Sample records for eulau eulogy bioarchaeological

  1. Resume, Eulogy, Education and Future (United States)

    Demšar, A.; Aneja, A.


    Will the current trend of the Industrial Age, focused on profits, greed, material wealth, and mass consumption continue? Inequality and polarization, which are seen in today’s world, are ranked as the top drivers of global risks. Unequal community threatens democracy. Communities with greater inequality are more violent, have more people in prisons, more mental illness, lower life expectancy etc.. On the other hand, communities with greater equality have higher abundance and lower stress. Among eleven factors most important for classroom learning, social and emotional factors accounted for eight. Our emotional and social IQ developed over millennia of living in groups will continue to be one of the vital assets that give human workers necessary tools for creating and building a world of 21st century. Today’s education system is based on the model which was essential for industrial era and mass production. With fast technological development the approach to teaching should be changed. We need new curriculums for new skills and new learning concepts. The aim of the article is to raise awareness regarding the planet’s and mankind’s future and to stress the importance of education and designation between résumé virtues and the eulogy virtues.

  2. Bones, Bodies, and Blogs: Outreach and Engagement in Bioarchaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Meyers Emery


    Full Text Available Surprisingly few bioarchaeology blogs currently exist, but their numbers belie their reach. In this article, we survey the ecology of the bioarchaeology blogosphere and address the impact of blogging in bioarchaeology, specifically addressing its utility in outreach and public engagement. In providing specific examples from our collective decade of blogging and from other bioarchaeology bloggers, we provide best practices to encourage bioarchaeologists who may want to add their voices to this sphere. The difficulties and potential issues of blogging bioarchaeology are far outweighed by the benefits of expanding communication and furthering disciplinary engagement in an increasingly digital world. We call on bioarchaeologists to be protagonists and advocates of our discipline.

  3. Engaging bodies in the public imagination: bioarchaeology as social science, science, and humanities. (United States)

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Duncan, William N


    Bioarchaeology is the contextual analysis of biological remains from past societies. It is a young and growing discipline born during the latter half of the twentieth century from its roots in physical anthropology and archaeology. Although often associated with the study of ancient diet and disease, bioarchaeology leverages variable temporal scales and its global scope to provide a uniquely comparative perspective on human life that transcends traditional boundaries of the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Here, we explore the public face of bioarchaeology and consider the trends in publication practices that reflect diversifying research strategies. Bioarchaeology is a popular topic on web-based science news aggregators. However, we identify a disconnect between bioarchaeology's traditional research emphases, emerging research foci, and findings that actually spark the public imagination. A majority of popular news articles emphasize basic discovery or "natural curiosities." Publication data indicate the field also remains regionally focused with relatively little emphasis on nomothetic goals. Nevertheless, bioarchaeology can do more to leverage its historical perspective and corporeal emphasis to engage a number of topics with importance across traditional academic boundaries. Big data, comparative, multi-investigator, interdisciplinary projects on violence, colonialism, and health offer the most obvious potential for driving research narratives in the biological and social sciences. Humanistic approaches that explore emotional connections to the past can also have merit. The diversity of research outlets and products indicates the field must embrace the importance of nontraditional activities in its value structure to maximize our potential in public arenas. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice. (United States)

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza


    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers.

  5. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice (United States)

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza


    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers. PMID:26345378

  6. Frontiers in the bioarchaeology of stress and disease: cross-disciplinary perspectives from pathophysiology, human biology, and epidemiology. (United States)

    Klaus, Haagen D


    Over the last four decades, bioarchaeology has experienced significant technical growth and theoretical maturation. Early 21st century bioarchaeology may also be enhanced from a renewed engagement with the concept of biological stress. New insights on biological stress and disease can be gained from cross-disciplinary perspectives regarding human skeletal variation and disease. First, pathophysiologic and molecular signaling mechanisms can provide more precise understandings regarding formation of pathological phenotypes in bone. Using periosteal new bone formation as an example, various mechanisms and pathways are explored in which new bone can be formed under conditions of biological stress, particularly in bone microenvironments that involve inflammatory changes. Second, insights from human biology are examined regarding some epigenetic factors and disease etiology. While epigenetic effects on stress and disease outcomes appear profoundly influential, they are mostly invisible in skeletal tissue. However, some indirect and downstream effects, such as the developmental origins of adult health outcomes, may be partially observable in bioarchaeological data. Emerging perspectives from the human microbiome are also considered. Microbiomics involves a remarkable potential to understand ancient biology, disease, and stress. Third, tools from epidemiology are examined that may aid bioarchaeologists to better cope with some of the inherent limitations of skeletal samples to better measure and quantify the expressions of skeletal stress markers. Such cross-disciplinary synergisms hopefully will promote more complete understandings of health and stress in bioarchaeological science. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. More than metabolic: Considering the broader paleoepidemiological impact of vitamin D deficiency in bioarchaeology. (United States)

    Snoddy, Anne Marie E; Buckley, Hallie R; Halcrow, Siân E


    Vitamin D deficiency has traditionally been viewed as a metabolic bone disease by bioarchaeologists and considered primarily in terms of the development of specific musculoskeletal changes used for diagnosis in paleopathological research. These skeletal manifestations are usually interpreted as representing general ill-health. Clinical research shows that vitamin D is also integral to a number of extra-skeletal physiological processes including immunoregulation, blood pressure homeostasis, cell division, and programmed cell death. Vitamin D deficiency and sub-clinical insufficiency are thought to be risk factors for infectious and autoimmune diseases, as well as certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological work indicates that the skeletal manifestations of vitamin D deficiency represent the extreme end of a spectrum of morbidity associated with negative health outcomes, including increased risk for secondary tuberculosis. This article provides a review of clinical research on the extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D and the pathological consequences of poor vitamin D status. Additionally, it presents an interpretive model for bioarchaeological analyses of rickets and osteomalacia for consideration of the whole-body impact of poor vitamin D nutriture and possible comorbidities that may have affected the wider population. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:183-196, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico. (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice


    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Eulogy for Raymond (United States)

    Sorba, Paul


    On July 8 th 2011, four years ago, almost to the day, we were celebrating Raymond. A great number of his friends and colleagues from France, Europe and the United States gathered in Annecy to express their attachment, their affection, and, let us say the word, their admiration. Recognized by all as a very great physicist, Raymond was also an example of generosity and tolerance. Since that "Special day for Raymond" as we called the fest, his health began to decline. Those who were close to him then came to recognize his exceptional strength of character, his stoicism and his humanism. No complaint ever, but rather, until these last days, always an enthusiasm that he wanted to share for either an idea, a computation or a work of art. On the evening of that special 8 July 2011, I had wished, in my speech, to highlight the outstanding scientist but I sensed, from the look on his face, that he reacted with some irritation. I then mentioned his humanism, to which I heard him whisper: "Ah! I prefer that!" Is it possible to separate the man from the physicist? I would answer that, for me, Raymond was first of all a man in love with humanity. In addition, he was gifted for the so-called theoretical sciences, mathematics, physics; he also had a passion for the arts, music, drawing, and of course literature, as will have been noted by those who had the privilege to visit his collection of old books. I remember of course my first contacts with Raymond, at the beginning of the seventies in Marseilles. I must confess that I was rather scared by him. He used to come to us, young fellows in the lab, asking about our work in progress. His questions were insistent, and I guess that I was not the only one to fear these sessions which, at the beginning, appeared to me to be real examinations. But, in fact, his only goal was to help us. And for that, he offered us something very precious in life: more than his science, he was offering us his time. I keep in mind a particular picture. You were pushing the door of his office after knocking. Raymond was naturally absorbed in his work, he raised his head, saw you, dropped his pen and looked at you as if he was waiting for you: he was all yours. You could ask him your question, he had all the time for you. Of course, you were in for some discussions which sometimes looked to you off topic, but his mind was working faster than average and we could not follow all the overlaps which were done in his head. And, in general, he used to bring you a clarification, otherwise the solution. As my old friend Georges Girardi used to jokingly say: "Raymond, we believe that he is brilliant of course. But he is even more than that". I would like also to mention the words of Serge Lazzarini: "I was the last student of Raymond. But who has not been, at one time or another, a student of Raymond? There was always something to learn from him".

  10. Entangled lives: Implications of the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis for bioarchaeology and the life course. (United States)

    Gowland, Rebecca L


    Epidemiological research since the 1980s has highlighted the consequences of early life adversity, particularly during gestation and early infancy, for adult health (the "Barker hypothesis"). The fast-evolving field of molecular epigenetics is providing explanatory mechanisms concerning phenotypic plasticity in response to developmental stressors and the accumulation of disease risk throughout life. In addition, there is now evidence for the heritability of poor health across generations via epigenetic modifications. This research has the potential to invoke a paradigmatic shift in how we interpret factors such as growth insults and immune response in past skeletal remains. It demonstrates that health cannot be understood in terms of immediate environmental circumstances alone. Furthermore, it requires both a theoretical and practical re-evaluation of disease biographies and the life course more generally. Individual life courses can no longer be regarded as discrete, bounded, life histories, with clearly defined beginning and end points. If socioeconomic circumstances can have intergenerational effects, including disease susceptibility and growth stunting, then individual biographies should be viewed as nested or "embedded" within the lives of others. This commingling of life courses may prove problematic to unravel; nevertheless, this review aims to consider the potential consequences for bioarchaeological interpretations. These include a greater consideration of: the temporal power of human skeletons and a life course approach to past health; infant health and the implications for maternal well-being; and the impact of non-proximate stressors (e.g., early life and ancestral environments) on the presence of health indicators. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Examining the life history of an individual from Solcor 3, San Pedro de Atacama: Combining bioarchaeology and archaeological chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Rouff, Cristina; Knudson, Kelly J


    Detailed life history information using multiple lines of evidence including the identification of geographic origins, health, and body use indicators, can be used to elucidate the complex process of acculturation in the San Pedro de Atacama oases of northern Chile during the Middle Horizon. This paper presents the results of bioarchaeological and archaeological chemical analyses of the skeletal remains of an adult male (tomb 50, catalog number 1948) from the cemetery of Solcor 3 (ca. AD 500-900). Strontium isotope ratios in human tooth enamel reveal information about where a person lived during their childhood, when enamel was being formed. Individual 1948 showed strontium isotope ratios decidedly outside the range of the local San Pedro de Atacama strontium isotope signature. Given these data implying that individual 1948 was originally from elsewhere, an examination of his health status, social role, and mortuary context provides insight into the treatment of foreigners in San Pedro de Atacama. Our data support the argument that individual 1948's foreign birth did not hinder his later assimilation into Atacameno society. He was buried in a local cemetery with a typical mortuary assemblage for a male of this time and no strong evidence of possible foreign origin. Skeletal indicators of diet and activity patterns do not distinguish individual 1948 from the local population, suggesting that his lifestyle was similar to that of other Atacamenos. Therefore, our analyses suggest that individual 1948's acculturation into Atacameno society during his adult life was nearly complete and he retained little to no indication of his probable foreign birth

  12. Cat Taming in the Western Mediterranean. Issues, Problematics and Unpredictability in the Light of Bio-archaeological Approaches to a Museum Specimen

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    Roberto Miccichè


    Full Text Available The vast wealth of cultural artifacts and ancient biological samples can today be investigated using a great variety of methods and technologies. The result is a growing diffusion of studies on DNA, isotopes and morphometrics, and the exponential growth of publications and bio-archaeological discoveries of inestimable value for different areas of interpretation, such as phylogeny, history and archaeology. This paper describes the morphological and molecular study of a rare specimen of Felis from an Early Bronze Age horizon. The report offers the opportunity for a brief discussion on cat taming, on the origin of this practice and on the archaeological importance of this specimen for the reconstruction of taming practices in the Western Mediterranean Basin.

  13. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone. (United States)

    Rezaian, Jafar; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati Nasab, Hamed; Hojabri Nobari, Ali Reza; Abedollahi, Ali


    The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC). Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  14. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Rezaian


    Full Text Available The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC. Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  15. Tiwanaku influence and social inequality: A bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and contextual analysis of the Larache cemetery, San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Pestle, William J; Stovel, Emily M


    To assess the relationship between the Tiwanaku polity and the individuals buried at the Middle Horizon (∼AD500-1000) cemetery of Larache in northern Chile, a site that has been singled out as a potential elite foreign enclave. We explore this association through the skeletal remains of 48 individuals interred at the cemetery of Larache using bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and artifactual evidence. Data from cranial modification practices, violent injury, and the mortuary assemblage are used to explore culturally constructed elements of status and identity, radiogenic strontium isotope analyses provide us with a perspective on the geographic origins of these individuals, and stable carbon and nitrogen analyses allow discussion of paleodiet and access to resources. Radiogenic strontium isotope values show the presence of multiple first generation migrants at Larache. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data reveal significant differences among individuals. The mortuary context reveals a standard pattern for the oases but also includes a series of unusual burials with abundant gold and few other objects. Interestingly, both local and nonlocal individuals with different head shapes had access to the differentiated burial context; however nonlocal individuals appear to be the only ones with a heavily maize-based diet. Our evidence shows that Larache served as a burial place for a diverse, yet culturally integrated and potentially elite segment of the Atacameño population, but not a foreign enclave as had been postulated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. ESTUDIOS BIOARQUEOLÓGICOS DEL SITIO PASO MAYOR, SUDOESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES / Bioarchaeological studies of Paso Mayor site, southwest Buenos Aires province

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    Clara Scabuzzo


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se resumen los estudios bioarqueológicos realizados en la colección osteológica del sitio Paso Mayor Y1S2 (partido de Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires. Los análisis efectuados comprendieron diferentes etapas. En primer lugar se hizo un inventario de la colección y se relevaron algunas variables tafonómicas para conocer el estado general de conservación de los restos. Una segunda etapa estuvo orientada a determinar la estructura sexo-etaria de la muestra. Finalmente se efectuaron estudios de marcadores de estrés ocupacional y el relevamiento de algunas patologías de carácter infeccioso y traumático. En conjunto estos análisis muestran que en el sitio se inhumaron individuos subadultos y adultos de ambos sexos, los restos fueron enterrados de manera primaria y secundaria. La colección muestra un buen estado de conservación por lo que fue posible determinar la mayoría de los elementos óseos analizados. En cuanto a los estudios de marcadores de actividad física, estos indican la importancia de la actividad deambulatoria y el posible uso de sistemas de armas como el arco y flecha. Se registró una reacción perióstica en los miembros inferiores y un traumatismo en el esqueleto craneal. Finalmente se discute la información bioarqueológica del sitio con la publicada para otros sitios del área. Abstract This paper summarizes the bioarchaeological studies of the osteological collection recovered in Paso Mayor Y1S2 site (Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires. Analyses were carried out in different stages. First, a detailed inventory of the collection was made and some taphonomic variables were considered in order to evaluate the general condition of the bone remains. A second phase was oriented to the determination of the age-sex structure of the sample. Finally, occupational stress markers studies were undertaken along with the observation of certain infectious and traumatic pathologies. As a whole, these analyses show the

  17. A Rhetorical Balm: Eulogy for the Challenger. (United States)

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel

    The American space shuttle Challenger's explosion prompted a national grieving process typified by stages of shock, disbelief, acknowledgement, and finally recovery/adaptation. President Reagan's speech on the evening of the disaster assisted this process by integrating content and structure with the psychological needs of the audience. Reagan's…

  18. Criticism of pithiatism: eulogy of Babinski. (United States)

    Poirier, Jacques; Derouesné, Christian


    Babinski, 'Chef de Clinique' of Charcot from 1885 to 1887, fully supported the ideas of his teacher on hysteria and thought that a dynamic brain cortical lesion is the cause of the disease. After Charcot's death in 1893, Babinski gradually revised his position. In a first step, he described many neurological signs in order to clearly distinguish hysterical manifestations from the organic disorders of the central nervous system. The most famous one bears his name, the Babinski sign, an inversion of the plantar cutaneous reflex, testifying to a lesion of the pyramidal tract. In a second step, he defined what remained of hysteria and proposed in 1901 to abandon the term 'hysteria' in favor of the neologism 'pithiatism', defined as a pathologic state resulting in disorders which can be very accurately reproduced by suggestion, and can disappear by persuasion. Babinski therefore retained the exclusive etiological role of suggestion and refuted, unlike Dejerine, the role of emotion. He also sought to separate pithiatism from simulation, but ambiguously he made pithiatics 'semi-malingerers'. During the Great War, with Froment, he described physiopathic disorders and separated them from pithiatic disorders and simulation. After being accepted by many French neurologists, pithiatism, the word as well as the concept, gently died out. There remained little more than a few philosophical uses (especially by Jean-Paul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty) or metaphorical ones. What remains of the work of Babinski in the field of hysteria is not so much the creation of pithiatism as the masterly description of neurological signs to formally exclude an organic lesion of the nervous system or simulation before looking like hysteria disorders.

  19. COLECCIONES ANTIGUAS, DATOS NUEVOS: PRIMEROS RESULTADOS DEL ANÁLISIS DE LAS COLECCIONES BIOARQUEOLÓGICAS DEL HUMEDAL DEL PARANÁ INFERIOR / Old collections, new data: first results of the analysis of the bioarchaeological collections of the Lower Parana We

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    Bárbara Pamela Mazza


    Full Text Available Durante fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX tuvieron lugar varias exploraciones y excavaciones en sitios arqueológicos del humedal del Paraná inferior, originando en consecuencia un gran acervo de materiales bioarqueológicos, entre otros, depositados hoy en día en el Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata y en el Museo Etnográfico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Si bien algunos de los resultados derivados de aquellos trabajos de campo fueron publicados, otros permanecen inéditos. El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer algunas características de dichas colecciones bioarqueológicas a través del análisis de 252 individuos que las conforman. En este sentido, procedimos a la determinación sexual y estimación etaria de la muestra y al registro de variables tafonómicas, este último con el fin de poder identificar el posible contexto de inhumación de donde provienen dichos individuos. A partir de este análisis y siguiendo los datos publicados se discriminaron entre inhumaciones en contacto directo con la tierra o en urnas. A su vez, se dio cuenta de una segmentación espacial en base a categorías de sexo y edad para algunos sitios, como así también de la presencia de adornos personales de metal, ocre y marcas de corte en algunos huesos. De esta manera, esperamos resaltar el valor que tienen las colecciones de museos como así también contribuir y ampliar nuestro conocimiento sobre las características de las poblaciones prehispánicas de la región.  Abstract  At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century several explorations and excavations took place in archaeological sites at the lower Parana wetland, giving rise, among others, to a vast body of bioarchaeological remains, currently deposited at the Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata and at the Museo Etnográfico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. While some of the results from those field works were

  20. The strophic structure of the eulogy of Ephesians 1:3-14

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lierten Text nie [italics mine] von der stilistischen Formen absehen konnen; darum hángt von ihrem richtigen Verstandnis einiges ab'. Louw (1989:41) has also shown that the hymn in the ..... Both are introduced by év S Kai. Here we also find the sequence of main verb, participle phrase and prepositional phrase, but in the ...

  1. Dining with Picasso and Gertrude Stein - Eulogical Feasts of the Gods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup


    studio: After eighty or ninety sittings the result – according to their mutual friends – did not resemble Gertrude Stein in the slightest. Picasso’s response was to shrug: “Never mind”, he replied, “in the end she will manage to look just like it”. Whilst Picasso was painting Gertrude Stein’s portrait he...... all the hallmarks of the analytic cubist approach that Picasso, but what did the cubists eat we ask? In 1908, Picasso was in the middle of cubism’s locks when he arranged the famous homage for le Douanier Rousseau in his studio where ‘ris à la Valencienne’ was served. Dining with Picasso and Gertrude...

  2. A bioarchaeological approach to prehistoric cemetery populations from western and central Greek Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, S.


    The osteological material under study consists of 510 skeletal remains dating from the Early Neolithic (6000 BC) to the Early Iron Age (1100-700 BC). It comes from nine different cemeteries and burial locations extending from the coastal to the inland areas of the study region. The current thesis attempts to explore two major issues: 1) the reconstruction of aspects of life history and 2) the treatment and manipulation of the deceased as revealed by the human skeletal remains. With regard to the former, the investigation of demographic parameters, patterns of health and oral status as well as diet have been considered. In short, local conditions defined by environmental and social constraints probably affected the general quality of life reconstructed for the study populations. There is an overall tendency however, towards declining levels of health and oral status in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age populations, while certain assemblages provide high levels of infant and child mortality, possibly associated with a type of anaemia. There is also a substantial involvement of the upper skeleton in work patterns, possibly related to activities such as food acquisition, processing and preparation. Meanwhile, the evidence for dietary patterns from the Neolithic/Early Bronze Ages to the Late Bronze/Early Iron Ages is consistent with an overall shift from a high reliance on meat consumption to a diet base on carbohydrate foodstuffs. The evaluation of the manipulation of the deceased, alongside the evidence for mortuary differentiation through time, reveals a striking transformation from the practice of single inhumations in the Early Bronze Age to multiple/secondary burials in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age assemblages, suggesting a shift in emphasis from individual to lineage-group identity. Furthermore, the integration of biological inferences with the evidence of mortuary behaviour provides further insights into sex roles and the position of subadults, otherwise invisible, in the living community. (author)

  3. Begotten of Corruption? Bioarchaeology and "othering" of leprosy in South Asia. (United States)

    Robbins Schug, Gwen


    Leprosy is strongly stigmatized in South Asia, being regarded as a manifestation of extreme levels of spiritual pollution going back through one or more incarnations of the self. Stigma has significant social consequences, including surveillance, exclusion, discipline, control, and punishment; biologically speaking, internalized stigma also compounds the disfigurement and disability resulting from this disease. Stigma results from an othering process whereby difference is recognized, meaning is constituted, and eventually, sufferers may be negatively signified and marked for exclusion. This paper traces the history of leprosy's stigmatization in South Asia, using archaeology and an exegesis of Vedic texts to examine the meaning of this disease from its apparent zero-point-when it first appears but before it was differentiated and signified-in the mature Indus Age. Results suggest that early in the second millennium BCE, leprosy was perceived as treatable and efforts were apparently made to mitigate its impact on the journey to the afterworld. Ignominy to the point of exclusion does not emerge until the first millennium BCE. This paper uses archaeology to create an effective history of stigma for leprosy, destabilizing what is true about this disease and its sufferers in South Asia today. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neolithic skull shapes and demic diffusion: a bioarchaeological investigation into the nature of the Neolithic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Pinhasi


    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that the spread of farming in Europe was not a single uniform process, but that it involved a complex set of processes such as demic diffusion, folk migration, frontier mobility, and leapfrog colonisation. Archaeogenetic studies, which examine contemporary geographical variations in the frequencies of various genetic markers have not succeeded in addressing the complex Neolithisation process at the required level of spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, these studies are based on modern populations, and their interpretive genetic maps are often affected by post-Neolithic dispersals, migrations, and population movements in Eurasia. Craniometric studies may provide a solid link between the archaeological analysis of past events and their complex relationship to changes and fluctuations in corresponding morphological and thus biological variations. This paper focuses on the study of craniometric variations between and within Pre-Pottery Neolithic, Pottery Neolithic, and Early Neolithic specimens from the Near East, Anatolia and Europe. It addresses the meaning of the observed multivariate morphometric variations in the context of the spread of farming in Europe.

  5. AVANCES EN BIOARQUEOLOGÍA DEL CHACO BOREAL (Advances in the Bioarchaeology of Northern Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo N. Lamenza


    Full Text Available Las investigaciones bioantropológicas llevadas a cabo en el Gran Chaco sudamericano han comenzado a revertir el estado de desconocimiento que sumía a la región. En esta oportunidad se presentan los avances de los análisis de los materiales recuperados en el sitio arqueológico Puerto 14 de Mayo, cuya particular importancia reside en ser el único en el Chaco boreal abordado de manera sistemática. Sucesivas excavaciones arqueológicas han puesto de manifiesto entierros humanos datados en ca. 1800 años AP (LP2897 y LP3167. Se pudo constatar la presencia de al menos seis individuos, cinco adultos y un subadulto. A partir del análisis paleopatológico se determinaron posibles características del modo de vida del grupo, considerando una dieta con bajos niveles de hidratos de carbono y el consumo de alimentos de características abrasivas. Estos resultados permiten introducir nueva información en una región prácticamente inexplorada en términos arqueológicos y contribuye a la comprensión del marco espacio-temporal de las ocupaciones humanas de las tierras bajas sudamericanas. ENGLISH: Bioanthropological research carried out in the South American Gran Chaco has begun to address the lack of such knowledge in the region. Here we present the analysis of materials recovered at the site Puerto 14 de Mayo, whose particular importance lies in being the only site in the Chaco Boreal that has been systematically addressed archaeologically. Successive archaeological excavations have revealed human burials dated to ca. 1800 B.P. (LP2897 and LP3167, in which there are at least six individuals, five adults and one subadult. Through paleopathological analysis, possible features of the group’s way of life were determined, such as a diet with low levels of carbohydrates and the consumption of food with abrasive characteristics. These results allow us to add new information to a virtually unexplored archaeological region and contribute to an understanding of the space-time framework of human occupation in the South American lowlands.

  6. Investigating cultural heterogeneity in San Pedro de Atacama, northern Chile, through biogeochemistry and bioarchaeology. (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Torres-Rouff, Christina


    Individuals living in the San Pedro de Atacama oases and the neighboring upper Loa River Valley of northern Chile experienced the collapse of an influential foreign polity, environmental decline, and the appearance of a culturally distinct group during the Late Intermediate Period (ca. AD 1,100-1,400). We investigate cultural heterogeneity at the Loa site of Caspana through analyses of strontium and oxygen isotopes, cranial modification styles, and mortuary behavior, integrating biological aspects of identity, particularly geographic origins, with cultural aspects of identity manifested in body modification and mortuary behavior. We test the hypothesis that the Caspana population (n = 66) represents a migrant group, as supported by archeological and ethnographic evidence, rather than a culturally distinct local group. For Caspana archeological human tooth enamel, mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr = 0.70771 +/- 0.00038 (1sigma, n = 30) and mean delta(18)O(c(V-PDB)) = -3.9 +/- 0.6 per thousand (1sigma, n = 16); these isotopic data suggest that only one individual lived outside the region. Material culture suggests that the individuals buried at Caspana shared some cultural affinity with the San Pedro oases while maintaining distinct cultural traditions. Finally, cranial modification data show high frequencies of head shaping [92.4% (n = 61/65)] and an overwhelming preference for annular modification [75.4% (n = 46/61)], contrasting sharply with practices in the San Pedro area. Based on multiple lines of evidence, we argue that, rather than representing a group of altiplano migrants, the Caspana population existed in the region for some time. However, cranial modification styles and mortuary behavior that are markedly distinct from patterns in surrounding areas raise the possibility of cultural heterogeneity and cultural fissioning.

  7. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France (United States)

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric


    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  8. An Archaeological an Bioarchaeological Perspective. The Tucker (41DT104) and Sinclair (41DT105) Cemeteries of Delta County, Texas (United States)


    preserved and fractured during recovery. Archaeologists and Bioarchaeologists The role of the archaeologists and bioarchaeolcgjists was to monitor the...through burning. The incineration primarily involved the back and pelvic region. No fractures were observed. Unfortunately, no joint surfaces except those...and left acetabulum (rim and lunate surfaces), the apices of the sacroiliac auricular surfaces, a fragment of thv inferior demiface of the right

  9. An analysis of the rhetorical and anecdotal structure of the Nezami's eulogy poem about the Holy Prophet, in the Makhzan al- Asrar

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    Tahereh Ghahramani Fard


    In Nezami’s poem, it is possible to see the coherence in language, phonological aspects, syntax, vocabulary and semantic level. He is to seek a structure which is able to add to literary dimension. The audience of Nezami’s poem knows that in many versed, to detect the direct message is impossible and he must go through the maze of figures of speech and artistic images and he must comprehend the proportions of word and meaning to understand the poem’s message.

  10. Validation and reliability of the sex estimation of the human os coxae using freely available DSP2 software for bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Brůžek, Jaroslav; Santos, Frédéric; Dutailly, Bruno; Murail, Pascal; Cunha, Eugenia


    A new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation. Ten metric variables collected from 2,040 ossa coxa of adult subjects of known sex were recorded between 1986 and 2002 (reference sample). To test both the validity and reliability, a target sample consisting of two series of adult ossa coxa of known sex (n = 623) was used. The DSP2 software (Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste v2) is based on Linear Discriminant Analysis, and the posterior probabilities are calculated using an R script. For the reference sample, any combination of four dimensions provides a correct sex estimate in at least 99% of cases. The percentage of individuals for whom sex can be estimated depends on the number of dimensions; for all ten variables it is higher than 90%. Those results are confirmed in the target sample. Our posterior probability threshold of 0.95 for sex estimate corresponds to the traditional sectioning point used in osteological studies. DSP2 software is replacing the former version that should not be used anymore. DSP2 is a robust and reliable technique for sexing adult os coxae, and is also user friendly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of dental calculus deposits (DCD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology of a bio-archaeological method. (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Munoz, Olivia; Billard, Michel; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin


    This article describes the potential interest in forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of dental calculus deposits (DCD), a calcified residue frequently found on the surface of teeth. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archaeological material (KHB-1 Ra's al-Khabbah and RH-5 Ra's al-Hamra, two Prehistoric graveyards located in the Sultanate of Oman, dated between the 5th and 4th millennium B.C.; Montenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan-Celtic necropolis from the north of Italy, dated between the 5th and 3rd century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, French royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skeleton of Pierre Hazard, French royal notary from the 15th century A.D.). Samples were studies by direct optical microscope (OM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Many cytological, histological and elemental analyses were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains, the reconstitution of their alimentation and occupational habits, and propositions for manner of death. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England. (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L


    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Bioarchaeological reconstruction of the funeral rite – case study based on organic material from the Hallstatt Period tumulus at the site Zahrádka (South Bohemia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálková, T.; Bezděk, Aleš; Březinová, Helena; Farkašová, K.; Houfková, P.; Chvojka, O.; John, J.; Kmošek, J.; Koník, P.; Kovačiková, L.; Michálek, J.; Msallamová, Š.; Novák, J.; Pavelka, J.; Šuláková, H.; Bešta, T.; Myšková, E.; Weiter, L.; Zronek, P.


    Roč. 106, Dec 15 (2015), s. 95-135 ISSN 0031-0506 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 116/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985912 Keywords : South Bohemia * burial mound * funeral rite reconstruction Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARU-G)

  14. Pour une encomiastique visuelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Popescu


    Full Text Available The paintings that represent Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu, exhibited in 2004 by the National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC and reproduced in an album in 2008 by the German printing house Steidl, show the difficulties that a rhetoric of eulogy can encounter in a democratic society.The rich traditions of eulogy may be considered a source of inspiration for these paintings. The aims of this research are: to identify the ways artists persuasively bind glorifiable meanings and techniques, to discover the combinatory potential of certain techniques cherished by eulogy, and to bring to light the rhetorical invariants of the genre.

  15. Peer Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Shillito


    Full Text Available Comments on by Shillito, LM and Haddow, S on Meyers Emery, K. and Killgrove, K. (2015. Bones, Bodies, and Blogs: Outreach and Engagement in Bioarchaeology, Internet Archaeology 39.

  16. Echoes of and affinities with Bogosi (kingship) in the works of Sol T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly, it highlights cultural allusions that betray a Motswana worldview in the eulogy of Marcus Brutus in Plaatje's translation of Julius Caesar into Setswana. It further illustrates in Plaatje's translation, language and sound metaphor that echo a Setswana poetic idiom. Thirdly, a view of bogosi drawn from selected ...

  17. Latin America Report (United States)


    proprietors of the Braseiro, who proudly exhibits a gold book which boasts two precious eulogies by the TFP chief in praise of the cuisine of his...VENALUM) has signed the largest aluminum contract in the world with the Japanese . The contract was signed by the president of the Venezuelan Corporation

  18. charge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROFESSOR ADEOYE ADENIYI MD; FMC (PAED) F WACP. Distinguished Fellow of the Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria. COURTESIES. The book of Apocrypha which is incorporated in some editions of the Holy Bible, there is a great eulogy in Ecclessiasticus 44:'°'15 it is appropriate for this occasion and I read —.

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and elements of personal details in the life of scientists should be irrelevant as far as the resul t of their scien tific ... not wholly unexpected that personal matters do influence the progress of science in the short run. ... face value, Westfall attempts to sift the grain from the chaff, real information from eulogies written later by ...

  20. Alex Haley: At Home in the Hills of East Tennessee. (United States)

    Hawthorne, Ann


    An interview with Alex Haley six months before his death in February 1992 discusses his impressions of life in Appalachia; the media image of Appalachia; reminiscences of his hometown, Henning, Tennessee; race relations in Appalachia; and his plans for future books. Included are photographs and a eulogy from his funeral. (SV)

  1. Efficacité des huiles essentielles de Cymbopogon citratus et de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité des huiles essentielles de Cymbopogon citratus et de Mentha piperita dans la stabilisation du lait frais de vache au Sud du Bénin. G. René Degnon, Euloge S. Adjou, Grâce Metome, Edwige Dahouenon-Ahoussi ...

  2. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 7267 ... Adjou, ES · Adjou, Euloge S. Adjovi, A · Adjovi, Nestor Ahoyo · Adjrah, Y · Adler, CN · Ado Maman, Nassirou · Adomahou, D · Adomou, AC · Adomou, Aristide C. Adomou, Aristide Cossi · Adomou, C. Aristide. Adomou, CA · Adomou, Cossi Aristide · Adon, Arsène Mousan · Adote-Hounzangbe, S

  3. Évaluation du pouvoir fermentaire de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Évaluation du pouvoir fermentaire de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et de S. carlsbergensis dans la production de bioéthanol à partir du jus de la pomme cajou. Virginie Gbohaida, Issiakou Mossi, Euloge S. Adjou, C. Pascal Agbangnan Dossa, D. Valentin Wotto, Félicien Avlessi, Dominique C.K. Sohounhloue ...

  4. Protection de la communauté urbaine de Cotonou face aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Officer. Robertson, Melanie. Total funding. CA$ 324,600. Country(s). Africa, Benin, South of Sahara. Project Leader. Euloge Ogouwalé. Institution. Centre de Recherche et d'expertise pour le développement local. Institution Country. Benin. Outputs. Reports. Protection de la Communauté Urbaine de Grand Cotonou ...

  5. [Archaeology and criminology--Strengths and weaknesses of interdisciplinary cooperation]. (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian


    Interdisciplinary cooperation of archaeology and criminology is often focussed on the scientific methods applied in both fields of knowledge. In combination with the humanistic methods traditionally used in archaeology, the finding of facts can be enormously increased and the subsequent hermeneutic deduction of human behaviour in the past can take place on a more solid basis. Thus, interdisciplinary cooperation offers direct and indirect advantages. But it can also cause epistemological problems, if the weaknesses and limits of one method are to be corrected by applying methods used in other disciplines. This may result in the application of methods unsuitable for the problem to be investigated so that, in a way, the methodological and epistemological weaknesses of two disciplines potentiate each other. An example of this effect is the quantification of qualia. These epistemological reflections are compared with the interdisciplinary approach using the concrete case of the "Eulau Crime Scene".

  6. The Application of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) in Ancient Dental Calculus for the Reconstruction of Human Habits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, D.; Skoupý, Radim; Drozdová, E.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šín, L.; Beňuš, R.; Klíma, B.


    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 2056-2057 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * EDX * bio-archaeological material Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  7. The sex-selective impact of the Black Death and recurring plagues in the Southern Netherlands, 1349–1450

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, Daniel; Roosen, J.


    Although recent work has begun to establish that early modern plagues had selective mortality effects, it was generally accepted that the initial outbreak of Black Death in 1347-52 was a “universal killer.” Recent bioarchaeological work, however, has argued that the Black Death was also selective

  8. Příkop středověkého opevnění města Plzně. Archeologický a environmentální výzkum v prostoru zaniklé Pražské brány

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, R.; Kočár, P.; Hlaváč, Jaroslav; Kaštovská, K.; Kostrouch, F.; Kyncl, J.; Militký, J.; Pokorný, Petr; Postránecká, K.; Schneiderwinklová, P.


    Roč. 5, - (2008), s. 272-311 ISSN 1803-1749. [Forum urbes medii aevi /5./. Hainburg, 08.05.2006-11.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : archaeobotany * bioarchaeology * urban deposits Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Archaeobotanical Investigation of Charred and Desiccated Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The excavations were conducted by the Italian Archaeological Expedition in East Sudan (IAEES) at the site of Mahal Teglinos, Kassala, northeast Sudan in the years 1991, 2013 and 2014. Identification and comparative study was conducted in the laboratories of Addis Ababa University and the Bio-archaeological Research ...

  10. Reading between the lines : delta O-18 and delta C-13 isotopes of Unio elongatulus shell increments as proxies for local palaeoenvironments in mid-Holocene northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cakirlar, Canan; Sesen, Ridvan

    The much debated link between the collapse of urban centres in northern Syria and climate change at the end of third millennium BC is arguably one of the best known cases about human societies' struggle with the unpredictable nature of the Holocene. Fine-grained analyses of bioarchaeological

  11. The prevalence and distribution of dental caries in four early medieval non-adult populations of different socioeconomic status from Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Poláček, Lumír


    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 62-76 ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : bioarchaeology * early medieval population * Great Moravia * non-adult individuals * dental caries * socio-economic status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.733, year: 2015

  12. Professor Adrianus van Seims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. van Wyk


    Full Text Available Professor Adrianus van Seims An eulogy in honour of the late Professor A van Seims (1906-1984, who filled the chair of Semitic Languages at the University of Pretoria from 1948 to 1971. It is an introduction to Volume 41, 2 (1985 of the Hervormie Teologiese Studies?, journal of the Faculty of Theology (Section A at the University of Pretoria. The specific Number is entitled Dedicata Adrianus van Seims. The articles concerned are contributions of some of his postgraduated students who lecture Semitic Languages or Old and New Testament at South African universities. The eulogy contains a review of the life and work of Professor Van Seims as well as a complete list of his publications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Vera Noriega


    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe objective of this document is to present both the metatheorical principles of interculturality that underlies the intercultural pedagogic model for higher education, and describes the characteristics of educative model and finally to present the pattern of curricular construction by skills in Intercultural Universities that can eulogize the density and by the other side position the students with skills to obtain levels of excellence in certification tests and profession in conditions to be approved in their accreditation.

  14. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 316 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. A. Adewuyi, O · Adiko, A · Adisso, S · Adjahouinou, D C · Adjakpa, Jacques Boco · Adjalian, E · Adjaloo, MK · Adjassa, Majid · Adjatin, Arlette · Adje, Yvette · Adji-Adjemian, Sopi Berthe · Adjonou, K · Adjou, ES · Adjou, Euloge S. Adjrah, Y

  15. Paroles édifiantes: les Éloges d’Antoine-Leonard Thomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ferret


    Full Text Available Treating the eulogies written by Thomas between 1759 and 1770, we show how the use of reported speech of the persons being eulogised is part of a memorial ceremony that brings the character to life. This theatrical process helps to blur the generic status of these texts, which are halfway between historical narration and rhetorical speech. The use of reported speech may be understood less as a means of individualising the person in question, however, than of promoting him as an exemplum embodying virtues in action. These virtues derive from Aristotle’s analysis of the aims and values of epideictic rhetoric, but the rhetorical design of Thomas’ eulogies shapes an underlying ideological discourse designed to make a pragmatic impact on the reader: transforming the genre from an academic exercise of scholarship into an engaged discourse, Thomas clearly sides with French ‘philosophes’, and his eulogies confirm the evolution of the genre described by Jean-Claude Bonnet: their purpose is at one to celebrate the past, to satirise the present and, perhaps, to influence the future.

  16. Society of Archaeological Masters Students Annual Conference V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Barber


    Full Text Available The Society of Archaeological Masters Students Conference is an opportunity for UCL Institute of Archaeology masters students to present their research. This year’s conference included papers from MA Cultural Heritage Studies, MSc Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology, MSc Archaeological Science: Technology and Materials, and MSc Palaeoanthropology and Palaeolithic Archaeology students. The event sparked discussion between students from all areas of the department, and showcased the impressive range of research currently undertaken at the Institute of Archaeology.

  17. Linking the Y-chromosomal haplotype from a high medieval (1160-1421) skeleton from a Podlazice excavation site with living descendants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Sasková, L.; Frolík, Jan; Vaněk, D.


    Roč. 6, December (2017), „e129”-„e131” ISSN 1875-1768 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Y chromosome haplotype * surname * inheritance * forensic s * bone * bioarchaeology * genetics of cemeteries Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of dental calculus from the great moravian necropolis Znojmo-Hradiště

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, D.; Drozdová, E.; Skoupý, Radim; Mikulík, P.; Klíma, B.


    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2017), s. 343-351 ISSN 0323-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : dental calculus * SEM * bacteria * bio-archaeological samples * early Middle Ages * Znojmo-Hradiště Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering

  19. The Metaphorical Applications of Heavenly Bodies and Phenomena in Western Armenian Poetry at the Beginning of the XX Century (United States)

    Arakelyan, Karine


    The metaphorical applications of heavenly bodies and phenomena in Western Armenian poetry at the beginning of the XX century are very diverse and of great variety. Art Workers eulogize the creation of God, admire the beauty of stars, and perceive the man as a part of nature and in the close connection with all other parts. These units are often used for bringing to light one's inner life, his old gone paths, expectations and hopes, many times they become the heart and the basis of poetical image and create unique beauty.

  20. The Gravestone of Felipe II in «El amante agradecido», by Lope de Vega: a Historical Image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Sanz


    Full Text Available  Felix Lope de Vega, in his play El Amante agradecido (ca. 1602, writes a praise to Felipe II, after the death of the king in 1598. The praise, almost three hundred lines dedicated to the gravestone that the city of Seville built in honour of Felipe II, does not really belong with the main purpose of the play: an urban comedy with a lot of picaresque components. This article focuses on why the writer included that sort of eulogy and studies the different sources of the fragment. 

  1. JPRS Report, China: Qiushi (Seeking Truth), No. 24, 16 December 1990 (United States)


    were found in a duke’s tomb in Hubei; the terracotta warriors in the Qin emperor’s tomb; and so on, and so forth. All these great projects eulogize the party, socialism, the people and those who still demon- strate the "indigenous work style of the 8th Route Army " because they know...their own army of unem- ployed. What are the reasons for this? Because there are bound to be enterprises going under when competition is keen, when

  2. Funerals against death. (United States)

    Bailey, Tara; Walter, Tony


    While anthropological studies in non-Western societies show how funerals protect the community from the threat of death, sociological studies of British funerals have so far focused on meanings for the private family. The article reports on results from a Mass Observation directive - the first British study to focus specifically on the entire funeral congregation - and shows how attendees experience the contemporary life-centred funeral as a symbolic conquest of death. While the eulogy's accuracy is important, even more so - at least for some - is its authenticity, namely that the speaker has personal knowledge of the deceased. Whereas Davies analyses the power of professionally delivered ritual words against death, our data reveals how admired is the courage exercised by non-professionals in speaking against death, however faltering their words. Further, the very presence of a congregation whose members have known the deceased in diverse ways embodies a configurational eulogy, which we term relationships against death. We thus argue that funerals symbolically conquer death not only through words delivered by ritual specialists, but also through those who knew the deceased congregating and speaking .

  3. Diseases and medical disabilities of enslaved Barbadians, from the seventeenth century to around 1838 part II. (United States)

    Handler, J S


    The disease environment, health problems and causes of mortality of enslaved Barbadians are described. Data are derived mainly from documentary sources; also included are bio-archaeological data from analyses of skeletons recovered from Newton Plantation cemetery. Major topics include infectious diseases transmitted from person to person, as well as those contracted through water soil, and other environmental contaminations, and diseases transmitted by insects, parasites and other animals; nutritional diseases, including protein energy malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, anaemia, and geophagy or "dirt eating"; dental pathologies, lead poisoning, alcoholism, traumas, and other disorders, including psychogenic death or illness caused by beliefs in witchcraft or sorcery.

  4. Diseases and medical disabilities of enslaved Barbadians from the seventeenth century to around 1838. Part I. (United States)

    Handler, J S


    The disease environment, health problems and causes of mortality of enslaved Barbadians are described. Data are derived mainly from documentary sources; also included are bio-archaeological data from analyses of skeletons recovered from Newton Plantation cemetery. Major topics include infectious diseases transmitted from person to person, as well as those contracted through water soil, and other environmental contaminations, and diseases transmitted by insects, parasites, and other animals; nutritional diseases, including protein energy malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, anaemia, and geophagy or "dirt eating"; dental pathologies; and lead poisoning, alcoholism, traumas, and other disorders, including psychogenic death or illness caused by beliefs in witchcraft or sorcery.

  5. A Survey of Pen name semantic Applications in Rumis Sonnets (Ghazals

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    Zohre AhmadiPoor anari


    Full Text Available Abstract The pen name in sonnet is the poet’s poetic name which most of the poets mention it in their verses. Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Rumi lived in 13th-century was a Persian Moslem poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic. He has written more than 3229 sonnets and dedicated to Shams Tabrizi. Thus mentioned, names such “Shams”, “Shams od-Din” and “Shams al-Haq” in the ending lines of his sonnets.    One of the points which could be studied about pen name is study of theme or concepts which are mentioned alongside that. Entirely it has been said that the same theme which comes with the pen name “Shams” in 992 sonnets. In this study, we pay attention to mentioning the poets desired name which is not necessarily the pen name in Rumis’ sonnets, what theme does it carry and what is relationship of it with the previous lines?    Themes which the poets apply in their sonnets beside pen name is mostly what that has been mentioned in the previous lines. However, in times the concept mentioned along side with the pen name is independent from the sonnet concepts, mostly eulogy. Studying Hafiz and Saadi sonnets shows that the most important themes existing are: love declaration, advice, eulogizing and sometimes a mischievous concept.    Rumis’ sonnets are lover-based. Therefore, there is much talk of the lover in the whole sonnet. But in other poet’s sonnets, the lover (the poet is the main theme is the sonnet. The poet may find a way to praise his own poem or stays in his dreamy world and focuses on the romantic feelings. Considering the fact that unlike other poets Rumi has not mentioned his own pen name but his lover “Shams”, the study focuses on the themes which are mentioned by the pen name “Shams” as the following: 1-Eulogy: One third of the Shams pen names are eulogies. The sufist approach has given the lines a

  6. A Survey of Pen name semantic Applications in Rumis Sonnets (Ghazals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre AhmadiPoor anari


    Full Text Available Abstract The pen name in sonnet is the poet’s poetic name which most of the poets mention it in their verses. Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Rumi lived in 13th-century was a Persian Moslem poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic. He has written more than 3229 sonnets and dedicated to Shams Tabrizi. Thus mentioned, names such “Shams”, “Shams od-Din” and “Shams al-Haq” in the ending lines of his sonnets.    One of the points which could be studied about pen name is study of theme or concepts which are mentioned alongside that. Entirely it has been said that the same theme which comes with the pen name “Shams” in 992 sonnets. In this study, we pay attention to mentioning the poets desired name which is not necessarily the pen name in Rumis’ sonnets, what theme does it carry and what is relationship of it with the previous lines?    Themes which the poets apply in their sonnets beside pen name is mostly what that has been mentioned in the previous lines. However, in times the concept mentioned along side with the pen name is independent from the sonnet concepts, mostly eulogy. Studying Hafiz and Saadi sonnets shows that the most important themes existing are: love declaration, advice, eulogizing and sometimes a mischievous concept.    Rumis’ sonnets are lover-based. Therefore, there is much talk of the lover in the whole sonnet. But in other poet’s sonnets, the lover (the poet is the main theme is the sonnet. The poet may find a way to praise his own poem or stays in his dreamy world and focuses on the romantic feelings. Considering the fact that unlike other poets Rumi has not mentioned his own pen name but his lover “Shams”, the study focuses on the themes which are mentioned by the pen name “Shams” as the following: 1-Eulogy: One third of the Shams pen names are eulogies. The sufist approach has given the lines a special color. The similes and metaphors used for him are heavenly and

  7. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD). (United States)

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet


    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  8. Number 1: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Norman L Jones


    Full Text Available With the editorial staff of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, I extend our best wishes for the New Year, and heartfelt thanks to everyone who has helped the Journal establish itself in the competitive field of quality, peerreviewed publications in chest medicine. It may seem odd to start the new millennium with an editorial eulogizing the past, but even in these "postmodern" days of chaos, complexity and ordered unpredictability, the past can be seen to have a huge influence on the present and the future. The importance of looking back on work that has influenced our present views on chest medicine, and why, was the main reason for the series inaugurated in the present issue - "Modern Classics Revisited" (pages 71-76.

  9. The beginnings of Caesar (Octavius as a military commander: The year 44, from Apollonia to Rome, according to Nicolaus of Damascus, ???? ????????

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    Full Text Available After the Ides of March 44 BC Octavius goes to the political scene, at 19 years old. We follow the story of the ???? ???????? written byNicolaus of Damascus, witnessing the rise of the young Caesar, from hisstay in Apollonia (on March 44 until his departure for Rome at the end of the same year. For the first time it is put in command of a large private army. The story of Nicolaus is very close to the facts; and though as a whole it is a eulogy of young, completes the story of complicated Year 44 in the writings of Appian, Dio Cassius and the speeches and letters of Cicero.

  10. [Vicq d'Azyr and the French Revolution]. (United States)

    Peumery, J J


    Born in April 23th, 1748, at Valognes, in Normandy, Félix Vicq d'Azyr was at once a great doctor, a talented naturalist and a distinguished man of letters. Member of the "Académie des sciences" in 1774, he founded, in 1776, the "Société royale de médecine" in Paris, future "Académie", whose he was the permanent secretary. He is the originator of the comparative anatomy. The successor to Buffon at the "Académie française" in 1788, he became Principal Doctor to the Queen Marie-Antoinette in 1789. From that time, his aristocratic tendencies drew revolutionary court's attention to him. Already sick, summary executions of his friends terrified him. He escaped Guillotine, but tuberculosis killed him, on June the 20th, 1794. He left a great work, especially in anatomy and physiology, and a lot of historical eulogies.

  11. The French Masonic Tributes to Abraham Lincoln

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    Olivier Frayssé


    Full Text Available Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865 sparked off a real shock wave in the United States as well as abroad. In France, as in the US, many Masonic institutions and Freemasons took initiatives to honor the memory of the great man, whose virtues were glorified and likened to Masonic values and were often based on the assumption that Lincoln was a Mason himself. However, French Freemasonry was highly politicized, and a close examination of the Masonic tributes to Lincoln also tells the story of a bitter political strife thinly veiled by the literary genre of eulogies, the fight of democracy against imperial rule. This fight of 1865 led to the creation of the Statue of Liberty, via the Lincoln medal.

  12. A doxology to Christ (Rev. 1:5e-6

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    J. C. de Smidt


    Full Text Available Revelation 1:5e-6 is a doxology, an eulogy on the characteristics (attributes of Christ. Christ’s churches celebrate the enduring love of Christ, who by a once-and-for-all historical act redeemed them from enslavement to sin. Through this redemptive achievement Christ obtained royal and priestly prerogatives for believers in the present. The meaning of this doxology is investigated from a “heilgeschichtlich” and covenantal context. The acts of Christ are framed by the acts of God; God thus is the “Principium Essendi”. The point of departure in this article is that an ontological relationship exists between the theologia naturalis and the theologia supra- naturalis in the final phase of God’s kingdom.

  13. Athelstan Frederick Spilhaus (1911-1998) (United States)

    Knauss, John

    Athelstan Frederick Spilhaus, who died on March 30 at the age of 86, lived a full and varied life. His obituary in the New York Times gave prominence to his world famous collection of some 3000 antique children's toys. The Economist referred to him as the “inventor of aliens,” noting that it was the remains of one of his instrumented balloons found scattered in the sands of Roswell, New Mexico, in June 1947 that triggered the cult of believers in visitors from outer space. Robert Abel noted in a funeral eulogy that as a meteorological observer in China's Yenan Province during World War II, Spilhaus came to know and respect Mao Zedong many years before Chairman Mao came to power.

  14. Couplings: Agon and Composition in Paul Muldoon’s Ekphrastic Poetry

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    Rui Carvalho Homem


    Full Text Available In the course of more than thirty years of prolific writing, Paul Muldoon has earned a reputation for surprising his readers again and again. To a significant extent, this continued ability to “make it new” is closely linked to Muldoon’s characteristically relational writing. Often described (in tones of eulogy or of deprecation as the epitome of a postmodernist practice, his work has tested the limits of intertextuality —and his penchant for quotation, pastiche and parody has rather often sought referents in other media, notably in the visual arts. Taking a specific instance of ekphrasis in Muldoon’s poetry for its point of departure and its focus, this article proceeds to address broader themes in his work, as well as to consider his practice against the framework defined by a major alternative for reading the relationship between word and image: as rivalry and struggle, or as peaceful and mutual enablement.

  15. J. B. Priestley, artiste de propagande à la radio : au service de quelles idées ? The 1940 Postscripts: Government Propaganda vs. Priestley’s Political and Philosophical Ideology?

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    Cécile Vallée


    Full Text Available J.B Priestley’s Sunday Postscript, broadcast on the Home Service of the BBC every Sunday evening from June to October 1940, was one of the major propaganda programmes of the period. Priestley’s adeptness at putting government propaganda into broadcasting terms and sustaining morale on the Home Front was paradoxically accompanied by a controversial political “indiscipline”. His galvanising propaganda consisted in praising the qualities of the ordinary citizen, painting an idealised picture of the “soldiers” on the home Front and of their fight, in promoting the values for which they were fighting and, at the same time, demonising the Nazi enemy, but it sometimes verged on subversive political ideology. His obvious attempts at propagating the vision of a New Jerusalem with its socialist innuendoes were judged as going against the war effort and against national unity. Indeed, the fight against capitalism and the creation of a new world order were not exactly part of the government’s agenda. Notwithstanding, there is another, more philosophical, dimension to Priestley’s 1940 Postscripts which must not be neglected: that of the beauty of the English countryside, and the wonder such beauty should inspire. The Postscripts are also a eulogy to humour, joy, and human relationships, as well as to the community spirit and the continuity of English history, a eulogy to art and knowledge, philosophy and humanities, and, last but not least, to poetry and the power of emotions. Priestley’s artful mixture of poetical and political fervour was an undeniable source of inspiration for the listeners of 1940 and his Postscripts remain to this day in people’s hearts and minds. In the following pages we shall try to analyse their contents, with a view to making a distinction between what is clearly government propaganda and what is Priestley’s own philosophy of life and ideology.

  16. A possible "grinder" from Tell Arbid, Syria. (United States)

    Pitre, Mindy C; Koliński, Rafał; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz


    Cereal grinding has been practiced in Mesopotamia since the Upper Palaeolithic. While evidence of cereal grinding is clear from the archaeological and textual records, what remains unclear is whether the activity leaves signs on the skeleton in the form of markers of occupational stress (MOS). A particular constellation of MOS (e.g., osteoarthritis, traumatic injuries, and accessory articular facets) has previously been used to infer the habitual grinding of grain. These same MOS were recently observed in the skeleton of a female discovered in the Middle Bronze Age cemetery at Tell Arbid, NE Syria. Through differential diagnosis our results suggest that it remains problematic to identify grain-processing activities from the skeleton, even when a bioarchaeological approach is carried out.

  17. Cultural patterns of trauma among 19th-century-born males in cadaver collections. (United States)

    De La Cova, Carlina


    Comprehending violence among bioarchaeological and historical groups is a topic of recent interest among biological anthropologists. This research examines trauma among African American and Euro-American males of low socioeconomic status born between 1825 and 1877. A total of 651 male skeletons from the Cobb, Terry, and Hamann-Todd anatomical collections were macroscopically evaluated for skeletal trauma, based on the presence of fractures and weapon-related wounds, and statistically analyzed according to ancestry, birth (Antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction), combined ancestry - birth, and collection cohorts. Results indicated that African Americans and Euro-Americans expressed ethnic differences in regard to interpersonal violence. To interpret these disparities, documentary data were used to reconstruct the socioeconomic and cultural environment of these individuals. This research emphasizes the importance of evaluating skeletal data within the context of class, culture, and environment so that behavioral patterns observed in the skeleton can be better understood.

  18. Symbolic bones and interethnic violence in a frontier zone, northwest Mexico, ca. 500-900 C.E. (United States)

    Nelson, Ben A; Martin, Debra L


    Although extensive deposits of disarticulated, commingled human bones are common in the prehispanic Northern Frontier of Mesoamerica, detailed bioarchaeological analyses of them are not. To our knowledge, this article provides the first such analysis of bone from a full residential-ceremonial complex and evaluates multiple hypotheses about its significance, concluding that the bones actively represented interethnic violence as well as other relationships among persons living and dead. Description of these practices is important to the discussion of multiethnic societies because the frontier was a context where urbanism and complexity were emerging and groups with the potential to form multiethnic societies were interacting, possibly in the same ways that groups did before the formation of larger multiethnic city-states in the core of Mesoamerica.

  19. Mycology in palaeoecology and forensic science. (United States)

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J


    Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims. This contribution outlines the main features of palynology, and gives examples of case studies where fungal spores, pollen, and plant spores, have enhanced the interpretation of ancient landscapes and land-use, and provided pivotal intelligence, and probative evidence, in criminal investigations. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Historical Trends in Graduate Research and Training of Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (United States)

    Bethard, Jonathan D


    The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115). Doctoral dissertation titles were queried to discern broad patterns of research foci. A total of 39 doctoral granting institutions have trained diplomates and 77.3% of board-certified forensic anthropologists wrote dissertations involving skeletal biology, bioarchaeology, or forensic anthropology. Board-certified forensic anthropologists are a broadly trained group of professionals with far-reaching anthropological interests and expertise. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Development of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth in fallow deer (Dama dama). (United States)

    Kierdorf, H; Hommelsheim, S; Kierdorf, U


    The study describes crown and root formation of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth of fallow deer from a gestational age of 22-23 weeks up to a post-natal age of 33 months. Tooth development was recorded using a scoring scheme based on morphological criteria ranging from crypt formation to completion of root growth. The morphological appearance of the enamel surface during three different stages (secretory-stage enamel, maturation-stage enamel and mature enamel) was described, and the approximate age at termination of the secretory stage of amelogenesis in the deciduous and permanent mandibular cheek teeth was determined. The data enable an age estimation of fallow deer up to 3 years of age and provide a basis for assessing the timing of stress episodes that affect tooth crown formation. This information is useful for the management of the species as well as in bioarchaeological and bioindication studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Symbolic bones and interethnic violence in a frontier zone, northwest Mexico, ca. 500–900 C.E. (United States)

    Nelson, Ben A.; Martin, Debra L.


    Although extensive deposits of disarticulated, commingled human bones are common in the prehispanic Northern Frontier of Mesoamerica, detailed bioarchaeological analyses of them are not. To our knowledge, this article provides the first such analysis of bone from a full residential-ceremonial complex and evaluates multiple hypotheses about its significance, concluding that the bones actively represented interethnic violence as well as other relationships among persons living and dead. Description of these practices is important to the discussion of multiethnic societies because the frontier was a context where urbanism and complexity were emerging and groups with the potential to form multiethnic societies were interacting, possibly in the same ways that groups did before the formation of larger multiethnic city-states in the core of Mesoamerica. PMID:25941398

  3. Stressing out in medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamble, Julia A.; Boldsen, Jesper L.; Hoppa, Robert D.


    with the information from adult skeletal remains, such as age at death. The purpose of this research was to use a life history approach to the exploration of sex differences in the relationship between childhood stress and adult longevity by examining accentuated striae of Retzius (AS). A medieval Danish sample (n......The influence of early life stress on later life experiences has become a major focus of research in medicine and more recently in bioarchaeology. Dental enamel, which preserves a record of childhood stress events, represents an important resource for this investigation when paired...... = 70) drawn from the rural cemetery of Sejet and the urban cemetery of Ole Wormsgade was considered for AS and age at death. The results suggest sex differences in survivorship, with more stress being associated with reduced survivorship in males and increased survivorship in females. A consideration...

  4. Evolutionary anthropology and genes: investigating the genetics of human evolution from excavated skeletal remains. (United States)

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D


    The development of molecular tools for the extraction, analysis and interpretation of DNA from the remains of ancient organisms (paleogenetics) has revolutionised a range of disciplines as diverse as the fields of human evolution, bioarchaeology, epidemiology, microbiology, taxonomy and population genetics. The paper draws attention to some of the challenges associated with the extraction and interpretation of ancient DNA from archaeological material, and then reviews the influence of paleogenetics on the field of human evolution. It discusses the main contributions of molecular studies to reconstructing the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between extinct hominins (human ancestors) and anatomically modern humans. It also explores the evidence for evolutionary changes in the genetic structure of anatomically modern humans in recent millennia. This breadth of research has led to discoveries that would never have been possible using traditional approaches to human evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Ancient teeth: research on teeth and jaws from archaeological sites]. (United States)

    Jelsma, J


    Archaeology aims to enhance our understanding of the human past. An archaeologist devotes him- or herself to material remains, most often from the earth. The best sources of information about human behaviour and the earlier conditions of life for human beings are gravesites. In addition to being a source of cultural information, well-preserved skeletons offer vast possibilities for biochemical and genetic research. Teeth in particular can provide a treasure trove of information about the lives of our ancestors. With DNA analysis, gender and genetic relationships can be determined, however, the surface of the teeth also provides information about gender, age and genetic relationships and, of course, about the use of the teeth. New discoveries are being made and new (bio-)archaeological analyses are being carried out all the time.

  6. Sex assessment from carpals bones: discriminant function analysis in a contemporary Mexican sample. (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Paola; De Luca, Stefano; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela


    Sex assessment is one of the first essential steps in human identification, in both medico-legal cases and bio-archaeological contexts. Fragmentary human remains compromised by different types of burial or physical insults may frustrate the use of the traditional sex estimation methods, such as the analysis of the skull and pelvis. Currently, the application of discriminant functions to sex unidentified skeletal remains is steadily increasing. However, several studies have demonstrated that, due to variation in size and patterns of sexual dimorphism, discriminant functions are population-specific. In this study, in order to improve sex assessment from skeletal remains and to establish population-specific discriminant functions, the diagnostic values of the carpal bones were considered. A sample of 136 individuals (78 males, 58 females) of known sex and age was analyzed. They belong to a contemporary identified collection from the Laboratory of Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City). The age of the individuals ranged between 25 and 85 years. Between four and nine measurements of each carpal bone were taken. Independent t-tests confirm that all carpals are sexually dimorphic. Univariate measurements produce accuracy levels that range from 61.8% to 90.8%. Classification accuracies ranged between 81.3% and 92.3% in the multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis. In addition, intra- and inter-observer error tests were performed. These indicated that replication of measurements was satisfactory for the same observer over time and between observers. These results suggest that carpal bones can be used for assessing sex in both forensic and bio-archaeological identification procedures and that bone dimensions are population specific. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The sex-selective impact of the Black Death and recurring plagues in the Southern Netherlands, 1349-1450. (United States)

    Curtis, Daniel R; Roosen, Joris


    Although recent work has begun to establish that early modern plagues had selective mortality effects, it was generally accepted that the initial outbreak of Black Death in 1347-52 was a "universal killer." Recent bioarchaeological work, however, has argued that the Black Death was also selective with regard to age and pre-plague health status. The issue of the Black Death's potential sex selectivity is less clear. Bioarchaeological research hypothesizes that sex-selection in mortality was possible during the initial Black Death outbreak, and we present evidence from historical sources to test this notion. To determine whether the Black Death and recurring plagues in the period 1349-1450 had a sex-selective mortality effect. We present a newly compiled database of mortality information taken from mortmain records in Hainaut, Belgium, in the period 1349-1450, which not only is an important new source of information on medieval mortality, but also allows for sex-disaggregation. We find that the Black Death period of 1349-51, as well as recurring plagues in the 100 years up to 1450, often had a sex-selective effect-killing more women than in "non-plague years." Although much research tends to suggest that men are more susceptible to a variety of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites, we cannot assume that the same direction of sex-selection in mortality applied to diseases in the distant past such as Second Pandemic plagues. While the exact reasons for the sex-selective effect of late-medieval plague are unclear in the absence of further data, we suggest that simple inequities between the sexes in exposure to the disease may not have been a key driver. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gazelleri Işığında Bâkî’de Tefâhür Self-Praise in Consideration of His Odes in Baki

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    Mustafa KARADENİZ


    Full Text Available Fahriye, which is an Arabic word originally, is, in the traditional sense, a part of eulogies in which poet sing praises of himself and his poetry intensely. Ottoman poet generally priortised praise dignitaries in eulogy. In this chapter called Meddhiyye poets beg for pecuniary or non-pecuniary assistance. In the following chapter called fahriye, Ottoman poets who mentioned their virtues in their poems, imply their superiority to other Ottoman poets by mentioning their own expertise in poetry. It was an opportunity for Ottoman poets to self-praise as fahriyes followed medhiyye chapters in their poems. Besides this general acceptance, poets also give place to couplets containing headlamp in masnavis and lyrics though not in a section like eulogies. The couplets where the Ottoman poets about to praise themselves, are generally pseudonym couplets. Pseudonym couplet particularly gave an opportunity to Ottoman poets to initiate Fahriye besides to introduce the poet. When studied Divan of Baki, who was a renown Ottoman poet in the 16th century, brilliant and gorgeous fahriye couplets can be seen in his pseudonym couplets in his lyrics. Axis of this study, outside of fahriyes of eulogies, will be formed on occasion of lyric poets in which poets finds an opportunity to praise themselves and their poetry. In light of this informations, self-praise and fahriye concepts will be addressed through the pseudonym couplets of Baki’s lyrics. In the introduction, it will be given information about the concept of meaning of words and terms of fahriye and it will be focused on its content and place in tradition of Eulogies. In the final section of our study, it will be focused on manifestations of fahriye tradition as well as the various pseudonyms of Baki's lyrics. Köken itibariyle Arapça bir sözcük olan fahriye, şairin kendisini ve şairliğini övmek maksadıyla yoğunlukla ve geleneksel olarak kasideler içinde yer verdiği bir bölümdür. Divan

  9. ‘A Discovery of Quite Exceptional Proportions’: Controversies in the Wake of Anders Nummedal’s Discoveries of Norway’s First Inhabitants

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    Heidi Mjelva Breivik


    Full Text Available Around the beginning of the twentieth century archaeologists believed that Norway was not inhabited until the Late Stone Age. In 1909 two pieces of flint, found by the school-teacher Anders Nummedal, launched an extensive debate about the prehistory of Norway, which in time led to the acknowledgement that there was an Early Mesolithic (9500–8000 BC settlement of the country. However, Nummedal’s lack of archaeological education worked against him when he tried to date the many flint sites he found later on, and well-established researchers found his theories about Stone Age settlements unconvincing. He was regarded as an unskilled teacher who did not know the first thing about archaeological methods and terminology. Today, Nummedal is considered to be one of the most influential participants in Norwegian Stone Age research, and his discoveries are well known and widely recognized. This paper describes Nummedal’s fight to transform his reputation from ridiculed amateur to respected professional. The resistance he met when presenting his sensational theories is detailed through an extensive review of letters, newspaper articles and eulogies written by his colleagues.

  10. Sassi contro il cielo Menzogna individuale e verità di Stato in Oscar Wilde

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    Duccio Chiapello


    Full Text Available The late Victorian era saw Oscar Wilde’s rise to success and fall from grace. For many years the Irish author lived a double life. He was both a celebrated man of letters, and an irreducibly extraneous body. His essay The Decay of Lying, published in 1889, is a Socratic dialogue that, through its inherent duplicity, exhibits this binary condition. On one hand it is a brilliant work of criticism – pleasantly heterodox – that fully embodies Wilde’s rule of “bewildering the masses”, while on the other, even though backhandedly, it gives a recalcitrant account of the implacable social control of his time. In this eulogy of the art of lying – mainly understood as a way of “saying no” to the truths of power – Wilde reveals the theoretical foundations and originality of his political philosophy, which is the same as that displayed in his later essay The Soul of Man Under Socialism (1891.

  11. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

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    Tahl Kaminer


    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  12. «Strong as Death is Love»: Eros and Education at the End of Time

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    Samuel D Rocha


    Full Text Available This essay is an extended reflection on the relationship between death and love expressed in a fragment from Song of Songs 8:6: «Strong as death is love». The passage will be analyzed through a Jewish, Orthodox, and Catholic exegesis and literary reflection. In particular, the essay describes the role of a particular form of love (eros within a particular form of education (education at the end of time. While eros has frequently been ignored or resigned to a purely sexualized role, we will look closely at Augustine’s eulogy of his mother, Monica, in the Confessions, suggesting that perhaps the most visceral expression of eros is to be found in the phenomenology of death. We will also draw on the phenomenological manifestation of death by looking to the rich description of dying provided by Leo Tolstoy in his novella, The Death of Ivan Ilych. Together these investigations of eros and education yield a «curriculum of death», which draws on the re-conceptualist notion of curriculum. Our claim is that this curriculum of death offers a sense of urgency and seriousness found lacking in schools today, where death abounds, but is rarely if ever addressed in a humanistic way. This final methodological emphasis on the humanities elucidates more directly and critically the role of research for a curriculum of death within the dominance of social science in the field of education.

  13. "Beginning with the end in mind": imagining personal retirement speeches to promote professionalism. (United States)

    Yu, Eunice; Wright, Scott M


    The goal of teaching professionalism in medicine is to transform a theoretical concept into an internalized and actualized identity. Many trainees struggle with professionalism in the abstract, particularly when instruction methods are didactic and disconnected from personal experience. The authors aim to demonstrate the feasibility of having interns frame a personal definition of professionalism based on a reflective technique called "beginning with the end in mind." Interns composed remarks that might be used to introduce them at their own retirement ceremony following a career in medicine. This "career eulogies" exercise was introduced to groups of six interns during the first third of the internship year as part of a two-week curriculum focused on professional development. Two investigators independently coded the written introductions, identifying emergent themes through content analysis. Of the 19 interns in an internal medicine residency program (2012-13), 17 participated in the exercise. Six themes emerged from the data: aligning behaviors with core values, achieving excellence in medicine, changing the world and giving back, valuing teamwork and relationships, realizing work-life balance, and appreciating a career in medicine. These themes correlate with accepted published definitions of professionalism. The personal reflections produced through this exercise allow physicians to begin to formulate their professional self-conception. Extensions of this work might include linking such forms of critical reflection to individualized learning plans and updating the speeches over time. Further research on "reflecting forward" may determine its impact as a complement to traditional narrative reflection.

  14. Honor and war. Tension between the reality of war and ideological discourse in castilian chronicles of the first half of the fourteenth century

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    Fernando Arias Guillén


    Full Text Available Chronicles represented one of the principal instruments used by different medieval powers to project ideas that legitimized and eulogized their authority. Warfare therefore frequently constitutes a key element of these texts. During the reign of Alfonso XI, the Crown of Castile promoted works that not only justified and glorified the king’s political activity, but also invoked an idealised image of warfare. This image was based on the idea of warfare as an honourable activity and the exclusive domain of a social elite, and therefore did not reflect real military practice. The authors of these works also considered the defence of the king’s honour a valid justification for war, even when this conflicted with more pragmatic attitudes. The Royal Chronicler Fernán Sánchez de Valladolid managed to reconcile the two in order to maintain the monarch beyond criticism. onicler, achieved to combine both in order to maintain the monarch beyond criticism. This approach was not exclusive to Castilian Chronicles, as it also constituted a characteristic element of other contemporary texts, like the works of Froissart or the French Royal Chronicles. This paper concludes that, rather than providing a reliable account of an event, chronicles often based their narratives on a series of common images and ideas that reflected a predetermined ideological discourse.

  15. On ne doit pas parler la bouche pleine

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    Alain Boureau


    Full Text Available L’auteur, à la recherche à la fois d’une historiographie non-thomiste et de l’histoire de la théorie politique du xiiie siècle suit la définition foucauldienne, reprise par Senellart, de la pastorale comme forme de gouvernement, distincte de la souveraineté et des disciplines de pouvoir. Il revient alors au xiie siècle et à Guillaume de Saint-Thierry qui fait un radical et surprenant panégyrique de l’administration comme véritable pouvoir.Looking for both a non-Thomistic historiography and history of political theory in XIIIth century Europe, I followed Foucault’s and Senellaert’s definition of a “pastoral” form of government, different from sovereignty and from disciplines, and went back to the XIIth century and to William of Saint-Thierry, who made a strong and surprising eulogy of administration, as a real power.

  16. Albertet, “En amor trob tantz de mals seignoratges” (BdT 16.13

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    Francesca Sanguineti


    Full Text Available The article provides a commentary and a new critical edition of Albertet’s poem “En amor trob tantz de mals seignoratges”, in which the troubadour praises some of the most courtly ladies of his time. The poem can be linked to the genre of the collective eulogy, where the enumerated ladies are praised essentially for political reasons, since the commendation is clearly addressed to the men hidden behind them: famous specimena of this genre are the ‘tournoiements des dames’ by Huon d’Oisy and Richard de Semilli and Raimbaut de Vaqueiras’ “Carros” (BdT 392.32. Albertet’s song starts with a misogynic tone, since the poet declares that celebrating or loving ladies is worthless, given their immoral behaviour, and with a polemic against the strict rules of courtly love. This misogyny, as is further discovered, is a rhetorical device to praise women as well as a tool to renew the genre of the love song from a thematic point of view.

  17. Second/Third Generation Asian Business Entrepreneurs in the Uk

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    Spinder Dhaliwal


    Full Text Available The “growth” of Asian enterprises has been a much commented feature of the small business population. Asian entrepreneurs have been eulogized by the popular press keen to laud free enterprise heroes. More detached academic commentary has also sought to identify the key success factors for this entrepreneurial minority. This paper seeks to explore the role of the second/third generation of British Asian entrepreneurs who were brought up and educated in the UK. In order to analyze the position of second/third generation Asians in business, a series of qualitative interviews were undertaken with 10 respondents, five men and five women. The questions asked focus upon second generation banking, management style, use of technology and expansion. This paper sheds light n a number of neglected issues within the increasingly important area of ethnic entrepreneurship. First a clearer picture will emerge of the roles, responsibilities, vision and practices of this new generation of entrepreneurs. Second, methodologically the paper will be novel in so far as the gender and ethnicity issues are both taken into account. Half the respondents are women. Hence the study also aims to examine the hitherto neglected issue of women’s experiences in managing enterprises. Finally, policy makers are increasingly reminded to appreciate the need of the diversity of ethnic minorities in business.

  18. Peire Bremon Ricas Novas, “Rics pres, ferms e sobeirans” (BdT 330.15a

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    Paolo Di Luca


    Full Text Available This article provides a new critical edition and a commentary of Peire Bremon Ricas Novas’s “Rics pres, ferms e sobeirans”, a courtly love song composed between 1228 and 1257 and dedicated to Audiart del Baux. Built as a eulogy of the lady, the song focuses on the central theme of the moral and material ‘ricor’ (richness of the latter. The complexity of the metrical form, which displays a systematic use of the technique of ‘rim derivatiu’, is paralleled by the semantic obscurity of a number of verses and hapaxes, all discussed in the commentary. Stanzas III and IV show echoes of Jaufre Rudel’s “amor de lonh”, since the lover-poet declares that the distance and the ethnical difference between himself and the lady are abolished by the strength of his feelings. The use of ethnonyms in stanza IV is closely examined: the lover-poet reveals that he loves a Castilian lady who looks like a ‘Serrana’ (the name of an Iberian population, admitting that he would like her even if she were Catalan or Syrian. These references to the lady’s ethnical origins are puzzling: they can be read as a calembour with burlesque overtones, as well as a climax aiming to define the real provenance of the lady or as a rhetorical device to underline that courtly love does not know any kind of boundary.

  19. A tribute to Peter H Seeburg (1944-2016: a founding father of molecular neurobiology

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    William Wisden


    Full Text Available On 22nd August 2016, the fields of molecular neurobiology and endocrinology lost one of their pioneers and true giants, Peter Seeburg, who died aged 72, a day after his birthday. His funeral ceremony took place in Heidelberg where he had worked since 1988, first as a professor at the University of Heidelberg (ZMBH and then since 1996 as a director of the Max Plank Institute (Dept. of Molecular Neurobiology. Many of Peter’s former colleagues, students and postdocs came together with his family members to celebrate his life. Touching eulogies were given by no less than two Nobel prize winners: the physiologist Bert Sakmann, who collaborated with Peter for many years, and the developmental biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Vollhard, who was a friend and fellow PhD student with Peter. His professional contemporary, Heinrich Betz, gave a warm and endearing assessment of Peter’s contributions to the field of molecular neurobiology. One of Peter’s sons, Daniel P. Seeburg, now a neuroradiologist in the USA, and biotechnologist Karoly Nikolics, one of Peter’s friends from the days of Genentech, both emotionally summed up the warm and intense character of the man that many of his former students and postdocs knew.

  20. Fact, Myth and Legend in Matthew Arnold’s Westminster Abbey

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    Tadej Braček


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multilayered elegy “Westminster Abbey;” which was not given a lot of attention by Matthew Arnold’s critics. The poem is dedicated to Arnold’s life-long friend Dean Stanley; who was; like Arnold himself; “a child of light.” The term refers to their common fight against Philistinism in the English society of the time. As the poem is about a real person; it contains real data; such as excerpts from Stanley’s life; described in the form of praise. However; the poem also introduces the old Saxon legend of consecration of the Abbey; namely the consecration by the light; performed by the First Apostle (St Peter himself. In addition to the legend; Arnold also used some classical Greek allusions to depict the late Dean’s character. In one of the allusions; Stanley is associated with Demophon; whose immortality was never achieved due to the fault of another human; and in the second he is transformed into an everlasting oracle of the Abbey using the Trophonius; a builder of Delphi; metaphor. All elements of the poem form a homogenous eulogy; making it worthwhile reading for English scholars and students; and possibly a candidate for the English poetic canon.

  1. The disguised prince in Gil Vicente’s novelistic theater

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    Luís André Nepomuceno


    Full Text Available From 1521, Gil Vicente renounces his religious theater to dedicate himself to profane and allegorical motifs, beginning a new stage in his career. Moved by the perusal of chivalric romances that spread throughout the Peninsula, the dramatist composed a series of at least four pieces dedicated to D. João III, in which the central (or circumstantial motif is the disguise of a prince in the lower classes, along with the following disclosure of his noble nature. Analyzing a specific corpus of the Vicentian theater (the pieces Rubena, Viúvo, Amadis de Gaula and Dom Duardos, the present paper tries to explain the historical motifs that permeate the theme of the ‘disguised prince’, considering the program of eulogy of the monarchy proposed by Gil Vicente, as well as an analysis of the nature of the humanist love spread by 16th century poets and philosophers. The disguise in the lower classes reveals the aristocratic essence of the courtesan, but also the ritualistic experience in the trajectory of the spiritualized love.

  2. Paleohistology and the study of human remains: past, present and future approaches / La paleohistologia y el estudio de restos humanos: aproximaciones pasadas presentes y futuras

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    Sandra Assis


    Full Text Available The invention of the microscope revolutionized the course of human knowledge. This instrument changed the face of science and of previous beliefs, expanded the horizons of knowledge, and challenged philosophical and scientific thought, especially in the field of natural sciences and medicine. In the domain of bioarchaeology, the introduction of histological techniques was important; not only to identify body tissues and to diagnose diseases in mummified remains, but also to understand bone and teeth microstructure, and associated patterns of response to environmental constraints. In this paper a critical review of the major contributions of histology to the growing body of knowledge in paleopathology and bioarchaeology will be presented, focusing on the current multiple applications of microscopy, its limitations, and its future challenges. KEY WORDS microscopy; dry bone remains; multiple approaches   La invención del microscopio ha revolucionado el curso del conocimiento humano. Este instrumento cambió la “cara” de la ciencia y de las creencias anteriores, amplió los horizontes del conocimiento y retó al pensamiento filosófico y científico, especialmente en el campo de las ciencias naturales y la medicina. En el dominio de la bioarqueología, la introducción de técnicas histológicas fue determinante, no sólo para identificar los tejidos del cuerpo y diagnosticar enfermedades en restos momificados, sino también para comprender la microestructura y dinámica de los huesos y los dientes, y los patrones asociados de respuesta a las restricciones ambientales. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión crítica de las principales contribuciones de la histología al creciente cuerpo de conocimientos de la paleopatología y la bioarqueología, con énfasis en las actuales aplicaciones de la microscopía, sus limitaciones y los desafíos para el futuro. PALABRAS CLAVE microscopía, restos humanos, múltiples enfoques

  3. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons. (United States)

    Marklein, Kathryn E; Crews, Douglas E


    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2-11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman's correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative indices for

  4. Brief communication: preliminary radiocarbon dates from Florida crania in Hrdlička's gulf states catalog. (United States)

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Johnson, Kent M


    Aleš Hrdlička produced a tremendous amount of data in his career, much of which was published in a series of catalogs by the US National Museum. The Gulf States catalog, for example, contains raw craniometric data for over 700 individuals from the state of Florida alone. However, many of these skeletons are poorly sourced by Hrdlička, thus limiting their utility in modern bioarchaeological analyses where context is critical. In particular, the age of the skeletal material is often based solely on associated material culture and information on the sites themselves is not presented by Hrdlička. To address this impasse we attempted radiocarbon dates for 10 of the largest Florida sites published in the Gulf States catalog. In addition, archival data in the form of unpublished field notes and personal correspondence were accessed to better contextualize the radiocarbon dates and to provide some guidance on the degree of temporal variability at the sites. Eight AMS radiocarbon dates were successful. Archival data was of variable quality per site. In some cases very little is known about the provenience of the specimens. In other cases, however, individual burials could be allocated to specific strata within specific mounds. The relevance of using published raw data is discussed with respect to the Howells and Boas Immigrant datasets and the impact the dissemination of these resources has had on the discipline. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Issues of affinity: exploring population structure in the Middle and Regional Developments Periods of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Hubbe, Mark


    The Middle Period (AD 400-1000) in northern Chile's Atacama oases is characterized by an increase in social complexity and regional interaction, much of which was organized around the power and impact of the Tiwanaku polity. Despite the strong cultural influence of Tiwanaku and numerous other groups evident in interactions with Atacameños, the role of immigration into the oases during this period is unclear. While archaeological and bioarchaeological research in the region has shown no evidence that clearly indicates large groups of foreign immigrants, the contemporary increase in interregional exchange networks connecting the oases to other parts of the Andes suggests residential mobility and the possibility that movement of people both into and out of the oases accompanied these foreign influences. Here, we analyze biodistance through cranial non-metric traits in a skeletal sample from prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama to elucidate the extent of foreign influence in the oases and discuss its implications. We analyzed 715 individuals from the Middle Period (AD 400-1000) and later Regional Developments Period (AD 1000-1450), and found greater phenotypic differences between Middle Period cemeteries than among cemeteries in the subsequent period. We argue that this greater diversity extends beyond the relationship between the oases and the renowned Tiwanaku polity and reflects the role of the oases and its different ayllus as a node and way station for the Middle Period's myriad interregional networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stressing out in medieval Denmark: An investigation of dental enamel defects and age at death in two medieval Danish cemeteries. (United States)

    Gamble, Julia A; Boldsen, Jesper L; Hoppa, Robert D


    The influence of early life stress on later life experiences has become a major focus of research in medicine and more recently in bioarchaeology. Dental enamel, which preserves a record of childhood stress events, represents an important resource for this investigation when paired with the information from adult skeletal remains, such as age at death. The purpose of this research was to use a life history approach to the exploration of sex differences in the relationship between childhood stress and adult longevity by examining accentuated striae of Retzius (AS). A medieval Danish sample (n=70) drawn from the rural cemetery of Sejet and the urban cemetery of Ole Wormsgade was considered for AS and age at death. The results suggest sex differences in survivorship, with more stress being associated with reduced survivorship in males and increased survivorship in females. A consideration of AS formation time also suggests a difference in the impact of developmental timing between males and females. These results are interpreted in terms of differential frailty and selective mortality, drawing in both biomedical and cultural perspectives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mastoid trepanation in a deceased from medieval Croatia: a case report. (United States)

    Boljunčić, Jadranka; Hat, Josip


    We present a rare case of infratentorial mastoid trepanation, by drilling, from medieval Croatia. An artificial ante-mortal opening was found in a male skeleton from the 11th century cemetery Zvonimirovo. It was placed roughly at the intersection of the Frankfurt's plane and the midline of the right mastoid. The right posterior parietal of the deceased also exhibited a callus-like formation consistent with the linear cranial fracture. Our aim was to investigate by computed tomography (CT) a possible presence of otopathology--a chronic middle ear infection--MEI/mastoiditis or cholesteatoma. On the other hand, both standard radiography and CT were employed in a cranial fracture diagnostic agreement. The generated CT scans confirmed the presence of an artificial hole running into a well defined trepanne canal connected with the antrum. The presence of otopathology was not established. The radiography and CT substantiated the presence of a linear posterior parietal discontinuity--without displacement, in front of the right lambdoid suture. From the medical point of view, it would be unusual to perform infratentorial--mastoid trepanation for reasons of treating supratentorial trauma, i.e. possible posttraumatic acute subdural hematoma (PTASDH). However, since there was a lack of CT evidence of osteolysis in ME, there is a possibility of medieval trepanation procedure performed for reasons of posttraumatic treat- ment. To our best knowledge, usually, ancient trepanations described in Croatian bioarchaeology and all over the world are supratentorial and do not always reveal such sophisticated surgical techniques.

  8. Trends in mortality and biological stress in a medieval polish urban population. (United States)

    Betsinger, Tracy K; DeWitte, Sharon


    Urbanization in pre-modern populations may have had a variety of consequences related to population crowding. However, research on the effects of urbanization have provided inconsistent results regarding the biological impact of this transition on human populations. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that urbanization caused an increase in overall biological stress in a medieval (10th-13th centuries AD) Polish population. A human skeletal sample (n=164) was examined for the presence of porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasia, periosteal reaction, and specific infectious diseases. Prevalence rates were compared among three temporal samples: initial urbanization, early urbanization, and later urbanization. Results indicate no significant trends for any of the pathological conditions. Cox proportional hazards analyses, however, revealed a significant increase in the risk of death over time, which supports the hypothesis. These results reflect the necessity of using multiple analyses to address bioarchaeological questions. The lack of significant results from skeletal indicators may be due to an earlier urbanization trend in the population. This study illustrates that the association of urbanization with elevated biological stress is complicated and dependent on various factors, including culture and time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic mercury exposure in Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic populations in Portugal from the cultural use of cinnabar (United States)

    Emslie, Steven D.; Brasso, Rebecka; Patterson, William P.; Carlos Valera, António; McKenzie, Ashley; Maria Silva, Ana; Gleason, James D.; Blum, Joel D.


    Cinnabar is a natural mercury sulfide (HgS) mineral of volcanic or hydrothermal origin that is found worldwide. It has been mined prehistorically and historically in China, Japan, Europe, and the Americas to extract metallic mercury (Hg0) for use in metallurgy, as a medicinal, a preservative, and as a red pigment for body paint and ceramics. Processing cinnabar via combustion releases Hg0 vapor that can be toxic if inhaled. Mercury from cinnabar can also be absorbed through the gut and skin, where it can accumulate in organs and bone. Here, we report moderate to high levels of total mercury (THg) in human bone from three Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic (5400-4100 B.P.) sites in southern Portugal that were likely caused by cultural use of cinnabar. We use light stable isotope and Hg stable isotope tracking to test three hypotheses on the origin of mercury in this prehistoric human bone. We traced Hg in two individuals to cinnabar deposits near Almadén, Spain, and conclude that use of this mineral likely caused mild to severe mercury poisoning in the prehistoric population. Our methods have applications to bioarchaeological investigations worldwide, and for tracking trade routes and mobility of prehistoric populations where cinnabar use is documented.

  10. The identification of a human skull recovered from an eBay sale. (United States)

    Seidemann, Ryan M; Stojanowski, Christopher M; Rich, Fredrick J


    A human skull seized by the State of Louisiana from an eBay sale is analyzed. Bioarchaeological analyses of age-at-death, sex, and population affinity suggest the individual represented by the skull was a middle-aged Native American female. The presence of intentional cranial modification independently supports the population affinity assessment while confounding the metric analyses. However, no further specificity as to population affinity could be inferred using existing methods and comparative databases. Sedimentological and palynological analyses were attempted to redress this impasse. The presence of fine-grained charcoal, abundant fungal remains, and small angular quartz grains suggestive of burial in loess, as well as the lack of pollen, pteridophyte spores, and microscopic algae, suggest a likely upland burial location from somewhere in the lower Mississippi Valley. The sedimentological and palynological analyses, while not conclusive, show promise for use in future affiliation analyses of human remains recovered during the course of forensic investigations. The results are reviewed within the broader context of the legal debate over the repatriation of human remains.

  11. Current status and perspectives of the development of dental research in biological anthropology of Argentina: introduction and conclusions of the symposium. (United States)

    Luna, Leandro H; Bernal, Valeria


    This paper describes and discusses the research in the field of dental anthropology in Argentina. It has been presented at the symposium entitled "The development of dental research in Argentine Biological Anthropology: current status and perspectives", coordinated by the authors at the IX National Meeting of Biological Anthropology of Argentina, Puerto Madryn, 20th-23rd October 2009. The aim of the symposium was to present new results and future prospects of this discipline in the country and to create a forum for discussion of current research within this field. Six contributions that focused on the study of teeth from different perspectives and analysed bioarchaeological samples from different areas of Argentina (Central Highlands, Pampa and Patagonia) were presented. After the presentations, a discussion about the state of the art of dental research in the country was generated, in which the need for the generation of methodological consensus on the criteria for the evaluation of the variables considered was stated, so that research conducted in different areas can be compared. In short, the contributions of this symposium provide insights into the diversity of dental anthropology in contemporary Argentina and the potential of these types of studies to gain important information about biological and cultural aspects of the native populations in the country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Spina Bifida Occulta in Medieval and Postmedieval Times in Eastern Romania

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    Vasilica-Monica Groza


    Full Text Available This paper provides bioarchaeological evidence of Spina Bifida Occulta (SBO in human skeletons discovered in medieval and post-medieval sites of Eastern Romania and evaluates its prevalence and patterns by examining its relationship to age, sex, type of sites (urban, elite and rural, and its morphological patterns. The skeletons found in burial and reburial tombs from five necropolises of the 14th–19th centuries, discovered in Eastern Romania, were analysed to determine individuals’ age and sex, pathologies and anomalies. Sacral SBO was identified in 11 subjects, for an overall prevalence of 4%; sacral SBO seems to be more common in endogam groups, as it is assumed to be that of the Princely Court. Apparently, this defect is more frequent in men (9 cases were males, its prevalence decreasing with age (from an overall value of 5.47% in young adults to 2.85% in old ones, but no statistically valid association could be demonstrated between the presence/absence of SBO and sex or age. Morphologically, in 8 cases, the sacral SBO corresponded to a more than 50% opening in the posterior arch.

  13. Beyond diet reconstruction: stable isotope applications to human physiology, health, and nutrition. (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J


    Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from soft or mineralized tissues is a direct and widely-used technique for modeling diets. In addition to its continued role in paleodiet analysis, stable isotope analysis is now contributing to studies of physiology, disease, and nutrition in archaeological and living human populations. In humans and other animals, dietary uptake and distribution of carbon and nitrogen among mineralized and soft tissue is carried out with varying efficiency due to factors of internal biology. Human pathophysiologies may lead to pathology-influenced isotopic fractionation that can be exploited to understand not just skeletal health and diet, but physiological health and nutrition. This study reviews examples from human biology, non-human animal ecology, biomedicine, and bioarchaeology demonstrating how stable isotope analyses are usefully applied to the study of physiological adaptation and adaptability. Suggestions are made for future directions in applying stable isotope analysis to the study of nutritional stress, disease, and growth and development in living and past human populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of discriminant functions for sexing skulls from visually assessed traits applied in the Rainer Osteological Collection (Bucharest, Romania). (United States)

    Soficaru, A; Constantinescu, M; Culea, M; Ionică, C


    The sexing of human skeletal remains based on visual scoring of descriptive traits on the skull is useful for both forensic and bioarchaeological studies, given that many such features preserve well in the field and can be assessed quickly. The goal of our work is to evaluate the accuracy of this method on an age-balanced, known sex, random sample of 360 modern adult crania in the Rainer Osteological Collection. Consistent with Walker (2008), we scored glabella area (G), the mastoid process (Ma), the mental eminence (M), the orbital edge (O) and the nuchal crest (N), on a five-point scale. We generated sex discriminant functions (logistic), selected the most accurate of them, and subsequently applied them to archaeological samples from Romania. Each skull feature showed significant score differences by sex. Eight out of 31 discriminant functions passed criteria of high accuracy (∼90%), sex bias (±2%), and ease of use (direct calculation of sex). The best estimates were obtained for the 30-60 age groups. Further testing these functions on six archaeological samples showed high percentages of agreement with the sex assessed on the coxal bone. The study also indicated that, although easy to learn by novices, the method of visually scoring the skull traits depends on prior experience with human osteology. The accuracy of the method may be influenced by geographical and historical differences which are bound to exist between populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Bayes in biological anthropology. (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R


    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Reconciling "stress" and "health" in physical anthropology: what can bioarchaeologists learn from the other subdisciplines? (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J; McIlvaine, Britney Kyle


    The concepts of "stress" and "health" are foundational in physical anthropology as guidelines for interpreting human behavior and biocultural adaptation in the past and present. Though related, stress and health are not coterminous, and while the term "health" encompasses some aspects of "stress," health refers to a more holistic condition beyond just physiological disruption, and is of considerable significance in contributing to anthropologists' understanding of humanity's lived experiences. Bioarchaeological interpretations of human health generally are made from datasets consisting of skeletal markers of stress, markers that result from (chronic) physiological disruption (e.g., porotic hyperostosis; linear enamel hypoplasia). Non-specific indicators of stress may measure episodes of stress and indicate that infection, disease, or nutritional deficiencies were present in a population, but in assessing these markers, bioarchaeologists are not measuring "health" in the same way as are human biologists, medical anthropologists, or primatologists. Rather than continue to diverge on separate (albeit parallel) trajectories, bioarchaeologists are advised to pursue interlinkages with other subfields within physical anthropology toward bridging "stress" and "health." The papers in this special symposium set include bioarchaeologists, human biologists, molecular anthropologists, and primatologists whose research develops this link between the concepts of "stress" and "health," encouraging new avenues for bioarchaeologists to consider and reconsider health in past human populations. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prosthetics in antiquity-An early medieval wearer of a foot prosthesis (6th century AD) from Hemmaberg/Austria. (United States)

    Binder, M; Eitler, J; Deutschmann, J; Ladstätter, S; Glaser, F; Fiedler, D


    Even though the earliest prosthetic devices date to the Ancient Egyptian Empire and iconographic sources attest their use in the Greco-Roman world, archaeological evidence for this practice prior to 2nd millennium AD is very scant. In 2013, a skeleton dating to the Frankish period (6th century AD) was excavated at the Hemmaberg in southern Austria. The middle adult male was missing his left foot from above the ankle. In its place, an iron-ring and wooden remains were recovered and interpreted as a prosthesis replacing the lost foot. This represents one of the oldest examples of prosthetic limb replacement associated with the skeleton of its wearer in Europe to date. Analysis through macroscopic assessment, radiography and CT-scanning revealed healing of the lesion even though it may have initially been complicated by osteomyelitis. Atrophy of the left lower leg further indicates immobilisation and suggests survival of several years. Osteoarthritis in the knees and shoulder girdle provides tentative indications towards the functionality of the prosthesis, perhaps aided through a crutch. These findings are set against the historic, archaeological, bioarchaeological and social context of the man in order to discuss whether removal of the foot was due to medical, punitive or traumatic causes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Ay mama Inés", de Jorge Guzmán: Entre la crónica y el testimonio

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    Renato Martínez


    Full Text Available La excelente novela de Guzmán se autodefine como crónica testimonial, sin embargo los géneros crónica y testimonio, pese a su similar contingencia histórica, tienen un signo retórico opuesto. La crónica con notorias excepciones -es eulógica y tiene propósitos fundacionales. El testimonio es, por el contrario, denunciatorio y subversivo. Ay mama Inés, encuentra existencia en un campo de fuerzas originado por la tensión entre un anverso cronicado y su reverso testimonial, y donde el primero termina desplazando al segundo. La consecuencia más importante del predominio de la crónica es el relato de Pedro de Valdivia como un héroe épico y trágico de grandes proporciones, mientras que su lado histórico, ideológico y social retrocede a un segundo lugar.   Guzman's excellent novel defines itself as a "testimonial chronicle", although genders such as "testimony" and "chronicle" are opposite rhetorical sings, despite similar historical contingencies. The chronicle, save excepcional cases, is eulogical and fulfills foundational purposes. Testimonial, on the contrary is denunciatory and subversive. "Ay Mama Ines" finds its literary existence from a tug-of-war between a chronicled anverse and a testimonial reverse, where the former ends by displacing the letter. The Most important consequence of the predomiance of the chronicle element is in the history of Pedro de Valdivia as an epic and tragic hero of great proportions whereas his historical, ideological and social sides are relegated to a second place.

  19. Semi-clear Heritage Technical Image in Ibn-Nubatah’s Poetry: His Prophetic

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    Full Text Available AbstractIbn-Nubatah is one of the poets of deterioration era who lived at this time so hispoetry has the trace of both the imitation and repetition of the poets of that time. Heused a kind of poetic theme in his poems that lacks the privilege and typicality of agood poem because he imitated some poets like Emre'al- Qays, Tarafah Ibn al-a’bd,Khansa, Hassan Ibn Sabet al-Ansary, Ka’b Ibn Zuhayr, Aboo Tammam and Al-Motanabbi. Concerning the issue of repetition, he made use of a large number ofrepetitive meanings in his poetic works, an example of which is the prophetMuhammad’s praise containing repetitive words and terminology. The eulogy of thekings and rulers of his time is also among some of his other repetitious works.However, there are some literary terms which are not authorized to be included inIbn-Nubatah’s poems, examples of such terms as syntax, prosody and some otherterms like dignitaries, hadith and Sufi terminology which Ibn-Nubatah used in hispoems. Ibn-Nubatah used the Quran and Hadith in his poetic works as well, which isa kind of citation indicative of a sort of religious concept in his poetic works becausereligious concepts have special dignity and value for him, so the poet had to payspecial attention to the demands and wishes of the public in his poetry. A largenumber of immoral contents can also be seen in his works. An attempt has been madein this article to examine such issues in the greatest poet’s poetry of that time, SheikhJamal Al-din Ibn-Nubatah.Key words: Ibn-Nubatah, Poetic style, repetition, imitation, deterioration

  20. The Image of Women in Shoghi’s Poetry

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    جعفر دلشاد


    Full Text Available The Image of Women in Shoghi’s Poetry     Zahra Soleymanpour *   Jafar Delshad **       Abstract     From a long time ago, describing the woman as well as love and mania has allocated a large part of poets’ poetry to itself. It could be said that there is almost no poet some of whose poems are not related to women. Moreover, love and affection are in fact common senses among human beings. In the period of Arabic poetry movement, this issue found a different color and the poets noticed the social status of women and attempted to restore the lost rights. In Shoghi’s poetry, the woman was pictured in two ways. The first was related to social problems with which the women were facing at that time and in fact they were the main factor of the movements which were seeking the women freedom. The second was the woman image as a matter of lyricism. In Shoghi’s poetry, two tendencies could be observed. The first is the classical tendency in the introduction of his eulogy poems as well as those which were purely in the field lyricism. The second is the romantic tendency shown in his presentation poetry. In these poems, the poet writes the poetry through his feeling and emotion and because he speaks by the heroes of the story, he has more freedom of speech. Our aim in this article is to have an analytical investigation of Shoghi’s viewpoints concerning social issues related to women and his lyricism (material or spiritual.     Key words: Shoghi’s poetry, women, social issues, lyric  * Ph.D Candidate in Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan.   E-mail:  ** Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan .

  1. A seal of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher of the 17th century from the State Hermitage Museum collection, Saint Petersburg

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    Yuri Pyatnitsky


    Full Text Available The article is focusing on a small metal medallion engraved with the scene “Descent into Hell” and the Greek inscription from the Hermitage Museum collection. This item has been published several times by Hermitage researcher Vera Zalessk as “lid from a piksidy brought by a pilgrim from Jerusalem, which could also be used as a matrix for making Eulogy copies”. This fantastic interpretation was repeated in several publications; she also wanted to publish it again in the catalog of the exhibition dedicated to the 150th anniversary of Academician Nikolai Likhachev. The later prompted me to write in 2011 a special article with another interpretation of this object and two other similar ones. Studying Greek documents in the Archives of Ancient Acts in Moscow, I noticed that the stamps from the documents issued by the Jerusalem Patriarchate are extremely similar to the object from Hermitage Museum by the typology, iconography and inscriptions. Continuing research in this direction, I found strong arguments for the identification of this object as a stamp of the Jerusalem Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre Temple of the 17th century. Comparison with the document of the first quarter of the 17th century by Patriarch of Jerusalem Theophanes, made us believe that manufacturing of this stamp was commissioned in Constantinople by the patriarch before his trip to Russia to appoint the Moscow Patriarch Filaret Nikitich, father of Tsar Mikhail Romanov. The time it was made may be considered as in the first quarter of 17th century through analogy with the personal seal of Patriarch Theophanes.

  2. “Revnova zhe dedou svoyemou Monomakhouˮ: Towards the Interpretation of the Kinship Term of Prince Roman Mstislavich

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    Vadym I. Stavyskyi


    Full Text Available The subject of this article is a phrase from the text distinguished in the initial part of the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle and described, conditionally, with the title “Eulogy to Prince Roman Mstislavich Galitsky.” In this text Prince Vladimir Monomakh is designated as the “grandfather” of Prince Roman. It is well known that Prince Roman was a fifth-generation descendant of Prince Vladimir Monomakh, which in no way corresponds to the understanding of the term “grandfather” in the sense of a genealogical relationship. The inviolability of the established place of each of the representatives of the Old Russian ruling dynasty in the genus scheme was the fundamental principle of the functioning of the power system. The author of the article establishes that in this case, the definition of Prince Roman as the “grandson” of his great-grandfather was a literary image, based on a stable historiosophical tradition. Its meaning was revealed through the identification of Prince Roman as the legendary “Greek king,” the grandson of Alexander the Great and the vanquisher of the “Ishmaelites” imprisoned behind the Iron Gate by his “grandfather.” The source of the appearance of this eschatological allusion in the text of Praise is the development of the idea of “the forefather of Abraham” as the “grandfather” of Job-Jobab in the articles upon 1178 and 1199 from the Kiev Chronicle and the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius of Olympus. The reason for writing the “Eulogy” and the inclusion of textually related fragments in the annals was the desire to glorify the dynasty of Volhynia princes in the context of eschatological ideas, the interest in which was exacerbated after the invasion of Batu Khan.

  3. International migration in a changing world. (United States)

    Appleyard, R T


    This paper eulogizes the life and work of Gunther Beijer (1904-1983), an international migration research supporter, who was himself a refugee from Nazi Germany. The brain drain of professional workers of other nations into such traditional receiving countries as the US, Canada, and Australia particularly interested Beijer. The creation of many independent nations after World War II changed migration trends greatly. By the 1970s the immigration policies of receiving countries had changed to favor non-Caucasian professional workers and relatives of current residents. This new migration may be classified as 1) permanent settler, 2) guest worker, 3) professional transient, 4) clandestine, and 5) refugee. Non-Caucasian immigrants increasingly find that they may not be wanted when perceived as an economic or social threat. Beijer understood guest worker migration within Europe in the early 1960s, but he could not foresee the demands that guest workers and their families would place on receiving countries. Guest worker migration gives sending countries relief from unemployment and provides remittances; it also provides needed labor to economically health countries. Guest workers such as those currently employed in the Persian Gulf may not be accepted socially or politically by the host community and may be considered undesirable employees on their return home. Nations often tolerate illegal or clandestine migration when the labor need is high, but illegals may be expelled when economic or political conditions turn against them. The problems of the estimated 10 million refugees fall increasingly on developing countries, but must be shared by all nations since their increasing numbers affect domestic and international politics.

  4. On a Possible Source of Some of the Images in the Annalistic Pokhvala to Prince Roman Mstislavich

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    Vadym I. Stavyskyi


    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the text known as the “Eulogy (Pokhvala to Prince Roman Mstislavich Galitsky,” which is from the opening section of the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle. The author of the article amplifies remarks made by Alexander Orlov about loanwords taken from translated works that appear in the text of the Pokhvala. The text of the exegesis of prophets by St. Hippolytus of Rome, which was widely known in Slavonic translation from the 12th century as the Slovo o Khriste i ob Antikhriste, produces additional material for comparison. St. Hippolytus’s text offers a possible interpretation of the concept “uma mudrostʹiu,” which the author of the Pokhvala offers as an explanation of the successful foreign policy of Prince Roman; in addition, this explanation helps to clarify the comparison of the prince with the eagle-lion, the lynx, and the crocodile. Certain characteristics of the text of the Pokhvala as revealed in the account of the exile of Khan Atrak by Prince Vladimir Monomakh and the subsequent mission carried out by Khan Syrchan, both unsupported in other sources, were, we believe, influenced by the text of the Slovo as well. It appears that literary images used throughout the Pokhvala were determined by apocalyptic symbols, following the approach that was typical of their interpretation by St. Hippolytus. This conclusion permits us to broaden our notions about the enumeration of works in translation used by the creator of the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle.

  5. Felix Vicq d'Azyr: anatomy, medicine and revolution. (United States)

    Parent, André


    Félix Vicq d'Azyr was born in 1748 in the small town of Valognes, Normandy. He studied medicine in Paris but he was particularly impressed by the lectures given at the Jardin du Roi by the comparative anatomist Louis Daubenton and the surgeon Antoine Petit. In 1773, Vicq d'Azyr initiated a series of successful lectures on human and animal anatomy at the Paris Medical School, from which he received his medical degree in 1774. He was elected the same year at the Academy of Sciences at age 26, thanks to his outstanding contributions to comparative anatomy. Vicq d'Azyr became widely known after his successful management of a severe cattle plague that occurred in the southern part of France in 1774, an event that led to the foundation of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1778. As Permanent Secretary of this society, Vicq d'Azyr wrote several eulogies that were models of eloquence and erudition and worth him a seat at the French Academy in 1788. Vicq d'Azyr published in 1786 a remarkable anatomy and physiology treatise: a large in-folio that contained original descriptions illustrated by means of nature-sized, colored, human brain figures of a quality and exactitude never attained before. In 1789, Vicq d'Azyr was appointed physician to the Queen Marie-Antoinette and, in 1790, he presented to the Constituent Assembly a decisive plan to reform the teaching of medicine in France. Unfortunately, Vicq d'Azyr did not survive the turmoil of the French Revolution; he died at age 46 on June 20, 1794.

  6. Between Everyday and “Plato’s Republic”: Rationalist Aspects of Łukasz Opaliński’s Work

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    Grzegorz Raubo


    Full Text Available The article specifies the role of rationalism in the work of a distinguished Baroque author, Łukasz Opaliński. The source material for the study consists of: Rozmowa Plebana z Ziemianinem (1641, Polonia defensa contra Ioan[nem] Barclaium (1648, Coś nowego (1652, Pauli Naeoceli de officiis libri tres (1659, Poeta nowy (1661–1662.Łukasz Opaliński stated that reason is the most important cognitive faculty of the human being. Reason makes it possible to understand the rules of natural law, which is the source of ethical action among humans, and brings on understanding of the eschatological aim of human life, that is salvation. The possibilities of rational explanation do not, however, encompass the mysteries of religious faith or the basic concepts of natural philosophy, such as the elements, which are the principal components of matter.Rationalism belongs to the principal ideas of Opaliński’s political philosophy. He opted for a rational organization of the state and for rational ways of solving social problems (he underscored the role of common sense, rational dialogue of citizens and rational responsibility for the common good. The political formation that is best suited for rationalization of social life is monarchy. Seeing it as a model government, the author realised that it could not be introduced in the Poland of the 17th century, and consequently, apart from the eulogy of the monarchy, he proposed improvements in gentry democracy, especially in limiting of the “golden freedom”.An important sphere of externalization of Opaliński’s rationalist ideals was his theoretical thought on literature. He critically evaluated some examples of Baroque art of conceit. He underscored the role of rational sources of creativity and rational discipline in structuring a literary work, and his postulates in this field were close to the concepts of classicist criticism.

  7. Interaction of Various Generic Forms in the 12th–17th Century Texts and the Mindsets of Old Russian Authors

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    Anatoly S. Demin


    Full Text Available The essay focuses on the understudied question of the poetics of Old Russian literature: it is the first study of the kind that analyzes semantic interaction of different generic forms in the works of the period. The essay is comprised of five section each devoted to a specific work. The first section examines historical narrative in its relation to sermons, eulogies, and biblical excerpts in The Tale of Bygone Years (the beginning of the twelfth century and comes to the conclusion that the chronicler was not content with the negligence of his listeners and readers. The second section examines the interrelation of factual material and sermon in Novgorodskaa First Chronicle (the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and reveals the chronicler’s severe attitude towards his contemporaries. The third section examines a series of two works by Moscow Dyak Rodion Kozhuh as part of Sofiyskaya Second Chronicle and shows the author’s personal inclination to the expressiveness of style. The fourth section examines a combination of prosaic and rhymed fragments from the Saying of Avraamy Palitsyn written in the 1620s and comes to the conclusion that the author was inclined to philosophically reflect on the Time of Troubles. Finally, the fifth section examines a combination of the rhymed narrative with poetical sermons in The Story of Unfortunate Misfortune (1660s and shows the author’s pessimistic mindset. The essay ends with a very tentative conclusion: the interaction of different generic forms of narration was typical for the whole оf Оld Russian literature. The variety of purposes and mindsets prompted authors to employ various generic types of narration.


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    Claudina Victoria González


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar desde una perspectiva bioarqueológica las condiciones generales de salud de las poblaciones humanas que ocuparon la región austral de las Sierras Pampeanas en el Holoceno tardío (ca. 2500-400 años A.P., particularmente a través del estudio de bioindicadores dentales tales como hipoplasias del esmalte dental, abscesos y pérdidas dentales ante mortem. Se analizó una muestra de 80 individuos adultos de ambos sexos, procedentes de 48 sitios de toda la región. Se calcularon prevalencias por sexo, edad, cronología -Holoceno tardío inicial (ca. 2500-1500 años AP. y final (ca.1500-400 años AP-, así como sub-regiones geográficas - Sierras Chicas, Noreste, Noroeste, Llanura extraserrana, Sur y Traslasierra-. Posteriormente, se evaluó si las diferencias observadas eran significativas o no, mediante la aplicación del test de Chi-cuadrado (X2. Los resultados indican que las poblaciones asentadas en la región hacia momentos finales del Holoceno tardío habrían sufrido un deterioro en las condiciones generales de salud, principalmente los individuos adultos jóvenes y medios de toda el área, siendo mayor la intensidad en las sub regiones Noreste y Traslasierra.   Palabras clave: bioindicadores dentales, salud, región austral de las Sierras Pampeanas, Bioarqueología   Estimating Late Holocene health from Cordoba´s Central Highlands end Eastern Lowland populations (Argentina. A dental anthropology approach   Abstract The aim of this work is to study, from a bioarchaeological perspective, the health conditions of the populations that inhabited the southern portion of the Sierras Pampeanas region (Córdoba province by the Late Holocene (ca. 2500-400 years BP, through the analysis of three non-specific indicators of stress and infectious diseases: hypoplasia of dental enamel, abscesses, and antemortem teeth loss. The sample is composed by 80 adult individuals from 48 archaeological sites. We

  9. Biocultural perspectives on maternal mortality and obstetrical death from the past to the present. (United States)

    Stone, Pamela K


    Global efforts to improve maternal health are the fifth focus goal of the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the international community in 2000. While maternal mortality is an epidemic, and the death of a woman in childbirth is tragic, certain assumptions that frame the risk of death for reproductive aged women continue to hinge on the anthropological theory of the "obstetric dilemma." According to this theory, a cost of hominin selection to bipedalism is the reduction of the pelvic girdle; in tension with increasing encephalization, this reduction results in cephalopelvic disproportion, creating an assumed fragile relationship between a woman, her reproductive body, and the neonates she gives birth to. This theory, conceived in the 19th century, gained traction in the paleoanthropological literature in the mid-20th century. Supported by biomedical discourses, it was cited as the definitive reason for difficulties in human birth. Bioarchaeological research supported this narrative by utilizing demographic parameters that depict the death of young women from reproductive complications. But the roles of biomedical and cultural practices that place women at higher risk for morbidity and early mortality are often not considered. This review argues that reinforcing the obstetrical dilemma by framing reproductive complications as the direct result of evolutionary forces conceals the larger health disparities and risks that women face globally. The obstetrical dilemma theory shifts the focus away from other physiological and cultural components that have evolved in concert with bipedalism to ensure the safe delivery of mother and child. It also sets the stage for a framework of biological determinism and structural violence in which the reproductive aged female is a product of her pathologized reproductive body. But what puts reproductive aged women at risk for higher rates of morbidity and mortality goes far beyond the reproductive body. Moving beyond reproduction

  10. CRITERIOS ANALÍTICOS PARA EL ESTUDIO DEL CONFLICTO EN EL PASADO. UN CASO DE ESTUDIO EN CAZADORES RECOLECTORES DE NORPATAGONIA / Analytical criteria for the study of conflict in the past. A case study in hunter-gatherers from northeastern Patagonia.

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    Florencia Gordón


    Full Text Available La interpretación del conflicto en sociedades del pasado es un proceso ambiguo que puede conducir a subestimar o sobrestimar los niveles de violencia. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la metodología aplicada al estudio de los patrones de violencia interpersonal en grupos cazadores-recolectores del Noreste de Patagonia, durante el Holoceno tardío (4000-350 años AP. Si bien la principal línea de evidencia fue bioarqueológica se exploraron líneas independientes y complementarias (i.e. tipos de artefactos potencialmente utilizados en contextos de violencia en la región; información transcultural, etnográfica y etnohistórica relevante. Con el objetivo de conocer la distribución espacio-temporal y sexo-etaria de los traumas se analizó una muestra de cráneos (n=797. Previo al relevamiento de lesiones se evaluó el grado de preservación de las muestras. Para la interpretación de un tipo de traumas particulares (i.e. depresiones lineales se desarrolló un diseño experimental. Las lesiones se describieron macroscópica y microscópicamente. La evaluación estadística se realizó en dos niveles de acuerdo con el grado de ambigüedad de cada lesión. Una metodología basada sobre líneas independientes y complementarias, como así también la utilización de criterios bioarqueológicos y forenses, resultaron ser una herramienta adecuada para analizar los patrones de violencia en el Noreste patagónico durante el Holoceno tardío.   Abstract   The interpretation of conflict in past societies is an ambiguous process that can either underestimate or overestimate the levels of violence. The aim of this paper is to present methodology applied to the study of interpersonal violence patterns in hunter-gatherers groups from Northeastern Patagonia during the late Holocene (4000-350 years BP. While the main explored line of evidence was the bioarchaeological one, independent and complementary lines were taken into account (i.e. types of

  11. Infection, disease, and biosocial processes at the end of the Indus Civilization.

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    Gwen Robbins Schug

    Full Text Available In the third millennium B.C., the Indus Civilization flourished in northwest India and Pakistan. The late mature phase (2200-1900 B.C. was characterized by long-distance exchange networks, planned urban settlements, sanitation facilities, standardized weights and measures, and a sphere of influence over 1,000,000 square kilometers of territory. Recent paleoclimate reconstructions from the Beas River Valley demonstrate hydro-climatic stress due to a weakened monsoon system may have impacted urban centers like Harappa by the end of the third millennium B.C. the impact of environmental change was compounded by concurrent disruptions to the regional interaction sphere. Climate, economic, and social changes contributed to the disintegration of this civilization after 1900 B.C. We assess evidence for paleopathology to infer the biological consequences of climate change and socio-economic disruption in the post-urban period at Harappa, one of the largest urban centers in the Indus Civilization. Bioarchaeological evidence demonstrates the prevalence of infection and infectious disease increased through time. Furthermore, the risk for infection and disease was uneven among burial communities. Corresponding mortuary differences suggest that socially and economically marginalized communities were most vulnerable in the context of climate uncertainty at Harappa. Combined with prior evidence for increasing levels of interpersonal violence, our data support a growing pathology of power at Harappa after 2000 B.C. Observations of the intersection between climate change and social processes in proto-historic cities offer valuable lessons about vulnerability, insecurity, and the long-term consequences of short-term strategies for coping with climate change.

  12. Age estimation in older adults: Use of pulp/tooth ratios calculated from tooth sections. (United States)

    D'Ortenzio, Lori; Prowse, Tracy; Inskip, Michael; Kahlon, Bonnie; Brickley, Megan


    Accurate age estimates are foundational for bioarchaeological research, yet the ability to accurately age older adult skeletons remains elusive. This study uses a new version of pulp/tooth area calculations to investigate chronological age of older archaeological individuals. Pulp/tooth area ratios were calculated on modern control teeth (n = 10) that were first radiographed and then sectioned for comparative analysis. Pulp/tooth area ratios were determined on sectioned teeth using ImageJ software for: (a) modern individuals of known age (n = 26); (b) individuals from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (1821-1874) with documented age (n = 50); and (c) Belleville individuals with skeletally estimated age (n = 122). Calculations from tooth sections on modern teeth (n = 10) resulted in a mean absolute error (MAE) of ±3.9 years, whereas the radiographic method for the same teeth had an MAE of ±14.45 years. Results indicate that sectioned pulp/tooth area ratios are a significant predictor of chronological age (p age estimations between modern and archaeological individuals, or with respect to tooth type, sex, or intra/inter-observer estimations. This study provides a new more accurate method for estimating age-at-death, particularly for individuals in the 50+ age category. Sectioning the teeth and directly measuring exposed pulp chambers results in age estimations that were within ±4.15 years for both modern and archaeological individuals, thus presenting a method that will enhance the ability to age older individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Craniometric examination of Longxian and Qi Li Cun archaeological sites to assess population continuity in ancient northern China. (United States)

    Gibbon, Victoria E; Porter, Tarun A; Wu, Xiujie; Liu, Wu


    In this paper, population continuity and discontinuity in northern China are explored using craniometric analyses from two archaeological sites, Longxian (Warring States) and Qi Li Cun (Han Dynasty). Neither population has been previously studied. Artefactual evidence shows the individuals from Qi Li Cun were Xianbei, descendants from Mongolia. Longxian is from further south in the central plains at an earlier time, thus, we expect to observe variability between these groups. In total, 24 cranial measurements were obtained on 66 crania from these sites. Howells's cranial measurements on Anyang (42 crania) and Hainan (83 crania) Chinese samples were included for comparative purposes. Less variability is expected between Longxian and Howells's Chinese data due to geographic and temporal similarity. With closer geographic and temporal affinity with Anyang, the expectation is for Longxian and Anyang to be similar. Few statistical differences exist between Longxian and Qi Li Cun; this was supported by the similarity found through principal components analysis (PCA). Regardless of sex, canonical discriminant analysis shows clustering of Longxian and Qi Li Cun separate from those of Anyang and Hainan. Their similarity indicates the people from Longxian and Qi Li Cun likely share Mongolian ancestry. Our results, supported by other studies, suggest that despite temporal differences, Mongolians living in China during the Warring States and Han dynasty retained their cultural and genetic Mongolian identity. These data add valuable bioarchaeological information regarding the peopling of northern China during a crucial period of cultural and political change in the Early Bronze Age and Iron Age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparability of multiple data types from the Bering Strait region: cranial and dental metrics and nonmetrics, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome DNA. (United States)

    Herrera, Brianne; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Godde, Kanya


    Different data types have previously been shown to have the same microevolutionary patterns in worldwide data sets. However, peopling of the New World studies have shown a difference in migration paths and timings using multiple types of data, spurring research to understand why this is the case. This study was designed to test the degree of similarity in evolutionary patterns by using cranial and dental metric and nonmetric data, along with Y-chromosome DNA and mtDNA. The populations used included Inuits from Alaska, Canada, Siberia, Greenland, and the Aleutian Islands. For comparability, the populations used for the cranial and molecular data were from similar geographic regions or had a shared population history. Distance, R and kinship matrices were generated for use in running Mantel tests, PROTEST analyses, and Procrustes analyses. A clear patterning was seen, with the craniometric data being most highly correlated to the mtDNA data and the cranial nonmetric data being most highly correlated with the Y-chromosome data, while the phenotypic data were also linked. This patterning is suggestive of a possible male or female inheritance, or the correlated data types are affected by the same or similar evolutionary forces. The results of this study indicate cranial traits have some degree of heritability. Moreover, combining data types leads to a richer knowledge of biological affinity. This understanding is important for bioarchaeological contexts, in particular, peopling of the New World studies where focusing on reconciling the results from comparing multiple data types is necessary to move forward. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dental enamel defects predict adolescent health indicators: A cohort study among the Tsimane' of Bolivia. (United States)

    Masterson, Erin E; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Conde, Esther; Hujoel, Philippe P


    Bioarchaeological findings have linked defective enamel formation in preadulthood with adult mortality. We investigated how defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood is associated with risk factors for adult morbidity and mortality in adolescents. This cohort study of 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years of age) related extent of enamel defects on the central maxillary incisors (none, less than 1/3, 1/3 to 2/3, more than 2/3) to adolescent anthropometrics (height, weight) and biomarkers (hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and blood pressure). Risk differences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple linear regression. Enamel defects and stunted growth were compared in their ability to predict adolescent health indicators using log-binomial regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Greater extent of defective enamel formation on the tooth surface was associated with shorter height (-1.35 cm, 95% CI: -2.17, -0.53), lower weight (-0.98 kg, 95% CI: -1.70, -0.26), lower hemoglobin (-0.36 g/dL, 95% CI: -0.59, -0.13), lower glycated hemoglobin (-0.04 %A 1c , 95% CI: -0.08, -0.00008), and higher white blood cell count (0.74 10 9 /L, 95% CI: 0.35, 1.14) in adolescence. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth independently performed similarly as risk factors for adverse adolescent outcomes, including anemia, prediabetes/type II diabetes, elevated WBC count, prehypertension/hypertension, and metabolic health. Defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood predicted adolescent health outcomes and may be primarily associated with infection. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth may be equally predictive of adverse adolescent health outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sex determination by tooth size in a sample of Greek population. (United States)

    Mitsea, A G; Moraitis, K; Leon, G; Nicopoulou-Karayianni, K; Spiliopoulou, C


    Sex assessment from tooth measurements can be of major importance for forensic and bioarchaeological investigations, especially when only teeth or jaws are available. The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and applicability of establishing sex identity in a sample of Greek population using the discriminant function proposed by Rösing et al. (1995). The study comprised of 172 dental casts derived from two private orthodontic clinics in Athens. The individuals were randomly selected and all had clear medical history. The mesiodistal crown diameters of all the teeth were measured apart from those of the 3rd molars. The values quoted for the sample to which the discriminant function was first applied were similar to those obtained for the Greek sample. The results of the preliminary statistical analysis did not support the use of the specific discriminant function for a reliable determination of sex by means of the mesiodistal diameter of the teeth. However, there was considerable variation between different populations and this might explain the reason for lack of discriminating power of the specific function in the Greek population. In order to investigate whether a better discriminant function could be obtained using the Greek data, separate discriminant function analysis was performed on the same teeth and a different equation emerged without, however, any real improvement in the classification process, with an overall correct classification of 72%. The results showed that there were a considerably higher percentage of females correctly classified than males. The results lead to the conclusion that the use of the mesiodistal diameter of teeth is not as a reliable method as one would have expected for determining sex of human remains from a forensic context. Therefore, this method could be used only in combination with other identification approaches. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. A multi-method assessment of bone maintenance and loss in an Imperial Roman population: Implications for future studies of age-related bone loss in the past. (United States)

    Beauchesne, Patrick; Agarwal, Sabrina C


    One of the hallmarks of contemporary osteoporosis and bone loss is dramatically higher prevalence of loss and fragility in females post-menopause. In contrast, bioarchaeological studies of bone loss have found a greater diversity of age- and sex-related patterns of bone loss in past populations. We argue that the differing findings may relate to the fact that most studies use only a single methodology to quantify bone loss and do not account for the heterogeneity and complexity of bone maintenance across the skeleton and over the life course. We test the hypothesis that bone mass and maintenance in trabecular bone sites versus cortical bone sites will show differing patterns of age-related bone loss, with cortical bone sites showing sex difference in bone loss that are similar to contemporary Western populations, and trabecular bone loss at earlier ages. We investigated this hypothesis in the Imperial Roman population of Velia using three methods: radiogrammetry of the second metacarpal (N = 71), bone histology of ribs (N = 70), and computerized tomography of trabecular bone architecture (N = 47). All three methods were used to explore sex and age differences in patterns of bone loss. The suite of methods utilized reveal differences in the timing of bone loss with age, but all methods found no statistically significant differences in age-related bone loss. We argue that a multi-method approach reduces the influence of confounding factors by building a reconstruction of bone turnover over the life cycle that a limited single-method project cannot provide. The implications of using multiple methods beyond studies of bone loss are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Participation, representation, and shared experiences of women scholars in biological anthropology. (United States)

    Turner, Trudy R; Bernstein, Robin M; Taylor, Andrea B; Asangba, Abigail; Bekelman, Traci; Cramer, Jennifer Danzy; Elton, Sarah; Harvati, Katarina; Williams-Hatala, Erin Marie; Kauffman, Laurie; Middleton, Emily; Richtsmeier, Joan; Szathmáry, Emőke; Torres-Rouff, Christina; Thayer, Zaneta; Villaseñor, Amelia; Vogel, Erin


    American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) membership surveys from 1996 and 1998 revealed significant gender disparities in academic status. A 2014 follow-up survey showed that gender equality had improved, particularly with respect to the number of women in tenure-stream positions. However, although women comprised 70% of AAPA membership at that time, the percentage of women full professors remained low. Here, we continue to consider the status of women in biological anthropology by examining the representation of women through a quantitative analysis of their participation in annual meetings of the AAPA during the past 20 years. We also review the programmatic goals of the AAPA Committee on Diversity Women's Initiative (COD-WIN) and provide survey results of women who participated in COD-WIN professional development workshops. Finally, we examine the diversity of women's career paths through the personal narratives of 14 women biological anthropologists spanning all ranks from graduate student to Professor Emeritus. We find that over the past 20 years, the percentage of women first authors of invited symposia talks has increased, particularly in the sub-disciplines of bioarchaeology, genetics, and paleoanthropology. The percentage of women first authors on contributed talks and posters has also increased. However, these observed increases are still lower than expected given the percentage of graduate student women and women at the rank of assistant and associate professor. The personal narratives highlight first-hand the impact of mentoring on career trajectory, the challenges of achieving work-life satisfaction, and resilience in the face of the unexpected. We end with some suggestions for how to continue to improve equality and equity for women in biological anthropology. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  19. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru. (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C


    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Application of geographic information systems to investigating associations between social status and burial location in medieval Trino Vercellese (Piedmont, Italy). (United States)

    Stewart, Marissa C; Vercellotti, Giuseppe


    Socioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested. This study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th-13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that greater growth outcomes are associated with privileged burials located inside the church by examining osteometric data (femoral bicondylar length [N = 74], maximum tibial length [N = 62], and the sum of the two measurements [N = 59]) in a geographic information system (GIS) of the cemetery. Getis-Ord G Hot Spot analysis identified significant (90% CI) spatial clustering of high osteometric values within the church, while low values clustered in areas of the cemetery farther from the church. These results, supported by the results of interpolation analyses, became more pronounced when z-scores were calculated to combine the male and female samples and the analyses were repeated. Overall, the findings corroborate the observation that the spatial distribution of osteometric data reflects socioeconomic status differences within the population. This research exemplifies the advantages of integrating bioarchaeology and spatial analysis to examine mortuary behavior and health outcomes in highly stratified societies where access to resources is demarcated in both life and in death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Investigating economic specialization on the central Peruvian coast: A reconstruction of Late Intermediate Period Ychsma diet using stable isotopes. (United States)

    Marsteller, Sara J; Zolotova, Natalya; Knudson, Kelly J


    Hypothetical models of socioeconomic organization in pre-Columbian societies generated from the rich ethnohistoric record in the New World require testing against the archaeological and bioarchaeological record. Here, we test ethnohistorian Maria Rostworowski's horizontality model of socioeconomic specialization for the Central Andean coast by reconstructing dietary practices in the Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 900-1470) Ychsma polity to evaluate complexities in social behaviors prior to Inka imperial influence. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of archaeological human bone collagen and apatite (δ 13 C col[VPDB], δ 15 N col[AIR] , δ 13 C ap[VPDB] ) and locally available foods is used to reconstruct the diets of individuals from Armatambo (n = 67), associated ethnohistorically with fishing, and Rinconada Alta (n = 46), associated ethnohistorically with agriculture. Overall, mean δ 15 N col[AIR] is significantly greater at Armatambo, while mean δ 13 C col[VPDB] and mean δ 13 C ap[VPDB] are not significantly different between the two sites. Within large-scale trends, adult mean δ 13 C ap[VPDB] is significantly greater at Armatambo. In addition, nearly one-third of Armatambo adults and adolescents show divergent δ 15 N col[AIR] values. These results indicate greater reliance on marine resources at Armatambo versus Rinconada Alta, supporting the ethnohistoric model of socioeconomic specialization for the Central Andean coast. Deviations from large-scale dietary trends suggest complexities not accounted for by the ethnohistoric model, including intra-community subsistence specialization and/or variation in resource access. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis. (United States)

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav


    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Narcissism Signs in Al-Mutanabbi’s Life

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    Full Text Available 6 / Journal (Spring Summer ( 2012 Issue 6Research in Arabic Language and Literature: Foreign Languages Faculty Research BiannualNarcissism Signs in Al-Mutanabbi’s Lifeand Fakhr (poems in which the poet exalt himself/herselfKhodadad Bahri*AbstractAl-Mutanabbi is one of the most salient Arab poets as well as one of the most effective ofthem in Arabian literature. He has composed many poems in different kinds as madh(eulogy, ratha (elegy, fakhr (glory and etc., but fakhr dominates his poetry such a waythat the reader is able to find its trace in all of his qaside (ballade, either that qaside is aboutfakhr or heja or ratha, but fakhr is specific to his poetry unlike other poets'. The poet, despitehis much devotion to fakhr, does not praise his nation and he does not abandon praisinghimself even at the time of praising the eulogists. Therefore, it is hypothesized in this studythat Al-Mutanabbi is afflicted with too much self-infatuation and pride, or as psychologistscall it, he suffers from narcissism.Early in this study, the term narcissism is investigated lexically, and then, the concept iselucidated from the psychologists’ view points. The symptoms of the narcissist people arealso counted. Then, the study mentions some of the Al-Mutanabbi’s poems which indicatenarcissism, and as evidence in this regard, the writer compares the lexical signs with thebehaviors the poet has demonstrated in his life which confirm his narcissist personality. Inaddition, through investigating Al-Mutanabbi's life and the environment where he hadgrown up in and his gifted talents, the cause of narcissism in his personality is explained.Finally, the writer concludes that there are signs of narcissism in the Al-Mutanabbi'spersonality which have revealed themselves through megalomania, diminution of people,ignoring his ancestors for glory, exaggerating difficulties, over-boasting , and anunfaithfulness to the adored.Key words: Narcissism, Fakhr, Al

  4. Comentario al libro: La desintegración estilística de la arquitectura contemporánea = Commentary on the book: La desintegración estilística de la arquitectura contemporánea

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    Antón Capitel


    Full Text Available ResumenEl texto es una lectura crítica del libro de la profesora María Teresa Muñoz. Parte del elogio del ejercicio de la teoría y se divide en las tres partes que el libro tiene.En la primera se celebra la condición insólita que entonces suponía la dedicación a la arquitectura romántica británica y estadounidense.En la segunda se glosa la atractiva cercanía del clasicismo y del Estilo Internacional, destacada por la autora, y se discute la no menos atractiva pero imprecisa tesis de una condición casi instantánea del citado Estilo.En la tercera se destaca como excesiva la visión americanista de la condición posmoderna y el cierto olvido de las posiciones estructurales del pensamiento europeo.Se celebra la decisión de publicar nuevamente esta corta pero intensa e interesante investigación.Palabras claveteoría, crítica, historia, arquitectura decimonónica, estilo internacional, arquitectura postmodernaAbstractThe text is a critical reading of the book by Professor Maria Teresa Muñoz. It starts with the theoretical exercise´s eulogy, and the book is divided in three parts.In the first it celebrates the unusual condition that supposed the old devotion to British and American Romantic architecture. In the second it glosses the attractive proximity of classicism and the International Style, emphasized by the author, and discusses the equally attractive but vague thesis of a condition almost instantly of Style.In the third it stands out an excessively American vision of the postmodern condition forgetting certain structural positions of European thought.It celebrates the decision to republish this short but intense and interesting research.Key wordstheory, critic, history, 19th_century architecture, international style, postmodern architecture

  5. Increased burden and severity of metabolic syndrome and arterial stiffness in treatment naïve HIV+ patients from Cameroon

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    Ngatchou W


    Full Text Available William Ngatchou,1 Daniel Lemogoum,1 Pierre Ndobo,2,† Euloge Yagnigni,2 Emiline Tiogou,2 Elisabeth Nga,2 Charles Kouanfack,2 Philippe van de Borne,1 Michel P Hermans3 1Hypertension Clinic, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium; 2Department of Cardiology, Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels, Belgium †Professor Pierre Ndobo passed away on January 21, 2013 Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and its therapy are associated with increased aortic stiffness and metabolic syndrome (MetS phenotype in Caucasian patients. We hypothesized that, independently of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection in native black African patients is associated with increased burden of cardiometabolic risk factors that may accelerate arterial structural damage and translate into increased aortic stiffness. Patients and methods: Ninety-six apparently healthy Cameroonian subjects (controls were compared to 108 untreated Cameroonian HIV+ patients (HIV-UT of similar age. In each participant, pulse wave velocity (Complior, aortic augmentation index (SphygmoCor, brachial blood pressure (Omron 705 IT, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and lipids were recorded, as well as the prevalence and severity of MetS, based on the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute score ≥3/5. Results: Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG 100–125 mg · dL-1 and of diabetes (FPG > 125 mg · dL-1 was higher in HIV-UT than in controls (47% versus 27%, and 26% versus 1%, respectively; both P < 0.01. Fasting triglycerides and the atherogenic dyslipidemia ratio were significantly higher in HIV-UT than in controls. Hypertension prevalence was high and comparable in both groups (41% versus 44%, respectively; not significant. HIV-UT patients exhibited a twice-higher prevalence of MetS than controls (47% versus 21%; P = 0.02. Age- and sex-adjusted pulse wave velocity was

  6. The idea of the perfect city in the state of prince Lazar and despotes Stefan Lazarević

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    Radojčić Svetozar


    foundations. The new wave of piety originated from the circles of educated refugee monks, who found refuge in the small palaces, where a rather complex, monastic-feudal mentality gradually formed. The palace culture of those centers had their own pious literature, where various visions of the invisible Paradise were particularly widely read. The old idea that all the righteous would attain Heaven gained a new importance and a new interpretation at the end of the XIV century. This faith in the habitation of Heaven began to be linked to buildings on earth - to cities and monasteries. The depiction of Heaven, or the Upper Jerusalem, as it was called, had already begun in Serbian painting in the mid-fourteenth century. Around 1400, however, there was an insistence on presenting how the organization of the palace was similar to the heavenly hierarchy, how the courtiers with their appearance looked like the inhabitants of Paradise, and how the building the royal court erected resembled the heavenly houses of the 'New Jerusalem'. Such descriptions about the resemblance to the dwellings of Heaven were very frequent in Serbian literature of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries. Prince Lazar resorted with increasing frequency to creating buildings according to the image of the 'Upper Jerusalem', especially the monastery of Ravanica. Andonije Epaktit gave the most exhaustive account of Ravanica-Jerusalem: Ravanica was the 'dwelling of God' and the 'door to Heaven', it had seven pinnacles or pyrgoi, and accordingly, it was similar to Jerusalem, Rome and Constantinople, and it was inhabited by monk-angels. Constantme the Philosopher wrote in a similar vein. His magnificent description of Belgrade as Jerusalem in the Life of Despotes Stefan Lazarević falls among the most important eulogies of the cities in Byzantine culture. And Belgrade - like Jerusalem, Rome and Constantinople - has 'seven pinnacles'. It resembles both the 'lower' and the 'higher' Jerusalem; so as to

  7. Comparative performance of deciduous and permanent dental morphology in detecting biological relatives. (United States)

    Paul, Kathleen S; Stojanowski, Christopher M


    crowns perform moderately well in distinguishing relatives from non-relatives, but deciduous crown variations may provide a more direct reflection of the underlying genetic structure of intra-site or intra-cemetery samples. These findings have implications for bioarchaeological research and biodistance practices. In particular, morphological traits of the deciduous dentition should be incorporated into standard data collection protocols because of their stronger signal of relatedness. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The rock-cut tomb of Bolores (Torres Vedras: an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the social landscape of the Late Neolithic/Copper Age of the Iberian Peninsula

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    Lillios, Katina T.


    Full Text Available To better understand the sociopolitical landscape of the Portuguese Estremadura during the Late Neolithic/Copper Age, interdisciplinary excavations were conducted at Bolores (Torres Vedras, in the Sizandro River Valley. Following a test season in 1986, a University of Iowa team conducted four campaigns between 2007 and 2012. Bolores is a rock-cut tomb used primarily between 2800-2600 cal BC for the burial of adults, adolescents, and children (MNI=36. The architectural, material cultural, and bioarchaeological evidence suggests that Bolores housed the remains of a distinctive group of local individuals who marked their difference from other burial populations in the Sizandro and Estremadura through material culture and tomb architecture. Social differences were denoted spatially and through offerings of material goods. No social stratification is evident, however, that would suggest a state-level society: there are no wealthy child burials and no significant health or dietary disparities within this population or between it and others in the region.Para comprender mejor el paisaje sociopolítico de la Extremadura portuguesa durante el Neolítico Final/Edad del Cobre se han llevado a cabo excavaciones interdisciplinares en Bolores (Torres Vedras, en el valle del río Sizandro. Tras una campaña de prueba en 1986, un equipo de la Universidad de Iowa realizó cuatro campañas entre 2007 y 2012. Bolores es una tumba hipogea que fue utilizada principalmente entre 2800 y 2600 cal BCE como enterramiento colectivo para adultos, adolescentes y niños (NMI=36. Los datos arquitectónicos, bioarqueológicos y de cultura material analizados hasta la fecha sugieren que Bolores albergó los restos de un grupo social distintivo compuesto de individuos locales que marcaban sus diferencias con otras poblaciones funerarias del Sizandro y Extremadura portuguesa mediante la cultura material y la arquitectura funeraria. Las diferencias sociales en la población de

  9. 2H Stable Isotope Analysis of Tooth Enamel: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Holobinko, Anastasia; Kemp, Helen; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Prowse, Tracy; Ford, Susan


    Stable isotope analysis of biogenic tissues such as tooth enamel and bone mineral has become a well recognized and increasingly important method for determining provenance of human remains, and has been used successfully in bioarchaeological studies as well as forensic investigations (Lee-Thorp, 2008; Meier-Augenstein and Fraser, 2008). Particularly, 18O and 2H stable isotopes are well established proxies as environmental indicators of climate (temperature) and source water and are therefore considered as indicators of geographic life trajectories of animals and humans (Hobson et al., 2004; Schwarcz and Walker, 2006). While methodology for 2H analysis of human hair, fingernails, and bone collagen is currently used to determine geographic origin and identify possible migration patterns, studies involving the analysis of 2H in tooth enamel appear to be nonexistent in the scientific literature. The apparent lack of research in this area is believed to have two main reasons. (1) Compared to the mineral calcium hydroxylapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, in tooth enamel forming bio-apatite carbonate ions replace some of the hydroxyl ions at a rate of one CO32 replacing two OH, yet published figures for the degree of substitution vary (Wopenka and Pasteris, 2005). (2) Most probably due to the aforementioned no published protocols exist for sample preparation and analytical method to obtain δ2H-values from the hydroxyl fraction of tooth enamel. This dilemma has been addressed through a pilot study to establish feasibility of 2H stable isotope analysis of ground tooth enamel by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled on-line to a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer (TC/EA). An array of archaeological and modern teeth has been analyzed under different experimental conditions, and results from this pilot study are being presented. References: Lee-Thorp, J.A. (2008) Archaeometry, 50, 925-950 Meier-Augenstein, W. and Fraser, I. (2008) Science & Justice

  10. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  11. Композитите като маркери за святост в „Похвална беседа за софийските мъченици“ от XVI в.

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    Марияна [Mariiana] Цибранска-Костова [TSibranska-Kostova


    Full Text Available Composita as marks of holiness in the sixteenth‑century Eulogy for the Sofia Martyrs The article presents preliminary observations concerning the excerpts from the Book of Jeremiah in the Archival Chronograph (fifteenth century and Vilno Chronograph (sixteenth century. According to their content, localization and linguistic characteristics, they fall into two main groups. Some of the excerpts are identified as chapters from the Slavic Prophetologion and are connected with the translation made by Cyril and Methodius. Other chapters, which are not included in the Cyrillic and Glagolitic liturgical books, belong to the first, probably untranslated or now lost, part of the Book of Jeremiah. The excerpts that cannot be found in the Prophetologion also have archaic linguistic bases, connected to the translational techniques characteristic of the Cyrillo-Methodian translations, and differ considerably from the translation with commentaries that was made in Preslav. Whether these excerpts belong to an independent earlier translation, made by Methodius and his co-workers, or they are extracts from encyclopaedic miscellany, they provide valuable material for the study of this biblical book and of the Old Bulgarian translation of the Old Testament.   Złożenia jako znaki świętości w szesnastowiecznej Eulogii męczenników Sofii Artykuł prezentuje wstępne obserwacje na temat fragmentów Księgi Jeremiasza, znajdujących się w zbiorach Archival Chronograph (XV wiek i Vilno Chronograph (XVI wiek. Zgodnie z ich zawartością, miejscem powstania i cechami językowymi wchodzą one w skład dwóch głównych grup. Niektóre fragmenty są rozpoznane jako rozdziały słowiańskiego parimejnika i są związane z przekładem autorstwa śś. Cyryla i Metodego. Inne rozdziały, które nie weszły w skład cyrylickich i głagolickich ksiąg liturgicznych, należą do pierwszej, prawdopodobnie nieprzetłumaczonej lub zaginionej, części Księgi Jeremiasza

  12. O elogio de si e a desmedida antropologização das ciências humanas Self-praise and the inordinate anthropologization of human sciences

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    Marcos Villela Pereira


    knowledge, in the same proportion that metaphysics was transmuted into metaphysics of subjectivity, and language acquired ontological prestige. Along these lines, a large share of the projects of criticism to classical science was erected, conferring pride of place to language as the manufacturer of reality. There was even mention of a linguistic turn, a prime argument of critique to the metanarratives and eulogy of the fragmentary and relativist regimes of truth. Still, to assume that truth is a discursive effect, and that reality by itself is the outcome of a production, is not enough. It is also important to examine this regime that turned language into the expression of knowledge and of the conscience of the world. Man has become the measure of knowledge.

  13. 200 Jahre Darwin und 250 Jahre Theory of Moral Sentiments von Adam Smith

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    Gerold Bluemle


    Full Text Available The author emphasizes that 2009 must be remembered not only for the 200 birthday of Charles Darwin, but as well as the 250-year anniversary of Adam Smith’s “Theory of Moral Sentiments”. Proceeding from the fact that Darwin as well as Robert Malthus refer to a classical economist, it is investigated whether the analogies between Evolution Theory and Economy are justified. In both fields, the competition between the selfishly functioning units plays an important/dominating role. Smith, indeed, stresses in his “Theory of Moral Sentiments” apart from the ‘self-interest’ principle, the meaning of the principle of ‘Sympathy’ as a second in importance one which, as the author indicates, forms a prerequisite for the successful co-operation and harmony that the“invisible hand” establishes. The one-sided meaning of the “Wealth of Nations” as an eulogy of the egoism, that is the only motive, has its cause in the political interest of the rising liberalism. Finally, it is investigated whether Smith’s optimism for a free developing social harmony is justified nowadays, in relation to the rising centra lization and globalization. The author arrives at a conclusion that an economic regulation according to the “Freiburger Schule” views, which will be accomplished by the state and it will correspond with the previous developments, it will be in the position to setmeasures to the consequences of ethic deficit.Der Autor betont, dass 2009 neben dem 200. Geburtstag von Charles Darwin als zweitesJubiläum an das Erscheinen der „Theory of Moral Sentiments“ von Adam Smith vor250 Jahren zu erinnern ist. Ausgehend davon, dass sich Darwin selbst mit RobertMalthus auf einen Klassiker der Ökonomen berief, wird der Frage nachgegangeninwieweit Analogien zwischen der Evolutionstheorie und der Ökonomik gerechtfertigtsind. Bei beiden Ansätzen kommt ja dem Wettbewerb zwischen egoistisch handelndenWesen zentrale Bedeutung zu. Smith indessen

  14. Identity and the Hegemony of Universal Human Rights

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    Tony Evans


    Full Text Available Human rights are commonly portrayed as a narrative that passes through several chapters before reaching its inevitable conclusion. This narrative begins with the horror of Nazism, moves to the centrality of human rights in the UN Charter, eulogizes the Universal Declaration, celebrates the achievements of standard setting as set out in the major covenants, offers detailed analysis of methods of monitoring and, finally, speculates on the future of compliance. This narrative is sustained, firstly, by ‘naturalist’ foundationalism and, secondly, by a widely held assumptions about the move towards ‘settled norms’ in the contemporary world order. Although some pessimism is voiced over continued reports of torture, genocide, structural economic deprivation, disappearances, ethnic cleansing, political prisoners, the suppression of trade union rights, gender inequality, religious persecution, and many other violations of internationally agreed human rights, most commentators and activists tacitly adopt an optimistic stance that envisages a future rights based international order. The still prevalent naturalist account of human rights, together with a narrative that boasts ‘settled norms’, suggests that the human rights regime represents a final ‘truth’ about the essential nature of all humankind; a common identity that describes the individual in an increasingly globalized world. This paper interrogates the ‘naturalist-settled norm’ account of human rights from the perspective of power and knowledge. It begins by distinguishing between the international human rights regime and the global discourse of human rights. The former adopts a legal approach, where the neutral, value-free, unbiased and impartial nature of the law is tacitly accepted. The latter refers to human rights as social, political and economic practice, and must therefore include an account of power. From this perspective, the discourse of human rights might be said to

  15. Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult

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    Popović Danica


    Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church (1375-78 and 1389-92, is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions. The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit. Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times. Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about 1347, came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created. Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the

  16. Múltiples líneas de evidencias aplicadas al estudio de un individuo prehispánico. Sitio Rancho José (Buenos Aires / Multiple lines of evidence applied to the study of a prehispanic individual. Rancho Jose site, Buenos Aires province

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    Florencia Rizzo


    water action exposed and removed various types of archaeological materials. The excavation carried out on six profiles located on the edge of the rift made it possible to determine that the finds were deposited during a single occupation event. In profile 5 the skeletal remains representing the upper portion of the skeleton of an adult individual dated in 1900±20 years BP were recovered. The taphonomic agents that could have altered the finding conditions and its associated materials were considered first. Bones sex determination and age estimation was performed and various bone and dental pathologies were examined. This information was supplemented with data from ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, stable isotopes (13C and 15N, and the identification of plant microremains in dental tartar. Although these are highly fragmented remains, the individual has retained its whole masticatory system and its analysis from different research perspectives is of interest for comparison with other individuals, both from contemporaneous sites in the surrounding area of discovery and from post-hispanic times. To that end, isotopic data from two individuals from the Cementerio Indigena site are also presented. Keywords: somatotype septentrional lowlands; bioarchaeology; taphonomy; mtDNA; stable isotopes

  17. The analysis of Azizi’s style in the “A glass of hot Shath”

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    Behjatosadat Hejazi


    Full Text Available One of the illustrious proses in eightieth decade is “A glass of hot Shat’h” belonging to Ahmad Azizi, which he writes to an ironic style and a blame and plain of idiotism of people of this period. Azizi’s art is in diction and apparition in the most wisdom circle for narrating altitude and bent of social life and encounter of multiple discourses. A blend of deep concepts, philosophy, mystic and wisdom, with words, structure and slangy comments show a kind of congruity with Hindi style in this book. Whilst dominant style of him is ironic that divides to two kinds: fine, wise and slangy. Contraptions and style illustrious because of language, literary and mental and contra, distinguish his style from other writers. And one of the contraptions style of him is inter stream circulation of mind of space of story to prose different with story the language of Azizi in the parts of this book is scare, glassy and biting and the other parts is benign, quieter and exciter interior literate. Apparently irony have been used equipollent with some words like quip, allegory, derision, jape, raillery, curvet, bamboozlement; while all of these are and none of them aren’t. The ironic style in this book of Azizi isn’t ever in concept that Greeks have used, rather base on the difintion of Romans, it is a kind of evasion with extra literary value. Mike divided irony two kinds: behavior and position. Irony that is cognizant ironist would be called generally as verbal irony but because ironist can use of other appliances other than language, it would be better that we name it behavior irony. And other position irony or ironic event that hasn’t ironist but always has a prey and an intendant. So if divide to three kind; language, behavior and position’s irony; absolutely is more advised. Verbal irony also can be defined to two forms: 1-dictions or sentences in which author or poet uses arts like metaphor, eulogy. On the basis of one generic definition

  18. The study of allusion and adapted Qur'anic and Hadith themes in Amir Khosrow Dehlawi’s "Noh Sepehr Mathnavi (Mathnavi of the Nine Skies"

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    Omidvar Alimahmoudi


    Sepehr Mathnavi in 718 (of the lunar calendar in nine Sepehr (skies, each of which was different in meter from other skies, in the name of Qutubuddin Mubarak ibn Alla od-Din Khilji known as Qutb od-Din Mubarak Shah – the last of the Khilji dynasty. While writing delicate lines, he has praised the Lord and eulogized the Holy Prophet (PBUH and, at the same time, he has reported certain historical occurrences and battles in the work.   4-The ways Noh Sepehr Mathnavi is influenced by Qur'anic allusions and Hadith Nabawi 4-1. Direct influence: in the sense that the poet has cited all or part of a verse in his poem in the form of a line or couplet with an alteration, for example: His flag is soaring over the cloud   *   In the help of God for victory he’s clad   (Noh Sepehr “When comes the help of God, and victory” (An-Nasr, 1 He who names himself a shepherd   *   He ought to keep an eye on the sheep The prophet’s Hadith: “All of you are play the role of a shepherd to each other and are responsible. You will be questioned about this. A sovereign plays the same role toward his subjects and is responsible to them” (Foruzanfar, 2006. 4-2. Indirect influence: every now and then, the poet has used the gist of a verse in his poem. The cumbered accounts best suits thrones   *   Reckoned as clean is the book of the good (ibid “But as for him who is given his book in his left hand, he shall say, 'Would that I had not been given my book * and not known my reckoning!” (Al-Haqqa, 25-26 4-3. Association of meanings: Sometimes, the poet expresses his words in a way that the diction associates with Qur'anic allusions and Hadith Nabawi though he does not intend any allusion or adaptation. The fire struck from the rocks thereupon   *   Created stars as if from the new moon (ibid By the snorting chargers, * by the strikers of fire (Al-'adiat, 1-2   5- Conclusion On reading Noh Sepehr Mathnavi, one might consider Amir Khusro Dehlawi a poet interested


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    Şener DEMİREL


    Full Text Available Arud, a poetic meter based on the formation of syllables as long or short, and closed or open, is one of the most outstanding characteristics of especially the Diwan poetry. The Arud prosody, which was first used in the Arabic literature, and then in Persian and Turkish literatures respectively, has occasionally necessitated distinct works to be written on itself as it contains some rules within itself. The work Mîzân-nâme-i Şu‘arâ, which is dealt with in this paper, was written by Es-Seyyid Hüseyin Hüsnî, a professor (muderris from Burdur who lived between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth centuries. Mîzân-nâme-i Şu‘arâ, consisting of an introduction, three chapters and and an epilogue, is mostly made up of data on arud. However, it also contains some data on literature such as on ode, eulogy, rubâî. The paper first gives some introductory information about Hüseyin Hüsnî Burdurî and his work Mîzân-nâme-i Şu‘arâ, and then it gives place to the text of the work Mîzân-nâme-i Şu‘arâ. In the transcription of the text, only some long vowels such as “â, î, û” are shown Hecelerin uzun veya kısa, kapalı veya açık oluşlarına dayalı bir şiir ölçüsü birimi olan aruz, özellikle Divan şiirinin en dikkate değer özelliklerinden biridir. İlk önceleri Arap edebiyatında daha sonra İran edebiyatında ve Türk edebiyatında kullanılan aruz ölçüsü kendi içinde birtakım kuralları barındırdığından, hakkında zaman zaman müstakil eserlerin yazılmasını gerekli kılmıştır. Bu yazıda üzerinde durulacak olan Mîzân-nâme-i Şu‘arâ adlı eser, 18. yüzyılın sonları ile 19. yüzyılın ilk yarısında yaşamış olan Es-seyyid Hüseyin Hüsnî adlı Burdurlu bir müderris tarafından kaleme alınmıştır. Bir mukaddime, üç bâb/bölüm ve bir hatimeden/sonuçtan meydana gelen Mîzân-nâme-i Şu’arâ, ağırlıklı olarak aruz bilgilerinden bahsetmektedir. Ancak bunun

  20. Modifying the explanation of Anvari Abivardi’s literary theory

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    Fatemeh Hakima


      2- Composing in any literary style   3- Composing in all prosody meters   4- Proper use of rhyme   They are the most important criteria according to which the poetry capability of a poet is measured , In his view, the poet can benefit from techniques which make poetry more musical in order to be more effective, Including the use of a narrator that reflects that music promotes the rhetorical aspect of a work of art. Anvari believed that composing Ghazals is rooted in lust , eulogy is rooted in greed and epigram comes from wrath. His goal of writing poetry was to make a living out of it , and in this way he attributes the worst labels to poetry, Of course, it depends on the level of reward which the appraised person bestows that sometimes it was timely and exactly the amount which the poet wanted, but sometimes he was given little reward or even no reward. As a result of the degree of magnitude of the poetry from his perspective swings according to whether the poet received a reward. Finally Anvari believed that as long as a poem is written for noble objectives including praisi ng religious figures, it is the the result of divine inspiration and approval and it is a twin of wisdom and it is the best benignity of God towards people. He is fascinated by this kind of poetry . The ultimate aim of art is to affect hearts, its reader revel in it and it sticks to memories and it would not be removed from minds and language after artist's death. Anvari art is no exception to this, too. Anvari poems were renowned among friends, poets and intellectuals in his life time and long after his death. Some of his couplets are still etched in memories which show his poetry power and skills. Anvari interpreted taste, mind, science , and art as poetry tools ; as a result he considered poetry as a simultaneous try and ebullition, he studied the divans of poets and writers contemporary with him , and before that. He is aware of all the principles of prosody and rhyme ; he had an

  1. Modifying the explanation of Anvari Abivardi’s literary theory

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    Fatemeh Hakima


    style   3- Composing in all prosody meters   4- Proper use of rhyme   They are the most important criteria according to which the poetry capability of a poet is measured , In his view, the poet can benefit from techniques which make poetry more musical in order to be more effective, Including the use of a narrator that reflects that music promotes the rhetorical aspect of a work of art. Anvari believed that composing Ghazals is rooted in lust , eulogy is rooted in greed and epigram comes from wrath. His goal of writing poetry was to make a living out of it , and in this way he attributes the worst labels to poetry, Of course, it depends on the level of reward which the appraised person bestows that sometimes it was timely and exactly the amount which the poet wanted, but sometimes he was given little reward or even no reward. As a result of the degree of magnitude of the poetry from his perspective swings according to whether the poet received a reward. Finally Anvari believed that as long as a poem is written for noble objectives including praisi ng religious figures, it is the the result of divine inspiration and approval and it is a twin of wisdom and it is the best benignity of God towards people. He is fascinated by this kind of poetry . The ultimate aim of art is to affect hearts, its reader revel in it and it sticks to memories and it would not be removed from minds and language after artist's death. Anvari art is no exception to this, too. Anvari poems were renowned among friends, poets and intellectuals in his life time and long after his death. Some of his couplets are still etched in memories which show his poetry power and skills. Anvari interpreted taste, mind, science , and art as poetry tools ; as a result he considered poetry as a simultaneous try and ebullition, he studied the divans of poets and writers contemporary with him , and before that. He is aware of all the principles of prosody and rhyme ; he had an honor not to commit plagiarizing former

  2. Les manuscrits arabes et ajami au Cameroun: état des lieux et approche codicologique

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    Hamadou Adama


    يمقراطية، وكان تضافر هذه العوامل قد أعطى فرصة  لإقامة ممالك وإمارات، كما ساعد ذلك على تكوين جذور راسخة قائمة على  الدبلوماسية،فالتعبير بالسودان، ليقع على البقعة من الأرض الممتدة حتى الإفريقية الغربية. فأخذوا المداد والقلم  من المواد المتوفرة محليا، وكان البحث في يتناول المواضيع السهلة والبسيطة، وقليل جدا من المخطوطات تم  جمعها وحصره حاليا، ولا شك أن نقص الكفاءات والخبرات في المجال يعد من أكبر التحديات التي تواجهها، وأن اطلاع الشباب الباحثين لهذه المصادر النادرة في تاريخ الكاميرون يظل من الأمور التي يجب تشجيعها.



    Arabic and ajami manuscripts have been written in Cameroon since the mid eighteenth century. They resulted from a combination of initiatives from Islamic proselytisers and commercial activity (mostly initiated by the migrant populations from West Africa. Muslim traders contributed to the popularisation of the Italian paper tre lune while the itinerant scholars actively promoted the rising and democratization of Islamic knowledge. The combination of these factors contributed to the creation of royal chancelleries containing documents of many different types such as chronicles, diplomatic letters and poetic eulogies. The commonly used sûdânî style is close to to the calligraphic norms developed in Sudanic Africa. Both ink and pens were made from local materials. Today, research in this domain is just starting and very few manuscripts have been catalogued so far. Hampered by a lack of skills in reading Arabic writing, the rediscovery of these original primary sources of Cameroonian history by the

  3. Editorial: A dedication to Professor Jan Evetts (United States)

    Weber, Harald; Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Barber, Zoe; Somekh, Rob; Glowacki, Bartek


    achievements one can do no better than to quote in full the eulogy delivered by Professor Archie Campbell at Jan's funeral service. `In 1962 I was given a studentship in the Metallurgy Department to work for a PhD under David Dew-Hughes on the subject of superconductivity, and told another student would be someone called `Jan Evetts'. I little realised this would be the start of not only a scientific collaboration but also a personal friendship which would last until now, 43 years later. It quickly became clear that Evetts was not a singular noun but came with a whole family, Hilda and her six children who worked together as a very successful team. While Jan was a research student the family built a complete new block at the Mill House and rewired the whole place. As a result I was given the confidence and expertise to take on major DIY projects which I would never have done without Jan's help. In the lab his sister Sara helped us put up one inch copper piping with soldered Yorkshire fittings and his brother Dee is responsible for large amounts of woodwork in our house. However, there will be many who can testify to the success of the Evetts family, as a family. What I want to do is make clear what a wonderful scientist he was, and after his family, his priority was his scientific work. This was an astonishing combination of administrative skill, long term planning, manipulation of the University system and high quality research at the top international level. Five of his group obtained permanent positions in the Metallurgy Department, a unique achievement in my experience. He built up the largest superconductivity group in the UK, expanded to other areas, and there are many scientists all over the world, as well as many in Cambridge, who owe their careers to Jan. I have had messages from most of the top scientists in the field in many countries saying how much he achieved and how much he will be missed. However, what I am sure he would wish to be remembered for is the high

  4. Flower symbolism and the cult of relics in medieval Serbia

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    Popović Danica


    cult of their father Nemanja (in monkhood Simeon, the founder of the dynasty. It is quite understandable, then, that the motif of vine with its offshoots, blossoms and fruit became an element of royal ideology in the early days of the medieval Serbian state. Namely, the metaphorical likening of Nemanja's dynasty to a vine laid an emphasis on the idea of dynastic divine election and sanctity. It is already the Service to St Simeon that uses the habitual paraphrase of Psalm 92,12-14 about the flourishing palm tree and Lebanese cedar, but in a distinctive context: their growth and flourishing refers to the growth of Simeon's 'children', which is to say the dynasty and the 'fatherland'. The idea of life-giving growth and thriving is illustrated by other epithets ascribed to Simeon, such as a 'fruit-bearing vine', 'wonderful heaven', a 'flower of faith in the heavenly vineyard', and so on. It should be emphasized that the authors of the eulogies of Simeon, his sons Stefan and Sava, were well-acquainted with the concept of the monastic desert, epitomized by Mount Athos whose attributes are blossoming, fragrance and illumination. Subsequent Serbian writers also made ample use of the idea of the miraculous blossoming and transformation of matter, especially in paraphrasing Psalm 92,12-14. Their paraphrases are never identical, however; on the contrary, the emphasis varies both in substance and in function. Apart from 'ideological' messages about the flourishing dynasty and state, the verses of this psalm are usually used to refer to piety and a virtuous life. It probably is not a coincidence that such references frequently occur in the eulogies to the sainted heads of the Serbian Church, but also to distinguished ascetics. Thus St Sava, 'like a good-smelling lily, is saturated with scents of piety', archbishop Nikodemos [Nikodim] blossoms like a 'fine-growing palm tree', and patriarch Ephrem [Jefrem] 'blossoms offering spiritual gifts'. The virtue attained by two distinguished

  5. “Lisân-I Osmânî” Üzerine Bir İnceleme A Surveying of Book Called Lisân-ı Osmânî

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    Onur AKBAŞ


    Full Text Available You know Ali Ekrem Bolayır was the son of Namık Kemal. He was Poet and writer. (b. 1867, İstanbul - d. 27 August 1937.. He sometimes used A. Nadir and İlhâm as pen names in his poems. He was educated by a tutor during his father’s official service on Rhodes (1884 and on the island of Chios (1887. During the reign of Abdülhamid II, he served as the clerk to the chamberlain until he became the Administrator of Jerusalem (1888-1905. Later he served as the Governor of Beirut and the Mediterranean Islands Province, as a professor of text interpretation at İstanbul University (1913-1933 and as a teacher at Galatasaray High School. In the last years of his life he struggled to make a living. When he became ill, he was treated by the famous physician, Mazhar Osman. His grave is in Zincirlikuyu, İstanbul.Ali Ekrem, whose first poem was published in Resimli Gazete, became famous for his poems published in the review Servet-i Fünun in 1896. As he disagreed with Tevfik Fikret, sometimes he wrote for the review Musavver Malumat, which had opposing opinions to those of the Scientific Wealth Movement. He was banned from writing until 1908. He acquired a great reputation with his poem Vasiyet (Testament inspired by the Greek War of 1897. He wrote epic poems during World War I and the National Struggle. He was one of the first poets to try the syllabic meter but his poems never passed an average level. He also produced work in the areas of theatre, literature and history.WORKS:POETRY: Zilal-i İlham (Inspiration of the Humbled, 1908, Kaside-i Askeriye (Military Eulogy, 1908, Kırmızı Fesler (The Red Fezzes, 1908, Ruh-i Kemal (The Spirit of Maturity, 1909, Ordunun Defteri (The Inventory of the Army, verse and prose, 1918, Anavatan (Motherland, 1921, Vicdan Alevleri (The Flames of Conscience, 1925, Şiir Demeti (Bundle of Poems, 1925.PLAY: Baria (Perfect, 1908, Sultan Selim (Sultan Selim, serialized, 1910, Sükût (The Silence, serialized, 1919, Mama

  6. Estado absoluto e ensino das primeiras letras: as escolas régias (1772-1794, na tese de Áurea Adão (1997 - Absolutist state and alphabetization classes: escolas régias (1772-1794, as postulates Áurea Adão (1997

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    Maria Juraci Maia Cavalcante


    -chave: história da educação; aulas régias; Aurea Adão.   ABSOLUTIST STATE AND ALPHABETIZATION CLASSES: ESCOLAS RÉGIAS (1772-1794, AS POSTULATES ÁUREA ADÃO (1997 Abstract The study of Aurea Adão regarding the “aulas régias”, which were instituted by pombalina reform in the second half of the XVIII century, presented in this study is part of a larger research about the Portuguese Educational History. The object of that study has too many qualities which make clear why it was so relevantly considered among many other findings in that historiography, either for treating history as a trade, taking into consideration its methodologies, which can be shown by the way documental sources and gaps are dealt with, or for the author’s prudence in the explanations and evaluations about the meaning of the Pombal Reform and its developments in the Reign of D. Maria, regarding elementary school, and in the confrontation with the consulted historiography. The position of the author, as a historian, shows a steady balance when she tries to understand the influence received by the reform in the ideological and political environment of Illuminist Europe, avoiding ideological judgments, which produce clear eulogy or unfounded critics. If we look at it form the perspective of time, her study, although centered in a short period of time, is clearly supported on a strategy to look both at the past and future, which allows her to reconstruct the Pombalina reform from the confrontation between what was happening before it and its future dynamic in the Reign of D. José. She examined the school structure where the reform originated and what happened with the end of the carrier of Pombal Minister, recreating the past/present/future as a place to be observed in history, avoiding the linear-chronological narrative, usually observed in studies of educational history that are based on official documents and archives. Keywords: history of education; aulas régias; Aurea Adão.   ESTADO