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Sample records for eulogy bioarchaeological interpretation

  1. [Eulogy of wine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, I O

    1997-12-20

    In the literature the beneficial effects on health of drinking alcoholic beverages, especially red wine, is becoming increasingly more evident. We report an objective analysis of the advantages and the dangers of such a tendency. It appears that the daily consumption of red wine at moderate doses (200-400 ml a day) has real prophylactic effects. These are particularly marked in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), but also for a possible cancer chemopreventive activity, in the prevention of type II diabetes, of ischemic stroke, of osteoporosis in older women, and of Alzheimer's disease. But, inasmuch as the consumption of alcoholic beverages always involves a potential danger (organic diseases, risk of dependence, alcoholism), from a medical point of view eulogy to wine is ethically indefensible. Similar effects may be obtained from a diet rich in fruits and fresh vegetables.

  2. Resume, Eulogy, Education and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, A.; Aneja, A.

    2017-10-01

    Will the current trend of the Industrial Age, focused on profits, greed, material wealth, and mass consumption continue? Inequality and polarization, which are seen in today’s world, are ranked as the top drivers of global risks. Unequal community threatens democracy. Communities with greater inequality are more violent, have more people in prisons, more mental illness, lower life expectancy etc.. On the other hand, communities with greater equality have higher abundance and lower stress. Among eleven factors most important for classroom learning, social and emotional factors accounted for eight. Our emotional and social IQ developed over millennia of living in groups will continue to be one of the vital assets that give human workers necessary tools for creating and building a world of 21st century. Today’s education system is based on the model which was essential for industrial era and mass production. With fast technological development the approach to teaching should be changed. We need new curriculums for new skills and new learning concepts. The aim of the article is to raise awareness regarding the planet’s and mankind’s future and to stress the importance of education and designation between résumé virtues and the eulogy virtues.

  3. Bones, Bodies, and Blogs: Outreach and Engagement in Bioarchaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Meyers Emery

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly few bioarchaeology blogs currently exist, but their numbers belie their reach. In this article, we survey the ecology of the bioarchaeology blogosphere and address the impact of blogging in bioarchaeology, specifically addressing its utility in outreach and public engagement. In providing specific examples from our collective decade of blogging and from other bioarchaeology bloggers, we provide best practices to encourage bioarchaeologists who may want to add their voices to this sphere. The difficulties and potential issues of blogging bioarchaeology are far outweighed by the benefits of expanding communication and furthering disciplinary engagement in an increasingly digital world. We call on bioarchaeologists to be protagonists and advocates of our discipline.

  4. Rhetorical Choice in Mansfield's November 25, 1963 Eulogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    One of the most memorable eulogies delivered in the United States Senate is the one by Senator Michael Mansfield for President John F. Kennedy. An analysis of his word choice reveals that he (1) forced the audience to participate in the creation of the message; (2) employed active, forceful descriptions; (3) focused on praiseworthy qualities of…

  5. The strophic structure of the eulogy of Ephesians 1:3-14

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three categories: The Lucan canticles, the hymns in the Revelation, and specific ... Those related to form: grammatical, syntactical and stylistic-rhetorical ..... prayer or hymn forms the basis of the eulogy, but states nevertheless that '...similar.

  6. Cat Taming in the Western Mediterranean. Issues, Problematics and Unpredictability in the Light of Bio-archaeological Approaches to a Museum Specimen

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    Roberto Miccichè

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The vast wealth of cultural artifacts and ancient biological samples can today be investigated using a great variety of methods and technologies. The result is a growing diffusion of studies on DNA, isotopes and morphometrics, and the exponential growth of publications and bio-archaeological discoveries of inestimable value for different areas of interpretation, such as phylogeny, history and archaeology. This paper describes the morphological and molecular study of a rare specimen of Felis from an Early Bronze Age horizon. The report offers the opportunity for a brief discussion on cat taming, on the origin of this practice and on the archaeological importance of this specimen for the reconstruction of taming practices in the Western Mediterranean Basin.

  7. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2015-01-01

    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers.

  8. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constanza Ceruti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m, Quehuar (6130 m, El Toro (6160 m, and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers.

  9. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Late Mediaeval Cemetery of Koprivno, Southern Croatia

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    Mario Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of bioarchaeological analysis of the late mediaeval (13th-14th century skeletal sample from Koprivno, southern Croatia. Skeletal remains of 21 individuals (eight males, nine females, and four subadults were examined for the possible presence of dental pathologies (caries and alveolar bone diseases, subadult stress indicators (cribra orbitalia and dental enamel hypoplasia, degenerative osteoarthritis of the vertebrae and major joints, Schmorl’s nodes on vertebrae, periostitis, and bone trauma. The analysed sample is characterised by high frequency of alveolar bone disease, most probably as a result of somewhat longer average life span (around 41 years and very poor oral hygiene, while the data concerning dental caries indicate mixed diet evenly based on meat and cereals. High frequencies of cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia and periostitis suggest frequent episodes of physiological stress (hunger, epidemics of infectious diseases which is in accordance with historical data. Distribution and prevalence of cranial traumas strongly suggest a relatively high degree of interpersonal violence in the analysed community.

  11. Testing the equivalence of modern human cranial covariance structure: Implications for bioarchaeological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Schroeder, Lauren

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the variance-covariance (V/CV) structure of fragmentary bioarchaeological populations requires the use of proxy extant V/CV parameters. However, it is currently unclear whether extant human populations exhibit equivalent V/CV structures. Random skewers (RS) and hierarchical analyses of common principal components (CPC) were applied to a modern human cranial dataset. Cranial V/CV similarity was assessed globally for samples of individual populations (jackknifed method) and for pairwise population sample contrasts. The results were examined in light of potential explanatory factors for covariance difference, such as geographic region, among-group distance, and sample size. RS analyses showed that population samples exhibited highly correlated multivariate responses to selection, and that differences in RS results were primarily a consequence of differences in sample size. The CPC method yielded mixed results, depending upon the statistical criterion used to evaluate the hierarchy. The hypothesis-testing (step-up) approach was deemed problematic due to sensitivity to low statistical power and elevated Type I errors. In contrast, the model-fitting (lowest AIC) approach suggested that V/CV matrices were proportional and/or shared a large number of CPCs. Pairwise population sample CPC results were correlated with cranial distance, suggesting that population history explains some of the variability in V/CV structure among groups. The results indicate that patterns of covariance in human craniometric samples are broadly similar but not identical. These findings have important implications for choosing extant covariance matrices to use as proxy V/CV parameters in evolutionary analyses of past populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Eulogy for Raymond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorba, Paul

    2016-11-01

    On July 8 th 2011, four years ago, almost to the day, we were celebrating Raymond. A great number of his friends and colleagues from France, Europe and the United States gathered in Annecy to express their attachment, their affection, and, let us say the word, their admiration. Recognized by all as a very great physicist, Raymond was also an example of generosity and tolerance. Since that "Special day for Raymond" as we called the fest, his health began to decline. Those who were close to him then came to recognize his exceptional strength of character, his stoicism and his humanism. No complaint ever, but rather, until these last days, always an enthusiasm that he wanted to share for either an idea, a computation or a work of art. On the evening of that special 8 July 2011, I had wished, in my speech, to highlight the outstanding scientist but I sensed, from the look on his face, that he reacted with some irritation. I then mentioned his humanism, to which I heard him whisper: "Ah! I prefer that!" Is it possible to separate the man from the physicist? I would answer that, for me, Raymond was first of all a man in love with humanity. In addition, he was gifted for the so-called theoretical sciences, mathematics, physics; he also had a passion for the arts, music, drawing, and of course literature, as will have been noted by those who had the privilege to visit his collection of old books. I remember of course my first contacts with Raymond, at the beginning of the seventies in Marseilles. I must confess that I was rather scared by him. He used to come to us, young fellows in the lab, asking about our work in progress. His questions were insistent, and I guess that I was not the only one to fear these sessions which, at the beginning, appeared to me to be real examinations. But, in fact, his only goal was to help us. And for that, he offered us something very precious in life: more than his science, he was offering us his time. I keep in mind a particular picture. You were pushing the door of his office after knocking. Raymond was naturally absorbed in his work, he raised his head, saw you, dropped his pen and looked at you as if he was waiting for you: he was all yours. You could ask him your question, he had all the time for you. Of course, you were in for some discussions which sometimes looked to you off topic, but his mind was working faster than average and we could not follow all the overlaps which were done in his head. And, in general, he used to bring you a clarification, otherwise the solution. As my old friend Georges Girardi used to jokingly say: "Raymond, we believe that he is brilliant of course. But he is even more than that". I would like also to mention the words of Serge Lazzarini: "I was the last student of Raymond. But who has not been, at one time or another, a student of Raymond? There was always something to learn from him".

  13. Preliminary Investigations of The Bioarchaeology of Medieval Giecz (XI-XII C.: Examples of Trauma and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnew Amanda M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human skeletal remains from past populations are an invaluable source to objectively study biological history. The combined biological and cultural assessment of bioarchaeology offers a unique perspective on the adaptation of people to their environment. This study summarizes a portion of ongoing work to decipher trends related to health and lifestyle in early medieval (XI-XII c. Giecz, Poland. The skeletal assemblage from Giecz, the “Giecz Collection”, represents a community positioned at a major center of political, economic, and religious power during this important time in Polish history. Non-violent traumatic injuries were investigated to elucidate trends related to possible types and rigor of activities and linear femoral growth trends were analyzed to assess patterns of stress. Preliminary results suggest that all members of the community (men, women, and adolescents contributed to a lifestyle characterized by repetitive hard-work. Furthermore, it appears that most individuals suffered from health insults negatively affecting their development and perhaps their mortality.

  14. Examining the life history of an individual from Solcor 3, San Pedro de Atacama: Combining bioarchaeology and archaeological chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Rouff, Cristina; Knudson, Kelly J

    2007-01-01

    Detailed life history information using multiple lines of evidence including the identification of geographic origins, health, and body use indicators, can be used to elucidate the complex process of acculturation in the San Pedro de Atacama oases of northern Chile during the Middle Horizon. This paper presents the results of bioarchaeological and archaeological chemical analyses of the skeletal remains of an adult male (tomb 50, catalog number 1948) from the cemetery of Solcor 3 (ca. AD 500-900). Strontium isotope ratios in human tooth enamel reveal information about where a person lived during their childhood, when enamel was being formed. Individual 1948 showed strontium isotope ratios decidedly outside the range of the local San Pedro de Atacama strontium isotope signature. Given these data implying that individual 1948 was originally from elsewhere, an examination of his health status, social role, and mortuary context provides insight into the treatment of foreigners in San Pedro de Atacama. Our data support the argument that individual 1948's foreign birth did not hinder his later assimilation into Atacameno society. He was buried in a local cemetery with a typical mortuary assemblage for a male of this time and no strong evidence of possible foreign origin. Skeletal indicators of diet and activity patterns do not distinguish individual 1948 from the local population, suggesting that his lifestyle was similar to that of other Atacamenos. Therefore, our analyses suggest that individual 1948's acculturation into Atacameno society during his adult life was nearly complete and he retained little to no indication of his probable foreign birth

  15. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaian, Jafar; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati Nasab, Hamed; Hojabri Nobari, Ali Reza; Abedollahi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC). Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  16. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Rezaian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC. Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  17. Tiwanaku influence and social inequality: A bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and contextual analysis of the Larache cemetery, San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Pestle, William J; Stovel, Emily M

    2015-12-01

    To assess the relationship between the Tiwanaku polity and the individuals buried at the Middle Horizon (∼AD500-1000) cemetery of Larache in northern Chile, a site that has been singled out as a potential elite foreign enclave. We explore this association through the skeletal remains of 48 individuals interred at the cemetery of Larache using bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and artifactual evidence. Data from cranial modification practices, violent injury, and the mortuary assemblage are used to explore culturally constructed elements of status and identity, radiogenic strontium isotope analyses provide us with a perspective on the geographic origins of these individuals, and stable carbon and nitrogen analyses allow discussion of paleodiet and access to resources. Radiogenic strontium isotope values show the presence of multiple first generation migrants at Larache. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data reveal significant differences among individuals. The mortuary context reveals a standard pattern for the oases but also includes a series of unusual burials with abundant gold and few other objects. Interestingly, both local and nonlocal individuals with different head shapes had access to the differentiated burial context; however nonlocal individuals appear to be the only ones with a heavily maize-based diet. Our evidence shows that Larache served as a burial place for a diverse, yet culturally integrated and potentially elite segment of the Atacameño population, but not a foreign enclave as had been postulated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ESTUDIOS BIOARQUEOLÓGICOS DEL SITIO PASO MAYOR, SUDOESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES / Bioarchaeological studies of Paso Mayor site, southwest Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Scabuzzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se resumen los estudios bioarqueológicos realizados en la colección osteológica del sitio Paso Mayor Y1S2 (partido de Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires. Los análisis efectuados comprendieron diferentes etapas. En primer lugar se hizo un inventario de la colección y se relevaron algunas variables tafonómicas para conocer el estado general de conservación de los restos. Una segunda etapa estuvo orientada a determinar la estructura sexo-etaria de la muestra. Finalmente se efectuaron estudios de marcadores de estrés ocupacional y el relevamiento de algunas patologías de carácter infeccioso y traumático. En conjunto estos análisis muestran que en el sitio se inhumaron individuos subadultos y adultos de ambos sexos, los restos fueron enterrados de manera primaria y secundaria. La colección muestra un buen estado de conservación por lo que fue posible determinar la mayoría de los elementos óseos analizados. En cuanto a los estudios de marcadores de actividad física, estos indican la importancia de la actividad deambulatoria y el posible uso de sistemas de armas como el arco y flecha. Se registró una reacción perióstica en los miembros inferiores y un traumatismo en el esqueleto craneal. Finalmente se discute la información bioarqueológica del sitio con la publicada para otros sitios del área. Abstract This paper summarizes the bioarchaeological studies of the osteological collection recovered in Paso Mayor Y1S2 site (Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires. Analyses were carried out in different stages. First, a detailed inventory of the collection was made and some taphonomic variables were considered in order to evaluate the general condition of the bone remains. A second phase was oriented to the determination of the age-sex structure of the sample. Finally, occupational stress markers studies were undertaken along with the observation of certain infectious and traumatic pathologies. As a whole, these analyses show the

  19. Dismembering bodies for display: a bioarchaeological study of trophy heads from the Wari site of Conchopata, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Tiffiny A

    2008-07-01

    Human trophy heads from the Wari site of Conchopata (AD 600-1000) are examined to evaluate if recently deceased persons or old corpses were used to make trophy heads and determine if the modifications are standardized. Similarly styled trophy heads may suggest state oversight that ensured uniform modifications, while different styles may suggest that various factions or kin groups prepared them to their own specifications. Other studies often interpret trophy heads as either enemies or ancestors; so, this study addresses that debate by documenting aspects of their identity as revealed through demographic, paleopathological, and trauma data. Results show that "fresh" bodies, not old corpses, were used to make trophies, as evidenced by cutmarks indicating intentional removal of soft tissues. Trophy heads are remarkably standardized; 89% display a hole on the superior of the cranium, apparently a design feature that displays the trophy head upright and facing forward when suspended by a cord. Of the 31 trophy heads, 24 are adolescents/adults and 7 are children, and of the 17 sexed adults, 15 are male and 2 are female. This suggests that adult men and children were favored as trophies. Among 19 observable adult trophy heads, 42% exhibit cranial trauma, suggesting that violence was common among this group. Complementary data on Wari iconography shows warriors wearing trophy heads and Wari deities holding captives and trophy heads. Thus, it is likely that captives (or just their heads) were taken in battles and raids-either secular or ritual-and eventually transformed into trophy heads. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Interpretative commenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasikaran, Samuel

    2008-08-01

    * Clinical laboratories should be able to offer interpretation of the results they produce. * At a minimum, contact details for interpretative advice should be available on laboratory reports.Interpretative comments may be verbal or written and printed. * Printed comments on reports should be offered judiciously, only where they would add value; no comment preferred to inappropriate or dangerous comment. * Interpretation should be based on locally agreed or nationally recognised clinical guidelines where available. * Standard tied comments ("canned" comments) can have some limited use.Individualised narrative comments may be particularly useful in the case of tests that are new, complex or unfamiliar to the requesting clinicians and where clinical details are available. * Interpretative commenting should only be provided by appropriately trained and credentialed personnel. * Audit of comments and continued professional development of personnel providing them are important for quality assurance.

  1. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

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    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  2. Penultimate interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation is at the center of psychoanalytic activity. However, interpretation is always challenged by that which is beyond our grasp, the 'dark matter' of our mind, what Bion describes as ' O'. O is one of the most central and difficult concepts in Bion's thought. In this paper, I explain the enigmatic nature of O as a high-dimensional mental space and point to the price one should pay for substituting the pre-symbolic lexicon of the emotion-laden and high-dimensional unconscious for a low-dimensional symbolic representation. This price is reification--objectifying lived experience and draining it of vitality and complexity. In order to address the difficulty of approaching O through symbolization, I introduce the term 'Penultimate Interpretation'--a form of interpretation that seeks 'loopholes' through which the analyst and the analysand may reciprocally save themselves from the curse of reification. Three guidelines for 'Penultimate Interpretation' are proposed and illustrated through an imaginary dialogue. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  4. Performing Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  5. Interpreting conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Frisson, Steven; Murphy, Gregory L

    2009-04-01

    The interpretation generated from a sentence of the form P and Q can often be different to that generated by Q and P, despite the fact that and has a symmetric truth-conditional meaning. We experimentally investigated to what extent this difference in meaning is due to the connective and and to what extent it is due to order of mention of the events in the sentence. In three experiments, we collected interpretations of sentences in which we varied the presence of the conjunction, the order of mention of the events, and the type of relation holding between the events (temporally vs. causally related events). The results indicated that the effect of using a conjunction was dependent on the discourse relation between the events. Our findings contradict a narrative marker theory of and, but provide partial support for a single-unit theory derived from Carston (2002). The results are discussed in terms of conjunction processing and implicatures of temporal order.

  6. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  7. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  8. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  9. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  10. Interpreting the Customary Rules on Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos

    2017-01-01

    International courts have at times interpreted the customary rules on interpretation. This is interesting because what is being interpreted is: i) rules of interpretation, which sounds dangerously tautological, and ii) customary law, the interpretation of which has not been the object of critical

  11. Türk Edebiyatında Birbirine Yakın Üç Kelime: Hiciv, Medih ve Hezel Three Closely Related Concepts in Turkish Literature: Satire, Eulogy, and Comic Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zülküf KILIÇ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available About social criticism in literature, it has been determined that ancient poets and authors used lots of words and concepts, but it is clear that especially the concepts like satire, comic poem and eulogy were widely used for the literature which deals mainly with the personal, objective and the social criticism. Lots of other concepts which are related to the subject are synonymous have a close meaning with these, and they are expressed collectively under the main title of satire. First, we have to state that it is rather difficult to determine the borders of these three concepts which sometimes have the same meaning, and sometimes have a different meaning. Furthermore, in the ancient Arabian, Persian and Turkish Literature we cannot see that there were absolute borders among these three concepts, but still it can be said that each one has a characteristic peculiar to the concept. There are numerous criticisms about people in Classical Turkish poetry. People were criticized for their physical structure, clothes, character and behaviors. Officers and those who have a profession were criticized because they could not make the best of thier duty; society and time were criticized in the sense of moral, political and economical corruption. While making these criticisms, although the target was one person, there has always been a criticism from that person towards the whole humanity. This is mostly carried out through irony, praise and burlesque. In these kinds of the criticism, although there is only one person in the center, that only person is sometimes not the only objective and that person generally symbolizes a character; thus, by that person a larger group is criticized. Toplumsal eleştiriye dair edebiyat için eski şair ve ediplerin birçok kelime ve kavramı kullandıkları tespit edilmiştir. Fakat kişisel, nesnel veya toplumsal eleştiri içerikli edebiyat için özellikle hiciv, hezel ve medih gibi kavramların daha yaygın olarak

  12. COLECCIONES ANTIGUAS, DATOS NUEVOS: PRIMEROS RESULTADOS DEL ANÁLISIS DE LAS COLECCIONES BIOARQUEOLÓGICAS DEL HUMEDAL DEL PARANÁ INFERIOR / Old collections, new data: first results of the analysis of the bioarchaeological collections of the Lower Parana We

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pamela Mazza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX tuvieron lugar varias exploraciones y excavaciones en sitios arqueológicos del humedal del Paraná inferior, originando en consecuencia un gran acervo de materiales bioarqueológicos, entre otros, depositados hoy en día en el Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata y en el Museo Etnográfico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Si bien algunos de los resultados derivados de aquellos trabajos de campo fueron publicados, otros permanecen inéditos. El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer algunas características de dichas colecciones bioarqueológicas a través del análisis de 252 individuos que las conforman. En este sentido, procedimos a la determinación sexual y estimación etaria de la muestra y al registro de variables tafonómicas, este último con el fin de poder identificar el posible contexto de inhumación de donde provienen dichos individuos. A partir de este análisis y siguiendo los datos publicados se discriminaron entre inhumaciones en contacto directo con la tierra o en urnas. A su vez, se dio cuenta de una segmentación espacial en base a categorías de sexo y edad para algunos sitios, como así también de la presencia de adornos personales de metal, ocre y marcas de corte en algunos huesos. De esta manera, esperamos resaltar el valor que tienen las colecciones de museos como así también contribuir y ampliar nuestro conocimiento sobre las características de las poblaciones prehispánicas de la región.  Abstract  At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century several explorations and excavations took place in archaeological sites at the lower Parana wetland, giving rise, among others, to a vast body of bioarchaeological remains, currently deposited at the Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata and at the Museo Etnográfico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. While some of the results from those field works were

  13. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  14. Interpreters, Interpreting, and the Study of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Angelelli, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research on interpreting focused specifically on issues raised by this literature about the nature of bilingualism. Suggests research carried out on interpreting--while primarily produced with a professional audience in mind and concerned with improving the practice of interpreting--provides valuable insights about complex aspects of…

  15. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... on the interpreter's interpersonal role and, in particular, on signs of the interpreter's visibility, i.e. active co-participation. At first sight, the interpreting assignment in question seems to be a short and simple routine task which would not require the interpreter to deviate from the traditional picture...

  16. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  17. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carrie...

  18. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  19. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  20. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  1. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  2. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  3. Schrodinger's mechanics interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David B

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics has been in dispute for nearly a century with no sign of a resolution. Using a careful examination of the relationship between the final form of classical particle mechanics (the Hamilton–Jacobi Equation) and Schrödinger's mechanics, this book presents a coherent way of addressing the problems and paradoxes that emerge through conventional interpretations.Schrödinger's Mechanics critiques the popular way of giving physical interpretation to the various terms in perturbation theory and other technologies and places an emphasis on development of the theory and not on an axiomatic approach. When this interpretation is made, the extension of Schrödinger's mechanics in relation to other areas, including spin, relativity and fields, is investigated and new conclusions are reached.

  4. Normative interpretations of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Normative interpretations of particular cases consist of normative principles or values coupled with social theoretical accounts of the empirical facts of the case. The article reviews the most prominent normative interpretations of the Muhammad cartoons controversy over the publication of drawings...... of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The controversy was seen as a case of freedom of expression, toleration, racism, (in)civility and (dis)respect, and the article notes different understandings of these principles and how the application of them to the controversy implied different...... social theoretical accounts of the case. In disagreements between different normative interpretations, appeals are often made to the ‘context', so it is also considered what roles ‘context' might play in debates over normative interpretations...

  5. Principles of radiological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional radiographic procedures (plain film) are the most frequently utilized imaging modality in the evaluation of the skeletal system. This chapter outlines the essentials of skeletal imaging, anatomy, physiology, and interpretation

  6. Interpretable Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...

  7. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f

  9. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  10. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  11. Tokens: Facts and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt-Besserat, Denise

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes some of the major pieces of evidence concerning the archeological clay tokens, specifically the technique for their manufacture, their geographic distribution, chronology, and the context in which they are found. Discusses the interpretation of tokens as the first example of visible language, particularly as an antecedent of Sumerian…

  12. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.; Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation is the final phase of an LCA where the results of the other phases are considered together and analysed in the light of the uncertainties of the applied data and the assumptions that have been made and documented throughout the study. This chapter teaches how to perform an inte...

  13. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  14. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  15. Personal literary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article titled “Personal literary interpretation” deals with problems which have usually been marginalized in literary studies, but which seem to be very important in the context of the humanities, as broadly defined. The author of this article intends to rethink the problem of literary studies not in objective, but in personal terms. This is why the author wants to talk about what he calls personal literary interpretation, which has nothing to do with subjective or irrational thinking, but which is rather grounded in the hermeneutical rule that says that one must believe in order tounderstand a text or the other (where ‘believe’ also means: ‘to love’, ‘engage’, and ‘be open’. The article presents different determinants of this attitude, ranging from Dilthey to Heidegger and Gadamer. Finally, the author subscribes to the theory of personal interpretation, which is always dialogical.

  16. Interpretation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter discusses the factors to be kept in mind during routine interpretation of MR images. This includes the factors that determine contrast on standard spin-echo images and some distinguishing features between true lesions and artifactually simulated lesions. This chapter also indicates the standard protocols for MRI of various portions of the body. Finally, the current indications for MRI of various portions of the body are suggested; however, it is recognized that the indications for MRI are rapidly increasing and consequently, at the time of publication of this chapter, it is likely that many more applications will have become evident. Interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images requires consideration of anatomy and tissue characteristics and extraction of artifacts resulting from motion and other factors

  17. The Age of Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietz...

  18. The Age of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations.

  19. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio...

  20. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    about method point in other directions. Eduard Zeller (active in the second half of the 19th century) is typically regarded as the first who gave a satisfying account of Plotinus’ philosophy as a whole. In this article, on the other hand, Zeller is seen as the one who finalised a tradition initiated...... in the 18th century. Very few Plotinus scholars have examined the interpretative development prior to Zeller. Schiavone (1952) and Bonetti (1971), for instance, have given little attention to Brucker’s introduction of the concept system of philosophy. The present analysis, then, has value...

  1. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  2. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... writers such as Derrida and Wittgenstein, among others, lead biblical scholars today to view the texts of the Bible more as literary narratives than as sources for a history of Israel. Increased interest in archaeological and anthropological studies in writing the history of Palestine and the ancient Near...... and the commitment to a new approach to both the history of Palestine and the Bible’s place in ancient history. This volume features essays from a range of highly regarded scholars, and is divided into three sections: “Beyond Historicity”, which explores alternative historical roles for the Bible, “Greek Connections...

  3. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

  4. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  5. Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sczyrba, Alexander; Hofmann, Peter; Belmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Methods for assembly, taxonomic profiling and binning are key to interpreting metagenome data, but a lack of consensus about benchmarking complicates performance assessment. The Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI) challenge has engaged the global developer community to benchma...

  6. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  7. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Hathcock, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  8. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  9. Working memory and simultaneous interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Timarova, Sarka

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive construct underlying a number of abilities, and it has been hypothesised for many years that it is crucial for interpreting. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim to support this hypothesis, but research has not yielded convincing results. Most researchers focused on studying working memory differences between interpreters and non-interpreters with the rationale that differences in working memory between the two groups would provide evidence of wor...

  10. Automated, computer interpreted radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Nagle, C.E.; Dworkin, H.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Wetzel, R.; Sawyer, N.; Ferry, D.; Hershberger, D.

    1984-01-01

    90,000 Radioimmunoassay results have been interpreted and transcribed automatically using software developed for use on a Hewlett Packard Model 1000 mini-computer system with conventional dot matrix printers. The computer program correlates the results of a combination of assays, interprets them and prints a report ready for physician review and signature within minutes of completion of the assay. The authors designed and wrote a computer program to query their patient data base for radioassay laboratory results and to produce a computer generated interpretation of these results using an algorithm that produces normal and abnormal interpretives. Their laboratory assays 50,000 patient samples each year using 28 different radioassays. Of these 85% have been interpreted using our computer program. Allowances are made for drug and patient history and individualized reports are generated with regard to the patients age and sex. Finalization of reports is still subject to change by the nuclear physician at the time of final review. Automated, computerized interpretations have realized cost savings through reduced personnel and personnel time and provided uniformity of the interpretations among the five physicians. Prior to computerization of interpretations, all radioassay results had to be dictated and reviewed for signing by one of the resident or staff physicians. Turn around times for reports prior to the automated computer program generally were two to three days. Whereas, the computerized interpret system allows reports to generally be issued the day assays are completed

  11. Tax Treaty Interpretation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Roch, María Teresa; Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides insight in the interpretation of Spanish double taxation conventions. Taking as a premise the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and the wording of Article 3(2) OECD Model Convention, the authors explore the relevance of mutual agreements, tax authority practice and foreign court decisions on the tax treaty interpretation.

  12. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings of a...

  13. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

      This paper reports on an on-going investigation of conversational implicature in triadic speech events: Interpreter-mediated questionings in criminal proceedings in Danish district courts. The languages involved are Danish and English, and the mode of interpreting is the consecutive mode. The c...

  14. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  15. Do Interpreters Indeed Have Superior Working Memory in Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞

    2012-01-01

    With the frequent communications between China and western countries in the field of economy,politics and culture,etc,Inter preting becomes more and more important to people in all walks of life.This paper aims to testify the author’s hypothesis "professional interpreters have similar short-term memory with unprofessional interpreters,but they have superior working memory." After the illustration of literatures concerning with consecutive interpreting,short-term memory and working memory,experiments are designed and analysis are described.

  16. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples....

  17. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... Secondly, it is an individual and independent interpretation of the Matthean .... specific social context is emphasised: certain events in the early church ...... Moses-theology, a Covenant-theology or any other exclusive theology.

  18. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  19. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  20. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  1. Tarague Interpretive Trail Mitigation Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, David

    2001-01-01

    ...), International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (lARfI) has prepared a mitigation plan for development of an interpretive trail at Tarague Beach, located on the north coast of the island of Guam (Fig. 1...

  2. Begriffsverwirrung? Interpretation Analyse Bedeutung Applikation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayr, Jeremia Josef M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research on the reception of biblical texts confronts scientific exegesis with valid and challenging requests and demands. The hermeneutic question of the compatibility of interpretations resulting out of different contexts (e.g. scientific exegesis and ordinary readers‘ exegesis plays an important role. Taking these requests seriously by coherently restructuring fundamental and central aspects of the theory of scientific interpretation, the present article attempts to offer a stimulating approach for further investigation.

  3. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  4. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  5. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of working memory on interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云安; 张国梅

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the roles of working memory in interpreting process. First of all, it gives a brief introduction to interpreting. Secondly, the paper exemplifies the role of working memory in interpreting. The result reveals that the working memory capacity of interpreters is not adsolutely proportional to the quality of interpreting in the real interpreting conditions. The performance of an interpreter with well-equipped working memory capacity will comprehensively influenced by various elements.

  7. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  8. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  9. Interpretation and evaluation of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After digestion, the interpreter must interpreted and evaluate the image on film, usually many radiograph stuck in this step, if there is good density, so there are no problem. This is a final stage of radiography work and this work must be done by level two or three radiographer. This is a final stages before the radiographer give a result to their customer for further action. The good interpreter must know what kind of artifact, is this artifact are dangerous or not and others. In this chapter, the entire artifact that usually showed will be discussed briefly with the good illustration and picture to make the reader understand and know the type of artifact that exists.

  10. Interpretation and digestion of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography digestion is final test for the radiography to make sure that radiograph produced will inspect their quality of the image before its interpreted. This level is critical level where if there is a mistake, all of the radiography work done before will be unaccepted. So as mention earlier, it can waste time, cost and more worst it can make the production must shut down. So, this step, level two radiographers or interpreter must evaluate the radiograph carefully. For this purpose, digestion room and densitometer must used. Of course all the procedure must follow the specification that mentioned in document. There are several needs must fill before we can say the radiograph is corrected or not like the location of penetrameter, number of penetrameter that showed, the degree of density of film, and usually there is no problem in this step and the radiograph can go to interpretation and evaluation step as will mentioned in next chapter.

  11. Image analysis enhancement and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauert, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary practical and mathematical background are provided for the analysis of an electron microscope image in order to extract the maximum amount of structural information. Instrumental methods of image enhancement are described, including the use of the energy-selecting electron microscope and the scanning transmission electron microscope. The problems of image interpretation are considered with particular reference to the limitations imposed by radiation damage and specimen thickness. A brief survey is given of the methods for producing a three-dimensional structure from a series of two-dimensional projections, although emphasis is really given on the analysis, processing and interpretation of the two-dimensional projection of a structure. (Auth.)

  12. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing...... in Spanish and address forms in European Portuguese, we view P1 and P2 as being far more complex than the literature suggests, with subgroups (different types of laypersons and researchers, respectively). At the micro-level we will describe the roles each subgroup plays in the interpretative process...

  13. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  14. Quantum theory needs no 'Interpretation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Christopher A.; Peres, Asher

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this article is to stress the fact that Quantum Theory does not need an interpretation other than being an algorithm for computing probabilities associated with macroscopic phenomena and measurements. It does not ''describ'' reality, and the wave function is not objective entity, it only gives the evolution of our probabilities for the outcomes potential experiments. (AIP) (c)

  15. An Authentic Interpretation of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Antić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Authentic interpretation of laws is a legal institute whereby a legislator gives the authentic meaning to a specific legal norm in case of its incorrect or diversified interpretation in practice. It has the same legal force as the law. Retroactivity and influence on pending cases are its inherent characteristics. Due to these characteristics and their relation to the principles of the rule of law, legal certainty and separation of powers, it is subjected to severe criticism not only by legal theory but also legal practice. The author analyses the institute of authentic interpretation from historical and comparative point of view and through the Croatian normative regulation, practice of the Croatian Parliament and academic debate, including opinions in favour as well as against it. On these grounds the author concludes that higher quality of law making procedure could make the authentic interpretation dispensable. On the other hand, should this institute be kept in the legal order it is essential to receive more effective constitutional control.

  16. Copenhagen interpretation versus Bohm's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objections raised against Bohm's interpretation of quantum theory are reexamined, and arguments are presented in favour of this theory. Bohm's QED is modified such as to include Dirac particles. It is pointed out that the electric field may be chosen as the 'actual' field instead of the magnetic field. Finally, the theory is reformulated in terms of an arbitrary actual field. (Author)

  17. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various nume...

  18. An interpretation of signature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Naoki; Tajima, Naoki

    1988-01-01

    An interpretation in terms of the cranking model is presented to explain why signature inversion occurs for positive γ of the axially asymmetric deformation parameter and emerges into specific orbitals. By introducing a continuous variable, the eigenvalue equation can be reduced to a one dimensional Schroedinger equation by means of which one can easily understand the cause of signature inversion. (author)

  19. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  20. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  1. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  2. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Charles O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

  4. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  5. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — NHTSA's Chief Counsel interprets the statutes that the agency administers and the regulations that it promulgates. The Chief Counsel's interpretations, issued in the...

  6. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  7. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  8. Modeling and interpretation of images*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging protoplanetary disks is a challenging but rewarding task. It is challenging because of the glare of the central star outshining the weak signal from the disk at shorter wavelengths and because of the limited spatial resolution at longer wavelengths. It is rewarding because it contains a wealth of information on the structure of the disks and can (directly probe things like gaps and spiral structure. Because it is so challenging, telescopes are often pushed to their limitations to get a signal. Proper interpretation of these images therefore requires intimate knowledge of the instrumentation, the detection method, and the image processing steps. In this chapter I will give some examples and stress some issues that are important when interpreting images from protoplanetary disks.

  9. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  10. Quantum mechanics interpretation: scalled debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Gomez, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the two main issues of the so called quantum debate, that started in 1927 with the famous Bohr-Einstein controversy; namely non-separability and the projection postulate. Relevant interpretations and formulations of quantum mechanics are critically analyzed in the light of the said issues. The treatment is focused chiefly on fundamental points, so that technical ones are practically not dealt with here. (Author) 20 refs

  11. Topological interpretation of Luttinger theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Kazuhiro; Yunoki, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Based solely on the analytical properties of the single-particle Green's function of fermions at finite temperatures, we show that the generalized Luttinger theorem inherently possesses topological aspects. The topological interpretation of the generalized Luttinger theorem can be introduced because i) the Luttinger volume is represented as the winding number of the single-particle Green's function and thus ii) the deviation of the theorem, expressed with a ratio between the interacting and n...

  12. Operational interpretations of quantum discord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Modi, K.; Aolita, L.; Boixo, S.; Piani, M.; Winter, A.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum discord quantifies nonclassical correlations beyond the standard classification of quantum states into entangled and unentangled. Although it has received considerable attention, it still lacks any precise interpretation in terms of some protocol in which quantum features are relevant. Here we give quantum discord its first information-theoretic operational meaning in terms of entanglement consumption in an extended quantum-state-merging protocol. We further relate the asymmetry of quantum discord with the performance imbalance in quantum state merging and dense coding.

  13. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his...... operational semantics can be expressed as a reduction semantics: for deterministic languages, a reduction semantics is a structural operational semantics in continuation style, where the reduction context is a defunctionalized continuation. As the defunctionalized counterpart of the continuation of a one...

  14. A Generator for Composition Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    programming language design, specification and implementation then apply. A component can be considered as defining objects or commands according to convenience. A description language including type information provides sufficient means to describe component interaction according to the underlying abstract......Composition of program components must be expressed in some language, and late composition can be achieved by an interpreter for the composition language. A suitable notion of component is obtained by identifying it with the semantics of a generalised structured command. Experiences from...

  15. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  16. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  17. Interpreter in Criminal Cases: Allrounders First!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Arthur

    1974-01-01

    The interpreter in criminal cases generally has had a purely linguistic training with no difference from the education received by his colleague interpreters. The position of interpreters in criminal cases is vague and their role depends to a large extent on individual interpretation of officials involved in the criminal procedure. Improvements on…

  18. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.

  19. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should...... not only be seen as a learning task where initiative and product is defined by the teacher. In contrast, I suggest that creative activities and aesthetic processes must be seen as an interaction between children's immediate physicality and curiosity and the teacher's musical skills and abilities to follow...

  20. Touch design and narrative interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sumin; Unsworth, Len

    2016-01-01

    and the Bottle in depth, and illustrate how interactive design elements help to create an interpretative possibility of the story. We suggest that a better understanding of interactive touch design would promote more effective adult-child interactions around mobile applications....... of technology, but also a resource for meaning making. We distinguish two basic types of interactivity—intra-text and extra-text—incorporated in the touch design, and explore the different functions they perform in a broad range of picture book apps. In particular, we look at the app version of The Heart...

  1. Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....

  2. Interpretation of ultrasonic images; Interpretation von Ultraschall-Abbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W; Schmitz, V; Kroening, M [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    During the evaluation of ultrasonic images, e.g. SAFT-reconstructed B-scan images (SAFT=Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) it is often difficult to decide, what is the origin of reconstructed image points: were they caused by defects, specimens geometry or mode-conversions. To facilitate this evaluation a tool based on the comparison of data was developed. Different kinds of data comparison are possible: identification of that RF-signals, which caused the reconstructed image point. This is the comparison of a reconstructed image with the corresponding RF-data. Comparison of two reconstructed images performing a superposition using logical operators. In this case e.g. the reconstruction of an unknown reflector is compared with that of a known one. Comparison of raw-RF-data by simultaneous scanning through two data sets. Here the echoes of an unknown reflector are compared with the echoes of a known one. The necessary datasets of known reflectors may be generated experimentally on reference reflectors or modelled. The aim is the identification of the reflector type, e.g. cracklike or not, the determination of position, size and orientation as well as the identification of accompanying satellite echoes. The interpretation of the SAFT-reconstructed B-scan image is carried out by a complete description of the reflector. In addition to the aim of interpretation the tool described is well suited to educate and train ultrasonic testers. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Bei der Auswertung von Ultraschall-Abbildungen, z.B. SAFT-rekonstruierten B-Bildern (SAFT=Synthetische Apertur Fokus Technik), ist es oft schwierig zu entscheiden, wo rekonstruierte Bildpunkte herruehren: wurden sie durch Materialfehler, Bauteilgeometrie oder durch Wellenumwandlungen versursacht. Um diese Auswertung zu erleichtern, wurde ein Werkzeug entwickelt, welches auf dem Vergleich von Datensaetzen basiert. Es koennen verschiedene Arten des Datenvergleichs durchgefuehrt werden: Identifikation der HF

  3. Wilhelm Wundt's Theory of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Fahrenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Wilhelm WUNDT was a pioneer in experimental and physiological psychology. However, his theory of interpretation (hermeneutics remains virtually neglected. According to WUNDT psychology belongs to the domain of the humanities (Geisteswissenschaften, and, throughout his books and research, he advocated two basic methodologies: experimentation (as the means of controlled self-observation and interpretative analysis of mental processes and products. He was an experimental psychologist and a profound expert in traditional hermeneutics. Today, he still may be acknowledged as the author of the monumental Völkerpsychologie, but not his advances in epistemology and methodology. His subsequent work, the Logik (1908/1921, contains about 120 pages on hermeneutics. In the present article a number of issues are addressed. Noteworthy was WUNDT's general intention to account for the logical constituents and the psychological process of understanding, and his reflections on quality control. In general, WUNDT demanded methodological pluralism and a complementary approach to the study of consciousness and neurophysiological processes. In the present paper WUNDT's approach is related to the continuing controversy on basic issues in methodology; e.g. experimental and statistical methods vs. qualitative (hermeneutic methods. Varied explanations are given for the one-sided or distorted reception of WUNDT's methodology. Presently, in Germany the basic program of study in psychology lacks thorough teaching and training in qualitative (hermeneutic methods. Appropriate courses are not included in the curricula, in contrast to the training in experimental design, observation methods, and statistics. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803291

  4. A new interpretation of chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Chuanwen; Wang Gang; Wang Chuncheng; Wei Junjie

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of uniform index and expectation uniform index are two mathematical descriptions of the uniformity and the mean uniformity of a finite set in a polyhedron. The concepts of instantaneous chaometry (ICM) and k step chaometry (k SCM) are introduced in order to apply the method in statistics for studying the nonlinear difference equations. It is found that k step chaometry is an indirect estimation of the expectation uniform index. The simulation illustrate that the expectation uniform index for the Lorenz System is increasing linearly, but increasing nonlinearly for the Chen's System with parameter b. In other words, the orbits for each system become more and more uniform with parameter b increasing. Finally, a conjecture is also brought forward, which implies that chaos can be interpreted by its orbit's mean uniformity described by the expectation uniform index and indirectly estimated by k SCM. The k SCM of the heart rate showes the feeble and old process of the heart.

  5. APL interpreter on MITRA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davcev, Danco

    1975-01-01

    APL in its present forms is an ideal instrument for the establishment of logic systems since it requires no specific declaration of type or form of variables. An APL system for C II computer of the MITRA series is described, with the following minimum configuration: MITRA central unit, 16-bit 32 K word memory, disc with fixed or mobile heads, type 4013 TEKTRONIX visualisation system. The originality of our APL interpreter on MITRA 15 lies in the use of a virtual memory system with pages of 128 word size. The so-called beating process is used to set up APL operators: the selection expressions in the tables may be evaluated without any manipulation of the values. (author) [fr

  6. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  7. Interpreting the cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'C Drury, L.; Ellisson, D.C; Meyer, J.-P.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed pattern of elemental abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays is well determined at energies of a few GeV per nucleon. After correction for propagation effects the inferred source composition shows significant deviations from the standard pattern of Galactic elemental abundances. These deviations, surprisingly overabundances of the heavy elements relative to Hydrogen, are clearly a significant clue to the origin of the cosmic rays, but one which has proven very difficult to interpret. We have recently shown that the 'standard' model for the origin of the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays, namely acceleration by the diffusive shock acceleration process at the strong shocks associated with supernova remnants, can quantitatively explain all features of the source composition if the acceleration occurs from a dusty interstellar medium. This success must be regarded as one of the stronger pieces of evidence in favour of the standard model

  8. Interpreting the cosmic ray composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' C Drury, L.; Ellisson, D.C; Meyer, J.-P

    2000-01-31

    The detailed pattern of elemental abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays is well determined at energies of a few GeV per nucleon. After correction for propagation effects the inferred source composition shows significant deviations from the standard pattern of Galactic elemental abundances. These deviations, surprisingly overabundances of the heavy elements relative to Hydrogen, are clearly a significant clue to the origin of the cosmic rays, but one which has proven very difficult to interpret. We have recently shown that the 'standard' model for the origin of the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays, namely acceleration by the diffusive shock acceleration process at the strong shocks associated with supernova remnants, can quantitatively explain all features of the source composition if the acceleration occurs from a dusty interstellar medium. This success must be regarded as one of the stronger pieces of evidence in favour of the standard model.

  9. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  10. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his......This document illustrates how functional implementations of formal semantics (structural operational semantics, reduction semantics, small-step and big-step abstract machines, natural semantics, and denotational semantics) can be transformed into each other. These transformations were foreshadowed...... students have further observed that functional implementations of small-step and of big-step abstract machines are related using fusion by fixed-point promotion and that functional implementations of reduction semantics and of small-step abstract machines are related using refocusing and transition...

  11. Concurrent LISP and its interpreter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K; Sugimoto, S; Ohno, Y

    1981-01-01

    In the research field of artificial intelligence many languages have been developed based on LISP, such as Planner, Conniver and so on. They have been developed to give users many useful facilities, especially for describing flexible control structures. Backtracking and coroutine facilities are typical ones introduced into these languages. Compared with backtracking and coroutine facilities, multi-process description facilities are considered to be a better alternative for writing well-structured programs. This paper describes concurrent LISP, a new concurrent programming language based on LISP. Concurrent LISP is designed to provide simple and flexible facilities for multi-process description without changing the original language features of LISP. This paper also describes the concurrent LISP interpreter which has been implemented on a FACOM M-200 at the Data Processing Center of Kyoto University. 19 references.

  12. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  13. A modular interpretation of various cubic towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound.......In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound....

  14. Issues related to interpretation of space imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alferenok, A V; Przhiyalgovskii, Ye S

    1981-01-01

    A method for interpreting remotely derived data of various generalization levels (e.g. the northern section of the Chu-Sarysuiskaya basin) that suggests use of a uniform legend for interpretation of maps.

  15. Language production and interpretation linguistics meets cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A model of production and interpretation of natural language utterances is developed which explains why communication is normally fast and successful. Interpretation is taken to be analogous with visual perception in finding the most probable hypothesis that explains the utterance.

  16. Semantic interpretation of search engine resultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    In semantic, logical language can be interpreted in various forms, but the certainty of meaning is included in the uncertainty, which directly always influences the role of technology. One results of this uncertainty applies to search engines as user interfaces with information spaces such as the Web. Therefore, the behaviour of search engine results should be interpreted with certainty through semantic formulation as interpretation. Behaviour formulation shows there are various interpretations that can be done semantically either temporary, inclusion, or repeat.

  17. An Online Synchronous Test for Professional Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Ko, Leong

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia.…

  18. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  19. Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Puga, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

  20. Children's Comprehension of Metaphor: A Piagetian Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. W. A.

    1976-01-01

    When the descriptive interpretations that sixth and eighth graders provided for metaphors selected from fifth-grade readers were examined in a Piagetian framework, the poorest interpretations showed characteristics of concrete and pre-operational thought, while the best interpretations showed characteristics of formal operational thought. (RL)

  1. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    We transfer the concept of robust interpretation from arithmetic first-order theories to metric-time temporal logics. The idea is that the interpretation of a formula is robust iff its truth value does not change under small variation of the constants in the formula. Exemplifying this on Duration...... Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  2. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  3. Interpreting Electromagnetic Reflections In Glaciology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, O.; Nixdorf, U.; Wilhelms, F.; Steinhage, D.; Miller, H.

    Electromagnetic reflection (EMR) measurements are active remote sensing methods that have become a major tool for glaciological investigations. Although the basic pro- cesses are well understood, the unambiguous interpretation of EMR data, especially internal layering, still requires further information. The Antacrtic ice sheet provides a unique setting for investigating the relation between physical­chemical properties of ice and EMR data. Cold ice, smooth surface topography, and low accumulation facilitates matters to use low energy ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices to pene- trate several tens to hundreds of meters of ice, covering several thousands of years of snow deposition history. Thus, sufficient internal layers, primarily of volcanic origin, are recorded to enable studies on a local and regional scale. Based on dated ice core records, GPR measurements at various frequencies, and airborne radio-echo sound- ing (RES) from Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, combined with numerical modeling techniques, we investigate the influence of internal layering characteristics and properties of the propagating electromagnetic wave on EMR data.

  4. Guide to Magellan image interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John P.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.; Senske, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Michaels, Gregory; Parker, Timothy J.; Fulton, D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Magellan Mission requirements, radar system characteristics, and methods of data collection is followed by a description of the image data, mosaic formats, areal coverage, resolution, and pixel DN-to-dB conversion. The availability and sources of image data are outlined. Applications of the altimeter data to estimate relief, Fresnel reflectivity, and surface slope, and the radiometer data to derive microwave emissivity are summarized and illustrated in conjunction with corresponding SAR image data. Same-side and opposite-side stereo images provide examples of parallax differences from which to measure relief with a lateral resolution many times greater than that of the altimeter. Basic radar interactions with geologic surfaces are discussed with respect to radar-imaging geometry, surface roughness, backscatter modeling, and dielectric constant. Techniques are described for interpreting the geomorphology and surface properties of surficial features, impact craters, tectonically deformed terrain, and volcanic landforms. The morphologic characteristics that distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters are defined. Criteria for discriminating extensional and compressional origins of tectonic features are discussed. Volcanic edifices, constructs, and lava channels are readily identified from their radar outlines in images. Geologic map units are identified on the basis of surface texture, image brightness, pattern, and morphology. Superposition, cross-cutting relations, and areal distribution of the units serve to elucidate the geologic history.

  5. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency

  6. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  7. Who can monitor the court interpreter's performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    and the conflict about her competence was negotiated. Because of this unusual constellation, combined with a multi-method approach, this single case study can shed some light on the question of the participants' ability to monitor the interpreter's performance. Legal professional users of interpreters tend......  Who can monitor the court interpreter's performance? Results of a case study This paper presents the results of a case study of an unusual interpreting event in a Danish courtroom setting. During the trial, the interpreter's non-normative performance was explicitly criticised by the audience...... are far less transparent for the legal participants than they normally assume. This problem, in turn, stresses the importance of a) the interpreter's competence and self-awareness and b) the use of check interpreters.  ...

  8. The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

  9. The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR–Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems. (paper)

  10. An information gap in DNA evidence interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Perlin

    Full Text Available Forensic DNA evidence often contains mixtures of multiple contributors, or is present in low template amounts. The resulting data signals may appear to be relatively uninformative when interpreted using qualitative inclusion-based methods. However, these same data can yield greater identification information when interpreted by computer using quantitative data-modeling methods. This study applies both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods to a well-characterized DNA mixture and dilution data set, and compares the inferred match information. The results show that qualitative interpretation loses identification power at low culprit DNA quantities (below 100 pg, but that quantitative methods produce useful information down into the 10 pg range. Thus there is a ten-fold information gap that separates the qualitative and quantitative DNA mixture interpretation approaches. With low quantities of culprit DNA (10 pg to 100 pg, computer-based quantitative interpretation provides greater match sensitivity.

  11. Architectural design of an Algol interpreter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    The design of a syntax-directed interpreter for a subset of Algol is described. It is a conceptual design with sufficient details and completeness but as much independence of implementation as possible. The design includes a detailed description of a scanner, an analyzer described in the Floyd-Evans productions, a hash-coded symbol table, and an executor. Interpretation of sample programs is also provided to show how the interpreter functions.

  12. Model-Agnostic Interpretability of Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Marco Tulio; Singh, Sameer; Guestrin, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why machine learning models behave the way they do empowers both system designers and end-users in many ways: in model selection, feature engineering, in order to trust and act upon the predictions, and in more intuitive user interfaces. Thus, interpretability has become a vital concern in machine learning, and work in the area of interpretable models has found renewed interest. In some applications, such models are as accurate as non-interpretable ones, and thus are preferred f...

  13. Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh

    2011-01-01

    We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.

  14. Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.

  15. A functional interpretation for nonstandard arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.; Briseid, E.; Safarik, P.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce constructive and classical systems for nonstandard arithmetic and show how variants of the functional interpretations due to Gödel and Shoenfield can be used to rewrite proofs performed in these systems into standard ones. These functional interpretations show in particular that our

  16. Interpretation of Subgroup Effects in Published Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mark J; Kjær, Per; Korsholm, Lars

    2013-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding number of studies reporting on treatment subgroups come new challenges in analyzing and interpreting this sometimes complex area of the literature. This article discusses 3 important issues regarding the analysis and interpretation of existing trials or systematic revie...

  17. Gestalt descriptions embodiments and medical image interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I will argue that medical specialists interpret and diagnose through technological mediations like X-ray and fMRI images, and by actualizing embodied skills tacitly they are determining the identity of objects in the perceptual field. The initial phase of human interpretation of vis...

  18. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  19. 75 FR 80746 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Whitlow Letter in its interpretations of section 121.471(g). See Air Transport Ass'n of America, Inc. v. F... 121.471(g) and 135.263(d) is interpreted in two different ways. See Air Transport Ass'n, 291 F.3d at...

  20. Interpretation Analysis as a Competitive Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nading, Robert M.

    Interpretation analysis is a new and interesting event on the forensics horizon which appears to be attracting an ever larger number of supporters. This event, developed by Larry Lambert of Ball State University in 1989, requires a student to perform all three disciplines of forensic competition (interpretation, public speaking, and limited…

  1. Combinatorial Interpretation of General Eulerian Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Tingyao Xiong; Jonathan I. Hall; Hung-Ping Tsao

    2014-01-01

    Since 1950s, mathematicians have successfully interpreted the traditional Eulerian numbers and $q-$Eulerian numbers combinatorially. In this paper, the authors give a combinatorial interpretation to the general Eulerian numbers defined on general arithmetic progressions { a, a+d, a+2d,...}.

  2. Gene set analysis for interpreting genetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune H

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is lacking behind the discovery of new genetic associations. Consequently, there is an urgent need for data-driven methods for interpreting genetic association studies. Gene set analysis (GSA) can identify aetiologic pathways...

  3. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the Act... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an...

  4. Educational principles and techniques for interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. David Boulanger; John P. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Interpretation is in large part education, since it attempts to convey information, concepts, and principles while creating attitude changes and such emotional states as wonder, delight, and appreciation. Although interpreters might profit greatly by formal training in the principles and techniques of teaching, many have not had such training. Some means of making the...

  5. Optimality Theory and Lexical Interpretation and Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, L.; Legendre, G.; Putnam, M.T.; de Swart, H.; Zaroukian, E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter argues for an optimization approach to the selection and interpretation of words. Several advantages of such an approach to lexical semantics are discussed. First of all, it will be argued that competition, entailing that words and interpretations are always judged in relation to other

  6. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  7. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  8. Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    Since Shlesinger (1989) discussed the applicability of translational norms to the field of interpreting, a number of scholars have advocated the use of this concept as a frame of reference in interpreting research (e.g. Harris 1990, Schjoldager 1994, 1995, Jansen 1995, Gile 1999, Garzone 2002). Due...... for the study, we intend to conduct interviews instead. The purpose of the study is to investigate deviations from translational norms in court interpreting. More specifically, we aim to identify and describe instances of deviant behaviour on the part of the interpreters, discuss signs of possible deviant...... speaking these languages. This example does not immediately indicate that Translation Studies might be able to contribute to, for example, an improvement of the training situation for the group of court interpreters mentioned above. However, in our opinion, there is reason to believe that TS can make...

  9. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    2001-06-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a "handshake" between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ*) for each quantum event or "transaction" in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually "visible" in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradox-free, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to "quantum paradoxes."

  10. Nuclear log interpretation by first principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1988-07-01

    A weakness connected to the present interpretation of nuclear borehole logs is that the interdependence of the various logs and physical effects of importance for the tools are not always taken into account in a correct way. Therefore a new approach to the interpretation of nuclear borehole logs is considered. It is based on the logs obtained with the natural gamma, the neutron porosity, the gamma density, and the pulsed neutron tools. For each of these tools a model, taking into account the important physical effects, is established. These models are incorporated into a computer programme which from the tool signals calculates, by use of iteration, a consistent set of the corresponding formation properties. In the paper the models developed for the four tools and the interpretation programme are briefly described. An example of the use of the interpretation programme is given and compared with a conventional interpretation. (author)

  11. Integrating Emotions Into the Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Hense, Cherry; Medcalf, Laura; Murphy, Melissa; Fairchild, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Critical interpretive synthesis is a particular form of systematic review that critically examines the decisions made by authors while conducting and publishing about their research and practices. It differs from empirical syntheses of qualitative research by emphasizing the interpreted and constructed nature of this form of secondary analysis. In this article, we extend previous literature on critical interpretive syntheses by highlighting the integration of emotional responses when developing critical questions for interrogating the literature and interpreting results. Our extension of the critical interpretive synthesis is illustrated through examples from five studies examining literature in our own field of music therapy, as well as related fields of disability studies, mental health, music psychology, and child welfare. The methodology we have refined uses an iterative and recursive method that promotes increased critical awareness of the assumptions driving the production of research in health contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  13. Medical interpreters as tools: dangers and challenges in the utilitarian approach to interpreters' roles and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Kramer, Eric Mark

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. The utilitarian view to interpreters' roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter's emotional support perceived as tools. When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients' and interpreters' voice, objectifying interpreters' emotional work, and exploiting patients' needs. Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter's role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of temporal expression – named temporal expressions – and methods for recognising and interpreting its members. The commonest temporal expressions typically contain date and time words, like April or hours. Research into recognising and interpreting these typical...... expressions is mature in many languages. However, there is a class of expressions that are less typical, very varied, and difficult to automatically interpret. These indicate dates and times, but are harder to detect because they often do not contain time words and are not used frequently enough to appear...

  15. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2013-01-01

    examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus...... in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen...

  16. Completed lineament interpretation of the Olkiluoto region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, M.

    2013-10-01

    Site characterization activities at Olkiluoto have been taking place for c. 25 years, including a wide range of different geophysical survey methods using various geometries and scales of investigation. The measurements have been done from the air, ground surface, shallow and deep drillholes and the ONKALO underground facility. As a part of the complementary site investigations, two low-altitude geophysical airborne survey campaigns were done around and at Olkiluoto in 2008 and 2009. The survey in 2008 was focused in the Eurajoensalmi area N or NE of Olkiluoto Island. The survey in 2009 covered most of the Olkiluoto Island, the neighbouring sea area and the archipelago W, SW and S of Olkiluoto as well as some of the mainland area SE of Olkiluoto. This report presents a new lineament interpretation based on these new geophysical airborne surveys. For the interpretation work, the data were extensively further processed into different gradients and filtered data sets and maps. Furthermore, the potential of automatic curvature analyses was examined. Also, quantitative profile interpretation was done from a number of profiles to find out the dips and exact locations of the contacts of some features. The qualitative interpretation of the lineaments was carried out by visually inspecting the different versions of the geophysical maps and by digitizing the geometry of each interpreted lineament. The lineaments are collated into two ArcGIS themes (one for magnetic and one for EM lineaments), accompanied by an attribute table that includes a number of attributes for each interpreted feature: lineament identifier, reference to the data used in interpretation, uncertainty, length, average orientation and probable geological character. The total number of new interpreted features is 125 magnetic and 33 electromagnetic lineaments. The main trend of the interpreted features varies between WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE. Furthermore, trends in directions almost N-S and E-W are also

  17. Completed lineament interpretation of the Olkiluoto region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paananen, M. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    Site characterization activities at Olkiluoto have been taking place for c. 25 years, including a wide range of different geophysical survey methods using various geometries and scales of investigation. The measurements have been done from the air, ground surface, shallow and deep drillholes and the ONKALO underground facility. As a part of the complementary site investigations, two low-altitude geophysical airborne survey campaigns were done around and at Olkiluoto in 2008 and 2009. The survey in 2008 was focused in the Eurajoensalmi area N or NE of Olkiluoto Island. The survey in 2009 covered most of the Olkiluoto Island, the neighbouring sea area and the archipelago W, SW and S of Olkiluoto as well as some of the mainland area SE of Olkiluoto. This report presents a new lineament interpretation based on these new geophysical airborne surveys. For the interpretation work, the data were extensively further processed into different gradients and filtered data sets and maps. Furthermore, the potential of automatic curvature analyses was examined. Also, quantitative profile interpretation was done from a number of profiles to find out the dips and exact locations of the contacts of some features. The qualitative interpretation of the lineaments was carried out by visually inspecting the different versions of the geophysical maps and by digitizing the geometry of each interpreted lineament. The lineaments are collated into two ArcGIS themes (one for magnetic and one for EM lineaments), accompanied by an attribute table that includes a number of attributes for each interpreted feature: lineament identifier, reference to the data used in interpretation, uncertainty, length, average orientation and probable geological character. The total number of new interpreted features is 125 magnetic and 33 electromagnetic lineaments. The main trend of the interpreted features varies between WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE. Furthermore, trends in directions almost N-S and E-W are also

  18. On the Dogmatics of Contract Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of contract has attracted much attention in the practice of contract law and the basic problems to be solved are what the parties agree on and how to set up the rules of adjudication. The present domestic studies are not conducive to contract prac-tices because they either unnecessarily elevate scientific problems to the speculative realm of fantasy, or make the problems become more unreal and abstract. The two traditional theories of contract interpretation do not conflict in values in terms of the autonomy of the will and trust protection. However, in today' s society where cultural pluralism and legal value plural-ism exist, because of different contract practices, differentiation and individualization of con-tract interpretation will become the basic patterns. Therefore, it is impossible and unnecessary to construct a unitary model, but it is of great significance to introduce the dogmatics-orien-ted contract interpretation.

  19. The interpretation and management of thyroid disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population reference range, will induce very pronounced TSH changes. ... An overview of the management of ... The interpretation and management of thyroid disorders ..... Tietz textbook of clinical cemistry and molecular diagnostics. 4th ed.

  20. Computerised Analysis, Interpretation, Storage and Retrieval of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... research. This whole process is time-consuming for both tech- nicians and ... ECG directly from the patient, make an automatic graphic recording on ..... reasoned that the electrocardiographic interpretation is better done by a ...

  1. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The “geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is ... an attitude is also close to the chemical thinking ..... These vectors explicitly define the corresponding ..... chain-rule for implicit functionals: p p. N p.

  2. Pattern recognition approach to data interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolff, Diane D; Parsons, M. L

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made in this book to give scientists a detailed working knowledge of the powerful mathematical tools available to aid in data interpretation, especially when confronted with large data...

  3. The Status of Interpreters for Deaf Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jerome D.; Yarwood, Sara

    1990-01-01

    A national survey of 170 interpreters for deaf Canadians examined demographic characteristics; knowledge of sign; education; experience; employment; voluntary service; clients served; settings; earnings and fees; and opinions regarding their work, compensation, working conditions, ethics, and education. (JDD)

  4. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Rosendahl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In David Schmidt's PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen as a programming paradigm and be used to write programs in a circular style.

  5. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  6. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...

  7. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...

  8. Clinical Utility of Blood Cell Histogram Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E T Arun; Bhagya, S; Majeed, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    An automated haematology analyser provides blood cell histograms by plotting the sizes of different blood cells on X-axis and their relative number on Y-axis. Histogram interpretation needs careful analysis of Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC) and platelet distribution curves. Histogram analysis is often a neglected part of the automated haemogram which if interpreted well, has significant potential to provide diagnostically relevant information even before higher level investigations are ordered.

  9. Computerized Interpretation of Dynamic Breast MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The interpretation criteria in the current literature fall Breast MRI has emerged as a promising modality for the into two major categories: 5’ 14...is that theraphy , current interpretation schemes might not be sufficiently ro- Despite its well-recognized advantages, applications of bust. MRI in...postcontrast series For the manual delineation, a radiologist (U.B.), blinded were then taken with a time interval of 60 s. Each series to the histological

  10. NODAL interpreter for CP/M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu.

    1982-11-01

    A NODAL interpreter which works under CP/M operating system is made for microcomputers. This interpreter language named NODAL-80 has a similar structure to the NODAL of SPS, but its commands, variables, and expressions are modified to increase the flexibility of programming. NODAL-80 also uses a simple intermediate code to make the execution speed fast without imposing any restriction on the dynamic feature of NODAL language. (author)

  11. Radiology Residents' Performance in Screening Mammography Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lyou, Chae Yeon

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in screening mammography interpretation and to analyze the factors affecting performance. We enrolled 203 residents from 21 institutions and performed mammography interpretation tests. Between the trainee and non-trainee groups, we compared the interpretation score, recall rate, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and false-positive rate (FPR). We estimated the training effect using the score differences between trainee and non-trainee groups. We analyzed the factors affecting performance between training-effective and non-effective groups. Trainees were superior to non-trainees regarding interpretation score (43.1 vs. 37.1), recall rate (11.0 vs. 15.5%), sensitivity (83.6 vs. 72.0%), PPV (53.0 vs. 32.4%) and FPR (13.5 vs. 25.5). The longer the training period, the better were the interpretation score, recall rate, sensitivity, PPV and FPR (rho = 0.486, -0.375, 0.343, 0.504, -0.446, respectively). The training affected an increase by an average of 6 points; however, 31.6% of institutions showed no effect. A difference was noted in the volume of mammography interpretation during a month (594.0 vs. 476.9) and dedication of breast staff (61.5 vs. 0%) between training-effective and non-effective groups. Trainees showed better performance in mammography interpretation compared to non-trainees. Moreover, performance was correlated with the training period. The factors affecting performance were the volume of mammography interpretation and the dedication of the breast staff.

  12. Cling - The LLVM-based C++ Interpreter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cling (http://cern.ch/cling) is a C++ interpreter, built on top of clang (http://clang.llvm.org) and LLVM (http://llvm.org). Like its predecessor CINT, cling offers an interactive, terminal-like prompt. It enables exploratory programming with rapid edit / run cycles. The ROOT team has more than 15 years of experience with C++ interpreters, and this has been fully exploited in the design of cling. However, matching the concepts of an interpreter to a compiler library is a non-trivial task; we will explain how this is done for cling, and how we managed to implement cling as a small (10,000 lines of code) extension to the clang and llvm libraries. The resulting features clearly show the advantages of basing an interpreter on a compiler. Cling uses clang's praised concise and easy to understand diagnostics. Building an interpreter on top of a compiler library makes the transition between interpreted and compiled code much easier and smoother. We will present the design, e.g. how cling treats the C++ extensions ...

  13. From the image of the real to the real of the image: an eulogy of appearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Beccari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This articles studies different critiques to the conception of appearances as something treacherous and that should always be judged in reference to something transcendental. Based on such authors as Nietzsche, Bergson, Rosset, Lacan and Žižek, among others, we show that the relation between images and the real is a necessary one. The point of view that recognizes this complementarity between image and the real is more likely to affirm life – in Nietzschian terms – than conceptions that seek a metaphysical Real beyond this relation. To illustrate our argument, we make reference to movies such as Vertigo and Synecdoche, New York, among others.

  14. EULOGY OF UNMARRIED GIRLS IN CAROLS FROM THE EAST OF THE DNIESTER AND BUG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CALINA LUDMILA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed article prompted us to fix our attention to carols collected and researched in the Eastern areas of the rivers Dniester and Bug. We will refer to a significant aspect of the Christmas celebrations publicized, especially with the aim of initiating a lad or a girl in their future marriage. On the basis of the studies carried out by N. Smochină, C. Ionescu, N. Băieşu, A. Golopenţia, M. Brătulescu, T Colac etc., we intend to highlight the way is «seen» the contamination and assimilation of the unmarried girl’s, motif especially when caroling the Eastern and Western regions. The author of the article reveals the anonymous poet’s role, who laid emphasis on the message, thought, intention, desire, and in the rural atmosphere, they find greater openness in the listener’s soul. The merit of being the mistress of the courtyards the owner of the gates is not attributed to each girl, but only to the selected one, who was appointed by the entire rural society after some tests of initiation. This procedure presumed preparing of unmarried girls for engagement and cooking the biggest knot-shaped bread. Here are written the suggestive images approved by the anonymous poet: rings, apples, the silk cradle, the tears of the girl, the sheet.

  15. Dining with Picasso and Gertrude Stein - Eulogical Feasts of the Gods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2017-01-01

    and Gertrude Stein. There is considerable evidence to suggest that Gertrude Stein was a major influence in both the career and personal life of Picasso. Gertrude Stein, as the prominent champion of Picasso began with the purchase of the 1904 painting”Young Girl with A Basket of Flowers”. However, the painting...

  16. Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the core of the nuclear non-proliferation regime lie international agreements. These agreements include, inter alia, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, nuclear co-operation agreements and nuclear export control agreements.1 States, however, do not always comply with their obligations under these agreements. In response, commentators have proposed various enforcement mechanisms to promote compliance. The inconvenient truth, however, is that states are generally unwilling to consent to enforcement mechanisms concerning issues as critical to national security as nuclear non-proliferation.3 This article suggests an alternative solution to the non-compliance problem: interpretation mechanisms. Although an interpretation mechanism does not have the teeth of an enforcement mechanism, it can induce compliance by providing an authoritative interpretation of a legal obligation. Interpretation mechanisms would help solve the non-compliance problem because, as this article shows, in many cases of alleged non-compliance with a non-proliferation agreement, the fundamental problem has been the lack of an authoritative interpretation of the agreement, not the lack of an enforcement mechanism. Specifically, this article proposes arbitration as the proper interpretation mechanism for non-proliferation agreements. It advocates the establishment of a 'Nuclear Arbitration Centre' as an independent branch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and recommends the gradual introduction of arbitration clauses into the texts of non-proliferation agreements. Section I begins with a discussion of international agreements in general and the importance of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section II then discusses nuclear non-proliferation agreements and their lack of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section III examines seven case studies of alleged non-compliance with non-proliferation agreements in order to show that the main problem in many cases

  17. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  18. Analysis of Visual Interpretation of Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatonova, H.

    2016-06-01

    Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a) the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape) and b) to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age). The results of the research showed that (1) false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2) colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour) increases the success rate of identifying the element (3) experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4) men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  19. Use of interpreters in individual psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, H; Cheng, L Y

    1996-02-01

    This paper was written after one of the authors treated a case by individual therapy using an interpreter, as patient and therapist spoke different languages. There is little literature on this subject, and this paper describes our findings and recommendations for using this approach. A 15-year-old Chinese, Cantonese-speaking in-patient in Hong Kong was treated with individual psychodynamic psychotherapy by an English-speaking Caucasian psychotherapist. The Chinese interpreter attended each session, and therapy was supervised by a bilingual Chinese supervisor. The alternative was to not carry out any therapy, as there was no other therapist available. The patient was treated for a total of 32 sessions. Issues involving language and culture differences between therapist and patient, issues of therapy in a triadic situation involving group dynamics, and specific therapy difficulties raised by the presence of the interpreter are discussed. Therapy was not as effective as hoped, but the patient made some improvements. Finding a suitable interpreter is difficult and their role must be well defined. A bilingual supervisor is also needed to monitor the translation as well as supervising the therapist. Psychotherapy through an interpreter is feasible but not ideal.

  20. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish, on the ot...... in the interpreting task, i.e. whether it functions as the source or the target language. Drawing on the concept of processing capacity and the Effort Model of consecutive, a tentative explanation of these findings is suggested......., on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...

  1. ANALYSIS OF VISUAL INTERPRETATION OF SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Svatonova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape and b to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age. The results of the research showed that (1 false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2 colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour increases the success rate of identifying the element (3 experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4 men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  2. From Copenhagen to Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Muynck, Willem M.

    2007-12-01

    Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism yields a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.

  3. A consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, Roland

    1990-01-01

    Some mostly recent theoretical and mathematical advances can be linked together to yield a new consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics. It relies upon a unique and universal interpretative rule of a logical character which is based upon Griffiths consistent history. Some new results in semi-classical physics allow classical physics to be derived from this rule, including its logical aspects, and to prove accordingly the existence of determinism within the quantum framework. Together with decoherence, this can be used to retrieve the existence of facts, despite the probabilistic character of the theory. Measurement theory can then be made entirely deductive. It is accordingly found that wave packet reduction is a logical property, whereas one can always choose to avoid using it. The practical consequences of this interpretation are most often in agreement with the Copenhagen formulation but they can be proved never to give rise to any logical inconsistency or paradox. (author)

  4. Schroedinger and the interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrlich, F.

    1987-01-01

    On the occasion of the centennial of his birth, Schroedinger's life and views are sketched and his critique of the interpretation of quantum mechanics accepted at his time is examined. His own interpretation, which he had to abandon after a short time, provides a prime example of the way in which the tentative meaning of central theoretical terms in a new and revolutionary theory often fails. Schroedinger's strong philosophical convictions have played a key role in his refusal to break with many of the notions of classical physics. At the same time, they made him into a keen and incisive critic of the Copenhagen interpretation. His criticism is compared with present views on quantum mechanics

  5. The EMU debt criterion: an interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BERNDSEN

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The convergence criteria specified in the Maastricht Treaty on government deficit and debt, inflation, the exchange rate and the long-term interest rate will play an important, if not decisive, role in determining which countries move on to the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. The aim of this work is to provide a possible interpretation of the EMU debt criterion. The author investigates the government debt criterion which, as Article 104c(2b of the Treaty shows, has a considerable scope for interpretation. Although this subject has been discussed extensively, relatively little work has been done to develop a clear interpretation of the EMU debt criterion. A flexible approach is adopted in which parts of the relevant Treaty text are characterised using two parameters.

  6. Formalism and physical interpretation in Schroedinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The question of the relation between a formalism and its physical interpretation arises not only when theoretical and conceptual systems are reorganized, but in the theoretical elaboration as well. The Schroedinger's work and thought are examined in this paper with this double concern. His work on the mathematical formalism is constantly sustained by a proper physical thought which takes the form of a wave intuition that guarantees him intelligibility. Concerning his interpretation of quantum mechanics, his thought remains characterized, through its evolution, by a w ave image of the world . The way he deals with space-time structure in General Relativity and favours the possibility of a direct interpretation of space-time geometrical quantities, is also studied. (author). 75 refs

  7. Designing for collaborative interpretation in telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bjørn, Pernille; Kensing, Finn

    2011-01-01

    with a design interventionist perspective was conducted to investigate the telemonitoring arrangement for chronic heart patients with ICDs and to identify the nature of the collaborative practices involved in ICD data interpretation. We diagnose the main challenges involved in collaborative interpretation...... practices. These insights were used to re-design the socio-technical setup of the telemonitoring practices by designing and building a web-based, patient-centric, collaborative application, myRecord, to re-introduce the patients as active participants into the telemonitoring setup. Finally, we introduce my......Record at Copenhagen University Hospital and evaluate the new practices and the collaborative technology related to the transformed role of the patients. Results: The interpretation of ICD data is a collaborative practice engaging clinicians and patients and involving three separate collaborative processes...

  8. Interpreting Results from the Multinomial Logit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there see...... suitable for both interpretation and communication of results. The pratical steps are illustrated through an application of the MLM to the choice of foreign market entry mode.......This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there seem...... to be systematic issues with regard to how researchers interpret their results when using the MLM. In this study, I present a set of guidelines critical to analyzing and interpreting results from the MLM. The procedure involves intuitive graphical representations of predicted probabilities and marginal effects...

  9. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; pECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; pECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (pECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  10. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  11. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  12. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  13. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  14. From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  15. Interpretation of Written Contracts in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the leading principles governing interpretation of written contracts under English law. This is a comprehensive and incisive analysis of the current law and of the relevant doctrines, including the equitable principles of rectification, as well as the powers of appeal courts or of the High Court when hearing an appeal from an arbitral award. The topic of interpretation of written contracts is fast-moving. It is of fundamental importance because this is the most significant commercial focus for dispute and because of the number of cross-border transactions to which English law is expressly applied by businesses.

  16. Three-dimensional interpretation of TEM soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, P. O.; Fainberg, E. B.

    2013-07-01

    We describe the approach to the interpretation of electromagnetic (EM) sounding data which iteratively adjusts the three-dimensional (3D) model of the environment by local one-dimensional (1D) transformations and inversions and reconstructs the geometrical skeleton of the model. The final 3D inversion is carried out with the minimal number of the sought parameters. At each step of the interpretation, the model of the medium is corrected according to the geological information. The practical examples of the suggested method are presented.

  17. Are there realistically interpretable local theories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Espagnat, B.

    1989-01-01

    Although it rests on strongly established proofs, the statement that no realistically interpretable local theory is compatible with some experimentally testable predictions of quantum mechanics seems at first sight to be incompatible with a few general ideas and clear-cut statements occurring in recent theoretical work by Griffiths, Omnes, and Ballentine and Jarrett. It is shown here that in fact none of the developments due to these authors can be considered as a realistically interpretable local theory, so that there is no valid reason for suspecting that the existing proofs of the statement in question are all flawed

  18. A quark interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, Kari.

    1979-01-01

    We propose a physical interpretation of the second level of the combinatorial hierarchy in terms of three quarks, three antiquarks and the vacuum. This interpretation allows us to introduce a new quantum number, which measures electromagnetic mass splitting of the quarks. We extend our argument by analogue to baryons, and find some SU(3) and some new mass formulas for baryons. The generalization of our approach to other hierarchy levels is discussed. We present also an empirical mass formula for baryons, which seems to be loosely connected with the combinatorial hierarchy. (author)

  19. List search hardware for interpretive software

    CERN Document Server

    Altaber, Jacques; Mears, B; Rausch, R

    1979-01-01

    Interpreted languages, e.g. BASIC, are simple to learn, easy to use, quick to modify and in general 'user-friendly'. However, a critically time consuming process during interpretation is that of list searching. A special microprogrammed device for fast list searching has therefore been developed at the SPS Division of CERN. It uses bit- sliced hardware. Fast algorithms perform search, insert and delete of a six-character name and its value in a list of up to 1000 pairs. The prototype shows retrieval times of the order of 10-30 microseconds. (11 refs).

  20. Noncommutative quantum mechanics and Bohm's ontological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2004-01-01

    We carry out an investigation into the possibility of developing a Bohmian interpretation based on the continuous motion of point particles for noncommutative quantum mechanics. The conditions for such an interpretation to be consistent are determined, and the implications of its adoption for noncommutativity are discussed. A Bohmian analysis of the noncommutative harmonic oscillator is carried out in detail. By studying the particle motion in the oscillator orbits, we show that small-scale physics can have influence at large scales, something similar to the IR-UV mixing

  1. Informal Interpreting in General Practice: Comparing the perspectives of General Practitioners, migrant patients and family interpreters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.; Schouten, B.C.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van den Putte, B.

    Objective To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters’ role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. Methods 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties

  2. Court Interpreting in Denmark - the role of court interpreters in Danish courtrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    1999-01-01

    Court interpreters in Denmark are expected to follow the guidelines laid down in the document Instructions for Interpreters, which was published in 1994, and which deals with four principal areas: accuracy and completeness, impartiality, confidentiality and conflict of interest. This paper contends...

  3. 18 CFR 385.1901 - Interpretations and interpretative rules under the NGPA (Rule 1901).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to requests for interpretations to prospective, existing or completed facts, acts, or transactions..., knowledge, and belief there is no untrue statement of a material or relevant fact and there is no omission... misrepresented or omitted or if any material or relevant fact changes after an interpretation is issued or if the...

  4. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  5. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question

  6. Modeling and interpretation of line observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamp Inga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Models for the interpretation of line observations from protoplanetary disks are summarized. The spectrum ranges from 1D LTE slab models to 2D thermo-chemical radiative transfer models and their use depends largely on the type/nature of observational data that is analyzed. I discuss the various types of observational data and their interpretation in the context of disk physical and chemical properties. The most simple spatially and spectral unresolved data are line fluxes, which can be interpreted using so-called Boltzmann diagrams. The interpretation is often tricky due to optical depth and non-LTE effects and requires care. Line profiles contain kinematic information and thus indirectly the spatial origin of the emission. Using series of line profiles, we can for example deduce radial temperature gradients in disks (CO pure rotational ladder. Spectro-astrometry of e.g. CO ro-vibrational line profiles probes the disk structure in the 1–30 AU region, where planet formation through core accretion should be most efficient. Spatially and spectrally resolved line images from (submm interferometers are the richest datasets we have to date and they enable us to unravel exciting details of the radial and vertical disk structure such as winds and asymmetries.

  7. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  8. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  9. Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV&AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher ...

  10. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  11. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo and the theologians of the Inquisition share the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation. Contends that Galileo and these theologians thought that the Bible contained truths about nature, but Galileo denied what the theologians accepted as scientifically true. Contains 93 references.…

  12. Towards a Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Homeopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    1999-01-01

    A quantum interpretation of the homeopathic method is presented. It is shown that provided neither the medication itself, nor the patient is observed, a net effect is expected, even at homeopathic dilutions. The temporal dilution in homeopathic exercise is explained in terms of Heisenberg's theory

  13. Convolutional Neural Networks - Generalizability and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren-Hansen, David

    from data despite it being limited in amount or context representation. Within Machine Learning this thesis focuses on Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer Vision. The research aims to answer how to explore a model's generalizability to the whole population of data samples and how to interpret...

  14. Interpretable neural networks with BP-SOM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijters, A.J.M.M.; Bosch, van den A.P.J.; Pobil, del A.P.; Mira, J.; Ali, M.

    1998-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) are used successfully in industry and commerce. This is not surprising since neural networks are especially competitive for complex tasks for which insufficient domain-specific knowledge is available. However, interpretation of models induced by ANNS is often

  15. 48 CFR 9905.502-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to it as a direct cost any cost, if other costs incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances... to all work of the educational institution. (d) This interpretation does not preclude the allocation... by the educational institution, however, must be followed consistently and the method used to...

  16. Interpretation of Aeromagnetic Anomalies over Abeokuta, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    shallow depth and deeper depths to be 0.467 km and. 2.797 km ... the most widespread rock information within the study area. ... 20 km. For onward processing and interpretation, the data was ... indicate the deep and shallow seated magnetic.

  17. 20 CFR 602.11 - Secretary's interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary's interpretation. 602.11 Section 602.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR QUALITY CONTROL... methods of administration as will reasonably ensure the prompt and full payment of unemployment benefits...

  18. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  19. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  20. 7 CFR 201.56 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56 Interpretation. (a) A seed shall be... and the final count. During the progress of the germination test, seeds which are obviously dead and... evaluation of germination tests made on approved artificial media. This is intended to provide a method of...

  1. Interpretive policy analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, Severine; van Hulst, M.J.; Yanow, Dvora; van Nispen, Frans; Scholten, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines the character of interpretive policy analysis (IPA) and then looks at the history and present state of its practice in the Netherlands. In an approach commonly found in science studies, that history is traced through key actors and their publications, institutional locations,

  2. Causal Indicators Can Help to Interpret Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    The latent factor in a causal indicator model is no more than the latent factor of the factor part of the model. However, if the causal indicator variables are well-understood and help to improve the prediction of individuals' factor scores, they can help to interpret the meaning of the latent factor. Aguirre-Urreta, Rönkkö, and Marakas (2016)…

  3. Feedforward: helping students interpret written feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Hurford, Donna; Read, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners... "(Assessment Reform Group, 2002, p.2): for the Higher Education tutor, written feedback forms an integral part of this. This short article reports on teaching methods to engage students in feedback and assessment of their written work.

  4. A Theoretical Foundation for Tilden's Interpretive Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, William E.

    1981-01-01

    Draws from perceptual and cognitive psychology to present a theoretical basis for the principles of interpretation developed by Freeman Tilden. Emphasized is cognitive map theory which holds that information units people receive, code and store are structured into cognitive models intended to represent the environment. (Author/WB)

  5. Interpreter's Guide to Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Studies Center, Pensacola, FL.

    This booklet was prepared to help the user interpret the natural history of Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail in Escambia County, Florida, and serves as a guide to the animal and plant life. The publication is part of a series of illustrated guides designed for use by teachers and students of all levels in conjunction with field trips to the 1200-acre…

  6. Synchrony in diachronic analysis: the interpretation of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.; Kitis, E.; Lavidas, N.; Topintzi, N.; Tsangalidis, T.

    2011-01-01

    In historical linguistics, it is very common to interpret the data mainly by means of a diachronic approach. In this article, I will claim that, a combination of various linguistic methods, including a synchronic analysis and cross-linguistic parallels, leads to better motivated conclusions. I will

  7. Developing Interpretive Power in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebery, Ann S.; Warren, Beth; Tucker-Raymond, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Early career teachers rarely receive sustained support for addressing issues of diversity and equity in their science teaching. This paper reports on design research to create a 30 hour professional development seminar focused on cultivating the interpretive power of early career teachers who teach science to students from historically…

  8. Video interpretability rating scale under network impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitmair, Thomas; Coman, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the impact of network transmission channel parameters on the quality of streaming video data. A common practice for estimating the interpretability of video information is to use the Motion Imagery Quality Equation (MIQE). MIQE combines a few technical features of video images (such as: ground sampling distance, relative edge response, modulation transfer function, gain and signal-to-noise ratio) to estimate the interpretability level. One observation of this study is that the MIQE does not fully account for video-specific parameters such as spatial and temporal encoding, which are relevant to appreciating degradations caused by the streaming process. In streaming applications the main artifacts impacting the interpretability level are related to distortions in the image caused by lossy decompression of video data (due to loss of information and in some cases lossy re-encoding by the streaming server). One parameter in MIQE that is influenced by network transmission errors is the Relative Edge Response (RER). The automated calculation of RER includes the selection of the best edge in the frame, which in case of network errors may be incorrectly associated with a blocked region (e.g. low resolution areas caused by loss of information). A solution is discussed in this document to address this inconsistency by removing corrupted regions from the image analysis process. Furthermore, a recommendation is made on how to account for network impairments in the MIQE, such that a more realistic interpretability level is estimated in case of streaming applications.

  9. The metaphysics of quantum mechanics: Modal interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Stuart Murray

    2004-11-01

    This dissertation begins with the argument that a preferred way of doing metaphysics is through philosophy of physics. An understanding of quantum physics is vital to answering questions such as: What counts as an individual object in physical ontology? Is the universe fundamentally indeterministic? Are indiscernibles identical? This study explores how the various modal interpretations of quantum mechanics answer these sorts of questions; modal accounts are one of the two classes of interpretations along with so-called collapse accounts. This study suggests a new alternative within the class of modal views that yields a more plausible ontology, one in which the Principle of the Identity of Indisceribles is necessarily true. Next, it shows that modal interpretations can consistently deny that the universe must be fundamentally indeterministic so long as they accept certain other metaphysical commitments: either a perfect initial distribution of states in the universe or some form of primitive dispositional properties. Finally, the study sketches out a future research project for modal interpretations based on developing quantified quantum logic.

  10. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost Accounting...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.403-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.403-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost Accounting...

  14. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  15. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  16. Charts for interpreting wildland fire behavior characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Richard C. Rothermel

    1982-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is proposed as a graphical method ofpresenting two primary characteristics of fire behavior – spread rate and intensity. Its primary use is communicating and interpreting either site-specific predictions of fire behavior or National Fire-Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes and components. Rate of spread, heat per unit area, flame length...

  17. [Interpretation of proverbs and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, S; Mendoza, L; Reyes, P; Matallana, D; Montañés, P

    To evaluate the performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the mild-moderate stage in a verbal material abstraction task that involves interpreting the implicit meaning of proverbs and sayings. A qualitative-quantitative analysis was carried out of the performance of 30 patients with AD and 30 controls, paired by age, gender and level of education. Patients had significantly greater difficulties than the controls when it came to interpreting proverbs. A high correlation was found between subjects' years of schooling and the overall score on the proverb interpretation test. Results suggest that the processes that may be predominantly affected in patients with AD are the investigation of the conditions of the problem, together with selecting an alternative and formulating a cognitive plan to resolve the task. The results help to further our knowledge of the characteristics of performance of patients with AD in a test involving the interpretation of the implicit meaning of proverbs and also provide information about the processes that may be predominantly affected. Further research is needed, however, on this subject area in order to obtain more conclusive explanations.

  18. Coherent discourse solves the pronoun interpretation problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spenader, J.K.; Smits, Erik; Hendriks, P.

    Many comprehension studies have shown that children as late as age 6;6 misinterpret object pronouns as co-referring with the referential subject about half the time. A recent review of earlier experiments testing children's interpretation of object pronouns in sentences with quantified subjects

  19. Biased Facial Expression Interpretation in Shy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokin, Jessica; Younger, Alastair; Gosselin, Pierre; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between shyness and the interpretations of the facial expressions of others was examined in a sample of 123 children aged 12 to 14?years. Participants viewed faces displaying happiness, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, as well as a neutral expression, presented on a computer screen. The children identified each expression…

  20. Interpreting XML documents via an RDF schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Michel; Handschuh, Siegfried; Staab, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    One of the major problems in the realization of the vision of the ``Semantic Web''; is the transformation of existing web data into sources that can be processed and used by machines. This paper presents a procedure that can be used to turn XML documents into knowledge structures, by interpreting

  1. Electrocardiogram interpretation skills among ambulance nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kristoffer; Kander, Kristofer; Axelsson, Christer

    2016-06-01

    To describe ambulance nurses' practical electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation skills and to measure the correlation between these skills and factors that may impact on the level of knowledge. This study was conducted using a prospective quantitative survey with questionnaires and a knowledge test. A convenience sample collection was conducted among ambulance nurses in three different districts in western Sweden. The knowledge test consisted of nine different ECGs. The score of the ECG test were correlated against the questions in the questionnaire regarding both general ECG interpretation skill and ability to identify acute myocardial infarction using Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank correlation. On average, the respondents had 54% correct answers on the test and identified 46% of the ECGs indicating acute myocardial infarction. The median total score was 9 of 16 (interquartile range 7-11) and 1 of 3 (IQR 1-2) in infarction points. No correlation between ECG interpretation skill and factors such as education and professional experience was found, except that coronary care unit experience was associated with better results on the ECG test. Ambulance nurses have deficiencies in their ECG interpretation skills. This also applies to conditions where the ambulance crew has great potential to improve the outcome of the patient's health, such as myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. Neither education, extensive experience in ambulance service nor in nursing contributed to an improved result. The only factor of importance for higher ECG interpretation knowledge was prior experience of working in a coronary care unit. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  2. Interpreting parameters in the logistic regression model with random effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2000-01-01

    interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects......interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects...

  3. Informal interpreting in general practice: Are interpreters' roles related to perceived control, trust, and satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Rena; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M; van den Putte, Bas

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this observational study was twofold. First, we examined how often and which roles informal interpreters performed during consultations between Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and general practitioners (GPs). Second, relations between these roles and patients' and GPs' perceived control, trust in informal interpreters and satisfaction with the consultation were assessed. A coding instrument was developed to quantitatively code informal interpreters' roles from transcripts of 84 audio-recorded interpreter-mediated consultations in general practice. Patients' and GPs' perceived control, trust and satisfaction were assessed in a post consultation questionnaire. Informal interpreters most often performed the conduit role (almost 25% of all coded utterances), and also frequently acted as replacers and excluders of patients and GPs by asking and answering questions on their own behalf, and by ignoring and omitting patients' and GPs' utterances. The role of information source was negatively related to patients' trust and the role of GP excluder was negatively related to patients' perceived control. Patients and GPs are possibly insufficiently aware of the performed roles of informal interpreters, as these were barely related to patients' and GPs' perceived trust, control and satisfaction. Patients and GPs should be educated about the possible negative consequences of informal interpreting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On Thermodynamic Interpretation of Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don C. Price

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a thermodynamic interpretation of transfer entropy near equilibrium, using a specialised Boltzmann’s principle. The approach relates conditional probabilities to the probabilities of the corresponding state transitions. This in turn characterises transfer entropy as a difference of two entropy rates: the rate for a resultant transition and another rate for a possibly irreversible transition within the system affected by an additional source. We then show that this difference, the local transfer entropy, is proportional to the external entropy production, possibly due to irreversibility. Near equilibrium, transfer entropy is also interpreted as the difference in equilibrium stabilities with respect to two scenarios: a default case and the case with an additional source. Finally, we demonstrated that such a thermodynamic treatment is not applicable to information flow, a measure of causal effect.

  5. Interpreting peptide mass spectra by VEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Rune; Lundsgaard, M.; Welinder, Karen G.

    2003-01-01

    the calculated and the experimental mass spectrum of the called peptide. The program package includes four accessory programs. VEMStrans creates protein databases in FASTA format from EST or cDNA sequence files. VEMSdata creates a virtual peptide database from FASTA files. VEMSdist displays the distribution......Most existing Mass Spectra (MS) analysis programs are automatic and provide limited opportunity for editing during the interpretation. Furthermore, they rely entirely on publicly available databases for interpretation. VEMS (Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist) is a program for interactive analysis...... of peptide MS/MS spectra imported in text file format. Peaks are annotated, the monoisotopic peaks retained, and the b-and y-ion series identified in an interactive manner. The called peptide sequence is searched against a local protein database for sequence identity and peptide mass. The report compares...

  6. Interpreting Quantum Logic as a Pragmatic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garola, Claudio

    2017-12-01

    Many scholars maintain that the language of quantum mechanics introduces a quantum notion of truth which is formalized by (standard, sharp) quantum logic and is incompatible with the classical (Tarskian) notion of truth. We show that quantum logic can be identified (up to an equivalence relation) with a fragment of a pragmatic language LGP of assertive formulas, that are justified or unjustified rather than trueor false. Quantum logic can then be interpreted as an algebraic structure that formalizes properties of the notion of empirical justification according to quantum mechanics rather than properties of a quantum notion of truth. This conclusion agrees with a general integrationist perspective that interprets nonstandard logics as theories of metalinguistic notions different from truth, thus avoiding incompatibility with classical notions and preserving the globality of logic.

  7. Probabilistic interpretation of data a physicist's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Guthrie

    2013-01-01

    This book is a physicists approach to interpretation of data using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The concepts are derived from first principles using a style of mathematics that quickly elucidates the basic ideas, sometimes with the aid of examples. Probabilistic data interpretation is a straightforward problem involving conditional probability. A prior probability distribution is essential, and examples are given. In this small book (200 pages) the reader is led from the most basic concepts of mathematical probability all the way to parallel processing algorithms for Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Fortran source code (for eigenvalue analysis of finite discrete Markov Chains, for MCMC, and for nonlinear least squares) is included with the supplementary material for this book (available online).

  8. The interpretation of the iota meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors analyze the iota (1440) meson in a non-relativistic quark model. The authors review the experimental data, then attempt to incorporate it in the mass spectrum and radiative decays of the low-lying pseudoscalar and vector mesons. Correlating these results with production decay rates from J/psi and the radiative decays of iota, the authors conclude that the iota has to be interpreted as having a strong gluonium component

  9. Interpreting the CMMI a process improvement approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Margaret K

    2008-01-01

    Written by experienced process improvement professionals who have developed and implemented computer based systems in organizations around the world, Interpreting the CMMI®: A Process Improvement Approach, Second Edition provides you with specific techniques for performing process improvement. Employing everyday language and supported by real world examples, the authors describe the fundamental concepts of the CMMI model, covering goals, practices, architecture, and definitions, and provide a structured approach for implementing the concepts of the CMMI into any organization. They discuss gett

  10. Interpretation of commonly used statistical regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Jessica; Wolfe, Rory

    2014-01-01

    A review of some regression models commonly used in respiratory health applications is provided in this article. Simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression are considered. The focus of this article is on the interpretation of the regression coefficients of each model, which are illustrated through the application of these models to a respiratory health research study. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. New Interpretation of the Wigner Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboul, Jamil

    1996-01-01

    I define a two-sided or forward-backward propagator for the pseudo-diffusion equation of the 'squeezed' Q function. This propagator leads to squeezing in one of the phase-space variables and anti-squeezing in the other. By noting that the Q function is related to the Wigner function by a special case of the above propagator, I am led to a new interpretation of the Wigner function.

  12. Quasi-equilibrium interpretation of aging dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, S.; Virasoro, M.A.

    2000-04-01

    We develop an interpretation of the off-equilibrium dynamical solution of mean-field glassy models in terms of quasi-equilibrium concepts. We show that the relaxation of the 'thermoremanent magnetization' follows a generalized version of the Onsager regression postulate of induced fluctuations. We then find the rationale for the equality between the fluctuation-dissipation ratio and the rate of growth of the configurational entropy close to the asymptotic state, found empirically in mean-field solutions. (author)

  13. Interpretation of radiograms using digital computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, M.I.; Den'shchikov, K.K.; Sal'man, M.M.; Pechennikov, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    The potentialities of the use of a combined method of interactive and automated processing of radiograms with the help of digital computers (DC) are discussed. The data obtained have shown that DC-assissted interpretation of radiograms makes it possible to detect small formations in the chest undectable in a routine X-ray examination. However there can occur undesirable false detection of pathology resulting from algorithm sensitivity

  14. Internal disruptions in Tokamak: a turbulent interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, M.A.; Pecquet, A.L.; Reverdin, C.

    1982-07-01

    High speed X-ray data of sawteeth in TFR are interpreted using a kinematic model. It is shown that the internal disruption begins for a small size of the q = 1 island, and that the sharp details observed on different chords are not reproduced by a total reconnection model. Conversely they are well simulated by a model where the temperature flattening is due to the propagation of a turbulent region starting from the q = 1 surface

  15. PROBABLE FORECASTING IN THE COURSE OF INTERPRETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. B. Kagan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Translation practice has a heuristic nature and involves cognitive structures of consciousness of any interpreter. When preparing translators, special attention is paid to the development of their skill of probable forecasting.The aim of the present publication is to understand the process of anticipation from the position of the cognitive model of translation, development of exercises aimed at the development of prognostic abilities of students and interpreters when working with newspaper articles, containing metaphorical headlines.Methodology and research methods. The study is based on the competence approach to the training of students-translators, the complex of interrelated scientific methods, the main of which is the psycholinguistic experiment. With the use of quantitative data the features of the perception of newspaper texts on their metaphorical titles are characterized.Results and scientific novelty. On the basis of the conducted experiment to predict the content of newspaper articles with metaphorical headlines it is concluded that the main condition of predictability is the expectation. Probable forecasting as a professional competence of a future translator is formed in the process of training activities by integrating efforts of various departments of any language university. Specific exercises for the development of anticipation of students while studying the course of translation and interpretation are offered.Practical significance. The results of the study can be used by foreign language teachers of both language and non-language universities in teaching students of different specialties to translate foreign texts. 

  16. Problems in black-hole entropy interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this work some proposals for black-hole entropy interpretation are exposed and investigated. In particular, the author will firstly consider the so-called 'entanglement entropy' interpretation, in the framework of the brick wall model and the divergence problem arising in the one-loop calculations of various thermodynamical quantities, like entropy, internal energy and heat capacity. It is shown that the assumption of equality of entanglement entropy and Bekenstein-Hawking one appears to give inconsistent results. These will be a starting point for a different interpretation of black.hole entropy based on peculiar topological structures of manifolds with 'intrinsic' thermodynamical features. It is possible to show an exact relation between black-hole gravitational entropy and topology of these Euclidean space-times. the expression for the Euler characteristic, through the Gauss-Bonnet integral, and the one for entropy for gravitational instantons are proposed in a form which makes the relation between these self-evident. Using this relation he propose a generalization of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in which the former and Euler characteristic are related in the equation S = χA / 8. Finally, he try to expose some conclusions and hypotheses about possible further development of this research

  17. Sites of Sign-Production and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ana Tupan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available T.S. Eliot’s query in The Waste Land, “Who is the third who walks always beside you?” may be said to sum up the hermeneutic situation of any language act, whether of sign production or interpretation. Whereas traditional topoi of expressionist aesthetics, such as the artist’s subjectivity, empirical psychology, truthfulness, intentionality, etc. have become irrelevant in the heteroglottic discourse of the most famous dirge on the decaying West, Eliot’s awareness of the matrical role of cultural semiosis allows us to place him among the founding fathers of semiotic aesthetics. The anagnorisis episode in The Waste Land is one of appropriate reading of the body of Christ through knowledge of the crucifixion scene and associated symbolism.Rooted in the insights of Charles Peirce Sanders and Charles Morris, and enlarged by post-war contributors, such as Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco, Michael B. Hardt, Richard Rudner, Foucault, Vattimo, Baudrillard and Deleuze, the semiotic, cultural materialist, or genetic approach  to art makes interpretation dependent on a mediating third (Peirce: the Interpretant, which is variously related to context, regime of signification, episteme, schemata, generic convention, structure of feeling, triangulation of desire ...

  18. An objective interpretation of Lagrangian quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike classical mechanics, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics does not provide an objective space-time picture of the actual history of a physical system. This paper suggests how the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics can be reformulated, without changing the mathematical content of the theory or its detailed agreement with experiment and without introducing any hidden variables, in order to provide an objective, covariant, Lagrangian description of reality which is deterministic and time-symmetric on the microscopic scale. The basis of this description can be expressed either as an action functional or as a summation over Feynman diagrams or paths. The probability laws associated with the quantum-mechanical measurement process, and the asymmetry in time of the principles of macroscopic causality and of the laws of statistical mechanics, are interpreted as consequences of the particular boundary conditions that apply to the actual universe. The objective interpretation does not include the observer and the measurement process among the fundamental concepts of the theory, but it does not entail a revision of the ideas of determinism and of time, since in a Lagrangian theory both initial and final boundary conditions on the action functional are required. (author)

  19. Interpretable Categorization of Heterogeneous Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Kochenderfer, Mykel J.; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Silbermann, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    We analyze data from simulated aircraft encounters to validate and inform the development of a prototype aircraft collision avoidance system. The high-dimensional and heterogeneous time series dataset is analyzed to discover properties of near mid-air collisions (NMACs) and categorize the NMAC encounters. Domain experts use these properties to better organize and understand NMAC occurrences. Existing solutions either are not capable of handling high-dimensional and heterogeneous time series datasets or do not provide explanations that are interpretable by a domain expert. The latter is critical to the acceptance and deployment of safety-critical systems. To address this gap, we propose grammar-based decision trees along with a learning algorithm. Our approach extends decision trees with a grammar framework for classifying heterogeneous time series data. A context-free grammar is used to derive decision expressions that are interpretable, application-specific, and support heterogeneous data types. In addition to classification, we show how grammar-based decision trees can also be used for categorization, which is a combination of clustering and generating interpretable explanations for each cluster. We apply grammar-based decision trees to a simulated aircraft encounter dataset and evaluate the performance of four variants of our learning algorithm. The best algorithm is used to analyze and categorize near mid-air collisions in the aircraft encounter dataset. We describe each discovered category in detail and discuss its relevance to aircraft collision avoidance.

  20. Data analysis and interpretation for environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Data Analysis and Interpretation for Environmental Surveillance Conference was held in Lexington, Kentucky, February 5--7, 1990. The conference was sponsored by what is now the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Participants included technical professionals from all Martin Marietta Energy Systems facilities, Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and several technical support contractors. Presentations at the conference ranged the full spectrum of issues that effect the analysis and interpretation of environmental data. Topics included tracking systems for samples and schedules associated with ongoing programs; coalescing data from a variety of sources and pedigrees into integrated data bases; methods for evaluating the quality of environmental data through empirical estimates of parameters such as charge balance, pH, and specific conductance; statistical applications to the interpretation of environmental information; and uses of environmental information in risk and dose assessments. Hearing about and discussing this wide variety of topics provided an opportunity to capture the subtlety of each discipline and to appreciate the continuity that is required among the disciplines in order to perform high-quality environmental information analysis

  1. Truth, Representation and Interpretation: The Popper Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Stan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine several points of reference regarding the way in which Karl Popper built up his philosophical discourse. I locate two specific ways in which Popper interpreted and used ideas belonging to other philosophers. Thus I distinguish in Popper between a projective hermeneutics (where the author uses a thesis that forms a part of his own philosophy in order to reconstruct and understand the ideas of another philosopher and anideological hermeneutics (where he uses a statement expressing an interest of the community whereof he is a member in order to interpret and reconstruct the text of another philosopher. In so doing I also highlight the considerable asymmetry between a representationalist hermeneutics, and a projective and, respectively, an ideological one. Whereas in the first case the interpreter wishes to unveil a truth about the philosophical text, in the other two he israther expressing a desire to talk about himself, his own beliefs and convictions, or about the beliefs of his community of reference.

  2. On the Interpretation of Top Partners Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Matsedonskyi, Oleksii; Wulzer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Relatively light Top Partners are unmistakable signatures of reasonably Natural Composite Higgs models and as such they are worth searching for at the LHC. Their phenomenology is characterized by a certain amount of model-dependence, which makes the interpretation of Top Partner experimental searches not completely straightforward especially if one is willing to take also single production into account. We describe a model-independent strategy by which the interpretation is provided on the parameter space of a Simplified Model that captures the relevant features of all the explicit constructions. The Simplified Model limits are easy to interpret within explicit models, in a way that requires no recasting and no knowledge of the experimental details of the analyses. We illustrate the method by concrete examples, among which the searches for a charge 5/3 Partner in same-sign dileptons and the searches for a charge 2/3 singlet. In each case we perform a theory recasting of the available 8 TeV Run-1 results and a...

  3. Problems Faced by Court Interpreters in Botswana | Miyanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 19 (2009) > ... The problems established include lack of training for interpreters, the absence of a job description and guidelines for interpreters, long hours of work, lack of a forum for interpreters to share ideas on their job, lack ... other staff, and lack of equipment such as microphones during interpreting.

  4. The Loud, Clear, and Transporting Voice of Oral Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartabedian, Robert A.

    This essay examines the art of oral interpretation from a "vocal" perspective--that is, it focuses on the crucial nature of vocal dimensions in oral interpretation. Moreover, the essay argues for an interpreter's hierarchy of vocal needs (modeled after Abraham Maslow's 1970 theory). The interpreter's hierarchy of vocal needs involves…

  5. Three Interpretations of the Matrix Equation Ax = b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christine; Zandieh, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Many of the central ideas in an introductory undergraduate linear algebra course are closely tied to a set of interpretations of the matrix equation Ax = b (A is a matrix, x and b are vectors): linear combination interpretations, systems interpretations, and transformation interpretations. We consider graphic and symbolic representations for each,…

  6. Lineament interpretation. Short review and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, Sven (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The ground comprises the solid and continuous surface of the Earth. The crystalline crust, i.e. bedrock, is exposed or covered with sediments and vegetation. The morphology of the ground surface is influenced by a combination of tectonometamorphic- magmatic processes (building up) and denudation/erosion processes (tearing down). Landforms are related to these processes and the character of the bedrock (lithologies and structures), and the distribution of soil or other unconsolidated, superficial material. By using remote-sensing techniques applied for structural analysis of the ground surface, it is possible to map features in the terrain that are related to bedrock structures provided that the topography of the bedrock surface is not totally concealed below a cover of soil or other loose material. Even though the sedimentary cover is relatively thick it may be distorted and the ground surface displaced by late faulting in the basement rock. Studies of the relation between structures in the bedrock and the topography started more than 150 years ago. Hobbs (1903, 1912) introduced the fundamental concept of 'lineaments' and described them as 'significant lines in the Earth's face' and later he concluded that they are 'lines in the landscape which reveal the hidden architecture of the basement'. When airborne geophysical measurements started approximately fifty years ago such data were used to compliment the topographical interpretation of basement structures. Source data for studies of lineaments consist of information on the topography (e.g. topographical maps, aerial photos, elevation data, multi-spectral sensing, laser, radar and thermography) and geophysical data (e.g. airborne geophysical data comprising magnetic, electromagnetic, radiation measurements, and gravimetric measurements). The outcome of a lineament study depends on the terrain in the investigated area, the source data, the approach and systematic performance in the

  7. Lineament interpretation. Short review and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven

    2010-11-01

    The ground comprises the solid and continuous surface of the Earth. The crystalline crust, i.e. bedrock, is exposed or covered with sediments and vegetation. The morphology of the ground surface is influenced by a combination of tectonometamorphic- magmatic processes (building up) and denudation/erosion processes (tearing down). Landforms are related to these processes and the character of the bedrock (lithologies and structures), and the distribution of soil or other unconsolidated, superficial material. By using remote-sensing techniques applied for structural analysis of the ground surface, it is possible to map features in the terrain that are related to bedrock structures provided that the topography of the bedrock surface is not totally concealed below a cover of soil or other loose material. Even though the sedimentary cover is relatively thick it may be distorted and the ground surface displaced by late faulting in the basement rock. Studies of the relation between structures in the bedrock and the topography started more than 150 years ago. Hobbs (1903, 1912) introduced the fundamental concept of 'lineaments' and described them as 'significant lines in the Earth's face' and later he concluded that they are 'lines in the landscape which reveal the hidden architecture of the basement'. When airborne geophysical measurements started approximately fifty years ago such data were used to compliment the topographical interpretation of basement structures. Source data for studies of lineaments consist of information on the topography (e.g. topographical maps, aerial photos, elevation data, multi-spectral sensing, laser, radar and thermography) and geophysical data (e.g. airborne geophysical data comprising magnetic, electromagnetic, radiation measurements, and gravimetric measurements). The outcome of a lineament study depends on the terrain in the investigated area, the source data, the approach and systematic performance in the interpretation, and the skill of

  8. Barak’s Purposive Interpretation in Law as a Pattern of Constitutional Interpretative Fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Tanasije

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Political jurisprudence points out that constitutional court judges sometimes act like political actors, and that their decisions are a function of strategic and ideological as much as legal considerations. Consequently, the proper role of the courts, notably in exercising their review of constitutionality, has been one of the most debated issues in modern political and legal theory. Part of the controversy is also how to measure the interpretative fidelity of judges to the constitutional texts, or conversely, the level of their political engagement. This paper argues for the reconsideration of Aharon Barak’s Purposive Interpretation in Law in that light. Barak’s work was intended to provide, in the first place, judges and other lawyers with a sort of judicial philosophy – a holistic system of legal reasoning, applying both to the interpretation of will, contract, statute and constitution. Nevertheless, these conventions of legal reasoning, modified and readapted, could well be used also as heuristic tools by the academics in measuring the interpretative fidelity of judges to various sources of law. Accordingly, this paper clings closely to the presentation of Barak’s precepts for the purposive interpretation of constitutions, by focusing on the notions of subjective and objective purpose in interpreting constitutions, and how the potential conflicts between these purposes are resolved.

  9. Combination and interpretation of observables in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virey Jean-Marc

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard cosmological model has deep theoretical foundations but need the introduction of two major unknown components, dark matter and dark energy, to be in agreement with various observations. Dark matter describes a non-relativistic collisionless fluid of (non baryonic matter which amount to 25% of the total density of the universe. Dark energy is a new kind of fluid not of matter type, representing 70% of the total density which should explain the recent acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Alternatively, one can reject this idea of adding one or two new components but argue that the equations used to make the interpretation should be modified consmological scales. Instead of dark matter one can invoke a failure of Newton's laws. Instead of dark energy, two approaches are proposed : general relativity (in term of the Einstein equation should be modified, or the cosmological principle which fixes the metric used for cosmology should be abandonned. One of the main objective of the community is to find the path of the relevant interpretations thanks to the next generation of experiments which should provide large statistics of observationnal data. Unfortunately, cosmological in formations are difficult to pin down directly fromt he measurements, and it is mandatory to combine the various observables to get the cosmological parameters. This is not problematic from the statistical point of view, but assumptions and approximations made for the analysis may bias our interprettion of the data. Consequently, a strong attention should be paied to the statistical methods used to make parameters estimation and for model testing. After a review of the basics of cosmology where the cosmological parameters are introduced, we discuss the various cosmological probes and their associated observables used to extract cosmological informations. We present the results obtained from several statistical analyses combining data of diferent nature but

  10. Chest radiograph interpretation by medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, D.R.; Goddard, P.R.; Callaway, M.P.; Greenwood, R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of final year medical students to interpret conventional chest radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten conventional chest radiographs were selected from a teaching hospital radiology department library that were good radiological examples of common conditions. All were conditions that a medical student should be expected to recognize by the end of their training. One normal radiograph was included. The radiographs were shown to 52 final year medical students who were asked to describe their findings. RESULTS: The median score achieved was 12.5 out of 20 (range 6-18). There was no difference between the median scores of male and female students (12.5 and 12.3, respectively, p=0.82) but male students were more likely to be certain of their answers than female students (median certainty scores 23.0 and 14.0, respectively). The overall degree of certainty was low. On no radiograph were more than 25% of students definite about their answer. Students had received little formal radiology teaching (2-42 h, median 21) and few expressed an interest in radiology as a career. Only two (3.8%) students thought they were good at interpreting chest radiographs, 17 (32.7%) thought they were bad or awful. CONCLUSION: Medical students reaching the end of their training do not perform well at interpreting simple chest radiographs. They lack confidence and have received little formal radiological tuition. Perhaps as a result, few are interested in radiology as a career, which is a matter for concern in view of the current shortage of radiologists in the UK

  11. NAIL SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND ITS INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TZAR MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical suspicion of onychomyosis based on appearance of the nails, requires culture for confirmation. This is because treatment requires prolonged use of systemic agents which may cause side effects. One of the common problems encountered is improper nail sampling technique which results in loss of essential information. The unfamiliar terminologies used in reporting culture results may intimidate physicians resulting in misinterpretation and hamper treatment decision. This article provides a simple guide on nail sampling technique and the interpretation of culture results.

  12. Constituent gluon interpretation of glueballs and gluelumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, N.; Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.; Semay, C.

    2008-01-01

    Arguments are given that support the interpretation of the lattice QCD glueball and gluelump spectra in terms of bound states of massless constituent gluons with helicity 1. In this scheme, we show that the mass hierarchy of the currently known gluelumps and glueballs is mainly due to the number of constituent gluons and can be understood within a simple flux tube model. It is also argued that the lattice QCD 0 +- glueball should be seen as a four-gluon bound state. We finally predict the mass of the 0 - state, not yet computed in lattice QCD. (orig.)

  13. Statistics and Data Interpretation for Social Work

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, James

    2011-01-01

    "Without question, this text will be the most authoritative source of information on statistics in the human services. From my point of view, it is a definitive work that combines a rigorous pedagogy with a down to earth (commonsense) exploration of the complex and difficult issues in data analysis (statistics) and interpretation. I welcome its publication.". -Praise for the First Edition. Written by a social worker for social work students, this is a nuts and bolts guide to statistics that presents complex calculations and concepts in clear, easy-to-understand language. It includes

  14. Defining Marriage: Classification, Interpretation, and Definitional Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Macagno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The classification of a state of affairs under a legal category can be considered as a kind of con- densed decision that can be made explicit, analyzed, and assessed us- ing argumentation schemes. In this paper, the controversial conflict of opinions concerning the nature of “marriage” in Obergefell v. Hodges is analyzed pointing out the dialecti- cal strategies used for addressing the interpretive doubts. The dispute about the same-sex couples’ right to marry hides a much deeper disa- greement not only about what mar- riage is, but more importantly about the dialectical rules for defining it.

  15. How to interpret liver function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Careful interpretation of liver function tests within the clinical context can help elucidate the cause and severity of the underlying pathology. Predominantly raised alkaline phosphatase represents the cholestatic pattern of biliary pathology, whilst predominantly raised alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase represent the hepatocellular pattern of hepatocellular pathology. The severity of liver dysfunction or biliary obstruction is reflected in the bilirubin level and the degree of liver synthetic function can also be indicated by the albumin level. Beyond the liver function tests, prothrombin time provides another marker of liver synthetic function and a low platelet count suggests portal hypertension.

  16. Popular cinema and lesbian interpretive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobinson, C; Young, K

    2000-01-01

    In its examination of the relationship between popular film and lesbian viewing practices, this study attempts to more fully elucidate current ideas around audience engagement and forms of cultural reception. Drawing on 15 in-depth interviews conducted in Western Canada in 1996, the results clearly demonstrate the existence of active lesbian viewers, whose interpretations of popular film are intimately informed by lesbian-specific life experiences and cultural competencies. Although the social conditions which create the need for resistant viewing are themselves oppressive, subversion of mainstream film holds out some possibility of empowerment for lesbian viewers.

  17. Static analysis of software the abstract interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature currently available to students and researchers is very general, covering only the formal techniques of static analysis. This book presents real examples of the formal techniques called ""abstract interpretation"" currently being used in various industrial fields: railway, aeronautics, space, automotive, etc. The purpose of this book is to present students and researchers, in a single book, with the wealth of experience of people who are intrinsically involved in the realization and evaluation of software-based safety critical systems. As the authors are people curr

  18. Advanced oral radiographic interpretations. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, K.C.; Langlais, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The book will help to interpret X-ray pictures, differential diagnoses are developed, and the resulting unambiguous information is combined in order to arrive at the ultimate diagnosis. 88 cases are presented with their anamneses, symptomes, clinical findings, and laboratory data. In some cases also photographs and histological sections are presented. The case histories, characteristic findings, and X-ray pictures selected are typical of those cases in which diagnosis is difficult. Most X-ray pictures presented in the book are typical of the pertinent diseases. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Algorithmic tools for interpreting vital signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Melina C; Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A

    2009-07-01

    Today's complex world of nursing practice challenges nurse educators to develop teaching methods that promote critical thinking skills and foster quick problem solving in the novice nurse. Traditional pedagogies previously used in the classroom and clinical setting are no longer adequate to prepare nursing students for entry into practice. In addition, educators have expressed frustration when encouraging students to apply newly learned theoretical content to direct the care of assigned patients in the clinical setting. This article presents algorithms as an innovative teaching strategy to guide novice student nurses in the interpretation and decision making related to vital sign assessment in an acute care setting.

  20. European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    Within Europe there is increasing freedom of movement between countries and increasing inward migration. As a result, equivalent standards of legl interpreting and translation are required to allow reliable communication for judicial cooperation between member states, for criminal and civil matters...... which cross national borders and for the needs of multilingual populations. The European Convention of Human Rights (article 6, paragrph 3) is one of the main planks of relevant legislation. This international, two year project has been funded by the EU Grotius programme to set out what is required...

  1. Re-Interpreting the "Chinese miracle"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2011-01-01

    The rapid economic development and transformation of Chinese society over the past three decades has, by a large mass of analysts, been called a "Miracle." This paper not only addresses the shortcomings of existing interpretations but also develops a new multi-dimensional framework based on North......'s theory of institutional change and Hayek's theory of institutional evolution to explain China's miraculous growth. Our analysis shows that both Hayekian spontaneous order and Popper's "piecemeal social engineering" played a major role in attaining China's miraculous growth....

  2. Causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2014-01-01

    We give a causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by defining the postintervention SDE resulting from an intervention in an SDE. We show that under Lipschitz conditions, the solution to the postintervention SDE is equal to a uniform limit in probability of postintervention...... structural equation models based on the Euler scheme of the original SDE, thus relating our definition to mainstream causal concepts. We prove that when the driving noise in the SDE is a Lévy process, the postintervention distribution is identifiable from the generator of the SDE....

  3. De Broglie's causal interpretations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dov, Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this article we trace the history of de Broglie's two causal interpretations of quantum mechanics, namely the double solution and the pilot wave theories, at the two periods in which he developed them: 1924-27 and 1952 onwards. Examining the reasons for which he always preferred the first theory to the second, reasons that are mainly concerned with the question of the physical nature of the quantum wave function, we try to show the continuity and the coherence of his underlying vision

  4. Neutrons and antimony physical measurements and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    New experimental information for the elastic and inelastic scattering of ∼ 4--10 MeV neutrons from elemental antimony is presented. The differential measurements are made at ∼ 40 or more scattering angles and at incident neutron-energy intervals of ∼ 0.5 MeV. The present experimental results, those previously reported from this laboratory and as found in the literature are comprehensively interpreted using spherical optical-statistical and dispersive-optical models. Direct vibrational processes via core-excitation, isospin and shell effects are discussed. Antimony models for applications are proposed and compared with global, regional, and specific models reported in the literature

  5. Rational interpretation of the postulates in plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly focussed on revisited of the two well-known postulates of plasticity, i.e., the Drucker and the Il’iushin postulate, and it describes their rational interpretation within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics and using exterior calculus. It shows that the Il’iushin and the Drucker postulate is the integral form and local form of the irreversible thermodynamics of plastic deformation, respectively. The Drucker and Il’iushin postulate is equivalent for both soft and hardening materials.

  6. Karl Popper and the Copenhagen interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Asher

    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated it. Many authors who have examined Popper's analysis have found in it various technical flaws which are briefly summarized here. However, the aim of the present article is not technical. My concern is to redress logical flaws in Popper's argument: the terminology he uses is ambiguous, his analysis involves counterfactual hypotheses, and it violates Bohr's complementarity principle. Therefore, the absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.

  7. Interpreting indigenous art in university collections

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Debates on the representation of indigenous cultures in museums have come to the fore in the past thirty years. This paper examines the context for the opening of Waipapa Marae at the University of Auckland in 1988. It outlines a history of Māori meeting houses used for teaching and learning in a specifically Māori context in the New Zealand tertiary sector. The challenge for the university curator with a marae as part of the collection is how to interpret it for the 21st century. Facilitatin...

  8. WIMP Dark Matter interpretation of Higgs results

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Renjie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The results from searching for dark matter either directly from invisible decay of Higgs bosons or in association with a Higgs boson at the LHC are presented. No significant excess is found beyond the Standard Model prediction, and upper limits are set on the production cross section times branching fraction using data collected in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV by the ATLAS and CMS detectors. An interpreted upper limit is presented on the allowed dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section.

  9. Geometric interpretation of optimal iteration strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between inner and outer iteration errors is extremely complex, and even formal description of total error behavior is difficult. Inner and outer iteration error propagation is analyzed in a variational formalism for a reactor model describing multidimensional, one-group theory. In a generalization the work of Akimov and Sabek, the number of inner iterations performed during each outer serial that minimizes the total computation time is determined. The generalized analysis admits a geometric interpretation of total error behavior. The results can be applied to both transport and diffusion theory computer methods. 1 figure

  10. The ICRP working party on bioassay interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Birchall, A.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there have been many developments in modelling the behaviour of radionuclides in the human body. The current generation of models are designed to be more 'realistic' than the previous generation of simple compartment models. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) uses these models to produce dose coefficients and recognises that there is a need to give more guidance on how these models can be used to interpret bioassay data. A working party has been set up to address the issue. This paper describes some of the problems, some approaches to solving the problems and the progress of the ICRP working party. (author)

  11. A Complexity Analysis of Functional Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernest, Mircea-Dan; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of G ̈odel’s functional interpretation and its monotone variant. The two have been used for the extraction of programs and numerical bounds as well as for conservation results. They apply both to (semi-)intuitionistic as well as (combined with negative translation...... of the verifying proof. In all cases terms of size linear in the size of the proof at input can be extracted and the corresponding extraction algorithms have cubic worst-time complexity. The verifying proofs have depth linear in the depth of the proof at input and the maximal size of a formula of this proof....

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNĂTESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.

  13. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Redman-MacLaren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective: To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design: A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results: New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions: Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.

  14. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or 'chunks' of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data 'chunks'. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.

  15. INTERPRETATION OF CULTURAL PROFILES OF MODERN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Shopov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The needs of the real management practice of theoretical and applied knowledge, that allows it methodological properly and methodically right to implement appropriate changes in corporate culture and management-specific behavior of the organization, require a study on the highlights in the new company culture and interpretation of cultural profiles. Current paper outlines some of the basic formulations that describe more fully the concept of "culture" and makes clear in the light of the views of leading authors in this field the term "corporate culture". Corporate culture is viewed as a set of values, assumptions, beliefs and norms that are formed over time from the interaction of all members which subsequently perceive them as personal and at the same time as a very powerful factor that determines the individual and group behavior of people in a business organization. The developed organizational culture is a strategic competitive advantage for organizations. The main conclusions of the analysis show that in the research field that arises in the interpretation of cultural profiles, there are opportunities provided for finding technical and methodological solutions that complement and enrich the empirical search on the usability of the strategy aimed at organizational culture. The joint values enrich the culture of labor and management, thus targeting staff, customers and suppliers with established and appropriate time regulations and management style. The goal set assists and guides people in carrying out their duties within the organization.

  16. Blackboard architecture for medical image interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darryl N.; Taylor, Christopher J.

    1991-06-01

    There is a growing interest in using sophisticated knowledge-based systems for biomedical image interpretation. We present a principled attempt to use artificial intelligence methodologies in interpreting lateral skull x-ray images. Such radiographs are routinely used in cephalometric analysis to provide quantitative measurements useful to clinical orthodontists. Manual and interactive methods of analysis are known to be error prone and previous attempts to automate this analysis typically fail to capture the expertise and adaptability required to cope with the variability in biological structure and image quality. An integrated model-based system has been developed which makes use of a blackboard architecture and multiple knowledge sources. A model definition interface allows quantitative models, of feature appearance and location, to be built from examples as well as more qualitative modelling constructs. Visual task definition and blackboard control modules allow task-specific knowledge sources to act on information available to the blackboard in a hypothesise and test reasoning cycle. Further knowledge-based modules include object selection, location hypothesis, intelligent segmentation, and constraint propagation systems. Alternative solutions to given tasks are permitted.

  17. [Quality scale for preschool spirometry interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Francisca; Bedregal, Paula; Ubilla, Carlos; Barrientos, Hortensia; Caussade, Solange

    2017-02-01

    Since 2007, there are international guidelines for implementation and interpretation of spirometry in preschool children. A percentage of these patients cannot obtain maneuvers that meet all eligibility criteria. The objective of this study was to develop a quality scale for interpreting these partially acceptable spirometry. Delphi methodology was used, which allows to reach consensus among experts analyzing a defined problem. We invited to participate pediatric pneumologists dedicated to lung function and who participated actively in scientific specialty societies in Chile. Successive rounds were conducted with questionnaires about criteria used to assess spirometry in preschool children. These criteria define the acceptability of spirometric maneuvers according to international guidelines. Proposed quality grades were “very good”, “good”, “fair” and “bad”. Thirteen of the 15 invited experts accepted our invitation. In the first round 9 disagreed with the degree of “regular” quality. In the second round this was removed and 11 experts answered, 9 of them agreed with the use of this new version. The most contentious criterion was the end of expiration. Most experts agreed with the final scale, using “very good”, “good” and “bad” judgments. This would help to improve the performance of spirometry in children between 2 and 5 years.

  18. Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantcheff, M.B. [IFLP-CONICET CC 67, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gadelha, Alexandre L. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Marchioro, Dafni F.Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz [Universidade Federal da Integracao Latino-Americana, Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciencias da Vida e da Natureza, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    2018-02-15

    In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacuum state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017). (orig.)

  19. RETHINKING RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s academics and professionals have proposed a number of disciplinary and sector based interpretations of why, when and where households move or choose to stay in the same housing unit at different periods of the life cycle and especially the family cycle. This article challenges studies that only analyse one set of factors. The article stems from a synthesis of 20 years of research by the author who  has an interdisciplinary training in the broad field of people-environment relations. First, it reviews some key concepts related to human ecology, including housing, culture, identity and cultivation. Then it will consider how these concepts can be applied to interpret residential mobility using an interdisciplinary approach. An empirical case study of residential mobility in Geneva, Switzerland is presented in order to show how this approach can help improve our understanding of the motives people have regarding the wish to stay in their residence or to move elsewhere.

  20. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William E.

    Galileo's understanding of the relationship between science and the Bible has frequently been celebrated as anticipating a modern distinction between the essentially religious nature of scripture and the claims of the natural sciences. Galileo's reference to the remarks of Cardinal Baronius, that the Bible teaches one how to go to heaven and not how the heavens go, has been seem as emblematic of his commitment to the distinction between the Book of Nature and the Book of Scripture. This essay argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo shares with the theologians of the Inquisition the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation: principles which include traditional scriptural hermeneutics enunciated by Augustine and Aquinas, as well as those characteristic of Counter-Reformation Catholicism. Although Galileo argues that one should not begin with biblical passages in order to discover truths about nature, he does think that the Bible contains scientific truths and that it is the function of wise interpreters to discover these truths. The dispute with the theologians of the Inquisition occurred because they thought that it was obviously true scientifically that the earth did not move and, on the basis of this view, they read the Bible as revealing the same thing. They reached this conclusion because, like Galileo, they thought that the Bible contained truths about nature. Of course, what these theologians accepted as scientifically true, Galileo denied.

  1. Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dáfni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz

    2018-02-01

    In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacumm state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017).

  2. Radiological interpretation 2020: Toward quantitative image assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of medical images by radiologists is primarily and fundamentally a subjective activity, but there are a number of clinical applications such as tumor imaging where quantitative imaging (QI) metrics (such as tumor growth rate) would be valuable to the patient’s care. It is predicted that the subjective interpretive environment of the past will, over the next decade, evolve toward the increased use of quantitative metrics for evaluating patient health from images. The increasing sophistication and resolution of modern tomographic scanners promote the development of meaningful quantitative end points, determined from images which are in turn produced using well-controlled imaging protocols. For the QI environment to expand, medical physicists, physicians, other researchers and equipment vendors need to work collaboratively to develop the quantitative protocols for imaging, scanner calibrations, and robust analytical software that will lead to the routine inclusion of quantitative parameters in the diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of human health. Most importantly, quantitative metrics need to be developed which have genuine impact on patient diagnosis and welfare, and only then will QI techniques become integrated into the clinical environment.

  3. Towards operational interpretations of generalized entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    2010-12-01

    The driving force behind our study has been to overcome the difficulties you encounter when you try to extend the clear and convincing operational interpretations of classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy to other notions, especially to generalized entropies as proposed by Tsallis. Our approach is philosophical, based on speculations regarding the interplay between truth, belief and knowledge. The main result demonstrates that, accepting philosophically motivated assumptions, the only possible measures of entropy are those suggested by Tsallis - which, as we know, include classical entropy. This result constitutes, so it seems, a more transparent interpretation of entropy than previously available. However, further research to clarify the assumptions is still needed. Our study points to the thesis that one should never consider the notion of entropy in isolation - in order to enable a rich and technically smooth study, further concepts, such as divergence, score functions and descriptors or controls should be included in the discussion. This will clarify the distinction between Nature and Observer and facilitate a game theoretical discussion. The usefulness of this distinction and the subsequent exploitation of game theoretical results - such as those connected with the notion of Nash equilibrium - is demonstrated by a discussion of the Maximum Entropy Principle.

  4. Towards operational interpretations of generalized entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topsoee, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The driving force behind our study has been to overcome the difficulties you encounter when you try to extend the clear and convincing operational interpretations of classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy to other notions, especially to generalized entropies as proposed by Tsallis. Our approach is philosophical, based on speculations regarding the interplay between truth, belief and knowledge. The main result demonstrates that, accepting philosophically motivated assumptions, the only possible measures of entropy are those suggested by Tsallis - which, as we know, include classical entropy. This result constitutes, so it seems, a more transparent interpretation of entropy than previously available. However, further research to clarify the assumptions is still needed. Our study points to the thesis that one should never consider the notion of entropy in isolation - in order to enable a rich and technically smooth study, further concepts, such as divergence, score functions and descriptors or controls should be included in the discussion. This will clarify the distinction between Nature and Observer and facilitate a game theoretical discussion. The usefulness of this distinction and the subsequent exploitation of game theoretical results - such as those connected with the notion of Nash equilibrium - is demonstrated by a discussion of the Maximum Entropy Principle.

  5. A geometrical interpretation of renormalisation group flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, B.P.

    1993-05-01

    The renormalisation group (RG) equation in D-dimensional Euclidean space, R D , is analysed from a geometrical point of view. A general form of the RG equation is derived which is applicable to composite operators as well tensor operators (on R D ) which may depend on the Euclidean metric. It is argued that physical N-point amplitudes should be interpreted as rank N co-variant tensors on the space of couplings, G, and that the RG equation can be viewed as an equation for Lie transport on G with respect to the vector field generated by the β-functions of the theory. In one sense it is nothing more than the definition of a Lie derivative. The source of the anomalous dimensions can be interpreted as being due to the change of the basis vectors on G under Lie transport. The RG equation acts as a bridge between Euclidean space and coupling constant space in that the effect on amplitudes of a diffeomorphism of R D (that of dilations) is completely equivalent to a diffeomorphism of G generated by the β-functions of the theory. A form of the RG equation for operators is also given. These ideas are developed in detail for the example of massive λΦ 4 theory in 4 dimensions. (orig.)

  6. Interobserver variability in interpretation of mammogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Won Chul; Hwang, In Young; Park, Young Gyu; Jung, Sang Seol; Kim, Hoon Kyo; Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Hak Hee

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of radiologists for mammographic screening, and to analyze interobserver agreement in the interpretation of mammograms. 50 women were selected as subjects from the patients who were screened with mammograms at two university hospitals. The images were analyzed by five radiologists working independently and without their having any knowledge of the final diagnosis. The interobserver variation was analyzed by using the kappa statistic. There were moderate agreements for the findings of the parenchymal pattern (k=0.44; 95% CI 0.39-0.49). calcification type (k=0.66; 95% CI 0.60-0.72) and calcification distribution (K=0.43; 95% CI 0.38-0.48). The mean kappa values ranged from 0.66 to 0.42 for the mass findings. The mean kappa value for the final conclusion was 0.44 (95% CI 0.38-0.51). In general, moderate agreement was evident for all the categories that were evaluated. The general agreement was moderate, but there was wide variability in some findings. To improve the accuracy and reduce variability among physicians in interpretation, proper training of radiologists and standardization of criteria are essential for breast screening

  7. Interpretive Internalism In The Time Of Technoscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Ginev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that scientific inquiry (1 creates its own cognitive autonomy within the interplay of research practices and possibilities for doing research, and (2 discloses, meaningfully articulates, and procedurally objectifies reality in a unique manner. Taken together, both claims characterize the position of hermeneutic realism which lays foundations for the radically anti-foundationalist hermeneutic philosophy of science. Claim (1 opens a subject of meta-epistemological studies aiming at a complementarity between a hermeneutic theory of the facticity of scientific inquiry as a mode of being and an epistemological theory that works out in its own terms the conditions for having science’s cognitive specificity, whereas claim (2 is a necessary presupposition for studying how reality becomes meaningfully articulated within scientific practices. The position of hermeneutic realism is on a par with the thesis of interpretive internalism stating that the cognitive autonomy of scientific inquiry is achieved through the openness of inquiry to its milieus. This openness consists in a selective assimilation of external themes, goals, tasks, and other items. The paper also deals with some socio-political consequences from the thesis of interpretive internalism. It is argued that only scientific inquiry freed from social monitoring and political control is able to serve societal needs, preventing at the same time a politically initiated scientification of societies, i.e. a scientification guided by dubious economic and political interests, and accomplished through sciences that are not able to preserve their cognitive autonomy, thereby becoming exposed to manipulation and misuse.

  8. The interpretation crisis in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1985-01-01

    The rejection of the concept that there exists a real force field, leading to quantum effects and absolutization of the probabilistic interpretation of the wave function, creates a heavy ideological and gnoseological crisis in physics. Fundamental principles of classical physics, such as motion along a trajectory, conservation laws, single-valued causality, etc. have been subjected to a consecutive rejection. The attempt to avoid the crisis by further moving away from the logical apparatus of classical physics can have a fatal consequences. The author shows that there is a classical explanation of basic quantum mechanical laws (Planck law, Schroedinger equation) and quantum effects. Contradictions with the experiment and the logics in the mere probabilistic interpretation of the wave function are found. A conclusion is made that there is no reason to speak about any violation of classical causality and clearness in the microworld. A discussion is made on the uncertainty relations, the Bohr rules and the spectral line width, the possibility of proton decay with a violation of the charge- and the energy-conservation laws, the existence of particles with a spin smaller than a proton's one, the interaction laws as a geometrical effect, a new classical interaction mechanism. (author). 22 refs

  9. The Art Of Interpretation – Chances And Risks On Interpretation In The Field Of Mobile Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palatini Kerstin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrying out a usability test is a demanding process per se. Mobile tests raise this claim because they are subject to real usage conditions and therefore unforeseeable factors. On the one hand there are the technical factors like tools, software and laboratory equipment, but on the other hand there are the human beeings with their knowledge and decision-making. They are taking the selection of tools, methods and data, and they decide in every situation of the process of testing. Using a mobile eye-tracking test, the authors will explain where the sources for interpretation are and when misinterpretation become an error. Technology philosophical considerations on interpretation and hermeneutics have to support the recognition of the potential of interpretation. As a result, misinterpretation can be minimized.

  10. From Computer-interpretable Guidelines to Computer-interpretable Quality Indicators: A Case for an Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pam; Roudsari, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom's National Health Service, quality indicators are generally measured electronically by using queries and data extraction, resulting in overlap and duplication of query components. Electronic measurement of health care quality indicators could be improved through an ontology intended to reduce duplication of effort during healthcare quality monitoring. While much research has been published on ontologies for computer-interpretable guidelines, quality indicators have lagged behind. We aimed to determine progress on the use of ontologies to facilitate computer-interpretable healthcare quality indicators. We assessed potential for improvements to computer-interpretable healthcare quality indicators in England. We concluded that an ontology for a large, diverse set of healthcare quality indicators could benefit the NHS and reduce workload, with potential lessons for other countries.

  11. A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Arch Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

  12. Ontological interpretation of biomedical database content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana da Silva, Filipe; Jansen, Ludger; Freitas, Fred; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-06-26

    Biological databases store data about laboratory experiments, together with semantic annotations, in order to support data aggregation and retrieval. The exact meaning of such annotations in the context of a database record is often ambiguous. We address this problem by grounding implicit and explicit database content in a formal-ontological framework. By using a typical extract from the databases UniProt and Ensembl, annotated with content from GO, PR, ChEBI and NCBI Taxonomy, we created four ontological models (in OWL), which generate explicit, distinct interpretations under the BioTopLite2 (BTL2) upper-level ontology. The first three models interpret database entries as individuals (IND), defined classes (SUBC), and classes with dispositions (DISP), respectively; the fourth model (HYBR) is a combination of SUBC and DISP. For the evaluation of these four models, we consider (i) database content retrieval, using ontologies as query vocabulary; (ii) information completeness; and, (iii) DL complexity and decidability. The models were tested under these criteria against four competency questions (CQs). IND does not raise any ontological claim, besides asserting the existence of sample individuals and relations among them. Modelling patterns have to be created for each type of annotation referent. SUBC is interpreted regarding maximally fine-grained defined subclasses under the classes referred to by the data. DISP attempts to extract truly ontological statements from the database records, claiming the existence of dispositions. HYBR is a hybrid of SUBC and DISP and is more parsimonious regarding expressiveness and query answering complexity. For each of the four models, the four CQs were submitted as DL queries. This shows the ability to retrieve individuals with IND, and classes in SUBC and HYBR. DISP does not retrieve anything because the axioms with disposition are embedded in General Class Inclusion (GCI) statements. Ambiguity of biological database content is

  13. Interpretation of a compositional time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; van den Boogaart, K. G.

    2012-04-01

    Common methods for multivariate time series analysis use linear operations, from the definition of a time-lagged covariance/correlation to the prediction of new outcomes. However, when the time series response is a composition (a vector of positive components showing the relative importance of a set of parts in a total, like percentages and proportions), then linear operations are afflicted of several problems. For instance, it has been long recognised that (auto/cross-)correlations between raw percentages are spurious, more dependent on which other components are being considered than on any natural link between the components of interest. Also, a long-term forecast of a composition in models with a linear trend will ultimately predict negative components. In general terms, compositional data should not be treated in a raw scale, but after a log-ratio transformation (Aitchison, 1986: The statistical analysis of compositional data. Chapman and Hill). This is so because the information conveyed by a compositional data is relative, as stated in their definition. The principle of working in coordinates allows to apply any sort of multivariate analysis to a log-ratio transformed composition, as long as this transformation is invertible. This principle is of full application to time series analysis. We will discuss how results (both auto/cross-correlation functions and predictions) can be back-transformed, viewed and interpreted in a meaningful way. One view is to use the exhaustive set of all possible pairwise log-ratios, which allows to express the results into D(D - 1)/2 separate, interpretable sets of one-dimensional models showing the behaviour of each possible pairwise log-ratios. Another view is the interpretation of estimated coefficients or correlations back-transformed in terms of compositions. These two views are compatible and complementary. These issues are illustrated with time series of seasonal precipitation patterns at different rain gauges of the USA

  14. Marviken test-data interpretation, second project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collen, J.; Johansson, A.

    1978-12-01

    A brief description is given of the investigations carried out and the corclusions drawn within the MARTIN-II project, which involved the evaluation and interpretation of the data from the full scale containment response tests at the Marviken Power Station. The data from the tests, which were completed in 1976, provide information about the periodic pressure oscillations and rapid pressure spikes induced in the pressure-suppression containment during study comprise the following items: - Influence of test parameters on pressure oscillations and pressure spikes - Pressure spikes in the wetwell pool - High frequency oscillations - Comparisons between single-pipe and multi-pipe data The study was carried out by Studsvik Energiteknik AB with consulting efforts from AB ASEA-ATOM. It was financed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. (Auth.)

  15. Supersymmetric interpretations of the neutrino anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    2002-01-01

    Solar and atmospheric neutrino data strongly indicate the need for physics beyond the standard model. The neutrino oscillation interpretation of the atmospheric data is rather unambiguous, with more options still open for the solar data. After a brief summary of the latest global fits of neutrino data, I discuss theoretical neutrino mass models. This is done first from a top-bottom approach inspired by unification ideas involving a see-saw mechanism or high dimension operators. Then I consider bottom-up approaches, with especial emphasis on the idea that the origin of neutrino mass and mixing is intrinsically supersymmetric. Models involve effective bilinear breaking of R-parity. This allows for the possibility of probing the neutrino mixing also in the context of high-energy collider experiments such as the LHC. (41 refs).

  16. Interpretation of Whorf from Different Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper interprets Whorf’s notion by turning to his original writings.  Specifically, the paper makes a detailed analysis of Whorf’s notion from anthropological linguistics, which largely deals with his famous distinction between overt category and covert category and his detailed description of the American Indian language Hopi; contrastive linguistics, which implies Whorf’s research pedagogy by which the major differences between Hopi and English were found; and psycholinguistics which shows that Whorf would like to explore the deeper internalized meaning of language so as to uncover the true nature of language in the process of thinking.   Therefore, the writer aims to have access to Whorf by rereading his original works and demonstrates what he has actually done in relation with those disciplines mentioned above. Keywords: Whorf, anthropological linguistics, contrastive linguistics, psycholinguistics

  17. Particle interpretations of the PVLAS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2007-04-01

    Recently the PVLAS collaboration reported the observation of a rotation of linearly polarized laser light induced by a transverse magnetic field - a signal being unexpected within standard QED. In this review, we emphasize two mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this result: production of a single light neutral spin-zero particle or pair production of light minicharged particles. We discuss a class of models, involving, in addition to our familiar ''visible'' photon, further light ''hidden paraphotons'', which mix kinematically with the visible one, and further light paracharged particles. In these models, very strong astrophysical and cosmological bounds on the weakly interacting light particles mentioned above can be evaded. In the upcoming year, a number of decisive laboratory based tests of the particle interpretation of the PVLAS anomaly will be done. More generally, such experiments, exploiting high fluxes of low-energy photons and/or large electromagnetic fields, will dig into previously unconstrained parameter space of the above mentioned models. (orig.)

  18. A Genealogical Interpretation of Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVean, Gil

    2009-01-01

    Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's fst and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference. PMID:19834557

  19. The Interpretive Shaping of Music Performance Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rink

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In their study of nine pianists Buck, MacRitchie and Bailey observe a universal embodiment of phrasing structure and other higher-level structural features of the music, the physical makeup of which is nevertheless particular to both the individual performers and the pieces they are performing. Such a conclusion invites renewed consideration of assumptions in the literature on musical performance about the nature and role of structure and about performers' 'interpretations' thereof. The findings also raise interesting questions about the musical viability of empirical research on performance and its capacity to shed light on how performers shape the music they play, their motivations in doing so, and how those listening to them might in turn be affected by this.

  20. On the interpretation of Stratonovich calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, W; Wettlaufer, J S

    2014-01-01

    The Itô–Stratonovich dilemma is revisited from the perspective of the interpretation of Stratonovich calculus using shot noise. Over the long time scales of the displacement of an observable, the principal issue is how to deal with finite/zero autocorrelation of the stochastic noise. The former (non-zero) noise autocorrelation structure preserves the normal chain rule using a mid-point selection scheme, which is the basis Stratonovich calculus, whereas the instantaneous autocorrelation structure of Itô's approach does not. By considering the finite decay of the noise correlations on time scales very short relative to the overall displacement times of the observable, we suggest a generalization of the integral Taylor expansion criterion of Wong and Zakai (1965 Ann. Math. Stat. 36 1560–4) for the validity of the Stratonovich approach. (paper)

  1. Systems Analysis for Interpretation of Phosphoproteomics Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    Global phosphoproteomics investigations yield overwhelming datasets with up to tens of thousands of quantified phosphosites. The main challenge after acquiring such large-scale data is to extract the biological meaning and relate this to the experimental question at hand. Systems level analysis...... provides the best means for extracting functional insights from such types of datasets, and this has primed a rapid development of bioinformatics tools and resources over the last decade. Many of these tools are specialized databases that can be mined for annotation and pathway enrichment, whereas others...... provide a platform to generate functional protein networks and explore the relations between proteins of interest. The use of these tools requires careful consideration with regard to the input data, and the interpretation demands a critical approach. This chapter provides a summary of the most...

  2. [Smartphone application for blood gas interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiols, Julien; Bardo, Pascale; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Ninety four per cent of health professionals use their smartphone for business purposes and more than 50% has medical applications. The «Blood Gas» application was created to be part of this dynamic and participate to e-health development in France. The «Blood Gas» application facilitates interpretation of the results of blood gas analysis using an algorithm developed with reference to a medical bibliography. It can detect some complex or intricate acid-base disorders in evaluating the effectiveness of the secondary response. The application also studied the respiratory status of the patient by calculating the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the alveol-arterial gradient. It also indicates the presence of a shunt effect. Finally, a specific module to calculate the SID (strong ion difference) depending on the model of Stewart can detect complex acid-base disorders.

  3. A complexity analysis of functional interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernest, Mircea-Dan; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Summary: We give a quantitative analysis of Gödel's functional     interpretation and its monotone variant. The two have been used     for the extraction of programs and numerical bounds as well as     for conservation results. They apply both to (semi-)intuitionistic     as well as (combined...... with negative translation) classical proofs.     The proofs may be formalized in systems ranging from weak base     systems to arithmetic and analysis (and numerous fragments of     these). We give upper bounds in basic proof data on the depth,     size, maximal type degree and maximal type arity...

  4. A theoretical interpretation of EPR and ENDOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, M.O.M. de.

    1975-08-01

    To interpret the EPR and ENDOR results of the U 2 center in SrF 2 , two wavefunctions are proposed to describe the unpaired electron of the defect. Use is made of two different models in order to obtain the wavefunctions: the Heitler-London and that of molecular orbitals models. The Pauli repulsion (overlap of wavefunctions) is discussed as well as covalency mechanisms and their influence in the calculation of the hyperfine constants due to magnetic interaction of the unpaired electron and the magnetic nucleus of the cristal. A small amount of covalency between the ground state of the interstitial Hydrogen atom and the 2p shell of the F - ions of the first cristaline shell is introduced fenomenologically in the molecular orbitals model. Both methods are discussed by comparing the theoretical calculations of the hyperfine constants with the measured experimental values obtained with the EPR and ENDOR techniques. (Author) [pt

  5. Interpretation of lunar heat flow data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conel, J.E.; Morton, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Lunar heat flow observations at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites can be interpreted to imply bulk U concentrations for the Moon of 5 to 8 times those of normal chondrites and 2 to 4 times terrestrial values inferred from the Earth's heat flow and the assumption of thermal steady state between surface heat flow and heat production. A simple model of nearsurface structure that takes into account the large difference in (highly insulating) regolith thickness between mare and highland provinces is considered. This model predicts atypically high local values of heat flow near the margins of mare regions--possibly a factor of 10 or so higher than the global average. A test of the proposed model using multifrequency microwave techniques appears possible wherein heat flow traverse measurements are made across mare-highland contacts. The theoretical considerations discussed here urge caution in attributing global significance to point heat-flow measurements on the Moon

  6. Hidden variable interpretation of spontaneous localization theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedingham, Daniel J, E-mail: d.bedingham@imperial.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-08

    The spontaneous localization theory of Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber (GRW) is a theory in which wavepacket reduction is treated as a genuine physical process. Here it is shown that the mathematical formalism of GRW can be given an interpretation in terms of an evolving distribution of particles on configuration space similar to Bohmian mechanics (BM). The GRW wavefunction acts as a pilot wave for the set of particles. In addition, a continuous stream of noisy information concerning the precise whereabouts of the particles must be specified. Nonlinear filtering techniques are used to determine the dynamics of the distribution of particles conditional on this noisy information and consistency with the GRW wavefunction dynamics is demonstrated. Viewing this development as a hybrid BM-GRW theory, it is argued that, besides helping to clarify the relationship between the GRW theory and BM, its merits make it worth considering in its own right.

  7. Indications and interpretation of esophageal function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C Prakash; de Bortoli, Nicola; Clarke, John; Marinelli, Carla; Tolone, Salvatore; Roman, Sabine; Savarino, Edoardo

    2018-05-12

    Esophageal symptoms are common, and can arise from mucosal, motor, functional, and neoplastic processes, among others. Judicious use of diagnostic testing can help define the etiology of symptoms and can direct management. Endoscopy, esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM), ambulatory pH or pH-impedance manometry, and barium radiography are commonly used for esophageal function testing; functional lumen imaging probe is an emerging option. Recent consensus guidelines have provided direction in using test findings toward defining mechanisms of esophageal symptoms. The Chicago Classification describes hierarchical steps in diagnosing esophageal motility disorders. The Lyon Consensus characterizes conclusive evidence on esophageal testing for a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and establishes a motor classification of GERD. Taking these recent advances into consideration, our discussion focuses primarily on the indications, technique, equipment, and interpretation of esophageal HRM and ambulatory reflux monitoring in the evaluation of esophageal symptoms, and describes indications for alternative esophageal tests. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Physical interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, T.; Noyes, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The combinatorial hierarchy model for base particle processes is compared and contrasted with the Ur-theory as developed at the Tutzing Conferences. It agrees with Ur-theory about a finite basis, the ''fixed past--uncertain future'' aspects of physics, and the necessity of dropping Bohr's requirement of reduction to the haptic language of commonsense and classical physics. However, it retains a constructive, hierarchial approach with can yield only an approximate and discrete ''space time'', and introduces the observation metaphysic at the start. Concrete interpretation of the four levels of the hierarchy (with cardinals 3, 7, 127, 2 127 -1 approx. =10 38 ) associates the three levels which map up and down with three absolute conservation laws (charge, baryon number, lepton number) and the spin dichotomy. The first level represents +, -, and +- unit charge. The second has the quantum nubmers of a baryon--antibaryon pair and associated charged meson (e.g., n anti n, p anti n, p anti p, n anti p, π + , π 0 , π - ). The third level associates this pair, now including four spin states as well as four charge states, with a neutral lepton--antilepton pair (e anti e or ν anti ν) in four spin states (total, 64 states): three charged spinless, three charged spin-1, and neutral spin-1 mesons (15 states), and a neutral vector boson associated with the leptons; this gives 3 + 15 + 3 x 15 = 63 possible boson states, so a total correct count of 63 + 64 = 127 states. Something like SU 2 X SU 3 and other indications of quark quantum numbers can occur as substructures at the fourth (unstable) level. A slight extension gives the usual static approximation to the building energy of the hydrogen atom, α 2 m/sub e/c 2 . Cosmological implications of the theory are in accord with current experience. A beginning in the physical interpretation of a theory which could eventually encompass all branches of physics was made. 3 figures, 6 tables

  9. Understanding women's interpretations of infant formula advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Kathleen; Taylor, Emily; Hall-Dardess, Pam; Walker, Marsha; Labbok, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 1 year is recommended by all major health organizations. Whereas 74.6 percent of mothers initiate breastfeeding at birth, exclusivity and duration remain significantly lower than national goals. Empirical evidence suggests that exposure to infant formula marketing contributes to supplementation and premature cessation. The objective of this study was to explore how women interpret infant formula advertising to aid in an understanding of this association. Four focus groups were structured to include women with similar childbearing experience divided according to reproductive status: preconceptional, pregnant, exclusive breastfeeders, and formula feeders. Facilitators used a prepared protocol to guide discussion of infant formula advertisements. Authors conducted a thematic content analysis with special attention to women's statements about what they believed the advertisements said about how the products related to human milk (superior, inferior, similar) and how they reported reacting to these interpretations. Participants reported that the advertisements conveyed an expectation of failure with breastfeeding, and that formula is a solution to fussiness, spitting up, and other normal infant behaviors. Participants reported that the advertisements were confusing in terms of how formula-feeding is superior, inferior or the same as breastfeeding. This confusion was exacerbated by an awareness of distribution by health care practitioners and institutions, suggesting provider endorsement of infant formula. Formula marketing appears to decrease mothers' confidence in their ability to breastfeed, especially when provided by health care practitioners and institutions. Therefore, to be supportive of breastfeeding, perinatal educators and practitioners could be more effective if they did not offer infant formula advertising to mothers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors, Journal compilation © 2013

  10. Umberto Eco: Freedom and the limits of artwork interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kršić Lamija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In his study The Open Work (1962 Umberto Eco commenced his long term exploration of the nature of interpreting an artwork. The author problematizes the question of freedom and the limits of artwork interpretation in the context of semiology and theory of semiotics. Although the contemporary debates on interpreting art focus on interpretation and interpreter, that is to say, on unconditional openness of the work, Eco reminds us of the other side of the interpreting process - controllability of the interpretative activity and limitations of reading in new meanings. The paper points to the various theoretical basis on which Eco propagates the dialectics between the form and openness of a work of art, in other words, between intentio operis and intentio lectoris. This position enables him to differentiate art from nonart, as well as to consider interpretation of a work of art not as a self-sufficing process, but from the point of view of human experience.

  11. For Cultural Interpretation: A Study of the Culture of Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, John

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to demonstrate the value of conjunctural interpretive analysis (which is multilevel, multimodal, and explicitly theoretical and political) through an interpretation of the culture of homelessness in the United States. Addresses differences between positivist epistemologies. (SR)

  12. Unregulated Autonomy: Uncredentialed Educational Interpreters in Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Although many rural Deaf and Hard of Hearing students attend public schools most of the day and use the services of educational interpreters to gain access to the school environment, little information exists on what interpreters are doing in rural school systems in the absence of credentialing requirements. The researcher used ethnographic interviews and field observations of three educational interpreters with no certification or professional assessment to explore how uncredentialed interpreters were enacting their role in a rural high school. The findings indicate that uncredentialed interpreters in rural settings perform four major functions during their school day: preparing the environment, staff, and materials; interpreting a variety of content; interacting with numerous stakeholders; and directly instructing Deaf and Hard of Hearing students. Generally, educational interpreters in rural districts operate with unregulated autonomy, a situation that warrants further research and a national standard for all educational interpreters.

  13. Interpretation and method: Empirical research methods and the interpretive turn, 2nd ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanow, D.; Schwartz-Shea, P.

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the relevance, rigor, and creativity of interpretive research methodologies for the social and human sciences. The book situates methods questions within the context of broader methodological questions--specifically, the character of social realities and their "know-ability."

  14. Geophysical interpretation: From bits and bytes to the big picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Huw; Tellez, Mark (GeoQuest, Houston, TX (United States)); Schaetzlein, Gabi (GeoQuest, Mexico City (Mexico)); Stark, Tracy (Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Seismic interpretation workstations help geophysicists mold massive volumes of seismic data into reservoir models that can guide recovery decisions. Fast, new visualization tools that let the interpreter enter the realm of the subsurface make seismic interpretation as interactive as a video game. Tasks that used to require weeks or months of manual keyboard clicks are now accomplished in hours. In this article, the process from data loading through interpretation and visualization to final output is tracked. 12 figs., 13 refs.

  15. Deaf-Blind Interpreting: Building on What You Already Know

    OpenAIRE

    Petronio, Karen

    2010-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2010v2n26p237 This article focuses on visual considerations and describes the numerous similarities between video interpreting and deaf-blind interpreting. It also looks at linguistic considerations for deaf-blind interpreting and presents research findings showing similarities and differences between ASL and Tactile ASL. Because many interpreters are unfamiliar with tactile communication, there is a section that includes an overview of Tactile ASL. The...

  16. Cultural Factors in Tourism Interpretation of Leshan Giant Buddha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    Different cultural aspects are always involved in tourism interpretation, and the process of tourism interpretation is also cross-cultural communication. If the cultural factors can be interpreted for the foreign visitors in a better way, it's beneficial to convey the cultural connotation of the scenic spot and it can be the communication more…

  17. On the Desirability of an Interpretive Science of Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Phillip K.

    Concerned with imprecision in researchers' use of the word, "interpretive," this report draws from the work of Max Weber to describe the characteristics of an interpretive science of organizational communication and then briefly lists some advantages of following the interpretive approach. First examining the role of subjective meaning…

  18. Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

  19. 29 CFR 793.1 - Reliance upon interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... official interpretations which may be relied upon as provided in section 10 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947. All prior opinions, rulings and interpretations which are inconsistent with the interpretations...

  20. An overview of the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI) and consider various points concerning the TI and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation (CI). Questions concerning mapping the TI onto the CI, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the QM formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed. 12 refs.

  1. Participatory Interpretive Training for Tikal National Park, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Jurado, Magali

    1996-01-01

    Describes an interpretive training course for Tikal National Park, Guatemala to promote environmentally sound management of the region. Goals were to ensure that local knowledge and cultural norms were included in the design of interpretive materials, to introduce resource managers to park interpretation through course participation, and to train…

  2. 29 CFR 780.7 - Reliance on interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition, the Supreme Court has recognized that such interpretations of this Act “provide a practical guide... will seek to apply it” and “constitute a body of experience and informed judgment to which courts and....” (Skidmore v. Swift, 323 U.S. 134). Some of the interpretations in this part are interpretations of exemption...

  3. An Overview of the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    1988-02-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI) is summarized and various points concerning the TI and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation (CI) are considered. Questions concerning mapping the TI onto the CI, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the QM formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed.

  4. An overview of the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI) and consider various points concerning the TI and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation (CI). Questions concerning mapping the TI onto the CI, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the QM formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed. 12 refs

  5. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  6. Water isotope systematics: Improving our palaeoclimate interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. D.; Dee, S.; Anderson, L.; Baker, A.; Bowen, G.; Noone, D.

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, measured in a variety of archives, are widely used proxies in Quaternary Science. Understanding the processes that control δ18O change have long been a focus of research (e.g. Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Talbot, 1990 ; Leng, 2006). Both the dynamics of water isotope cycling and the appropriate interpretation of geological water-isotope proxy time series remain subjects of active research and debate. It is clear that achieving a complete understanding of the isotope systematics for any given archive type, and ideally each individual archive, is vital if these palaeo-data are to be used to their full potential, including comparison with climate model experiments of the past. Combining information from modern monitoring and process studies, climate models, and proxy data is crucial for improving our statistical constraints on reconstructions of past climate variability.As climate models increasingly incorporate stable water isotope physics, this common language should aid quantitative comparisons between proxy data and climate model output. Water-isotope palaeoclimate data provide crucial metrics for validating GCMs, whereas GCMs provide a tool for exploring the climate variability dominating signals in the proxy data. Several of the studies in this set of papers highlight how collaborations between palaeoclimate experimentalists and modelers may serve to expand the usefulness of palaeoclimate data for climate prediction in future work.This collection of papers follows the session on Water Isotope Systematics held at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Papers in that session, the breadth of which are represented here, discussed such issues as; understanding sub-GNIP scale (Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation, (IAEA/WMO, 2006)) variability in isotopes in precipitation from different regions, detailed examination of the transfer of isotope signals from precipitation to geological archives, and the

  7. ICYESS 2013: Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauser, F.; Niederdrenk, L.; Schemann, V.; Schmidt, A.; Suesser, D.; Sonntag, S.

    2013-12-01

    We will report the outcomes and highlights of the Interdisciplinary Conference of Young Earth System Scientists (ICYESS) on Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty in September 2013, Hamburg, Germany. This conference is aimed at early career scientists (Masters to Postdocs) from a large variety of scientific disciplines and backgrounds (natural, social and political sciences) and will enable 3 days of discussions on a variety of uncertainty-related aspects: 1) How do we deal with implicit and explicit uncertainty in our daily scientific work? What is uncertain for us, and for which reasons? 2) How can we communicate these uncertainties to other disciplines? E.g., is uncertainty in cloud parameterization and respectively equilibrium climate sensitivity a concept that is understood equally well in natural and social sciences that deal with Earth System questions? Or vice versa, is, e.g., normative uncertainty as in choosing a discount rate relevant for natural scientists? How can those uncertainties be reconciled? 3) How can science communicate this uncertainty to the public? Is it useful at all? How are the different possible measures of uncertainty understood in different realms of public discourse? Basically, we want to learn from all disciplines that work together in the broad Earth System Science community how to understand and interpret uncertainty - and then transfer this understanding to the problem of how to communicate with the public, or its different layers / agents. ICYESS is structured in a way that participation is only possible via presentation, so every participant will give their own professional input into how the respective disciplines deal with uncertainty. Additionally, a large focus is put onto communication techniques; there are no 'standard presentations' in ICYESS. Keynote lectures by renowned scientists and discussions will lead to a deeper interdisciplinary understanding of what we do not really know, and how to deal with it. Many

  8. Errors in chest x-ray interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznitza, N.; Piper, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Reporting of adult chest x-rays by appropriately trained radiographers is frequently used in the United Kingdom as one method to maintain a patient focused radiology service in times of increasing workload. With models of advanced practice being developed in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the spotlight is on the evidence base which underpins radiographer reporting. It is essential that any radiographer who extends their scope of practice to incorporate definitive clinical reporting perform at a level comparable to a consultant radiologist. In any analysis of performance it is important to quantify levels of sensitivity and specificity and to evaluate areas of error and variation. A critical review of the errors made by reporting radiographers in the interpretation of adult chest x-rays will be performed, examining performance in structured clinical examinations, clinical audit and a diagnostic accuracy study from research undertaken by the authors, and including studies which have compared the performance of reporting radiographers and consultant radiologists. overall performance will be examined and common errors discussed using a case based approach. Methods of error reduction, including multidisciplinary team meetings and ongoing learning will be considered

  9. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bum-Jin [Ministry of Science & Technology, Kyunggi-Do (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Kang, Chang-Sun, [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  10. Particle interpretations of the PVLAS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, A.

    2007-04-15

    Recently the PVLAS collaboration reported the observation of a rotation of linearly polarized laser light induced by a transverse magnetic field - a signal being unexpected within standard QED. In this review, we emphasize two mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this result: production of a single light neutral spin-zero particle or pair production of light minicharged particles. We discuss a class of models, involving, in addition to our familiar ''visible'' photon, further light ''hidden paraphotons'', which mix kinematically with the visible one, and further light paracharged particles. In these models, very strong astrophysical and cosmological bounds on the weakly interacting light particles mentioned above can be evaded. In the upcoming year, a number of decisive laboratory based tests of the particle interpretation of the PVLAS anomaly will be done. More generally, such experiments, exploiting high fluxes of low-energy photons and/or large electromagnetic fields, will dig into previously unconstrained parameter space of the above mentioned models. (orig.)

  11. LATIN Interpreter, a Language for Systems Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiro Muñoz Jerez y Jaime Octavio Albarracín Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sería  equivocado  ver  la  realidad  como  simplemente constituida  por  objetos  aislados.  Si  se observa  con  detenimiento,  ciertas  clases  de  tales  objetos,  al afectarse mutuamente, dan  lugar a interrelaciones, que conforman los sistemas. De ahí que  los sistemas son la forma en que opera la realidad, y los objetos son los constituyentes básicos de  los  sistemas.  Pero  ¿cómo describir  los  sistemas?  En  el  presente  no  existen lenguajes  para  describir  sistemas,  sino  solo  para estructuras  (3GL, DDL  o SQL u objetos  (ODL or OQL;  por  consiguiente,  el  lenguaje  adaptado  para describir  los  sistemas  ha  sido  designado  y  llamado LATIN  (Lenguaje  hacia  la  integración.  En  este artículo se especifican los detalles de la implantación del LATIN Interpreter.

  12. Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jeremy R; Kahana, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organised, and retrieved. One pervasive finding is that when a pair of semantically related words (e.g., "cat" and "dog") is embedded in the studied list, the related words are often recalled successively. This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering (Bousfield, 1953; Bousfield & Sedgewick, 1944; Cofer, Bruce, & Reicher, 1966). Measuring semantic clustering effects requires making assumptions about which words participants consider to be similar in meaning. However, it is often difficult to gain insights into individual participants' internal semantic models, and for this reason researchers typically rely on standardised semantic similarity metrics. Here we use simulations to gain insights into the expected magnitudes of semantic clustering effects given systematic differences between participants' internal similarity models and the similarity metric used to quantify the degree of semantic clustering. Our results provide a number of useful insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering effects in free recall.

  13. Theological Implications of Markan Interpretative Intercalations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Kusio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evidencing the thesis that Markan interpretative intercalations are a narrative structure that manifests profound theological engagement of the evangelist. This device is defined as an entanglement of two storylines in the A1–B–A2 pattern which by using the notions of simultaneity, contrast, irony, similarity, etc. offers a wholly novel meaning of the stories. Six intercalations of the St Mark’s gospel – 3 : 20–35; 5 : 21–43; 6 : 7–31; 11 : 12–23; 14 : 1–11, 53–72 – merge different episodes with distinct theological purposes and as such cannot be reduced to the rank of a literary or redactional device. All of them are concerned with the most essential topics of the Markan theology, such as Christology, especially in relation to suffering, requirements of true discipleship, vision of the future ecclesiastical community. St Mark in his intercalations reveals his elaborated, clear-cut theology, as well as narrative ingenuity and mastery.

  14. Online interviewing with interpreters in humanitarian contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumento, Anna; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Method: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented.  Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country.  Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. Results: A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples.  Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure.  Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Conclusions: Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice.  These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing. PMID:29532739

  15. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  16. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5μg/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Online interviewing with interpreters in humanitarian contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumento, Anna; Machin, Laura; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy

    2018-12-01

    Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented.  Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country.  Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples.  Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure.  Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice.  These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing.

  18. The interpretation of nature and the psyche

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Carl Gustav

    2012-01-01

    Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) and Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (1900 – 1958) were two of the greatest thinkers of modern times. Jung is the founder of Analytical Psychology and is one of the best known researchers in the field of Dream Interpretation and Symbolization. Pauli was one of the pioneers of Quantum Physics. In 1945, Pauli received the Nobel Prize in Physics after being nominated by Albert Einstein for his “decisive contribution through his discovery of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle” involving spin theory underpinning the structure of matter and the whole of chemistry. Together they collaborated on this book that was First published in 1952 in German as Naturerklärung und Psyche. C. G. Jung: Synchronizität als ein Prinzip akausaler Zusammenhänge. W. Pauli: Der Einfluss archetypischer Vorstellungen auf die Bildung naturwissenschaftlicher Theorien bei Kepler. However, our reviewer, himself an eminent professor of mathematics, concludes, “After thoroughly studying their writings for ma...

  19. NMSSM interpretations of the observed Higgs signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, Florian; Weiglein, Georg

    2015-01-01

    While the properties of the signal that was discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC are consistent so far with the Higgs boson of the Standard Model (SM), it is crucial to investigate to what extent other interpretations that may correspond to very different underlying physics are compatible with the current results. We use the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) as a well-motivated theoretical framework with a sufficiently rich Higgs phenomenology to address this question, making use of the public tools HiggsBounds and HiggsSignals in order to take into account comprehensive experimental information on both the observed signal and on the existing limits from Higgs searches at LEP, the TeVatron and the LHC. We find that besides the decoupling limit resulting in a single light state with SM-like properties, several other configurations involving states lighter or quasi-degenerate with the one at about 125 GeV turn out to give a competitive fit to the Higgs data and other existing constraints. We discuss the phenomenology and possible future experimental tests of those scenarios, and compare the features of specific scenarios chosen as examples with those arising from a more global fit.

  20. Socratic Confrontation with Athens: an Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Tajik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Impiety was one of the two charges against Socrates. As a civil religion (within which politics and religion are mutually intertwined was the then-dominated religion in Athens, impiety was regarded as a civil laws violation. Thus, charge of impiety, as a political subversion, might lead Socrates to death. However, in Apology there are some signs of Socrates’ religiousness as swearing and the claim to be at service of the Polis’ formal gods and goddess which lead to the question whether Socrates were an impious person, in addition to the question concerning the reasons why Socrates was sentenced to death, while he has showed his religiousness. In this study, we argued the nature of Socrates’ religiousness and offered an interpretation of Socrates’ silent confrontation with Athenians as is described in the court and his advocacy there. Therefore, introducing the state of religion in Athens, it would be shown that Socrates goes not deep in the inspirations, but intervening personal negative accounts, argues for a private religious experience, while does not offers any substitution for the formal religion.

  1. Correlation Coefficients: Appropriate Use and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Patrick; Boer, Christa; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2018-05-01

    Correlation in the broadest sense is a measure of an association between variables. In correlated data, the change in the magnitude of 1 variable is associated with a change in the magnitude of another variable, either in the same (positive correlation) or in the opposite (negative correlation) direction. Most often, the term correlation is used in the context of a linear relationship between 2 continuous variables and expressed as Pearson product-moment correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient is typically used for jointly normally distributed data (data that follow a bivariate normal distribution). For nonnormally distributed continuous data, for ordinal data, or for data with relevant outliers, a Spearman rank correlation can be used as a measure of a monotonic association. Both correlation coefficients are scaled such that they range from -1 to +1, where 0 indicates that there is no linear or monotonic association, and the relationship gets stronger and ultimately approaches a straight line (Pearson correlation) or a constantly increasing or decreasing curve (Spearman correlation) as the coefficient approaches an absolute value of 1. Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals can be used to address the statistical significance of the results and to estimate the strength of the relationship in the population from which the data were sampled. The aim of this tutorial is to guide researchers and clinicians in the appropriate use and interpretation of correlation coefficients.

  2. INTERGAS PLUS: INTERPRETATION OF ARTERIAL GASOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Brandão Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to present the InterGas Plus mobile application, which is able to perform calculations for the interpretation of arterial blood gas through data collected by health professionals. We used the Eclipse Juno integrated development environment (IDE with ADT plugin and Android Studio with the Java programming language and XML markup, from the standard Google Developer for Android developers. The application framework was built to enable the analysis of acid-base balance cases and provide an accurate diagnosis, similar to that of a human expert, automatically. The application has been translated into English and Spanish, and is available free of charge from the Google Play virtual store, where anyone with an Android operating system worldwide can use it. Based on user evaluations that downloaded the application on Google Play, system improvements have been produced and InterGas Plus is expected to contribute to improving the care provided by healthcare professionals to patients in ICUs.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic interpretation of the motion of prominences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    We study three types of prominence eruptions, which we will call the arch type, the loop type, and the gigantic arch type, respectively, from their shapes. If we regard the prominence as a magnetic flux tube, the onset of its ascending motion can be interpreted as the motion due to the screw-mode instability, which is the most unstable mode of instabilities of a magnetofluid column (pinch). The growth rate of this mode is evaluated and is shown to be consistent with the time scale of the initial stage of the eruption. In order to study the nonlinear stage of the instability, we propose a method of numerical calculation based on a variational technique known as Ritz's method. The result shows that the characteristic motion of the arch-, loop-, and gigantic arch-type eruptions may be reproduced by perturbing a model sequence with decreasing pitch angles of the unperturbed helical magnetic field lines. This conclusion seems to be supported by the pitch angles of observed threads in each type of prominence and also by the fact that the observed time profiles of the rising velocity of the prominences of each type agree well with those predicted from model calculations. (auth.)

  4. Shifting the perspective after the patient's response to an interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peräkylä, Anssi

    2010-12-01

    Psychoanalytic interpretation is normally understood as a sequence of two utterances: the analyst gives an interpretation and the patient responds to it. This paper suggests that, in the interpretative sequence, there is also a third utterance where psychoanalytic work takes place. This third interpretative turn involves the analyst's action after the patient's response to the interpretation. Using conversation analysis as method in the examination of audio-recorded psychoanalytic sessions, the paper will explicate the psychoanalytic work that gets done in third interpretative turns. Through it, the analyst takes a stance towards the patient's understandings of the interpretation, which are shown in the patient's response to the interpretation. The third interpretative turns on one hand ratify and accept the patient's understandings, but, in addition to that, they also introduce a shift of perspective relative to them. In most cases, the shift of perspective is implicit but sometimes it is made explicit. The shifts of perspective bring to the foreground aspects or implications of the interpretation that were not incorporated in the patient's response. They recast the description of the patient's experience by showing new layers or more emotional intensity in it. The results are discussed in the light of Faimberg's concept of listening to listening and Schlesinger's concept of follow-up interpretation. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. Atrial electrogram interpretation improves after an innovative education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Julie L; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie

    2015-01-01

    To avoid adverse patient outcomes from inappropriate treatment, it is recommended that an atrial electrogram (AEG) be recorded whenever atrial arrhythmias develop in patients after cardiac surgery. However, AEGs are not commonly performed because nurses lack knowledge about differentiating atrial rhythms on AEGs. To investigate whether completing a novel online evidence-based education program on interpreting AEGs would improve critical care nurses' AEG interpretation. Specialized critical care nurses were taught about obtaining and interpreting atrial rhythms on AEGs using a 42-minute online mini-movie. AEG interpretation was assessed pre and two and eight weeks post-intervention. AEG interpretation increased two weeks post intervention and was retained at eight weeks. Some participants used this newly acquired knowledge to interpret arrhythmias that were not taught during the education program. Accurate interpretation of AEGs is an easy skill for specialized critical care nurses to learn via an online education program.

  6. Structural interpretation of seismic data and inherent uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Clare

    2013-04-01

    Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that a wide variety of conceptual models were applied to single seismic datasets. Highlighting not only spatial variations in fault placements, but whether interpreters thought they existed at all, or had the same sense of movement. Further, statistical analysis suggests that the strategies an interpreter employs are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments a small number of experts are focused on to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with

  7. Social Context Disambiguates the Interpretation of Laughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Curran

    2018-01-01

    matched for intensity, genuineness judgements were generally significantly lower. These results support the affect-induction view of laughter by suggesting that laughter is inherently underdetermined and ambiguous, and that its interpretation is determined by the context in which it occurs.

  8. Practical aspects of MR image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    This is a practical course designed for those already reading CT scans who will be interpreting MR images. The course focuses on the unique information available from MR imaging that distinguishes it from CT. The following questions in specific subject areas are addressed: (1) What determines the proton density and T1 and T2 times of a particular tissue? How and why do these parameters change in certain disease states? (2) How does the protein content affect signal intensity through the mechanism of ''hydration layer water''? Why does hemorrhage sometimes appear dark and sometimes bright? Why do some paramagnetic substances (e.g., methemoglobin and Gd-DTPA) increase signal intensity and others (e.g., deoxyhemoglobin, hemosiderin, and ferritin) decrease signal intensity? How do the magnetic susceptibility effects depend on field strength and imaging technique (e.g., traditional Hahn spin echo versus gradient echo)? (3) What determines T1, T2, and proton density contrast in the traditional spin-echo and inversion-recovery images and in the new fast partial saturation techniques that use gradient echoes and reduced flip angles? (4) Why do flowing blood and CSF sometimes appear dark and sometimes bright? Exactly how do time-of-flight effects, turbulence, and odd-echo dephasing decrease signal intensity while flow-related enhancement, even-echo rephasing, and diastolic pseudogating increase signal intensity? How does one distinguish intraluminal pathology from high-intensity flow effects? How does one utilize the information in these flow phenomena and turn these ''artifacts'' to clinical advantage? Why do flowing blood and CSF generally appear bright on the new fast scan (e.g., FLASH and GRASS) images?

  9. Experimental Polymer Mechanochemistry and its Interpretational Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulatov, Sergey; Boulatov, Roman

    2017-06-02

    Polymer mechanochemistry is an emerging field at the interface of chemistry, materials science, physics and engineering. It aims at understanding and exploiting unique reactivities of polymer chains confined to highly non-equilibrium stretched geometries by interactions with their surroundings. Macromolecular chains or their segments become stretched in bulk polymers under mechanical loads or when polymer solutions are sonicated or flow rapidly through abrupt contractions. An increasing amount of empirical data suggests that mechanochemical phenomena are widespread wherever polymers are used. In the past decade, empirical mechanochemistry has progressed enormously, from studying fragmentations of commodity polymers by simple backbone homolysis to demonstrations of self-strengthening and stress-reporting materials and mechanochemical cascades using purposefully designed monomers. This progress has not yet been matched by the development of conceptual frameworks within which to rationalize, systematize and generalize empirical mechanochemical observations. As a result, mechanistic and/or quantitative understanding of mechanochemical phenomena remains, with few exceptions, tentative. In this review we aim at systematizing reported macroscopic manifestations of polymer mechanochemistry, and critically assessing the interpretational framework that underlies their molecular rationalizations from a physical chemist's perspective. We propose a hierarchy of mechanochemical phenomena which may guide the development of multiscale models of mechanochemical reactivity to match the breadth and utility of the Eyring equation of chemical kinetics. We discuss the limitations of the approaches to quantifying and validating mechanochemical reactivity, with particular focus on sonicated polymer solutions, in order to identify outstanding questions that need to be solved for polymer mechanochemistry to become a rigorous, quantitative field. We conclude by proposing 7 problems whose

  10. A new interpretation of Serkowski's polarization law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoular, R.

    2018-06-01

    The basic tenets of the alternative interpretation to be presented here are that the spectral profiles of the star light polarization peaks observed in the visible and near IR are a result of the optical properties of silicate grains in the same spectral range, not of the grain size, provided it remains within the range of Rayleigh's approximation. The silicate properties are those obtained experimentally by Scott and Duley (1996) for the non-iron bearing amorphous forsterite and enstatite. The whole range of observed Serkowski polarization profiles can be simulated with mixtures made of forsterite plus an increasing fraction (0 to 0.5) of enstatite as the spectral peak shifts from 0.8 to 0.3 μm. Fits to individual observed polarization spectra are also demonstrated. The optical extinction of silicates in the vis/IR (the "transparency range") can be understood by analogy with the thoroughly studied amorphous hydrogenated carbons and amorphous silica. It is due to structural disorder (dangling bonds and coordination defects) and impurities, which give rise to electronic states in the forbidden gap of semi-conductors. Because they are partially localized, their extinction power is dramatically reduced and has been ignored or simply described by a low, flat plateau. As their number density depends on the environment, one expects variations in the ratio of optical extinction coefficients in the visible and mid-IR. It is also argued that the measured steep rise of extinction beyond 3 μm-1 into the UV is due to atomic transitions, and so cannot give rise to coherent molecular polarization, but only localized extinction.

  11. Social Context Disambiguates the Interpretation of Laughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, William; McKeown, Gary J; Rychlowska, Magdalena; André, Elisabeth; Wagner, Johannes; Lingenfelser, Florian

    2017-01-01

    judgements were generally significantly lower. These results support the affect-induction view of laughter by suggesting that laughter is inherently underdetermined and ambiguous, and that its interpretation is determined by the context in which it occurs.

  12. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  13. Caring in nursing: a different interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, J

    2001-09-01

    To apply Habermas' (1995) Theory of Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action to the nurse-patient relationship, offering a different interpretation to the nurse-patient relationship that is caring in nursing. Many authors have described the nurse-patient relationship, but Habermas' theory synthesizes the components into a complex matrix that is caring in nursing. The theory offers three claims to normative validity: the claim to truth which is the factual objective knowledge; the claim to truthfulness which refers to the intrasubjective self; and the claim to right which is the intersubjective interaction. The validity claims explain the patient's personal and illness self, the nurse's personal and professional self, and the interaction/discourse. The interaction is situation specific, and is identified as moral because dialogue/discourse requires a 'considerateness' of each for the other. 'Considerateness' in discourse requires certain rules, including that each participant has an equal voice, be followed in order for the Principle of Universalization to occur. Habermas draws on Kohlberg's (1981), and Selman's (1980) work to develop three levels of moral maturity of communication. These are preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. Initial moral maturity is egocentric, subjective, and obedient to authority. Maturity develops with recognition of other and reciprocity. At the postconventional level there is mutuality and the ability for abstract reasoning. There is a third person objectivity combining speaker and addressee/listener perspectives. Norms are not just accepted, they are reasoned through. This leads to justification of the norm, which is then accepted as valid. When the three validity claims are met and there is genuine 'considerateness' in the interaction there is communicative action. The reverse is strategic action, where the communication is coercive. When there is communicative action both patient and nurse are validated with a sense

  14. Development of Coolant Radioactivity Interpretation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kiyoung; Jung, Youngsuk; Kim, Kyounghyun; Kim, Jangwook

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, the coolant radioactivity analysis has been performed by using the computer codes of foreign companies such as CADE (Westinghouse), IODYNE and CESIUM (ABB-CE). However, these computer codes are too conservative and have involved considerable errors. Furthermore, since these codes are DOS-based program, their easy operability is not satisfactory. Therefore it is required development of an enhanced analysis algorithm applying an analytical method reflecting the change of operational environments of domestic nuclear power plants and a fuel failure evaluation software considering user' conveniences. We have developed a nuclear fuel failure evaluation code able to estimate the number of failed fuel rods and the burn-up of failed fuels during nuclear power plant operation cycle. A Coolant Radio-activity Interpretation Code (CRIC) for LWR has been developed as the output of the project 'Development of Fuel Reliability Enhanced Technique' organized by Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP). The CRIC is Windows based-software able to evaluate the number of failed fuel rods and the burn-up of failed fuel region by analyzing coolant radioactivity of LWR in operation. The CRIC is based on the model of fission products release commonly known as 'three region model' (pellet region, gap region, and coolant region), and we are verifying the CRIC results based on the cases of domestic fuel failures. CRIC users are able to estimate the number of failed fuel rods, burn-up and regions of failed fuel considered enrichment and power distribution of fuel region by using operational cycle data, coolant activity data, fuel loading pattern, Cs-134/Cs-137 ratio according to burn-up and U-235 enrichment provided in the code. Due to development of the CRIC, it is secured own unique fuel failure evaluation code. And, it is expected to have the following significant meaning. This is that the code reflecting a proprietary technique for quantitatively

  15. Heat flow anomalies and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David S.; Rybach, Ladislaus

    1985-12-01

    More than 10,000 heat flow determinations exist for the earth and the data set is growing steadily at about 450 observations per year. If heat flow is considered as a surface expression of geothermal processes at depth, the analysis of the data set should reveal properties of those thermal processes. They do, but on a variety of scales. For this review heat flow maps are classified by 4 different horizontal scales of 10 n km (n = 1, 2, 3 and 4) and attention is focussed on the interpretation of anomalies which appear with characteristic dimensions of 10 (n - 1) km in the respective representations. The largest scale of 10 4 km encompasses heat flow on a global scale. Global heat loss is 4 × 10 13 W and the process of sea floor spreading is the principal agent in delivering much of this heat to the surface. Correspondingly, active ocean ridge systems produce the most prominent heat flow anomalies at this scale with characteristic widths of 10 3 km. Shields, with similar dimensions, exhibit negative anomalies. The scale of 10 3 km includes continent wide displays. Heat flow patterns at this scale mimic tectonic units which have dimensions of a few times 10 2 km, although the thermal boundaries between these units are sometimes sharp. Heat flow anomalies at this scale also result from plate tectonic processes, and are associated with arc volcanism, back arc basins, hot spot traces, and continental rifting. There are major controversies about the extent to which these surface thermal provinces reflect upper mantle thermal conditions, and also about the origin and evolution of the thermal state of continental lithosphere. Beginning with map dimensions of 10 2 km thermal anomalies of scale 10 1 km, which have a definite crustal origin, become apparent. The origin may be tectonic, geologic, or hydrologic. Ten kilometers is a common wavelength of topographic relief which drives many groundwater flow systems producing thermal anomalies. The largest recognized continental

  16. A Synergistic Approach to Interpreting Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Natasha E.

    We will soon have the technological capability to measure the atmospheric composition of temperate Earth-sized planets orbiting nearby stars. Interpreting these atmospheric signals poses a new challenge to planetary science. In contrast to jovian-like atmospheres, whose bulk compositions consist of hydrogen and helium, terrestrial planet atmospheres are likely comprised of high mean molecular weight secondary atmospheres, which have gone through a high degree of evolution. For example, present-day Mars has a frozen surface with a thin tenuous atmosphere, but 4 billion years ago it may have been warmed by a thick greenhouse atmosphere. Several processes contribute to a planet's atmospheric evolution: stellar evolution, geological processes, atmospheric escape, biology, etc. Each of these individual processes affects the planetary system as a whole and therefore they all must be considered in the modeling of terrestrial planets. In order to demonstrate the intricacies in modeling terrestrial planets, I use early Mars as a case study. I leverage a combination of one-dimensional climate, photochemical and energy balance models in order to create one self-consistent model that closely matches currently available climate data. One-dimensional models can address several processes: the influence of greenhouse gases on heating, the effect of the planet's geological processes (i.e. volcanoes and the carbonatesilicate cycle) on the atmosphere, the effect of rainfall on atmospheric composition and the stellar irradiance. After demonstrating the number of assumptions required to build a model, I look towards what exactly we can learn from remote observations of temperate Earths and Super Earths. However, unlike in-situ observations from our own solar system, remote sensing techniques need to be developed and understood in order to accurately characterize exo-atmospheres. I describe the models used to create synthetic transit transmission observations, which includes models of

  17. Training interpretation biases among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Sarfan, Laurel D; Clerkin, Elise M

    2016-03-01

    The current study provided an initial test of a Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretations (CBM-I) training paradigm among a sample with elevated BDD symptoms (N=86). As expected, BDD-relevant interpretations were reduced among participants who completed a positive (vs. comparison) training program. Results also pointed to the intriguing possibility that modifying biased appearance-relevant interpretations is causally related to changes in biased, socially relevant interpretations. Further, providing support for cognitive behavioral models, residual change in interpretations was associated with some aspects of in vivo stressor responding. However, contrary to expectations there were no significant effects of condition on emotional vulnerability to a BDD stressor, potentially because participants in both training conditions experienced reductions in biased socially-threatening interpretations following training (suggesting that the "comparison" condition was not inert). These findings have meaningful theoretical and clinical implications, and fit with transdiagnostic conceptualizations of psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory: Total statistical mechanical interpretation based on physical argument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadaki, Kohtaro

    2010-01-01

    The statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory (AIT, for short) was introduced and developed by our former works [K. Tadaki, Local Proceedings of CiE 2008, pp. 425-434, 2008] and [K. Tadaki, Proceedings of LFCS'09, Springer's LNCS, vol. 5407, pp. 422-440, 2009], where we introduced the notion of thermodynamic quantities, such as partition function Z(T), free energy F(T), energy E(T), statistical mechanical entropy S(T), and specific heat C(T), into AIT. We then discovered that, in the interpretation, the temperature T equals to the partial randomness of the values of all these thermodynamic quantities, where the notion of partial randomness is a stronger representation of the compression rate by means of program-size complexity. Furthermore, we showed that this situation holds for the temperature T itself, which is one of the most typical thermodynamic quantities. Namely, we showed that, for each of the thermodynamic quantities Z(T), F(T), E(T), and S(T) above, the computability of its value at temperature T gives a sufficient condition for T is an element of (0,1) to satisfy the condition that the partial randomness of T equals to T. In this paper, based on a physical argument on the same level of mathematical strictness as normal statistical mechanics in physics, we develop a total statistical mechanical interpretation of AIT which actualizes a perfect correspondence to normal statistical mechanics. We do this by identifying a microcanonical ensemble in the framework of AIT. As a result, we clarify the statistical mechanical meaning of the thermodynamic quantities of AIT.

  19. A bioarchaeological approach to prehistoric cemetery populations from western and central Greek Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, S.

    1999-11-01

    The osteological material under study consists of 510 skeletal remains dating from the Early Neolithic (6000 BC) to the Early Iron Age (1100-700 BC). It comes from nine different cemeteries and burial locations extending from the coastal to the inland areas of the study region. The current thesis attempts to explore two major issues: 1) the reconstruction of aspects of life history and 2) the treatment and manipulation of the deceased as revealed by the human skeletal remains. With regard to the former, the investigation of demographic parameters, patterns of health and oral status as well as diet have been considered. In short, local conditions defined by environmental and social constraints probably affected the general quality of life reconstructed for the study populations. There is an overall tendency however, towards declining levels of health and oral status in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age populations, while certain assemblages provide high levels of infant and child mortality, possibly associated with a type of anaemia. There is also a substantial involvement of the upper skeleton in work patterns, possibly related to activities such as food acquisition, processing and preparation. Meanwhile, the evidence for dietary patterns from the Neolithic/Early Bronze Ages to the Late Bronze/Early Iron Ages is consistent with an overall shift from a high reliance on meat consumption to a diet base on carbohydrate foodstuffs. The evaluation of the manipulation of the deceased, alongside the evidence for mortuary differentiation through time, reveals a striking transformation from the practice of single inhumations in the Early Bronze Age to multiple/secondary burials in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age assemblages, suggesting a shift in emphasis from individual to lineage-group identity. Furthermore, the integration of biological inferences with the evidence of mortuary behaviour provides further insights into sex roles and the position of subadults, otherwise invisible, in the living community. (author)

  20. Begotten of Corruption? Bioarchaeology and "othering" of leprosy in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins Schug, Gwen

    2016-12-01

    Leprosy is strongly stigmatized in South Asia, being regarded as a manifestation of extreme levels of spiritual pollution going back through one or more incarnations of the self. Stigma has significant social consequences, including surveillance, exclusion, discipline, control, and punishment; biologically speaking, internalized stigma also compounds the disfigurement and disability resulting from this disease. Stigma results from an othering process whereby difference is recognized, meaning is constituted, and eventually, sufferers may be negatively signified and marked for exclusion. This paper traces the history of leprosy's stigmatization in South Asia, using archaeology and an exegesis of Vedic texts to examine the meaning of this disease from its apparent zero-point-when it first appears but before it was differentiated and signified-in the mature Indus Age. Results suggest that early in the second millennium BCE, leprosy was perceived as treatable and efforts were apparently made to mitigate its impact on the journey to the afterworld. Ignominy to the point of exclusion does not emerge until the first millennium BCE. This paper uses archaeology to create an effective history of stigma for leprosy, destabilizing what is true about this disease and its sufferers in South Asia today. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The bioarchaeology of the Neolithic transition: evidence of dental pathologies at Lepenski Vir (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Radović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neolithic transition affected human biology, which is visible as a series of inter- related skeletal and dental pathological conditions. The population of Lepenski vir culture, which inhabited the region of the Danube Gorges between 9500–5500 BC, also went through the neolithisa- tion process. In this study, the dental pathological conditions of 32 adult individuals from the Lepenski Vir site were examined for the incidence of enamel hypoplasia, the rate of dental wear, dental caries and ante-mortem tooth loss. The results indicate changes in biology and diet of this population in the Neolithic which were associated with the introduction of non-local identities in the region.

  2. AVANCES EN BIOARQUEOLOGÍA DEL CHACO BOREAL (Advances in the Bioarchaeology of Northern Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo N. Lamenza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones bioantropológicas llevadas a cabo en el Gran Chaco sudamericano han comenzado a revertir el estado de desconocimiento que sumía a la región. En esta oportunidad se presentan los avances de los análisis de los materiales recuperados en el sitio arqueológico Puerto 14 de Mayo, cuya particular importancia reside en ser el único en el Chaco boreal abordado de manera sistemática. Sucesivas excavaciones arqueológicas han puesto de manifiesto entierros humanos datados en ca. 1800 años AP (LP2897 y LP3167. Se pudo constatar la presencia de al menos seis individuos, cinco adultos y un subadulto. A partir del análisis paleopatológico se determinaron posibles características del modo de vida del grupo, considerando una dieta con bajos niveles de hidratos de carbono y el consumo de alimentos de características abrasivas. Estos resultados permiten introducir nueva información en una región prácticamente inexplorada en términos arqueológicos y contribuye a la comprensión del marco espacio-temporal de las ocupaciones humanas de las tierras bajas sudamericanas. ENGLISH: Bioanthropological research carried out in the South American Gran Chaco has begun to address the lack of such knowledge in the region. Here we present the analysis of materials recovered at the site Puerto 14 de Mayo, whose particular importance lies in being the only site in the Chaco Boreal that has been systematically addressed archaeologically. Successive archaeological excavations have revealed human burials dated to ca. 1800 B.P. (LP2897 and LP3167, in which there are at least six individuals, five adults and one subadult. Through paleopathological analysis, possible features of the group’s way of life were determined, such as a diet with low levels of carbohydrates and the consumption of food with abrasive characteristics. These results allow us to add new information to a virtually unexplored archaeological region and contribute to an understanding of the space-time framework of human occupation in the South American lowlands.

  3. Bioarchaeology of adaptation to a marginal environment in bronze age Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Elizabeth; Wang, Hui

    2017-07-08

    This study examines human adaptation to the 4000 BP climate change event, which is said to have increased the marginality of Inner Asian environments. We propose to define "marginal" environments not in relation to a specific economic activity (e.g., agriculture), but in relation to whether humans living there are physiologically stressed. Three sites in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu were studied, one from the early and two from the late Bronze Age (N = 125). The study includes three indicators of physiological stress: linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH); tibial periosteal lesions; and fertility. The early and late Bronze Age groups were compared to examine whether human physiological stress increased. The percent of individuals with LEH declined dramatically, indicating fewer growth disruptions. Tibial periosteal reactions also changed, from mostly active to mostly healing at the time of death, indicating that frailty declined. Fertility, which is sensitive to changes in population health and resource availability, did not change significantly. Counter to the dominant narrative of environmental deterioration and subsistence system collapse, the Bronze Age residents of the Hexi Corridor show no skeletal evidence that they suffered from resource shortages or struggled to adapt in the fluctuating climate that pertained after the 4000 BP climate event. In fact, this study found that people suffered from less frailty and fewer growth disruptions after the unstable climate had persisted for some time. Therefore, in human biological terms, the Hexi Corridor did not become more marginal for human habitation during the Bronze Age. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Combining semantics with non-standard interpreter hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramov, Sergei M.; Glück, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on results concerning the combination of non-standard semantics via interpreters. We define what a semantics combination means and identify under which conditions a combination can be realized by computer programs (robustness, safely combinable). We develop the underlying mathe...... mathematical theory and examine the meaning of several non-standard interpreter towers. Our results suggest a technique for the implementation of a certain class of programming language dialects by composing a hierarchy of non-standard interpreters....

  5. The role of moving images in the conference interpreting classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Susi Septaviana Rakhmawati

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the study of the student interpreters’ performance in conference interpreting classes in an Indonesian university when multimodal texts were provided as part of the teaching methods. It aims to answer how multimodal texts can influence interpreting performance among students. A case study design was used to allow an in-depth analysis of the students’ interpreting performance as the phenomenon described (Yin, 2003) using triangulation of data analysis. Observation, interv...

  6. The Unity-Of-Value as a Theory of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Gomes Moreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the unity of value as a general theory of interpretation. By overcoming the supposed division between law and morality, considering the interpretive activity the central element of a normative theory of all human endeavor, Dworkin highlights the limitations of legal positivism designed by Hart to provide adequate solutions to the "hard cases" and broadens the spectrum to find a "correct answer" to specific cases in a normative theory linked to political morality, expressed by the interpretive activity, whose meaning will be the value assigned by the interpreter to a particular event or object.

  7. Quantifying and predicting interpretational uncertainty in cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Charles; Bond, Clare; Monaghan, Alison; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    Cross-sections are often constructed from data to create a visual impression of the geologist's interpretation of the sub-surface geology. However as with all interpretations, this vision of the sub-surface geology is uncertain. We have designed and carried out an experiment with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty in geological cross-sections created by experts interpreting borehole data. By analysing different attributes of the data and interpretations we reflect on the main controls on uncertainty. A group of ten expert modellers at the British Geological Survey were asked to interpret an 11.4 km long cross-section from south-east Glasgow, UK. The data provided consisted of map and borehole data of the superficial deposits and shallow bedrock. Each modeller had a unique set of 11 boreholes removed from their dataset, to which their interpretations of the top of the bedrock were compared. This methodology allowed quantification of how far from the 'correct answer' each interpretation is at 11 points along each interpreted cross-section line; through comparison of the interpreted and actual bedrock elevations in the boreholes. This resulted in the collection of 110 measurements of the error to use in further analysis. To determine the potential control on uncertainty various attributes relating to the modeller, the interpretation and the data were recorded. Modellers were asked to fill out a questionnaire asking for information; such as how much 3D modelling experience they had, and how long it took them to complete the interpretation. They were also asked to record their confidence in their interpretations graphically, in the form of a confidence level drawn onto the cross-section. Initial analysis showed the majority of the experts' interpreted bedrock elevations within 5 metres of those recorded in the withheld boreholes. Their distribution is peaked and symmetrical about a mean of zero, indicating that there was no tendency for the experts to either under

  8. Interpretive reliability of two common MMPI-2 profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Deskovitz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Users of multi-scale tests like the MMPI-2 tend not to interpret scales one at a time in a way that would correspond to standard scale-level reliability information. Instead, clinicians integrate inferences from a multitude of scales simultaneously, producing a descriptive narrative that is thought to characterize the examinee. This study was an attempt to measure the reliability of such integrated interpretations using a q-sort research methodology. Participants were 20 MMPI-2 users who responded to E-mail solicitations on professional listservs and in personal emails. Each participant interpreted one of two common MMPI-2 profiles using a q-set of 100 statements designed for MMPI-2 interpretation. To measure the “interpretive reliability” of the MMPI-2 profile interpretations, q-sort descriptions were intercorrelated. Mean pairwise interpretive reliability was .39, lower than expected, and there was no significant difference in reliability between profiles. There was also not a significant difference between within-profile and cross-profile correlations. Q-set item analysis was conducted to determine which individual statements had the most impact on interpretive reliability. Although sampling in this study was limited, implications for the field reliability of MMPI-2 interpretation are sobering.

  9. An Optimization Framework for Travel Pattern Interpretation of Cellular Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Freund

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores methods for identifying travel patterns from cellular data. A primary challenge in this research is to provide an interpretation of the raw data that distinguishes between activity durations and travel durations. A novel framework is proposed for this purpose, based on a grading scheme for candidate interpretations of the raw data. A genetic algorithm is used to find interpretations with high grades, which are considered as the most reasonable ones. The proposed method is tested on a dataset of records covering 9454 cell-phone users over a period of one week. Preliminary evaluation of the resulting interpretations is presented.

  10. The role of moving images in the conference interpreting classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Septaviana Rakhmawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the study of the student interpreters’ performance in conference interpreting classes in an Indonesian university when multimodal texts were provided as part of the teaching methods. It aims to answer how multimodal texts can influence interpreting performance among students. A case study design was used to allow an in-depth analysis of the students’ interpreting performance as the phenomenon described (Yin, 2003 using triangulation of data analysis. Observation, interview, and seven transcription analysis from three students were carried out. Observation and interview result shows that the students used visual information such as lips movement, running text on video, moving images, and the speakers’ gestures in their interpreting processes. Moreover, the students said that the existing method of teaching interpreting using multimodal texts is really helpful for them in developing their interpreting skills. Furthermore, transcription analysis also confirms that the student with multimodal strategies (facing the speaker, the screen/the video performed better during interpreting process. However, a student who faces both did not seem to perform well. The indication is that he was unable to focus, being distracted and nervous. Thus, overall the student interpreters used visual information as part of multimodal communication, in addition to speech, working on the regular mode of listening and speaking during interpreting process, which suggest significant contribution of multimodal texts to better rendition in the target language.

  11. Teaching the interpretation of electrocardiograms: which method is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, Graham; Gosai, Jivendra; Purva, Makani

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation is poorly performed at undergraduate and post-graduate level. Incorrect ECG interpretation can lead to serious clinical error. Despite the incorporation of computerized ECG interpretation software into modern ECG machines, the sensitivity and specificity of current technology remain poor, emphasizing the on-going need for doctors to perform ECG interpretation accurately. This is the first review in this important area and aims to critically evaluate the current literature in relation to the optimal format and method of teaching ECG interpretation at undergraduate and postgraduate level. No single method or format of teaching is most effective in delivering ECG interpretation skills; however, self-directed learning appears to be associated with poorer interpretation competence. Summative in preference to formative assessment is associated with improved interpretation competence. Web-based learning offers a promising modern approach to learning ECG interpretation, though caution must be exercised in accessing user-uploaded content to supplement learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Unequal Power Relation in the Final Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almlund, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    if the interpretation also takes the unequal power relation into account. Consequently, interpreting the researched in a respectful manner is difficult. This article demonstrates the necessity of increasing awareness of the unequal power relation by posing, discussing and, to some extent answering, three methodological...... questions inspired by meta-theory that are significant for qualitative research and qualitative researchers to reflect on. This article concludes that respectful interpretation and consciously paying attention to the unequal power relation in the final interpretation require decentring the subject...

  13. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectral Interpretation explains the background, core principles and tests the readers understanding of the important techniques of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy...

  14. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    .... The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation, sampling methods, quantitative analysis, origin of group frequencies and qualitative interpretation using generalized Infrared (IR) and Raman spectra...

  15. Introducing the Index of Care: A web-based application supporting archaeological research into health-related care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Lorna; Cameron, Tony

    2014-09-01

    The Index of Care is a web-based application designed to support the recently proposed four-stage 'bioarchaeology of care' methodology for identifying and interpreting health-related care provision in prehistory. The Index offers a framework for guiding researchers in 'thinking through' the steps of a bioarchaeology of care analysis; it continuously prompts consideration of biological and archaeological evidence relevant to care provision; it operationalises key concepts such as 'disability' and 'care'; and it encourages transparency in the reasoning underlying conclusions, facilitating review. This paper describes the aims, structure and content of the Index, and provides an example of its use. The Index of Care is freely available on-line; it is currently in active development, and feedback is sought to improve its utility and usability. This is the first time in bioarchaeology that an instrument for examining behaviour as complex as caregiving has been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Wind Streaks on Earth; Exploration and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zada, Aviv Lee; Blumberg, Dan G.; Maman, Shimrit

    2015-04-01

    Wind streaks, one of the most common aeolian features on planetary surfaces, are observable on the surface of the planets Earth, Mars and Venus. Due to their reflectance properties, wind streaks are distinguishable from their surroundings, and they have thus been widely studied by remote sensing since the early 1970s, particularly on Mars. In imagery, these streaks are interpreted as the presence - or lack thereof - of small loose particles on the surface deposited or eroded by wind. The existence of wind streaks serves as evidence for past or present active aeolian processes. Therefore, wind streaks are thought to represent integrative climate processes. As opposed to the comprehensive and global studies of wind streaks on Mars and Venus, wind streaks on Earth are understudied and poorly investigated, both geomorphologically and by remote sensing. The aim of this study is, thus, to fill the knowledge gap about the wind streaks on Earth by: generating a global map of Earth wind streaks from modern high-resolution remotely sensed imagery; incorporating the streaks in a geographic information system (GIS); and overlaying the GIS layers with boundary layer wind data from general circulation models (GCMs) and data from the ECMWF Reanalysis Interim project. The study defines wind streaks (and thereby distinguishes them from other aeolian features) based not only on their appearance in imagery but more importantly on their surface appearance. This effort is complemented by a focused field investigation to study wind streaks on the ground and from a variety of remotely sensed images (both optical and radar). In this way, we provide a better definition of the physical and geomorphic characteristics of wind streaks and acquire a deeper knowledge of terrestrial wind streaks as a means to better understand global and planetary climate and climate change. In a preliminary study, we detected and mapped over 2,900 wind streaks in the desert regions of Earth distributed in

  17. Philosophical perspectives on quantum chaos: Models and interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Alisa Nicole

    2001-09-01

    The problem of quantum chaos is a special case of the larger problem of understanding how the classical world emerges from quantum mechanics. While we have learned that chaos is pervasive in classical systems, it appears to be almost entirely absent in quantum systems. The aim of this dissertation is to determine what implications the interpretation of quantum mechanics has for attempts to explain the emergence of classical chaos. There are three interpretations of quantum mechanics that have set out programs for solving the problem of quantum chaos: the standard interpretation, the statistical interpretation, and the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation. One of the main conclusions of this dissertation is that an interpretation alone is insufficient for solving the problem of quantum chaos and that the phenomenon of decoherence must be taken into account. Although a completely satisfactory solution of the problem of quantum chaos is still outstanding, I argue that the deBroglie-Bohm interpretation with the help of decoherence outlines the most promising research program to pursue. In addition to making a contribution to the debate in the philosophy of physics concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics, this dissertation reveals two important methodological lessons for the philosophy of science. First, issues of reductionism and intertheoretic relations cannot be divorced from questions concerning the interpretation of the theories involved. Not only is the exploration of intertheoretic relations a central part of the articulation and interpretation of an individual theory, but the very terms used to discuss intertheoretic relations, such as `state' and `classical limit', are themselves defined by particular interpretations of the theory. The second lesson that emerges is that, when it comes to characterizing the relationship between classical chaos and quantum mechanics, the traditional approaches to intertheoretic relations, namely reductionism and

  18. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations. The results revealed that the positive training resulted in an increase in prosocial interpretations while the negative training seemed to have no effect on interpretations. Importantly, in the positive condition, a positive change in interpretations was related to lower anger and verbal aggression scores after the training. In this condition, participants also reported an increase in happiness. In the negative training no such effects were found. However, the better participants performed on the negative training, the more their interpretations were changed in a negative direction and the more aggression they showed on the behavioral aggression task. Participants were healthy university students. Therefore, results should be confirmed within a clinical population. These findings provide support for the idea that this novel CBM-I paradigm can be used to modify interpretations, and suggests that these interpretations are related to mood and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interpretation of driving environments for driver assistance systems; Interpretation von Fahrumgebungen fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K.

    2007-07-01

    A prototype vehicle was equipped with laser scanners, radar and vision sensors by the electronic research department of Volkswagen AG for the perception of the vehicle's surroundings. The data of these sensors and of the vehicle's sensors are fused together by the means of an extended kalman filter into a common description of the vehicle's surroundings, which is here called environmental model. This model is a complex representation of the environment and contains information about one's own vehicle, other vehicles and other environmental objects as wells as the road. The system for the environmental perception is aimed at founding an information base for future driver assistance systems, which are developed to assist the driver in its driving tasks. This thesis deals with the interpretation of the fused environmental data. The maneuvers of one's own vehicle and of the other vehicles as well as their relations between each other are classified. This performs the step from the pure captation of the environmental data to an assessment of the current traffic situation. The relations between the environmental objects are described by an integrated consideration of the states of one's own vehicle, the environmental objects and the road. The maneuvers and the driving states are derived from the estimated states or innovations of the kalman filter, or they are determined by the means of multiple hypothesis methods or multiple model filters. The result of the interpretation is the detection of the maneuvers of one's own vehicle and the other vehicles, the relations between one's own vehicle and the other vehicles are classified and their threat in relation to one's own vehicle are assessed. Detected lane change maneuvers are used for the prediction of the traffic situation. The algorithms of the interpretation are integrated into the environmental perception system of the prototype vehicle and are verified with real measured

  20. Topic Variability and Criteria in Interpretational History Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Bjorn; Akkerman, Sanne; Wubbels, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the teacher perceived applicability of historical topics for interpretational history teaching and the criteria teachers use to evaluate this applicability. For this study, 15 expert history teachers in the Netherlands striving for interpretational history teaching were purposefully selected. Teachers were asked to mention…

  1. Human trafficking for labour exploitation: Interpreting the crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coster van Voorhout, J.E.B.

    2007-01-01

    The definition of human trafficking for labour exploitation, as follows from the European Council Framework Decision, proves to be unclear. Literal interpretation does not suffice, because it does not clarify all elements of what is deemed to be criminal behaviour, and hermeneutical interpretation

  2. INTERPRETER TRAINING CURRICULUM IN TURKEY: THE CASE OF SAKARYA UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel OKUYAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In our globalizing and rapidly changing world thanks to the communication technologies, Turkey has a significant strategic position in terms of socio-cultural and economical aspects. Therefore, Turkey has a different commercial and political relationship with many countries comprising various cultures and languages. In order to maintain these relations healthfully, interpreting is of utmost importance. Turkey’s membership application for EU shows that Turkey is now an important political power. Besides, commercial contacts with other countries are on the rise and foreign people pay a visit to our country for health tourism. On the other hand, conflicts in neighboring countries increase. All of these factors raise the demand for interpreting in Turkey. In this respect, considering aforementioned explanations we believe that contents of the interpreting courses in academic translation institutions must be refreshed and updated, while doing so, market conditions must also be taken into account. This study deals with interpreting courses offered at Sakarya University taking the above-mentioned suggestions into consideration. In this study, we aim to evaluate interpreting courses in terms of the developments in academic interpreter training and interpreting profession. Hence, curricula of Translation & Interpreting (Studies Departments were compared to each other and the findings are discussed.

  3. A Social Behaviorist Interpretation of the Meadian "I."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. David

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the two most common interpretations of the Meadian "I" in George Herbert Mead's theory of social self have failed to place the concept within the context of Mead's philosophy of social behaviorism. Stresses also that Mead's theory of social behaviorist interpretation is applicable to sociological inquiry when it is properly…

  4. Combining relativity and quantum mechanics: Schroedinger's interpretation of ψ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.

    1987-07-01

    The incongruence between quantum theory and relativity theory is traced to the probability interpretation of the former. The classical continium interpretation of ψ removes the difficulty. How quantum properties of matter and light, and in particular the radiative problems, like spontaneous emission and Lamb shift, may be accounted in a first quantized Maxwell-Dirac system is discussed. (author). 17 refs

  5. Interpreting a Television Narrative: How Different Viewers See a Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines television viewers' interpretations of a particular narrative from the British soap opera "Coronation Street" after they had watched it unfold over some time in natural viewing circumstances. Identifies and discusses the interpretations of four clusters of viewers ranked in terms of their relative allegiance to the characters.…

  6. Interpretation: signs and meaning, diversity in language use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpretation, which is an interactive face-to- face communicative event and interpreter's role is active and governed by social and linguistic knowledge of the entire communicative situation - this involves not only linguistic and cultural competence but also appropriate ways of speaking and managing the intercultural event ...

  7. Electrocardiographic interpretation skills of cardiology residents: are they competent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Matthew; Davies, Edward G; Dorian, Paul; Yu, Eric H C

    2014-12-01

    Achieving competency at electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation among cardiology subspecialty residents has traditionally focused on interpreting a target number of ECGs during training. However, there is little evidence to support this approach. Further, there are no data documenting the competency of ECG interpretation skills among cardiology residents, who become de facto the gold standard in their practice communities. We tested 29 Cardiology residents from all 3 years in a large training program using a set of 20 ECGs collected from a community cardiology practice over a 1-month period. Residents interpreted half of the ECGs using a standard analytic framework, and half using their own approach. Residents were scored on the number of correct and incorrect diagnoses listed. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 58%. Of 6 potentially life-threatening diagnoses, residents missed 36% (123 of 348) including hyperkalemia (81%), long QT (52%), complete heart block (35%), and ventricular tachycardia (19%). Residents provided additional inappropriate diagnoses on 238 ECGs (41%). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between ECGs interpreted using an analytic framework vs ECGs interpreted without an analytic framework (59% vs 58%; F(1,1333) = 0.26; P = 0.61). Cardiology resident proficiency at ECG interpretation is suboptimal. Despite the use of an analytic framework, there remain significant deficiencies in ECG interpretation among Cardiology residents. A more systematic method of addressing these important learning gaps is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 29 CFR 1202.2 - Interpretation of mediation agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of mediation agreements. 1202.2 Section 1202.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.2 Interpretation of mediation agreements. Under section 5, Second, of title I of the Railway Labor...

  9. 29 CFR 1203.3 - Interpretation of mediation agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of mediation agreements. 1203.3 Section 1203.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR SERVICE § 1203.3 Interpretation of mediation agreements. (a) Applications may be filed with the Board's Chief of...

  10. Language Interpretation for Diverse Families: Considerations for Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The special education field is challenged by a lack of attention to and recruitment of well-trained language interpreters in schools. As such, special education teachers need to take a leadership role in working with interpreters to ensure diverse families are collaborative members of individualized education program (IEP) teams. Using the…

  11. The accuracy of interpreting key psychiatric terms by ad hoc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MacFarlane et al.15 note that a greater number of people have a preference for working with ad hoc interpreters in comparison to professional interpreters ... As part of a larger study, a cross-sectional qualitative interview design was used to ..... obstacle they would face if they would receive training. They had concerns over ...

  12. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography.

  13. Interpreting Multiple Linear Regression: A Guidebook of Variable Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathans, Laura L.; Oswald, Frederick L.; Nimon, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression (MR) analyses are commonly employed in social science fields. It is also common for interpretation of results to typically reflect overreliance on beta weights, often resulting in very limited interpretations of variable importance. It appears that few researchers employ other methods to obtain a fuller understanding of what…

  14. Interpreting residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.; Coon, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This report is the first publication in the field of environmental-contaminant effects on wildlife to tell the reader how to interpret the results of analytical chemical results. Specifically, the publication describes how to interpret residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues. Pollutant oil residues in avian species are emphasized

  15. Cracking the code: residents' interpretations of written assessment comments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginsburg, S.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Eva, K.W.; Lingard, L.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Interest is growing in the use of qualitative data for assessment. Written comments on residents' in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) can be reliably rank-ordered by faculty attendings, who are adept at interpreting these narratives. However, if residents do not interpret assessment

  16. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-05-01

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Confusing cracks and difficult deformations : Interpreting structural damage in masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vent, I.; Rots, J.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.; Hobbelman, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Cracks and deformatiçns in masonry are common phenomena in historical buildings. If they are interpreted correctly, they can be an extremely valuable source çf informatiçn on the load history of the premises. Nevertheless, this interpretation is not always as obvious as one may think. In the

  18. Teachers' Interpretations of Student Statements about Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Styers, Jodie L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes seven in-service teachers' interpretations of student statements about slope. The teachers interpreted sample student work, conjectured about student contributions, assessed the students' understanding, and positioned the students' statements in the mathematics curriculum. The teachers' responses provide insight into their…

  19. Interpretive Responses in Reading History and Biology: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Ahmed A.

    1971-01-01

    Explores the interpretive processes of 12 sixth-grade pupils, using the recorded interview technique. Concludes that readers use the processes of reproduction, inquiry, emotional reaction, rational judgment, appreciation, association, and illumination, and that the nature of the reading material influences the types of interpretive responses. (VJ)

  20. Assessing spoken-language educational interpreting: Measuring up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    10. 10. Content. 25. Conveying interaction between lecturer and students. 5. 5. Managing equipment. Breath control and volume. 5. Intonation and voice quality. Use of coping techniques. Pronunciation and general clarity. Error correction. Fluency of interpreting product (hesitations, silences etc.) Interpreting competency. 15.

  1. Spin and Uncertainty in the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestenes, David

    1979-01-01

    Points out that quantum mechanics interpretations, using Heisenberg's Uncertainty Relations for the position and momentum of an electron, have their drawbacks. The interpretations are limited to the Schrodinger theory and fail to take into account either spin or relativity. Shows why spin cannot be ignored. (Author/GA)

  2. Hylozoism as an Interpretive Principle in African Metaphysics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hylozoism as an Interpretive Principle in African Metaphysics. ... is only used as an interpretive principle in African Metaphysics; unlike the widely held assumption by some popular proponents that inanimate beings have elein vitale, that is, life-force. ... LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 8(1), 319-327, 2011 ...

  3. Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner-Romanoff, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

  4. College Students' Interpretations of Financial Morality: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alan; Lucey, Thomas; Inose, Taki; Yamane, Eiji; Green, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    This paper interprets comments associated with an open-response item on an online survey of college students in the United States, Japan, and Canada. The item inquired about their interpretations of financial morality. The paper describes student understandings of appropriate behaviors in relationship to financial practice. The authors claim that…

  5. Intercultural Interpretations: Making Public Relations Education Culturally Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…

  6. The Marketing Firm: Operant Interpretation of Corporate Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Kevin J.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of applying operant psychology to derive plausible and useful interpretations of complex firm behavior in natural settings. The objective is to discuss an appropriate methodology based on case study design, developed specifically in Vella and Foxall (2011), to produce an operant interpretation of secondary…

  7. How Chinese Semantics Capability Improves Interpretation in Visual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chu-Yu; Ou, Yang-Kun; Kin, Ching-Lung

    2017-01-01

    A visual representation involves delivering messages through visually communicated images. The study assumed that semantic recognition can affect visual interpretation ability, and the result showed that students graduating from a general high school achieve satisfactory results in semantic recognition and image interpretation tasks than students…

  8. James Madison's "Public" As Interpreter of the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Donald O.

    James Madison's thoughts on various interpretations of the Constitution maintain that public opinion is the ultimate method of legitimizing the document. The Constitution must prevail against mere public opinion, but public opinion may be used to establish the meaning of the Constitution when conflicting interpretations exist. The public good and…

  9. Ifuzzer : An evolutionary interpreter fuzzer using genetic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggalam, Spandan; Rawat, Sanjay; Haller, Istvan; Bos, Herbert

    We present an automated evolutionary fuzzing technique to find bugs in JavaScript interpreters. Fuzzing is an automated black box testing technique used for finding security vulnerabilities in the software by providing random data as input. However, in the case of an interpreter, fuzzing is

  10. Interpretation of highly visual 'open' advertisements in Dutch magazines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Gisbergen, M.S.; Beentjes, J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades magazine advertisers have used an increasing number of highly visual open ads. Open ads do not guide consumers toward a specific interpretation as traditional ads do. An experiment was carried out to establish the effects of openness on interpretation. As expected, openness was

  11. Interpretation and code generation based on intermediate languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Peter; Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of supporting high level languages through intermediate languages to be used for direct interpretation and as intermediate forms in compilers is investigated. An accomplished project in the construction of an interpreter and a code generator using one common intermediate form...

  12. Service-Learning: Recentering the Deaf Community in Interpreter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sherry; Roberson, Len

    2009-01-01

    The concept of recentering the Deaf community in interpreter education stems from the recent discussion of program evolution away from stakeholders and into academia highlighted by Monikowski and Peterson (2005). The University of North Florida, in the initial stages of developing a B.S. degree and M.Ed. concentration in ASL/English Interpreting,…

  13. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations. 61.14 Section 61.14 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY...) Definition. A Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretation is a written determination by the Federal...

  14. An Artistic Approach to Fine Arts Interpretation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selan, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    Art criticism was introduced into art education to help students understand works of art. However, art interpretation methods differ according to the educational goals specified for various types of art students. The fine arts interpretation procedures established in education are usually purely theoretical and exclusively verbal, and are thus…

  15. 78 FR 10166 - Access Interpreting; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... regulations. Access Interpreting has been awarded a contract to perform work for OPP, and access to this information will enable Access Interpreting to fulfill the obligations of the contract. DATES: Access.... Contractor Requirements Under Contract No. EP10H000109, this contract is to provide the Environmental...

  16. New physical interpretation for time in scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, E.; Miller, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    We show that the collision time may be interpreted as the time average of a flux-flux correlation function. This interpretation leads quantum mechanically to a complex time whose real part is identical to the usual definition as provided by F. T. Smith. The imaginary part is identical, in the semiclassical limit, to the imaginary time associated with tunneling

  17. Exploring untrained interpreters' use of direct versus indirect speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    by personalizing the indefinite pronoun 'one' when relaying from doctor to patient. All other pronoun shifts occurred in connection with interactional problems caused almost exclusively by the interpreters' lack of knowledge about medical terminology - even though the terms used were in fact non-specialized ones....... The study also indicates that primary parties' shifts from direct to indirect address are closely related either to the form or to the content of the interpreter's prior utterance. Finally, it emerges that repeated one-language talk, triggered by the interpreter's problems with medical terminology, can......This study examines the interrelations between the use of direct vs. indirect speech by primary participants and by dialogue interpreters by focusing on pronoun shifts and their interactional functions. The data consist of four simulated interpreter-mediated medical interviews based on the same...

  18. Forsmark site investigation. Interpretation of topographic lineaments 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans

    2003-04-01

    SKB performs site investigations for localization of a deep repository for high level radioactive waste. The site investigations are performed in two municipalities; Oesthammar and Oskarshamn. The Forsmark investigation area is situated in Oesthammar, close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. The purpose of interpretation of lineaments from topographic data is to identify linear features (lineaments), which may correspond to deformation zones in the bedrock. The data will be combined with interpretations of lineaments from airborne geophysical data in order to produce an integrated lineament interpretation for the Forsmark area. This integrated interpretation will be combined with geological data in order to establish a bedrock geological map of the Forsmark area. The area for the lineament interpretation is the same as that selected for the bedrock mapping activities during 2002, i.e. the land area around Forsmark

  19. The relationship between symbolic interactionism and interpretive description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    In this article I explore the relationship between symbolic interactionist theory and interpretive description methodology. The two are highly compatible, making symbolic interactionism an excellent theoretical framework for interpretive description studies. The pragmatism underlying interpretive description supports locating the methodology within this cross-disciplinary theory to make it more attractive to nonnursing researchers and expand its potential to address practice problems across the applied disciplines. The theory and method are so compatible that symbolic interactionism appears to be part of interpretive description's epistemological foundations. Interpretive description's theoretical roots have, to date, been identified only very generally in interpretivism and the philosophy of nursing. A more detailed examination of its symbolic interactionist heritage furthers the contextualization or forestructuring of the methodology to meet one of its own requirements for credibility.

  20. Coping with stress: dream interpretation in the Mapuche family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarrod, L N

    1990-06-01

    Dreams are shared and interpreted daily within the family unit among the Mapuche Indians of Chile. This anthropological study examines the communicative aspect of dream sharing and interpreting among Mapuche families undergoing emotional and physical stress. Specifically, it investigates the ways in which the Mapuche dream interpretation system provides the family members with another means of interaction and a way of solving their problems. It also examines how individuals influence their attitudes towards one another by communally participating in the dream interpretation process, and in its narrative performance. The data used in this research consists of dreams and of their interpretations, collected in the natural setting, from two families with members suffering of witchcraft, and fear of death. This information was collected over a period of 17 months from October 1985 to March 1987 with a Fulbright-Hayes Doctoral Dissertation Grant.

  1. Deaf-Blind Interpreting: Building on What You Already Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Petronio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2010v2n26p237 This article focuses on visual considerations and describes the numerous similarities between video interpreting and deaf-blind interpreting. It also looks at linguistic considerations for deaf-blind interpreting and presents research findings showing similarities and differences between ASL and Tactile ASL. Because many interpreters are unfamiliar with tactile communication, there is a section that includes an overview of Tactile ASL. The issues, descriptions, and data presented in this article are based on situations in the United States and involve the use of ASL and Tactile ASL; however, it is highly likely that these discussions and findings also relate to deaf-blind interpreting done in other countries using other sign languages.

  2. Patterns of Communication through Interpreters: A Detailed Sociolinguistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguri, Cesar; Davidson, Brad; Ramirez, Robert

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Numerous articles have detailed how the presence of an interpreter leads to less satisfactory communication with physicians; few have studied how actual communication takes place through an interpreter in a clinical setting. OBJECTIVE Record and analyze physician-interpreter-patient interactions. DESIGN Primary care physicians with high-volume Hispanic practices were recruited for a communication study. Dyslipidemic Hispanic patients, either monolingual Spanish or bilingual Spanish-English, were recruited on the day of a normally scheduled appointment and, once consented, recorded without a researcher present in the room. Separate postvisit interviews were conducted with the patient and the physician. All interactions were fully transcribed and analyzed. PARTICIPANTS Sixteen patients were recorded interacting with 9 physicians. Thirteen patients used an interpreter with 8 physicians, and 3 patients spoke Spanish with the 1 bilingual physician. APPROACH Transcript analysis based on sociolinguistic and discourse analytic techniques, including but not limited to time speaking, analysis of questions asked and answered, and the loss of semantic information. RESULTS Speech was significantly reduced and revised by the interpreter, resulting in an alteration of linguistic features such as content, meaning, reinforcement/validation, repetition, and affect. In addition, visits that included an interpreter had virtually no rapport-building “small talk,” which typically enables the physician to gain comprehensive patient history, learn clinically relevant information, and increase emotional engagement in treatment. CONCLUSIONS The presence of an interpreter increases the difficulty of achieving good physician-patient communication. Physicians and interpreters should be trained in the process of communication and interpretation, to minimize conversational loss and maximize the information and relational exchange with interpreted patients. PMID:16808747

  3. Interpretation bias and social anxiety: does interpretation bias mediate the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Milne, Kirby; Dayman, Janet; Kemps, Eva

    2018-05-23

    Two studies aimed to examine whether high socially anxious individuals are more likely to negatively interpret ambiguous social scenarios and facial expressions compared to low socially anxious individuals. We also examined whether interpretation bias serves as a mediator of the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety responses, in particular current state anxiety, bodily sensations, and perceived probability and cost of negative evaluation pertaining to a speech task. Study 1 used ambiguous social scenarios and Study 2 used ambiguous facial expressions as stimuli to objectively assess interpretation bias. Undergraduate students with high and low social anxiety completed measures of state anxiety responses at three time points: baseline, after the interpretation bias task, and after the preparation for an impromptu speech. Results showed that high socially anxious individuals were more likely to endorse threat interpretations for ambiguous social scenarios and to interpret ambiguous faces as negative than low socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, negative interpretations mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and perceived probability of negative evaluation pertaining to the speech task in Study 1 but not Study 2. The present studies provide new insight into the role of interpretation bias in social anxiety.

  4. Performance of educational interpreter: partnership with teachers and authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ferreira dos Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to analyze and discuss the work of the Educational Interpreter (IE, which is a recent professional in our country in the field of deaf educacion, and the currently researches on their performance in the classroom are incipient. This article aimed to discuss in addition to the work of interpretation from one language to another (Brazilian Sign Language/Portuguese, their relationship of partnership with the teacher and how this may influence interpretation practices, and also the possibilities of creation and discursive authoring by professional IE. For this purpose, this research is based mostly on Bakhtinian theoretical frameworks (2009, 2010, and authors in the field of deafness, translation and interpretation. The data selected for this study was done in tape-recorder and subsequently transcribed, in a History classroom with the presence of interpreter, on the 6th year of elementary school that proposed be inclusive bilingual for the deaf. The analysis on the IE’s performance demonstrated that the work of Educational Interpreter is not restricted to the utterances translation and interpretations:  he is co-author of the discourses delivered by teachers in classroom, and your practices are connected with the teacher’s practice work development.

  5. Interpretation modification training reduces social anxiety in clinically anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anke M; Rapee, Ronald M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Kangas, Maria; Lyneham, Heidi J; Souren, Pierre M; Rinck, Mike

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of training in positive interpretations in clinically anxious children. A total of 87 children between 7 and 12 years of age were randomly assigned to either a positive cognitive bias modification training for interpretation (CMB-I) or a neutral training. Training included 15 sessions in a two-week period. Children with an interpretation bias prior to training in the positive training group showed a significant reduction in interpretation bias on the social threat scenarios after training, but not children in the neutral training group. No effects on interpretation biases were found for the general threat scenarios or the non-threat scenarios. Furthermore, children in the positive training did not self-report lower anxiety than children in the neutral training group. However, mothers and fathers reported a significant reduction in social anxiety in their children after positive training, but not after neutral training. This study demonstrated that clinically anxious children with a prior interpretation bias can be trained away from negative social interpretation biases and there is some evidence that this corresponds to reductions in social anxiety. This study also highlights the importance of using specific training stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of educational interpreter: partnership with teachers and authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ferreira dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to analyze and discuss the work of the Educational Interpreter (IE, which is a recent professional in our country in the field of deaf educacion, and the currently researches on their performance in the classroom are incipient. This article aimed to discuss in addition to the work of interpretation from one language to another (Brazilian Sign Language/Portuguese, their relationship of partnership with the teacher and how this may influence interpretation practices, and also the possibilities of creation and discursive authoring by professional IE. For this purpose, this research is based mostly on Bakhtinian theoretical frameworks (2009, 2010, and authors in the field of deafness, translation and interpretation. The data selected for this study was done in tape-recorder and subsequently transcribed, in a History classroom with the presence of interpreter, on the 6th year of elementary school that proposed be inclusive bilingual for the deaf. The analysis on the IE’s performance demonstrated that the work of Educational Interpreter is not restricted to the utterances translation and interpretations: he is co-author of the discourses delivered by teachers in classroom, and your practices are connected with the teacher’s practice work development.

  7. ICADx: interpretable computer aided diagnosis of breast masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Lee, Hakmin; Kim, Hak Gu; Ro, Yong Man

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a novel computer aided diagnosis (CADx) framework is devised to investigate interpretability for classifying breast masses. Recently, a deep learning technology has been successfully applied to medical image analysis including CADx. Existing deep learning based CADx approaches, however, have a limitation in explaining the diagnostic decision. In real clinical practice, clinical decisions could be made with reasonable explanation. So current deep learning approaches in CADx are limited in real world deployment. In this paper, we investigate interpretability in CADx with the proposed interpretable CADx (ICADx) framework. The proposed framework is devised with a generative adversarial network, which consists of interpretable diagnosis network and synthetic lesion generative network to learn the relationship between malignancy and a standardized description (BI-RADS). The lesion generative network and the interpretable diagnosis network compete in an adversarial learning so that the two networks are improved. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated on public mammogram database. Experimental results showed that the proposed ICADx framework could provide the interpretability of mass as well as mass classification. It was mainly attributed to the fact that the proposed method was effectively trained to find the relationship between malignancy and interpretations via the adversarial learning. These results imply that the proposed ICADx framework could be a promising approach to develop the CADx system.

  8. Radiographer interpretation of trauma radiographs: Issues for radiography education providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Snaith, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Background: The role of radiographers with respect to image interpretation within clinical practice is well recognised. It is the expectation of the professional, regulatory and academic bodies that upon qualification, radiographers will possess image interpretation skills. Additionally, The College of Radiographers has asserted that its aspiration is for all radiographers to be able to provide an immediate written interpretation on skeletal trauma radiographs by 2010. This paper explores the readiness of radiography education programmes in the UK to deliver this expectation. Method: A postal questionnaire was distributed to 25 Higher Education Institutions in the UK (including Northern Ireland) that provided pre-registration radiography education as identified from the Society and College of Radiographers register. Information was sought relating to the type of image interpretation education delivered at pre- and post-registration levels; the anatomical range of image interpretation education; and education delivery styles. Results: A total of 19 responses (n = 19/25; 76.0%) were received. Image interpretation education was included as part of all radiographer pre-registration programmes and offered at post-registration level at 12 academic centres (n = 12/19; 63.2%). The anatomical areas and educational delivery methods varied across institutions. Conclusion: Radiography education providers have embraced the need for image interpretation education within both pre- and post-registration radiography programmes. As a result, UK education programmes are able to meet the 2010 College of Radiographers aspiration.

  9. Interpretation in reproductive genetic counseling: a methodological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Adél; Szeverényi, Péter

    2007-09-01

    In case of genetic risk, parents are often faced with reproductive decisions affecting their life essentially, so it is advisable to pursue careful deliberation. For this reason, the genetic counselor is expected to help the counselee make well-informed and well-considered decisions, which requires the understanding of the patient as an individual. To reach emphatic understanding, physicians can use the results of the Gadamerian theory of interpretation that contains the idea -- as it has been summarized by V. Arnason -- that four aspects of openness are necessary to fully understand the other, such as openness to oneself, to the other, to the subject matter and to tradition. In our paper, we are applying the four-openness model of interpretation to genetic consultation, and we argue that during counseling double interpretation takes place: the physician interprets the patient, and the patient interprets the physician. Double interpretation leads to the clarification of those factors which influence the patient's decision-making: the counselor's attitude and prejudices, the counselee's values and needs, the medical, social, and moral implications of the genetic disease, and the social expectations. By adopting the theory of interpretation, counselors can also advance the provision of emotional support patients need in hard situations.

  10. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  11. Writing Compilers and Interpreters A Software Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Long-awaited revision to a unique guide that covers both compilers and interpreters Revised, updated, and now focusing on Java instead of C++, this long-awaited, latest edition of this popular book teaches programmers and software engineering students how to write compilers and interpreters using Java. You?ll write compilers and interpreters as case studies, generating general assembly code for a Java Virtual Machine that takes advantage of the Java Collections Framework to shorten and simplify the code. In addition, coverage includes Java Collections Framework, UML modeling, object-oriented p

  12. Optimal control of a harmonic oscillator: Economic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janová, Jitka; Hampel, David

    2013-10-01

    Optimal control is a popular technique for modelling and solving the dynamic decision problems in economics. A standard interpretation of the criteria function and Lagrange multipliers in the profit maximization problem is well known. On a particular example, we aim to a deeper understanding of the possible economic interpretations of further mathematical and solution features of the optimal control problem: we focus on the solution of the optimal control problem for harmonic oscillator serving as a model for Phillips business cycle. We discuss the economic interpretations of arising mathematical objects with respect to well known reasoning for these in other problems.

  13. Training of professional interpreters in Cuba: Its main historic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Oliveros-Domínguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of interpreters in Cuba has as its main goal to train a professional who is able to mediate among Spanish speakers and not-Spanish speakers in our historic situation. This research article aims to analyze the main backgrounds of interpretation teaching at Universidad de Oriente, taking into account its dynamics and the didactic treatment of the cognitive factors involved in the interpretation process. This enables to deepen into the main characteristics of the process, through a study of short-term memory training and the didactic devices used for its improvement; and establish three main stages in the evolution.

  14. [Interpretation in the Danish health-care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Hansen, Marianne Taulo; Nielsen, Signe Smith

    2013-03-04

    Communication between health professional and patient is central for treatment and patient safety in the health-care system. This systematic review examines the last ten years of specialist literature concerning interpretation in the Danish health-care system. Structural search in two databases, screening of references and recommended literature from two scientists led to identification of seven relevant articles. The review showed that professional interpreters were not used consistently when needed. Family members were also used as interpreters. These results were supported by international investigations.

  15. Model-Based Integration and Interpretation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Data integration and interpretation plays a crucial role in supervisory control. The paper defines a set of generic inference steps for the data integration and interpretation process based on a three-layer model of system representations. The three-layer model is used to clarify the combination...... of constraint and object-centered representations of the work domain throwing new light on the basic principles underlying the data integration and interpretation process of Rasmussen's abstraction hierarchy as well as other model-based approaches combining constraint and object-centered representations. Based...

  16. Radiological interpretation: The 'step-child' in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    Radiology has a highly developed technique, an extensive scientific literature and is excellent for acquiring information; one must contrast with this the difficulties in interpreting the information. In an attempt to find the reason for this, the process of radiological interpretation has been scrutinised. Critical consideration has been given to errors in the interpretation of the findings and to problems arising from the use of the available data. An attempt is made, with the help of diagrams, to determine a pathway for further development of information handling in X-ray diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  17. Momentum conservation decides Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelidis, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the light of Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas, the conditions necessary for the derivation of the quantitative statement or law of momentum conservation are considered. The result of such considerations is a contradiction between the formalism of quantum physics and the asserted consequences of Heisenberg's interpretation. This contradiction decides against Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas on upholding that the formalism of quantum physics is both consistent and complete, at least insofar as the statement of momentum conservation can be proved within this formalism. A few comments are also included on Bohr's complementarity interpretation of the formalism of quantum physics. A suggestion, based on a statistical mode of empirical testing of the uncertainty formulas, does not give rise to any such contradiction

  18. 76 FR 30040 - Proposed Airworthiness Directives Legal Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    .... SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration published a proposed airworthiness directives legal... Administration (FAA) published a proposed airworthiness directives legal interpretation in the Federal Register... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2010...

  19. Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symposium Title: Social Determinants of Health, Environmental Exposures, and Disproportionately Impacted Communities: What We Know and How We Tell Others Topic 3: Community Engagement and Research Translation Title: Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communicati...

  20. Interpretive Management: What General Managers Can Learn from Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Richard K.; Piore, Michael J.; Malek, Kamal M.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical management approach reflects a traditional perspective and an interpretive approach involves a perspective suited to rapidly changing, unpredictable markets. Both approaches are valid, but each serves different purposes and calls for different strategies and skills. (JOW)

  1. Health care accessibility and the role of sign language interpreters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaerde, B.; de Lange, R.; Nicodemus, B.; Metzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    In healthcare, the accuracy of interpretation is the most critical component of safe and effective communication between providers and patients in medical settings characterized by language and cultural barriers. Although medical education should prepare healthcare providers for common issues they

  2. Theory of radiatively driven stellar winds. I. A physical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    This series of papers extends the line-driven wind theory of Castor, Abbott, and Klein (CAK). The present paper develops a physical interpretation of line-driven flows using analytic methods. Numerical results will follow in two subsequent papers

  3. Ontology learning from interpretations in lightweight description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Inductive Logic programming (ILP), Kyoto, Japan, 20-22 August 2015 Ontology Learning from Interpretations in Lightweight Description Logics Szymon Klarman1 and Katarina Britz2 1 Department of Computer Science, Brunel...

  4. Overcoming Hurdles: Teaching Guides To Interpret Biodiversity Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Jon; Brown, Cynthia; Humke, Matt

    2001-01-01

    Highlights the development and use of bilingual nature guide training. Examines work at the RARE Center for tropical conservation in Central America. Speculates about the future of conservation interpretation. (DDR)

  5. An interpretation map: Finding paths to reading processes | Green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interpretation map: Finding paths to reading processes. ... and for itself and that reading happens to the text as some extrinsic and contingent event. – Paul Ricoeur. A consideration of ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. Interpretive Reporting of Protein Electrophoresis Data by Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Thomas S.; Losos, Frank J.; Kessler, G. Frederick

    1982-01-01

    A microcomputer based system for interpretive reporting of protein electrophoretic data has been developed. Data for serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid protein electrophoreses as well as immunoelectrophoresis can be entered. Patient demographic information is entered through the keyboard followed by manual entry of total and fractionated protein levels obtained after densitometer scanning of the electrophoretic strip. The patterns are then coded, interpreted, and final reports generated. In most cases interpretation time is less than one second. Misinterpretation by computer is uncommon and can be corrected by edit functions within the system. These discrepancies between computer and pathologist interpretation are automatically stored in a data file for later review and possible program modification. Any or all previous tests on a patient may be reviewed with graphic display of the electrophoretic pattern. The system has been in use for several months and is presently well accepted by both laboratory and clinical staff. It also allows rapid storage, retrieval and analysis of protein electrophoretic datab.

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 6 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide a written interpretation of how three of these terms are treated under the law. The terms in... invitations to bid, contracts, or other trade documents. It imposes a condition or requirement compliance with...

  8. An intentionality-interpretation of meaning in mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2015-01-01

    explore this interpretation with respect to mathematics education by addressing imaginations, possibilities, obstructions, hopes, fears, stereotypes and preconceptions. I relate meaning in mathematics education to far away horizons of students’ life worlds, to negotiations, to political issues...

  9. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  10. A Qualitative Interpretation of Residual Magnetic Anomaly using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Qualitative Interpretation of Residual Magnetic Anomaly using Ground ... The magnetic data was collected using a G816 proton precision magnetometer. ... Analysis of residual anomaly graph reveals the existence of some structural features ...

  11. Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-León E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Are sexual orientations freely chosen? The idea that someone’s sexual orientation is not a choice is very influential in the mainstream LGBT political movement. But do we have good reasons to believe it is not a choice? Going against the orthodoxy, William Wilkerson has recently argued that sexual orientation is partly constituted by our interpretations of our own sexual desires, and we choose these interpretations, so sexual orientation is partly constituted by choice. In this paper I aim to examine the question of whether our interpretations of our own sexual desires are constitutive of our sexual orientations. I will argue that whereas Wilkerson’s argument for the claim that sexual orientations are in part constituted by our chosen interpretations of our sexual desires is not sound, there are good reasons for endorsing a weaker claim, namely, that there are different but equally apt descriptions of the same sexual desires, depending on which concepts we have.

  12. Islam, Context, Pluralism and Democracy : Classical and Modern Interpretations,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellethy, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Islam, Context, Pluralism and Democracy aspires to clarify the tensions and congruences between the revelational and the rational, the text and the context, the limits and the horizons of contextualization in Islam, as these emanate from the Islamic interpretative tradition.

  13. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, and language production in a second language among others. It is, however, an open issue whether persons with experience in SI possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations. PMID:26528232

  14. Interpreting values in the daily practices of Nordic preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Anna-Maija, Puriola; Johannesson, Eva Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study explored how practitioners interpreted educational practices from the perspective of values in Nordic preschools. Drawing data from group interviews in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), practitioners reflected on an observational episode about...... children dressing for outdoor play in a Swedish preschool. The research material consisted of extracts from group interviews in ten preschools (two from each Nordic country). The research questions included: How do values emerge in practitioners’ interpretations? What is the interpretive process like...... and the co-construction of interpretations in the group dialogues. The practitioners employed indirect means more often than direct means to express their values. The group interviews contained themes that were connected to caring, disciplinary, competence and democratic values. The study provided evidence...

  15. Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-09-26

    This is the final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0006389, "Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier", describing research accomplishments by the PI in the field of theoretical high energy physics.

  16. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  17. Alcohol‐related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczak, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.; Wiers, R.W.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 760 - Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 3. Dated: Signature Sworn to before me, this ____ day of ______, 19 __. Notary Seal.” Interpretation... boycotting country prohibit, among other things, the importation into the boycotting country of products or...

  19. COMMUNICATIVE PECULIARITY OF INTERPRETATIVE AND DELIBERATIVE STYLE IN PEDAGOGICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsinkerman Tamara Nikolaevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to characterize the communicative peculiarities of the interpretative-deliberative style in pedagogical discourse. The object of the study is interpretative-deliberative style viewed as one of the communication forms in pedagogical discourse; the subject of the analysis is the stratagem and tactics characteristics of the interpretative-deliberative communicative style. Descriptive and analytical as well as stylistic and discourse analysis methods are employed. The author reveals the most prevalent strategies–explanatory, interpretative and deliberative–employed in communicative interaction in situations of educative persuasion. The communicative characteristics of the analyzed style are: a rational type of the communicative action, a trust-based tone and the emotional involvement of the communication participants. The results can be used for clarifying specifics of speech behavior in educative communication as well as for comparing styles of educative communication in different enthnocultural traditions.

  20. DOE interpretations Guide to OSH standards. Update to the Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-31

    Reflecting Secretary O`Leary`s focus on occupational safety and health, the Office of Occupational Safety is pleased to provide you with the latest update to the DOE Interpretations Guide to OSH Standards. This Guide was developed in cooperation with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which continued its support during this last revision by facilitating access to the interpretations found on the OSHA Computerized Information System (OCIS). This March 31, 1994 update contains 123 formal interpretation letters written by OSHA. As a result of the unique requests received by the 1-800 Response Line, this update also contains 38 interpretations developed by DOE. This new occupational safety and health information adds still more important guidance to the four volume reference set that you presently have in your possession.