lòctones rares observades com a casuals o naturalitzades, sobretot escapades de jardins. Segons la informació consultada, són citades per primera vegada a la península Ibèrica: Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm. (naturalitzada), Clerodendrum bungei Steud., Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb., Cotoneaster divaricatus Rehder & E. H. Wilson i Opuntia scheeri F.A.C. Weber (casuals). Són novetats per a Catalunya: Helianthus × laetiflorus Pers. (nat...

  16. Inhibitory effects of Sudanese plant extracts on HIV-1 replication and HIV-1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, G; Miyashiro, H; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kawahata, T; Otake, T; Kakiuchi, N; Shimotohno, K

    1999-02-01

    Forty-eight methanol and aqueous extracts from Sudanese plants were screened for their inhibitory activity on viral replication. Nineteen extracts showed inhibitory effects on HIV-induced cytopathic effects (CPE) on MT-4 cells. The extracts were further screened against HIV-1 protease (PR) using an HPLC assay method. Of the tested extracts, the methanol extracts of Acacia nilotica (bark and pods), Euphorbia granulata (leaves), Maytenus senegalensis (stem-bark) and aqueous extracts of A. nilotica (pods) and M. senegalensis (stem-bark) showed considerable inhibitory effects against HIV-1 PR. Inhibitory principles were isolated from M. senegalensis and their activities were also discussed.

  17. Green synthesis, optical properties and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles in the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Babaei, Ferydon; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Ehsani, Ali

    2014-11-11

    We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Euphorbia condylocarpa M. bieb root extract for the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas in water. UV-visible studies show the absorption band at 420 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. This reveals the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) to silver (Ago) which indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). This method has the advantages of high yields, simple methodology and easy work up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PARTICIPATORY CARTOGRAPHY IN A TRADITIONAL GOAT PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF A SMALLHOLDER COMMUNITY IN NORTHERN MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Pinos Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A community mapping procedure was developed to identify and characterize communal land area used for a traditional goat production system. Participatory cartography indicated that producers have good knowledge of their territory; more than 80% of the spatial distribution and localization of the elements and shapes present in the community map agreed with the map constructed with GIS. All flocks were mainly grazed on communal rangelands where the most important native forage plants were Opuntia spp. Yucca filifera, Condalia mexicana, Dalea spp. and Euphorbia cinerasiens, and corn stover the main crop by-product supplement used during dry season.

  19. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. RANVAUD

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods.

  20. Capacidad de infestación en invernadero de los biotipos B y Q de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) en plantas de tomate con y sin el gen Mi

    OpenAIRE

    Baraja, M.J.; Manchón, M.A.; Nombela, Gloria; Muñiz, Mariano; Beitia, F.

    2002-01-01

    Se han realizado experimentos de libre elección en condiciones de invernadero para obtener la relación entre el porcentaje de plantas de tomate infestadas (y) y el número de adultos de los biotipos By Qde Bemisia tabaci Gennadius(x) mediante la función linealz=-ax,siendo z= ln[1-(y/100)], utilizándose variedades de estecultivo con y sin elgen Mi de resistencia a nematodos del género Meloidogyne y al áfido de la patata, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Tanto el número medio de adultos como el ...

  1. Euphorbium: modern research on its active principle, resiniferatoxin, revives an ancient medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendino, G; Szallasi, A

    1997-01-01

    Resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent capsaicin analog present in the latex of Euphorbia resinifera, interacts at a specific membrane recognition site (referred to as the vanilloid receptor), expressed by primary sensory neurons mediating pain perception as well as neurogenic inflammation. Desensitization to resiniferatoxin is a promising approach to mitigate neuropathic pain and other pathological conditions in which sensory neuropeptides released from capsaicin-sensitive neurons play a crucial role. Clinical trials to evaluate the potential of topical resiniferatoxin treatment to relieve pain associated with diabetic polyneuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia are in progress. Though resiniferatoxin was isolated only two decades ago, the dried latex of Euphorbia resinifera, called Euphorbium, has been in medicinal use since the time of recorded history. This review highlights the most important events in the history of this ancient medicine, from the first written record of the therapeutic potential of Euphorbium (at the time of the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus) to the identification of its active principle as resiniferatoxin in 1975. A brief overview of the enormous contribution of resiniferatoxin to our current understanding of the anatomical localization, function, and pharmacology of vanilloid receptors is provided. Lastly, the mechanisms are summarized by which capsaicin and resiniferatoxin, despite sharing receptors, may have dissimilar biological actions.

  2. Green Synthesis of Palladium/Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Their Application for the Reduction of Methyl Orange, Congo Red and Rhodamine B in Aqueous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maham, Mehdi; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Akbari, Reza

    2017-10-23

    Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) supported on the TiO2 NPs were prepared via a green alternative process using Euphorbia thymifolia L. leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. This extract has both the reducing compounds, as phenolic acids, and stabilizing agents, as flavonols that responsible for the bioreduction of Pd2+ and stabilization of Pd NPs. The Pd/TiO2 NPs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The Pd/TiO2 NPs exhibited high activity towards the reduction of Methyl Orange (MO), Congo red (CR) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of NaBH4 in aqueous medium. FESEM imaging showed the formation of NPs in the size range of 19-29 nm. The catalytic reduction reactions were monitored by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. Furthermore, the catalyst can be recovered and recycled several times without significant loss of activity. To the best of the author's knowledge, this study explains the first report to synthesis of Pd/TiO2 NPs using Euphorbia thymifolia L. leaf extract. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Potential for production of hydrocarbon fuels from crops in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.A.; Hawker, J.S.; Nix, H.A.; Rawlins, W.H.M.; Williams, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four species are examined in some detail by extensive literature searches and travel in Australia and the USA. These are Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), Asclepias rotundifolia (cotton bush), Calotropis procera (rubber bush) and Parthenium argentatum (guayule). The immediate conclusion is that, except for guayule, the cost of extracted resins from the three species would be 3 to 10 times the cost of oil under Australian conditions. The byproduct lignocellulosic residues have a value dependent on conversion to methanol - but the scale of resin extraction would be too small to be economic for methonol production. The analysis of guayule as a potential economic crop is much more optimistic: The production of resin from guayule appears very favourable, primarily because guayule produces twice as much rubber as resin and the rubber is five times as valuable as crude oil. Included in the booklet is a short survey of resin-containing plants, farming and environmental limitations, and processing technologies. A more extensive analysis of growing Euphorbia lathyris in Western Australia is given.

  4. Life-History Traits of Macrolophus pygmaeus with Different Prey Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Serigne; Brévault, Thierry; Diarra, Karamoko; Bearez, Philippe; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a generalist predatory mirid widely used in augmentative biological control of various insect pests in greenhouse tomato production in Europe, including the invasive tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). However, its biocontrol efficacy often relies on the presence of alternative prey. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of various prey foods (Ephestia kuehniella eggs, Bemisia tabaci nymphs, Tuta absoluta eggs and Macrosiphum euphorbiae nymphs) on some life history traits of M. pygmaeus. Both nymphal development and adult fertility of M. pygmaeus were significantly affected by prey food type, but not survival. Duration of nymphal stage was higher when M. pygmaeus fed on T. absoluta eggs compared to the other prey. Mean fertility of M. pygmaeus females was greatest when fed with B. tabaci nymphs, and was greater when offered M. euphorbiae aphids and E. kuehniella eggs than when offered T. absoluta eggs. Given the low quality of T. absoluta eggs, the efficacy of M. pygmaeus to control T. absoluta may be limited in the absence of other food sources. Experiments for assessing effectiveness of generalist predators should involve the possible impact of prey preference as well as a possible prey switching. PMID:27870857

  5. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district Triagem das atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica de algumas plantas medicinais brasileiras usadas na cidade de Governador Valadares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay. The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men ("raizeiros" who showed familiarity with local used remedies. A total of 33 crude extracts from 32 plant species was studied. Ten extracts (Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa and Plectranthus ornatus presented brine shrimp toxicity (LD50Os extratos etanólicos de plantas medicinais utilizadas por moradores da cidade de Governador Valadares foram avaliados quanto às atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada durante o período de 1997-2000, por meio de entrevistas com os raizeiros locais. Foram avaliados 33 extratos brutos de um total de 32 espécies. Desses extratos, dez apresentaram toxicidade às larvas de Artemia salina (DL50<1000 ppm: Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa e Plectranthus ornatus. Quanto à atividade antimicrobiana, nenhum dos extratos apresentou atividade contra Escherichia coli. Entretanto, treze extratos mostraram-se ativos contra Staphylococcus aureus: E. alba, Scoparia sp., Arctium lappa, Chammomila tinctoria, E. bulbosa, M. hirsutíssima, S. microglossa, Stachytarpheta dichotoma, Pffafia glomerata, Stenorrhyrchnus lanceolatum, Vernonia condensata e Lippia alba.

  6. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  7. The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

    2014-05-07

    This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna.

  8. Comparison of leaf beetle assemblages of deciduous trees canopies in Hungary (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, K; Markó, V

    2005-01-01

    The species richness and species composition of Coleoptera assemblages were investigated in deciduous tree canopies in Hungary. Apple and pear orchards were investigated in Nagykovácsi, Kecskemét and Sárospatak in 1990-94, and limes and maples in Keszthely in 1999-2002. Faunistic results and conclusions of these investigations were published elsewhere. Examination of the fauna of parks, avenues and other planted urban plant stocks has only begun to occupy researchers in the last decade in Hungary. The proportion of leaf-beetle species in the material gathered on maples and limes ranged between 17.0 and 21.3 per cent. The commonest leaf-beetle specimens collected in the lime canopy were Aphthona euphorbiae, Chaetocnema tibialis, Longitarsus lycopi, L. pellucidus, L. pratensis and L. succineus. The commonest on maple were Aphthona euphorbiae, Chaetocnema concinna, C. tibialis, Longitarsus lycopi, L. pellucidus, L. succineus, Phyllotreta cruciferae and P. vittula. This study presents the details on the composition of the chrysomelid communities that was compared by metric ordination using the Syntax 5.1 program.

  9. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C J; Penrith, M L

    2009-06-01

    Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  10. Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2012-01-01

    As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Florida. The DNA-B sequence was 2600 nt in length and shared the highest nucleotide identity (75.1%) with corchorus yellow spot virus (CoYSV). Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that both DNA components of SiYMoV were grouped in the Abutilon clade, along with begomoviruses from Florida and the Caribbean islands. We also present here the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel strain of sida yellow vein virus found infecting Malvastrum coromandelianum and an isolate of euphorbia mosaic virus that was found for the first time infecting Euphorbia heterophylla in Cuba.

  11. Tuta absoluta ve Macrosiphium euphorbiae’nin Domates Bitkisinde Dikey Dağılımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alime BAYINDIR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Solanaceae familyasından olan domates (Solanum lycopersicum L. bir yıllık bir sebze türüdür. Ülkemizde domates üretimini olumsuz yönde etkileyebilecek pekçok hastalık, zararlı ve yabancı ot bulunmaktadır. Zararlıların konukçu bitki üzerindeki dağılımı, doğal düşmanlarınca aranma faaliyet başarısını önemli derecede etkilemektedir. Bu çalışmada yetiştirme sezonu boyunca, domatesin ana zararlısı konumunda olan Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae ve yine domateste önemli ekonomik kayıplara neden olan Macrosiphium euphorbiae Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae’nin sera alanında ve açık alanda yetiştirilen domates bitkilerindeki dikey dağılımı ayrı ayrı olmak üzere incelenmiştir. Sera alanında çalışmanın ilk yılında M. euphorbiae erginlerinin alt>üst>orta yapraklarda, çalışmanın ikinci yılında ise orta>üst>alt yapraklar şeklinde sıraladığı belirlenmiştir. Çalışmanın ilk yılında T. absoluta larvalarının alt>üst>orta yapraklarda, çalışmanın ikinci yılında ise orta>üst>alt yaprak şeklinde sıralandığı gözlenmiştir. Açık alanda çalışmanın ilk yılında M. euphorbiae erginleri alt>orta>üst yapraklarda, çalışmanın ikinci yılında ise üst>orta>alt yaprak şeklinde sıralandığı belirlenmiştir. T. absoluta larvalarının çalışmanın her iki yılında da üst>orta>alt yaprak şeklinde sıralandığı tespit edilmiştir.

  12. Monoclonal antibody-based Surface Plasmon Resonance sensors for pathogen detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2007-01-01

    will be concentrated at few and very large farms. In order to reduce the pesticide use, it is necessary for the farm manager to have detailed knowledge of the distribution of weeds, diseases and pests within the fields. However, field-monitoring by manual inspection is time consuming and expensive. Biosensors...... is to have real-time, robust and low-cost sensors, for both soil and air, which can be operated by personnel with limited or no training in plant pathology. In the present thesis focus is put on the development of immunological sensors for detection of two model plant pathogens, Puccinia striiformis f......M HCl effectively regenerated the surface. The assay had a similar sensitivity as the ELISA with a detection limit of 3.1 x 105 urediniospores/ml. P. striiformis was furthermore detected in a mixture with the rust species Melampsora euphorbia, which underlined the specificity of the sensor. A Surface...

  13. Plant communities in arable fields of the Skierbieszów Landscape Park

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    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Floristic research on segetal communities was carried out in 2000 on arable fields in the Skierbieszów Landscape Park and its protected zone. Three communities of segetal weeds in cereal crops, and two communities of segetal weeds in root crops were separated in the arable fields of the Skierbieszów Landscape Park. The community Vicietum tetraspermae typicum commonly occurred in cereal crops on brown soils developed from loess soils. The community Echinochloo-Setarietum, which belongs to root crops, was noted in the same habitat. The greatest richness of species was found in Consolido-Brometum and Lamio Veronicetum politae, with the average of 25 species in one record. Both communities were abundant in rare segetal species which are considered to be endangered in our country: Adonis aestivalis, Euphorbia exigua, Lathyrus tuberosus, Muscari comosum, Thlaspi perfoliatum, Veronica polita, Agrostemma githago.

  14. Dynamique d'infestation de la forêt classée de Sanaimbo par les adventices à partir des agro-écosystèmes environnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touré, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of Infestation in the Sanaimbo Protected Forest by Weeds from Surrounding Agro-ecosystems. The infestation dynamics of the Sanaimbo Protected Forest by weeds was evaluated with the aim to quantify the impact of weeds on the original flora of this locality. Floristic and phytosociological surveys samples were carried out on plots located inside and outside the forest. The frequency and proportion of biological types is different in plots located outside and within the classified forest. Chromolaena odorata (L. King & H.E. Robins has a high degree of infestation whatever the plot location. Euphorbia heterophylla L., Ageratum conyzoides L. and Panicum laxum Sw. show high levels of infestation in the plots out of the forest and start invading slowly the plots within the forest.

  15. Microscopic fungi species diversity in rhizosphere of plants growing in indoor soil

    OpenAIRE

    Stankevičienė, Antanina

    2012-01-01

    Atlikus skirtingomis ekologinėmis sąlygomis auginamų Ficus elastica, Cyclamen persicum, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Euphorbia trigona rizosferos mikobiotos tyrimus, buvo išskirtos ir identifikuotos 82 mikroskopinių grybų rūšys, priklausančios 30 genčių, 3 šeimoms, 1 eilei, 1 klasei ir 1 skyriui. Tirtų augalų rizosferoje vyravo genties Penicillium grybai (aptinkamumo dažnis – AD 60 %). Rizosferos grybų kompleksų rūšių įvairovė tarpusavyje skyrėsi (KS, 8–17 %). Atsiskleidė tiesioginė priklausomybė ...

  16. The segetal flora of the Kałuszyn Upland

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    Janina Skrzyczyńska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a state of preservation and the characteristics of flora of the cultivated fields of the Kaluszyńska Upland is given. The flora of agrocenosis of the Kałuszyńska Upland is rich. The presence of 278 vascular plant species was noted in the study area. It is mainly the diversity of habitats and human activity that affected its species abundance. More than a half of a number of taxa (166 species - 59,6% belong to the group of rare, 40 of them are endangered extinction. Among the most threatened species there are 14 taxa e.g.: Fumaria schleicheri, Euphorbia exigua, Illecebrum verticillatum, Asperugo procumbens, Polycnemum arvense, Radiola linoides, Camelina sativa.

  17. Molluscicidal impacts of some Egyptian plant extracts on protein and DNA-contents of two snail-vectors of schistosomiasis, using electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Abdel-Haleem

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work included studies of qualitative and quantitative effects of ethanol extracts from three local plants, namely Euphorbia splendens (Euphorbiaceae, Ziziphus spina-christi (Rhamnaceae and Ambrosia maritime (Asteraceae on the protein and DNA-contents of digestive gland of uninfected and infected vectors of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus. The electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands. Furthermore, DNA concentration was investigated by measuring the intensity of the genomic bands that showed an increase in infected and treated target-snails. Degradation of protein and high intensity of DNA after treatment with LC90 of E. splendens, Z. spina-christi and A. maritime extracts introduce these plants as effective molluscicidal agents.

  18. Severe plant invasions can increase mycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Gibbons, Sean; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystem functions and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effect on belowground microbial communities. We show that invasions by knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula, hereafter spurge......)-but not cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)-support a higher abundance and diversity of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) than multi-species native plant communities. The higher AMF richness associated with knapweed and spurge is unlikely due to a co-invasion by AMF, because a separate sampling showed...... that individual native forbs hosted a similar AMF abundance and richness as exotic forbs. Native grasses associated with fewer AMF taxa, which could explain the reduced AMF richness in native, grass-dominated communities. The three invasive plant species harbored distinct AMF communities, and analyses of co...

  19. Indigenous American species of the Bemisia tabaci complex are still widespread in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Leonardo da F; Marubayashi, Julio M; De Marchi, Bruno R; Yuki, Valdir A; Pavan, Marcelo A; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Krause-Sakate, Renate

    2014-10-01

    Bemisia tabaci is a complex of at least 36 putative cryptic species. Since the late 1980s, the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species (MEAM1, formerly known as the B biotype), has emerged in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and in some areas has displaced the indigenous populations of B. tabaci. Based on analysis of the mtCOI gene, two indigenous species native to America have been reported: New World (NW, formerly the A biotype) and New World 2 (NW2). NW is present at least in Argentina, Brazil, Martinique, Mexico, Texas and Venezuela, and NW2 in Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil. Wild plants (Euphorbia sp. and Ipomoea sp.), as well as important crops such as tomato, bean and cotton, are still hosts for native B. tabaci populations in the Americas. MEAM1 has not completely displaced the native B. tabaci from the Americas. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Preparation and phytotoxicity of sorgoleone analogues

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    Barbosa Luiz Cláudio de Almeida

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available 3,5-Dimethoxybenzylic alcohol was converted into the 2-acetoxy-5-methoxy-3-(pent-1-yl-1,4-benzoquinone (12, in seven steps, with an overall yield of 14.6%. The natural quinone sorgoleone (1 was isolated from Sorghum bicolor and converted into the corresponding quinone (13 having a saturated side chain. The selective effects of these compounds (1, 12 and 13, at the dose of 5.6 mug of a.i./ g of substrate, on the growth of Cucumis sativus, Lactuca sativa, Desmodium tortuosum, Hyptis suaveolens and Euphorbia heterophylla were evaluated. All three compounds caused some inhibition on the root growth of the test plants (0.0-69.19% with the aerial parts less affected. The results showed that the triene unit of the sorgoleone side chain is not essential for the phytotoxicity and also the synthetic quinone was as active as the natural product.

  1. Lipases de látex vegetais: propriedades e aplicações industriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paques Fernanda Wiermann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalysts have innumerous advantages with respect to classical chemical processes, such as high specificity. Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3 are biocatalysts with large application in synthesis and hydrolysis reactions of triacylglycerols. The search for new sources of lipases has been intensified in the last years due to the high cost of microbial and animal lipases, wich restricts their use on an industrial scale. Lipases obtained from the latex of Carica papaya, Carica pentagona, Euphorbia characias, E. wulfenii, known for their proteolytic properties, are a good alternative source. In this review, we describe the well-known sources of vegetal lipases extracted from the latex and present some of their industrial applications.

  2. Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2003-03-01

    Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon, Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica, Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic medicine.

  3. Pekinenin E Inhibits the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Promoting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediated Cell Death

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    Lu Fan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a malignant primary liver cancer with poor prognosis. In the present study, we report that pekinenin E (PE, a casbane diterpenoid derived from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis, has a strong antitumor activity against human HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. PE suppressed the growth of human HCC cells Hep G2 and SMMC-7721. In addition, PE-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress caused increasing expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP, leading to apoptosis in HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of ER stress with CHOP small interfering RNA or 4-phenyl-butyric acid partially reversed PE-induced cell death. Furthermore, PE induced S cell cycle arrest, which could also be partially reversed by CHOP knockdown. In all, these findings suggest that PE causes ER stress-associated cell death and cell cycle arrest, and it may serve as a potent agent for curing human HCC.

  4. Alternative and complementary antileishmanial treatments: assessment of the antileishmanial activity of 27 Lebanese plants, including 11 endemic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Carole; Delmas, Florence; Tueni, Marie; Cheble, Edmond; Khalil, Taoubi; Balansard, Guy

    2008-03-01

    Aqueous, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts from 27 Lebanese plants were investigated for their in vitro immunomodulatory and antileishmanial activities as compared to their toxicity against human cells. Extracts from yellow chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria), white larkspur (Consolida rigida), Syrian broom (Cytisus syriacus), coast spurge (Euphorbia paralias), shield fibigia (Fibigia clypeata), Auchers golden-drop (Onosma aucheriana), shell-flower sage (Salvia multicaulis), snowy woundwort (Stachys nivea), Palestine woundwort (Stachys palaestina), and polium-leaved speedwell (Veronica polifolia) exhibited interesting antileishmanial activities on the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite, while several extracts from A. tinctoria, F. clypeata, and O. aucheriana were shown to induce nitrous oxide (NO) production by human macrophages. Further experiments should be performed in order to purify and characterize the chemical compounds responsible for these activities.

  5. Adsorption and inhibitive properties of methanol extract of Eeuphorbia Heterophylla for the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M nitric acid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouda A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption and the inhibitive properties of methanol extract of Euphorbia heterophylla on copper in 0.5 M HNO3 have been studied by weight loss method at different temperatures (30-50°C, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM techniques. Also, the surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract doses and decreased with increasing temperature. The polarization data revealed that this extract acts as mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption process was more favored at lower temperatures with larger negative standard free energy. The extract was adsorbed physically on the copper surface followed Frumkin isotherm.

  6. Determination of elements by atomic absorption spectrometry in medicinal plants employed to alleviate common cold symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükbay, F Zehra; Kuyumcu, Ebru

    2014-09-01

    Eleven important medicinal plants generally used by the people of Turkey for the treatment of common cold have been studied for their mineral contents. Eleven minor and major elements (essential, non-essential and toxic) were identified in the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. , Althaea officinalis L. , Verbascum phlomoides L., Euphorbia chamaesyce L., Zizyphus jujube Miller, Peganum harmala L., Arum dioscoridis Sm., Sambucus nigra L., Piperlongum L., Tussilago farfara L. and Elettaria cardamomum Maton by employing flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Microwave digestion procedure for total concentration was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal plants. Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification. These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of essential, non-essential and toxic elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal plants.

  7. Jatrophanes as promising multidrug resistance modulators: Advances of structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Tang, Shuai; Song, Wei-Bin; Xuan, Li-Jiang

    2018-02-12

    The phytochemical study of Euphorbia helioscopia afforded euphornin (1) in a large amount. Alkaline hydrolysis of 1 using potassium carbonate yielded the main product monodeacetyleuphornin (2), whose structural modification at 14-OH gave rise to 21 acylated derivatives euphornoate A-U (3-23). Thus, a mini compound library of jatrophanes was established to screen for MDR modulators. Biological studies clearly demonstrated the effect of C-14 pattern modification in MDR reversal activity and several compounds with RF values over 300 fold at 20 μM (6, 16, 20, 22, 23) were thought to be promising MDR modulators. The SARs are discussed, which reveal that introduction of an alkyl acyl group bearing 4 carbons at C-14 or an aryl acyl group with electron donating groups is favorable for the activity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  9. Interactions of native and non-native lady beetle species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with aphid-tending ants in laboratory arenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, C J; Alyokhin, A V; Porter, E W

    2009-06-01

    Interactions between lady beetles and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra L.) tending potato aphids [Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas)] were compared in the laboratory. Lady beetle species native to North America (Coccinella trifasciata perplexa Mulsant, Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville) and non-native species of Palearctic origin [Coccinella septempunctata L., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L.)] were evaluated. Harmonia axyridis consumed a significantly greater number of aphids compared with all other species but C. septempunctata. Ant stings affected H. variegata and C. septempunctata to a greater extent than other species. Ants showed a significantly greater amount of aggression toward H. convergens and H. variegata compared with P. quatuordecimpunctata. P. quatuordecimpunctata, C. trifasciata, and H. axyridis reacted significantly less to ants compared with H. variegata, H. convergens, C. maculata, and C. septempunctata. Differences in interactions with natural enemies may explain, in part, the successful establishment of some non-native coccinellids in new habitats.

  10. Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

    1999-03-01

    Forty six aqueous extracts from 38 medicinal plant species belonging to different families were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal use as antidiarrhoeic agents. They were submitted in a broad biological screening including antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activities. The results of the testing have indicated that 37 extracts (80.43%), 33 (71.74%) and 32 (69.54%) exhibited some level of antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activity respectively. Only 8 plant extracts (17.39%) would act as antidiarrhoeic agents by a triple pronounced antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic action. They include aqueous extracts from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Psidium guajava and Tithonia diversifolia, root bark of Alchornea cordifolia, Heinsia pulchella, Paropsia brazzeana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana.

  11. Molecular and biological characterization of a new Tomato mild yellow leaf curl Aragua virus strain producing severe symptoms in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay, Gustavo; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques; Desbiez, Cécile; Bragard, Claude

    2017-12-01

    Tomato mild yellow leaf curl Aragua virus (ToMYLCV) is a begomovirus first reported infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla) in Venezuela. In this study, a ToMYLCV isolate (Zulia-219) was completely sequenced and its host range was evaluated. The DNA-A and DNA-B components of isolate Zulia-219 showed 93 and 85% nucleotide sequence identity with the respective counterparts of the ToMYLCV type strain. According to current demarcation criteria for begomovirus species, Zulia-219 is a new strain of ToMYLCV. Interestingly, tomato plants inoculated with ToMYLCV Zulia-219 displayed severe symptoms, including severe chlorotic leaf curling, in contrast to mild symptoms associated with the type strain of this begomovirus. These results indicate potential risks associated with this new ToMYLCV strain for tomato production in Venezuela.

  12. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca oleracea, and Rumex acetosella were moderate hosts. Taraxacum officinale, Ipomoea hederacea, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  13. Sub-Saharan Botanical Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Beentje, Henk; Cheek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    with independence of former European colonies in Africa, fewer were built on well-established herbaria from the colonial period. There are many gaps in collecting coverage, not least with regard to areas of high plant diversity; this is often caused by poor access or political instability. High species diversity...... exists in both humid and arid parts of Africa. Lack of collections from and knowledge about areas of high species diversity makes it difficult to prioritise conservation efforts. Gaps in taxonomic knowledge exist in certain large families, such as Rubiaceae, or in large genera, such as Cyphostemma...... (Vitaceae), Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae), Polystachya (Orchidaceae), and Barleria (Acanthaceae). Newly collected specimens are now mainly kept in African herbaria, but lack of training and resources in tropical African herbaria are important challenges to prevent African botanists...

  14. Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

    1999-12-15

    Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day.

  15. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  16. Dynamics of nonpersistent aphid-borne viruses in lettuce crops covered with UV-absorbing nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarrea, S; Betancourt, M; Plaza, M; Fraile, A; García-Arenal, F; Fereres, A

    2012-04-01

    Aphid-transmitted viruses frequently cause severe epidemics in lettuce grown under Mediterranean climates. Spatio-temporal dynamics of aphid-transmitted viruses and its vector were studied on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under tunnels covered by two types of nets: a commercial UV-absorbing net (Bionet) and a Standard net. A group of plants infected by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, family Bromoviridae, genus Cucumovirus) and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus) was transplanted in each plot. The same virus-infected source plants were artificially infested by the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Secondary spread of insects was weekly monitored and plants were sampled for the detection of viruses every two weeks. In 2008, the infection rate of both CMV and LMV were lower under the Bionet than under the Standard cover, probably due to the lower population density and lower dispersal rate achieved by M. euphorbiae. However, during spring of 2009, significant differences in the rate of infection between the two covers were only found for LMV six weeks after transplant. The spatial distribution of the viruses analysed by SADIE methodology was "at random", and it was not associated to the spatial pattern of the vector. The results obtained are discussed analyzing the wide range of interactions that occurred among UV-radiation, host plant, viruses, insect vector and environmental conditions. Our results show that UV-absorbing nets can be recommended as a component of an integrated disease management program to reduce secondary spread of lettuce viruses, although not as a control measure on its own. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Potato Aphid Salivary Effector Me47 Is a Glutathione-S-Transferase Involved in Modifying Plant Responses to Aphid Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, Graeme J; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here, we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47) which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs), compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.

  18. The potato aphid salivary effector Me47 is a glutathione-S-transferase involved in modifying plant responses to aphid infestation

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    Graeme James Kettles

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47 which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs, compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.

  19. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

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    Ana Cristina Pellegrino

    Full Text Available Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera, the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera, when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating

  20. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

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    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  1. La familia Euphorbiaceae como fuente de aceites vegetales para la industria tecnoquímica

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    Correal Castellanos, E.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available The family Euphorbiaceae includes a huge number of species some of which provide important raw materials such as rubber, cassava, waxes and oils. In this study, the general botanical and chemical characteristics of this family are described firstly together with the chemical composition of their seed oils and a comparison with those of other families. Secondly, other chemical constituents of economic interest are reviewed and compared with the species already used for food, industry and medicine purposes. A further revision is included on some of its genus with potential interest and on current industrial oil crops such as Ridnus, Euphorbia, Aleurites, Sapium, Jatropha, etc. Finally, from an economic point of view, future prospects of some of these oils as raw materials for the chemical industry are given.La familia Euphorbiaceae contiene gran número de especies de las que se pueden obtener productos de interés económico como el caucho, la tapioca, ceras y aceites. En este trabajo se estudian en primer lugar las características botánicas y químicas de la familia y las peculiaridades de los aceites de sus semillas y se comparan con los de otras familias. En segundo lugar, se revisan otros compuestos químicos así como especies de interés económico utilizadas en alimentación, medicina o industria, incluyendo géneros con potencial interés y los actuales cultivos oleaginosos industriales como Ridnus, Euphorbia, Aleurites, Sapium, Jatropha, etc. Finalmente, desde un punto de vista de mercado, se apuntan las perspectivas de estos aceites como materias primas para la industria química.

  2. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

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    Michael Russelle Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus, Jatropha curcas (J. curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100% after 24 and 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h. On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h. Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  3. Allelopathic potential of Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching on weed plant species Potencial alelopático de Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching (Gleicheniaceae sobre espécies infestantes de culturas

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    Valquiria Marin Voltarelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was to determine the allelopathic potential of Gleichenella pectinata on three weed species (Echinochloa crus-galli (L. Beauv (Poaceae, Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell (Convolvulaceae and Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with six replicates. The target plant responses were analyzed individually (percentage and average time of germination of the seeds and initial growth of seedlings or combined, using the Global Effect Index. The extracts had a low effect on the percentage and average time of seed germination, but inhibited the seedling growth. The combined analysis revealed that almost all treatments caused inhibition. This analysis also showed the differences between the two phenological stages.Com o objetivo de determinar o potencial alelopático de Gleichenella pectinata sobre três espécies de plantas infestantes de culturas (Echinochloa crus-galli (L. Beauv (Poaceae, Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell (Convolvulaceae e Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae foram realizados experimentos em laboratório. O delineamento experimental foi totalmente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e cinco réplicas. As respostas das plantas alvo foram analisadas individualmente (porcentagem e tempo de germinação das sementes e crescimento inicial das plântulas ou combinadas, através do Índice do efeito Global. Os extratos tiveram pouco efeito sobre a porcentagem e tempo de germinação das sementes, mas inibiram significativamente o tamanho das plântulas. A análise combinada dos parâmetros revelou uma inibição provocada por quase todos os tratamentos. Essa análise evidenciou também efeitos distintos entre os extratos de frondes férteis e frondes estéreis.

  4. Strains of Lentinula edodes suppress growth of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit Alagoas serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus Linhagens de Lentinula edodes inibem fungos fitopatogênicos e o vírus da estomatite vesicular, sorotipo Alagoas

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    Selma H. Sasaki

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Four Lentinula edodes strains (Le10, 46, K2, Assai were assessed for their antagonistic effect on four filamentous fungus species of agricultural importance (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp, Fusarium solani and Phomopsis sojae and on Alagoas serotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSA. The L. edodes strains studied had variable effects on the filamentous fungi and on VSA. The K2 and Le10 strains were antagonistic on the fungi assessed and the 46 and K2 strains were efficient on the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. The results widened the list of beneficial effects of L. edodes on the control and prevention of animal pathogenic virus and filamentous fungi.Quatro linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Le10, 46, K2, ASSAI foram avaliadas quanto ao seu efeito inibitório sobre quatro espécies de fungos filamentosos de importância agrícola (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp., Fusarium solani, Phomopsis sojae e sobre o sorotipo Alagoas vírus da estomatite vesicular (VSA. Foi observado que as linhagens de L. edodes estudadas apresentaram variabilidade quanto ao seu efeito, tanto sobre os fungos filamentosos quanto sobre o vírus VSA. As linhagens K2 e Le10 apresentaram-se antagônicas sobre os fungos e as linhagens 46 e K2 foram eficientes na inibição do vírus VSA. Os resultados obtidos permitem ampliar a lista de efeitos benéficos de algumas linhagens de L. edodes no controle e prevenção de vírus patogênicos animais e de fungos filamentosos.

  5. Efeito da luz e da quebra de dormência na germinação de sementes de espécies de plantas daninhas Effect of light and dormancy break on weed species seed germination

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    F.L. Salvador

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a quebra de dormência, utilizando ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4 e escarificação mecânica, e o efeito da luz na germinação das espécies Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea nil, Sida glaziovii e Brachiaria plantaginea. Para avaliar a germinação, os tratamentos foram realizados no escuro e no claro. Não foram constatadas diferenças entre eles nas condições avaliadas, indicando que as espécies em estudo germinam em ambiente com diferentes luminosidades. Quanto a quebra de dormência, observou-se que o tratamento submetido à quebra de dormência aumentou a porcentagem de germinação em algumas espécies. Desse modo, concluiu-se que a quebra de dormência viabiliza condições para germinação de algumas espécies de plantas daninhas e, sob qualquer condição de luminosidade, há germinação das sementes das espécies estudadas.This research evaluated dormancy break using sulfuric acid (H2SO4, mechanical scarification and the effect of light on the seed germination rate of Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea nil, Sida glaziovii and Brachiaria plantaginea. To evaluate the germination rate, treatments were performed in the dark and light; no differences were observed between both treatments under these conditions, indicating that these species germinate under different light conditions. Dormancy break increases the percentage of germination rate in some species. Thus, dormancy break makes the germination of some species viable. The germination can occur both under light or dark conditions.

  6. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

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    T. M. Kpodékon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth disease was reported by all of the breeders of the southern part of Borgou compared with the other areas (p<0.05 and treated by 25 species of medicinal plants. African swine fever was the main pathology reported (22.92% (p<0.05 in the fishery areas which is controlled by 7 medicinal plants. Pseudorinderpest was more reported (33.78% (p<0.05 in the cotton area of central Benin and treated by 8 medicinal plants. There is also Newcastle disease that was mostly reported in the Western Atacora and treated by 32 medicinal plants as well as fowl pox which was a more reported in the lands of the bar area and the low-pressure area about 34.48% and 36.17% proportions, respectively, and treated by eight medicinal plants. Conclusion: The breeders in Benin possess rich ethno veterinary knowledge on medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of livestock. A total of 57 medicinal plants have been inventoried to fight against five major viral diseases as African swine fever, pseudorinderpest and foot and mouth disease. The common plants used to treat viral disease in general were Euphorbia unispina, Euphorbia poissonii, Lannea acida, and Mangifera indica. The most harvested organs on the plants reported in this survey were the barks, the leaves, and the whole plants. To better develop our indigenous resources, it would be important to expand this ethno-pharmacological investigation to other diseases category.

  7. Species composition of leaf beetle assemblages in the canopies of apple and pear orchards in Hungary and Great Britain (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, K; Markó, V

    2004-01-01

    The species richness and species composition of Coleoptera assemblages were investigated in the canopies of apple and pear orchards in Hungary and in the apple orchards in Great Britain. The investigations were carried out in Hungary (Nagykovácsi: 3 plots, Kecskemét: 5 plots, Sárospatak: 4 plots) between 1990-94, and in Great Britain in Kent (East Malling, Marden and Robertsbridge) in 2001 and 2002. Former investigations in Hungary revealed that the diversity of Coleoptera assemblages in the canopy of apple and pear orchard were surprisingly high. As a result of our investigations it was found that altogether 324 species, almost 3% of the Hungarian beetle fauna were represented: 253 species in apple orchards and 188 species in pear orchards. Similar results were obtained in the investigations carried out in Great Britain between 2001-2002. In Hungary, the majority of the species belonged to the families Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae and Coccinelidae. The proportion of leaf beetles varied between 15 and 20%. The most common leaf beetle species in the canopy of the commercial orchards were Phyllotreta vittula, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nigripes, Oulemta melanopus, and Aphthona euphorbiae. In the abandoned orchards the most common species were Luperus xanthopoda, Smaragdina salicina and Orsodacne liieola. In Great Britain 44 leaf beetle species were found in the canopies of the investigated orchards. The species with higher abundance were Aphthona euphorbiae. Chaetocnema concinna and Longitarsus parvulus. We concluded, that leaf beetles give high part of the orchard canopy biodiversity and sometimes occur with high species richness and abundance. However, the reasons of their occurrence and their potential role are poorly known.

  8. Combined Effect of Some Bio-Agents on the Grasshopper, Hetiracris littoralis Under Semi-Field Condition

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    Aziza Sharaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available LC50 of the alchoholic-80% extract of Euphorbia pulchrrima (0.714%, essential oil of Garlic plant Allium sativum (0.067% and nematodes of Steinernima sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. (500 IJs/ml, were tested for their solely and/or combined toxic effects and for their effects on some biological aspects against the grasshopper, Heteracris littoralis 1st instar nymphs under semi-field condition. The joint action of the mixture of the most effective extract (E. pulchrrima and oil (Garlic oil exhibit an antagonistic effect with co-toxicity index of (–24, despite the increase the proportion of death in the mixture for all the tested groups the type of interaction were antagonism, all the tested materials had variable mode of action which resulted in significantly antagonistic effects. Euphorbia 80% methanol extract and Garlic oil may use separately or in combination as alternatives safe tools against H. littoralis grasshopper. Semi-field experiments cleared that nematodes in combination with the oil or extract increased the mortality percentage. The combination mixture of extract, oil and nematode significantly affected development, reproduction and life cycle of H. littoralis. Lethal effect varied with regard to the nematode species. Semi-field experiment of the plant extract, plant oil and their mixture revealed some changes on the biological aspects, an increase in the nymphal period, pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods. There is vigorous decrease in the female fecundity and fertility. The control of the insect by nematode and sub-lethal dose of plant extract or plant volatile oil as biological control may enhance their lethal effect on insect pest when applied simultaneously. Combination mixture of the tested bio-agent could be considered as possible means for use in programs of integrated pest management of H. littoralis grasshopper.

  9. Dinámica poblacional de cicadélidos (Homoptera: Cicadellidae en un agroecosistema cañero de Cuba

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    Marta M. Hidalgo-Gato

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Un agroecosistema cañero en San Pedro, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, arrojó una riqueza de cicadélidos de 23 especies, con dos nuevos registros para el cultivo: Balclutha rufofasciata (Merino y Tylocygus geometricus (Signoret. Se realizaron recolectas mensuales durante los años 1991 a 1994, para lo cual se empleó una red entomológica. En el estudio de la dinámica poblacional de las especies más abundantes y frecuentes se destacaron B. guajanae (De Long con una densidad de 1 920 ind/ha en el cultivo de la caña y Hortensia similis Walk con 18 960 ind/ha en la vegetación segetal. Esta última está integrada fundamentalmente por Rottboellia cocninchinensis (Lourd. Clayton, Echinochloa colona (L. Link, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L. Small y Euphorbia heterophylla L. El cultivo de la caña de azúcar presentó mayor organización espacial, diversidad (0.61 y equitatividad (0.25, mientras que la vegetación segetal presentó una mayor dominancia de especies (4.84.Twenty three species of leafhoppers were found in a sugar cane crop in San Pedro, Havana province, Cuba. Balclutha rufofasciata (Merino and Tylocygus geometricus (Signoret were new records for the crop. The samples were collected monthly from 1991- 1994 with entomological net. The most abundant and frequent species was B. guajanae (De Long (1 920 ind/ha in the crop and Hortensia similis Walk (18 960 ind/ha in the surrounding vegetation. Population dynamics was determined for each species. The surrounding vegetation was represented by Rottboellia cocninchinensis (Lourd. Clayton, Echinochloa colona (L. Link, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L. Small y Euphorbia heterophylla L. The sugar cane showed the highest spatial organization, diversity (0.61 and evennes (0.25. The surrounding vegetation had the highest species dominance.

  10. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

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    Bednarski Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7 by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 μg/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ≤ 250 μg/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential

  11. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

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    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  12. Controle de plantas daninhas em cultivos orgânicos de soja por meio de descarga elétrica Weed control in organic soybean using electrical discharge

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    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram instalados em semeadura direta, em área de cultivo orgânico de soja, no município de São Miguel do Iguaçu, Paraná (PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja (BRS 232 por meio de descarga elétrica. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. No experimento 1, fixou-se a voltagem de 4400V e, no experimento 2, de 6800V. Em ambos os experimentos, os tratamentos consistiram das variações de rotação do motor do trator (i 2200rpm (rotações por minutos; (ii 2000rpm; (iii 1600rpm e as testemunhas (iv capinada e (v sem capina. O equipamento utilizado para aplicação dos tratamentos foi o Eletroherb (Sayyou do Brasil. As plantas daninhas existentes na área experimental foram o amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, a corda-de-viola (Ipomoea spp., a guanxuma (Sida spp., o capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea e o capim-colchão (Digitaria spp.. O emprego de descarga elétrica é eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas da cultura da soja. A rotação 2200rpm proporcionou o melhor controle e, consequentemente, a maior produtividade da soja.Two experiments were carried out in no-till organic soybean area in São Miguel do Iguaçu, Paraná State, Brazil, in order to evaluate the weed control using electrical discharge. The experiments were arranged in a complete block design, with four replicates. The voltages were fixed in 4400V (experiment 1 and 6800V (experiment 2. In both experiments, the treatments consisted by different revolution tractor: (i 2200rpm (revolutions per minute; (ii 2000rpm; (iii 1600rpm; and two checks [(iv unweeded control and (v weeded control]. The equipment Eletroherb (Sayyou do Brasil was used to apply the electrical discharges. The weeds presented in the experimental area were wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla, morningglory (Ipomoea spp., prickly Sida (Sida spp., alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea and crabgrass

  13. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts ofAnnona muricata,Passiflora edulisand nine other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Dzotam, Joachim K; Voukeng, Igor K; Fankam, Aimé G; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells rapidly acquire resistance leading to treatment failures. In the present study, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity of 17 methanol extracts from 11 Cameroonian medicinal plants against the sensitive leukemia CCRF-CEM cells and the best ones were further tested on a panel of 8 other human cancer cell lines, including various MDR phenotypes as well as against the normal AML12 hepatocytes. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin reduction assay meanwhile flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reactive oxygen species. In an initial screening using leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, ten extracts from five plants namely Alchornea floribunda , Annona muricata , Euphorbia prostata , Pachypodanthium staudtii and Passiflora edulis displayed IC 50 values below 20 µg/mL. They were further tested in 8 other cell lines as well as in normal AML12 hepatocytes. All selected extracts were active against leukemia CEM/ADR5000 cells with IC 50 value below 40 µg/mL. IC 50 values ranging from 10.13 µg/mL (towards CEM/ADR5000 cells) to 72.01 µg/mL [towards resistant colon carcinoma HCT116 ( p53 - / - ) cells] for Pachypodanthium staudtii roots and from 0.11 µg/mL (towards CCRF-CEM cells) to 108 µg/mL (towards P-glycoprotein-over-expressing CEM/ADR5000 cells) for doxorubicin were obtained in the eight other cancer cell lines studied. Extracts from Annona muricata leaves (AML) and seeds (AMS), and Passiflora edulis fruit (PEF) had IC 50 values below 1 µg/mL against CCRF-CEM cells and below 10 µg/mL against its MDR subline CEM/ADR5000 cells. AML, AMS and PEF induced MMP-loss-mediated apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells. Results of the present study suggest that some of the tested plants namely Alchornea floribunda , Annona muricata , Euphorbia prostata , Pachypodanthium staudtii and Passiflora edulis represent a source of anticancer drugs. Annona muricata and Passiflora edulis are good

  14. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Rula M; Aburjai, Talal A

    2010-02-28

    Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss.) Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L.) were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L.) generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae), Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae), Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) did not enhance the activity of amoxicillin against both standard and resistant E

  15. Influência da cobertura morta na retenção do imazaquin em plantio direto de soja Mulch influence on weed-crop competition and on imazaquin retention in no tillage soybean crop

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    Benedito N. Rodrigues

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos das plantas constituem-se na parte mais importante do sistema de plantio direto. Apesar da cobertura reduzir a população de ervas, ela pode interceptar os herbicidas quando aplicados sobre a palha. Experimentos a campo, bioensaios e análises cromatográficas foram realizados, utilizando-se o imazaquin nas doses de zero, 75, 150 e 300 g/ha, aplicado sobre 7000 e 14000 kg/ha de resíduos de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e também em solo sem cobertura. Amostras de solo e palha foram coletadas imediatamente após a aplicação do imazaquin. Vinte e quatro horas após a aplicação do herbicida, o experimento foi irrigado e novas amostras foram coletadas para bioensaios e análises cromatográficas. A população de ervas era formada por Brachiaria plantaginea, Euphorbia heterophylla e Bidens pilosa. Antes da irrigação, os resíduos de aveia interceptaram aproximadamente 90% do produto em 7000 e 14000 kg/ha de cobertura. Praticamente todo o imazaquin foi lixiviado para o solo após a irrigação. Esses resultados indicam que o imazaquin tem perspectivas de uso em plantio direto na palha.The plant residues are the main part of the no-tillage system. Although the coverage reduces weed population density, they might intercept herbicides when applied on the mulch. Field experiments, bioassays and chromatographic analysis were made using imazaquin at the rates: zero, 75, 150 and 300 g/ha applied on 7000 and 14000 kg/ha of oat residues and on soil without mulch. Soil and straw samples were collected immediately after imazaquin application. Twenty four hours after imazaquin application the field was irrigated and more samples were collected for bioassays and chromatographics analysis. The weed population were formed by Brachiaria plantaginea, Euphorbia heterophylla and Bidens pilosa. Before irrigation, the oat residues intercepted approximately 90% from 7000 to 14000 kg/ha. Imazaquin has a great chance to be used in no-till system.

  16. Allelopathic effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L. peel essential oil Efeitos alelopáticos do óleo essencial da casca da laranja (Citrus sinensis L.

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    Jose Pedro Nepomuceno Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop weeds are the main problem in agriculture, causing a worldwide annual loss of about US$95 billion. The principal method for control is the use of synthetic herbicides. The continued use of these products increases crop costs, reduces crop quality, and leaves toxic residues in the environment, which are a threat to human and livestock health. Therefore, there is a demand for environmentally friendly methods of weed control. The use of allelopathic compounds from crop residues is an alternative. Orange is one of the biggest crops in the world, and its cultivation generates large amounts of residues. There is strong evidence of bioactivity in orange peel essential oil. Therefore, the objective in this work was to verify the allelopathic proprieties of this oil. We extracted the oil from the peels of recently discarded oranges using water vapor flow with a Clevenger extractor, and tested it against the growth of Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell seedlings when placed in contact with the oil vapor. The results were both quantitative and qualitative in the inhibition of the seedlings.Plantas daninhas são o principal problema da agricultura no mundo, causando anualmente um prejuízo de U$95 bilhões. A principal forma de combate às plantas daninhas são os herbicidas sintéticos. Entretanto, o uso continuado desses produtos encarece a produção, reduz a qualidade dos alimentos, deixa resíduos tóxicos no ambiente e ameaça a saúde humana e animal. Existe assim, uma demanda por técnicas menos agressivas de controle. O uso de compostos alelopáticos de descartes de culturas para esse fim é uma alternativa. A laranja é uma das maiores culturas do mundo, e gera grandes quantidades de resíduos. Existem evidências da bioatividade no óleo essencial da casca da laranja. Nesse trabalho, nosso objetivo foi verificar a existência de propriedades alelopáticas desse óleo. Para isto, extraímos o óleo por arraste

  17. Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops

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    P.C. Timossi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil

  18. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

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    Diana D. Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco (Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco (Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla (Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote (Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común (Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha (Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.The plants with insecticide activities constitute a main compound of integrated pest management. Under this premise, the aim of the current research was to evaluate mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae larvae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin, employing ten plants with insecticide potential: Indian heliotrope (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Angel´s trumpets (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Nettles-purge (Jathropa

  19. Seletividade de inseticidas a predadores de pulgões Selectivity of insecticides to predators of aphids

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    Marcos Rafael Gusmão

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas cipermetrina, diclorvós, diazinon, etion, fenitrotion, malation, metamidofós, paration metílico, permetrina, pirimicarbe e vamidation para adultos dos predadores Cycloneda sanguinea (L. e Eriopis connexa (Germ.(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. Folhas de tomateiro foram imersas em caldas inseticidas nas doses utilizadas para o controle dos pulgões Myzus persicae (Sulzer e Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas em tomateiro e também na metade das doses recomendadas. Os fatores em estudo foram os inseticidas, as doses, as espécies de predadores e o sexo para C. sanguinea. Vamidation e o pirimicarbe foram os inseticidas mais seletivos a C. sanguinea seguidos do etion e diclorvós (3,2; 6,7; 49,7 e 52,5% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para E. connexa o pirimicarbe foi o mais seletivo seguido pelo etion e cipermetrina (1,96; 71,28 e 81,92% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Os machos de C. sanguinea foram mais tolerantes que as fêmeas ao etion (33 e 66,5% de mortalidade e permetrina (61 e 100% de mortalidade, respectivamente. A toxicidade da permetrina a E. connexa e do etion às fêmeas de C. sanguinea foi menor quando estes inseticidas foram aplicados em subdose (74,4 e 25% de mortalidade, respectivamente do que quando estes foram aplicados na dose recomendada (100 e 66,5% de mortalidade, respectivamente para o controle de pulgões no tomateiro.The selectivity of cypermethrin, dichlorvos, diazinon, ethion, fenitrothion, matathion, methamidophos, methyl parathion, permethrin, pirimicarb, and vamidathion to adults of Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Eriopis connexa (Germ. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae was studied. Tomato leaves were submerged in insecticide solution at recommended rate for controlling Myzus persicae (Sulzer and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas in tomatoes. The effect of insecticides, doses, predator species, and sex of C. Sanguinea in insecticide selectivity was evaluated. Pirimicarb and vamidathion were the

  20. The effect of different seeding densities of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. on flax flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    Twardowski Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed, one of the oldest cultivated crops, is again gaining in importance, mainly due to its nutritional benefits and biomedical applications. Therefore, it is expected that herbivores will also exist in greater abundance. Among them the flea beetle, Aphthona euphorbiae Schrank and Longitarsus parvulus Paykull are considered to be serious pests of flax grown for fibre and seeds in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine flax flea beetles’ abundance, species richness and seasonal dynamics on linseed grown at different densities. It was expected that linseed seeding density can significantly affect flea beetle populations. The experiment was carried out in Lower Silesia, Poland, from 2011 to 2013. A genetically modified type of linseed overproducing flavonoids was used. Flea beetles and the damages they caused were determined on plants and also a sweep net was used for the collection of adult beetles. During the three years of the study 15 species of flea beetles were identified from oil flax plants, with A. euphorbiae and L. parvulus being dominant. In terms of the total catch, the tendency was for beetle numbers to decrease with increasing plant density. Flax flea beetles feeding on linseed plants, irrespective of plant density, had two peaks of abundance. The first peak was lower and occurred in June, when plants were at the blooming stage. This peak was caused by overwintering adults who colonized crops in spring. The second, higher peak of abundance was recorded in the second half of July, when plants were at the ripening stage. This peak was formed by adults of the new generation. Each year, at the higher population peak of abundance, the flea beetles were most numerous on plants grown at the lowest density. There was one period, lasting either from mid-May to the first few days of June, or from the beginning of June to mid-June, during which the number of holes and damage on plants of each treatment were highest. During the three

  1. Comportamento de diversas plantas daninhas, de ocorrência comum no estado de São Paulo, em relação a duas espécies de nematóides das galhas: primeira parte

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    L.C.C.B. Ferraz

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de 10 espécies de plantas daninhas, comuns no Estado de São Paulo, quando o solo em que vegetavam foi inoculado com os nematóides das galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 ou M. javanica. As avaliações foram feitas 50 dias após a inoculação dos parasitos, baseando-se nos números de galha s e ootec as pre sentes nas raízes e nos valores de altura e de pesos secos da parte aérea e sistemas radiculares das plantas. Em relação as duas espécies de nematóides, comportaram-se como alta mente suscetíveis Alternaria ficoidea (apaga -fogo e Ipomoea acuminata (cordade -viola , como olerantes Amaranthus hybridus var. patulus (caruru e Commelina virgunica (trapoeraba, como pouco suscetível Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo e como altamente resistentes Blainvillea rhomboidea (erva - palha, Crotonn glandulosus (gervãobranco, Emilia sonchifolia (serralha e Tagetes minuta (cravo-de-defunto. O carrapicho-de-carneiro, Acant horpermum hispidum, mostrou-se altamente resis tente a M. incognita raça 4 e moderadamente suscetível a M. javanica.The behaviour of ten different weed species belonging to Amaranthaceae, Commelinaceae, Compositae, Convolvulaceae and Euphorbiaceae in relation to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 4 and M. javanica was studied under greenhouse conditions. Evaluations were carried out 50 days after the nematode inoculations, by means of gall and egg masses indexes observed in the root systems and through the determination of height and/or top dry weight of the plants. Alternanthera ficoidea and Ipomoea acuminate were considered highly suscetible to both nematode species; Amaranthus hybridus var. patul us and Commelina virgunica were tolerant to the arasites whereas Euphorbia heterophylla showed low susceptibility; Acanthospernum hispidum was conside red moderately suscetible to M. javanica and highly resistant to M. incognita race 4; all other weeds - Blainvillea rhomboidea

  2. Total period of weed interference prevention in lettuce cv. SolarisPeríodo total de prevenção a interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura da alface cultivar Solaris

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    Micheli Satomi Yamauti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work aimed to determine the total period of interference of weeds prevention of lettuce cultivar Solaris. The experiment was conducted in Universidade Estadual de Londrina, in the period of autumn/ winter of 2008. The lettuce crop remained free from weed interference from emergence up to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 days. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The weed community was composed by Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus hybridus, Oxalis corniculata, Euphorbia heterophylla, Spinacia oleracea, Commelina benghalensis e Lepidium virginicum. It was determined dry and fresh matter of weeds, and number of lettuce leaves. Assuming a tolerance of 5% for crop production decrease, it was verified that the total period of interference prevention (TPIP occurred up to 21 days after transplanting. Weed interference throughout the crop cycle reduced 25% of its yield.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI das plantas daninhas na cultura da alface do tipo crespa, cultivar Solaris. O experimento foi instalado na Universidade Estadual de Londrina, no período de outono/ inverno de 2008. A cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas desde o transplante até: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A comunidade infestante da área foi composta principalmente de Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus hybridus, Oxalis corniculata, Euphorbia heterophylla, Spinacia oleracea, Commelina benghalensis e Lepidium virginicum. As massas seca e fresca das plantas daninhas e o número de folhas da cultura foram determinados. Admitindo-se 5% de tolerância na redução da produtividade da cultura, o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI ocorreu 21 dias após o transplante. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida da alface reduziu a

  3. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

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    Gulati Vandana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and (ii ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml, Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml, Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts

  4. Plantas daninhas hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaraná no Estado do Amazonas Alternative host weeds of Colletotrichum guaranicola in guarana crops in the State Amazonas

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    L.J. Miléo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas reduzem a produção de sementes de guaraná e podem hospedar microrganismos patogênicos, tornando-se potenciais fontes de inóculo. Este trabalho identificou espécies de plantas daninhas colonizadas pelo fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaranazeiro em quatro municípios do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram identificadas e a presença do fungo foi verificada por meio de isolamentos feitos a partir de fragmentos de folhas lesionadas. As espécies colonizadas por C. guaranicola foram Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata e Synedrella nodiflora, as quais podem representar uma fonte de inóculo do patógeno, além das plantas de guaraná. A diversidade de plantas daninhas, em cultivos de guaranazeiro, reforça a importância de estabelecer práticas de manejo dessas plantas, principalmente em Maués, onde ocorreu maior colonização das espécies de plantas daninhas pelo fungo.Weed infestation may reduce grain guarana crops yield and host plant pathogens becoming potential inoculum sources. This research identified weed species colonized by the fungus Colletotrichum guaranicola in the guarana crop in four counties in the state of Amazon. The weeds were identified fungi presence was observed by isolation from leaf fragments of leaves injured by the fungi. The weed species colonized by Colletotrichum guaranicola were Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata and Synedrella nodiflora,that may represent a strong potential of plant pathogen inoculum, along with the guarana plants. Weed diversity in guarana crop shows the importance of establishing management practices to control these weeds, mainly in the Maues

  5. IMPACT OF TRIBE TRITICEAE VARIETIES ON STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVENESS OF SEGETAL GROUP

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    T. Z. Moskalets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of varieties of tribe Triticeae (Soft Wheat, Winter Rye and Winter Triticale on the structure and competitiveness of segetal vegetation. It is shown that in the conditions of Polissya, Forest-Steppe Polissya, and Forest-Steppe ecotopes the coenotic composition of plant communities was represented mostly by annual plants and at some extent by hemycryptophytes, cryptophytes, and geophytes. The dominant weed associations of Polissya are: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; Polissia-steppe: Viola-Capsella; Matricaria-Galium; Elytrigia-Galeopsis; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Thlaspi-Euphorbia; Forest-Steppe: Elytrigia-Viola; Matricaria-Taraxacum; Consolida-Convolvulus; Cirsium-Taraxacum; Galium-Stellaria; Thlaspi-Plantago, Linaria-Conyza. In terms of the Central Forest-Steppe and Eastern Polisya the medium-grown and medium ripe Wheat (Yuvivata 60 and Poliska 90, Rye (Borotba, Triticale (Slavetne, Slavetne Polipshene. and AD 256 is the most competitive towards segetal vegetation than other medium-grown and semi-dwarf varieties of such cultures. The introduction of Triticale and Rye in the structure of sown areas are an effective biological control towards segetal vegetation, particularly perennial weeds. We revealed that increasing doses of fertilizers on crops of the tribe Triticeae stimulates the growth of weeds, but the specific weight per unit area does not always correlate with density concerning cultural species. We registered the dominant competitive weeds associations in winter crops, regardless of grade, but their differentiation by population strategy and specific weight per unit area depends on the type and conditions of the specific ecotypes. We selected some six associations for the Polissya: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; five for Polissya Steppe

  6. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos foliares de aveia sobre azevém e amendoim-bravo Effect of extracts from the above-ground part of oat genotypes on ryegrass and wild poinsettia

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    Thaís Raquel Hagemann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de cinco cultivares de aveia branca (Avena sativa L. e quatro de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, nas concentrações de 0, 25%, 50% e 100%, sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L.. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado distribuído em um trifatorial (genótipos de aveia x plantas infestantes x concentrações do extrato. Utilizaram-se placas de Petri contendo 25 sementes de plantas infestantes que foram umedecidas com extrato da parte aérea dos genótipos de aveia. As variáveis observadas foram: percentual de germinação, comprimento de radícula e de hipocótilo, avaliados aos 14 dias após a instalação do experimento. Os extratos aquosos das cultivares de aveia branca e preta inibiram o potencial alelopático sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas testadas, e os genótipos de aveia branca 'IPR 126', 'UTF Iguaçu' e 'Fundacep FAPA 43' e de aveia preta 'UPFA 21 Moreninha' e 'UTG 9715' foram mais efetivos na inibição da germinação e no desenvolvimento do azevém e amendoim-bravo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts from five common oat (Avena sativa L. and four black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cultivars, at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, and 100%, on the germination and development of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L. plantlets. A completely randomized design was adopted, distributed as a triple factorial arrangement (oat genotypes × weeds × concentrations. The experiment consisted of Petri dishes containing 25 weed seeds moistened with extract from the above-ground part of the oat genotypes. The following variables were observed: germination percentage, radicle length, and hypocotyl length, evaluated at 14 days after the

  7. The Streamlined Genome of Phytomonas spp. Relative to Human Pathogenic Kinetoplastids Reveals a Parasite Tailored for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Betina M.; Denoeud, France; Opperdoes, Fred; Noel, Benjamin; Madoui, Mohammed-Amine; Hammarton, Tansy C.; Field, Mark C.; Da Silva, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Poulain, Julie; Katinka, Michael; Jabbari, Kamel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Campbell, David A.; Cintron, Roxana; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Docampo, Roberto; Sturm, Nancy R.; Koumandou, V. Lila; Fabre, Sandrine; Flegontov, Pavel; Lukeš, Julius; Michaeli, Shulamit; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Szöőr, Balázs; Zilberstein, Dan; Bringaud, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Dollet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Members of the family Trypanosomatidae infect many organisms, including animals, plants and humans. Plant-infecting trypanosomes are grouped under the single genus Phytomonas, failing to reflect the wide biological and pathological diversity of these protists. While some Phytomonas spp. multiply in the latex of plants, or in fruit or seeds without apparent pathogenicity, others colonize the phloem sap and afflict plants of substantial economic value, including the coffee tree, coconut and oil palms. Plant trypanosomes have not been studied extensively at the genome level, a major gap in understanding and controlling pathogenesis. We describe the genome sequences of two plant trypanosomatids, one pathogenic isolate from a Guianan coconut and one non-symptomatic isolate from Euphorbia collected in France. Although these parasites have extremely distinct pathogenic impacts, very few genes are unique to either, with the vast majority of genes shared by both isolates. Significantly, both Phytomonas spp. genomes consist essentially of single copy genes for the bulk of their metabolic enzymes, whereas other trypanosomatids e.g. Leishmania and Trypanosoma possess multiple paralogous genes or families. Indeed, comparison with other trypanosomatid genomes revealed a highly streamlined genome, encoding for a minimized metabolic system while conserving the major pathways, and with retention of a full complement of endomembrane organelles, but with no evidence for functional complexity. Identification of the metabolic genes of Phytomonas provides opportunities for establishing in vitro culturing of these fastidious parasites and new tools for the control of agricultural plant disease. PMID:24516393

  8. Pastoralism versus Agriculturalism-How Do Altered Land-Use Forms Affect the Spread of Invasive Plants in the Degraded Mutara Rangelands of North-Eastern Rwanda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, Torsten; Bariyanga, Jean Damascene; Sun, Ping; Plath, Martin; Apio, Ann

    2017-05-12

    Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats. The dispersal of L. camara is facilitated by birds and other animals consuming its drupes (endozoochory), and so both wild and domestic ungulates could contribute to its spread. In our study, we investigated the distribution of L. camara in the Mutara rangelands of north-eastern Rwanda, an area that faced dramatic landscape changes in recent decades. We assessed 23 ecological factors and factors related to land-use and conservation-political history. Major effects on the local abundance of L. camara were found in that the relative canopy cover of L. camara was negatively correlated with the occurrence of other shrubs (suggesting competition for space and nutrients), while encounter rates of houses, 'living fences' (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) and cattle tracks were positively correlated with L. camara cover. Hence, the spread of non-native L. camara in the Mutara rangelands appears to be linked to landscape alterations arising from the transformation of rangelands supporting traditional pastoralist communities to other agricultural land-use forms.

  9. Pastoralism versus Agriculturalism—How Do Altered Land-Use Forms Affect the Spread of Invasive Plants in the Degraded Mutara Rangelands of North-Eastern Rwanda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, Torsten; Bariyanga, Jean Damascene; Sun, Ping; Plath, Martin; Apio, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats. The dispersal of L. camara is facilitated by birds and other animals consuming its drupes (endozoochory), and so both wild and domestic ungulates could contribute to its spread. In our study, we investigated the distribution of L. camara in the Mutara rangelands of north-eastern Rwanda, an area that faced dramatic landscape changes in recent decades. We assessed 23 ecological factors and factors related to land-use and conservation-political history. Major effects on the local abundance of L. camara were found in that the relative canopy cover of L. camara was negatively correlated with the occurrence of other shrubs (suggesting competition for space and nutrients), while encounter rates of houses, ‘living fences’ (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) and cattle tracks were positively correlated with L. camara cover. Hence, the spread of non-native L. camara in the Mutara rangelands appears to be linked to landscape alterations arising from the transformation of rangelands supporting traditional pastoralist communities to other agricultural land-use forms. PMID:28498334

  10. Naturalistic Engineering for risk prevention in two slopes in southern Quito

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    Anita Argüello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/11/01 - Accepted: 2013/12/12Naturalistic engineering is a technical-scientific modern science cobining civil, environmental and geotechnical engineerings. It studies and uses building materials, plants, organic and synthetic materials for holding slopes. San Luis de Chillogallo and El Recreo are located in the South of Quito, where two projects for erosion control, containment and environmental recovery, have been implemented. These are pilot interventions that allow applying strategies and capabilities of estimation and reduction of risks from disasters. To implement the works, the ground was shifted, the organic and inorganic matter was wiped out, and unstable parts of the slope were removed, reshaping the slope through land exclusion and relocation. Subsequently, depending on the shape of each slope, specific techniques where designed and implemented. Double Wall Crib and Latin Triangular Branching techniques were used in San Luis de Chillogallo. Live Grating and Latino Triangular Branching techniques were used in El Recreo. Plants such as: Alder, Alnus glutinosa; paper tree, Polylepis sp.; chilca, Baccharis latifolia; lechero Euphorbia lactiflua and Tilo, Tilia platyphyllos; have been used in these projects. These plants are fast growing species and they have adapted successfully on the two slopes intervened.

  11. Effect of associated species on distribution of Commiphora wightii in Indian Arid Zone

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    Suresh KUMAR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Commiphora wightii (Arn. Bhandari, a medicinal shrub of the family Burseraceae has been ruthlessly tapped for oleo-gum resin, thus killing its widespread populations in nature. Its regeneration being slow, the recruitment is also minimal. Consequently, existing sparse populations also face competition from its associates. Understanding vegetation composition and dynamics of associates of C. wightii are vital to arrive at clues for its ex-situ conservation and also for its in-situ populations build up. Present study carried out in 20 districts of Rajasthan at 604 sites revealed presence of C. wightii at 68 sites. Its associates were Acacia senegal, Euphorbia caducifolia, Grewia tenax, Prosopis juliflora, Acacia leucophloea and Boswellia serrata. In all the six districts, density of C. wightii varying from 1 to 20 per tenth hectare indicated its mutual co-existence with other species except P. juliflora. Regulating and controlling populations of P. juliflora emerged as a prime requirement to ensure success in both, in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Being ecologically co-dominant, it survives best in mixed plantation with suitable trees that serve as upper canopy in the plantation area. It also emerged that its optimum plantation density of 200 plants per hectare would most likely ensure its success in reintroduced paddocks.

  12. [Mites (Acari) from rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) and spontaneous euphorbiaceous in rubber trees cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Marcos R; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Buosi, Renato

    2008-01-01

    Quarterly samples were done in 2001 on three rubber tree plantation in the northwest of the state of São Paulo. Three rubber trees of each locality were sampled. Between the rows of rubber tree four species of spontaneous euphorbiaceous were collected: Chamaesyce hirta, C. hyssopifolia, Euphorbia heterophylla and Phyllanthus tenellus. A total of 8.954 mites of 38 species, belonging to 31 genera of 11 families were collected. Tydeidae and Phytoseiidae had the highest diversity of species, 9 and 7, respectively. The most abundant families were Eriophyidae (3.594), Tydeidae (2.825) and Tenuipalpidae (1.027). The most abundant species on the rubber trees were: phytophagous - Calacarus heveae Feres, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, Lorryia sp.2, Lorryia formosa Cooreman and Lorryia sp.1; predators - Zetzellia quasagistemas Hernandes & Feres, Pronematus sp., Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma and Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma. Among the spontaneous euphorbiaceous, predatory mites were abundantly found on C. hirta and E. heterophylla, mainly Pronematus sp. and E. citrifolius, suggesting that these plants could be important in the maintenance of these predators in the rubber tree cultivation areas. However, plants that can shelter predators and at the same time exert strong competition (nutrients, water etc) to rubber trees, can not be recommended for pest management programs. Studies about competition between rubber trees and spontaneous plants need to be conducted for feasible efficient programs of environmental management, aiming at the control of pest mites of rubber tree.

  13. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds; Captacao e aproveitamento da radiacao solar pelas culturas da soja e do feijao e por plantas daninhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). FItotecnia; Costa, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), 36571-000, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2003-07-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  14. CATÁLOGO COMENTADO DE LA FLORA VASCULAR DE LA FRANJA TROPICAL (500-1200m DEL CAÑÓN DEL RÍO CHICAMOCHA (BOYACÁ-SANTANDER, COLOMBIA. PRIMERA PARTE

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    ALBESIANO SOFÍA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La flora vascular de la región semiárida del cañón del río Chicamocha se encuentrarepresentada por 76 familias, 297 géneros y 429 especies, siendo las familias másdiversas: Poaceae (21géneros/34especies, Asteraceae (28/30, Fabaceae (19/29,Malvaceae (11/24, Euphorbiaceae (11/23 y Cactaceae (13/20. Los géneros másricos en especies son: Sida con 10, Lantana (6, Euphorbia y Solanum (5; noobstante, el 87,2% de los géneros presenta sólo 1-2 especies. El biotipo dominanteson las hierbas (176 spp., 41%, seguido de los arbustos (106, 25% y subarbustos(46, 11%. Un grupo importante son las plantas suculentas (54 spp., 12,9%, en sumayoría pertencientes a la familia Cactaceae (20 y Euphorbiaceae (8. Se incluyetambién información sobre las especies más características de los diferentes tipos dehábitat respresentados en la región y sobre las novedades taxonómicas y corológicasque resultaron del estudio de esta flora.

  15. Production of Bioactive Diterpenoids in the Euphorbiaceae Depends on Evolutionarily Conserved Gene Clusters[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J.; Brown, Geoffrey D.; Gilday, Alison D.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Euphorbiaceae produce a diverse range of diterpenoids, many of which have pharmacological activities. These diterpenoids include ingenol mebutate, which is licensed for the treatment of a precancerous skin condition (actinic keratosis), and phorbol derivatives such as resiniferatoxin and prostratin, which are undergoing investigation for the treatment of severe pain and HIV, respectively. Despite the interest in these diterpenoids, their biosynthesis is poorly understood at present, with the only characterized step being the conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate into casbene. Here, we report a physical cluster of diterpenoid biosynthetic genes from castor (Ricinus communis), including casbene synthases and cytochrome P450s from the CYP726A subfamily. CYP726A14, CYP726A17, and CYP726A18 were able to catalyze 5-oxidation of casbene, a conserved oxidation step in the biosynthesis of this family of medicinally important diterpenoids. CYP726A16 catalyzed 7,8-epoxidation of 5-keto-casbene and CYP726A15 catalyzed 5-oxidation of neocembrene. Evidence of similar gene clustering was also found in two other Euphorbiaceae, including Euphorbia peplus, the source organism of ingenol mebutate. These results demonstrate conservation of gene clusters at the higher taxonomic level of the plant family and that this phenomenon could prove useful in further elucidating diterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. PMID:25172144

  16. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

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    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  17. Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2008-04-01

    Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Performance of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottoriva, L D M; Lourenção, A L; Colombo, C A

    2014-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is regarded as a pest with a large number of hosts, including crops and weeds. The performance of this whitefly on seven weeds was evaluated in order to identify the most suitable host. The following weeds that are very common in intense agricultural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected for this study: spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla), beggarticks (Bidens pilosa), red tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia), small-flower galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora), pigweed (Amaranthus viridis), black nightshade (Solanum americanum), and morning glory (Ipomoea sp.). In free-choice tests, adult preference and oviposition were greatest on spurge. In contrast, morning glory was the least attractive and least oviposited plant. In assays carried out for egg-adult development, egg viability was greater than 87% over all weeds, whereas nymph viability ranged from 74 to 97%. The developmental period from egg to adult ranged from 26.7 to 49.1 days among the hosts under study. The lowest nymph density rate was observed for beggarticks and morning glory. Cluster analysis resulted in a single group formed by spurge, indicating its superiority as a host for B. tabaci biotype B. Even though the parameters evaluated indicate that spurge is the most suitable host among the weeds, all the others allow the reproduction of B. tabaci biotype B. For this reason, they should be observed during cropping and the intercrop period in areas infested by this whitefly.

  19. Extraordinary resistance to insecticides reveals exotic Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Timothy J; Degain, Benjamin A; Harpold, Virginia S; Zaborac, Marni; Morin, Shai; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Nichols, Robert L; Brown, Judith K; Byrne, Frank J; Li, Xianchun

    2010-12-01

    A strain of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) possessing unusually high levels of resistance to a wide range of insecticides was discovered in 2004 in the course of routine resistance monitoring in Arizona. The multiply resistant insects, collected from poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) plants purchased at a retail store in Tucson, were subjected to biotype analysis in three laboratories. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of naphthyl esterases and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (780 bp) confirmed the first detection of the Q biotype of B. tabaci in the New World. This U.S. Q biotype strain, referred to as Poinsettia'04, was highly resistant to two selective insect growth regulators, pyriproxyfen and buprofezin, and to mixtures of fenpropathrin and acephate. It was also unusually low in susceptibility to the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam, relative to B biotype whiteflies. In 100 collections of whiteflies made in Arizona cotton (Gossypium spp.), vegetable, and melon (Cucumis melo L.) fields from 2001 to 2005, no Q biotypes were detected. Regions of the United States that were severely impacted by the introduction of the B biotype of B. tabaci in the 1980s would be well advised to promote measures that limit movement of the Q biotype from controlled environments into field systems and to formulate alternatives for managing this multiply-resistant biotype, in the event that it becomes more widely distributed.

  20. "The herbs that have the property of healing...,": the phytotherapy in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; García-García, Pilar

    2006-07-19

    Don Quixote, the most outstanding novel of the Spanish literature, represents a documentary source widely used among those specialists who intend to deepen in the knowledge of the late Renaissance society. In this sense, Don Quixote has been also studied from a medical perspective, including a general therapeutical view (oils, ointments, balms, poultices, syrups and other pharmacy preparations). We have tackled Don Quixote from the phytotherapeutic and ethnopharmacological perspective, a barely explored field. In this work, we intend to study the medicinal plants used during the Cervantine time for the treatment de multiples diseases (sedatives like opium, laxatives and emetics like hellebore, tonics and irritants) and we analyze the specific herbal therapies (balms, purgatives and emetics, ointments and poultices), which Cervantes reveals to us in his novel. Among them, the rhubarb root (Rheum spp. or Rumex spp.) should be highlighted, as well as the seeds of gopher spurge (Euphorbia lathyris), chicory (Cichorium intybus) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), primary component of the famous Balsam of Fierabras. Also, we have examined the possible scientific influences, which might have inspired Cervantes in this field, mainly the work of Andrés Laguna (Dioscorides' Materia Medica).

  1. Caractérisation des miels produits dans la région steppique de Djelfa en Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekious, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of honeys produced in the region of Djelfa steppe land in Algeria. Description of the subject. This paper deals with the quality of honeys produced in the steppe areas of Algeria and discusses the possibility of their valorization. Objectives. The objective was to characterize and compare the physical and chemical quality of honeys and to determine their pollen composition according to their geographical origin in three areas of the Djelfa semi-arid region of Algeria. Method. Thirty-eight samples of honey produced in 11 localities in the north, centre and south of the Djelfa semi-arid steppe region were harvested in July for two consecutive years. Pollen analyses were performed and the following properties of the honey samples were determined: water content, pH level, electrical conductivity, color, hydroxymethylfurfural content, saccharase index, diastase index and carbohydrate profile. Results. The results of the pollen analyses identified 34 taxa of pollen. The most abundant pollens were from the Ziziphus lotus, which were present in 97.12% of the samples. The pollens from this shrub were dominant in 27 of the honey samples tested, with a pollen percentage of greater than 45%. Over 55% of the pollen frequencies found came from plants belonging to Asteracae, Brassicaceae, Cistaceae and more particularly to Euphorbia bupleuroides, Peganum harmala, Thapsia garganica, Echium sp. and Retama retam. Conclusions. The physicochemical parameters of the honey samples studied comply with European and international quality standards, which opens up perspectives for their valorization.

  2. Alien flora of Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaryan, Vikrant; Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Gupta, R C; Singh, R D

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing the array of effects that invasive alien species have, documenting their status from biodiversity rich regions has been much emphasized. Lack of such studies is a major limitation that hampers proper management of alien species. The present paper, therefore, documents the alien flora of the Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (HP) based on data obtained from literature and herbarium records. The alien flora of HP comprises of 497 species belonging to 85 families. Majority of them belong to family Asteraceae (59 species), followed by Poaceae (47 species) and Fabaceae (43 species). Amongst the genera, Ipomoea (9 species), Eucalyptus and Euphorbia (7 species each) are the most predominant. Herbs constitute the majority (i.e., 73%) of alien species and a large percentage of them (i.e., 22.94%) have South America as their native region. Further, of the total alien species, 248 are intentional introductions and majority (31% species) have been introduced for ornamental purposes. It was revealed that 34% species have naturalized while 29% species have become invasive. Today, in addition to human-disturbed landscapes, alien species have also been reported from dense forests. Himalaya being a biodiversity hotspot and HP being a bio-rich Himalayan state, it is hoped that this inventory and assessment of alien flora will help in designing informed management and monitoring strategies against problematic plant invasions in the state.

  3. A Synoptic Account of Flora of Solapur District, Maharashtra (India

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    Krushnadeoray Garad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India. The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinum solapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa, Asteraceae (85 taxa, Malvaceae (68 taxa and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa. Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23, Cyperus (22, Crotalaria (19 and Ipomoea (19. The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978 to the cultivated ones (460 is 1.35: 0.5 in the district.

  4. Ability of certain plant extracts traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko; Reybier, Karine; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2009-06-25

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an intertropical ichthyosarcotoxism that manifests in complex assortment of symptoms in humans. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), issued from Gambierdicus spp., are causative agents of this intoxication. We have recently demonstrated that a Pacific CTX (P-CTX-1B) strongly modulated iNOS expression, leading to overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO produced in large amounts is involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes. Many traditional remedies are commonly used in the Pacific against CFP. In this context, bioassay-guided screening was carried out to study NO inhibiting capacity of 28 selected plant extracts. We prepared aqueous extracts of plants used in New Caledonia in the treatment of CFP and screened their NO inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among 28 plants tested, Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium malaccense (Myrtaceae), Schinus terebenthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum (Punicaceae), Cerbera manghas (Apocynaceae), Vitex trifolia (Labiateae) and Ximenia americana (Olacaceae) showed inhibitory activity, validating their use as traditional remedies in CFP, and the potential for use in the treatment of conditions accompanied by NO overproduction. These plants are promising candidates for further screening of their active compounds through activity-guided fractionation.

  5. Ingenol mebutate: A novel topical drug for actinic keratosis

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    Suruchi Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer is rising. Significant morbidity leading to unacceptable cosmetic outcomes and/or functional impairment is a major concern. Search for non-surgical, non-invasive and tissue-sparing treatment modalities has led to development of new therapeutic agents. Actinic keratoses (AK are one part of a continuous spectrum of benign sun damage to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Although it is not possible to predict which AK might progress to SCC, the presence of AK is a biomarker of risk for patients and must be treated to avoid possible morbidity and mortality. Ingenol mebutate is a novel topical drug from the latex sap of a plant-Euphorbia peplus that acts by chemoablative and immunostimulatory properties. Clinical studies have proven it to be safe and efficacious, leading to FDA approval of this chemotherapeutic agent for field therapy of AK in 2012. Current topical agents for field therapy of AK must be applied for weeks, whereas ingenol needs to be applied for three days. Ingenol offers a new therapeutic option that is convenient, safe, effective, acceptable and well-tolerated.

  6. Analyzing the Light Energy Distribution in the Photosynthetic Apparatus of C4 Plants Using Highly Purified Mesophyll and Bundle-Sheath Thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundel, E.; Nagel, E.; Meister, A.

    1996-11-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of mesophyll and bundle-sheath thylakoids from plant species with the C4 dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis were investigated using flow cytometry. Ten species with the NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) biochemical type of C4 photosynthesis were tested: Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Euphorbia maculata L., Portulaca grandiflora Hooker, Saccharum officinarum L., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., Zea mays L., and four species of the genus Flaveria. This study also included three species with NAD-ME biochemistry (Atriplex rosea L., Atriplex spongiosa F. Muell., and Portulaca oleracea L.). Two C4 species of unknown biochemical type were investigated: Cyperus papyrus L. and Atriplex tatarica L. Pure mesophyll and bundle-sheath thylakoids were prepared by flow cytometry and characterized by low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. In pure bundle-sheath thylakoids from many species with C4 photosynthesis of the NADP-ME type, significant amounts of photosystem II (PSII) emission can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. Simulation of fluorescence excitation spectra of these thylakoids showed that PSII light absorption contributes significantly to the apparent excitation spectrum of photosystem I. Model calculations indicated that the excitation energy of PSII is efficiently transferred to photosystem I in bundle-sheath thylakoids of many NADP-ME species.

  7. Cement dust pollution induces toxicity or deficiency of some essential elements in wild plants growing around a cement factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Salih; Atici, Ökkes; Gülen, Yasir

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cement dust pollution on contents of some significant essential elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cl) in wild plants (Medigago varia, Anchusa leptophylla, Euphorbia orientalis, Lactuca serriola, Artemisia spicigera, Crambe orientalis, Convolvulus sepium and Senecio vernalis) using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer X-ray fluorescence technique. Plant samples were collected from different locations around a cement factory which is located at Askale about 50 km from Erzurum (Turkey). The element contents in the plant specimens that existed in both 0-100 m (dense dusted) and 2000 m (undusted) areas were compared. P, S, K and Cl contents were found to be high in the plants growing in areas 0-100 m from the cement factory, compared to same plants at 2000 m far from the factory. However, Ca and Fe contents were determined to be low in plants growing in 0-100 m area from the factory. Results of the study can contribute to understand how mineral deficiency and toxicity lead to detrimental effects on plant growth and development in the fields contaminated by cement dust.

  8. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

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    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  9. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  10. Phytotoxicity evaluation and phytochemical analysis of three medicinally important plants from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Nazif; Haq, Ihsan-Ul; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the crude methanolic extracts of three medicinally important plants native to Pakistan for potent phytotoxic activities and important phytochemicals. These plants include Euphorbia wallichii, Bergenia ciliata and Phytolacca latbenia. The phytotoxic effects were checked at 10,000, 1000, and 100 µg/ml against two economically important standard target species, Triticum aestivum (monocot representative) and Brassica napus (dicot representative). The phytotoxicity effects on seed germination, seedling growth and seedling weight were checked. A simple, cost-effective in vitro phytotoxicity assay (that uses petri plates) was used to evaluate the allelopathic properties of crude extracts. At highest concentration, extracts from all the three plants showed phytotoxic activities such that P. latbenia > E. wallichii > B. ciliata. In seedling growth, root length was affected more than shoot length, whereas among the target species B. napus was found to be more sensitive towards extracts when compared with T. aestivum. Phytochemical analysis showed that P. latbenia is rich in saponins and terpenoids, while E. wallichii and B. ciliata are rich in tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycoside. P. latbenia also carries a moderate amount of cardiac glycosides. © The Author(s) 2012.

  11. Effectiveness of vegetable extracts for the control of Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer (Gastropoda: Polygyridae

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    Carmen Verónica Martín Vasallo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molluscs have become a serious problem for vegetable crops, especially the species Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the percentage of mortality of the plant extracts on P. griseola in both laboratory and field conditions. An "in vitro" assay was performed with vegetable extracts of maguey (Furcraea hexapetala (Jacq. Family: Agavaceae, spiny güirito (Solanum globiferum L., Family: Solanaceae, chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae, cardon (Euphorbia lactea Haw., Family: Euphorbiaceae. When evaluating three concentrations of the extract of each botanical species, a completely randomized design was used in "in vitro" conditions and random blocks on the field. The extraction of the chili pepper extract was carried out using the fruit baking method, the S. globiferum was obtained from the milling of the dried fruits and the F. hexapetala and E. lactea were obtained through the fragmentation of stalks. Extracts of F. hexapetala, S. globiferum, C. frutescens, E. lactea, are alternatives to be used by producers in the control of P. griseola. The highest percentages of mortality are reached with the extracts of C. frutescens and S. globiferum at 72 hours of application.

  12. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  13. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos

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    Diana D. PÉREZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha ( Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio ( Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre ( Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco ( Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco ( Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla ( Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote ( Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común ( Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha ( Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare ( Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.

  14. Novel Weed-Extracted Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Appraisal against a Rare Bacterium from River and Sewage Treatment Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiuddin, Achmad; Hadibarata, Tony; Beng Hong Kueh, Ahmad; Razman Salim, Mohd

    2017-12-26

    This is the first investigation to demonstrate the use of biochemical contents present within Cyperus rotundus, Eleusin indica, Euphorbia hirta, Melastoma malabathricum, Clidemia hirta and Pachyrhizus erosus extracts for the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) form. In addition, the antibacterial capability of the synthesized AgNPs and plant extracts alone against a rare bacterium, Chromobacterium haemolyticum (C. haemolyticum), was examined. Moreover, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) of the synthesized AgNPs were characterized. The smallest AgNPs can be produced when Cyperus rotundus extracts were utilized. In addition, this study has found that the synthesis efficiencies using all plant extracts are in the range of 72% to 91% with the highest percentage achieved when Eleusin indica extract was employed. All synthesized AgNPs have antibacterial capability against all examined bacteria depending on their size and bacteria types. Interestingly, Melastoma malabathricum and Clidemia hirta extracts have demonstrated an antibacterial ability against C. haemolyticum.

  15. Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang

    2005-02-01

    In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity.

  16. Removing Trypan blue dye using nano-Zn modified Luffa sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Cicek, Semra; Gungor, Azize Alayli

    2017-02-01

    This study has presented specific features that are examined to remove the Trypan blue dye from the waste using Luffa sponge (LS) and modified Luffa sponge with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs). Peroxidase enzyme was obtained from Euphorbia amygdaloides plant and it was used with the green synthesis of Zn nanoparticles. Luffa sponge was used to be a support material for immobilized nanoparticles and it also used in remediation work. The obtained membrane forms, fibrous materials, (LS, ZnNPs-LS) were characterized with SEM and XRD. LS and ZnNPs-LS were employed as adsorbent to be used for the removal of Trypan blue dye from aqueous via batch studies. Measurements were made for the equilibrium, pH, temperature, concentration of dye with UV-visible spectrometer (590 nm; for Trypan blue dye). The optimum removal of Trypan blue dye was found at pH 7, the equilibrium was attained within 30 min. The thermodynamic properties ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 showed that adsorption of Trypan blue dye onto LS and ZnNPs-LS were spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models and the sorption process was described by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 45.32 and 47.3 mg/g for LS and LS-ZnNPs at 303 ± 1 °K, respectively.

  17. Pengaruh beberapa Jenis Ekstrak Tanaman sebagai Moluskisida Nabati terhadap Keong Mas (Pomacea canaliculata

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    Agus Kardinan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has been carried out at the Pest and Disease Laboratory, Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogar, in the 1997. Research consisted of three parts, those were; (I The toxicity of Dens elliptica, Blumea balsamifera, and methaldehyde, by determining the LC50 values, (2 Effect of the leaves of B.balsamifera, Euphorbia tirucalli and Tephrosia vogelii, (3 Effect of the most poisonous plant as ovicides. Result showed that D.elliptica was the most poisonous material to golden snail with its LC50 value was 400ppm, but it was still under the toxicity value of methaldehyde (11. 78 ppm. There was no significant difference among B.balsamifera, T.vogelii and E. canaliculata, but extract of B.balsarnifera tended to be better material among those plant extracts tested. The extract of D.elliptica did not affect egg hatching of golden snail.

  18. Processing of Kansui Roots Stir-Baked with Vinegar Reduces Kansui-Induced Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Decreasing the Contents of Toxic Terpenoids and Regulating the Cell Apoptosis Pathway

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    Xiaojing Yan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1 after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2 was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS, ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb.

  19. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

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    Viktor Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761 – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours, Euphorbia virgata (3.45, Solanum nigrum (3.32, Centauria scabiosa (2.47, Lamium album (2.41, Aristolochia clematitis (1.76, Chenopodium album (1.73, Arctium lappa (1.51, Asperula odorata (1.20. A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours, Lycopersicon esculentum (3.75, Tropaeolum majus (3.29, Nicotiana tabacum (2.66, Rumex acetosa (1.96, Beta vulgaris (1.27. O. sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched.

  20. Impact of aphid alarm pheromone release on virus transmission efficiency: When pest control strategy could induce higher virus dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Jing; Bosquée, Emilie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Ju-Lian; Yong, Liu; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Aphids cause serious damages to crops not only by tacking sap but also by transmitting numerous viruses. To develop biological control, the aphid alarm pheromone, namely E-β-farnesene (EβF), has been demonstrated to be efficient to repel aphids and as attract beneficials, making it a potential tool to control aphid pests. Considering aphids also as virus vectors, changes of their behavior could also interfere with the virus acquisition and transmission process. Here, a combination of two aphid species and two potato virus models were selected to test the influence of EβF release on aphid and virus dispersion under laboratory conditions. EβF release was found to significantly decrease the population of Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae around the infochemical releaser but simultaneously also increasing the dispersal of Potato Virus Y (PVY). At the opposite, no significant difference for Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) transmission efficiency was observed with similar aphid alarm pheromone releases for none of the aphid species. These results provide some support to carefully consider infochemical releasers not only for push-pull strategy and pest control but also to include viral disease in a the plant protection to aphids as they are also efficient virus vectors. Impact of aphid kinds and transmission mechanisms will be discussed according to the large variation found between persistent and non persistent potato viruses and interactions with aphids and related infochemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. GroEL from the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola betrays the aphid by triggering plant defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ritu; Atamian, Hagop S.; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2014-01-01

    Aphids are sap-feeding plant pests and harbor the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which is essential for their fecundity and survival. During plant penetration and feeding, aphids secrete saliva that contains proteins predicted to alter plant defenses and metabolism. Plants recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and induce pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). No aphid-associated molecular pattern has yet been identified. By mass spectrometry, we identified in saliva from potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) 105 proteins, some of which originated from Buchnera, including the chaperonin GroEL. Because GroEL is a widely conserved bacterial protein with an essential function, we tested its role in PTI. Applying or infiltrating GroEL onto Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves induced oxidative burst and expression of PTI early marker genes. These GroEL-induced defense responses required the known coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1. In addition, in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, inducible expression of groEL activated PTI marker gene expression. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants expressing groEL displayed reduced fecundity of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), indicating enhanced resistance against aphids. Furthermore, delivery of GroEL into tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) or Arabidopsis through Pseudomonas fluorescens, engineered to express the type III secretion system, also reduced potato aphid and green peach aphid fecundity, respectively. Collectively our data indicate that GroEL is a molecular pattern that triggers PTI. PMID:24927572

  2. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae. PMID:21054161

  3. Faba bean forisomes can function in defence against generalist aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Walker, Gregory P

    2015-06-01

    Phloem sieve elements have shut-off mechanisms that prevent loss of nutrient-rich phloem sap when the phloem is damaged. Some phloem proteins such as the proteins that form forisomes in legume sieve elements are one such mechanism and in response to damage, they instantly form occlusions that stop the flow of sap. It has long been hypothesized that one function of phloem proteins is defence against phloem sap-feeding insects such as aphids. This study provides the first experimental evidence that aphid feeding can induce phloem protein occlusion and that the aphid-induced occlusions inhibit phloem sap ingestion. The great majority of phloem penetrations in Vicia faba by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae triggered forisome occlusion and the aphids eventually withdrew their stylets without ingesting phloem sap. This contrasts starkly with a previous study on the legume-specialist aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, where penetration of faba bean sieve elements did not trigger forisome occlusion and the aphids readily ingested phloem sap. Next, forisome occlusion was demonstrated to be the cause of failed phloem ingestion attempts by M. persicae: when occlusion was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker lanthanum, M. persicae readily ingested faba bean phloem sap. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Manejo químico de convolvulaceae e euphorbiaceae em cana-de-açúcar em período de estiagem Chemical Management of Convolvulaceae and Euphorbiaceae in Sugarcane during Dry Season

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    C.A.M. Azania

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As famílias Convolvulaceae e Euphorbiaceae possuem diferentes espécies que infestam os canaviais de forma rápida e agressiva, especialmente em áreas cobertas pela palha remanescente da colheita que não foram queimadas. Essa infestação, associada às extensas áreas de cultivo, tem dificultado a operacionalidade do manejo químico exclusivamente durante a estação chuvosa do ano, levando aos produtores a necessidade de aplicar os herbicidas também no período de estiagem. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho objetivou estudar a persistência dos herbicidas aplicados durante o período de estiagem em resistir às intempéries climáticas até o início da estação chuvosa, avaliando-se o controle sobre as espécies dos gêneros de Ipomoea, Merremia e Euphorbia. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 42 tratamentos, distribuídos em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com seis repetições. Os herbicidas amicarbazone (1.050 g ha-1, imazapic (1.22,5 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1 e as associações clomazone (1.000 g ha-1 + hexazinone (250 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1 + diurom (936 g ha-1 + hexazinone (264 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (500 g ha-1 + amicarbazone (700 g ha-1 e testemunha foram alocados nas parcelas. As espécies Ipomoea nil, I. hederifolia, I. quamoclit, I. grandifolia, Merremia aegyptia e Euphorbia heterophylla foram semeadas diretamente no solo, cobertas com o equivalente a 15 t ha-1 de palha de cana-de-açúcar e alocadas nas subparcelas. Após a aplicação dos herbicidas, registraram-se 70 dias de ausência de chuvas e o estresse hídrico impossibilitou a avaliação de controle, devido à não emergência das plantas daninhas em todos os tratamentos. Entretanto, com o início da estação chuvosa aos 90 dias após o tratamento, iniciaram-se as avaliações de eficácia devido à emergência das plantas daninhas. Aos 150 DAT (dias após os tratamentos os herbicidas sulfentrazone e sulfentrazone

  5. Effect of different soil water potential on leaf transpiration and on stomatal conductance in poinsettia

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    Jacek S. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild.'Lilo' was grown in containers in 60% peat, 30% perlite and 10% clay (v/v mixture, with different irrigation treatments based on soil water potential. Plants were watered at two levels of drought stress: -50kPa or wilting. The treatments were applied at different stages of plant development for a month or soil was brought to the moisture stress only twice. Additionally, some plants were watered at -50 kPa during the entire cultivation period while the control plants were watered at -5kPa. Plants were also kept at maximum possible moisture level (watering at -0,5kPa or close to it (-1.OkPa through the entire growing period. Soil water potential was measured with tensiometer. Drought stress applied during entire cultivation period or during the flushing stage caused significant reduction in transpiration and conductance of leaves. Stress applied during bract coloration stage had not as great effect on the stomatal conductance and transpiration of leaves as the similar stress applied during the flushing stage. High soil moisture increased stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, respectively by 130% and 52% (flushing stage, and 72% and 150% (bract coloration stage at maximum, compared to the control.

  6. Computer-aided photometric analysis of dynamic digital bioluminescent images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Zbigniew; Bembnista, T.; Floryszak-Wieczorek, J.; Domanski, Marek; Slawinski, Janusz

    2003-04-01

    The paper deals with photometric and morphologic analysis of bioluminescent images obtained by registration of light radiated directly from some plant objects. Registration of images obtained from ultra-weak light sources by the single photon counting (SPC) technique is the subject of this work. The radiation is registered by use of a 16-bit charge coupled device (CCD) camera "Night Owl" together with WinLight EG&G Berthold software. Additional application-specific software has been developed in order to deal with objects that are changing during the exposition time. Advantages of the elaborated set of easy configurable tools named FCT for a computer-aided photometric and morphologic analysis of numerous series of quantitatively imperfect chemiluminescent images are described. Instructions are given how to use these tools and exemplified with several algorithms for the transformation of images library. Using the proposed FCT set, automatic photometric and morphologic analysis of the information hidden within series of chemiluminescent images reflecting defensive processes in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd) leaves affected by a pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is revealed.

  7. Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M. [V.H.N.S.N College, Virudhunagar (India). Research Centre in Botany; Seiler, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in Aganosma cymosa (10.3%), Carissa carandas (5.8%), and Argemone mexicana (5.0%). Swietenia mahagoni yielded the highest protein content with 8.1%. The gross heat value of 4175.0 cal/g(17.5 MJ/kg) for Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), and 4112.0 cal/g for Dalbergia sissoo were the highest among the species analysed. NMR spectra of the hydrocarbon fractions of Alstonia scholaris, Carissa carandas, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Plumeria rubra, Thevetia neriifolia (white flowered var.), Vallaris solanacea, Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), Euphorbia hirta, E. splendens, Artocarpus integrifolia and Ficus religiosa revealed the presence of cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber), whereas Argemone mexicana showed the presence of trans-polyisoprene (gutta). Several new crop species were identified with potentially useful compounds. The potential exists for growing these alternate crops in areas of under-utilized lands, subsequently stimulating industrial and economic growth. (author)

  8. The phytocoenoses of anthropogenically transformed areas with a great importance for Apoidea

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    Małgorzata Wrzesień

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper indicates the phytocenoses most rich in bee taxons and occurring in habitats located along railway lines crossing Lublin Upland. To date, in the study area 124 basic phytocoenoses have been discovered, described and classifi ed into 12 different synecological groups. Among 52 phytocoenoses, the participation of bee flora was considerable. Most voluble phytocoenoses represent ruderal and segetal associations (Artemisietea vulgaris, Stellarietea mediae classes - 87 species, meadow and pasture associations (Mollinio-Arrhenatheretea - 56 species, psammophilous and xerothermic grasslands (Festuco- Brometea, Koelerio glauce-Corynophoretea canescensis - 38 species, thermophilous forest edge communities and thickets (Trifolio-Geranietea and Rhamno-Prunetea - 33 species. Significantly fewer melliferous and polleniferous taxons were noticed in mesophilous deciduous forests or thermophilous oak forests - 29 species. Most simple in structure and species richness are associations with Rumex acetosa, Reseda lutea, Linaria vulgaris, Papaver rhoeas, Cirsium arvense, Oenothera biennis, Viola arvensis and Potentilletum anserine or Sisymbrietum altissimi. The communities form patches (15-20 m2 with 80-100% cover of the diagnostic taxon and are of low or medium stability. The most persistent and floristically stable are Tanaceto Artemisietum, Rudbeckio- Solidaginetum, Echio-Melilotetum, Sambucetum nigrae, Rubo fruticosi-Prunetum spinosae and communities with Rosa rugosa, Rubus caesius, Geranium robertianum, Pastinaca sativa, Trifolium medium or Euphorbia cyparissias. The maintenance of the mosaic of phytocoenoses in anthropogenically transformed habitats, including those along railway lines, is of decisive importance for the protection of floristic diversity and adaptation processes of Apoidea.

  9. A pilot study of antioxidant potential of endophytic fungi from some Sudanese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiralla, Afra; Mohamed, Ietidal; Thomas, Justinne; Mignard, Benoît; Spina, Rosella; Yagi, Sakina; Laurain-Mattar, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of ethyl acetate extracts of 21 endophytic fungi isolated from five Sudanese medicinal plants: Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Euphorbia prostrate, Vernonia amygdalina and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Crude extracts of endophytic fungi and their host plants were tested by classical Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method to determine the total phenolic content, also total antioxidant capacity was estimated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging in vitro method. Among the endophytes, endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds demonstrated the highest both total phenolic content in term of gallic acid equivalent [(89.9 ± 7.1) mg GAE/g] and antioxidant activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay [IC50: (18.0 ± 0.1) μg/mL]. A high positive linear correlation (R(2) = 0.999 1) was found between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of endophytic fungi isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. The present study revealed that some endophytic fungi from the five Sudanese medicinal plants could be a potential source of novel natural antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differentiation of vegetation in a saline grassland in the vicinity of Inowrocław soda plants at Mątwy

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    Agnieszka Piernik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of two growing seasons (1992 and 1993 there was investigated the zonation of vegetation with reference to soil conditions at the saline grassland in the vicinity of Inowrocław Soda Plants at Mątwy town. In data analysis there were used: classification method - hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis and as well as two ordination techniques: Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. As a result of the classification analysis five vegetation zones were distinguished, related to the following communities: community with Festuca rubra, Potentillo Festucetum arundinaceae, community with Euphorbia lucida and Phragmites australis, Triglochino-Glaucetum maritimae and Puccinellio distantis-Salicornietum brachystachyae. The ordination techniques used in the analysis have demonstrated that out of the measured soil properties the most essential part, in the formation of the grassland vegetation zonation, played the content of chloride ions (which was used here as the main salinity measure, while moisture and pH were of minor importance. All the measured environmental factors accounted for only a low percentage (26.5% in 1992 and 17.2% in 1993 of the total vegetation variation, what might suggest that besides chloride ions another factor might have affected the development of zonation.

  11. Contrary to the literature, vomiting is not a common manifestation associated with plant exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward P; Mrvos, Rita; Jacobsen, T D

    2002-10-01

    A review of clinical toxicology references and the contemporay literature illustrates that vomiting is reported as a nearly universal symptom associatedwith exposure to cultivated and wild plants. However, the literature fails to put thesymptom of vomiting into a clinical perspectivewith regard to its frequency of occurrence. To clarify this issue a retrospective review of plant exposures was conducted. AAPCC TESS 1997-1999 was queried electronicaly to identify and extract all plant ingestion exposures where vomiting was documented as being related to the exposure. All exposures with documented ipecac syrup use were excluded. Data were stratified through the use through the use of a relational database. Plant ingestion exposures accounted for 229,538 reports and vomiting was reported in 5,917 (2.6%) of exposures. Vomiting was attributed as a related symptom in 753 different plants. It was reported once in 323 plants, 1-3 times in 495 plants (65.7%), and Narcissus, Dieffenbachia, Phytolacca, Epipremnum, Euphorbia, Eucalyptus, Ficus, Hedera) and represented 1.3% of the plants associated with vomiting. Even with the most common plant exposures, vomiting is not a frequent adverse event.

  12. SlWRKY70 is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance to aphids and nematodes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Hagop S; Eulgem, Thomas; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2012-02-01

    Plant resistance (R) gene-mediated defense responses against biotic stresses include vast transcriptional reprogramming. In several plant-pathogen systems, members of the WRKY family of transcription factors have been demonstrated to act as both positive and negative regulators of plant defense transcriptional networks. To identify the possible roles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) WRKY transcription factors in defense mediated by the R gene Mi-1 against potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne javanica, we used tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing and transcriptionally suppressed SlWRKY70, a tomato ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY70 gene. Silencing SlWRKY70 attenuated Mi-1-mediated resistance against both potato aphid and RKN showing that SlWRKY70 is required for Mi-1 function. Furthermore, we found SlWRKY70 transcripts to be inducible in response to aphid infestation and RKN inoculation. Mi-1-mediated recognition of these pests modulates this transcriptional response. As previously described for AtWRKY70, we found SlWRKY70 transcript levels to be up-regulated by salicylic acid and suppressed by methyl jasmonate. This indicates that some aspects of WRKY70 regulation are conserved among distantly related eudicots.

  13. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  14. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep).

  15. DNA Barcoding: Amplification and sequence analysis of rbcl and matK genome regions in three divergent plant species

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    Javed Iqbal Wattoo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: DNA barcoding is a novel method of species identification based on nucleotide diversity of conserved sequences. The establishment and refining of plant DNA barcoding systems is more challenging due to high genetic diversity among different species. Therefore, targeting the conserved nuclear transcribed regions would be more reliable for plant scientists to reveal genetic diversity, species discrimination and phylogeny. Methods: In this study, we amplified and sequenced the chloroplast DNA regions (matk+rbcl of Solanum nigrum, Euphorbia helioscopia and Dalbergia sissoo to study the functional annotation, homology modeling and sequence analysis to allow a more efficient utilization of these sequences among different plant species. These three species represent three families; Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae respectively. Biological sequence homology and divergence of amplified sequences was studied using Basic Local Alignment Tool (BLAST. Results: Both primers (matk+rbcl showed good amplification in three species. The sequenced regions reveled conserved genome information for future identification of different medicinal plants belonging to these species. The amplified conserved barcodes revealed different levels of biological homology after sequence analysis. The results clearly showed that the use of these conserved DNA sequences as barcode primers would be an accurate way for species identification and discrimination. Conclusion: The amplification and sequencing of conserved genome regions identified a novel sequence of matK in native species of Solanum nigrum. The findings of the study would be applicable in medicinal industry to establish DNA based identification of different medicinal plant species to monitor adulteration.

  16. Plant poisoning in domestic animals: epidemiological data from an Italian survey (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, F; Cortinovis, C; Rivolta, M; Alonge, S; Davanzo, F

    2013-06-01

    An Italian epidemiological study based on the human Poison Control Centre of Milan (Centro Antiveleni di Milano (CAV)) data related to domestic animal poisoning by exposure to plants, was carried out in collaboration with the Veterinary Toxicology Section of the University of Milan. It encompasses a 12-year period, from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2011. Calls related to toxic plants accounted for 5.7 per cent of total inquiries (2150) received by CAV. The dog was the most commonly poisoned species (61.8 per cent of calls) followed by the cat (26 per cent). Little information was recorded for other species. Most exposures (73.8 per cent) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in only 53.7 per cent of cases, and fatal poisoning accounted for 10.6 per cent of these cases. Glycoside, alkaloid, oxalate, toxalbumin, saponin, terpene and terpenoid-containing plants were recorded and found to be responsible for intoxication. Cycas revoluta, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Hydrangea macrophylla, Nerium oleander, Rhododendron species and Prunus species were the plants most frequently involved. Epidemiological data from this Italian survey provide useful information on animal exposure to plants and confirm the importance of plants as causative agents of animal poisoning.

  17. Voluntary intake, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindelle, J; Ilunga, Y; Delacollette, M; Kayij, M Muland; di M'Balu, J Umba; Kindele, E; Buldgen, A

    2007-08-01

    The daily voluntary intake (DVI) of Guinea pigs (GP) fed 15 fresh forages used in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) was investigated. In order to determine the best forages combination for GP diet, DVI was compared to their nutritional value measured in vitro using (1) a pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, (2) an gas fermentation test on the hydrolysed residues with an inoculum prepared from GP faeces, and (3) the chemical composition of the offered feeds and the hydrolysis residues. The forages ranking based on the DVI was correlated to the NDF content, but not to their nutritional values determined in vitro. According to their high DVI (from 4.23 to 7.75 g/kg liveweigth), and their valuable in vitro nutritional values (crude protein ranging from 261 to 279 g crude protein kg(-1) DM, pepsin-pancreatin digestibilities of the dry matter from 0.55 to 0.59 and final gas production from 170 to 196 1 kg(-1) DM), Desmodium intortum, Euphorbia heterophylla or Amaranthus hybridus, can be suggested to the farmers to complement the usual diet distributed to the GP based on Panicum maximum.

  18. Phytotoxicity of leaf aqueous extract of Rapanea umbellata (Mart. Mez (Primulaceae on weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.16166

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    Paula Novaes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic substances can be used to develop weed control alternatives based on natural products. The objective of this study was to compare the phytotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Rapanea umbellata with the toxicity of a synthetic herbicide on the germination and growth of weed species. The weeds species barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla and morning glory (Ipomoea grandifolia were used. The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of R. umbellata at concentrations of 10% and 5% (g mL-1 were compared to the control (distilled water and to the synthetic herbicide oxyfluorfen. The average weed germination time was significantly lower (p < 0.05 in control than in extract and herbicide treatments. The herbicide had more significant effects than the extract on the initial growth of the aerial part. However, the initial growth of the root part was significantly more affected by the leaf extract than by the herbicide. The extract also caused many disorders in weed root anatomy. Therefore, the leaf aqueous extract of R. umbellata showed important results that indicate that it should be bioprospected and that its allelochemicals should be purified for the discovery of natural-origin herbicides.

  19. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

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    Maristela Imatomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  20. Competition for Aphid Prey between Different Lady Beetle Species in a Laboratory Arena

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    Christy Leppanen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct competition for aphid prey (Hemiptera: Aphididae was evaluated between and among several lady beetle species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. The behavior of three native (Coccinella trifasciata, Coleomegilla maculata, and Hippodamia convergens and four nonnative (Coccinella septempunctata, Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia variegata, and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata lady beetles was observed in laboratory arenas. The beetles were kept alone, paired with conspecifics or paired with heterospecifics, and presented with potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Harmonia axyridis was the most successful aphid predator in our study, being able to find aphids more quickly and consume more of them compared to most other lady beetle species. It was also by far the most aggressive of the tested species. Coccinella septempunctata, C. trifasciata, and C. maculata generally followed H. axyridis in aphid consumption. Prey discovery, consumption, and aggressive behaviors were dependent on which species were present in the arena. Except for the generally superior H. axyridis, there was no obvious dominance hierarchy among the other tested species and no dichotomy between the native and non-native species. Asymmetric interactions between lady beetle species may affect their abilities to coexist in the same habitat.

  1. Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum.

  2. The grape component piceatannol induces apoptosis in DU145 human prostate cancer cells via the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Park, Heesook; Park, So Young; Jun, Jong-Gab; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2009-10-01

    Piceatannol (trans-3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene) is a polyphenol that is found in grapes, red wine, Rheum undulatum, and the seeds of Euphorbia lagascae. It has been previously reported that piceatannol inhibits the proliferation of a variety of cancer cell types. In the present study, we assessed the effects of piceatannol on the growth of androgen-insensitive DU145 prostate cancer cells at concentrations of 1-10 micromol/L. Piceatannol reduced the viable numbers and increased the numbers of apoptotic DU145 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that piceatannol increased the protein levels of cleaved caspase-8, -9, -7, and -3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Piceatannol increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Piceatannol induced an increase in the levels of truncated Bid, Bax, Bik, Bok, and Fas but caused a decrease in the levels of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. Caspase-8 and -9 inhibitors mitigated piceatannol-induced apoptosis. The caspase-8 inhibitor suppressed the piceatannol-induced cleavage of Bid, caspase-3, and PARP. These results indicate that piceatannol induces apoptosis via the activation of the death receptor and mitochondrial-dependent pathways in prostate cancer cells.

  3. Plant ecological groups and soil properties of common hazel (Corylus avellana L. stand in Safagashteh forest, north of Iran

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    Pourbabaei Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Safragashteh forest of Fuman in north of Iran, there is a hazel stand, which has grown naturally. The aim of this research was to evaluate the plant communities and soil characteristics in the area. This study included 50 ha of hazel protected area. A selective sampling method was utilized to record 30 400 m2 for tree and shrub layers, and sub-plots of 100 m2 for herbaceous species. Soil samples were collected at the 30 plots. We found three ecological species groups in the study area. Corylus avellana and Epimedium pinnatum in first group, Fagus orientalis, Asperula odorata, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Carex sp., Fragaria vesca and Viola sylvestris in second group, and Crataegus microphylla, Ilex spinigera, Primula heterochroma, Sedum stoloniferum and Vicia crocea in thirth group were the indicator species. Sand percent was significantly highest in Corylus avellana group, while clay, nutrients elements, pH and SP were significantly highest in the other groups. Biodiversity indices in Corylus avellana group were significantly less than other stands. We recommend to provide comprehensive conservation and management programs in order to protect of common hazel, associated plant species, and to prevent of human activities such as recreational use and livestock.

  4. Estudios etnobotánicos en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata, Argentina: Productos de plantas medicinales introducidos por inmigrantes paraguayos

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    Julio A. Hurrell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo incluye resultados parciales de una línea de investigación en Etnobotánica urbana, que estudia los conocimientos locales sobre las plantas, sus partes y productos derivados en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata. Se incluyen productos de plantas medicinales de reciente ingreso en el área de estudio a través de inmigrantes oriundos de Paraguay. Los productos corresponden a 10 especies: Achyrocline alata(“jateí-ka’á”, Baccharis gaudichaudiana (“jaguareté-ka’á”, Cuphea lysimachioides(“ysypó-peré”, Euphorbia serpens(“tupasý-kambý”, Genipa americana(“ñandypá”, Helietta apiculata(“yvyra ovy”, Lycopodiella cernnua(“itápotý”, Rhynchosia balansae(“urusú-he’ě”, Stevia rebaudiana(“ka’á-he’ě” y Victoria cruziana(“jacaré-yrupé”. Para cada caso se indican sus productos, muestras de referencia, usos asignados, actividad biológica y efectos estudiados. La presencia de los productos de estas especies en el área metropolitana indica un aumento de la diversidad biocultural local, tanto de plantas y productos como de sus conocimientos asociados.

  5. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

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    R. Otto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  6. EM-E-11-4 increases paclitaxel uptake by inhibiting P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Sun, Hua; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yan; Chen, Hui; You, Feng; Bao, Xiu-Qi; Zhang, Dan; Shi, Jian-Gong

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression is the main mechanism involved in chemotherapy drug resistance such as paclitaxel resistance and therapy failure. The most widely studied P-gp inhibitors still have limited ability to reverse resistance in the clinic. In this study, EM-E-11-4, a lathyrane-type diterpenoid isolated from Euphorbia micractina, was found to significantly increase paclitaxel uptake in Caco-2 cells, which functionally overexpressed P-gp. In vitro transport experiments, carried out in the Caco-2 monolayer model, indicated that EM-E-11-4 significantly reduced the efflux ratio of paclitaxel transport by inhibiting P-gp function without affecting P-gp expression. We also found that EM-E-11-4 enhanced the intracellular accumulation of paclitaxel in a dose-dependent manner by LC-MS/MS and EM-E-11-4 showed low cytotoxicity. Hence, EM-E-11-4 is an effective potential agent to reverse P-gp-mediated paclitaxel resistance by inhibiting P-gp transport function and increasing the intracellular concentration of paclitaxel.

  7. Tensão superficial dinâmica e ângulo de contato de soluções aquosas com surfatantes em superfícies artificiais e naturais Dynamic surface tension and contact angle of water solutions with spray surfactants in artificial and natural surfaces

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    Cristina A. R. Iost

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de surfatantes em soluções aquosas sobre a tensão superficial dinâmica e ângulo de contato das gotas em diferentes superfícies: artificiais (lâmina de vidro e de óxido de alumínio e naturais (superfícies adaxiais de folhas de Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea grandifolia e Brachiaria plantaginea. Seis formulações de surfatantes (Antideriva®; Uno®; Pronto 3®; Li-700®; Supersil® e Silwet L-77®, respectivamente nas doses recomendadas do produto comercial (0,050; 0,025; 0,100; 0,250; 0,100 e 0,100 % v v-1 e o dobro delas, foram avaliadas em soluções aquosas. A tensão superficial dinâmica e o ângulo de contato formado sobre as superfícies naturais foram medidos por tensiômetro. Os ângulos de contato formados pelas gotas nas superfícies artificiais foram obtidos por análise de imagens capturadas por uma câmera digital. Os surfatantes influenciam nas propriedades físico-químicas de soluções aquosas. As soluções contendo os surfatantes Silwet L-77® e Supersil®; nas doses de 0,100 e 0,200% v v-1; proporcionaram maiores reduções na tensão superficial dinâmica e menores ângulos de contato das gotas sobre as superfícies artificiais e naturais. Os surfatantes organossiliconados em solução aquosa foram mais eficientes na redução da tensão superficial e proporcionaram maior molhamento de superfícies natural e artificial. Em alvos naturais, essas propriedades obtidas com organossiliconados são dependentes das características de superfície das espécies vegetais.The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of surfactants in water solutions on dynamic surface tension and contact angle formed by the spray droplets in different surfaces: artificial (glass and aluminum oxide slides and natural (leaves surface of three species of weeds: Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea grandifolia e Brachiaria plantaginea. Were studied six surfactants formulations (AntiderivaTM; UnoTM; Pronto 3TM

  8. Capacidade competitiva do jatobá com adubos verdes, forrageiras e plantas daninhas Competitive capacity of Hymenaea courbaril with green manure, forage species and weeds

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    A.M.M Gandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do consórcio entre espécies anuais e perenes representa uma ferramenta importante no processo de implantação e manejo florestal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade competitiva do jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril com espécies de adubos verdes, forrageiras e plantas daninhas quanto à alocação de matéria seca, área foliar e concentração de nutrientes. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo os tratamentos compostos pela combinação de mudas de jatobá, desenvolvendo-se isoladamente ou em competição com cada uma das seguintes espécies: Brachiaria humidicola, Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis e Mucuna aterrima (experimento 1 e Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Lolium multiflorum e Solanum americanum (experimento 2, mais o cultivo de cada planta daninha e consorte isolada. Após convivência por 60 dias, as plantas foram coletadas para avaliação de matéria seca, área foliar e teor de nutrientes. Observou-se que a competição entre as plantas não promoveu alterações na produção de matéria seca ou área foliar do jatobá. Tendo em vista o exposto, verifica-se que a capacidade competitiva do jatobá não é afetada pela presença das espécies de adubos verdes e forrageiras, possibilitando convivência em fase inicial de desenvolvimento. Quanto à convivência das plantas daninhas com o jatobá, observou-se efeito positivo no acúmulo de nutrientes por estas.The study of intercropping between annual and perennial plants is an important tool in the process of forest implantation and management. The objective of this study was to assess the competitive capacity of jatoba (Hymeneae courbaril against green manure, forage and weed species, regarding the allocation of dry matter, leaf area and nutritional content. Two experiments were installed and the treatments consisted of combinations of jatoba seedlings per plot, alone

  9. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity

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    Jaime Niño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae. The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and

  10. Avaliação do potencial alelopático de substâncias isoladas em sementes de araticum (Annona crassiflora Allelophatic potential of substances isolated from Annona crassiflora seeds

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    M.H Inoue

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou identificar substâncias biologicamente ativas e o potencial alelopático de esteroides glicosilados, provenientes das sementes de Annona crassiflora. O isolamento dos esteroides glicosilados foi realizado com a separação dos constituintes químicos do extrato bruto de acetato de etila em coluna cromatográfica, sendo a completa elucidação estrutural por meio de espectroscopia de RMN ¹H. Testes de germinação com as espécies Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea grandifolia foram conduzidos em câmaras tipo BOD a 25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, monitorados durante 10 dias com avaliação diária, nas concentrações de 0, 20, 40, 80 e 100 mg L-1 dos materiais isolados. Utilizando as mesmas concentrações, os experimentos de desenvolvimento de radícula e hipocótilo foram mantidos em câmara de germinação a 25ºC e fotoperíodo de 24 horas, com avaliação no décimo dia. Após o extrato de acetato de etila ser submetido ao fracionamento, verificou-se a presença de sinais característicos de fitoesteróis no espectro do RMN ¹H, resultando em uma mistura de estigmasterol glicosilado e sitosterol glicosilado. Os resultados indicam que as substâncias estigmasterol e sitosterol não proporcionaram inibição na germinação e no índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG de E. heterophylla e I. grandifolia. Por outro lado, estigmasterol e sitosterol interferiram no desenvolvimento de radícula e hipocótilo de E. heterophylla.This work aimed to identify substances and the allelopathic potential of steroidal glycosides, isolated from the seeds of Annona crassiflora. Isolation of steroidal glycosides was carried out with the separation of chemical components of ethyl acetate extract in a chromatographic column and identified by 1H NMR. Germination tests with Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea grandifolia were carried out in BOD Germinator at 25ºC and 12 hr photoperiod, monitored for 10 days at concentrations of 0, 20, 40

  11. Characterization of the Weed Seed Bank in Zero and Conventional Tillage in Central Chile Caracterización del Banco de Semillas de Malezas en Labranza Cero y Convencional en Chile Central

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    Rosa Peralta Caroca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the abundance, species composition, and depth distribution of the weed seed bank under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT at two sites, A and B. Soil samples were taken at three soil depths (0-2, 2-5, and 5-15 cm. Germinated, dormant, and total seeds were counted. The total number of seeds was higher (p ≤ 0.05 under CT treatment at the two sites (CTA = 5175 seeds m-2, NTA = 3250 seeds m-2, CTB = 33770 m-2, and NTB = 22437 seeds m-2. The number of viable, dormant, and germinated seeds was also higher (p ≤ 0.05 in CT at the two sites. The percentage of viable seeds was low with 37% (CTA, 34% (CTB, 21% (NTA, and 8% (NTB. Viable seeds of Chenopodium album L. (CHEAL dominated in the two trials with 67% (CTA, 20% (NTA, 96% (CTB, and 77% (NTB. In a principal component analysis, PC1 separated viable seeds of weed species according to tillage and PC2 separated weed species according to sites. Poa annua L. was the most important species associated with NT followed by Cichorium intybus L., and Sonchus while Euphorbia helioscopia L. and Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv. were associated with CT.Se estudió la abundancia, composición de especies y distribución en profundidad del banco de semilla de maleza en labranza convencional (CT y cero labranza (NT en dos sitios, A y B. Se tomaron muestras a tres profundidades de suelo (0-2, 2-5 y 5-15 cm. Se contaron semillas germinadas, dormantes y totales. La cantidad total de semillas fue significativamente mayor (p ≤ 0,05 para ambos sitios (CTA = 5175 semillas m-2, NTA = 3250 semillas m-2, CTB = 33770 semillas m-2 y NTB = 22437 semillas m-2. La cantidad de semillas viables, dormantes y germinadas fue significativamente mayor (p ≤ 0.05 para ambos ensayos en CT que en NT. La mayor proporción de las semillas viables correspondió a germinadas. Se observó un bajo porcentaje de semillas viables 37% (CTA, 34% (CTB, 21% (NTA and 8% (NTB. Las semillas viables de Chenopodium album L. (CHEAL

  12. Mistura em tanque de boro e herbicidas em semeadura convencional de girassol Tank-mix of boron and herbicides on conventional sunflower sowing

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    C. Castro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste experimento foi avaliar a resposta do girassol às aplicações de boro (B, isoladas ou em mistura com herbicidas, e o controle de plantas daninhas por meio de experimento conduzido na Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR. Os tratamentos foram acetochlor (1,92 kg i.a. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0,36 kg i.a. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0,35 kg i.a.ha-1, trifluralin (1,80 kg i.a. ha-1 e as testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados, isoladamente ou em mistura, com 2 kg ha-1 de B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - bórax e H3BO3 - ácido bórico. O tratamento mais eficiente foi acetochlor mais ácido bórico; essa combinação resultou em solução mais homogênea da calda de pulverização, quando comparada com os herbicidas mais bórax. O herbicida acetochlor aplicado isoladamente ou em mistura com as duas fontes de B foi eficiente no controle da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, do picão-preto (Bidens pilosa e da corda-de-viola (Ipomoea grandifolia. Os herbicidas oxyfluorfen e sulfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas com as duas fontes de B, foram eficientes no controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla e da corda-de-viola, respectivamente. É viável a aplicação de boro juntamente com os herbicidas testados nesta pesquisa em mistura em tanque, evitando a deficiência desse micronutriente e controlando as plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol.The objectives of this study were to determine the response of sunflower to application of boron (B fertilizer and herbicides, alone or in combination, and to determine its weed control. A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Soja, Londrina, Parana, Brazil. The treatments were acetochlor (1.92 kg a.i. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0.36 kg a.i. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0.35 kg a.i. ha-1, trifluralin (1.80 kg a.i. ha-1 and two controls (with and without hoeing. All treatments were applied alone or in combination with 2 kg ha-1 of B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - borax and H3BO3 - boric acid

  13. Uso do novo sistema Clearfield® na cultura do girassol para o controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas Use of the new Clearfield® system in sunflower culture to control dicotyledonous weeds

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    G. Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas tem limitado o aumento da área de cultivo de girassol no Brasil, devido ao seu impacto sobre a produtividade. Isso se deve à escassez de produtos registrados para a cultura com amplo espectro de ação. Em razão disso, desenvolveram-se dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas aplicados em pós-emergência de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura do girassol Clearfield®. Os experimentos foram instalados no campo, em Iguatemi, distrito de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas testemunhas sem aplicação de herbicida, sendo uma sem capina e outra capinada, sulfentrazone (200,00 g ha-1 aplicado em pré-emergência e imazapic+imazapyr aplicados em pós-emergência nas doses de [36,75+12,25], [52,5+17,5], [12,25+36,75] e [17,5+52,5] g ha-1. Foram feitas avaliações de controle para Euphorbia heterophylla, Conyza bonariensis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa, Ipomoea grandifolia e Portulaca oleracea. Também foram realizadas avaliações de intoxicação do girassol Clearfield®, estande e produtividade em kg ha-1. De acordo com os resultados, verificou-se que o uso do sistema Clearfield® mostrou-se uma ótima opção para áreas com infestação de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas, pois possibilita a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS; os controles obtidos variaram de medianos a excelentes, além de ele não provocar injúrias à cultura e manter o estande inicial e a produtividade.The occurrence of dicotyledonous weeds has limited the increase of the area of sunflower cultivation in Brazil, due to their impact on crop yield. This is a result of a shortage of products registered for the crop with broad-spectrum control. Thus, two experiments were installed to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the imidazolinone herbicides applied on post

  14. Resposta de plantas daninhas ao óleo fúsel aplicado em pós-emergência inicial e tardia Weed response on fusel oil applied at initial and late post-emergence

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    C.A.M. Azania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a resposta de plantas daninhas a doses do óleo fúsel aplicadas em pós-emergência inicial e tardia. Para isso, foram estudadas as espécies Ipomoea hederifolia, Ipomoea quamoclit, Euphorbia heterophylla, Digitaria spp., Cenchrus echinatus e Panicum maximum em pós-emergência inicial e tardia, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, em quatro repetições. O óleo fúsel - subproduto da destilação do álcool - foi aplicado nas doses de 50, 125, 250, 375 e 500 L ha-1; mais a testemunha sem aplicação. As parcelas foram constituídas por vasos de polietileno com capacidade de 3 L, contendo terra da camada arável de uma área em pousio. Avaliou-se o percentual de intoxicação visual aos 7 e 30 dias após aplicação (DAA e a massa seca aos 30 DAA. As variáveis foram submetidas à análise de variância conforme delineamento, ajustando-se os dados para obtenção da curva dose-resposta por regressão polinomial. As espécies estudadas foram suscetíveis apenas com a utilização de 500 L ha-1 de óleo fúsel aplicado na pós-emergência inicial ou tardia das plantas. A espécie Digitaria spp. foi suscetível; E. heterophylla, tolerante; e as demais, moderadamente tolerantes ao óleo fúsel aplicado em pós-emergência inicial. A espécie E. heterophylla foi suscetível; Digitaria spp., C. echinatus e P. maximum, moderadamente tolerante e I. hederifolia e I. quamoclit, tolerantes ao óleo fúsel aplicado em pós-emergência tardia.This work aimed to study weed response to fusel oil rate applied at early and late post-emergence. The following species were studied at late and early post-emergence: Ipomoea hederifolia, Ipomoea quamoclit, Euphorbia heterophylla, Digitaria spp., Cenchrus echinatus and Panicum maximum.. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Fusel oil, an alcohol distillation byproduct, was

  15. Densities straw and luminosity conditions on seed germination on seed germination of Euhphorbia heterophyllaDensidades de palha e condições de luminosidade na germinação de sementes de Euhphorbia heterophylla

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    Hermeson dos Santos Vitorino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the influence of sugarcane straw density and light conditions on the germination of seeds of Euphorbia heterophylla under controlled conditions.The experimental design was completely randomized design with four replications of 50 seeds, and the treatments were arranged in a 6 x 5 factorial, with six amount of sugarcane straw (0, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 t ha-1 and 5 types of light (constant light, constant darkness, alternating light and dark, short red and far red. The seeds were germinated in plastic type boxes covered byoverlapping layers of straw and kept in germination. Assessments of germination were daily computing the normal seedlings, when they presented protusion roots visible and calculated the germination speed index (IGS. It was observed that the increase of different densities of straw and different wave lengths provided germination ranged from 83 to 97% and IGS between 9.85 to 15.36. The different densities of straw and wavelength did not suppress the germination of E. heterophylla. Therefore, the species was insensitive to light, so the presence of raw sugarcane system can’t be considered a potential tool for controlling this species.Estudou-se a influência da densidade de palha de cana-de-açúcar e condições de luminosidade sobre a germinação de sementes de Euphorbia heterophylla em condições controladas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes, e os tratamentos foram dispostos no esquema fatorial 6 x 5, sendo seis quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 8, 10, 12, 14 e 16 t ha-1 e cinco 5 tipos de luz (luz constante, escuro constante, alternância luz-escuro, vermelho curto e vermelho distante. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em caixas plásticas do tipo gerbox e cobertas por camadas de palha sobrepostas e mantidas em câmaras de germinação. As avaliações de germinação foram diárias, computando-se as plântulas normais, quando

  16. Resistência de amendoim-bravo aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase Wild poinsettia resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides

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    Ribas A. Vidal

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle contínuo de plantas daninhas através da aplicação de herbicidas que apresentam atividade em um único local de ação nas plantas favorece a seleção de biótipos resistentes a estes herbicidas, em certas espécies vegetais. Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos em condições casa-de-vegetação, na Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, com os objetivos de avaliar a ocorrência de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS em vários biótipos de leiteiro ou amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla EPHHL e avaliar a ocorrência de resistência múltipla a herbicidas com atividade em outros locais de ação. Biótipo oriundo de Passo Fundo foi resistente ao imazethapyr, enquanto biótipo oriundo de Porto Alegre foi suscetível. O biótipo de Passo Fundo apresentou resistência cruzada aos herbicidas imidazolinonas: imazapyr, imazaquin e imazethapyr; sulfoniluréias: chlorimuron, nicosulfuron e metsulfuron; e sulfonanilida: flumetsulan. Este biótipo não foi resistente aos herbicidas com os seguintes mecanismos de ação: inibidores de EPSPs, mimetizadores de auxina, inibidores dos fotossistemas I e II e inibidores de PROTOX. A confirmação de resistência aos inibidores de ALS em biótipos oriundos de Nãome-Toque, Passo Fundo e Rio Pardo sugere ampla dispersão no Rio Grande do Sul de resistência de E. heterophylla aos herbicidas deste mecanismo de ação.The continuous weed control with herbicides of only one site of action selects biotypes resistant to these herbicides. Four experiments were conducted in greenhouse of UFRGS, Brazil, to confirm the occurence of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistance to herbicides inhibitors of acetholactate synthase (ALS, and to determine whether there was cross resistance to herbicides with other site of action. A biotype from Passo Fundo -RS was resistant to imazethapyr, whereas a biotype from Porto Alegre -RS

  17. Desenvolvimento das fases imaturas de Chrysoperla externa alimentadas com ninfas de Bemisia tabaci criadas em três hospedeiros Development of immature stages of Chrysoperla externa fed on nymphs of Bemisia tabaci biotype B reared on three hosts

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    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Insetos da família Chrysopidae têm sido encontrados em ovos e ninfas de moscas-brancas em diferentes agroecossistemas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a duração e a viabilidade das fases imaturas de Chrysoperla externa alimentada com ninfas de Bemisia tabaci, biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus, couve (Brassica oleracea e na erva adventícia leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1% e mantidos a 25±1ºC, 70±10% UR e fotófase de 12 horas. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, num total de dez repetições. Avaliaram-se a duração e a viabilidade de cada ínstar, de toda fase de larva, das fases de pré-pupa e pupa e peso após 24 horas de idade em cada estádio e fase do desenvolvimento. A espécie de planta hospedeira da mosca-branca afetou a duração do primeiro e terceiro ínstares de C. externa, registrando-se redução no período larval, quando alimentadas com presas oriundas de folhas de pepino. A fase de pré-pupa foi prolongada quando utilizadas folhas de leiteiro. Os pesos foram afetados pelo tipo de hospedeiro do aleirodídeo, porém esse efeito não influencia a viabilidade das fases imaturas.Insects of the Chrysopidae family have been found on eggs and nymphs of whitefly in several ecosystems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the duration and survival of the immature stages of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861, fed on nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B reared on leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus, kale (Brassica oleracea or wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. Leaf discs from the hosts containing nymphs of whitefly were placed in Petri dishes containing 1% agar and maintained at 25±1ºC, 70±10% RH and a 12-hour photophase. One recently hatched larvae of C. externa was placed in each dish, in ten replications. The duration

  18. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1991, tem sido observada a presença da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae em altas populações em hortaliças e orna-mentais nos municípios paulistas de Paulínia, Holambra, Jaguariúna e Artur Nogueira. Foram constatadas infestações severas em tomateiro, brócolos, berinjela e aboboreira; nesta última, o sintoma observado em plantas infestadas pela mosca-branca é o prateamento da face superior das folhas, em conjunto com queda drástica da produção. Uma lavoura de tomate severamente infestada por B. tabaci apresentava o sintoma referido colo amadurecimento irregular dos frutos do tomateiro; plantas invasoras presentes nessa área também foram intensamente colonizadas, principalmente Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. e Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult. Em Holambra, verificaram-se ataques intensos em plantas ornamentais, principalmente crisântemo (Chrysantemum morifolium Ramat. e bico-de-papagaio (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.; roseiras foral pouco colonizadas. Nessas hortaliças e nas ornamentais, a aplicação quase diária de inseticidas não reduziu a infestação do inseto. Além dessas plantas, campos de algodão, em Holambra, e de feijão, em Paulínia, também foram infestados por B. tabaci. Nos E.U.A., a capacidade de certas populações de B. tabaci de induzir o prateamento da folha em aboboreira e de colonizar intensamente E. pulcherrima, entre outros fatores, têm levado à distinção do biótipo "B" ou "poinsétia", nome vulgar dessa euforbiácea; todavia, estudos recentes na Califórnia (E.U.A. mostram a possibilidade de se tratar de duas espécies distintas. Dada a similaridade entre as infestações associadas a B. tabaci que vêm ocorrendo naquele país e, mais recentemente, no Brasil, é provável que o biótipo B ou essa nova espécie tenha sido aqui introduzido.Since 1991, an increase in the populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera

  19. Eficiência nutricional de cultivares de feijão em competição com plantas daninhas Nutritional efficiency of bean cultivars under competition with weeds

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    J.P Cury

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do ciclo efetivamente rápido do feijoeiro, a habilidade no uso dos nutrientes adicionados por ocasião do plantio e cobertura pode ser prejudicada pela presença de determinadas espécies de plantas daninhas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da competição entre três cultivares de feijão (IPR Colibri, IPR Eldorado e Pérola e seis espécies de plantas daninhas (Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis e Brachiaria plantaginea no acúmulo de N, P e K pelas plantas e na eficiência nutricional do feijoeiro. O experimento foi realizado em condições controladas de temperatura e umidade, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O período de convivência entre os cultivares de feijão e as plantas daninhas foi de 45 dias após emergência da cultura. Os cultivares de feijão apresentaram reduzido acúmulo relativo de N, P e K quando estavam em competição, sendo o sistema radicular o principal órgão afetado negativamente. O cultivar IPR Colibri foi o que menos tolerou a competição com plantas daninhas e E. heterophylla foi a espécie com menor poder de competição, enquanto A. spinosus e B. plantaginea foram as mais competitivas com a cultura do feijão. A eficiência nutricional do feijoeiro variou conforme o genótipo de feijão e a espécie infestante.Although the common bean has an effectively rapid cycle, its ability to use nutrients added during planting and cover can be affected by the presence of certain weed species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of competition between three bean cultivars (IPR Colibri, IPR Eldorado, and Pérola and six weed species (Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Brachiaria plantaginea on accumulation of N, P, and K by the plants, and on the nutritional efficiency of the bean plant. The experiment was

  20. Variabilidade no grau de resistência de capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea aos herbicidas clethodim, tepraloxydim e sethoxydim Variability in the degree of resistance of Alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea to the herbicides clethodim, tepraloxydim, and sethoxydim

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    D.L.P. Gazziero

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso continuado de herbicidas pertencentes a um único mecanismo de ação resulta em pressão de seleção de biótipos resistentes de plantas daninhas. No Brasil, as primeiras manifestações de resistência foram relatadas com as espécies de capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea, picão-preto (Bidens spp. e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla. Tem-se verificado que, quando da ocorrência da resistência de uma planta daninha a um determinado produto, o problema se estende aos demais produtos que possuem o mesmo mecanismo de ação. Sabe-se, porém, que o grau de resistência poderá variar entre os produtos e, eventualmente, ocorrer resistência para uns e não para outros. Com o objetivo de avaliar possíveis diferenças na eficiência de produtos inibidores da enzima ACCase em biótipos resistentes de capim-marmelada, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação em Londrina-PR. Os tratamentos incluíram os herbicidas sethoxydim, clethodim e tepraloxydim, em diferentes doses. No primeiro, as aplicações foram realizadas com as plantas no estádio de um a dois afilhos e, no segundo, no estádio de dois a três afilhos. Embora os três compostos químicos atuem na inibição da enzima ACCase, foi evidenciada elevada diferença no grau de resistência do capim-marmelada a esses produtos. Os resultados indicaram que o biótipo considerado resistente ao herbicida sethoxydim foi suscetível aos produtos clethodim e tepraloxydim.The continuous use of herbicides with a single mechanism of action results in selection pressure of resistant weed biotypes. In Brazil, the first manifestations of resistance occurred with Alexandergrass species (Brachiaria plantaginea, beggarticks (Bidens spp. and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. The occurrence of weed resistance to a particular product has been found to extend to other products with the same mechanism of action. It is known, however, that the degree of resistance can vary

  1. Efeito residual de herbicidas em pré-plantio do feijoeiro, em dois sistemas de aplicação em plantio direto e sua viabilidade econômica Economic viability of residual herbicides in dry bean pre-planting under two aplication methods

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    T. Cobucci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a viabilidade econômica de controle de plantas daninhas com alguns herbicidas residuais (registrados ou não, aplicados em pré-plantio na cultura do feijoeiro. O experimento foi realizado em Santo Antônio de Goiás, no ano agrícola de 1999/2000. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em cobertura das plantas daninhas Commelina benghalensis e Bidens pilosa, com 3 t ha-1 de biomassa seca. Os tratamentos foram constituídos do fatorial 2x10x3, arranjados em parcelas subsubdivididas no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições; o primeiro fator consistiu de sistemas de dessecação da área [Sistema Integrado de Controle (SIC e Aplique e Plante]. No SIC foi usado o sulfosate (720 g ha-1 aos 20 dias antes do plantio e paraquat (200 g ha¹ adicionado aos herbicidas com efeitos residuais, aplicados imediatamente após o plantio do feijoeiro. No sistema Aplique e Plante foi aplicado o sulfosate (720 g ha¹ adicionado aos residuais, cinco dias antes do plantio do feijoeiro. O segundo fator representa a aplicação dos herbicidas com efeitos residuais, em g ha-1: sulfentrazone (200 e 300, dimethenamid (900 e 1.125, clomazone (360, pendimethalin (2.500, smetolachlor (768 e 1.152, diclosulan (12,45 e testemunha; e o terceiro, as doses dos herbicidas de pós-emergência: imazamox (15 + bentazon (240, imazamox (30 + bentazon (480 e testemunha. Os herbicidas residuais aplicados nos sistemas SIC e Aplique e Plante reduziram o crescimento inicial de Bidens pilosa. Para Euphorbia heterophylla somente os herbicidas diclosulan e sulfentrazone proporcionaram efeito semelhante. A aplicação de herbicidas residuais em pré-plantio mostrou ser viável economicamente, em virtude da redução dos de pós-emergência, exceto para os herbicidas dimethenamid e s-metolachlor.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and economic viability of controlling weeds with residual herbicides, applied in

  2. Efeitos de doses e épocas de aplicação do bentazon na produção de duas cultivares de cebola (Allium cepa L. Effects of doses and time of application of bentazon on the yield of two onion cultivars

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    M.H.T. Mascarenhas

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Em um solo aluvião eutrófico de classificação textural argilo siltoso, com 2,75% de M.O. foram estudados os efeitos de doses do herbicida bentazon (3 - isopropi l - 2,1,3 - benzotio-diazinona - (4 - 2,2 - dióxido aplicado em pós-emergência. no controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura da cebola. O delineamento experimental adotado foi um fatorial 2 x 5 x 2 + 4. constituído por duas cultivares: 'Baia Pe ri forme' e 'Texas Grano': cinco épocas de aplicação do produto: aos 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência das plantas daninhas: duas doses de bentazon: 0,46kg. i.a./ha e 0,96 kg. i.a./ha e quatro tratamentos adicionais: 'Baia Periforme' capinada e sem capina e 'Texas Grano'. capinada e sem capina. . As plantas daninhas predominantes no experimento foram: botão -de-ouro (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia prunifoiia Jacq.(, mostarda (Brassica campestris L., joá (Physalis angulata L. fedegoso (Cassia tora L.(, serralha falsa (Emilia sonchifolia (L . DC e mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L. Nas condições em que foi realizado o ensaio, o herbicida bentazon nas duas doses aplicadas mostrou-se eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas até 60 dias após o transplante. Nas doses empregadas o bentazon não apresentou efeito fitotóxico sobre a produção das cultivares 'Baia Periforme' e 'Texas Grano'.The effects of doses of the herbicide bentazon applied at post-emergence in the control of dycotiledonous weeds in onion crops were studied on a alluvial eutrophic soil with a clay silt texture. and 2.75%% of organic matter. The experiment was set according to a complete randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 5 x 2- 4 (two onion varieties: 'Bala Periforme' and 'Texas Grano': five herbicide application dates: 10. 20. 30, 40 and 50 days after emergence of the weeds: bentazon doses were 0,46g a.i./ha and 0.96 g a.i./ha: and four more tre atments: 'Baia Periforme

  3. Comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolado e em mistura com outros herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em cafeeiros novos por dois anos consecutivos Effect of metribuzin, sprayed alone or in mixture with another herbicides, for weed control on young coffee trees, during two years

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    L.S.P. Cruz

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Para se conhecer o comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolaso ou em mistura com outros herbicidas residuais (napropamide, pendimethalin, alchlor, oryzalin e diuron no controle de plantas daninhas que comumente infestam cafeeiros em formação, foi conduzido um experimento de campo onde esse herbicida a 0,28; 0,42; 0,56 e 0,70 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha pendimethalin a 1,00 kg/ha, alachlor a 2,40kg/ha, oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha ou com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha, comparado com duas testemunhas , onde, em uma, o mato foi mantido a níveis não competitivos com a cultura, por meios mecânicos, e outra onde o mato foi deixado desenvolver-se naturalmente, sem nenhuma interferência. Foi incluído também um tratamento com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha. A infestação natural de plantas daninhas da área do experimento era formada pelas gramínas, capim-de-colçhão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop, capim - marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch capim-pé-de-galinha (Elcusine indica (L. Gaertn., Capim-favorito (Rhynchelitrum roseum (Nees Stapf eet Hubb, e pelas dicotiledôneas beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., picão-branco (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., caruru-de-mancha (Amarantus virides L., amendoim bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L., quebra-pedra (Phyllantus cordovadensis, Muell Arg. e falsa-serralha (Emilia sachifolia DC. Os resultados dos dois anos foram semelhantes para cada tratamento. Metribuzin a 0,28 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha, apresentam períodos de ação maior, seguidos da mistura de metribuzin, naquela mesma dose, com oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha. Não foi contatado a presença de qualquer sintoma de intoxicação nos cafeeiros, em todos os tratamentos, até a última observação, realizada 210 dias após a segunda aplicação dos herbicidas.This paper reports on two years field trials carried out in Araras, SP, Brazil, on coffee tress with twenty

  4. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

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    Patricia Rivas-Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI, se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa, y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5% (MI-A, MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales de virosis antes de floración (MI-D y MI. Las barreras vegetales sembradas 20 días antes del trasplante del papayo y el desplante retrasaron en 19 días el inicio del progreso de epidemias en el MI lo que resultó en una mayor producción (14.2% que el resto de tratamientos, aunque fue superado por MI-A en vigor (4% en diámetro de tallo. La citrolina fue fitotóxica, disminuyó el vigor de plantas (5.3% y no limitó significativamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad ya que la intensidad de las epidemias (X0 = 47días, Yf = 84% y ABCPE = 3220% días fue similar al testigo. El uso de barreras vegetales por si sola aparentemente no es suficiente para la reducción de la incidencia y dispersión de la enfermedad. Los áfidos más abundantes, con reconocida capacidad transmisora del PRSV-P, fueron Aphis gossypii, A. nerii, A. spiraecola y Macrosiphum euphorbiae, los cuales representaron aproximadamente el 13% del total de áfidos capturados.The effect of plant barriers as a component of an integrated management program (IM was validated and adapted in 1999, in Michoacan, Mexico, to control papaya ringspot, caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. A split-plot design was established with two experimental factors: plant barriers and components of IM: IM without oil sprinkling (IM-O, IM without plant rouging (IM-R, and complete IM. Plant barriers (Hibiscus sabdariffa, sowed 20 days before papaya transplanting, and plant rouging delayed the epidemics

  5. Effect of Serjania lethalis ethanolic extract on weed control Efeito do extrato etanólico de Serjania lethalis no controle de plantas daninhas

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    P.U. Grisi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Serjania lethalis leaves and stems on the diaspore germination and seedling growth of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli. The crude ethanolic extract was prepared from 100 g of dry plant material dissolved in 500 ml of ethanol. The extracts were solubilized in a buffer solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO at concentrations of 10.0, 7.5, 5.0 and 2.5 mg mL-1. The effect of these extracts was compared with herbicide oxyfluorfen in bioassays. The ethanolic extracts of S. lethalis leaves and stems inhibited the germination and seedling growth of barnyardgrass and wild poinsettia in a concentration-dependent manner. The reduction in the root length of E. heterophylla seedlings might be attributed to the reduced elongation of metaxylem cells. The phytotoxicity of the extracts ranged according to the receptor species, and for some variables, the inhibitory effect was similar, and even superior, to that of the commercial herbicide. Thus, S. lethalis extracts might be a promising alternative for sustainable weed management.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do extrato etanólico de folhas e caules de Serjania lethalis sobre a germinação dos diásporos e crescimento de plântulas de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla e capim-arroz (Echinochloa crus-galli. O extrato bruto etanólico foi preparado na proporção de 100 g de material vegetal seco para 500 mL de etanol. A partir deste, os extratos foram solubilizados em solução tampão e dimetil sulfóxido (DMSO nas concentrações 10,0, 7,5, 5,0 e 2,5 mg mL-1. Nos bioensaios comparou-se o efeito desses extratos com o herbicida oxyfluorfen. Os extratos etanólicos de folhas e caules de S. lethalisexerceram atividade inibitória no processo de germinação e no crescimento das plântulas de capim-arroz e amendoim-bravo, com efeito dependente da concentra

  6. VISÃO DE COMUNIDADES RURAIS EM JUAZEIRINHO/PB REFERENTE À EXTINÇÃO DA BIODIVERSIDADE DA CAATINGA

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    Lânia Isis Ferreira Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current model of economic development is based on a predatory and exculpatory vision, which discloses a way of being inhuman. Implying in changes of perception, thoughts and values, it has seen, that the form as the nature is explored in accordance with varies the ambient perception of the community or group. This work objectified to analyze the perception of Juazeirinho/PB agricultural communities referring the extinction of biodiversity of caatinga, aiming at to delineate sensitization strategies that make possible the valuation of this biome. The work portrays a carried through participant research with the communities Escurinha and Mendonça. For the collection of data direct comment was used, with visits to the communities, dynamics, half-structuralized interview and accomplishment of meeting. According to community some vegetal and animal species are disappearing. Between the animals they are cited: corduniz (Nothura sp, gato do mato (Felisa tigrina, gato maracajá (Felis wildi, mocó (Kerodon rupestris, preá (Gálea sprixii, Tejo (Família Teiidae, tatu peba (Euphractus sexcinctus, tatu verdadeiro (Dasypus novmcinctus e o guaxinim (Procyon camcrivorus.Between vegetables they had been cited: Aveloz (Euphorbia gimnoclada, Imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa, Aroeira (Myracroduom unrudeuva, Caatingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidali, Baraúna (Schnopsis brasiliensis, Quixabeira (Bumelia sertorum, Mufumbo (Combretum leprosum. We can verify that it is necessary to promote changes in the ambient perception of the studied communities, thus allowing, to awake for problematic ambient, to point and to search solutions, that take the valuation of local biodiversity.

  7. Trans-Generational Effects of Mild Heat Stress on the Life History Traits of an Aphid Parasitoid

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    Ismaeil, Ibrahim; Doury, Géraldine; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Dubois, Françoise; Prevost, Geneviève; Couty, Aude

    2013-01-01

    Temperature changes are common in nature and insects are particularly exposed and sensitive to such variations which can be potential stresses, ultimately affecting life history traits and overall fitness. Braconids have been widely used to study the effects of temperature on host-parasitoid interactions and the present work focused on the solitary endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Aphidiidae), an efficient biological control agent commercially used against aphids such as the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae). Contrary to previous studies using heat shocks at extreme temperatures, we evaluated the effects of mild heat stresses by transferring young parasitoid adults from the constant temperature of 20°C to either a warm (25°C) or hot (28°C) temperature, for either 1 h or 48 h. Such treatments are consistent with situations commonly experienced by parasitoids when moved from their rearing conditions to greenhouses or field conditions. The effects were evaluated both on the heat stressed A. ervi adults (G0) (immediate effects) and on their first generation (G1) progeny (trans-generational effects). G0 wasps’ mortality was significantly affected by the temperature in interaction with the duration of the stress. Longevity of G0 wasps surviving the heat stress was negatively affected by the temperature and females lived longer than males. Heat stress applied to A. ervi parents also had consequences on their G1 progeny whose developmental time, rates of mummification and percentage of parasitoid completing total development were negatively affected. Surprisingly, the egg load at emergence of the G1 female progeny was increased when their mothers had been submitted to a mild heat stress of 25°C or 28°C. These results clearly demonstrate trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, showing that adaptation to thermal stresses may be achieved via maternal effects. This study also sheds light on the

  8. A revised molecular phylogeny of the globally distributed hawkmoth genus Hyles (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Rubinoff, Daniel; Attié, Marc; Wink, Michael; Kitching, Ian J

    2009-09-01

    The hawkmoth genus Hyles comprises some 29 species with a global distribution. In this study, we augment the previous taxon sampling with more species and add sequences from a nuclear gene to produce a refined phylogenetic hypothesis. A total evidence reconstruction based on Bayesian analysis of the combined mitochondrial (COI, t-RNA-Leu, COII; 2284 bp) and nuclear (EF1alpha; 773 bp) sequences is discussed and compared with the results from separate analyses of the two genes. The total evidence phylogeny corroborates many of the phylogenetic relationships previously postulated within the genus. In addition, the hitherto unsampled enigmatic species Hyles biguttata from Madagascar appears as sister group to Hyles livornicoides from Australia, although support for the relationship is relatively weak. The high level of differentiation of Hyles perkinsi from H. calida (both Hawaii), and the status of these two as sister species, is corroborated by both sources of sequence data. However, their phylogenetic position when mt DNA sequences alone are considered differs markedly from that under total evidence. The previously postulated relationships within the Hyles euphorbiae complex (HEC) s.s. are largely corroborated, but H. dahlii is now more closely related and the HEC s.l. is redefined to include H. zygophylli and H. stroehlei (two species that had not been studied previously using molecular data) and to exclude H. siehei and H. hippophaes. The nuclear sequences alone are insufficiently variable to fully resolve all lineages and the phylogeny suggests that nuclear gene swapping and incomplete lineage sorting have occurred implying recent divergence. The results from the total evidence analysis provide a phylogenetic hypothesis that both corroborates and complements the previous biogeographic scenario, and provides new insights into the origins of several of the included taxa.

  9. Energy efficient cultivation planning for pot plants. A calculation platform for energy efficient scenarios in the Hortensia cultivation; Energiezuinige Teeltplanning voor Potplanten. Een rekenplatform voor energie-efficiente scenario's in de Hortensia-teelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buwalda, F.; Van Noort, F. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); Houter, B. [GreenQ, Bleiswijk (Netherlands); Benninga, J. [Landbouw-Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Dijkstra, T.; De Rooij, E. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    The project Energy Efficient Scheduling of Pot Plant Production was aimed at developing and testing a decision support system for pot plant nurseries. The system allowed growers and consultants to compare the effects of changes in production schedules and climate settings on crop performance and energy requirement. The model-based scenario tool incorporated dynamic crop models for Euphorbia pulcherrima, Ficus benjamina and Hydrangea macrophylla, and the KASPRO model for greenhouse climate and energy balance. The system automatically acquired data from a local weather forecast service, real-time, web-based nursery-specific data acquisition systems and crop registration modules. Web-based data sharing also supported benchmarking between nurseries. The system was tested in field trials, involving four nurseries for each pot plant species. Improvements in energy efficiency of the production process resulted from optimized pot spacing schedules and from temperature strategies incorporating more prominent influences of the season, weather conditions and crop developmental phase [Dutch] In het kader van het project Energiezuinige Teeltplanning voor Potplanten is gewerkt aan een adviessysteem dat potplantentelers in staat stelt om zelfstandig de energie-efficientie van teeltscenario's te evalueren op basis van actuele, bedrijfsspecifieke gegevens. Daarnaast maakt het systeem het mogelijk om via internet teeltscenario's te delen met teeltadviseurs en binnen bedrijfsvergelijkingsgroepen. Het systeem is gebaseerd op dynamische gewasmodellen voor Hortensia, Poinsettia en Ficus, en maakt voor het berekenen van kasklimaat en energiestromen gebruik van het rekenmodel KASPRO. Dit rapport beschrijft de werking van het systeem, de resultaten op 4 bedrijven per gewas, de reacties van de betrokken telers, en een evaluatie van het project. De belangrijkste mogelijkheden om de energie-efficientie van een teelt te verbeteren werden gevonden in verbeterde wijderzetschema

  10. Energy efficient cultivation planning for pot plants. A calculation platform for energy efficient scenarios in the Ficus cultivation; Energiezuinige Teeltplanning voor Potplanten. Een rekenplatform voor energie-efficiente scenario's in de Ficus-teelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buwalda, F.; Van Noort, F. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); De Jong, B.

    2012-06-15

    The project Energy Efficient Scheduling of Pot Plant Production was aimed at developing and testing a decision support system for pot plant nurseries. The system allowed growers and consultants to compare the effects of changes in production schedules and climate settings on crop performance and energy requirement. The model-based scenario tool incorporated dynamic crop models for Euphorbia pulcherrima, Ficus benjamina and Hydrangea macrophylla, and the KASPRO model for greenhouse climate and energy balance. The system automatically acquired data from a local weather forecast service, real-time, web-based nursery-specific data acquisition systems and crop registration modules. Web-based data sharing also supported benchmarking between nurseries. The system was tested in field trials, involving four nurseries for each pot plant species. Improvements in energy efficiency of the production process resulted from optimized pot spacing schedules and from temperature strategies incorporating more prominent influences of the season, weather conditions and crop developmental phase [Dutch] In het kader van het project Energiezuinige Teeltplanning voor Potplanten is gewerkt aan een adviessysteem dat potplantentelers in staat stelt om zelfstandig de energie-efficiëntie van teeltscenario's te evalueren op basis van actuele, bedrijfsspecifieke gegevens. Daarnaast maakt het systeem het mogelijk om via internet teeltscenario's te delen met teeltadviseurs en binnen bedrijfsvergelijkingsgroepen. Het systeem is gebaseerd op dynamische gewasmodellen voor Hortensia, Poinsettia en Ficus, en maakt voor het berekenen van kasklimaat en energiestromen gebruik van het rekenmodel KASPRO. Dit rapport beschrijft de werking van het systeem, de resultaten op 4 bedrijven per gewas, de reacties van de betrokken telers, en een evaluatie van het project. De belangrijkste mogelijkheden om de energie-efficientie van een teelt te verbeteren werden gevonden in verbeterde wijderzetschema

  11. Energy efficient cultivation planning for pot plants. A calculation platform for energy efficient scenarios in the Poinsettia cultivation; Energiezuinige Teeltplanning voor Potplanten. Een rekenplatform voor energie-efficiente scenario's in de Poinsettiateelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buwalda, F.; Van Noort, F. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); Houter, B. [GreenQ, Bleiswijk (Netherlands); Benninga, J. [Landbouw-Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands); De Rooij, E. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    The project Energy Efficient Scheduling of Pot Plant Production was aimed at developing and testing a decision support system for pot plant nurseries. The system allowed growers and consultants to compare the effects of changes in production schedules and climate settings on crop performance and energy requirement. The model-based scenario tool incorporated dynamic crop models for Euphorbia pulcherrima, Ficus benjamina and Hydrangea macrophylla, and the KASPRO model for greenhouse climate and energy balance. The system automatically acquired data from a local weather forecast service, real-time, web-based nursery-specific data acquisition systems and crop registration modules. Web-based data sharing also supported benchmarking between nurseries. The system was tested in field trials, involving four nurseries for each pot plant species. Improvements in energy efficiency of the production process resulted from optimized pot spacing schedules and from temperature strategies incorporating more prominent influences of the season, weather conditions and crop developmental phase [Dutch] In het kader van het project Energiezuinige Teeltplanning voor Potplanten is gewerkt aan een adviessysteem dat potplantentelers in staat stelt om zelfstandig de energie-efficientie van teeltscenario's te evalueren op basis van actuele, bedrijfsspecifieke gegevens. Daarnaast maakt het systeem het mogelijk om via internet teeltscenario's te delen met teeltadviseurs en binnen bedrijfsvergelijkingsgroepen. Het systeem is gebaseerd op dynamische gewasmodellen voor Hortensia, Poinsettia en Ficus, en maakt voor het berekenen van kasklimaat en energiestromen gebruik van het rekenmodel KASPRO. Dit rapport beschrijft de werking van het systeem, de resultaten op 4 bedrijven per gewas, de reacties van de betrokken telers, en een evaluatie van het project. De belangrijkste mogelijkheden om de energie-efficientie van een teelt te verbeteren werden gevonden in verbeterde wijderzetschema

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Niño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae. The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and

  13. Prophylactic and curative anti-ulcerative colitis activity and the possible mechanisms of action of some desert plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Meligy, Reham M; Awaad, Amani S; Soliman, Gamal A; Bacha, Abir B; Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate both prophylactic and curative anti-ulcerative colitis activity and the possible mechanism of action of seven desert plant extracts. Seven desert plants from different families; Conyza dioscoridis (L.) Desf. (Asteraceae), Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorpiaceae), Origanum syriacum L. and Salvia lanigera L. (Lamiaceae), Sisymbrium irio L., Solanum nigrum Linn. (Solanaceae) and Solenostemma arghel (Del.) Hayne. (Asclepiadaceae) were separately evaluated at three doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) using the acetic acid-induced colitis model. The investigated extracts possessed prophylactic and curative anti-ulcerative colitis activities in a dose-dependent manner, where Salvia lanigera (87.9) and Solenostemma arghel (89.2) were the most effective extracts whereas the dexamesathone produced 68%. These extracts were further investigated for estimation of their mechanism of action. The in vitro potential radical (DPPH) scavenging activities of the investigated extracts were well supported with the reduction of colonic MDA content for both extracts. Suppression of the inflammatory mediator TNF-α and inhibition of both PLA2 and protease enzymes may play an important role in the anti-ulcerative colitis activities. The investigated extracts were safe for use up to 5 g/kg and the total alcohol extracts of Salvia lanigera and Solenostemma arghel (400 mg/kg for 35 d) showed no alteration on liver and kidney functions. Phytochemical screening of the investigated extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, unsaturated sterols, and proteins which could be responsible for the activities.

  14. A contribution to flora, life form and chorology of plants in Noor and Sisangan lowland forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Naqinezhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowland Hyrcanian (Caspian areas possess a number of important remnant patches of deciduous Euro-Siberian forests distributed sparsely in the three Iranian provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan. Noor and Sisangan are two large patches of such lowland forests classified as “natural forest parks” in the context of “Iranian Natural Resources”. In spite of a few local studies, broad knowledge upon the flora and vegetation of these areas are lacking. A total of 225 species belonging to 175 genera and 77 plant families were collected from the studied areas. The largest families in terms of species richness, were Poaceae (28 spp., Asteraceae (18 spp. and Rosaceae (9 spp., respectively. The genera with the largest number of species were Carex (6 spp., Veronica (5 spp. and Euphorbia, Polygonum, Solanum (each with 4 spp., respectively. In the assessment of life form spectrum, the dominant life forms were therophytes (30.2%, followed by the geophytes (27.1%, hemicryptophytes (20.9% and phanerophytes (18.2%. The flora was mostly composed of pluriregional elements with 60 taxa (27.3%, followed by Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean elements with 43 taxa (19.5%. Life form spectra and chorotype percentages were discussed for each study area separately. According to Sørensen’s (1948 similarity index, there was a remarkable similarity between two forest areas. Noor and Sisangan forests were highly threatened ecosystems in case of species loss and changing natural communities due to occurrence of anthropogenic and over-grazing effects.

  15. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.

  16. Fabrication of silver chloride nanoparticles using a plant serine protease in combination with photo-activation and investigation of their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Limphirat, Wanwisa; Nantapong, Nawarat; Songthamwat, Dujdow

    2018-01-03

    Recently, the development of 'green' methods for fabrication of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has been emphasized, in view of their environmental safety, feasibility and low cost. In this study, a serine protease, EuP-82 from Euphorbia cf. lactea latex, was used to fabricate silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2), under the influence of visible light. The fabricated nanoparticles had a maximal surface plasmon resonance absorption peak at 435 nm. The size of the AgCl-NPs, estimated by scanning electron microscopy, was 57 ± 14.7 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the fabricated Ag-NPs were of the AgCl type. The fabricated nanoparticles had antioxidant activity, scavenging DPPH radicals with IC50 of 204 ± 1.8 μg/ml. The fabricated AgCl-NPs had broad-spectrum in vitro antimicrobial activities, acting against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Bacillus cereus, and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. AgCl-NPs also showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and C. tropicalis. In addition, AgCl-NPs showed antiprotozoal activity against Giardia lamblia, with IC50 202 ± 2.1 μg/ml. Based on the biological activities of the fabricated AgCl-NPs, they have the potential for widespread application in medicine and industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of some plant extracts on the ovi-position behavior of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim A. El Maghrbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic/acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes erecta were tested in respect to their influence on the ovi-position behavior of the mosquito, Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus in concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. Three days after mosquito females had fed on blood of anesthetized mice and pigeon respectively, experimental and control dishes were placed into cages for 24 h then number of eggs laid in each dish was counted. Alcoholic/acetone extracts of C. papaya, C. citratus and T. erecta at 100 mg/L; E. cotinofolia and O. canum at 100 and 10 mg/L were proved to be repulsive for ovi-position of Ae. fluviatilis. On the other hand, acetone extracts of A. tuberosum and M. azederach at 100 and 10 mg/L; A. leptophyllum, O. canum, E. cotinofolia and R. communis at 100 mg/L produced same effect on ovi-position behavior of Ae. fluviatilis. Alcoholic extracts E. cotinofolia, R. communis (100 mg/L and M. azedarach (100 and 10 mg/L were attractive to Cx. quinquifasciatus. Five acetone extracts (A. tuberosum, A. leptophylum, C. papaya, C. Citrates and M. azedarach were repulsive for ovi-position at 100 mg/L. Acetone extract of A. tuberosum and M. azedarach at 10 and 1 mg/L and C. citratus at 10 mg/L maintained the same properties. Our results concluded that each plant extract has the potential to control ovi-position behavior of mosquito. The differences in obtained responses necessitate the adoption of deeper research to isolate the active principle of such plants for potential use in mosquito control program.

  18. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.

  19. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  20. The casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe based on herbarium and literature records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s casual, naturalised and invasive alien plant species were analysed with regard to their habit, origin, mode or purpose of introduction and their invasion status in the country. This alien flora of 391 taxa belonged to 239 genera and 73 families, corresponding to 6.6% of the total flora of Zimbabwe. Of these, 153 (39.1% plant species were casual aliens, 154 (39.4% were naturalised and 84 (21.5% were invasive species. Most invasions in terms of numbers of alien species were in the central and eastern parts of the country. Asteraceae (53 species, Poaceae (48 species and Fabaceae sensu lato (49 species families were prominent in all the floristic regions of the country. Annual and perennial herbaceous species formed the majority of life forms of the casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe. Genera with the highest number of alien species were Ipomoea with nine species, Acacia and Euphorbia with eight species each, Chenopodium and Senna with seven species each, Eucalyptus with six species, Oenothera, Physalis and Solanum with five species each. More than 49.6% of the alien plants in Zimbabwe originated primarily from South, Central and North America, followed by Europe (24.6%, Asia (23.8%, Africa (10.5% and Australasia (5.9%.Conservation implications: This research provides baseline information and historical invasion patterns of casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora in Zimbabwe. This inventory is a crucial starting point in trying to understand and initiate the management of biological invasions. This is also important for monitoring new introductions and management of existing alien plants in Zimbabwe.