Sample records for eulau eulogy bioarchaeological

  1. [Eulogy of wine?]. (United States)

    Godfroid, I O


    In the literature the beneficial effects on health of drinking alcoholic beverages, especially red wine, is becoming increasingly more evident. We report an objective analysis of the advantages and the dangers of such a tendency. It appears that the daily consumption of red wine at moderate doses (200-400 ml a day) has real prophylactic effects. These are particularly marked in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), but also for a possible cancer chemopreventive activity, in the prevention of type II diabetes, of ischemic stroke, of osteoporosis in older women, and of Alzheimer's disease. But, inasmuch as the consumption of alcoholic beverages always involves a potential danger (organic diseases, risk of dependence, alcoholism), from a medical point of view eulogy to wine is ethically indefensible. Similar effects may be obtained from a diet rich in fruits and fresh vegetables.

  2. Resume, Eulogy, Education and Future (United States)

    Demšar, A.; Aneja, A.


    Will the current trend of the Industrial Age, focused on profits, greed, material wealth, and mass consumption continue? Inequality and polarization, which are seen in today’s world, are ranked as the top drivers of global risks. Unequal community threatens democracy. Communities with greater inequality are more violent, have more people in prisons, more mental illness, lower life expectancy etc.. On the other hand, communities with greater equality have higher abundance and lower stress. Among eleven factors most important for classroom learning, social and emotional factors accounted for eight. Our emotional and social IQ developed over millennia of living in groups will continue to be one of the vital assets that give human workers necessary tools for creating and building a world of 21st century. Today’s education system is based on the model which was essential for industrial era and mass production. With fast technological development the approach to teaching should be changed. We need new curriculums for new skills and new learning concepts. The aim of the article is to raise awareness regarding the planet’s and mankind’s future and to stress the importance of education and designation between résumé virtues and the eulogy virtues.

  3. Bones, Bodies, and Blogs: Outreach and Engagement in Bioarchaeology

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    Katy Meyers Emery


    Full Text Available Surprisingly few bioarchaeology blogs currently exist, but their numbers belie their reach. In this article, we survey the ecology of the bioarchaeology blogosphere and address the impact of blogging in bioarchaeology, specifically addressing its utility in outreach and public engagement. In providing specific examples from our collective decade of blogging and from other bioarchaeology bloggers, we provide best practices to encourage bioarchaeologists who may want to add their voices to this sphere. The difficulties and potential issues of blogging bioarchaeology are far outweighed by the benefits of expanding communication and furthering disciplinary engagement in an increasingly digital world. We call on bioarchaeologists to be protagonists and advocates of our discipline.

  4. Rhetorical Choice in Mansfield's November 25, 1963 Eulogy. (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    One of the most memorable eulogies delivered in the United States Senate is the one by Senator Michael Mansfield for President John F. Kennedy. An analysis of his word choice reveals that he (1) forced the audience to participate in the creation of the message; (2) employed active, forceful descriptions; (3) focused on praiseworthy qualities of…

  5. The strophic structure of the eulogy of Ephesians 1:3-14

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three categories: The Lucan canticles, the hymns in the Revelation, and specific ... Those related to form: grammatical, syntactical and stylistic-rhetorical ..... prayer or hymn forms the basis of the eulogy, but states nevertheless that '...similar.

  6. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice. (United States)

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza


    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers.

  7. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice

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    Maria Constanza Ceruti


    Full Text Available This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m, Quehuar (6130 m, El Toro (6160 m, and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers.

  8. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico. (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice


    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Late Mediaeval Cemetery of Koprivno, Southern Croatia

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    Mario Novak


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of bioarchaeological analysis of the late mediaeval (13th-14th century skeletal sample from Koprivno, southern Croatia. Skeletal remains of 21 individuals (eight males, nine females, and four subadults were examined for the possible presence of dental pathologies (caries and alveolar bone diseases, subadult stress indicators (cribra orbitalia and dental enamel hypoplasia, degenerative osteoarthritis of the vertebrae and major joints, Schmorl’s nodes on vertebrae, periostitis, and bone trauma. The analysed sample is characterised by high frequency of alveolar bone disease, most probably as a result of somewhat longer average life span (around 41 years and very poor oral hygiene, while the data concerning dental caries indicate mixed diet evenly based on meat and cereals. High frequencies of cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia and periostitis suggest frequent episodes of physiological stress (hunger, epidemics of infectious diseases which is in accordance with historical data. Distribution and prevalence of cranial traumas strongly suggest a relatively high degree of interpersonal violence in the analysed community.

  10. Testing the equivalence of modern human cranial covariance structure: Implications for bioarchaeological applications. (United States)

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Schroeder, Lauren


    Estimation of the variance-covariance (V/CV) structure of fragmentary bioarchaeological populations requires the use of proxy extant V/CV parameters. However, it is currently unclear whether extant human populations exhibit equivalent V/CV structures. Random skewers (RS) and hierarchical analyses of common principal components (CPC) were applied to a modern human cranial dataset. Cranial V/CV similarity was assessed globally for samples of individual populations (jackknifed method) and for pairwise population sample contrasts. The results were examined in light of potential explanatory factors for covariance difference, such as geographic region, among-group distance, and sample size. RS analyses showed that population samples exhibited highly correlated multivariate responses to selection, and that differences in RS results were primarily a consequence of differences in sample size. The CPC method yielded mixed results, depending upon the statistical criterion used to evaluate the hierarchy. The hypothesis-testing (step-up) approach was deemed problematic due to sensitivity to low statistical power and elevated Type I errors. In contrast, the model-fitting (lowest AIC) approach suggested that V/CV matrices were proportional and/or shared a large number of CPCs. Pairwise population sample CPC results were correlated with cranial distance, suggesting that population history explains some of the variability in V/CV structure among groups. The results indicate that patterns of covariance in human craniometric samples are broadly similar but not identical. These findings have important implications for choosing extant covariance matrices to use as proxy V/CV parameters in evolutionary analyses of past populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Eulogy for Raymond (United States)

    Sorba, Paul


    On July 8 th 2011, four years ago, almost to the day, we were celebrating Raymond. A great number of his friends and colleagues from France, Europe and the United States gathered in Annecy to express their attachment, their affection, and, let us say the word, their admiration. Recognized by all as a very great physicist, Raymond was also an example of generosity and tolerance. Since that "Special day for Raymond" as we called the fest, his health began to decline. Those who were close to him then came to recognize his exceptional strength of character, his stoicism and his humanism. No complaint ever, but rather, until these last days, always an enthusiasm that he wanted to share for either an idea, a computation or a work of art. On the evening of that special 8 July 2011, I had wished, in my speech, to highlight the outstanding scientist but I sensed, from the look on his face, that he reacted with some irritation. I then mentioned his humanism, to which I heard him whisper: "Ah! I prefer that!" Is it possible to separate the man from the physicist? I would answer that, for me, Raymond was first of all a man in love with humanity. In addition, he was gifted for the so-called theoretical sciences, mathematics, physics; he also had a passion for the arts, music, drawing, and of course literature, as will have been noted by those who had the privilege to visit his collection of old books. I remember of course my first contacts with Raymond, at the beginning of the seventies in Marseilles. I must confess that I was rather scared by him. He used to come to us, young fellows in the lab, asking about our work in progress. His questions were insistent, and I guess that I was not the only one to fear these sessions which, at the beginning, appeared to me to be real examinations. But, in fact, his only goal was to help us. And for that, he offered us something very precious in life: more than his science, he was offering us his time. I keep in mind a particular picture. You were pushing the door of his office after knocking. Raymond was naturally absorbed in his work, he raised his head, saw you, dropped his pen and looked at you as if he was waiting for you: he was all yours. You could ask him your question, he had all the time for you. Of course, you were in for some discussions which sometimes looked to you off topic, but his mind was working faster than average and we could not follow all the overlaps which were done in his head. And, in general, he used to bring you a clarification, otherwise the solution. As my old friend Georges Girardi used to jokingly say: "Raymond, we believe that he is brilliant of course. But he is even more than that". I would like also to mention the words of Serge Lazzarini: "I was the last student of Raymond. But who has not been, at one time or another, a student of Raymond? There was always something to learn from him".

  12. Preliminary Investigations of The Bioarchaeology of Medieval Giecz (XI-XII C.: Examples of Trauma and Stress

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    Agnew Amanda M.


    Full Text Available Human skeletal remains from past populations are an invaluable source to objectively study biological history. The combined biological and cultural assessment of bioarchaeology offers a unique perspective on the adaptation of people to their environment. This study summarizes a portion of ongoing work to decipher trends related to health and lifestyle in early medieval (XI-XII c. Giecz, Poland. The skeletal assemblage from Giecz, the “Giecz Collection”, represents a community positioned at a major center of political, economic, and religious power during this important time in Polish history. Non-violent traumatic injuries were investigated to elucidate trends related to possible types and rigor of activities and linear femoral growth trends were analyzed to assess patterns of stress. Preliminary results suggest that all members of the community (men, women, and adolescents contributed to a lifestyle characterized by repetitive hard-work. Furthermore, it appears that most individuals suffered from health insults negatively affecting their development and perhaps their mortality.

  13. Examining the life history of an individual from Solcor 3, San Pedro de Atacama: Combining bioarchaeology and archaeological chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Rouff, Cristina; Knudson, Kelly J


    Detailed life history information using multiple lines of evidence including the identification of geographic origins, health, and body use indicators, can be used to elucidate the complex process of acculturation in the San Pedro de Atacama oases of northern Chile during the Middle Horizon. This paper presents the results of bioarchaeological and archaeological chemical analyses of the skeletal remains of an adult male (tomb 50, catalog number 1948) from the cemetery of Solcor 3 (ca. AD 500-900). Strontium isotope ratios in human tooth enamel reveal information about where a person lived during their childhood, when enamel was being formed. Individual 1948 showed strontium isotope ratios decidedly outside the range of the local San Pedro de Atacama strontium isotope signature. Given these data implying that individual 1948 was originally from elsewhere, an examination of his health status, social role, and mortuary context provides insight into the treatment of foreigners in San Pedro de Atacama. Our data support the argument that individual 1948's foreign birth did not hinder his later assimilation into Atacameno society. He was buried in a local cemetery with a typical mortuary assemblage for a male of this time and no strong evidence of possible foreign origin. Skeletal indicators of diet and activity patterns do not distinguish individual 1948 from the local population, suggesting that his lifestyle was similar to that of other Atacamenos. Therefore, our analyses suggest that individual 1948's acculturation into Atacameno society during his adult life was nearly complete and he retained little to no indication of his probable foreign birth

  14. Cat Taming in the Western Mediterranean. Issues, Problematics and Unpredictability in the Light of Bio-archaeological Approaches to a Museum Specimen

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    Roberto Miccichè


    Full Text Available The vast wealth of cultural artifacts and ancient biological samples can today be investigated using a great variety of methods and technologies. The result is a growing diffusion of studies on DNA, isotopes and morphometrics, and the exponential growth of publications and bio-archaeological discoveries of inestimable value for different areas of interpretation, such as phylogeny, history and archaeology. This paper describes the morphological and molecular study of a rare specimen of Felis from an Early Bronze Age horizon. The report offers the opportunity for a brief discussion on cat taming, on the origin of this practice and on the archaeological importance of this specimen for the reconstruction of taming practices in the Western Mediterranean Basin.

  15. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone. (United States)

    Rezaian, Jafar; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati Nasab, Hamed; Hojabri Nobari, Ali Reza; Abedollahi, Ali


    The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC). Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  16. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone

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    Jafar Rezaian


    Full Text Available The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC. Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  17. Tiwanaku influence and social inequality: A bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and contextual analysis of the Larache cemetery, San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Pestle, William J; Stovel, Emily M


    To assess the relationship between the Tiwanaku polity and the individuals buried at the Middle Horizon (∼AD500-1000) cemetery of Larache in northern Chile, a site that has been singled out as a potential elite foreign enclave. We explore this association through the skeletal remains of 48 individuals interred at the cemetery of Larache using bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and artifactual evidence. Data from cranial modification practices, violent injury, and the mortuary assemblage are used to explore culturally constructed elements of status and identity, radiogenic strontium isotope analyses provide us with a perspective on the geographic origins of these individuals, and stable carbon and nitrogen analyses allow discussion of paleodiet and access to resources. Radiogenic strontium isotope values show the presence of multiple first generation migrants at Larache. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data reveal significant differences among individuals. The mortuary context reveals a standard pattern for the oases but also includes a series of unusual burials with abundant gold and few other objects. Interestingly, both local and nonlocal individuals with different head shapes had access to the differentiated burial context; however nonlocal individuals appear to be the only ones with a heavily maize-based diet. Our evidence shows that Larache served as a burial place for a diverse, yet culturally integrated and potentially elite segment of the Atacameño population, but not a foreign enclave as had been postulated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ESTUDIOS BIOARQUEOLÓGICOS DEL SITIO PASO MAYOR, SUDOESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES / Bioarchaeological studies of Paso Mayor site, southwest Buenos Aires province

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    Clara Scabuzzo


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se resumen los estudios bioarqueológicos realizados en la colección osteológica del sitio Paso Mayor Y1S2 (partido de Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires. Los análisis efectuados comprendieron diferentes etapas. En primer lugar se hizo un inventario de la colección y se relevaron algunas variables tafonómicas para conocer el estado general de conservación de los restos. Una segunda etapa estuvo orientada a determinar la estructura sexo-etaria de la muestra. Finalmente se efectuaron estudios de marcadores de estrés ocupacional y el relevamiento de algunas patologías de carácter infeccioso y traumático. En conjunto estos análisis muestran que en el sitio se inhumaron individuos subadultos y adultos de ambos sexos, los restos fueron enterrados de manera primaria y secundaria. La colección muestra un buen estado de conservación por lo que fue posible determinar la mayoría de los elementos óseos analizados. En cuanto a los estudios de marcadores de actividad física, estos indican la importancia de la actividad deambulatoria y el posible uso de sistemas de armas como el arco y flecha. Se registró una reacción perióstica en los miembros inferiores y un traumatismo en el esqueleto craneal. Finalmente se discute la información bioarqueológica del sitio con la publicada para otros sitios del área. Abstract This paper summarizes the bioarchaeological studies of the osteological collection recovered in Paso Mayor Y1S2 site (Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires. Analyses were carried out in different stages. First, a detailed inventory of the collection was made and some taphonomic variables were considered in order to evaluate the general condition of the bone remains. A second phase was oriented to the determination of the age-sex structure of the sample. Finally, occupational stress markers studies were undertaken along with the observation of certain infectious and traumatic pathologies. As a whole, these analyses show the

  19. Türk Edebiyatında Birbirine Yakın Üç Kelime: Hiciv, Medih ve Hezel Three Closely Related Concepts in Turkish Literature: Satire, Eulogy, and Comic Poem

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    Zülküf KILIÇ


    Full Text Available About social criticism in literature, it has been determined that ancient poets and authors used lots of words and concepts, but it is clear that especially the concepts like satire, comic poem and eulogy were widely used for the literature which deals mainly with the personal, objective and the social criticism. Lots of other concepts which are related to the subject are synonymous have a close meaning with these, and they are expressed collectively under the main title of satire. First, we have to state that it is rather difficult to determine the borders of these three concepts which sometimes have the same meaning, and sometimes have a different meaning. Furthermore, in the ancient Arabian, Persian and Turkish Literature we cannot see that there were absolute borders among these three concepts, but still it can be said that each one has a characteristic peculiar to the concept. There are numerous criticisms about people in Classical Turkish poetry. People were criticized for their physical structure, clothes, character and behaviors. Officers and those who have a profession were criticized because they could not make the best of thier duty; society and time were criticized in the sense of moral, political and economical corruption. While making these criticisms, although the target was one person, there has always been a criticism from that person towards the whole humanity. This is mostly carried out through irony, praise and burlesque. In these kinds of the criticism, although there is only one person in the center, that only person is sometimes not the only objective and that person generally symbolizes a character; thus, by that person a larger group is criticized. Toplumsal eleştiriye dair edebiyat için eski şair ve ediplerin birçok kelime ve kavramı kullandıkları tespit edilmiştir. Fakat kişisel, nesnel veya toplumsal eleştiri içerikli edebiyat için özellikle hiciv, hezel ve medih gibi kavramların daha yaygın olarak

  20. COLECCIONES ANTIGUAS, DATOS NUEVOS: PRIMEROS RESULTADOS DEL ANÁLISIS DE LAS COLECCIONES BIOARQUEOLÓGICAS DEL HUMEDAL DEL PARANÁ INFERIOR / Old collections, new data: first results of the analysis of the bioarchaeological collections of the Lower Parana We

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    Bárbara Pamela Mazza


    Full Text Available Durante fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX tuvieron lugar varias exploraciones y excavaciones en sitios arqueológicos del humedal del Paraná inferior, originando en consecuencia un gran acervo de materiales bioarqueológicos, entre otros, depositados hoy en día en el Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata y en el Museo Etnográfico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Si bien algunos de los resultados derivados de aquellos trabajos de campo fueron publicados, otros permanecen inéditos. El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer algunas características de dichas colecciones bioarqueológicas a través del análisis de 252 individuos que las conforman. En este sentido, procedimos a la determinación sexual y estimación etaria de la muestra y al registro de variables tafonómicas, este último con el fin de poder identificar el posible contexto de inhumación de donde provienen dichos individuos. A partir de este análisis y siguiendo los datos publicados se discriminaron entre inhumaciones en contacto directo con la tierra o en urnas. A su vez, se dio cuenta de una segmentación espacial en base a categorías de sexo y edad para algunos sitios, como así también de la presencia de adornos personales de metal, ocre y marcas de corte en algunos huesos. De esta manera, esperamos resaltar el valor que tienen las colecciones de museos como así también contribuir y ampliar nuestro conocimiento sobre las características de las poblaciones prehispánicas de la región.  Abstract  At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century several explorations and excavations took place in archaeological sites at the lower Parana wetland, giving rise, among others, to a vast body of bioarchaeological remains, currently deposited at the Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata and at the Museo Etnográfico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. While some of the results from those field works were

  1. From the image of the real to the real of the image: an eulogy of appearances

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    Marcos Beccari


    Full Text Available This articles studies different critiques to the conception of appearances as something treacherous and that should always be judged in reference to something transcendental. Based on such authors as Nietzsche, Bergson, Rosset, Lacan and Žižek, among others, we show that the relation between images and the real is a necessary one. The point of view that recognizes this complementarity between image and the real is more likely to affirm life – in Nietzschian terms – than conceptions that seek a metaphysical Real beyond this relation. To illustrate our argument, we make reference to movies such as Vertigo and Synecdoche, New York, among others.


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    Full Text Available The proposed article prompted us to fix our attention to carols collected and researched in the Eastern areas of the rivers Dniester and Bug. We will refer to a significant aspect of the Christmas celebrations publicized, especially with the aim of initiating a lad or a girl in their future marriage. On the basis of the studies carried out by N. Smochină, C. Ionescu, N. Băieşu, A. Golopenţia, M. Brătulescu, T Colac etc., we intend to highlight the way is «seen» the contamination and assimilation of the unmarried girl’s, motif especially when caroling the Eastern and Western regions. The author of the article reveals the anonymous poet’s role, who laid emphasis on the message, thought, intention, desire, and in the rural atmosphere, they find greater openness in the listener’s soul. The merit of being the mistress of the courtyards the owner of the gates is not attributed to each girl, but only to the selected one, who was appointed by the entire rural society after some tests of initiation. This procedure presumed preparing of unmarried girls for engagement and cooking the biggest knot-shaped bread. Here are written the suggestive images approved by the anonymous poet: rings, apples, the silk cradle, the tears of the girl, the sheet.

  3. Dining with Picasso and Gertrude Stein - Eulogical Feasts of the Gods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup


    and Gertrude Stein. There is considerable evidence to suggest that Gertrude Stein was a major influence in both the career and personal life of Picasso. Gertrude Stein, as the prominent champion of Picasso began with the purchase of the 1904 painting”Young Girl with A Basket of Flowers”. However, the painting...

  4. A bioarchaeological approach to prehistoric cemetery populations from western and central Greek Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, S.


    The osteological material under study consists of 510 skeletal remains dating from the Early Neolithic (6000 BC) to the Early Iron Age (1100-700 BC). It comes from nine different cemeteries and burial locations extending from the coastal to the inland areas of the study region. The current thesis attempts to explore two major issues: 1) the reconstruction of aspects of life history and 2) the treatment and manipulation of the deceased as revealed by the human skeletal remains. With regard to the former, the investigation of demographic parameters, patterns of health and oral status as well as diet have been considered. In short, local conditions defined by environmental and social constraints probably affected the general quality of life reconstructed for the study populations. There is an overall tendency however, towards declining levels of health and oral status in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age populations, while certain assemblages provide high levels of infant and child mortality, possibly associated with a type of anaemia. There is also a substantial involvement of the upper skeleton in work patterns, possibly related to activities such as food acquisition, processing and preparation. Meanwhile, the evidence for dietary patterns from the Neolithic/Early Bronze Ages to the Late Bronze/Early Iron Ages is consistent with an overall shift from a high reliance on meat consumption to a diet base on carbohydrate foodstuffs. The evaluation of the manipulation of the deceased, alongside the evidence for mortuary differentiation through time, reveals a striking transformation from the practice of single inhumations in the Early Bronze Age to multiple/secondary burials in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age assemblages, suggesting a shift in emphasis from individual to lineage-group identity. Furthermore, the integration of biological inferences with the evidence of mortuary behaviour provides further insights into sex roles and the position of subadults, otherwise invisible, in the living community. (author)

  5. Begotten of Corruption? Bioarchaeology and "othering" of leprosy in South Asia. (United States)

    Robbins Schug, Gwen


    Leprosy is strongly stigmatized in South Asia, being regarded as a manifestation of extreme levels of spiritual pollution going back through one or more incarnations of the self. Stigma has significant social consequences, including surveillance, exclusion, discipline, control, and punishment; biologically speaking, internalized stigma also compounds the disfigurement and disability resulting from this disease. Stigma results from an othering process whereby difference is recognized, meaning is constituted, and eventually, sufferers may be negatively signified and marked for exclusion. This paper traces the history of leprosy's stigmatization in South Asia, using archaeology and an exegesis of Vedic texts to examine the meaning of this disease from its apparent zero-point-when it first appears but before it was differentiated and signified-in the mature Indus Age. Results suggest that early in the second millennium BCE, leprosy was perceived as treatable and efforts were apparently made to mitigate its impact on the journey to the afterworld. Ignominy to the point of exclusion does not emerge until the first millennium BCE. This paper uses archaeology to create an effective history of stigma for leprosy, destabilizing what is true about this disease and its sufferers in South Asia today. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The bioarchaeology of the Neolithic transition: evidence of dental pathologies at Lepenski Vir (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Radović


    Full Text Available The Neolithic transition affected human biology, which is visible as a series of inter- related skeletal and dental pathological conditions. The population of Lepenski vir culture, which inhabited the region of the Danube Gorges between 9500–5500 BC, also went through the neolithisa- tion process. In this study, the dental pathological conditions of 32 adult individuals from the Lepenski Vir site were examined for the incidence of enamel hypoplasia, the rate of dental wear, dental caries and ante-mortem tooth loss. The results indicate changes in biology and diet of this population in the Neolithic which were associated with the introduction of non-local identities in the region.

  7. AVANCES EN BIOARQUEOLOGÍA DEL CHACO BOREAL (Advances in the Bioarchaeology of Northern Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo N. Lamenza


    Full Text Available Las investigaciones bioantropológicas llevadas a cabo en el Gran Chaco sudamericano han comenzado a revertir el estado de desconocimiento que sumía a la región. En esta oportunidad se presentan los avances de los análisis de los materiales recuperados en el sitio arqueológico Puerto 14 de Mayo, cuya particular importancia reside en ser el único en el Chaco boreal abordado de manera sistemática. Sucesivas excavaciones arqueológicas han puesto de manifiesto entierros humanos datados en ca. 1800 años AP (LP2897 y LP3167. Se pudo constatar la presencia de al menos seis individuos, cinco adultos y un subadulto. A partir del análisis paleopatológico se determinaron posibles características del modo de vida del grupo, considerando una dieta con bajos niveles de hidratos de carbono y el consumo de alimentos de características abrasivas. Estos resultados permiten introducir nueva información en una región prácticamente inexplorada en términos arqueológicos y contribuye a la comprensión del marco espacio-temporal de las ocupaciones humanas de las tierras bajas sudamericanas. ENGLISH: Bioanthropological research carried out in the South American Gran Chaco has begun to address the lack of such knowledge in the region. Here we present the analysis of materials recovered at the site Puerto 14 de Mayo, whose particular importance lies in being the only site in the Chaco Boreal that has been systematically addressed archaeologically. Successive archaeological excavations have revealed human burials dated to ca. 1800 B.P. (LP2897 and LP3167, in which there are at least six individuals, five adults and one subadult. Through paleopathological analysis, possible features of the group’s way of life were determined, such as a diet with low levels of carbohydrates and the consumption of food with abrasive characteristics. These results allow us to add new information to a virtually unexplored archaeological region and contribute to an understanding of the space-time framework of human occupation in the South American lowlands.

  8. Bioarchaeology of adaptation to a marginal environment in bronze age Western China. (United States)

    Berger, Elizabeth; Wang, Hui


    This study examines human adaptation to the 4000 BP climate change event, which is said to have increased the marginality of Inner Asian environments. We propose to define "marginal" environments not in relation to a specific economic activity (e.g., agriculture), but in relation to whether humans living there are physiologically stressed. Three sites in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu were studied, one from the early and two from the late Bronze Age (N = 125). The study includes three indicators of physiological stress: linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH); tibial periosteal lesions; and fertility. The early and late Bronze Age groups were compared to examine whether human physiological stress increased. The percent of individuals with LEH declined dramatically, indicating fewer growth disruptions. Tibial periosteal reactions also changed, from mostly active to mostly healing at the time of death, indicating that frailty declined. Fertility, which is sensitive to changes in population health and resource availability, did not change significantly. Counter to the dominant narrative of environmental deterioration and subsistence system collapse, the Bronze Age residents of the Hexi Corridor show no skeletal evidence that they suffered from resource shortages or struggled to adapt in the fluctuating climate that pertained after the 4000 BP climate event. In fact, this study found that people suffered from less frailty and fewer growth disruptions after the unstable climate had persisted for some time. Therefore, in human biological terms, the Hexi Corridor did not become more marginal for human habitation during the Bronze Age. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dismembering bodies for display: a bioarchaeological study of trophy heads from the Wari site of Conchopata, Peru. (United States)

    Tung, Tiffiny A


    Human trophy heads from the Wari site of Conchopata (AD 600-1000) are examined to evaluate if recently deceased persons or old corpses were used to make trophy heads and determine if the modifications are standardized. Similarly styled trophy heads may suggest state oversight that ensured uniform modifications, while different styles may suggest that various factions or kin groups prepared them to their own specifications. Other studies often interpret trophy heads as either enemies or ancestors; so, this study addresses that debate by documenting aspects of their identity as revealed through demographic, paleopathological, and trauma data. Results show that "fresh" bodies, not old corpses, were used to make trophies, as evidenced by cutmarks indicating intentional removal of soft tissues. Trophy heads are remarkably standardized; 89% display a hole on the superior of the cranium, apparently a design feature that displays the trophy head upright and facing forward when suspended by a cord. Of the 31 trophy heads, 24 are adolescents/adults and 7 are children, and of the 17 sexed adults, 15 are male and 2 are female. This suggests that adult men and children were favored as trophies. Among 19 observable adult trophy heads, 42% exhibit cranial trauma, suggesting that violence was common among this group. Complementary data on Wari iconography shows warriors wearing trophy heads and Wari deities holding captives and trophy heads. Thus, it is likely that captives (or just their heads) were taken in battles and raids-either secular or ritual-and eventually transformed into trophy heads. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. An Archaeological an Bioarchaeological Perspective. The Tucker (41DT104) and Sinclair (41DT105) Cemeteries of Delta County, Texas (United States)


    presence of abscesses and calculus deposits, agenesis, and the extent of antemortem tooth loss. The teeth were examined for caries using a new dental...childnood. Conversely. the absence of any chronic skeletal pathology, other than age-related degenerative arthritis, indicates this individual enjoyed good...and left acetabulum (rim and lunate surfaces), the apices of the sacroiliac auricular surfaces, a fragment of thv inferior demiface of the right

  11. Occupational stress markers bioarchaeological studies of early-middle holocene pampean hunter gatherers. Analysis of Arroyo Seco 2 skeletal series


    Scabuzzo, Clara


    El objetivo general de este trabajo es, desde una perspectiva bioarqueológica, aproximarse a los modos de vida de los cazadores recolectores a partir del análisis de las actividades físicas cotidianas. Específicamente se plantea llevar a cabo el estudio de los marcadores de estrés ocupacional (M.E.O). Estas marcas de actividad, que quedan registrados en el esqueleto como consecuencia del uso del cuerpo y de los patrones de actividad física de los individuos, pueden ser tanto de carácter patol...

  12. An analysis of the rhetorical and anecdotal structure of the Nezami's eulogy poem about the Holy Prophet, in the Makhzan al- Asrar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghahramani Fard


    In Nezami’s poem, it is possible to see the coherence in language, phonological aspects, syntax, vocabulary and semantic level. He is to seek a structure which is able to add to literary dimension. The audience of Nezami’s poem knows that in many versed, to detect the direct message is impossible and he must go through the maze of figures of speech and artistic images and he must comprehend the proportions of word and meaning to understand the poem’s message.

  13. Validation and reliability of the sex estimation of the human os coxae using freely available DSP2 software for bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Brůžek, Jaroslav; Santos, Frédéric; Dutailly, Bruno; Murail, Pascal; Cunha, Eugenia


    A new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation. Ten metric variables collected from 2,040 ossa coxa of adult subjects of known sex were recorded between 1986 and 2002 (reference sample). To test both the validity and reliability, a target sample consisting of two series of adult ossa coxa of known sex (n = 623) was used. The DSP2 software (Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste v2) is based on Linear Discriminant Analysis, and the posterior probabilities are calculated using an R script. For the reference sample, any combination of four dimensions provides a correct sex estimate in at least 99% of cases. The percentage of individuals for whom sex can be estimated depends on the number of dimensions; for all ten variables it is higher than 90%. Those results are confirmed in the target sample. Our posterior probability threshold of 0.95 for sex estimate corresponds to the traditional sectioning point used in osteological studies. DSP2 software is replacing the former version that should not be used anymore. DSP2 is a robust and reliable technique for sexing adult os coxae, and is also user friendly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of dental calculus deposits (DCD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology of a bio-archaeological method. (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Munoz, Olivia; Billard, Michel; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin


    This article describes the potential interest in forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of dental calculus deposits (DCD), a calcified residue frequently found on the surface of teeth. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archaeological material (KHB-1 Ra's al-Khabbah and RH-5 Ra's al-Hamra, two Prehistoric graveyards located in the Sultanate of Oman, dated between the 5th and 4th millennium B.C.; Montenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan-Celtic necropolis from the north of Italy, dated between the 5th and 3rd century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, French royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skeleton of Pierre Hazard, French royal notary from the 15th century A.D.). Samples were studies by direct optical microscope (OM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Many cytological, histological and elemental analyses were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains, the reconstitution of their alimentation and occupational habits, and propositions for manner of death. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England. (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L


    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Bioarchaeological reconstruction of the funeral rite – case study based on organic material from the Hallstatt Period tumulus at the site Zahrádka (South Bohemia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálková, T.; Bezděk, Aleš; Březinová, Helena; Farkašová, K.; Houfková, P.; Chvojka, O.; John, J.; Kmošek, J.; Koník, P.; Kovačiková, L.; Michálek, J.; Msallamová, Š.; Novák, J.; Pavelka, J.; Šuláková, H.; Bešta, T.; Myšková, E.; Weiter, L.; Zronek, P.


    Roč. 106, Dec 15 (2015), s. 95-135 ISSN 0031-0506 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 116/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985912 Keywords : South Bohemia * burial mound * funeral rite reconstruction Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARU-G)

  17. Pour une encomiastique visuelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Popescu


    Full Text Available The paintings that represent Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu, exhibited in 2004 by the National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC and reproduced in an album in 2008 by the German printing house Steidl, show the difficulties that a rhetoric of eulogy can encounter in a democratic society.The rich traditions of eulogy may be considered a source of inspiration for these paintings. The aims of this research are: to identify the ways artists persuasively bind glorifiable meanings and techniques, to discover the combinatory potential of certain techniques cherished by eulogy, and to bring to light the rhetorical invariants of the genre.

  18. Introducing the Index of Care: A web-based application supporting archaeological research into health-related care. (United States)

    Tilley, Lorna; Cameron, Tony


    The Index of Care is a web-based application designed to support the recently proposed four-stage 'bioarchaeology of care' methodology for identifying and interpreting health-related care provision in prehistory. The Index offers a framework for guiding researchers in 'thinking through' the steps of a bioarchaeology of care analysis; it continuously prompts consideration of biological and archaeological evidence relevant to care provision; it operationalises key concepts such as 'disability' and 'care'; and it encourages transparency in the reasoning underlying conclusions, facilitating review. This paper describes the aims, structure and content of the Index, and provides an example of its use. The Index of Care is freely available on-line; it is currently in active development, and feedback is sought to improve its utility and usability. This is the first time in bioarchaeology that an instrument for examining behaviour as complex as caregiving has been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Reverend Moses Drury Hoge and the South's Constitutional Apologia for the Civil War. (United States)

    Fulmer, Hal W.

    The Reverend Moses Drury Hoge, one-time personal minister to Stonewall Jackson, defended secession as the South's attempt to preserve the Constitution in its original mission while eulogizing Jackson at a ceremony in 1875. Hoge drew upon the historical legacy of the American Revolution to suggest that the colonies had also formed a separate…

  20. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One might ask if it is useful at all to read biographies of ... But scientists are not robots and although the results of ... from the chaff, real information from eulogies .... Human Race. ... To take care of the column sums too, one must say instead:.

  1. Protection de la communauté urbaine de Cotonou face aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Officer. Robertson, Melanie. Total funding. CA$ 324,600. Country(s). Africa, Benin, South of Sahara. Project Leader. Euloge Ogouwalé. Institution. Centre de Recherche et d'expertise pour le développement local. Institution Country. Benin. Outputs. Reports. Protection de la Communauté Urbaine de Grand Cotonou ...

  2. Stressing out in medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamble, Julia A.; Boldsen, Jesper L.; Hoppa, Robert D.


    The influence of early life stress on later life experiences has become a major focus of research in medicine and more recently in bioarchaeology. Dental enamel, which preserves a record of childhood stress events, represents an important resource for this investigation when paired with the infor......The influence of early life stress on later life experiences has become a major focus of research in medicine and more recently in bioarchaeology. Dental enamel, which preserves a record of childhood stress events, represents an important resource for this investigation when paired...

  3. [Archaeology and criminology--Strengths and weaknesses of interdisciplinary cooperation]. (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian


    Interdisciplinary cooperation of archaeology and criminology is often focussed on the scientific methods applied in both fields of knowledge. In combination with the humanistic methods traditionally used in archaeology, the finding of facts can be enormously increased and the subsequent hermeneutic deduction of human behaviour in the past can take place on a more solid basis. Thus, interdisciplinary cooperation offers direct and indirect advantages. But it can also cause epistemological problems, if the weaknesses and limits of one method are to be corrected by applying methods used in other disciplines. This may result in the application of methods unsuitable for the problem to be investigated so that, in a way, the methodological and epistemological weaknesses of two disciplines potentiate each other. An example of this effect is the quantification of qualia. These epistemological reflections are compared with the interdisciplinary approach using the concrete case of the "Eulau Crime Scene".

  4. The Application of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) in Ancient Dental Calculus for the Reconstruction of Human Habits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, D.; Skoupý, Radim; Drozdová, E.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šín, L.; Beňuš, R.; Klíma, B.


    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 2056-2057 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * EDX * bio-archaeological material Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  5. The prevalence and distribution of dental caries in four early medieval non-adult populations of different socioeconomic status from Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Poláček, Lumír


    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 62-76 ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : bioarchaeology * early medieval population * Great Moravia * non-adult individuals * dental caries * socio-economic status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.733, year: 2015

  6. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwen Samuel


    Full Text Available Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  7. Evaluation and reliability of bone histological age estimation methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human age estimation at death plays a vital role in forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology. Researchers used morphological and histological methods to estimate human age from their skeletal remains. This paper discussed different histological methods that used human long bones and ribs to determine age ...

  8. On Themes of the Eagle by Alfred Tennyson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Theme is significant to poetry.Not only music but also theme is related to poetry since its birth.Usually great poems have more than one theme.Nowadays different approaches of literary analysis are on stage.The different approaches are employed to expound the rich themes of The Eagle-in memorial of Hallam,in praise of Britain's colonial expansion and in eulogy of nature.

  9. Letters from Abbottabad: Bin Ladin Sidelined? (United States)


    and was killed in a drone strike in Pakistan on 22 August 2011. For details, see the biography Ayman al-Zawahiri provided in his eulogy for `Atiyya...against the “Rafida” and ensuring that al-Barrak was among the signatories to the statement.98 A biography of al-Barrak available on the internet...conquest,” presumably by the jihadis, just as their ancestors did when the second Caliph `Umar conquered Jerusalem .109 In the collective memory of

  10. Latin America Report (United States)


    before Plinio is to dine, a TFP member delivers 2 kilograms of Argentine flour to the chosen restaurant, for the preparation of the pizza at the...proprietors of the Braseiro, who proudly exhibits a gold book which boasts two precious eulogies by the TFP chief in praise of the cuisine of his...establishment, which does not appear on any gastronomic list in Sao Paulo, even the most bizarre ones. Jose Maria dos Santos, "Dezinho the pizza maker

  11. Society of Archaeological Masters Students Annual Conference V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Barber


    Full Text Available The Society of Archaeological Masters Students Conference is an opportunity for UCL Institute of Archaeology masters students to present their research. This year’s conference included papers from MA Cultural Heritage Studies, MSc Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology, MSc Archaeological Science: Technology and Materials, and MSc Palaeoanthropology and Palaeolithic Archaeology students. The event sparked discussion between students from all areas of the department, and showcased the impressive range of research currently undertaken at the Institute of Archaeology.

  12. Linking the Y-chromosomal haplotype from a high medieval (1160-1421) skeleton from a Podlazice excavation site with living descendants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Sasková, L.; Frolík, Jan; Vaněk, D.


    Roč. 6, December (2017), „e129”-„e131” ISSN 1875-1768 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Y chromosome haplotype * surname * inheritance * forensics * bone * bioarchaeology * genetics of cemeteries Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of dental calculus from the great moravian necropolis Znojmo-Hradiště

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, D.; Drozdová, E.; Skoupý, Radim; Mikulík, P.; Klíma, B.


    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2017), s. 343-351 ISSN 0323-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : dental calculus * SEM * bacteria * bio-archaeological samples * early Middle Ages * Znojmo-Hradiště Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering

  14. The Gravestone of Felipe II in «El amante agradecido», by Lope de Vega: a Historical Image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Sanz


    Full Text Available  Felix Lope de Vega, in his play El Amante agradecido (ca. 1602, writes a praise to Felipe II, after the death of the king in 1598. The praise, almost three hundred lines dedicated to the gravestone that the city of Seville built in honour of Felipe II, does not really belong with the main purpose of the play: an urban comedy with a lot of picaresque components. This article focuses on why the writer included that sort of eulogy and studies the different sources of the fragment. 

  15. A Survey of Pen name semantic Applications in Rumis Sonnets (Ghazals

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    Zohre AhmadiPoor anari


    Full Text Available Abstract The pen name in sonnet is the poet’s poetic name which most of the poets mention it in their verses. Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Rumi lived in 13th-century was a Persian Moslem poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic. He has written more than 3229 sonnets and dedicated to Shams Tabrizi. Thus mentioned, names such “Shams”, “Shams od-Din” and “Shams al-Haq” in the ending lines of his sonnets.    One of the points which could be studied about pen name is study of theme or concepts which are mentioned alongside that. Entirely it has been said that the same theme which comes with the pen name “Shams” in 992 sonnets. In this study, we pay attention to mentioning the poets desired name which is not necessarily the pen name in Rumis’ sonnets, what theme does it carry and what is relationship of it with the previous lines?    Themes which the poets apply in their sonnets beside pen name is mostly what that has been mentioned in the previous lines. However, in times the concept mentioned along side with the pen name is independent from the sonnet concepts, mostly eulogy. Studying Hafiz and Saadi sonnets shows that the most important themes existing are: love declaration, advice, eulogizing and sometimes a mischievous concept.    Rumis’ sonnets are lover-based. Therefore, there is much talk of the lover in the whole sonnet. But in other poet’s sonnets, the lover (the poet is the main theme is the sonnet. The poet may find a way to praise his own poem or stays in his dreamy world and focuses on the romantic feelings. Considering the fact that unlike other poets Rumi has not mentioned his own pen name but his lover “Shams”, the study focuses on the themes which are mentioned by the pen name “Shams” as the following: 1-Eulogy: One third of the Shams pen names are eulogies. The sufist approach has given the lines a special color. The similes and metaphors used for him are heavenly and

  16. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD). (United States)

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet


    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  17. Couplings: Agon and Composition in Paul Muldoon’s Ekphrastic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carvalho Homem


    Full Text Available In the course of more than thirty years of prolific writing, Paul Muldoon has earned a reputation for surprising his readers again and again. To a significant extent, this continued ability to “make it new” is closely linked to Muldoon’s characteristically relational writing. Often described (in tones of eulogy or of deprecation as the epitome of a postmodernist practice, his work has tested the limits of intertextuality —and his penchant for quotation, pastiche and parody has rather often sought referents in other media, notably in the visual arts. Taking a specific instance of ekphrasis in Muldoon’s poetry for its point of departure and its focus, this article proceeds to address broader themes in his work, as well as to consider his practice against the framework defined by a major alternative for reading the relationship between word and image: as rivalry and struggle, or as peaceful and mutual enablement.

  18. [Vicq d'Azyr and the French Revolution]. (United States)

    Peumery, J J


    Born in April 23th, 1748, at Valognes, in Normandy, Félix Vicq d'Azyr was at once a great doctor, a talented naturalist and a distinguished man of letters. Member of the "Académie des sciences" in 1774, he founded, in 1776, the "Société royale de médecine" in Paris, future "Académie", whose he was the permanent secretary. He is the originator of the comparative anatomy. The successor to Buffon at the "Académie française" in 1788, he became Principal Doctor to the Queen Marie-Antoinette in 1789. From that time, his aristocratic tendencies drew revolutionary court's attention to him. Already sick, summary executions of his friends terrified him. He escaped Guillotine, but tuberculosis killed him, on June the 20th, 1794. He left a great work, especially in anatomy and physiology, and a lot of historical eulogies.

  19. A doxology to Christ (Rev. 1:5e-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. de Smidt


    Full Text Available Revelation 1:5e-6 is a doxology, an eulogy on the characteristics (attributes of Christ. Christ’s churches celebrate the enduring love of Christ, who by a once-and-for-all historical act redeemed them from enslavement to sin. Through this redemptive achievement Christ obtained royal and priestly prerogatives for believers in the present. The meaning of this doxology is investigated from a “heilgeschichtlich” and covenantal context. The acts of Christ are framed by the acts of God; God thus is the “Principium Essendi”. The point of departure in this article is that an ontological relationship exists between the theologia naturalis and the theologia supra- naturalis in the final phase of God’s kingdom.

  20. Neurobiographies: writing lives in the history of neurology and the neurosciences. (United States)

    Söderqvist, Thomas


    This essay surveys the present state of biographical writing in the history of neurology and neuroscience. Individual lives play a significant role in practitioner-historians' narratives, whereas academic historians tend to be more nonindividualistic and a-biographical. Autobiographies by neurologists and neuroscientists, and particularly autobiographical collections, are problematic as an historical genre. Neurobiographies proper are published with several aims in mind: some are written as literary entertainment, others as contributions to a cultural and social history of the neurosciences. Eulogy, panegyrics and commemoration play a great role in neurobiographical writing. Some biographies, finally, are written to provide role-models for young neuroscientists, thus reviving the classical, Plutarchian biographical tradition. Finally, a recent cooperative biography of Charcot is mentioned as an example of how the biographical genre can help overcome the alleged dichotomy between the historiographies of practitioner-historians and academic historians.

  1. 莎士比亚《十四行诗集》中的人文主义情怀%Humanism in Shakespeare’s Sonnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    威廉·莎士比亚是英国文艺复兴时期的文学巨匠。他的154首十四行诗被视为世界文学的瑰宝。在《十四行诗集》中,莎士比亚通过歌颂人的高贵性、永恒性以及肯定现世生活的重要性,表达了他的人文主义情怀。%William Shakespeare is the literary giant of English Renaissance.His Sonnets is universally acknowledged as the invaluable legacy in world literature.In his Sonnets,Shakespeare expresses his humanistic ideas not only by eulogizing the dignity and immortality of human beings but also by stressing the importance of the present life.

  2. Number 1: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Norman L Jones


    Full Text Available With the editorial staff of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, I extend our best wishes for the New Year, and heartfelt thanks to everyone who has helped the Journal establish itself in the competitive field of quality, peerreviewed publications in chest medicine. It may seem odd to start the new millennium with an editorial eulogizing the past, but even in these "postmodern" days of chaos, complexity and ordered unpredictability, the past can be seen to have a huge influence on the present and the future. The importance of looking back on work that has influenced our present views on chest medicine, and why, was the main reason for the series inaugurated in the present issue - "Modern Classics Revisited" (pages 71-76.

  3. Jacques Derrida’s (ArtWork of Mourning

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    Antal Eva


    Full Text Available Derrida’s highly personal mourning texts are collected and published in a unique book under the title The Work of Mourning edited by Pascale-Anne Brault and Michael Naas, two outstanding translators of Derrida’s works. The English collection is published in 2001, while the French edition came out later in 2003 titled Chaque fois unique, la fin du monde (Each Time Unique, the End of the World. In his deconstructed eulogies, Derrida, being in accordance with ‘the mission impossible’ of deconstruction, namely, ‘to allow the coming of the entirely other’ in its otherness, seems to find his own voice. In my paper, I will focus on this special segment of Derrida’s death-work (cf. life-work; namely, on his mourning texts written for his dead friends, paying special attention to the rhetoric ‘circling around’ fidelity, friendship, and the other in his textual mourning.

  4. The French Masonic Tributes to Abraham Lincoln

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    Olivier Frayssé


    Full Text Available Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865 sparked off a real shock wave in the United States as well as abroad. In France, as in the US, many Masonic institutions and Freemasons took initiatives to honor the memory of the great man, whose virtues were glorified and likened to Masonic values and were often based on the assumption that Lincoln was a Mason himself. However, French Freemasonry was highly politicized, and a close examination of the Masonic tributes to Lincoln also tells the story of a bitter political strife thinly veiled by the literary genre of eulogies, the fight of democracy against imperial rule. This fight of 1865 led to the creation of the Statue of Liberty, via the Lincoln medal.

  5. J. B. Priestley, artiste de propagande à la radio : au service de quelles idées ? The 1940 Postscripts: Government Propaganda vs. Priestley’s Political and Philosophical Ideology?

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    Cécile Vallée


    Full Text Available J.B Priestley’s Sunday Postscript, broadcast on the Home Service of the BBC every Sunday evening from June to October 1940, was one of the major propaganda programmes of the period. Priestley’s adeptness at putting government propaganda into broadcasting terms and sustaining morale on the Home Front was paradoxically accompanied by a controversial political “indiscipline”. His galvanising propaganda consisted in praising the qualities of the ordinary citizen, painting an idealised picture of the “soldiers” on the home Front and of their fight, in promoting the values for which they were fighting and, at the same time, demonising the Nazi enemy, but it sometimes verged on subversive political ideology. His obvious attempts at propagating the vision of a New Jerusalem with its socialist innuendoes were judged as going against the war effort and against national unity. Indeed, the fight against capitalism and the creation of a new world order were not exactly part of the government’s agenda. Notwithstanding, there is another, more philosophical, dimension to Priestley’s 1940 Postscripts which must not be neglected: that of the beauty of the English countryside, and the wonder such beauty should inspire. The Postscripts are also a eulogy to humour, joy, and human relationships, as well as to the community spirit and the continuity of English history, a eulogy to art and knowledge, philosophy and humanities, and, last but not least, to poetry and the power of emotions. Priestley’s artful mixture of poetical and political fervour was an undeniable source of inspiration for the listeners of 1940 and his Postscripts remain to this day in people’s hearts and minds. In the following pages we shall try to analyse their contents, with a view to making a distinction between what is clearly government propaganda and what is Priestley’s own philosophy of life and ideology.

  6. Evolutionary anthropology and genes: investigating the genetics of human evolution from excavated skeletal remains. (United States)

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D


    The development of molecular tools for the extraction, analysis and interpretation of DNA from the remains of ancient organisms (paleogenetics) has revolutionised a range of disciplines as diverse as the fields of human evolution, bioarchaeology, epidemiology, microbiology, taxonomy and population genetics. The paper draws attention to some of the challenges associated with the extraction and interpretation of ancient DNA from archaeological material, and then reviews the influence of paleogenetics on the field of human evolution. It discusses the main contributions of molecular studies to reconstructing the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between extinct hominins (human ancestors) and anatomically modern humans. It also explores the evidence for evolutionary changes in the genetic structure of anatomically modern humans in recent millennia. This breadth of research has led to discoveries that would never have been possible using traditional approaches to human evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A possible "grinder" from Tell Arbid, Syria. (United States)

    Pitre, Mindy C; Koliński, Rafał; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz


    Cereal grinding has been practiced in Mesopotamia since the Upper Palaeolithic. While evidence of cereal grinding is clear from the archaeological and textual records, what remains unclear is whether the activity leaves signs on the skeleton in the form of markers of occupational stress (MOS). A particular constellation of MOS (e.g., osteoarthritis, traumatic injuries, and accessory articular facets) has previously been used to infer the habitual grinding of grain. These same MOS were recently observed in the skeleton of a female discovered in the Middle Bronze Age cemetery at Tell Arbid, NE Syria. Through differential diagnosis our results suggest that it remains problematic to identify grain-processing activities from the skeleton, even when a bioarchaeological approach is carried out.

  8. Symbolic bones and interethnic violence in a frontier zone, northwest Mexico, ca. 500-900 C.E. (United States)

    Nelson, Ben A; Martin, Debra L


    Although extensive deposits of disarticulated, commingled human bones are common in the prehispanic Northern Frontier of Mesoamerica, detailed bioarchaeological analyses of them are not. To our knowledge, this article provides the first such analysis of bone from a full residential-ceremonial complex and evaluates multiple hypotheses about its significance, concluding that the bones actively represented interethnic violence as well as other relationships among persons living and dead. Description of these practices is important to the discussion of multiethnic societies because the frontier was a context where urbanism and complexity were emerging and groups with the potential to form multiethnic societies were interacting, possibly in the same ways that groups did before the formation of larger multiethnic city-states in the core of Mesoamerica.

  9. Mycology in palaeoecology and forensic science. (United States)

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J


    Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims. This contribution outlines the main features of palynology, and gives examples of case studies where fungal spores, pollen, and plant spores, have enhanced the interpretation of ancient landscapes and land-use, and provided pivotal intelligence, and probative evidence, in criminal investigations. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Food in prehistory. The case of Calchaquí valley, Salta, Argentina

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    Verónica Seldes


    Full Text Available In this work we compared from bioarchaeological analysis, two osteological sets of different times of occupation of the Calchaquíes Valleys (Salta, 66 individuals from Formative Period (500 BC-1000 AD and 128 from Regional Development Period (1000-1430 AD. It focuses on the composition and structure of the samples as well as diet and nutrition indicators (porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia, enamel hypoplasia lines, caries, antemortem tooth loss, infections, abscesses and dental wear.Despite the regular state of conservation of the remains, it was possible to observe that part of the population had difficulties in access to resources being that diet consisted of foods with high percentages of carbohydrates, recording no statistically significant differences between the indicators analyzed over time.

  11. Symbolic bones and interethnic violence in a frontier zone, northwest Mexico, ca. 500–900 C.E. (United States)

    Nelson, Ben A.; Martin, Debra L.


    Although extensive deposits of disarticulated, commingled human bones are common in the prehispanic Northern Frontier of Mesoamerica, detailed bioarchaeological analyses of them are not. To our knowledge, this article provides the first such analysis of bone from a full residential-ceremonial complex and evaluates multiple hypotheses about its significance, concluding that the bones actively represented interethnic violence as well as other relationships among persons living and dead. Description of these practices is important to the discussion of multiethnic societies because the frontier was a context where urbanism and complexity were emerging and groups with the potential to form multiethnic societies were interacting, possibly in the same ways that groups did before the formation of larger multiethnic city-states in the core of Mesoamerica. PMID:25941398

  12. Two case examples of pelvic fractures in medieval populations from central Europe. (United States)

    Hofmann, Maria Ines; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J


    Pelvic fractures are considered to be uncommon and difficult to treat, even in the modern medical literature. Serious and eventually life-threatening associated injuries may occur, requiring emergency abdominal, vascular or neurologic surgery. Pelvic fractures can also be managed non-operatively; however, a considerable dispute exists on the suitable management strategy. The treatment and healing of such injuries in the bioarchaeological record, is therefore of great interest for anthropological and medico-historical studies. Fractures of the pelvis are rarely reported in the anthropological literature either due to poor preservation of the innominate bone or lack of adequate examination. Here we present two cases of pelvic fractures observed on two adult male individuals from two European medieval sites. They differ in severity and in the pattern of healing. They are both adequately healed and probably had no acute life-threatening consequences, which gives us some insight into the medical knowledge and means of management of past populations.

  13. Historical Trends in Graduate Research and Training of Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (United States)

    Bethard, Jonathan D


    The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115). Doctoral dissertation titles were queried to discern broad patterns of research foci. A total of 39 doctoral granting institutions have trained diplomates and 77.3% of board-certified forensic anthropologists wrote dissertations involving skeletal biology, bioarchaeology, or forensic anthropology. Board-certified forensic anthropologists are a broadly trained group of professionals with far-reaching anthropological interests and expertise. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Brief communication: a proposed osteological method for the estimation of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains. (United States)

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E


    Puberty forms an important threshold between childhood and adulthood, but this subject has received little attention in bioarchaeology. The new application of clinical methods to assess pubertal stage in adolescent skeletal remains is explored, concentrating on the development of the mandibular canine, hamate, hand phalanges, iliac crest and distal radius. Initial results from the medieval cemetery of St. Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, England suggest that application of these methods may provide insights into aspects of adolescent development. This analysis indicates that adolescents from this medieval site were entering the pubertal growth spurt at a similar age to their modern counterparts, but that the later stages of pubertal maturation were being significantly delayed, perhaps due to environmental stress. Continued testing and refinement of these methods on living adolescents is still necessary to improve our understanding of their significance and accuracy in predicting pubertal stages. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Violence and weapon-related trauma at Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru. (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa S; Gaither, Catherine; Goycochea, Elena; Verano, John W; Cock, Guillermo


    Conquest of indigenous peoples in North America is understood primarily through ethnohistorical documents, archaeological evidence, and osteological analyses. However, in the Central Andes, the colonial enterprise and its effects are understood only from postcontact historical and ethnohistorical sources. Few archaeological and bioarchaeological studies have investigated Spanish Conquest and colonialism in the Andean region [for exceptions see Klaus and Tam: Am J Phys Anthropol 138 (2009) 356-368; Wernke, in press; and Quilter, in press]. Here we describe bioarchaeological evidence of violence from the cemeteries of Huaquerones and 57AS03 within the archaeological zone of Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru (circa A.D. 1470-1540). A total of 258 individuals greater than 15 years of age were analyzed for evidence of traumatic injuries. Individuals were examined macroscopically and evidence of traumatic injuries was analyzed according to the skeletal element involved, the location of the injury on the skeletal element, and any additional complications of the injury. This study examines and compares the evidence of perimortem injuries on skeletonized individuals from the two cemeteries and focuses specifically on the interpretation of weapon-related perimortem injuries. Evidence of perimortem trauma is present in both cemeteries (18.6%, 48/258); however, the frequency of injuries in 57AS03 is greater than that in Huaquerones (25.0% vs. 13.0%). Several injuries from 57AS03 are consistent with documented cases of injuries from firearms and 16th Century European weapons. We believe that the nature and high frequency of perimortem trauma at 57AS03 provide evidence of the violence that occurred with Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Sex assessment from carpals bones: discriminant function analysis in a contemporary Mexican sample. (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Paola; De Luca, Stefano; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela


    Sex assessment is one of the first essential steps in human identification, in both medico-legal cases and bio-archaeological contexts. Fragmentary human remains compromised by different types of burial or physical insults may frustrate the use of the traditional sex estimation methods, such as the analysis of the skull and pelvis. Currently, the application of discriminant functions to sex unidentified skeletal remains is steadily increasing. However, several studies have demonstrated that, due to variation in size and patterns of sexual dimorphism, discriminant functions are population-specific. In this study, in order to improve sex assessment from skeletal remains and to establish population-specific discriminant functions, the diagnostic values of the carpal bones were considered. A sample of 136 individuals (78 males, 58 females) of known sex and age was analyzed. They belong to a contemporary identified collection from the Laboratory of Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City). The age of the individuals ranged between 25 and 85 years. Between four and nine measurements of each carpal bone were taken. Independent t-tests confirm that all carpals are sexually dimorphic. Univariate measurements produce accuracy levels that range from 61.8% to 90.8%. Classification accuracies ranged between 81.3% and 92.3% in the multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis. In addition, intra- and inter-observer error tests were performed. These indicated that replication of measurements was satisfactory for the same observer over time and between observers. These results suggest that carpal bones can be used for assessing sex in both forensic and bio-archaeological identification procedures and that bone dimensions are population specific. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Edouard Brissaud (1852-1909), historian of medicine]. (United States)

    Poirier, Jacques


    Among The Brissauds, teaching history was a family job. Edouard's father was a history teacher at the Lycee Charlemagne in Paris and his mother taught history in her own private school. Several uncles and cousins wrote history books. Edouard Brissaud, beloved Charcot's disciple, médecin des hôpitaux and agrégé, wrote some short historical papers, for instance The King's disease, Charles of Guyenne's death, Scarron's disease, Théophile de Bordeu's eulogy, Couthon's infirmity. Two full papers deal with controversial contemporary problems: vivisection and microbial theory. His Histoire des expressions populaires relatives à l'anatomie, à la physiologie et à la médecine, published in 1888, is a true small masterpiece which was appreciated by Anatole France. In 1899, Edouard Brissaud, succeeded Joseph Laboulbène (1825-1889) in the Chair of History of medicine at the Paris medical school. He was extensively congratulated for his inaugural lecture. One year later, like many of his colleagues, he left this Chair for that of Medical Pathology.

  18. "Beginning with the end in mind": imagining personal retirement speeches to promote professionalism. (United States)

    Yu, Eunice; Wright, Scott M


    The goal of teaching professionalism in medicine is to transform a theoretical concept into an internalized and actualized identity. Many trainees struggle with professionalism in the abstract, particularly when instruction methods are didactic and disconnected from personal experience. The authors aim to demonstrate the feasibility of having interns frame a personal definition of professionalism based on a reflective technique called "beginning with the end in mind." Interns composed remarks that might be used to introduce them at their own retirement ceremony following a career in medicine. This "career eulogies" exercise was introduced to groups of six interns during the first third of the internship year as part of a two-week curriculum focused on professional development. Two investigators independently coded the written introductions, identifying emergent themes through content analysis. Of the 19 interns in an internal medicine residency program (2012-13), 17 participated in the exercise. Six themes emerged from the data: aligning behaviors with core values, achieving excellence in medicine, changing the world and giving back, valuing teamwork and relationships, realizing work-life balance, and appreciating a career in medicine. These themes correlate with accepted published definitions of professionalism. The personal reflections produced through this exercise allow physicians to begin to formulate their professional self-conception. Extensions of this work might include linking such forms of critical reflection to individualized learning plans and updating the speeches over time. Further research on "reflecting forward" may determine its impact as a complement to traditional narrative reflection.

  19. Albertet, “En amor trob tantz de mals seignoratges” (BdT 16.13

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    Francesca Sanguineti


    Full Text Available The article provides a commentary and a new critical edition of Albertet’s poem “En amor trob tantz de mals seignoratges”, in which the troubadour praises some of the most courtly ladies of his time. The poem can be linked to the genre of the collective eulogy, where the enumerated ladies are praised essentially for political reasons, since the commendation is clearly addressed to the men hidden behind them: famous specimena of this genre are the ‘tournoiements des dames’ by Huon d’Oisy and Richard de Semilli and Raimbaut de Vaqueiras’ “Carros” (BdT 392.32. Albertet’s song starts with a misogynic tone, since the poet declares that celebrating or loving ladies is worthless, given their immoral behaviour, and with a polemic against the strict rules of courtly love. This misogyny, as is further discovered, is a rhetorical device to praise women as well as a tool to renew the genre of the love song from a thematic point of view.

  20. «Strong as Death is Love»: Eros and Education at the End of Time

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    Samuel D Rocha


    Full Text Available This essay is an extended reflection on the relationship between death and love expressed in a fragment from Song of Songs 8:6: «Strong as death is love». The passage will be analyzed through a Jewish, Orthodox, and Catholic exegesis and literary reflection. In particular, the essay describes the role of a particular form of love (eros within a particular form of education (education at the end of time. While eros has frequently been ignored or resigned to a purely sexualized role, we will look closely at Augustine’s eulogy of his mother, Monica, in the Confessions, suggesting that perhaps the most visceral expression of eros is to be found in the phenomenology of death. We will also draw on the phenomenological manifestation of death by looking to the rich description of dying provided by Leo Tolstoy in his novella, The Death of Ivan Ilych. Together these investigations of eros and education yield a «curriculum of death», which draws on the re-conceptualist notion of curriculum. Our claim is that this curriculum of death offers a sense of urgency and seriousness found lacking in schools today, where death abounds, but is rarely if ever addressed in a humanistic way. This final methodological emphasis on the humanities elucidates more directly and critically the role of research for a curriculum of death within the dominance of social science in the field of education.

  1. A tribute to Peter H Seeburg (1944-2016: a founding father of molecular neurobiology

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    William Wisden


    Full Text Available On 22nd August 2016, the fields of molecular neurobiology and endocrinology lost one of their pioneers and true giants, Peter Seeburg, who died aged 72, a day after his birthday. His funeral ceremony took place in Heidelberg where he had worked since 1988, first as a professor at the University of Heidelberg (ZMBH and then since 1996 as a director of the Max Plank Institute (Dept. of Molecular Neurobiology. Many of Peter’s former colleagues, students and postdocs came together with his family members to celebrate his life. Touching eulogies were given by no less than two Nobel prize winners: the physiologist Bert Sakmann, who collaborated with Peter for many years, and the developmental biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Vollhard, who was a friend and fellow PhD student with Peter. His professional contemporary, Heinrich Betz, gave a warm and endearing assessment of Peter’s contributions to the field of molecular neurobiology. One of Peter’s sons, Daniel P. Seeburg, now a neuroradiologist in the USA, and biotechnologist Karoly Nikolics, one of Peter’s friends from the days of Genentech, both emotionally summed up the warm and intense character of the man that many of his former students and postdocs knew.

  2. Sassi contro il cielo Menzogna individuale e verità di Stato in Oscar Wilde

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    Duccio Chiapello


    Full Text Available The late Victorian era saw Oscar Wilde’s rise to success and fall from grace. For many years the Irish author lived a double life. He was both a celebrated man of letters, and an irreducibly extraneous body. His essay The Decay of Lying, published in 1889, is a Socratic dialogue that, through its inherent duplicity, exhibits this binary condition. On one hand it is a brilliant work of criticism – pleasantly heterodox – that fully embodies Wilde’s rule of “bewildering the masses”, while on the other, even though backhandedly, it gives a recalcitrant account of the implacable social control of his time. In this eulogy of the art of lying – mainly understood as a way of “saying no” to the truths of power – Wilde reveals the theoretical foundations and originality of his political philosophy, which is the same as that displayed in his later essay The Soul of Man Under Socialism (1891.

  3. Isocrates’ Encomium of Helen: Reply to Gorgias and the Unicity of his Epideictic Discourse

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    Ticiano Curvelo Estrela de Lacerda


    Full Text Available Around 390-80 BC, the Athenian Isocrates composed one of his first speeches as an educator, the Helen. According to most scholars, this speech seems to be a replica to the famous Eulogy of Helen by Gorgias, which, according to Isocrates (§14, would have made not an encomium, but an apology on behalf of the Spartan queen. In the Isocratic encomium, we noticed some dissonance between the proemium and the rest of the work. In fact, we do not have in the proemium the expected laudatory tone, but it is configured, on the contrary, as an invective to sophists groups contemporary of Isocrates, and culminates in the end with an allusive criticism of the Leontine sophist. Thus, what the IV century BC sophists have in common with the mythical Helen? In other words, would there be a common thread that would ensure a discursive unity in that epideictic exercise of Isocrates? This study aims to discuss these issues and review how they are being discussed by some commentators of Isocrates, since the Rhetoric of Aristotle to the reception of the matter among some scholars of Classical Rhetoric in the XX century.

  4. 《大瀑布》中伦理悲剧与现实投射%Ethical Tragedy and Reflections in The Falls

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    研究了美国女作家乔伊斯·卡罗尔·欧茨的《大瀑布》这出伦理悲剧,认为欧茨在作品中讴歌了美国人不屈的反抗精神,向20世纪50年代"垮掉的一代"表达了自己的敬意;对当代美国新保守主义带给同性恋者的压迫给予了间接的批判;对极端利己主义和新自由主义进行的批判性书写也表达了自己对社群主义的呼唤.%The Falls, an ethical tragedy written by Joyce Carol Oates is analyzed.It is considered that in this book, Oates eulogizes the rebellious spirit of the Americans, and express his respect to the beat generation in 1950s;he gives an indirect criticism on the oppression of homosexuals brought by contemporary American neo-conservatism;the critical writing of extreme egoism and neoliberalism also expresses his call for communitarianism.

  5. Second/Third Generation Asian Business Entrepreneurs in the Uk

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    Spinder Dhaliwal


    Full Text Available The “growth” of Asian enterprises has been a much commented feature of the small business population. Asian entrepreneurs have been eulogized by the popular press keen to laud free enterprise heroes. More detached academic commentary has also sought to identify the key success factors for this entrepreneurial minority. This paper seeks to explore the role of the second/third generation of British Asian entrepreneurs who were brought up and educated in the UK. In order to analyze the position of second/third generation Asians in business, a series of qualitative interviews were undertaken with 10 respondents, five men and five women. The questions asked focus upon second generation banking, management style, use of technology and expansion. This paper sheds light n a number of neglected issues within the increasingly important area of ethnic entrepreneurship. First a clearer picture will emerge of the roles, responsibilities, vision and practices of this new generation of entrepreneurs. Second, methodologically the paper will be novel in so far as the gender and ethnicity issues are both taken into account. Half the respondents are women. Hence the study also aims to examine the hitherto neglected issue of women’s experiences in managing enterprises. Finally, policy makers are increasingly reminded to appreciate the need of the diversity of ethnic minorities in business.

  6. Peire Bremon Ricas Novas, “Rics pres, ferms e sobeirans” (BdT 330.15a

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    Paolo Di Luca


    Full Text Available This article provides a new critical edition and a commentary of Peire Bremon Ricas Novas’s “Rics pres, ferms e sobeirans”, a courtly love song composed between 1228 and 1257 and dedicated to Audiart del Baux. Built as a eulogy of the lady, the song focuses on the central theme of the moral and material ‘ricor’ (richness of the latter. The complexity of the metrical form, which displays a systematic use of the technique of ‘rim derivatiu’, is paralleled by the semantic obscurity of a number of verses and hapaxes, all discussed in the commentary. Stanzas III and IV show echoes of Jaufre Rudel’s “amor de lonh”, since the lover-poet declares that the distance and the ethnical difference between himself and the lady are abolished by the strength of his feelings. The use of ethnonyms in stanza IV is closely examined: the lover-poet reveals that he loves a Castilian lady who looks like a ‘Serrana’ (the name of an Iberian population, admitting that he would like her even if she were Catalan or Syrian. These references to the lady’s ethnical origins are puzzling: they can be read as a calembour with burlesque overtones, as well as a climax aiming to define the real provenance of the lady or as a rhetorical device to underline that courtly love does not know any kind of boundary.

  7. Fact, Myth and Legend in Matthew Arnold’s Westminster Abbey

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    Tadej Braček


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multilayered elegy “Westminster Abbey;” which was not given a lot of attention by Matthew Arnold’s critics. The poem is dedicated to Arnold’s life-long friend Dean Stanley; who was; like Arnold himself; “a child of light.” The term refers to their common fight against Philistinism in the English society of the time. As the poem is about a real person; it contains real data; such as excerpts from Stanley’s life; described in the form of praise. However; the poem also introduces the old Saxon legend of consecration of the Abbey; namely the consecration by the light; performed by the First Apostle (St Peter himself. In addition to the legend; Arnold also used some classical Greek allusions to depict the late Dean’s character. In one of the allusions; Stanley is associated with Demophon; whose immortality was never achieved due to the fault of another human; and in the second he is transformed into an everlasting oracle of the Abbey using the Trophonius; a builder of Delphi; metaphor. All elements of the poem form a homogenous eulogy; making it worthwhile reading for English scholars and students; and possibly a candidate for the English poetic canon.

  8. ‘A Discovery of Quite Exceptional Proportions’: Controversies in the Wake of Anders Nummedal’s Discoveries of Norway’s First Inhabitants

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    Heidi Mjelva Breivik


    Full Text Available Around the beginning of the twentieth century archaeologists believed that Norway was not inhabited until the Late Stone Age. In 1909 two pieces of flint, found by the school-teacher Anders Nummedal, launched an extensive debate about the prehistory of Norway, which in time led to the acknowledgement that there was an Early Mesolithic (9500–8000 BC settlement of the country. However, Nummedal’s lack of archaeological education worked against him when he tried to date the many flint sites he found later on, and well-established researchers found his theories about Stone Age settlements unconvincing. He was regarded as an unskilled teacher who did not know the first thing about archaeological methods and terminology. Today, Nummedal is considered to be one of the most influential participants in Norwegian Stone Age research, and his discoveries are well known and widely recognized. This paper describes Nummedal’s fight to transform his reputation from ridiculed amateur to respected professional. The resistance he met when presenting his sensational theories is detailed through an extensive review of letters, newspaper articles and eulogies written by his colleagues.

  9. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

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    Tahl Kaminer


    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  10. Honor and war. Tension between the reality of war and ideological discourse in castilian chronicles of the first half of the fourteenth century

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    Fernando Arias Guillén


    Full Text Available Chronicles represented one of the principal instruments used by different medieval powers to project ideas that legitimized and eulogized their authority. Warfare therefore frequently constitutes a key element of these texts. During the reign of Alfonso XI, the Crown of Castile promoted works that not only justified and glorified the king’s political activity, but also invoked an idealised image of warfare. This image was based on the idea of warfare as an honourable activity and the exclusive domain of a social elite, and therefore did not reflect real military practice. The authors of these works also considered the defence of the king’s honour a valid justification for war, even when this conflicted with more pragmatic attitudes. The Royal Chronicler Fernán Sánchez de Valladolid managed to reconcile the two in order to maintain the monarch beyond criticism. onicler, achieved to combine both in order to maintain the monarch beyond criticism. This approach was not exclusive to Castilian Chronicles, as it also constituted a characteristic element of other contemporary texts, like the works of Froissart or the French Royal Chronicles. This paper concludes that, rather than providing a reliable account of an event, chronicles often based their narratives on a series of common images and ideas that reflected a predetermined ideological discourse.

  11. Paleohistology and the study of human remains: past, present and future approaches / La paleohistologia y el estudio de restos humanos: aproximaciones pasadas presentes y futuras

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    Sandra Assis


    Full Text Available The invention of the microscope revolutionized the course of human knowledge. This instrument changed the face of science and of previous beliefs, expanded the horizons of knowledge, and challenged philosophical and scientific thought, especially in the field of natural sciences and medicine. In the domain of bioarchaeology, the introduction of histological techniques was important; not only to identify body tissues and to diagnose diseases in mummified remains, but also to understand bone and teeth microstructure, and associated patterns of response to environmental constraints. In this paper a critical review of the major contributions of histology to the growing body of knowledge in paleopathology and bioarchaeology will be presented, focusing on the current multiple applications of microscopy, its limitations, and its future challenges. KEY WORDS microscopy; dry bone remains; multiple approaches   La invención del microscopio ha revolucionado el curso del conocimiento humano. Este instrumento cambió la “cara” de la ciencia y de las creencias anteriores, amplió los horizontes del conocimiento y retó al pensamiento filosófico y científico, especialmente en el campo de las ciencias naturales y la medicina. En el dominio de la bioarqueología, la introducción de técnicas histológicas fue determinante, no sólo para identificar los tejidos del cuerpo y diagnosticar enfermedades en restos momificados, sino también para comprender la microestructura y dinámica de los huesos y los dientes, y los patrones asociados de respuesta a las restricciones ambientales. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión crítica de las principales contribuciones de la histología al creciente cuerpo de conocimientos de la paleopatología y la bioarqueología, con énfasis en las actuales aplicaciones de la microscopía, sus limitaciones y los desafíos para el futuro. PALABRAS CLAVE microscopía, restos humanos, múltiples enfoques

  12. Holocene environmental change and archaeology, Yangtze River Valley, China: Review and prospects

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    Li Wu


    Full Text Available Holocene environmental change and environmental archaeology are important components of an international project studying the human-earth interaction system. This paper reviews the progress of Holocene environmental change and environmental archaeology research in the Yangtze River Valley over the last three decades, that includes the evolution of large freshwater lakes, Holocene transgression and sea-level changes, Holocene climate change and East Asian monsoon variation, relationship between the rise and fall of primitive civilizations and environmental changes, cultural interruptions and palaeoflood events, as well as relationship between the origin of agriculture and climate change. These research components are underpinned by the dating of lacustrine sediments, stalagmites and peat to establish a chronology of regional environmental and cultural evolution. Interdisciplinary and other environment proxy indicators need to be used in comparative studies of archaeological site formation and natural sedimentary environment in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley. Modern technology such as remote sensing, molecular bioarchaeology, and virtual reality, should be integrated with currently used dating, geochemical, sedimentological, and palaeobotanical methods of analysis in environmental archaeology macro- and micro-studies, so as to provide a greater comprehensive insight into Holocene environmental and cultural interaction and change in the Yangtze River Valley area.

  13. Investigating regional mobility in the southern hinterland of the Wari Empire: biogeochemistry at the site of Beringa, Peru. (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Tung, Tiffiny A


    Empires have transformed political, social, and environmental landscapes in the past and present. Although much research on archaeological empires focuses on large-scale imperial processes, we use biogeochemistry and bioarchaeology to investigate how imperialism may have reshaped regional political organization and regional migration patterns in the Wari Empire of the Andean Middle Horizon (ca. AD 600-1000). Radiogenic strontium isotope analysis of human remains from the site of Beringa in the Majes Valley of southern Peru identified the geographic origins of individuals impacted by the Wari Empire. At Beringa, the combined archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87)Sr/(86)Sr = 0.70802 - 0.70960, with a mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr = 0.70842 ± 0.00027 (1σ, n = 52). These data are consistent with radiogenic strontium isotope data from the local fauna in the Majes Valley and imply that most individuals were local inhabitants, rather than migrants from the Wari heartland or some other locale. There were two outliers at Beringa, and these "non-local" individuals may have derived from other parts of the South Central Andes. This is consistent with our understanding of expansive trade networks and population movement in the Andean Middle Horizon, likely influenced by the policies of the Wari Empire. Although not a Wari colony, the incorporation of small sites like Beringa into the vast social and political networks of the Middle Horizon resulted in small numbers of migrants at Beringa. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Bayes in biological anthropology. (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R


    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Trends in mortality and biological stress in a medieval polish urban population. (United States)

    Betsinger, Tracy K; DeWitte, Sharon


    Urbanization in pre-modern populations may have had a variety of consequences related to population crowding. However, research on the effects of urbanization have provided inconsistent results regarding the biological impact of this transition on human populations. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that urbanization caused an increase in overall biological stress in a medieval (10th-13th centuries AD) Polish population. A human skeletal sample (n=164) was examined for the presence of porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasia, periosteal reaction, and specific infectious diseases. Prevalence rates were compared among three temporal samples: initial urbanization, early urbanization, and later urbanization. Results indicate no significant trends for any of the pathological conditions. Cox proportional hazards analyses, however, revealed a significant increase in the risk of death over time, which supports the hypothesis. These results reflect the necessity of using multiple analyses to address bioarchaeological questions. The lack of significant results from skeletal indicators may be due to an earlier urbanization trend in the population. This study illustrates that the association of urbanization with elevated biological stress is complicated and dependent on various factors, including culture and time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy and reliability in sex determination from skulls: a comparison of Fordisc® 3.0 and the discriminant function analysis. (United States)

    Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Bruzek, Jaroslav


    Identification in forensic anthropology and the definition of a biological profile in bioarchaeology are essential to each of those fields and use the same methodologies. Sex, age, stature and ancestry can be conclusive or dispensable, depending on the field. The Fordisc(®) 3.0 computer program was developed to aid in the identification of the sex, stature and ancestry of skeletal remains by exploiting the Forensic Data Bank (FDB) and computing discriminant function analyses (DFAs). Although widely used, this tool has been recently criticised, principally when used to determine ancestry. Two sub-samples of individuals of known sex were drawn from French (n=50) and Thai (n=91) osteological collections and used to assess the reliability of sex determination using Fordisc(®) 3.0 with 12 cranial measurements. Comparisons were made using the whole FDB as well as using select groups, taking into account the posterior and typicality probabilities. The results of Fordisc(®) 3.0 vary between 52.2% and 77.8% depending on the options and groups selected. Tests of published discriminant functions and the computation of specific DFA were performed in order to discuss the applicability of this software and, overall, to question the pertinence of the use of DFA and linear distances in sex determination, in light of the huge cranial morphological variability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dental indicators of adaptation in the Sahara Desert during the Late Holocene. (United States)

    Nikita, E; Mattingly, D; Lahr, M M


    The present paper examines dental diseases and linear enamel hypoplasia among the Garamantes, a Late Holocene Saharan population, and aims to draw conclusions about nutrition and adaptation to a hyper-arid environment. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Garamantian diet included animal protein and local, Mediterranean and Near Eastern plants. Moreoever, although the Garamantes had developed urban centres, the size of these was not large enough to allow for particularly unhygienic conditions to appear. The above archaeological findings were partly corroborated by the current bioarchaeological study. At an intra-population level, the Garamantes showed limited sex differences in dental disease prevalence, while all dental conditions increased in frequency with age, as expected. At an inter-population level, the frequency of all dental conditions was comparable to that found among other North African groups, with the exception of ante-mortem tooth loss. The low frequency of most dental conditions is an indication that the Garamantian diet was overall balanced, while the high frequency of ante-mortem tooth loss may be related to factors such as oral hygiene, food preparation or eating mode, which cannot be controlled for osteologically. Finally, the low frequency of enamel hypoplasia suggests either that the Sahara did not inflict particular stresses on the population, or, more likely, that the Garamantes had developed effective mechanisms for coping with their natural environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond diet reconstruction: stable isotope applications to human physiology, health, and nutrition. (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J


    Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from soft or mineralized tissues is a direct and widely-used technique for modeling diets. In addition to its continued role in paleodiet analysis, stable isotope analysis is now contributing to studies of physiology, disease, and nutrition in archaeological and living human populations. In humans and other animals, dietary uptake and distribution of carbon and nitrogen among mineralized and soft tissue is carried out with varying efficiency due to factors of internal biology. Human pathophysiologies may lead to pathology-influenced isotopic fractionation that can be exploited to understand not just skeletal health and diet, but physiological health and nutrition. This study reviews examples from human biology, non-human animal ecology, biomedicine, and bioarchaeology demonstrating how stable isotope analyses are usefully applied to the study of physiological adaptation and adaptability. Suggestions are made for future directions in applying stable isotope analysis to the study of nutritional stress, disease, and growth and development in living and past human populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Reconciling "stress" and "health" in physical anthropology: what can bioarchaeologists learn from the other subdisciplines? (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J; McIlvaine, Britney Kyle


    The concepts of "stress" and "health" are foundational in physical anthropology as guidelines for interpreting human behavior and biocultural adaptation in the past and present. Though related, stress and health are not coterminous, and while the term "health" encompasses some aspects of "stress," health refers to a more holistic condition beyond just physiological disruption, and is of considerable significance in contributing to anthropologists' understanding of humanity's lived experiences. Bioarchaeological interpretations of human health generally are made from datasets consisting of skeletal markers of stress, markers that result from (chronic) physiological disruption (e.g., porotic hyperostosis; linear enamel hypoplasia). Non-specific indicators of stress may measure episodes of stress and indicate that infection, disease, or nutritional deficiencies were present in a population, but in assessing these markers, bioarchaeologists are not measuring "health" in the same way as are human biologists, medical anthropologists, or primatologists. Rather than continue to diverge on separate (albeit parallel) trajectories, bioarchaeologists are advised to pursue interlinkages with other subfields within physical anthropology toward bridging "stress" and "health." The papers in this special symposium set include bioarchaeologists, human biologists, molecular anthropologists, and primatologists whose research develops this link between the concepts of "stress" and "health," encouraging new avenues for bioarchaeologists to consider and reconsider health in past human populations. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Molecular exploration of the first-century Tomb of the Shroud in Akeldama, Jerusalem.

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    Carney D Matheson

    Full Text Available The Tomb of the Shroud is a first-century C.E. tomb discovered in Akeldama, Jerusalem, Israel that had been illegally entered and looted. The investigation of this tomb by an interdisciplinary team of researchers began in 2000. More than twenty stone ossuaries for collecting human bones were found, along with textiles from a burial shroud, hair and skeletal remains. The research presented here focuses on genetic analysis of the bioarchaeological remains from the tomb using mitochondrial DNA to examine familial relationships of the individuals within the tomb and molecular screening for the presence of disease. There are three mitochondrial haplotypes shared between a number of the remains analyzed suggesting a possible family tomb. There were two pathogens genetically detected within the collection of osteological samples, these were Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. The Tomb of the Shroud is one of very few examples of a preserved shrouded human burial and the only example of a plaster sealed loculus with remains genetically confirmed to have belonged to a shrouded male individual that suffered from tuberculosis and leprosy dating to the first-century C.E. This is the earliest case of leprosy with a confirmed date in which M. leprae DNA was detected.

  1. Molecular Exploration of the First-Century Tomb of the Shroud in Akeldama, Jerusalem (United States)

    Matheson, Carney D.; Vernon, Kim K.; Lahti, Arlene; Fratpietro, Renee; Spigelman, Mark; Gibson, Shimon; Greenblatt, Charles L.; Donoghue, Helen D.


    The Tomb of the Shroud is a first-century C.E. tomb discovered in Akeldama, Jerusalem, Israel that had been illegally entered and looted. The investigation of this tomb by an interdisciplinary team of researchers began in 2000. More than twenty stone ossuaries for collecting human bones were found, along with textiles from a burial shroud, hair and skeletal remains. The research presented here focuses on genetic analysis of the bioarchaeological remains from the tomb using mitochondrial DNA to examine familial relationships of the individuals within the tomb and molecular screening for the presence of disease. There are three mitochondrial haplotypes shared between a number of the remains analyzed suggesting a possible family tomb. There were two pathogens genetically detected within the collection of osteological samples, these were Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. The Tomb of the Shroud is one of very few examples of a preserved shrouded human burial and the only example of a plaster sealed loculus with remains genetically confirmed to have belonged to a shrouded male individual that suffered from tuberculosis and leprosy dating to the first-century C.E. This is the earliest case of leprosy with a confirmed date in which M. leprae DNA was detected. PMID:20016819

  2. A suspected case of intranasal inverted Schneiderian papilloma in an adult male from post-Medieval Holland. (United States)

    Carroll, G M A; Waters-Rist, A; Inskip, S A


    During the routine assessment of skeletal material unearthed from Middenbeemster, a post-Medieval (AD 17-19th century) cemetery in Northern Holland, an adult male with an unidentified choanal lesion was discovered. The affected individual was analysed macroscopically and via computer tomography. Based on the phenotypic and radiographic characteristics of the lesion, and after a comprehensive review of clinical literature, it was determined that the lesion was likely caused by an inverted Schneiderian papilloma (ISP), a benign but locally aggressive endophytic neoplasm histopathologically characterized by the inversion of the epithelium into the lamina propria (Schneiderian membrane) of the respiratory nasal mucosa. This study presents a detailed description of the pathophysiology and aetiology of ISPs, using both bioarchaeological and biomedical frameworks. Several differential diagnoses are discussed, with emphasis on the reasons for their rejection as the primary pathogenic mechanism(s). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this research is the first reported case of ISP within palaeopathology, which highlights the need to consider ISPs whenever slow-growing sinonasal neoplasms are suspected, as well as in cases that exhibit focal rhinitis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Craniovascular traits in anthropology and evolution: from bones to vessels. (United States)

    Píšová, Hana; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Velemínský, Petr; Bruner, Emiliano


    Many aspects of human biology can be reconstructed from skeletal and fossil remains. The endocranial vasculature runs through cerebral, connective, and bone elements, where it is influenced by the functional and structural relationships among these different components of the endocranial system. The imprints and traces of these vessels can be used to analyze the craniovascular features of extinct species or historical samples. These traits can supply information about evolutionary adaptation, the mutual relationships between and within populations, and individual life history. In particular, bioarchaeology considers individual morphological variants as indicators of temporal and spatial relatedness and population structure, whereas paleoanthropology studies functional aspects to consider evolutionary changes and phylogenetic processes. Forensic science can investigate the cause of death associated with craniovascular pathologies by relying on morphological variations for individual identification. In this review, we consider the imprints of middle meningeal vessels, dural venous sinuses, emissary veins, and diploic veins. We summarize the most relevant morphological and functional information about craniovascular features and their applications in retrospective anthropological and medical fields, as well as describing the methodological issues associated with the sampling and quantitative evaluation of these elusive vascular remnants imprinted in the cranial bones.

  4. Resource scarcity drives lethal aggression among prehistoric hunter-gatherers in central California. (United States)

    Allen, Mark W; Bettinger, Robert Lawrence; Codding, Brian F; Jones, Terry L; Schwitalla, Al W


    The origin of human violence and warfare is controversial, and some scholars contend that intergroup conflict was rare until the emergence of sedentary foraging and complex sociopolitical organization, whereas others assert that violence was common and of considerable antiquity among small-scale societies. Here we consider two alternative explanations for the evolution of human violence: (i) individuals resort to violence when benefits outweigh potential costs, which is likely in resource poor environments, or (ii) participation in violence increases when there is coercion from leaders in complex societies leading to group level benefits. To test these hypotheses, we evaluate the relative importance of resource scarcity vs. sociopolitical complexity by evaluating spatial variation in three macro datasets from central California: (i) an extensive bioarchaeological record dating from 1,530 to 230 cal BP recording rates of blunt and sharp force skeletal trauma on thousands of burials, (ii) quantitative scores of sociopolitical complexity recorded ethnographically, and (iii) mean net primary productivity (NPP) from a remotely sensed global dataset. Results reveal that sharp force trauma, the most common form of violence in the record, is better predicted by resource scarcity than relative sociopolitical complexity. Blunt force cranial trauma shows no correlation with NPP or political complexity and may reflect a different form of close contact violence. This study provides no support for the position that violence originated with the development of more complex hunter-gatherer adaptations in the fairly recent past. Instead, findings show that individuals are prone to violence in times and places of resource scarcity.

  5. Issues of affinity: exploring population structure in the Middle and Regional Developments Periods of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Hubbe, Mark


    The Middle Period (AD 400-1000) in northern Chile's Atacama oases is characterized by an increase in social complexity and regional interaction, much of which was organized around the power and impact of the Tiwanaku polity. Despite the strong cultural influence of Tiwanaku and numerous other groups evident in interactions with Atacameños, the role of immigration into the oases during this period is unclear. While archaeological and bioarchaeological research in the region has shown no evidence that clearly indicates large groups of foreign immigrants, the contemporary increase in interregional exchange networks connecting the oases to other parts of the Andes suggests residential mobility and the possibility that movement of people both into and out of the oases accompanied these foreign influences. Here, we analyze biodistance through cranial non-metric traits in a skeletal sample from prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama to elucidate the extent of foreign influence in the oases and discuss its implications. We analyzed 715 individuals from the Middle Period (AD 400-1000) and later Regional Developments Period (AD 1000-1450), and found greater phenotypic differences between Middle Period cemeteries than among cemeteries in the subsequent period. We argue that this greater diversity extends beyond the relationship between the oases and the renowned Tiwanaku polity and reflects the role of the oases and its different ayllus as a node and way station for the Middle Period's myriad interregional networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Between Everyday and “Plato’s Republic”: Rationalist Aspects of Łukasz Opaliński’s Work

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    Grzegorz Raubo


    Full Text Available The article specifies the role of rationalism in the work of a distinguished Baroque author, Łukasz Opaliński. The source material for the study consists of: Rozmowa Plebana z Ziemianinem (1641, Polonia defensa contra Ioan[nem] Barclaium (1648, Coś nowego (1652, Pauli Naeoceli de officiis libri tres (1659, Poeta nowy (1661–1662.Łukasz Opaliński stated that reason is the most important cognitive faculty of the human being. Reason makes it possible to understand the rules of natural law, which is the source of ethical action among humans, and brings on understanding of the eschatological aim of human life, that is salvation. The possibilities of rational explanation do not, however, encompass the mysteries of religious faith or the basic concepts of natural philosophy, such as the elements, which are the principal components of matter.Rationalism belongs to the principal ideas of Opaliński’s political philosophy. He opted for a rational organization of the state and for rational ways of solving social problems (he underscored the role of common sense, rational dialogue of citizens and rational responsibility for the common good. The political formation that is best suited for rationalization of social life is monarchy. Seeing it as a model government, the author realised that it could not be introduced in the Poland of the 17th century, and consequently, apart from the eulogy of the monarchy, he proposed improvements in gentry democracy, especially in limiting of the “golden freedom”.An important sphere of externalization of Opaliński’s rationalist ideals was his theoretical thought on literature. He critically evaluated some examples of Baroque art of conceit. He underscored the role of rational sources of creativity and rational discipline in structuring a literary work, and his postulates in this field were close to the concepts of classicist criticism.

  7. "Ay mama Inés", de Jorge Guzmán: Entre la crónica y el testimonio

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    Renato Martínez


    Full Text Available La excelente novela de Guzmán se autodefine como crónica testimonial, sin embargo los géneros crónica y testimonio, pese a su similar contingencia histórica, tienen un signo retórico opuesto. La crónica con notorias excepciones -es eulógica y tiene propósitos fundacionales. El testimonio es, por el contrario, denunciatorio y subversivo. Ay mama Inés, encuentra existencia en un campo de fuerzas originado por la tensión entre un anverso cronicado y su reverso testimonial, y donde el primero termina desplazando al segundo. La consecuencia más importante del predominio de la crónica es el relato de Pedro de Valdivia como un héroe épico y trágico de grandes proporciones, mientras que su lado histórico, ideológico y social retrocede a un segundo lugar.   Guzman's excellent novel defines itself as a "testimonial chronicle", although genders such as "testimony" and "chronicle" are opposite rhetorical sings, despite similar historical contingencies. The chronicle, save excepcional cases, is eulogical and fulfills foundational purposes. Testimonial, on the contrary is denunciatory and subversive. "Ay Mama Ines" finds its literary existence from a tug-of-war between a chronicled anverse and a testimonial reverse, where the former ends by displacing the letter. The Most important consequence of the predomiance of the chronicle element is in the history of Pedro de Valdivia as an epic and tragic hero of great proportions whereas his historical, ideological and social sides are relegated to a second place.

  8. Interaction of Various Generic Forms in the 12th–17th Century Texts and the Mindsets of Old Russian Authors

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    Anatoly S. Demin


    Full Text Available The essay focuses on the understudied question of the poetics of Old Russian literature: it is the first study of the kind that analyzes semantic interaction of different generic forms in the works of the period. The essay is comprised of five section each devoted to a specific work. The first section examines historical narrative in its relation to sermons, eulogies, and biblical excerpts in The Tale of Bygone Years (the beginning of the twelfth century and comes to the conclusion that the chronicler was not content with the negligence of his listeners and readers. The second section examines the interrelation of factual material and sermon in Novgorodskaa First Chronicle (the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and reveals the chronicler’s severe attitude towards his contemporaries. The third section examines a series of two works by Moscow Dyak Rodion Kozhuh as part of Sofiyskaya Second Chronicle and shows the author’s personal inclination to the expressiveness of style. The fourth section examines a combination of prosaic and rhymed fragments from the Saying of Avraamy Palitsyn written in the 1620s and comes to the conclusion that the author was inclined to philosophically reflect on the Time of Troubles. Finally, the fifth section examines a combination of the rhymed narrative with poetical sermons in The Story of Unfortunate Misfortune (1660s and shows the author’s pessimistic mindset. The essay ends with a very tentative conclusion: the interaction of different generic forms of narration was typical for the whole оf Оld Russian literature. The variety of purposes and mindsets prompted authors to employ various generic types of narration.

  9. Semi-clear Heritage Technical Image in Ibn-Nubatah’s Poetry: His Prophetic

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    Full Text Available AbstractIbn-Nubatah is one of the poets of deterioration era who lived at this time so hispoetry has the trace of both the imitation and repetition of the poets of that time. Heused a kind of poetic theme in his poems that lacks the privilege and typicality of agood poem because he imitated some poets like Emre'al- Qays, Tarafah Ibn al-a’bd,Khansa, Hassan Ibn Sabet al-Ansary, Ka’b Ibn Zuhayr, Aboo Tammam and Al-Motanabbi. Concerning the issue of repetition, he made use of a large number ofrepetitive meanings in his poetic works, an example of which is the prophetMuhammad’s praise containing repetitive words and terminology. The eulogy of thekings and rulers of his time is also among some of his other repetitious works.However, there are some literary terms which are not authorized to be included inIbn-Nubatah’s poems, examples of such terms as syntax, prosody and some otherterms like dignitaries, hadith and Sufi terminology which Ibn-Nubatah used in hispoems. Ibn-Nubatah used the Quran and Hadith in his poetic works as well, which isa kind of citation indicative of a sort of religious concept in his poetic works becausereligious concepts have special dignity and value for him, so the poet had to payspecial attention to the demands and wishes of the public in his poetry. A largenumber of immoral contents can also be seen in his works. An attempt has been madein this article to examine such issues in the greatest poet’s poetry of that time, SheikhJamal Al-din Ibn-Nubatah.Key words: Ibn-Nubatah, Poetic style, repetition, imitation, deterioration

  10. Felix Vicq d'Azyr: anatomy, medicine and revolution. (United States)

    Parent, André


    Félix Vicq d'Azyr was born in 1748 in the small town of Valognes, Normandy. He studied medicine in Paris but he was particularly impressed by the lectures given at the Jardin du Roi by the comparative anatomist Louis Daubenton and the surgeon Antoine Petit. In 1773, Vicq d'Azyr initiated a series of successful lectures on human and animal anatomy at the Paris Medical School, from which he received his medical degree in 1774. He was elected the same year at the Academy of Sciences at age 26, thanks to his outstanding contributions to comparative anatomy. Vicq d'Azyr became widely known after his successful management of a severe cattle plague that occurred in the southern part of France in 1774, an event that led to the foundation of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1778. As Permanent Secretary of this society, Vicq d'Azyr wrote several eulogies that were models of eloquence and erudition and worth him a seat at the French Academy in 1788. Vicq d'Azyr published in 1786 a remarkable anatomy and physiology treatise: a large in-folio that contained original descriptions illustrated by means of nature-sized, colored, human brain figures of a quality and exactitude never attained before. In 1789, Vicq d'Azyr was appointed physician to the Queen Marie-Antoinette and, in 1790, he presented to the Constituent Assembly a decisive plan to reform the teaching of medicine in France. Unfortunately, Vicq d'Azyr did not survive the turmoil of the French Revolution; he died at age 46 on June 20, 1794.

  11. On a Possible Source of Some of the Images in the Annalistic Pokhvala to Prince Roman Mstislavich

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    Vadym I. Stavyskyi


    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the text known as the “Eulogy (Pokhvala to Prince Roman Mstislavich Galitsky,” which is from the opening section of the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle. The author of the article amplifies remarks made by Alexander Orlov about loanwords taken from translated works that appear in the text of the Pokhvala. The text of the exegesis of prophets by St. Hippolytus of Rome, which was widely known in Slavonic translation from the 12th century as the Slovo o Khriste i ob Antikhriste, produces additional material for comparison. St. Hippolytus’s text offers a possible interpretation of the concept “uma mudrostʹiu,” which the author of the Pokhvala offers as an explanation of the successful foreign policy of Prince Roman; in addition, this explanation helps to clarify the comparison of the prince with the eagle-lion, the lynx, and the crocodile. Certain characteristics of the text of the Pokhvala as revealed in the account of the exile of Khan Atrak by Prince Vladimir Monomakh and the subsequent mission carried out by Khan Syrchan, both unsupported in other sources, were, we believe, influenced by the text of the Slovo as well. It appears that literary images used throughout the Pokhvala were determined by apocalyptic symbols, following the approach that was typical of their interpretation by St. Hippolytus. This conclusion permits us to broaden our notions about the enumeration of works in translation used by the creator of the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle.

  12. The Image of Women in Shoghi’s Poetry

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    جعفر دلشاد


    Full Text Available The Image of Women in Shoghi’s Poetry     Zahra Soleymanpour *   Jafar Delshad **       Abstract     From a long time ago, describing the woman as well as love and mania has allocated a large part of poets’ poetry to itself. It could be said that there is almost no poet some of whose poems are not related to women. Moreover, love and affection are in fact common senses among human beings. In the period of Arabic poetry movement, this issue found a different color and the poets noticed the social status of women and attempted to restore the lost rights. In Shoghi’s poetry, the woman was pictured in two ways. The first was related to social problems with which the women were facing at that time and in fact they were the main factor of the movements which were seeking the women freedom. The second was the woman image as a matter of lyricism. In Shoghi’s poetry, two tendencies could be observed. The first is the classical tendency in the introduction of his eulogy poems as well as those which were purely in the field lyricism. The second is the romantic tendency shown in his presentation poetry. In these poems, the poet writes the poetry through his feeling and emotion and because he speaks by the heroes of the story, he has more freedom of speech. Our aim in this article is to have an analytical investigation of Shoghi’s viewpoints concerning social issues related to women and his lyricism (material or spiritual.     Key words: Shoghi’s poetry, women, social issues, lyric  * Ph.D Candidate in Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan.   E-mail:  ** Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan .


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    Claudina Victoria González


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar desde una perspectiva bioarqueológica las condiciones generales de salud de las poblaciones humanas que ocuparon la región austral de las Sierras Pampeanas en el Holoceno tardío (ca. 2500-400 años A.P., particularmente a través del estudio de bioindicadores dentales tales como hipoplasias del esmalte dental, abscesos y pérdidas dentales ante mortem. Se analizó una muestra de 80 individuos adultos de ambos sexos, procedentes de 48 sitios de toda la región. Se calcularon prevalencias por sexo, edad, cronología -Holoceno tardío inicial (ca. 2500-1500 años AP. y final (ca.1500-400 años AP-, así como sub-regiones geográficas - Sierras Chicas, Noreste, Noroeste, Llanura extraserrana, Sur y Traslasierra-. Posteriormente, se evaluó si las diferencias observadas eran significativas o no, mediante la aplicación del test de Chi-cuadrado (X2. Los resultados indican que las poblaciones asentadas en la región hacia momentos finales del Holoceno tardío habrían sufrido un deterioro en las condiciones generales de salud, principalmente los individuos adultos jóvenes y medios de toda el área, siendo mayor la intensidad en las sub regiones Noreste y Traslasierra.   Palabras clave: bioindicadores dentales, salud, región austral de las Sierras Pampeanas, Bioarqueología   Estimating Late Holocene health from Cordoba´s Central Highlands end Eastern Lowland populations (Argentina. A dental anthropology approach   Abstract The aim of this work is to study, from a bioarchaeological perspective, the health conditions of the populations that inhabited the southern portion of the Sierras Pampeanas region (Córdoba province by the Late Holocene (ca. 2500-400 years BP, through the analysis of three non-specific indicators of stress and infectious diseases: hypoplasia of dental enamel, abscesses, and antemortem teeth loss. The sample is composed by 80 adult individuals from 48 archaeological sites. We

  14. CRITERIOS ANALÍTICOS PARA EL ESTUDIO DEL CONFLICTO EN EL PASADO. UN CASO DE ESTUDIO EN CAZADORES RECOLECTORES DE NORPATAGONIA / Analytical criteria for the study of conflict in the past. A case study in hunter-gatherers from northeastern Patagonia.

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    Florencia Gordón


    Full Text Available La interpretación del conflicto en sociedades del pasado es un proceso ambiguo que puede conducir a subestimar o sobrestimar los niveles de violencia. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la metodología aplicada al estudio de los patrones de violencia interpersonal en grupos cazadores-recolectores del Noreste de Patagonia, durante el Holoceno tardío (4000-350 años AP. Si bien la principal línea de evidencia fue bioarqueológica se exploraron líneas independientes y complementarias (i.e. tipos de artefactos potencialmente utilizados en contextos de violencia en la región; información transcultural, etnográfica y etnohistórica relevante. Con el objetivo de conocer la distribución espacio-temporal y sexo-etaria de los traumas se analizó una muestra de cráneos (n=797. Previo al relevamiento de lesiones se evaluó el grado de preservación de las muestras. Para la interpretación de un tipo de traumas particulares (i.e. depresiones lineales se desarrolló un diseño experimental. Las lesiones se describieron macroscópica y microscópicamente. La evaluación estadística se realizó en dos niveles de acuerdo con el grado de ambigüedad de cada lesión. Una metodología basada sobre líneas independientes y complementarias, como así también la utilización de criterios bioarqueológicos y forenses, resultaron ser una herramienta adecuada para analizar los patrones de violencia en el Noreste patagónico durante el Holoceno tardío.   Abstract   The interpretation of conflict in past societies is an ambiguous process that can either underestimate or overestimate the levels of violence. The aim of this paper is to present methodology applied to the study of interpersonal violence patterns in hunter-gatherers groups from Northeastern Patagonia during the late Holocene (4000-350 years BP. While the main explored line of evidence was the bioarchaeological one, independent and complementary lines were taken into account (i.e. types of

  15. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru. (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C


    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. From the mouths of babes: dental caries in infants and children and the intensification of agriculture in mainland Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Halcrow, S E; Harris, N J; Tayles, N; Ikehara-Quebral, R; Pietrusewsky, M


    Many bioarchaeological studies have established a link between increased dental caries prevalence and the intensification of agriculture. However, research in Southeast Asia challenges the global application of this theory. Although often overlooked, dental health of infants and children can provide a sensitive source of information concerning health and subsistence change. This article investigates the prevalence and location of caries in the dentition of infants and children (less than 15 years of age) from eight prehistoric mainland Southeast Asian sites collectively spanning the Neolithic to late Iron Age, during which time rice agriculture became an increasingly important subsistence mode. Caries prevalence varied among the sites but there was no correlation with chronological change. The absence of evidence of a decline in dental health over time can be attributed to the relative noncariogenicity of rice and retention of broad-spectrum subsistence strategies. No differences in caries type indicating differences in dental health were found between the sites, apart from the Iron Age site of Muang Sema. There was a higher prevalence of caries in the deciduous dentition than the permanent dentition, likely due to a cariogenic weaning diet and the higher sensitivity of deciduous teeth to decay. The level of caries in the permanent dentition suggests an increased reliance on less cariogenic foods during childhood, including rice. The absence of a temporal decline in dental health of infants and children strengthens the argument that the relationship between caries and agricultural intensification in Southeast Asia was more complex than the general model suggests. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Trauma and violence in the Wari empire of the Peruvian Andes: warfare, raids, and ritual fights. (United States)

    Tung, Tiffiny A


    This study examines bioarchaeological evidence for violence during the period of Wari imperialism in the Peruvian Andes through analysis of skeletal trauma from three populations dating to AD 650-800. The samples are from contemporaneous archaeological sites: Conchopata, a Wari heartland site in central highland Peru; Beringa, a community of commoners in the Majes valley of the southern Wari hinterland; and La Real, a high status mortuary site, also in the Majes valley. Given the expansionist nature of Wari and its military-related iconography and weaponry, it is hypothesized that Wari imperialism was concomitant with greater levels of violence relative to other prehispanic groups in the Andes. It is also hypothesized that differential articulation with the Wari empire (e.g., heartland vs. hinterland groups) affected the frequency and patterning of trauma. Results show that cranial trauma frequency of the three Wari era samples is significantly greater than several other Andean skeletal populations. This suggests that Wari rule was associated with high levels of violence, though it may not have always been related to militarism. The three adult samples show similar frequencies of cranial trauma (Conchopata = 26%; Beringa = 33%; La Real = 31%). This may suggest that differential positioning in the Wari empire had little effect on exposure to violence. Sex-based differences in cranial trauma frequencies are present only at La Real, but wound patterning differs between the sexes: females display more wounds on the posterior of the cranium, while males show more on the anterior. These data suggest that Wari rule may have contributed to violence. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Participation, representation, and shared experiences of women scholars in biological anthropology. (United States)

    Turner, Trudy R; Bernstein, Robin M; Taylor, Andrea B; Asangba, Abigail; Bekelman, Traci; Cramer, Jennifer Danzy; Elton, Sarah; Harvati, Katarina; Williams-Hatala, Erin Marie; Kauffman, Laurie; Middleton, Emily; Richtsmeier, Joan; Szathmáry, Emőke; Torres-Rouff, Christina; Thayer, Zaneta; Villaseñor, Amelia; Vogel, Erin


    American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) membership surveys from 1996 and 1998 revealed significant gender disparities in academic status. A 2014 follow-up survey showed that gender equality had improved, particularly with respect to the number of women in tenure-stream positions. However, although women comprised 70% of AAPA membership at that time, the percentage of women full professors remained low. Here, we continue to consider the status of women in biological anthropology by examining the representation of women through a quantitative analysis of their participation in annual meetings of the AAPA during the past 20 years. We also review the programmatic goals of the AAPA Committee on Diversity Women's Initiative (COD-WIN) and provide survey results of women who participated in COD-WIN professional development workshops. Finally, we examine the diversity of women's career paths through the personal narratives of 14 women biological anthropologists spanning all ranks from graduate student to Professor Emeritus. We find that over the past 20 years, the percentage of women first authors of invited symposia talks has increased, particularly in the sub-disciplines of bioarchaeology, genetics, and paleoanthropology. The percentage of women first authors on contributed talks and posters has also increased. However, these observed increases are still lower than expected given the percentage of graduate student women and women at the rank of assistant and associate professor. The personal narratives highlight first-hand the impact of mentoring on career trajectory, the challenges of achieving work-life satisfaction, and resilience in the face of the unexpected. We end with some suggestions for how to continue to improve equality and equity for women in biological anthropology. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  19. Craniometric examination of Longxian and Qi Li Cun archaeological sites to assess population continuity in ancient northern China. (United States)

    Gibbon, Victoria E; Porter, Tarun A; Wu, Xiujie; Liu, Wu


    In this paper, population continuity and discontinuity in northern China are explored using craniometric analyses from two archaeological sites, Longxian (Warring States) and Qi Li Cun (Han Dynasty). Neither population has been previously studied. Artefactual evidence shows the individuals from Qi Li Cun were Xianbei, descendants from Mongolia. Longxian is from further south in the central plains at an earlier time, thus, we expect to observe variability between these groups. In total, 24 cranial measurements were obtained on 66 crania from these sites. Howells's cranial measurements on Anyang (42 crania) and Hainan (83 crania) Chinese samples were included for comparative purposes. Less variability is expected between Longxian and Howells's Chinese data due to geographic and temporal similarity. With closer geographic and temporal affinity with Anyang, the expectation is for Longxian and Anyang to be similar. Few statistical differences exist between Longxian and Qi Li Cun; this was supported by the similarity found through principal components analysis (PCA). Regardless of sex, canonical discriminant analysis shows clustering of Longxian and Qi Li Cun separate from those of Anyang and Hainan. Their similarity indicates the people from Longxian and Qi Li Cun likely share Mongolian ancestry. Our results, supported by other studies, suggest that despite temporal differences, Mongolians living in China during the Warring States and Han dynasty retained their cultural and genetic Mongolian identity. These data add valuable bioarchaeological information regarding the peopling of northern China during a crucial period of cultural and political change in the Early Bronze Age and Iron Age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex determination by tooth size in a sample of Greek population. (United States)

    Mitsea, A G; Moraitis, K; Leon, G; Nicopoulou-Karayianni, K; Spiliopoulou, C


    Sex assessment from tooth measurements can be of major importance for forensic and bioarchaeological investigations, especially when only teeth or jaws are available. The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and applicability of establishing sex identity in a sample of Greek population using the discriminant function proposed by Rösing et al. (1995). The study comprised of 172 dental casts derived from two private orthodontic clinics in Athens. The individuals were randomly selected and all had clear medical history. The mesiodistal crown diameters of all the teeth were measured apart from those of the 3rd molars. The values quoted for the sample to which the discriminant function was first applied were similar to those obtained for the Greek sample. The results of the preliminary statistical analysis did not support the use of the specific discriminant function for a reliable determination of sex by means of the mesiodistal diameter of the teeth. However, there was considerable variation between different populations and this might explain the reason for lack of discriminating power of the specific function in the Greek population. In order to investigate whether a better discriminant function could be obtained using the Greek data, separate discriminant function analysis was performed on the same teeth and a different equation emerged without, however, any real improvement in the classification process, with an overall correct classification of 72%. The results showed that there were a considerably higher percentage of females correctly classified than males. The results lead to the conclusion that the use of the mesiodistal diameter of teeth is not as a reliable method as one would have expected for determining sex of human remains from a forensic context. Therefore, this method could be used only in combination with other identification approaches. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Carious lesions and maize consumption among the Prehispanic Maya: an analysis of a coastal community in northern Yucatan. (United States)

    Cucina, Andrea; Cantillo, Cristina Perera; Sosa, Thelma Sierra; Tiesler, Vera


    Patterns of carious lesions were analyzed in the Classic period coastal Maya population of Xcambó, a salt production and administration center in northern Yucatan. To this end, the study investigated caries in the permanent dentitions of 163 adult skeletons, 23 from the Early Classic (AD 250-550) and 140 from the Late Classic period (AD 550-750), equally distributed between sexes. The archaeological and bioarchaeological evidence indicates a wealthy and socially homogeneous population dedicated to salt production and administration in the Early Classic that switched to pure administrative functions in the Late Classic. The results indicate an increase in caries from 7.4% and 21.2% (males and females respectively) from the Early Classic to 14.0% in males and 27.4% in females from the Late Classic period. The rate of caries in the Early and in the Late Classic phases of continuous occupation is not consistent with a simple interpretation of a heavier reliance on maize during the latter phase, characterized by a sedentary lifestyle, particularly for the male segment of the society now dedicated completely to the administration of the salt mines. Rather, the increase in caries rates in both sexes is best explained within a broader context of overall food habits, new cariogenic foods for both sexes, and the changes in lifestyle imposed by the increased socioeconomic role of the site. Our conclusions stress the limitations imposed by interpreting carious lesions solely in terms of single dietary components, such as maize consumption, without taking into account broader aspects of cultural and socioeconomic relevance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Application of geographic information systems to investigating associations between social status and burial location in medieval Trino Vercellese (Piedmont, Italy). (United States)

    Stewart, Marissa C; Vercellotti, Giuseppe


    Socioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested. This study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th-13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that greater growth outcomes are associated with privileged burials located inside the church by examining osteometric data (femoral bicondylar length [N = 74], maximum tibial length [N = 62], and the sum of the two measurements [N = 59]) in a geographic information system (GIS) of the cemetery. Getis-Ord G Hot Spot analysis identified significant (90% CI) spatial clustering of high osteometric values within the church, while low values clustered in areas of the cemetery farther from the church. These results, supported by the results of interpolation analyses, became more pronounced when z-scores were calculated to combine the male and female samples and the analyses were repeated. Overall, the findings corroborate the observation that the spatial distribution of osteometric data reflects socioeconomic status differences within the population. This research exemplifies the advantages of integrating bioarchaeology and spatial analysis to examine mortuary behavior and health outcomes in highly stratified societies where access to resources is demarcated in both life and in death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Infection, disease, and biosocial processes at the end of the Indus Civilization.

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    Gwen Robbins Schug

    Full Text Available In the third millennium B.C., the Indus Civilization flourished in northwest India and Pakistan. The late mature phase (2200-1900 B.C. was characterized by long-distance exchange networks, planned urban settlements, sanitation facilities, standardized weights and measures, and a sphere of influence over 1,000,000 square kilometers of territory. Recent paleoclimate reconstructions from the Beas River Valley demonstrate hydro-climatic stress due to a weakened monsoon system may have impacted urban centers like Harappa by the end of the third millennium B.C. the impact of environmental change was compounded by concurrent disruptions to the regional interaction sphere. Climate, economic, and social changes contributed to the disintegration of this civilization after 1900 B.C. We assess evidence for paleopathology to infer the biological consequences of climate change and socio-economic disruption in the post-urban period at Harappa, one of the largest urban centers in the Indus Civilization. Bioarchaeological evidence demonstrates the prevalence of infection and infectious disease increased through time. Furthermore, the risk for infection and disease was uneven among burial communities. Corresponding mortuary differences suggest that socially and economically marginalized communities were most vulnerable in the context of climate uncertainty at Harappa. Combined with prior evidence for increasing levels of interpersonal violence, our data support a growing pathology of power at Harappa after 2000 B.C. Observations of the intersection between climate change and social processes in proto-historic cities offer valuable lessons about vulnerability, insecurity, and the long-term consequences of short-term strategies for coping with climate change.

  4. Dental enamel defects predict adolescent health indicators: A cohort study among the Tsimane' of Bolivia. (United States)

    Masterson, Erin E; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Conde, Esther; Hujoel, Philippe P


    Bioarchaeological findings have linked defective enamel formation in preadulthood with adult mortality. We investigated how defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood is associated with risk factors for adult morbidity and mortality in adolescents. This cohort study of 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years of age) related extent of enamel defects on the central maxillary incisors (none, less than 1/3, 1/3 to 2/3, more than 2/3) to adolescent anthropometrics (height, weight) and biomarkers (hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and blood pressure). Risk differences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple linear regression. Enamel defects and stunted growth were compared in their ability to predict adolescent health indicators using log-binomial regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Greater extent of defective enamel formation on the tooth surface was associated with shorter height (-1.35 cm, 95% CI: -2.17, -0.53), lower weight (-0.98 kg, 95% CI: -1.70, -0.26), lower hemoglobin (-0.36 g/dL, 95% CI: -0.59, -0.13), lower glycated hemoglobin (-0.04 %A 1c , 95% CI: -0.08, -0.00008), and higher white blood cell count (0.74 10 9 /L, 95% CI: 0.35, 1.14) in adolescence. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth independently performed similarly as risk factors for adverse adolescent outcomes, including anemia, prediabetes/type II diabetes, elevated WBC count, prehypertension/hypertension, and metabolic health. Defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood predicted adolescent health outcomes and may be primarily associated with infection. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth may be equally predictive of adverse adolescent health outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Autonomia outorgada e apropriação do trabalho Granted autonomy and work appropriation

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    Cinara L. Rosenfield


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir o significado da autonomia outorgada enquanto corolário organizacional de uma demanda de mobilização subjetiva. O trabalho vive a contradição entre a apologia da autonomia e uma organização do trabalho crescentemente normalizada, onde ser autônomo é a regra. O conceito de autonomia no trabalho lança mão de duas questões: a dimensão operacional e a dimensão identitária. A transformação do trabalho em um bem cuja possessão exige sacrifícios e a transformação do emprego em um privilégio culminam em uma sujeição da própria pessoa do trabalhador, sem se colocar realmente a questão da reapropriação do trabalho, o que a priori acompanharia a autonomia no trabalho. A questão central, no entanto, não pode se diluir neste paradoxo entre autonomia real e autonomia outorgada: a busca de autonomia situa-se fora da lógica econômica e dentro de uma lógica de valores e de conquista de sentido, enquanto que a autonomia outorgada inscreve-se em uma lógica instrumental.This work is aimed at debating the meaning of granted autonomy as the organizational corollary of a subjective mobilization demand. Labor in undergoing the contradiction between the eulogy to autonomy and an increasing normalized labor organization, where being autonomous is the rule. The concept of labor autonomy resorts to two issues: the operational dimension and the identity dimension. The transformation of labor into a good whose possession demands sacrifices and the transformation of the job into a privilege culminate at subjection of the worker's very person, without really raising the issue of labor re-appropriation, which a priori follows labor autonomy. The core issue, however, cannot be diluted into this paradox between real autonomy and granted autonomy: the search for autonomy is placed out of the economic logic and within a logic of values and achievement of meaning, while granted autonomy is part of an

  6. Narcissism Signs in Al-Mutanabbi’s Life

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    Full Text Available 6 / Journal (Spring Summer ( 2012 Issue 6Research in Arabic Language and Literature: Foreign Languages Faculty Research BiannualNarcissism Signs in Al-Mutanabbi’s Lifeand Fakhr (poems in which the poet exalt himself/herselfKhodadad Bahri*AbstractAl-Mutanabbi is one of the most salient Arab poets as well as one of the most effective ofthem in Arabian literature. He has composed many poems in different kinds as madh(eulogy, ratha (elegy, fakhr (glory and etc., but fakhr dominates his poetry such a waythat the reader is able to find its trace in all of his qaside (ballade, either that qaside is aboutfakhr or heja or ratha, but fakhr is specific to his poetry unlike other poets'. The poet, despitehis much devotion to fakhr, does not praise his nation and he does not abandon praisinghimself even at the time of praising the eulogists. Therefore, it is hypothesized in this studythat Al-Mutanabbi is afflicted with too much self-infatuation and pride, or as psychologistscall it, he suffers from narcissism.Early in this study, the term narcissism is investigated lexically, and then, the concept iselucidated from the psychologists’ view points. The symptoms of the narcissist people arealso counted. Then, the study mentions some of the Al-Mutanabbi’s poems which indicatenarcissism, and as evidence in this regard, the writer compares the lexical signs with thebehaviors the poet has demonstrated in his life which confirm his narcissist personality. Inaddition, through investigating Al-Mutanabbi's life and the environment where he hadgrown up in and his gifted talents, the cause of narcissism in his personality is explained.Finally, the writer concludes that there are signs of narcissism in the Al-Mutanabbi'spersonality which have revealed themselves through megalomania, diminution of people,ignoring his ancestors for glory, exaggerating difficulties, over-boasting , and anunfaithfulness to the adored.Key words: Narcissism, Fakhr, Al

  7. Comentario al libro: La desintegración estilística de la arquitectura contemporánea = Commentary on the book: La desintegración estilística de la arquitectura contemporánea

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    Antón Capitel


    Full Text Available ResumenEl texto es una lectura crítica del libro de la profesora María Teresa Muñoz. Parte del elogio del ejercicio de la teoría y se divide en las tres partes que el libro tiene.En la primera se celebra la condición insólita que entonces suponía la dedicación a la arquitectura romántica británica y estadounidense.En la segunda se glosa la atractiva cercanía del clasicismo y del Estilo Internacional, destacada por la autora, y se discute la no menos atractiva pero imprecisa tesis de una condición casi instantánea del citado Estilo.En la tercera se destaca como excesiva la visión americanista de la condición posmoderna y el cierto olvido de las posiciones estructurales del pensamiento europeo.Se celebra la decisión de publicar nuevamente esta corta pero intensa e interesante investigación.Palabras claveteoría, crítica, historia, arquitectura decimonónica, estilo internacional, arquitectura postmodernaAbstractThe text is a critical reading of the book by Professor Maria Teresa Muñoz. It starts with the theoretical exercise´s eulogy, and the book is divided in three parts.In the first it celebrates the unusual condition that supposed the old devotion to British and American Romantic architecture. In the second it glosses the attractive proximity of classicism and the International Style, emphasized by the author, and discusses the equally attractive but vague thesis of a condition almost instantly of Style.In the third it stands out an excessively American vision of the postmodern condition forgetting certain structural positions of European thought.It celebrates the decision to republish this short but intense and interesting research.Key wordstheory, critic, history, 19th_century architecture, international style, postmodern architecture

  8. “I Will Write That I no Longer Respect My Colleagues”. Parties in G.P. Fedotov’s Conflict with the Board of St. Sergius Orthodox Institute in Paris (1939

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    Anton A. Voytenko


    Full Text Available Historians, who study the history of Post-Revolutionary Russian emigration, the history of St. Sergius Orthodox Institute in Paris, and the biography of Georgy P. Fedotov, are well aware of G.P. Fedotov’s conflict with the Board of this Theological Institute in 1939. For a long time, researchers had only one basic source on these events at their disposal. It is a biographical sketch by G. Fedotov’s wife, which precedes the first volume of his article’s collection published in Ymca-Press publishing house. However, a considerable number of documents (mainly from the Bakhmetiev archive, Columbia University, USA have been published over the past several decades. They allow considering the conflict in more detail. The author of the article makes an attempt to identify parties of the conflict, their goals and objectives. From his point of view, the published documents point to the complicated nature of the conflict. It had at least two levels: 1 the conflict of G. Fedotov with rector of the Institute, Metropolitan Eulogy (Georgievsky, which was quite quickly resolved, and 2 the conflict of G. Fedotov with some members of the Board who sought his dismissal from the Institute. In contrast to the events of 1936, G. Fedotov was strongly supported by Nikolay Berdyaev and G. Fedotov’s friends from the organisation Pravoslavnoye Delo (mother Maria (Skobtsova, Fedor Pianov and others. It can be supposed with a high degree of probability that the main opponent of G. Fedotov at the Institute was Father Georges (Florovsky. In conformity with indirect data, it can also be assumed that Florovsky was supported by Anton Kartashev and Vasily Zenkovsky. Some members of the Board, father Sergius (Bulgakov, Nikolai Afanasyev, archimandrite Cassian (Bezobrazov, probably remained neutral. The position of the rest members of the Board is still unclear. However, it is clear that no one of the Board supported G. Fedotov. G. Fedotov called the deed of their colleagues

  9. Milicias y tropas negras de Buenos Aires. Afro argentinos armados para defender a sus amos

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    Marta Beatriz Golberg


    Full Text Available The city of Buenos Aires was founded, for the second time 1580 essentially as an outpost of the Spanish Empire to be protected from Indian attacks and possible foreign incursion, basically Portuguese in origin. Thus, from the beginnings of the city's founding, African slaves were used for the defense of the city. They acted in the urban militias, and were outstanding in the defense and re-conquest of the city when the English attacked in 1806- 1807. Innumerable prizes and eulogies were followed by integration of segregated divisions with a white officer corps.After 1813, a series of decrees ordered owners to exchange slaves for use in the Wars of Independence. Thus, property owners were obliged to sell to the State a number of their slaves according to the work performed by the slaves. The slaves would enter the armies as free persons and would serve five years as 'front line" soldiers in order to obtain their freedom. This article studies the participation of the Afro-Argentines in the distinct 'fronts" of the armies of liberation. The paper also reflects on the opinions of the generals who commanded Afro-Argentine troops.//La ciudad de Buenos Aires fue fundada, por segunda vez, en 1580 esencialmente como un puesto de avanzada para que los españoles se protegieran de los indígenas y de una posible incursión extranjera de origen portugués. Por lo tanto desde la fundación de la ciudad los esclavos africanos fueron empleados para su defensa. Los esclavos actuaban en milicias urbanas y sus acciones fueron decisivas para la defensa y reconquista de Buenos Aires cuando los ingleses la atacaron en 1806-1807. Innumerables premios y elogios fueron seguidos por la integración de las divisiones separadas, con un cuerpo de oficiales blancos. Después de 1813, una serie de decretos ordenaba a los dueños entregar a sus esclavos para las guerras de Independencia . De esta manera los esclavos entraron al ejército como personas libres y debían servir

  10. The idea of the perfect city in the state of prince Lazar and despotes Stefan Lazarević

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    Radojčić Svetozar


    foundations. The new wave of piety originated from the circles of educated refugee monks, who found refuge in the small palaces, where a rather complex, monastic-feudal mentality gradually formed. The palace culture of those centers had their own pious literature, where various visions of the invisible Paradise were particularly widely read. The old idea that all the righteous would attain Heaven gained a new importance and a new interpretation at the end of the XIV century. This faith in the habitation of Heaven began to be linked to buildings on earth - to cities and monasteries. The depiction of Heaven, or the Upper Jerusalem, as it was called, had already begun in Serbian painting in the mid-fourteenth century. Around 1400, however, there was an insistence on presenting how the organization of the palace was similar to the heavenly hierarchy, how the courtiers with their appearance looked like the inhabitants of Paradise, and how the building the royal court erected resembled the heavenly houses of the 'New Jerusalem'. Such descriptions about the resemblance to the dwellings of Heaven were very frequent in Serbian literature of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries. Prince Lazar resorted with increasing frequency to creating buildings according to the image of the 'Upper Jerusalem', especially the monastery of Ravanica. Andonije Epaktit gave the most exhaustive account of Ravanica-Jerusalem: Ravanica was the 'dwelling of God' and the 'door to Heaven', it had seven pinnacles or pyrgoi, and accordingly, it was similar to Jerusalem, Rome and Constantinople, and it was inhabited by monk-angels. Constantme the Philosopher wrote in a similar vein. His magnificent description of Belgrade as Jerusalem in the Life of Despotes Stefan Lazarević falls among the most important eulogies of the cities in Byzantine culture. And Belgrade - like Jerusalem, Rome and Constantinople - has 'seven pinnacles'. It resembles both the 'lower' and the 'higher' Jerusalem; so as to

  11. 2H Stable Isotope Analysis of Tooth Enamel: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Holobinko, Anastasia; Kemp, Helen; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Prowse, Tracy; Ford, Susan


    Stable isotope analysis of biogenic tissues such as tooth enamel and bone mineral has become a well recognized and increasingly important method for determining provenance of human remains, and has been used successfully in bioarchaeological studies as well as forensic investigations (Lee-Thorp, 2008; Meier-Augenstein and Fraser, 2008). Particularly, 18O and 2H stable isotopes are well established proxies as environmental indicators of climate (temperature) and source water and are therefore considered as indicators of geographic life trajectories of animals and humans (Hobson et al., 2004; Schwarcz and Walker, 2006). While methodology for 2H analysis of human hair, fingernails, and bone collagen is currently used to determine geographic origin and identify possible migration patterns, studies involving the analysis of 2H in tooth enamel appear to be nonexistent in the scientific literature. The apparent lack of research in this area is believed to have two main reasons. (1) Compared to the mineral calcium hydroxylapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, in tooth enamel forming bio-apatite carbonate ions replace some of the hydroxyl ions at a rate of one CO32 replacing two OH, yet published figures for the degree of substitution vary (Wopenka and Pasteris, 2005). (2) Most probably due to the aforementioned no published protocols exist for sample preparation and analytical method to obtain δ2H-values from the hydroxyl fraction of tooth enamel. This dilemma has been addressed through a pilot study to establish feasibility of 2H stable isotope analysis of ground tooth enamel by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled on-line to a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer (TC/EA). An array of archaeological and modern teeth has been analyzed under different experimental conditions, and results from this pilot study are being presented. References: Lee-Thorp, J.A. (2008) Archaeometry, 50, 925-950 Meier-Augenstein, W. and Fraser, I. (2008) Science & Justice

  12. The rock-cut tomb of Bolores (Torres Vedras: an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the social landscape of the Late Neolithic/Copper Age of the Iberian Peninsula

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    Lillios, Katina T.


    Full Text Available To better understand the sociopolitical landscape of the Portuguese Estremadura during the Late Neolithic/Copper Age, interdisciplinary excavations were conducted at Bolores (Torres Vedras, in the Sizandro River Valley. Following a test season in 1986, a University of Iowa team conducted four campaigns between 2007 and 2012. Bolores is a rock-cut tomb used primarily between 2800-2600 cal BC for the burial of adults, adolescents, and children (MNI=36. The architectural, material cultural, and bioarchaeological evidence suggests that Bolores housed the remains of a distinctive group of local individuals who marked their difference from other burial populations in the Sizandro and Estremadura through material culture and tomb architecture. Social differences were denoted spatially and through offerings of material goods. No social stratification is evident, however, that would suggest a state-level society: there are no wealthy child burials and no significant health or dietary disparities within this population or between it and others in the region.Para comprender mejor el paisaje sociopolítico de la Extremadura portuguesa durante el Neolítico Final/Edad del Cobre se han llevado a cabo excavaciones interdisciplinares en Bolores (Torres Vedras, en el valle del río Sizandro. Tras una campaña de prueba en 1986, un equipo de la Universidad de Iowa realizó cuatro campañas entre 2007 y 2012. Bolores es una tumba hipogea que fue utilizada principalmente entre 2800 y 2600 cal BCE como enterramiento colectivo para adultos, adolescentes y niños (NMI=36. Los datos arquitectónicos, bioarqueológicos y de cultura material analizados hasta la fecha sugieren que Bolores albergó los restos de un grupo social distintivo compuesto de individuos locales que marcaban sus diferencias con otras poblaciones funerarias del Sizandro y Extremadura portuguesa mediante la cultura material y la arquitectura funeraria. Las diferencias sociales en la población de

  13. Scientific activity of the National Center for Archaeological Studies of the Institute of History, Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, in 2013

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    Sitdikov Ayrat G.


    Full Text Available The work of the National Center for Archaeological Studies named after A.Sh. Khalikov with the Institute of History named after Sh Mardjani of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (NCAS in 2013 was conducted within three Departments: prehistoric and medieval archaeology, conservation studies, and a bioarchaeological laboratory. The basic problems were: “Archaeology of the ancient population of the Volga-Kama: the formation and interaction of cultures”; “Medieval Turkic-Tatar civilization: the emergence, development, interaction with the peoples of Eurasia”; “Anthropology and genetics of the ancient population of the Middle Volga region”. Within the project on “Geographic information systems of Tatarstan archaeological heritage”, preparatory works for monitoring of the condition of cultural heritage objects located in the Kuibyshev and Nizhnekamsk reservoirs zones of influence were conducted. Archaeological fieldwork was conducted in the framework of the Primitive, Early Bulgar, Kazan, Bulgar, Lower Volga, Sviyazhsk archaeological expeditions and Preservation and salvation expedition in the area of Nizhnekamsk and Kuibyshev reservoirs. Beyond the Republic of Tatarstan, exploratory research was conducted in the territory of the Chuvash and Mordovian republics, Ulyanovsk and Samara Oblasts. The study of monuments in the Lower Volga region continued in collaboration with colleagues from the Astrakhan Oblast and the Republic of Mari El. Joint international archaeological research was carried out in the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria and Ukraine. 5 conferences were organized, including 4 international ones. The NCAS staff participated in 16 conferences, including 11 international ones. 2 Doctor habilitatus and 3 Doctor’s theses were defended. 5 collections of articles and theses, and 4 issues of the “Privolzhskaya arkheologiya” (Volga region archaeology were published. The NCAS staff prepared 216

  14. Research activity by National Center of Archaeological studies of Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences in 2013

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    Sitdikov Ayrat G.


    Full Text Available The work of the National Center for Archaeological Studies named after A.Sh. Khalikov with the Institute of History named after Sh Mardjani of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (NCAS in 2013 was conducted within three Departments: prehistoric and medieval archaeology, conservation studies, and a bioarchaeological laboratory. The basic problems were: “Archaeology of the ancient population of the Volga-Kama: the formation and interaction of cultures”; “Medieval Turkic-Tatar civilization: the emergence, development, interaction with the peoples of Eurasia”; “Anthropology and genetics of the ancient population of the Middle Volga region”. Within the project on “Geographic information systems of Tatarstan archaeological heritage”, preparatory works for monitoring of the condition of cultural heritage objects located in the Kuibyshev and Nizhnekamsk reservoirs zones of influence were conducted. Archaeological fieldwork was conducted in the framework of the Primitive, Early Bulgar, Kazan, Bulgar, Lower Volga, Sviyazhsk archaeological expeditions and Preservation and salvation expedition in the area of Nizhnekamsk and Kuibyshev reservoirs. Beyond the Republic of Tatarstan, exploratory research was conducted in the territory of the Chuvash and Mordovian republics, Ulyanovsk and Samara Oblasts. The study of monuments in the Lower Volga region continued in collaboration with colleagues from the Astrakhan Oblast and the Republic of Mari El. Joint international archaeological research was carried out in the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria and Ukraine. 5 conferences were organized, including 4 international ones. The NCAS staff participated in 16 conferences, including 11 international ones. 2 Doctor habilitatus and 3 Doctor’s theses were defended. 5 collections of articles and theses, and 4 issues of the “Privolzhskaya arkheologiya” (Volga region archaeology were published. The NCAS staff prepared 216

  15. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  16. Identity and the Hegemony of Universal Human Rights

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    Tony Evans


    Full Text Available Human rights are commonly portrayed as a narrative that passes through several chapters before reaching its inevitable conclusion. This narrative begins with the horror of Nazism, moves to the centrality of human rights in the UN Charter, eulogizes the Universal Declaration, celebrates the achievements of standard setting as set out in the major covenants, offers detailed analysis of methods of monitoring and, finally, speculates on the future of compliance. This narrative is sustained, firstly, by ‘naturalist’ foundationalism and, secondly, by a widely held assumptions about the move towards ‘settled norms’ in the contemporary world order. Although some pessimism is voiced over continued reports of torture, genocide, structural economic deprivation, disappearances, ethnic cleansing, political prisoners, the suppression of trade union rights, gender inequality, religious persecution, and many other violations of internationally agreed human rights, most commentators and activists tacitly adopt an optimistic stance that envisages a future rights based international order. The still prevalent naturalist account of human rights, together with a narrative that boasts ‘settled norms’, suggests that the human rights regime represents a final ‘truth’ about the essential nature of all humankind; a common identity that describes the individual in an increasingly globalized world. This paper interrogates the ‘naturalist-settled norm’ account of human rights from the perspective of power and knowledge. It begins by distinguishing between the international human rights regime and the global discourse of human rights. The former adopts a legal approach, where the neutral, value-free, unbiased and impartial nature of the law is tacitly accepted. The latter refers to human rights as social, political and economic practice, and must therefore include an account of power. From this perspective, the discourse of human rights might be said to

  17. O elogio de si e a desmedida antropologização das ciências humanas Self-praise and the inordinate anthropologization of human sciences

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    Marcos Villela Pereira


    knowledge, in the same proportion that metaphysics was transmuted into metaphysics of subjectivity, and language acquired ontological prestige. Along these lines, a large share of the projects of criticism to classical science was erected, conferring pride of place to language as the manufacturer of reality. There was even mention of a linguistic turn, a prime argument of critique to the metanarratives and eulogy of the fragmentary and relativist regimes of truth. Still, to assume that truth is a discursive effect, and that reality by itself is the outcome of a production, is not enough. It is also important to examine this regime that turned language into the expression of knowledge and of the conscience of the world. Man has become the measure of knowledge.

  18. Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult

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    Popović Danica


    Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church (1375-78 and 1389-92, is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions. The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit. Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times. Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about 1347, came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created. Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the

  19. Композитите като маркери за святост в „Похвална беседа за софийските мъченици“ от XVI в.

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    Марияна [Mariiana] Цибранска-Костова [TSibranska-Kostova


    Full Text Available Composita as marks of holiness in the sixteenth‑century Eulogy for the Sofia Martyrs The article presents preliminary observations concerning the excerpts from the Book of Jeremiah in the Archival Chronograph (fifteenth century and Vilno Chronograph (sixteenth century. According to their content, localization and linguistic characteristics, they fall into two main groups. Some of the excerpts are identified as chapters from the Slavic Prophetologion and are connected with the translation made by Cyril and Methodius. Other chapters, which are not included in the Cyrillic and Glagolitic liturgical books, belong to the first, probably untranslated or now lost, part of the Book of Jeremiah. The excerpts that cannot be found in the Prophetologion also have archaic linguistic bases, connected to the translational techniques characteristic of the Cyrillo-Methodian translations, and differ considerably from the translation with commentaries that was made in Preslav. Whether these excerpts belong to an independent earlier translation, made by Methodius and his co-workers, or they are extracts from encyclopaedic miscellany, they provide valuable material for the study of this biblical book and of the Old Bulgarian translation of the Old Testament.   Złożenia jako znaki świętości w szesnastowiecznej Eulogii męczenników Sofii Artykuł prezentuje wstępne obserwacje na temat fragmentów Księgi Jeremiasza, znajdujących się w zbiorach Archival Chronograph (XV wiek i Vilno Chronograph (XVI wiek. Zgodnie z ich zawartością, miejscem powstania i cechami językowymi wchodzą one w skład dwóch głównych grup. Niektóre fragmenty są rozpoznane jako rozdziały słowiańskiego parimejnika i są związane z przekładem autorstwa śś. Cyryla i Metodego. Inne rozdziały, które nie weszły w skład cyrylickich i głagolickich ksiąg liturgicznych, należą do pierwszej, prawdopodobnie nieprzetłumaczonej lub zaginionej, części Księgi Jeremiasza

  20. Múltiples líneas de evidencias aplicadas al estudio de un individuo prehispánico. Sitio Rancho José (Buenos Aires / Multiple lines of evidence applied to the study of a prehispanic individual. Rancho Jose site, Buenos Aires province

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    Florencia Rizzo


    water action exposed and removed various types of archaeological materials. The excavation carried out on six profiles located on the edge of the rift made it possible to determine that the finds were deposited during a single occupation event. In profile 5 the skeletal remains representing the upper portion of the skeleton of an adult individual dated in 1900±20 years BP were recovered. The taphonomic agents that could have altered the finding conditions and its associated materials were considered first. Bones sex determination and age estimation was performed and various bone and dental pathologies were examined. This information was supplemented with data from ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, stable isotopes (13C and 15N, and the identification of plant microremains in dental tartar. Although these are highly fragmented remains, the individual has retained its whole masticatory system and its analysis from different research perspectives is of interest for comparison with other individuals, both from contemporaneous sites in the surrounding area of discovery and from post-hispanic times. To that end, isotopic data from two individuals from the Cementerio Indigena site are also presented. Keywords: somatotype septentrional lowlands; bioarchaeology; taphonomy; mtDNA; stable isotopes

  1. Yeninin İçinde Eski: Tanzimat Dönemi Romanlarına Divan Şiirinin Yansıması The Past Of İn The New: Reflection The Divan Poetry Of The Tanzimat Period Novels

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    Nilüfer İLHAN


    Full Text Available Tanzimat, known as the period in which the Otoman Empire acknowledged the superiority of the West civilization which is a new civilization circle, constitutes a milestone in the occurance of radical changes in political, social and literal field. The intellectuals of the period, while trying to implement the values of the new civilization in public life, started this task with either a dualist attitude or aconfrontation in general. It is possible to say that the confrontation inliteral field began with Divan poetry and new literal conception was putforward by criticizing this poetry. It was suggested, with the help ofvarios genres, that Divan poetry with its exaggarated narration,pompous language and cautious standing towards telling social issueswould not be able to respond to the new life style. This criticizm wasembodied in novel which showed its presence in public life throughtranslations from the West with Tanzimat and which was thought asthe interpreter of the new life style; how Divan poetry was perceived inthe new was shown. Namık Kemal being the prominent, other Tanzimatartists not only formed partnerships with such Divan literature genresas mesnevi, eulogy and ode but they also applied new narrativetechniques which were absent in these genres. By this way Divan poetryhad a place in the new both as a part of a tradition and as products ofcritical minds towards the tradition.In this work, after the views of Tanzimat artists about Divanpoetry who supported narrating society’s truths in a plain languagewere revealed, answer was seeked to how these views were reflected innovels. Osmanlı devletinin yeni bir medeniyet dairesi olan Batı medeniyetinin üstünlüğünü kabul ettiği dönem olarak bilinen Tanzimat; siyasî, sosyal ve edebî sahada köklü değişikliklerin yaşanmasında bir miladı oluşturur. Dönemin aydınları da yeni medeniyetin değerlerini toplum yaşamında uygulamaya çalışırlarken genellikle ya bir d

  2. The study of allusion and adapted Qur'anic and Hadith themes in Amir Khosrow Dehlawi’s "Noh Sepehr Mathnavi (Mathnavi of the Nine Skies"

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    Omidvar Alimahmoudi


    Sepehr Mathnavi in 718 (of the lunar calendar in nine Sepehr (skies, each of which was different in meter from other skies, in the name of Qutubuddin Mubarak ibn Alla od-Din Khilji known as Qutb od-Din Mubarak Shah – the last of the Khilji dynasty. While writing delicate lines, he has praised the Lord and eulogized the Holy Prophet (PBUH and, at the same time, he has reported certain historical occurrences and battles in the work.   4-The ways Noh Sepehr Mathnavi is influenced by Qur'anic allusions and Hadith Nabawi 4-1. Direct influence: in the sense that the poet has cited all or part of a verse in his poem in the form of a line or couplet with an alteration, for example: His flag is soaring over the cloud   *   In the help of God for victory he’s clad   (Noh Sepehr “When comes the help of God, and victory” (An-Nasr, 1 He who names himself a shepherd   *   He ought to keep an eye on the sheep The prophet’s Hadith: “All of you are play the role of a shepherd to each other and are responsible. You will be questioned about this. A sovereign plays the same role toward his subjects and is responsible to them” (Foruzanfar, 2006. 4-2. Indirect influence: every now and then, the poet has used the gist of a verse in his poem. The cumbered accounts best suits thrones   *   Reckoned as clean is the book of the good (ibid “But as for him who is given his book in his left hand, he shall say, 'Would that I had not been given my book * and not known my reckoning!” (Al-Haqqa, 25-26 4-3. Association of meanings: Sometimes, the poet expresses his words in a way that the diction associates with Qur'anic allusions and Hadith Nabawi though he does not intend any allusion or adaptation. The fire struck from the rocks thereupon   *   Created stars as if from the new moon (ibid By the snorting chargers, * by the strikers of fire (Al-'adiat, 1-2   5- Conclusion On reading Noh Sepehr Mathnavi, one might consider Amir Khusro Dehlawi a poet interested

  3. The analysis of Azizi’s style in the “A glass of hot Shath”

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    Behjatosadat Hejazi


    Full Text Available One of the illustrious proses in eightieth decade is “A glass of hot Shat’h” belonging to Ahmad Azizi, which he writes to an ironic style and a blame and plain of idiotism of people of this period. Azizi’s art is in diction and apparition in the most wisdom circle for narrating altitude and bent of social life and encounter of multiple discourses. A blend of deep concepts, philosophy, mystic and wisdom, with words, structure and slangy comments show a kind of congruity with Hindi style in this book. Whilst dominant style of him is ironic that divides to two kinds: fine, wise and slangy. Contraptions and style illustrious because of language, literary and mental and contra, distinguish his style from other writers. And one of the contraptions style of him is inter stream circulation of mind of space of story to prose different with story the language of Azizi in the parts of this book is scare, glassy and biting and the other parts is benign, quieter and exciter interior literate. Apparently irony have been used equipollent with some words like quip, allegory, derision, jape, raillery, curvet, bamboozlement; while all of these are and none of them aren’t. The ironic style in this book of Azizi isn’t ever in concept that Greeks have used, rather base on the difintion of Romans, it is a kind of evasion with extra literary value. Mike divided irony two kinds: behavior and position. Irony that is cognizant ironist would be called generally as verbal irony but because ironist can use of other appliances other than language, it would be better that we name it behavior irony. And other position irony or ironic event that hasn’t ironist but always has a prey and an intendant. So if divide to three kind; language, behavior and position’s irony; absolutely is more advised. Verbal irony also can be defined to two forms: 1-dictions or sentences in which author or poet uses arts like metaphor, eulogy. On the basis of one generic definition

  4. Modifying the explanation of Anvari Abivardi’s literary theory

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    Fatemeh Hakima


      2- Composing in any literary style   3- Composing in all prosody meters   4- Proper use of rhyme   They are the most important criteria according to which the poetry capability of a poet is measured , In his view, the poet can benefit from techniques which make poetry more musical in order to be more effective, Including the use of a narrator that reflects that music promotes the rhetorical aspect of a work of art. Anvari believed that composing Ghazals is rooted in lust , eulogy is rooted in greed and epigram comes from wrath. His goal of writing poetry was to make a living out of it , and in this way he attributes the worst labels to poetry, Of course, it depends on the level of reward which the appraised person bestows that sometimes it was timely and exactly the amount which the poet wanted, but sometimes he was given little reward or even no reward. As a result of the degree of magnitude of the poetry from his perspective swings according to whether the poet received a reward. Finally Anvari believed that as long as a poem is written for noble objectives including praisi ng religious figures, it is the the result of divine inspiration and approval and it is a twin of wisdom and it is the best benignity of God towards people. He is fascinated by this kind of poetry . The ultimate aim of art is to affect hearts, its reader revel in it and it sticks to memories and it would not be removed from minds and language after artist's death. Anvari art is no exception to this, too. Anvari poems were renowned among friends, poets and intellectuals in his life time and long after his death. Some of his couplets are still etched in memories which show his poetry power and skills. Anvari interpreted taste, mind, science , and art as poetry tools ; as a result he considered poetry as a simultaneous try and ebullition, he studied the divans of poets and writers contemporary with him , and before that. He is aware of all the principles of prosody and rhyme ; he had an

  5. Modifying the explanation of Anvari Abivardi’s literary theory

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    Fatemeh Hakima


    style   3- Composing in all prosody meters   4- Proper use of rhyme   They are the most important criteria according to which the poetry capability of a poet is measured , In his view, the poet can benefit from techniques which make poetry more musical in order to be more effective, Including the use of a narrator that reflects that music promotes the rhetorical aspect of a work of art. Anvari believed that composing Ghazals is rooted in lust , eulogy is rooted in greed and epigram comes from wrath. His goal of writing poetry was to make a living out of it , and in this way he attributes the worst labels to poetry, Of course, it depends on the level of reward which the appraised person bestows that sometimes it was timely and exactly the amount which the poet wanted, but sometimes he was given little reward or even no reward. As a result of the degree of magnitude of the poetry from his perspective swings according to whether the poet received a reward. Finally Anvari believed that as long as a poem is written for noble objectives including praisi ng religious figures, it is the the result of divine inspiration and approval and it is a twin of wisdom and it is the best benignity of God towards people. He is fascinated by this kind of poetry . The ultimate aim of art is to affect hearts, its reader revel in it and it sticks to memories and it would not be removed from minds and language after artist's death. Anvari art is no exception to this, too. Anvari poems were renowned among friends, poets and intellectuals in his life time and long after his death. Some of his couplets are still etched in memories which show his poetry power and skills. Anvari interpreted taste, mind, science , and art as poetry tools ; as a result he considered poetry as a simultaneous try and ebullition, he studied the divans of poets and writers contemporary with him , and before that. He is aware of all the principles of prosody and rhyme ; he had an honor not to commit plagiarizing former

  6. Una nueva sepultura del grupo Cogotas I en “El Juncal” (Villaralbo, Zamora

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    tratamiento estadístico de conjunto.ABSTRACT: Burial practices of the Bronze Age societies in the Iberian Meseta (Cogotas I culture are still poorly known due to scarcity of archaeological evidence. A newly-found tomb of this period discovered at Villaralbo (prov. Zamora, Spain is presented here. The research procedure carried out to study this archaeological site has turned out to be very successful. Therefore other tombs of the same period should be looked at using the same research protocol. In this site, one of many “pit sites” of the regional Calcolithic and Bronze Age, abundant underground structures containing pottery sherds and faunal bones have been found, one of which contained a primary burial of individual inhumation. Those pits seem to belong, in view of the content of their filling materials, at least to three different moments, reason why the filling of the funeral pit has been carefully considered, being able to be dated in the Protocogotas phase (Middle Bronze Age, chronology that has been corroborated with a radiocarbon dating (3335 ± 35 BP. As part of the working protocol that we have been applying to all the human remains of this archaeological culture included in our Research Project, this skeleton has been studied from a bioarchaeological approach, seeking to establish not only the circumstances of the interment, that it seems to have been protected by a covering element, but also the anthropological traits of the individual, a subadult, of about a 17-19 years, whose remains do not reflect neither injuries, nor pathological deficiencies or processes; in addition, samples for isotopic and DNA analyses have been collected. The lack of grave goods in this tomb agrees with the predominant pattern in the Protocogotas phase tombs, whereas the lateral decubitus of a male on the left side moves away of a supposed characteristic tendency that seemed to be emerging, but that it will have to wait for a statistical treatment in depth.

  7. Different Types of Fantastic Etiology in Hafez Poetry

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    Ghodrat Ghasemipour


    : Setare. Attar Nishabori, Farid od-Din (2000. Mohammad Reza Shafie Kadkani ( emend ., 5rd ed. Tehran: Sokan. Chalisova, Natalia (2004. Encyclopedia of Iranica. Last Updated: December 15. Farshidvard, Khosrow (1975. Conjugating of simile with another factors in Hafez poetry. Gowhar, No 18, 535-541. Ferdowsi, Abolghasem (2001. Shahname (Moscow Press. Saeed Hamidiyan (emend. 2nd Vol. 5rd ed. Tehran: Ghatreh. Forster, Edward Morgan (1974. Aspects of the Novel. Harmondswort: Penguin. Gharib Hoseini, Zahra and Mohammad Sadegh Basiri (2009. Techniques of usages of fantastic etiology in Anvari' Ghasayed. Kavoshname, 9th year, No 16, 65-97. Hafez, Khajeh Shams od-Din (1984. Hafez Divan. Parviz Natel Khanlari (emend.. 2rd ed. Tehran: Kharazmi. Heravi, Hoseinali (1977. Commentary of Hafez' Gazals. 4rd ed. Tehran: Simorgh. Homaei, Jalalodin (1989. Techniques of Rhetoric and Literary devices. 5rd ed. Tehran: Homa. Hoseini Nishabori, Ataola ibn Mahmoud (2006. Badaye alsanaye. Rahim Mosalmanian Ghobadiyani, Tehran: Institution of Mahmoud Afshar endowment s. Jacobson, Roman (2013. Dominant, in Mohammad Reza Shafi’ee Kadkani (trans. Resurrect of Words. Tehran: Sokan. Khabazha, Reza (2013 The Function of fantastic etiology in the structure of themes digression to eulogy. Monthly Book of Literature. No 73, 43-48. Mikics, David, (2007, A New Handbook of Literary Terms, Yale University Press, New Haven & London. Mohamadi Asiyabadi, Ali (2007. Projection and characterization in Hafez poetry. University of Tarbiyat Moalem, No 52 &53, p 111-134. Motahari, Morteza (1991. Lessons of Shafa Theology. Tehran: Hekmat. Radowyani, Mohammad ibn Omar (2002. Tarjoman e Balaghat. Ahmad Atash ( emend ., Tehran: Society of National Honor & Works. Shamisa, Sirus (2003. A New Glance on Rhetoric. 14rd ed. , Tehran: Ferdows. Shams Ololama Gorgani, Mohammad Hosein (1999. Ada ol-Badaye. Hosein Jafari ( emend ., Tabriz: Ahrar. Shams Ololama Gorgani, Mohammad Hosein (1999. Spring Clusters in Rhetoric. Morteza

  8. Editorial: A dedication to Professor Jan Evetts (United States)

    Weber, Harald; Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Barber, Zoe; Somekh, Rob; Glowacki, Bartek


    achievements one can do no better than to quote in full the eulogy delivered by Professor Archie Campbell at Jan's funeral service. `In 1962 I was given a studentship in the Metallurgy Department to work for a PhD under David Dew-Hughes on the subject of superconductivity, and told another student would be someone called `Jan Evetts'. I little realised this would be the start of not only a scientific collaboration but also a personal friendship which would last until now, 43 years later. It quickly became clear that Evetts was not a singular noun but came with a whole family, Hilda and her six children who worked together as a very successful team. While Jan was a research student the family built a complete new block at the Mill House and rewired the whole place. As a result I was given the confidence and expertise to take on major DIY projects which I would never have done without Jan's help. In the lab his sister Sara helped us put up one inch copper piping with soldered Yorkshire fittings and his brother Dee is responsible for large amounts of woodwork in our house. However, there will be many who can testify to the success of the Evetts family, as a family. What I want to do is make clear what a wonderful scientist he was, and after his family, his priority was his scientific work. This was an astonishing combination of administrative skill, long term planning, manipulation of the University system and high quality research at the top international level. Five of his group obtained permanent positions in the Metallurgy Department, a unique achievement in my experience. He built up the largest superconductivity group in the UK, expanded to other areas, and there are many scientists all over the world, as well as many in Cambridge, who owe their careers to Jan. I have had messages from most of the top scientists in the field in many countries saying how much he achieved and how much he will be missed. However, what I am sure he would wish to be remembered for is the high

  9. Les manuscrits arabes et ajami au Cameroun: état des lieux et approche codicologique

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    Hamadou Adama


    يمقراطية، وكان تضافر هذه العوامل قد أعطى فرصة  لإقامة ممالك وإمارات، كما ساعد ذلك على تكوين جذور راسخة قائمة على  الدبلوماسية،فالتعبير بالسودان، ليقع على البقعة من الأرض الممتدة حتى الإفريقية الغربية. فأخذوا المداد والقلم  من المواد المتوفرة محليا، وكان البحث في يتناول المواضيع السهلة والبسيطة، وقليل جدا من المخطوطات تم  جمعها وحصره حاليا، ولا شك أن نقص الكفاءات والخبرات في المجال يعد من أكبر التحديات التي تواجهها، وأن اطلاع الشباب الباحثين لهذه المصادر النادرة في تاريخ الكاميرون يظل من الأمور التي يجب تشجيعها.



    Arabic and ajami manuscripts have been written in Cameroon since the mid eighteenth century. They resulted from a combination of initiatives from Islamic proselytisers and commercial activity (mostly initiated by the migrant populations from West Africa. Muslim traders contributed to the popularisation of the Italian paper tre lune while the itinerant scholars actively promoted the rising and democratization of Islamic knowledge. The combination of these factors contributed to the creation of royal chancelleries containing documents of many different types such as chronicles, diplomatic letters and poetic eulogies. The commonly used sûdânî style is close to to the calligraphic norms developed in Sudanic Africa. Both ink and pens were made from local materials. Today, research in this domain is just starting and very few manuscripts have been catalogued so far. Hampered by a lack of skills in reading Arabic writing, the rediscovery of these original primary sources of Cameroonian history by the

  10. Flower symbolism and the cult of relics in medieval Serbia

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    Popović Danica


    cult of their father Nemanja (in monkhood Simeon, the founder of the dynasty. It is quite understandable, then, that the motif of vine with its offshoots, blossoms and fruit became an element of royal ideology in the early days of the medieval Serbian state. Namely, the metaphorical likening of Nemanja's dynasty to a vine laid an emphasis on the idea of dynastic divine election and sanctity. It is already the Service to St Simeon that uses the habitual paraphrase of Psalm 92,12-14 about the flourishing palm tree and Lebanese cedar, but in a distinctive context: their growth and flourishing refers to the growth of Simeon's 'children', which is to say the dynasty and the 'fatherland'. The idea of life-giving growth and thriving is illustrated by other epithets ascribed to Simeon, such as a 'fruit-bearing vine', 'wonderful heaven', a 'flower of faith in the heavenly vineyard', and so on. It should be emphasized that the authors of the eulogies of Simeon, his sons Stefan and Sava, were well-acquainted with the concept of the monastic desert, epitomized by Mount Athos whose attributes are blossoming, fragrance and illumination. Subsequent Serbian writers also made ample use of the idea of the miraculous blossoming and transformation of matter, especially in paraphrasing Psalm 92,12-14. Their paraphrases are never identical, however; on the contrary, the emphasis varies both in substance and in function. Apart from 'ideological' messages about the flourishing dynasty and state, the verses of this psalm are usually used to refer to piety and a virtuous life. It probably is not a coincidence that such references frequently occur in the eulogies to the sainted heads of the Serbian Church, but also to distinguished ascetics. Thus St Sava, 'like a good-smelling lily, is saturated with scents of piety', archbishop Nikodemos [Nikodim] blossoms like a 'fine-growing palm tree', and patriarch Ephrem [Jefrem] 'blossoms offering spiritual gifts'. The virtue attained by two distinguished

  11. “Lisân-I Osmânî” Üzerine Bir İnceleme A Surveying of Book Called Lisân-ı Osmânî

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    Onur AKBAŞ


    Full Text Available You know Ali Ekrem Bolayır was the son of Namık Kemal. He was Poet and writer. (b. 1867, İstanbul - d. 27 August 1937.. He sometimes used A. Nadir and İlhâm as pen names in his poems. He was educated by a tutor during his father’s official service on Rhodes (1884 and on the island of Chios (1887. During the reign of Abdülhamid II, he served as the clerk to the chamberlain until he became the Administrator of Jerusalem (1888-1905. Later he served as the Governor of Beirut and the Mediterranean Islands Province, as a professor of text interpretation at İstanbul University (1913-1933 and as a teacher at Galatasaray High School. In the last years of his life he struggled to make a living. When he became ill, he was treated by the famous physician, Mazhar Osman. His grave is in Zincirlikuyu, İstanbul.Ali Ekrem, whose first poem was published in Resimli Gazete, became famous for his poems published in the review Servet-i Fünun in 1896. As he disagreed with Tevfik Fikret, sometimes he wrote for the review Musavver Malumat, which had opposing opinions to those of the Scientific Wealth Movement. He was banned from writing until 1908. He acquired a great reputation with his poem Vasiyet (Testament inspired by the Greek War of 1897. He wrote epic poems during World War I and the National Struggle. He was one of the first poets to try the syllabic meter but his poems never passed an average level. He also produced work in the areas of theatre, literature and history.WORKS:POETRY: Zilal-i İlham (Inspiration of the Humbled, 1908, Kaside-i Askeriye (Military Eulogy, 1908, Kırmızı Fesler (The Red Fezzes, 1908, Ruh-i Kemal (The Spirit of Maturity, 1909, Ordunun Defteri (The Inventory of the Army, verse and prose, 1918, Anavatan (Motherland, 1921, Vicdan Alevleri (The Flames of Conscience, 1925, Şiir Demeti (Bundle of Poems, 1925.PLAY: Baria (Perfect, 1908, Sultan Selim (Sultan Selim, serialized, 1910, Sükût (The Silence, serialized, 1919, Mama

  12. Estado absoluto e ensino das primeiras letras: as escolas régias (1772-1794, na tese de Áurea Adão (1997 - Absolutist state and alphabetization classes: escolas régias (1772-1794, as postulates Áurea Adão (1997

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    Maria Juraci Maia Cavalcante


    -chave: história da educação; aulas régias; Aurea Adão.   ABSOLUTIST STATE AND ALPHABETIZATION CLASSES: ESCOLAS RÉGIAS (1772-1794, AS POSTULATES ÁUREA ADÃO (1997 Abstract The study of Aurea Adão regarding the “aulas régias”, which were instituted by pombalina reform in the second half of the XVIII century, presented in this study is part of a larger research about the Portuguese Educational History. The object of that study has too many qualities which make clear why it was so relevantly considered among many other findings in that historiography, either for treating history as a trade, taking into consideration its methodologies, which can be shown by the way documental sources and gaps are dealt with, or for the author’s prudence in the explanations and evaluations about the meaning of the Pombal Reform and its developments in the Reign of D. Maria, regarding elementary school, and in the confrontation with the consulted historiography. The position of the author, as a historian, shows a steady balance when she tries to understand the influence received by the reform in the ideological and political environment of Illuminist Europe, avoiding ideological judgments, which produce clear eulogy or unfounded critics. If we look at it form the perspective of time, her study, although centered in a short period of time, is clearly supported on a strategy to look both at the past and future, which allows her to reconstruct the Pombalina reform from the confrontation between what was happening before it and its future dynamic in the Reign of D. José. She examined the school structure where the reform originated and what happened with the end of the carrier of Pombal Minister, recreating the past/present/future as a place to be observed in history, avoiding the linear-chronological narrative, usually observed in studies of educational history that are based on official documents and archives. Keywords: history of education; aulas régias; Aurea Adão.   ESTADO