Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž
Male-male competition for females can significantly affect a male's reproductive success and hence his fitness. Game theory predicts that an individual should avoid fighting when its future reproductive potential is high, but should fight forcefully when its future reproductive potential is insignificant. When mates are scarce, extreme competition and fatal fighting is expected. We recently showed that Nephilengys malabarensis eunuchs, i.e. sterile spider males that lost their genitals during copulation, become more aggressive during male-male contests. Here, we add crucial comparative data by exploring eunuch fighting behaviour in Nephilengys livida from Madagascar, specifically by testing the `better fighter hypotheses' in a laboratory setting. Similar to N. malabarensis, N. livida copulations resulted in total male castration with the severed palp plugging the female genitals in 70.83% cases, which mostly (63.63%) prevented subsequent copulations. Unexpectedly, however, N. livida eunuchs exhibited lower aggressiveness than virgin males. We interpret these results in the light of different mating biology between the so far studied species known for the eunuch phenomenon, which might reflect differing plug effectiveness due to variation in genital anatomy in N. livida, N. malabarensis and Herennia multipuncta. However, detected differences in aggressive behaviour of N. livida versus N. malabarensis eunuchs might also be explained by the species' ecology, with lower population densities resulting in a relaxed male-male competition making excessive aggression and mate guarding redundant. This study thus questions the generality of overt aggressiveness in mated males with no reproductive value, and highlights the importance of understanding the natural history of species in the question.
plete discussion of the particular socio-cultural role played by eunuchs ... ancient Semitic origin, related to the concepts “trained, reliable, expe- ... of the women. These were probably eunuchs, in keeping with the custom of the time in Persian courts. We read of Hegai being in charge of the harem of the king's wives and ...
Alvi, Sajid Mehmood; Turabi, Maleeka Rubab; Ali, Syeda Ayat-E-Zainab; Irfan, Muhammad Shoaib; Afridi, Maryam; Shah, Asghar Ali
Self-esteem among eunuchs is highly influenced by a variety of factors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the differences in self-esteem of eunuchs on the basis of education, income, age and marital status. The study was conducted at the University of Haripur, Pakistan, from December 2015 to November 2016. A sample of 140 eunuchs was collected from different areas of Hazara division, through purposive and snowball sampling technique. A self-esteem scale with four sub-scales was used to measure the self-esteem of eunuchs. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine education level differences. The t-test was applied to find out the impact of demographics differences such as marital status, income level, and age on self-esteem of eunuchs. The scale used was found to be quite reliable with alpha coefficient of 0.85. The outcomes are significant and showed that educated, higher income, younger and unmarried eunuchs had higher self-esteem (p<0.05).
Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.
Maria Hermann, MD
Conclusion: Healthcare professionals must be aware of this group of patients as they have a greater risk of self‐harm in order to self‐castrate, which could be acute and life threatening if not performed in the right way. Hermann M and Thorstenson A. A rare case of male‐to‐eunuch gender dysphoria. Sex Med 2015;3:331–333.
Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Saxena, Eshani; Rana, Poonam Tomar; Jain, Shubham; Gouraha, Abhishek
To assess the periodontal status among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Based on convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identifi ed eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal along with a matched control consisting of cross section of the general population residing in the same locality where these eunuchs live was examined to assess the periodontal status of the population by using WHO oral health assessment proforma 1997. All the obtained data was entered into a personal computer on Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed by using a software; SPSS version 20. Data comparison was done by applying chi square test, ANOVA and multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 639 subjects comprised of 207 eunuchs, 218 males and 214 females. The overall gingival and periodontal disease prevalence was 87.3% with calculus and shallow pocket contributing a major part i.e., 67%. Among study participants, 56.9% males were having highest prevalence for calculus. Whereas, eunuchs were having highest prevalence for bleeding (17.4%), shallow pocket (22.7%) and deep pocket (9.7%). However, highest of 19.7% males and 10.1% eunuchs were having attachment loss of 4-5 mm and 6-8 mm respectively. However, 6.3% eunuchs were having attachment loss of 12 mm or more. The results of the current study showed poor periodontal status among eunuch population with most of the population requiring simple therapy. This indicates that comprehensive oral hygiene instruction and dental prophylaxis need to be initiated.
Ozcan, Kazim Serhan; Osmonov, Damirbek; Altay, Servet; Gungor, Baris; Eren, Mehmet
Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent ventricular trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses. In most cases, noncompaction is an isolated disease confined to the left ventricular myocardium. Fertile eunuch syndrome is a hypogonadotropic hormonal disorder in which the levels of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone are low. We report a case of biventricular noncompaction in association with bicuspid aortic valve and severe aortic stenosis in a 42-year-old man who was diagnosed with talipes equinovarus and fertile eunuch syndrome during childhood.
Hongal, S; Torwane, Na; Chandrashekhar, Br; Saxena, V; Chavan, Kr
Eunuchs are considered as the most vulnerable, frustrated, and insecure community. The accessibility to medical and dental facilities for the eunuchs is nearly nonexistent. Due to these reasons, they might be at a high risk of developing severe dental problems like tooth loss. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. On the basis of convenient nonprobability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal along with a matched control consisting of cross section of the general population residing in the same locality was examined to evaluate the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of the population. All the obtained data were entered into a personal computer on Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Data comparison was done by applying Chi-square test. A total of 639 subjects comprised of 207 eunuchs, 218 males and 214 females. Among all participants, 2.8% (18/639) were having prosthesis. The overall prosthetic status among males was 3.2% (7/218) followed by 2.9% (6/207) eunuchs and 2.3% (5/214) females. However, need for multi-unit and combination of one and more unit prosthesis for upper and lower jaws was higher in males compared to females and eunuchs, but the difference was not statistically significant. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate a high unmet need for prosthetic care among the population surveyed.
Full Text Available Background: The current cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Based on a convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of study and who fulfilled the selection criteria were approached. A cross section of the general population was also surveyed. An interviewer-based, predesigned, structured, close-ended 18-item questionnaire that had been designed based on the primary objective of the study was used. All the obtained data were analyzed using software, Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Results: According to 188 (86.2% males, 187 (87.4% females and 168 (81.2% eunuchs, good oral health can improve the general health. Most of the study participants including 211 (98.6% females, 210 (96.3% males and 205 (99% eunuchs use either tooth paste or tooth powder to clean their teeth. While, a majority of eunuchs, i.e., 113 (54.6%, were having habit of chewing smokeless tobacco containing products such as betel nut, betel quid, gutkha, etc., The difference in use of tobacco products was statistically significant. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral hygiene practices which are performed among eunuch population. Efforts to increase the awareness of oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of this population.
Full Text Available The paper presents a pragmatics-based analysis of passages from Terence’s comedy The Eunuch – an analysis based on implication theory, on Grice’s implicature theory, and on Austin and Searle’s speech act theory. Contemporary research into the language of Roman comedy, using contemporary methods of linguistics and of linguistic pragmatics, has been relatively rare; moreover, it has concentrated on the elements of colloquial language, such as abstract expressions, word order, Greek loan-words, or the conversation elements of the spoken passages (Babič, Bagordo, Karaxis, etc.. The phenomenon of implicitness, on the other hand, has not been examined in its own right. The fundamental insight of this study is that ancient comedy strategically produces meaning by exploiting the fact that one can never be fully explicit in language. A closer look at the main characteristics of Roman comedy reveals that they form one of the basic conditions for the generation of meaning, and that their nature is closely linked to implicitness in language use. Linguistic pragmatics defines implied meaning as what can be meant or communicated in addition to what we literally say, with the aid of special tools for linking the explicit content to the unexpressed but relevant background information. The reference frame by which the unsaid in Roman comedy can be explained or made explicit includes conventions of the stage, drama and language, as well as the social and cultural characteristics of the period in which this comedy emerged, flourished, and declined. Linking the explicit content to the relevant background information, or communicating the implied meaning, is enabled by conventionalised linguistic means, the so-called types of implicit meaning, which may be divided into several categories (presuppositions, implicatures, speech acts. Speech act theory treats semantic processes from the aspect of structure, while implicature theory emphasises their
N.C.F. van Sas
Full Text Available 1800N.C.F. van Sas'1800. Blueprints for a society' argues the case for the primacy of culture in late 18th-century Dutch society. Drawing upon the work of a generation of dix-huitiémistes it presents an impressive and highly readable overview of the Dutch Enlightenment. Unfortunately, this cultural vantage-point also results in a rather one-sided, if not positively unhistorical reading of this period which — by all accounts so far — was highly charged with politics. In fact, an opportunity is missed to connect the Enlightened civil society of the 1760s and 1770s with the revolutionary developments of the 1780s and 1790s.
In the original texts of the Bible a “eunuch” is termed saris (Hebrew, Old Testament) or eunouchos (Greek, New Testament). However, both these words could apart from meaning a castrate, also refer to an official or a commander. This study therefore exa- mines the 38 original biblical references to saris and the two ...
(dietary habit, smoking, alcohol intake, etc.) and oral health behavior may modify the ... residing in the city of Bhopal along with a matched control consisting of cross section of the general population residing in the same ..... free dental treatment should be set up for socially deprived communities like eunuchs, who need ...
Beekman, Madeleine; Oldroyd, Benjamin P
One of the most obvious characteristics of an insect society is reproductive cooperation. Yet insect colonies are vulnerable to reproductive parasitism, both by workers from their own colony and by workers from others. Little is known about the mechanisms insect societies have evolved to protect themselves from being exploited from within and outside the colony and the mechanisms that social parasites have evolved to circumvent these mechanisms. Here we showcase recently discovered cases of intraspecific parasitism by workers in eusocial bees. These discoveries overturn the widespread view that insect colonies are like fortresses populated by female eunuchs, and yield important insights into the mechanisms that normally enforce functional worker sterility.
Frederick A. de Armas
Full Text Available One of the classical myths that are present in Cervantes’ interpolated tale of El curioso impertinente, the rape of Danaë, has not receive much critical attention.. The many visual images in the cervantine tale recall the use of ekphrasis to portray the myth in Terence’s Eunuch, where the painting is one of the causes of Pánfila’s rape. The cervantine tale evokes the controversy triggered by the ancient play, starting with Saint Augustine and continuing into the Spanish Golden Age, with writers such as Juan de Mariana and Juan de Pineda. This study of Terence’s comedy along with the painting of Danae, sent by Titian to Philip II, serves to the underline the structural and thematic importance of the myth in Cervantes’ tale. Through the story of Danaë, Cervantes enters into the debate on the impact of the visual arts at the time of the Counterreformation.
Li, Daiqin; Oh, Joelyn; Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaz
Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula. Remote copulation increases the total amount of sperm transferred, and thus probably enhances paternity. We conclude that the mechanism may have evolved in response to sexual cannibalism and female-controlled short copulation duration.
Full Text Available Since the creation of the first vakıf library in Istanbul in 1459, this city saw die creation of many reading places thanks to the foundations. They were mainly small libraries created by leading royal families, eunuchs, pachas and ulema. Only seven out of the forty founders, studied here do not belong to these categories. Almost all of these libraries were dedicated to a religious establishment (medreses, Islamic schools, mosques, turbes, tekkes. These libraries were mosdy concentrated in Istanbul inner city, but also in Eyüb, Kasim Paşa, Zincirlikuyu and Uskiidar. Vakfiye also underline the religious character of these libraries: they contained Qurans, books ofhadith,fiqh and kalâm as well as language books. Even Cihangir (created by Mahmud b. Abdullah al-Mennan, the only library which offered popular novels, does not invalidate this rule. The main condition for lending a book in the 16th century is for it to stay in Istanbul. These small libraries are the precursors of institutional libraries which appeared in the 17th century.
Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J
From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings’ offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile. PMID:26924280
Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J
From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings' offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile.
Rehan, Naghma; Chaudhary, Iffat; Shah, Syed Kamal
To assess risk behaviours including number and type of sex partners, condom use, knowledge of STIs and HIV/AIDS among hijras (eunuch) of Lahore. Two hundred hijras were recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling and interviewed by a team of experienced interviewers. The mean age of the respondents was 29.2 +/- 6.3 years (Range 18-55). More than two third (68.5%) were illiterate; 23% were married. Among married, 89% were married to women and had 1 to 7 children. Sixty percent had taken some hard drug (Cocaine, Heroin, Morphine and Amphetamine) during the last 12 months and 3% had injected drugs. Eight percent had sex with a woman during the last year. During the last one week, 82% respondents had 1-21 new clients and 69.5% never used condom; 21.5% had oral sex with new clients. During the same period, 72% respondents had 1-12 regular clients and 71.5% of them never used condom while 7% respondents had 1-5 non-paying partners. During the last one month, five hijras had paid women to have vaginal sex. Nineteen hijras paid another man to have sex with them. Only 27.1% were not aware of any symptom of sexually transmitted Infections. Majority of the hijras (81.5%) were familiar with HIV/AIDS. However knowledge about its mode of transmission was faulty. Due to low level of accurate knowledge regarding STI/HIV and pernicious risk behaviours, hijras may become a potent source of HIV transmission, if necessary remedial measures are not taken.
Saxena, Eshani; Chandrashekhar, B R; Hongal, Sudheer; Torwane, Nilesh; Goel, Pankaj; Mishra, Priyesh
Transgenders are highly disadvantaged people, deprived of adequate opportunities of earning a respectable living. The forensic literature has emphasized on two genders, male and female, the existence of a third gender (Transgenders) is almost negligible in the literature, and this makes it compulsive to determine their identity through forensic approaches at the time of disasters. Previous studies have demonstrated that no two palatal rugae pattern are alike in their configuration and this unique feature has led us to undertake a study to establish individual identities using palatal rugae pattern. The purpose of this study was to compare the palatal rugae pattern among male, female, and transgender population of the Bhopal city. This study was cross sectional in nature and conducted on a convenience sample of 148 subjects selected from Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh. The study involved 49 males, 51 females, and 48 eunuchs in the age range of 17 to 35 years. Maxillary impression using alginate impression material was made and the cast was prepared using die stone on palatal area and dental stone as a base. The palatal rugae pattern was assessed on the basis of number, length, shape, direction, and unification. One way ANOVA was used for comparing the mean values between different genders. The multiple pairwise comparisons were done with the Bonferroni post hoc correction. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. The statistically significant difference with regard to some parameters like number of rugae, fragmentary rugae, wavy rugae, curve rugae, forwardly directed, and backwardly directed rugae between transgender and other gender groups were present. The difference in the parameters of the palatal rugae pattern among the transgender population and the other gender group is attributed to be the genetic makeup and sexual dimorphism.
Full Text Available From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1 men who seek vasectomy, (2 individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs, (3 most gay men, and (4 men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria. Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings′ offspring′s welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile.
The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the
Augustus' hunting session. Although vivid and informative, the real weight of these four accounts could be estimated only through comparison with the other, real or traditional, dreadful emperors described by the four authors. For example, the youthful age was important component of the bad reigns of Otho, Domitian and Gallienus, as Victor emphasizes. Eutropius' pattern of the promising start of the Emperor's reign and his later disgrace was similarly used in his assessment of Gallienus and Constantine the Great. According to Pseudo-Victor, Valentinian I could be estimated as the perfect prince if there had not been his poor selection of advisers. Constans' homosexual leaning towards young barbarian hostages could be observed from the two points. The first would be the remark that these barbarians were dubious companions for the Roman emperors, just as some of the rulers were blacklisted for their, real or assumptive, sympathy and meekness for women, eunuchs and courtiers. Gratian and Theodosius I were specially ill-famed for their affinity for Alan mercenaries and Gothic refugees respectively. On the other hand, slandered Licinius was praised for his strength in cultivating his courtiers and eunuchs. In relation to Constans' homosexuality, it is essential to note that one of the fundamental keys to the bad emperor's character was his breach of sexual taboos. In the inaccurate 4th century tradition Caracalla was known for his marriage with his stepmother, or Gallienus for his barter with Marcomanic king, in which he allegedly traded part of Pannonia Superior for the barbarian concubine. Explicitly, homosexuality was ascribed to Domitian, Carinus and Maximian Herculius. Finally, although the remarks on Constans' unpopularity and death were taken from the earliest preserved sources, it is clear that only a decade after his demise, the tradition, framed in already existing negative pattern, was established. This version of the events, probably maintained in lost
Full Text Available Kronolojik tarzda yazılan vefeyâtnâmeler Türk edebiyatındaki biyografi türlerinden birisidir. Bu makalede Ahmed Câvid Efendi’nin Vefeyât-ı Kibâr’ı çeşitli yönleriyle ilim âlemine tanıtılarak, eserin ilk yüz senelik bölümü çeviri metin olarak sunulmaktadır. Eski ve yeni kaynaklarda bahsedilmeyen bu eserin zahriyesinde yer alan telif kaydı ve metindeki anlatımlar, eserin Ahmed Câvid’e ait olduğu fikrini vermektedir. Vefeyât-ı Kibâr’ın asıl bölümünü hicretten yazıldığı ana dek gerçekleşen vefat kayıtları oluşturmaktadır. Bu kısımda, vefatı bildirilen kişilerin kısa yaşam bilgileri de verilmektedir. Müslüman ülkelerin liderlerinin tahta çıkış ve ölüm tarihleri ile Osmanlı Devleti’nin vezir, şeyhülislam, darüssaade ağası, nakibüleşraflarının nasb, azil ve vefat tarihlerinin bildirildiği cedveller eserin diğer bölümlerini meydana getirmektedir. Eser, Türk edebiyatı ve tarihinin pek çok ünlü simasının vefat tarihleri ile muhtasar hayat hikâyelerini ihtiva etmesi açısından oldukça önem taşımaktadır. Kısmen münşiyâne bir üslûba sahip olması Vefeyât-ı Kibâr’ı diğer kronolojik vefeyâtnâmelerden ayırmaktadır ABSTRACT Chronologic type acquaintances are one of the biography types in the Turkish literature. This article introduces Ahmed Câvid’s Vefeyât-ı Kibâr and includes a translated written text for the first century of its coverage. This work has not been mentioned in the old and new studies and its credits page and narrative indicates that Ahmed Câvid was the author. The main section of Vefeyât-ı Kibâr comprises of death records from the Hijrah (622 AD to the time that it was written. It contains a brief biography of the listed person. Other parts of the book contains a chart on Ottoman viziers, shaykh al-Islam, chief harem eunuch, chief degree of the prophet's descendants, along with their appointment, dismissal and death dates
Marković Ljiljana 2
Full Text Available Perfectly projected and impeccably created, the endocrine system precisely regulates the most delicate immune processes. The immune and neuroendocrine systems are two essential physiological components of mammalian organisms important for protection from the infection and disease on one hand, and on the other, for regulation of metabolism and other physiological activities; namely, the evidence has been found indicating that there is active and dynamic collaboration of these systems in the execution of their designated functions [1, 2,4]. These interactions occur at many stages of embryonic and neonatal development, and they are a continual part of normal homeostatic balance necessary to preserve health. There is communication between neuroendocrine and immune system via cytokines, neurotransmitters and peptide hormones which act, in both systems, through the same receptor molecules (Scheme 1. Many investigators have reported the increased thymic weight in experimental animals due to both castration and adrenalectomy . The discovery from 1898 revealing that thymus was enlarged in castrated rabbits has been considered the embryo of hybrid medical discipline, i.e. the immunoendocrinology . In the actual literature, at least in that available to us, it has not been noted that the appearance of the eunuchs, i.e. the castrates, stimulated the analytical approach to this phenomenon. Endocrine influences appear to be a part of bidirectional circuitry, namely, thymic hormones also regulate the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. Physiologically, thymus is under neuroendocrine control. It is apparent that the circulating levels of distinct peptide hormones are necessary to maintain a series of biological functions related both to micro environmental and lymphoid cells of the organ. The neuroendocrine control of the thymus appears to be extremely complex, with apparent presence of complete intrathymic biological circuitry involving the