WorldWideScience

Sample records for eukaryotic apoptosis bcl-2

  1. Acidosis Promotes Bcl-2 Family-mediated Evasion of Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Christopher; McColl, Karen; Zhong, Fei; Distelhorst, Clark W.

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis arises in solid and lymphoid malignancies secondary to altered nutrient supply and utilization. Tumor acidosis correlates with therapeutic resistance, although the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. Here we show that incubation of lymphoma cell lines in acidic conditions (pH 6.5) blocks apoptosis induced by multiple cytotoxic metabolic stresses, including deprivation of glucose or glutamine and treatment with dexamethasone. We sought to examine the role of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators in this process. Interestingly, we found that acidic culture causes elevation of both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, while also attenuating glutamine starvation-induced elevation of p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and Bim. We confirmed with knockdown studies that these shifts direct survival decisions during starvation and acidosis. Importantly, the promotion of a high anti- to pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member ratio by acidosis renders cells exquisitely sensitive to the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL antagonist ABT-737, suggesting that acidosis causes Bcl-2 family dependence. This dependence appears to be mediated, in part, by the acid-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, GPR65, via a MEK/ERK pathway. PMID:22685289

  2. Alphaviruses induce apoptosis in Bcl-2-overexpressing cells: evidence for a caspase-mediated, proteolytic inactivation of Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgirard, D; Studer, E; Monney, L; Belser, T; Fellay, I; Borner, C; Michel, M R

    1998-01-01

    Bcl-2 oncogene expression plays a role in the establishment of persistent viral infection by blocking virus-induced apoptosis. This might be achieved by preventing virus-induced activation of caspase-3, an IL-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE)-like cysteine protease that has been implicated in the death effector phase of apoptosis. Contrary to this model, we show that three cell types highly overexpressing functional Bcl-2 displayed caspase-3 activation and underwent apoptosis in response to infection with alphaviruses Semliki Forest and Sindbis as efficiently as vector control counterparts. In all three cell types, overexpressed 26 kDa Bcl-2 was cleaved into a 23 kDa protein. Antibody epitope mapping revealed that cleavage occurred at one or two target sites for caspases within the amino acid region YEWD31 (downward arrow) AGD34 (downward arrow) A, removing the N-terminal BH4 region known to be essential for the death-protective activity of Bcl-2. Preincubation of cells with the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD prevented Bcl-2 cleavage and partially restored the protective activity of Bcl-2 against virus-induced apoptosis. Moreover, a murine Bcl-2 mutant having Asp31, Asp34 and Asp36 substituted by Glu was resistant to proteolytic cleavage and abrogated apoptosis following virus infection. These findings indicate that alphaviruses can trigger a caspase-mediated inactivation of Bcl-2 in order to evade the death protection imposed by this survival factor. PMID:9482724

  3. Bcl-2 prevents loss of mitochondria in CCCP-induced apoptosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, A.O. de; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Abreu, R.A. de; Birkenkamp, K.U.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Reijden, B.A. van der; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Jansen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis at the level of mitochondria. To examine the mechanism of Bcl-2 function, we investigated the effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) on two hematopoietic cell lines and Bcl-2 overexpressing transfectants. CCCP directly

  4. BCL-2, Ca, and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Machen, Terry

    1998-01-01

    The central hypothesis of this project is that bcl-2 controls PCD and oncogenesis by altering Ca permeability by the ER/nuclear membranes, mitochondria and/or plasma membrane of mammary epithelial cells...

  5. Apoptosis in differentiating C2C12 muscle cells selectively targets Bcl-2-deficient myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Christian; Dremina, Elena; Galeva, Nadezhda; Sharov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Muscle cell apoptosis accompanies normal muscle development and regeneration, as well as degenerative diseases and aging. C2C12 murine myoblast cells represent a common model to study muscle differentiation. Though it was already shown that myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells is accompanied by enhanced apoptosis in a fraction of cells, either the cell population sensitive to apoptosis or regulatory mechanisms for the apoptotic response are unclear so far. In the current study we characterize apoptotic phenotypes of different types of C2C12 cells at all stages of differentiation, and report here that myotubes of differentiated C2C12 cells with low levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression are particularly vulnerable to apoptosis even though they are displaying low levels of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bak and Bad. In contrast, reserve cells exhibit higher levels of Bcl-2 and high resistance to apoptosis. The transfection of proliferating myoblasts with Bcl-2 prior to differentiation did not protect against spontaneous apoptosis accompanying differentiation of C2C12 cells but led to Bcl-2 overexpression in myotubes and to significant protection from apoptotic cell loss caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our data advocate for a Bcl-2-dependent mechanism of apoptosis in differentiated muscle cells. However, downstream processes for spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis are not completely similar. Apoptosis in differentiating myoblasts and myotubes is regulated not through interaction of Bcl-2 with pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bax, Bak, and Bad.

  6. Bodyguards and assassins: Bcl-2 family proteins and apoptosis control in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packham, Graham; Stevenson, Freda K

    2005-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common B-cell malignancy in the Western world and exists as subtypes with very different clinical courses. CLL is generally described as a disease of failed apoptosis. Apoptosis resistance may stem from a combination of microenvironmental survival signals as well as from intrinsic alterations in the apoptotic machinery within the CLL cell. The molecular mechanism involved in controlling apoptosis in CLL is complex and is influenced by many factors, including Bcl-2 family proteins, which are critical regulators of cell death. Here we review the significance of apoptosis dysregulation in CLL, focusing on the role of Bcl-2 and related Bcl-2 family proteins, such as Bax and Mcl-1. The differential properties of the newly described subsets of CLL are also highlighted.

  7. Small molecule inhibitors of Bcl-2 function: modulators of apoptosis and promising anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z

    2000-09-01

    Bcl-2 and related proteins play a central role in the regulation of programmed cell death or apoptosis implicated in many human diseases. As such, they have been prime targets for both basic research to understand the fundamental principles underlying the life and death of a cell, and for drug discovery, to develop a new generation of therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Structure-function studies of the Bcl-2 family of proteins have revealed a surface pocket on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL that is critical for their interaction with other pro-apoptotic proteins and their ability to suppress cell death signals. Intensive efforts have been made by industry to find small molecules that recognize this surface pocket of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL and antagonize their biological functions. This article reviews the recent progress in the study of peptides, and non-peptidic natural and synthetic compounds that block the antiapoptotic function of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. The design and discovery of these agents has opened new avenues in the basic research of Bcl-2- regulated apoptotic processes and the development of new anticancer drugs.

  8. Adenovirus-mediated bcl-2 gene transfer inhibits renal ischemia/reperfusion induced tubular oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chiang-Ting; Chiang-Ting, Chien; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Tzu-Ching, Chang; Tsai, Ching-Yi; Ching-Yi, Tsai; Shyue, Song-Kuen; Song-Kuen, Shyue; Lai, Ming-Kuen; Ming-Kuen, Lai

    2005-06-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion induces oxidative injury to proximal and distal renal tubular cells. We hypothesize that Bcl-2 protein augmentation with adenovirus vector mediated bcl-2 (Adv-bcl-2) gene transfer may improve ischemia/reperfusion induced renal proximal and distal tubular apoptosis through the mitochondrial control of Bax and cytochrome C translocation. Twenty-four hours of Adv-bcl-2 transfection to proximal and distal tubular cells in vitro upregulated Bcl-2/Bax ratio and inhibited hypoxia/reoxygenation induced cytochrome C translocation, O(2) (-) production and tubular apoptosis. Intra-renal arterial Adv-bcl-2 administration with renal venous clamping augmented Bcl-2 protein of rat kidney in vivo in a time-dependent manner. The maximal Bcl-2 protein expression appeared at 7 days after Adv-bcl-2 administration and the primary location of Bcl-2 augmentation was in proximal and distal tubules, but not in glomeruli. With a real-time monitoring O(2) (-) production and apoptosis analysis of rat kidneys, ischemia/reperfusion increased renal O(2) (-) level, potentiated proapoptotic mechanisms, including decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, increases in caspase 3 expression and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase fragments and subsequent proximal and distal tubular apoptosis. However, Adv-bcl-2 administration significantly enhanced Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased ischemia/reperfusion induced O(2) (-) amount, inhibited proximal and distal tubular apoptosis and improved renal function. Our results suggest that Adv-bcl-2 gene transfer significantly reduces ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative injury in the kidney.

  9. CD40 ligand, Bcl-2 and apoptosis in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ola A; Omran, Alaa A; Elnaggar, Amina M; Fathy, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a haematopoetic neoplasm caused primarily by defects in apoptosis mechanisms and complicated by progressive marrow failure, immunosupression and increased resistance to chemotherapy. The CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction has been shown to significantly increase antigen presentation in normal and malignant B-cells and it is a powerful regulator of cell survival. Bcl-2 expression is common in CLL and is associated with decreased overall survival. Our objective was to asses CD40 ligand (CD154) and Bcl-2 expressions and their correlation with clinical and laboratory features in CLL patients. This study was conducted on 40 subjects, including 10 healthy volunteers as the control group and 30 patients presented with de novo chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), all of them were subjected to thorough history taking, full clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigations and flowcytometric assessment of CD40L and Bcl-2 on lymphocytes. There was a highly significant increase in TLC, absolute lymphocytic count, serum LDH, B2-microglobulin and Bcl-2 expression (PCD154 expression and clinical findings, Rai staging system and other laboratory parameters. CD40L expression is increased with staging of Modified Rai staging system but not reaching the significant level. There was no significant correlation between CD154 expression and some of clinical and laboratory parameters, whereas there was only significantly negative correlation between Bcl-2 expression and both haemoglobin concentration and platelets count (P<0.001). Combination of Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs may enhance the cytotoxicity of these drugs and induces apoptosis.

  10. Extracellular administration of BCL2 protein reduces apoptosis and improves survival in a murine model of sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Iwata

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe sepsis and septic shock are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In experimental sepsis there is prominent apoptosis of various cell types, and genetic manipulation of death and survival pathways has been shown to modulate organ injury and survival.We investigated the effect of extracellular administration of two anti-apoptotic members of the BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 family of intracellular regulators of cell death in a murine model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. We show that intraperitoneal injection of picomole range doses of recombinant human (rh BCL2 or rhBCL2A1 protein markedly improved survival as assessed by surrogate markers of death. Treatment with rhBCL2 or rhBCL2A1 protein significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the intestine and heart following CLP, and this was accompanied by increased expression of endogenous mouse BCL2 protein. Further, mice treated with rhBCL2A1 protein showed an increase in the total number of neutrophils in the peritoneum following CLP with reduced neutrophil apoptosis. Finally, although neither BCL2 nor BCL2A1 are a direct TLR2 ligand, TLR2-null mice were not protected by rhBCL2A1 protein, indicating that TLR2 signaling was required for the protective activity of extracellularly adminsitered BCL2A1 protein in vivo.Treatment with rhBCL2A1 or rhBCL2 protein protects mice from sepsis by reducing apoptosis in multiple target tissues, demonstrating an unexpected, potent activity of extracellularly administered BCL2 BH4-domain proteins.

  11. Apoptosis induction by the dual-action DNA- and protein-reactive antitumor drug irofulven is largely Bcl-2-independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Maryanne C S; Trevino, Alex V; Liang, Huiyun; Salinas, Richard; Waters, Stephen J; MacDonald, John R; Woynarowska, Barbara A; Woynarowski, Jan M

    2003-02-15

    The overexpression of Bcl-2 is implicated in the resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis. This study explored the potential of irofulven (hydroxymethylacylfulvene, HMAF, MGI 114, NSC 683863), a novel DNA- and protein-reactive anticancer drug, to overcome the anti-apoptotic properties of Bcl-2 in HeLa cells with controlled Bcl-2 overexpression. Irofulven treatment resulted in rapid (12hr) dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, with progressive changes after 24hr. Bcl-2 overexpression caused marginal or partial inhibition of these effects after treatment times ranging from 12 to 48hr. Both Bcl-2-dependent and -independent responses to irofulven were abrogated by a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor. Despite the somewhat decreased apoptotic indices, cell growth inhibition by irofulven was unaffected by Bcl-2 status. In comparison, Bcl-2 overexpression drastically reduced apoptotic DNA fragmentation by etoposide, acting via topoisomerase II-mediated DNA damage, but had no effect on apoptotic DNA fragmentation by helenalin A, which reacts with proteins but not DNA. Irofulven retains its pro-apoptotic and growth inhibitory potential in cell lines that have naturally high Bcl-2 expression. Collectively, the results implicate multiple mechanisms of apoptosis induction by irofulven, which may differ in time course and Bcl-2 dependence. It is possible that the sustained ability of irofulven to induce profound apoptosis and to block cell growth despite Bcl-2 overexpression may be related to its dual reactivity with both DNA and proteins.

  12. IRBIT controls apoptosis by interacting with the Bcl-2 homolog, Bcl2l10, and by promoting ER-mitochondria contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Benjamin; Ando, Hideaki; Kawaai, Katsuhiro; Hirose, Matsumi; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2016-12-20

    IRBIT is a molecule that interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 )-binding pocket of the IP 3 receptor (IP 3 R), whereas the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl2l10, binds to another part of the IP 3 -binding domain. Here we show that Bcl2l10 and IRBIT interact and exert an additive inhibition of IP 3 R in the physiological state. Moreover, we found that these proteins associate in a complex in mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and that their interplay is involved in apoptosis regulation. MAMs are a hotspot for Ca 2+ transfer between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and massive Ca 2+ release through IP 3 R in mitochondria induces cell death. We found that upon apoptotic stress, IRBIT is dephosphorylated, becoming an inhibitor of Bcl2l10. Moreover, IRBIT promotes ER mitochondria contact. Our results suggest that by inhibiting Bcl2l10 activity and promoting contact between ER and mitochondria, IRBIT facilitates massive Ca 2+ transfer to mitochondria and promotes apoptosis. This work then describes IRBIT as a new regulator of cell death.

  13. SS-A/Ro52 promotes apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauharoh, Siti Nur Aisyah [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta 15412 (Indonesia); Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ardianto, Bambang [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55282 (Indonesia); Kasagi, Shimpei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Chiyo [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Tokuno, Osamu; Nakamachi, Yuji [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Kumagai, Shunichi [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Kawano, Seiji, E-mail: sjkawano@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells are resistant to apoptosis upon various stimulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 is upregulated by IFN-{alpha}, etoposide, or IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas Ab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52-mediated apoptosis is independent of p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 selectively regulates Bcl-2 expression. -- Abstract: SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52), an autoantigen in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjoegren's syndrome, has E3 ligase activity to ubiquitinate proteins that protect against viral infection. To investigate Ro52's role during stress, we transiently knocked it down in HeLa cells by siRo52 transfection. We found that Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis than wild-type HeLa cells when stimulated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- or diamide-induced oxidative stress, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas antibody, etoposide, or {gamma}-irradiation. Furthermore, Ro52-mediated apoptosis was not influenced by p53 protein level in HeLa cells. Depleting Ro52 in HeLa cells caused Bcl-2, but not other Bcl-2 family molecules, to be upregulated. Taken together, our data showed that Ro52 is a universal proapoptotic molecule, and that its proapoptotic effect does not depend on p53, but is exerted through negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings shed light on a new physiological role for Ro52 that is important to intracellular immunity.

  14. HAMLET triggers apoptosis but tumor cell death is independent of caspases, Bcl-2 and p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, O; Gustafsson, L; Irjala, H; Selivanova, G; Orrenius, S; Svanborg, C

    2006-02-01

    HAMLET (Human alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells) triggers selective tumor cell death in vitro and limits tumor progression in vivo. Dying cells show features of apoptosis but it is not clear if the apoptotic response explains tumor cell death. This study examined the contribution of apoptosis to cell death in response to HAMLET. Apoptotic changes like caspase activation, phosphatidyl serine externalization, chromatin condensation were detected in HAMLET-treated tumor cells, but caspase inhibition or Bcl-2 over-expression did not prolong cell survival and the caspase response was Bcl-2 independent. HAMLET translocates to the nuclei and binds directly to chromatin, but the death response was unrelated to the p53 status of the tumor cells. p53 deletions or gain of function mutations did not influence the HAMLET sensitivity of tumor cells. Chromatin condensation was partly caspase dependent, but apoptosis-like marginalization of chromatin was also observed. The results show that tumor cell death in response to HAMLET is independent of caspases, p53 and Bcl-2 even though HAMLET activates an apoptotic response. The use of other cell death pathways allows HAMLET to successfully circumvent fundamental anti-apoptotic strategies that are present in many tumor cells.

  15. Lantana camara Induces Apoptosis by Bcl-2 Family and Caspases Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Byeol; Chang, Bo Yoon; Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and the second most fatal cancer in women after lung cancer. Because there are instances of cancer resistance to existing therapies, studies focused on the identification of novel therapeutic drugs are very important. In this study, we identified a natural anticancer agent from Lantana camara, a flowering plant species of the genus Verbena. The extract obtained from the L. camara exhibited cell death properties in the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. We found that the apoptosis induced by treatment with the L. camara extract was regulated by the Bcl-2 family. Bid and Bax was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased by L. camara extract. L. camara extract modulated cleavage of caspase-8, and caspase-9, as well as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Our results support the potential use of the L. camara extract as an anti-breast cancer drug.

  16. Induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells by solanine and Bcl-2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y B; Gao, S Y; Ji, C F; Zou, X

    2008-01-17

    The nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.) has been widely used in Chinese traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of digestive system cancer. The anti-tumor activity of solanine, a steroid alkaloid isolated from the nightshade has been demonstrated. To observe the effect of anti-tumor and mechanism of solanine. The MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC(50) on the three digestive system tumor cell lines. The effect on the morphology was observed with a laser confocal microscopy; the rate of apoptosis and the cell cycle were measured using flow cytometry (FCM); the expression of Bcl-2 protein was measured by Western blot. The results show that the IC(50) for HepG(2), SGC-7901, and LS-174 were 14.47, >50, and >50 microg/ml, respectively; the morphology of cells in the negative control was normal; for the treated groups, typical signs for apoptosis were found. The rate of apoptosis in HepG(2) cells induced by solanine was found to be 6.0, 14.4, 17.3, 18.9, and 32.2%, respectively. Observation of the cell cycle showed that cells in the G(2)/M phases disappeared while the number of cells in the S phase increased significantly for treated groups. Western blot showed that solanine decreased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Therefore, the target of solanine in inducing apoptosis in HepG(2) cells seems to be mediated by the inhibition in the expression of Bcl-2 protein.

  17. Quinacrine induces apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells via p38 MAPK-elicited BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changchien, Jung-Jung; Chen, Ying-Jung; Huang, Chia-Hui [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tian-Lu [Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shinne-Ren [Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Long-Sen, E-mail: lschang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the anti-cancer activity of quinacrine, its effect on leukemia is not clearly resolved. We sought to explore the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of quinacrine action in human leukemia K562 cells. Quinacrine induced K562 cell apoptosis accompanied with ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and down-regulation of BCL2L1 and BCL2. Upon exposure to quinacrine, ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation were observed in K562 cells. Quinacrine-induced cell death and mitochondrial depolarization were suppressed by the p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and constitutively active MEK1 over-expression. Activation of p38 MAPK was shown to promote BCL2 degradation. Further, ERK inactivation suppressed c-Jun-mediated transcriptional expression of BCL2L1. Over-expression of BCL2L1 and BCL2 attenuated quinacrine-evoked mitochondrial depolarization and rescued the viability of quinacrine-treated cells. Taken together, our data indicate that quinacrine-induced K562 cell apoptosis is mediated through mitochondrial alterations triggered by p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression. - Highlights: • Quinacrine induces K562 cell apoptosis via down-regulation of BCL2 and BCL2L1. • Quinacrine induces p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation in K562 cells. • Quinacrine elicits p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation. • Quinacrine suppresses ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression.

  18. Combination of erlotinib and EGCG induces apoptosis of head and neck cancers through posttranscriptional regulation of Bim and Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Abedul; Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Saba, Nabil F; Khuri, Fadlo R; Shin, Dong M; Ruhul Amin, A R M

    2015-07-01

    Combinatorial approaches using two or more compounds are gaining increasing attention for cancer therapy. We have previously reported that the combination of the EGFR-TKI erlotinib and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exhibited synergistic chemopreventive effects in head and neck cancers by inducing the expression of Bim, p21, p27, and by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT and expression of Bcl-2. In the current study, we further investigated the mechanism of regulation of Bim, Bcl-2, p21 and p27, and their role in apoptosis. shRNA-mediated silencing of Bim significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by the combination of erlotinib and EGCG (p = 0.005). On the other hand, overexpression of Bcl-2 markedly protected cells from apoptosis (p = 0.003), whereas overexpression of constitutively active AKT only minimally protected cells from apoptosis induced by the combination of the two compounds. Analysis of mRNA expression by RT-PCR revealed that erlotinib, EGCG and their combination had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of Bim, p21, p27 or Bcl-2 suggesting the post-transcriptional regulation of these molecules. Furthermore, we found that erlotinib or the combination of EGCG and erlotinib inhibited the phosphorylation of Bim and stabilized Bim after inhibition of protein translation by cycloheximide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the combination of erlotinib and EGCG induces apoptosis of SCCHN cells by regulating Bim and Bcl-2 at the posttranscriptional level.

  19. Regulation of apoptosis through bcl-2/bax proteins expression and DNA damage by Zanthoxylum alatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Indrajit; Haldar, Sagnik; Chakraborty, Mainak; Chaudhury, Keya; Dewanjee, Saikat; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Many of the major chemotherapeutic agents are secondary metabolites found in nature. Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. (Rutaceae) is traditionally used in the treatment of various diseases. The present study evaluates the apoptotic activity of methanol extract of Z. alatum (MEZA) on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in Swiss albino mice. The presence of flavonoids in MEZA was standardized by HPLC. The in vitro cytotoxicity of MEZA was measured by the MTT assay. The in vivo antitumor activity of MEZA (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w., i.p. for 9 days) was also evaluated. On the 10th day, EAT tumor volume, cell viability, and hematological parameters were assayed. Apoptotic morphology was determined by acredine orange/ethedium bromide using fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis percentage was measured by flow cytometric analysis using annexine-V-FITC. Also, DNA damage and bcl-2/bax were estimated by UV-method and western blot, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed presence of three flavonoids, rutin, myricetin, and quercetin. MEZA showed satisfactory cytotoxicity in MTT assay (IC50 = 111.50 µg/ml). The extract significantly (p < 0.01) changed the tumor volume, viable, non-viable cell count, and hematological parameters towards the normal. Apoptotic activity of MEZA was confirmed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, annexin-V-FITC staining, DNA fragmentation, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The study showed that MEZA has antitumor activity which may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extract.

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE) of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR) and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU) in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines) were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine)-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM). The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Results Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [60Co] γ-rays (P BNCT. Furthermore, the cellular apoptotic rates in Group D and Group E treated with BPA-BNCT were significantly higher than those in Group B and Group C irradiated by [60Co] γ-rays (P BNCT compared with cells

  1. Effects of Bevacizumab on Bcl-2 Expression and Apoptosis in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells under Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukjin; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Na Rae; Chin, Hee Seung

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of bevacizumab on expression of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells under oxidative stress conditions. RPE cells were treated with H(2)O(2) (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 µM) and bevacizumab at or above the doses normally used in clinical practice (0, 0.33, 0.67, 1.33, and 2.67 mg/mL). Cell apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate. The expression of Bcl-2 mRNA was determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Under low oxidative stress conditions (H(2)O(2) 100 µM), cell apoptosis was not significantly different at any concentration of bevacizumab, but Bcl-2 mRNA expression decreased with increasing concentration of bevacizumab (0.33, 0.67, 1.33, and 2.67 mg/mL). Under moderate oxidative stress conditions (H(2)O(2) 200 µM), Bcl-2 mRNA expression decreased with increasing concentration of bevacizumab (0.33, 0.67, 1.33, and 2.67 mg/mL), but cell apoptosis increased only at 2.67 mg/mL of bevacizumab. Under high oxidative stress (300 µM) conditions, cell apoptosis increased at high concentrations of bevacizumab (1.33 and 2.67 mg/mL), but it did not correlate with Bcl-2 expression. Withdrawal of vascular endothelial growth factor can lead to RPE cell apoptosis and influences the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2 under oxidative stress conditions. Since oxidative stress levels of each patient are unknown, repeated injections of intravitreal bevacizumab, as in eyes with age-related macular degeneration, might influence RPE cell survival.

  2. VSV oncolysis in combination with the BCL-2 inhibitor obatoclax overcomes apoptosis resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Sara; Tumilasci, Vanessa F; Oliere, Stephanie; Nguyên, Thi Liên-Anh; Shamy, April; Bell, John; Hiscott, John

    2010-12-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), overexpression of antiapoptotic B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family members contributes to leukemogenesis by interfering with apoptosis; BCL-2 expression also impairs vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-mediated oncolysis of primary CLL cells. In the effort to reverse resistance to VSV-mediated oncolysis, we combined VSV with obatoclax (GX15-070)-a small-molecule BCL-2 inhibitor currently in phase 2 clinical trials-and examined the molecular mechanisms governing the in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficiency of combining the two agents. In combination with VSV, obatoclax synergistically induced cell death in primary CLL samples and reduced tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice-bearing A20 lymphoma tumors. Mechanistically, the combination stimulated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as reflected by caspase-3 and -9 cleavage, cytochrome c release and BAX translocation. Combination treatment triggered the release of BAX from BCL-2 and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) from BAK, whereas VSV infection induced NOXA expression and increased the formation of a novel BAX-NOXA heterodimer. Finally, NOXA was identified as an important inducer of VSV-obatoclax driven apoptosis via knockdown and overexpression of NOXA. These studies offer insight into the synergy between small-molecule BCL-2 inhibitors such as obatoclax and VSV as a combination strategy to overcome apoptosis resistance in CLL.

  3. [Effect of stellate ganglion block on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2/Bax protein in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongquan; Hu, Guangxiang; Fu, Qun; Jin, Xiaoju

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between apoptosis of myocardial cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax protein, and the protective effect of stellate ganglion block on apoptosis of myocardial cells. A total of 32 ten-week-old male SHRs were assigned randomly into 4 groups: a left stellate ganglion block group (group LS), a right stellate ganglion block group (group RS), a captopril group (group D) and a control group (group C). The arterial systolic blood pressure was measured by ALC-NIBP system. After 10 weeks, all rats were anaesthetized by 3% pentobarbital sodium, cardiomyocyte apoptosis index of left ventricle was assessed by TUNEL, and the localization of myocardium Bcl-2, Bax was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with group LS and C, the apoptotic index decreased (Pblock can reduce the apoptosis of myocardial cells and reverse the reconstruction of the left ventricle in SHRs via regulation of apoptosis-related gene proteins.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Xinggang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM. The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Results Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [60Co] γ-rays (P 60Co] γ-rays (P P Conclusions Compared with ��-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. Glioma cell apoptosis induced by

  5. [Effect of varicocele on expression of apoptosis associated gene Bcl-2 and Bax in spermatogenic cells of adolescent rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xue-jun; Chen, Le-zhong; Fang, De-xin; Ye, He-song; She, Shao-yi; Hong, Han-ye

    2005-07-01

    To study the effect of varicocel (VC) on expression of apoptosis associated gene Bcl-2 and Bax in spermatogenic cells of adolescent rats, and investigate the mechanism of the infertility resulting from varicocele. The varicocele model was created by partial ligation of the left renal vein in the adolescent rats, two and four and eight weeks after creation of the varicocele model, the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunohistochemical method. With the duration of varicocele model, the Bcl-2 expression in experiment group was decreased as compared with that in control group. And in experiment group, the Bcl-2 expression level was lower in left testis than in right testis. But Bax expression in experiment group was increased as compared with that in control group, and in experiment group, the Bax expression level was higher in left testis than in right testis. Experimental varicocele could change obviously expression of apoptosis associated gene Bcl-2 and Bax in spermatogenic cells of adolescent rats.

  6. Apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2, Bax, p53, caspase-3, and Fas, Fas ligand in placentas complicated by preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendilcioglu, I; Karaveli, S; Erdogan, G; Simsek, M; Taskin, O; Ozekinci, M

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether preeclampsia is associated with an increase in placental apoptosis and altered expression of mediators of apoptosis such as Fas, Fas ligand, caspase-3, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax. Placental samples obtained from 20 women with preeclampsia and 14 normal women were analyzed using the Klenow, Frag-EL DNA fragmentation detection kit for apoptosis. Expression of Fas, Fas ligand, caspase-3, p53 Bcl-2, and Bax was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The median percentage of apoptotic nuclei in trophoblasts was significantly higher for the preeclampsia group than for the controls (6.9 vs 0.25; p =.001). Fas ligand expression was significantly higher in the decidua among the subjects with preeclampsia compared with controls (1.2 vs 0; p = .023). Otherwise no difference was observed in the expression of Bax , Bcl-2, p53, caspase-3, and Fas between groups. Increased apoptosis in preeclampsia may not be associated with significant alterations in Fas, Fas ligand, caspase-3, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax expression.

  7. Bcl-2, Bax, and c-Fos expression correlates to RPE cell apoptosis induced by UV-light and daunorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Y G; Jorgensen, A G; Kaestel, C G

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Bcl-2, Bcl-X L, Bax, and c-Fos in regulation of apoptosis, induced by ultraviolet-light A (UV-A) and daunorubicin (DNR), in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells grown on bovine extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated or uncoated plastic dish...

  8. Prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim reduces the association of Bcl-2 with Bak or Bim, provoking Bak activation and mitochondrial apoptosis in nocodazole-treated Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cho Rong; Jun, Do Youn; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of Jurkat T cells with the microtubule-depolymerizing agent nocodazole (NOC) caused prometaphase arrest and apoptosis. NOC-induced mitochondrial apoptotic events including Bak activation, Δψm loss, cytochrome c release, and caspase cascade activation were blocked by Bcl-2 overexpression. However, mitotic arrest, Cdc25C activation, upregulation of cyclin B1 levels, Cdk1 activation, Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Thr-56 and Ser-70, and Bim phosphorylation were retained. The treatment of Jurkat T cells concomitantly with NOC and the G1/S-blocking agent hydroxyurea resulted in G1/S arrest and complete abrogation of all apoptotic events. The association of Bcl-2 with Bim or Bak declined after the prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, whereas the association of Bcl-2 with Bax remained relatively constant. Although Bax was redistributed from the cytosol to the mitochondria, resulting in an increase in the mitochondrial level of Bax following NOC treatment, the subcellular localization of Bcl-2, Bim, Bak and apoptosis-inducing factor was confined to the mitochondrial fraction irrespective of NOC treatment. Experiments using selective caspase inhibitors showed that mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase-9 and -3 was crucial for NOC-induced apoptosis. NOC-induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, Δψm loss, and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic events were significantly suppressed by a Cdk1 inhibitor roscovitine, but not by the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. These results show that the prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, which was mediated by Cdk1, could reduce the association of Bcl-2 with Bak or Bim to allow Bak activation and mitochondrial apoptotic events in Jurkat T cells exposed to NOC.

  9. Atherosclerosis-Associated Endothelial Cell Apoptosis by MiR-429-Mediated Down Regulation of Bcl-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Endothelial cell injury and subsequent apoptosis play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is hallmarked by dysregulated lipid homeostasis, aberrant immunity and inflammation, and plaque-instability-associated coronary occlusion. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying endothelial cell apoptosis is still limited. MicroRNA-429 (miR-29 is a known cancer suppressor that promotes cancer cell apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether miR-429 may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis through similar mechanisms. We addressed these questions in the current study. Methods: We examined the levels of endothelial cell apoptosis in ApoE (-/- mice suppled with high-fat diet (HFD, a mouse model for atherosclerosis (simplified as HFD mice. We analyzed the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the levels of miR-429 in the purified CD31+ endothelial cells from mouse aorta. Prediction of the binding between miR-429 and 3'-UTR of Bcl-2 mRNA was performed by bioinformatics analyses and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay. The effects of miR-429 were further analyzed in an in vitro model using oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs. Results: HFD mice developed atherosclerosis in 12 weeks, while the control ApoE (-/- mice that had received normal diet (simplified as NOR mice did not. HFD mice had significantly lower percentage of endothelial cells and significantly higher percentage of mesenchymal cells in the aorta than NOR mice. Significantly higher levels of endothelial cell apoptosis were detected in HFD mice, resulting from decreases in Bcl-2 protein, but not mRNA. The decreases in Bcl-2 in endothelial cells were due to increased levels of miR-429, which suppressed the translation of Bcl-2 mRNA via 3'-UTR binding. These in vivo findings were reproduced in vitro on ox-LDL-treated HAECs. Conclusion: Atherosclerosis

  10. Bcl-2/caspase 3 mucosal imbalance favors T cell resistance to apoptosis in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergens, A; Young, J; Moore, D; Wang, C; Hostetter, J; Augustine, L; Allenspach, K; Schmitz, S; Mosher, C

    2014-04-15

    Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to result from complex interplay between genetic, microbial, and immunologic factors. Abnormal cell death by apoptosis may result in the persistence of activated intestinal T cells that contribute to mucosal inflammation and clinical severity. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the mucosal expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in different intestinal compartments and their association with inflammatory indices in dogs with IBD. Apoptosis of lamina propria (LP) T cells in duodenal, ileal, and colonic tissues in control and IBD dogs was analyzed by caspase 3/Bcl-2 immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays. Densities and distributions of LP caspase 3 and Bcl-2 cells were correlated to histopathologic lesions and the clinical activity index (CIBDAI). Compared to control tissues, IBD dogs had significantly (Pdogs, there were significantly greater numbers of Bcl-2 cells at the apical and basilar villus in the duodenum as compared to the colon and to the apical and basilar villus in the ileum (Pdogs compared with controls (Pdogs and the CIBDAI (Pdogs with IBD. Mucosal imbalance of Bcl-2/caspase 3 expression favors T cell resistance to apoptosis which may contribute to T cell accumulation and chronic intestinal inflammation, similar to human IBD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Trichostatin A Induced Bcl-2 Protein Level Decrease Mediated A549/CDDP Cells Apoptosis by Mitochondria Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun WU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The use of platinum-based combination chemotherpy remains the standard treatment for non-small cell lung cancer. However, the resistance to platinum limits further treatment clinically. Trichostatin A (TSA is one of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors. It inhibits tumor cell proliferation and acts as a chemosensitizer. The aim of this study is to investigate the action mechanism of TSA on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549/CDDP. Methods Cytotoxicity and cell viability was assayed by Neutral Red method. Morphologic assessment of apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscope; cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by flow cytometry. In addition, A549/CDDP cells were transfected with Bcl-2 expression Vector and siRNA-bcl-2. Results A549/CDDP cells treated with TSA showed apparently cytotoxicity, IC50 of TSA was (446.59±27.32 nmol/L. The growth curve showed the ratio of growth decreased with the increase of concentration of TSA. The apoptosis appeared 24 hours after treated by (125-500 nmol/L TSA, morphologic changes including nuclear chromatin condensation. Fluorescence strength was observed with fluorescence microscope. Treated by TSA, mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and cells were arrested at S phase. Western blotting analyses showed that the levels of Bcl-2 decreased, while expression of Bax increased. Simultaneously caspase-3 was activated. Over expression of Bcl-2 can inhibit TSA-induced A549/CDDP cell apoptosis, while the decrease of Bcl-2 enhanced the sensitivity of A549/CDDP cell to TSA. Conclusion TSA induce A549/CDDP cell apoptosis by mitochondria pathway.

  12. Born to be alive: a role for the BCL-2 family in melanoma tumor cell survival, apoptosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Ashish Anvekar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The global incidence of melanoma has dramatically increased during the recent decades, yet the advancement of primary and adjuvant therapies has not kept a similar pace. The development of melanoma is often centered on cellular signaling that hyper-activates survival pathways, while inducing a concomitant blockade to cell death. Aberrations in cell death signaling not only promote tumor survival and enhanced metastatic potential, but also create resistance to anti-tumor strategies. Chemotherapeutic agents target melanoma tumor cells by inducing a form of cell death called apoptosis, which is governed by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The BCL-2 family is comprised of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1 and pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BAK, BAX, and BIM, and their coordinated regulation and function are essential for optimal responses to chemotherapeutics. Here we will discuss what is currently known about the mechanisms of BCL-2 family function with a focus on the signaling pathways that maintain melanoma tumor cell survival. Importantly, we will critically evaluate the literature regarding how chemotherapeutic strategies directly impact on BCL-2 family function and offer several suggestions for future regimens to target melanoma and enhance patient survival.

  13. Effects of Xenoestrogens on T Lymphocytes: Modulation of bcl-2, p53, and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. McMurray

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Endogenous estrogens have significant immunomodulatory effects characterized as suppression of cell mediated immunity and stimulation of humoral immunity. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as estrogen agonists and antagonists but whose immune effects are not well characterized. Using CD4+ Jurkat T cells as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens on T proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. Coumestrol (CM, a phytoestrogen, and tetrachlorodioxin (TCDD in concentrations of 10-4 to 10-6M significantly inhibited Jurkat T cell lymphoproliferation, whereas bisphenol A (BPA and DDT had minimal effect, but did antagonize 17-β-estrtadiol induced effects. Xenoestrogens, especially CM, produced accumulation of Jurkat T cells in G2/M phase, and subsequently induced apoptosis, particularly CM (% apoptotic cells = 30 ± 12 vs. control = 5 ± 2. These changes were associated with DNA fragmentation. BPA and DDT also induced DNA fragmentation but not significant DNA hypoploidy. Xenoestrogen – CM, BPA, DDT, and TCDD - exposure suppressed bcl-2 protein and mRNA transcript levels but augmented p53 protein and mRNA transcripts. Human purified peripheral blood lymphocytes responded with similar significant cell cycle changes (G0/G1 exodus and G2/M accumulation for CM, BPA, and DDT exposure. These preliminary data, taken together, suggest that xenoestrogens have direct, compound-specific T lymphocyte effects that enhance our understanding of environmental modulation of immune and autoimmune responses.

  14. Minimization of apoptosis-like changes in cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm by supplementing extender with Bcl-2 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmer Dalal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the anti-apoptotic effects of Bcl-2 protein in cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. Materials and Methods: A total 10 ejaculates from two buffalo bulls (5 each were collected using artificial vagina method, and semen was evaluated using a standard protocol. Semen was extended by Tris egg yolk extender supplemented with Bcl-2 protein at 5, 10, and 15 μM. Semen was cryopreserved at ultra-low temperature using traditional vapor freezing method. Prefreeze and post-thaw semen samples were evaluated for percent motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST reactive sperms; status of mitochondrial membrane activity and status of sperm phospholipase A1 and phospholipase A2 activity. Results: There were no significant effects of Bcl-2 protein supplementation on pre-freeze sperm quality. Percent motility and active mitochondria in post-thaw Bcl-2 supplemented and control groups were also similar. However, viable sperms were significantly (p<0.05 higher (74.29±4.23% in Bcl-2 supplemented group (5 μM as compared to control (51.6±5.77%. The proportion of HOST reactive sperms was also higher (63.1±6.73% in Bcl-2 supplemented (5 μM group as compared to control (50.7±6.98%. The sperm with low PLA activity (non-apoptotic was significantly (p<0.05 higher in all the supplemented doses of Bcl-2 protein, i.e., at 5 μM (73.42±5.79%, 10 μM (75.51±6.22%, and 15 μM (74.78±5.89% as compared to control (60.23±4.45%. We found that Bcl-2 protein supplementation at 5 μM dose improved the postthaw semen quality indicated by higher viability, HOST reactive sperms, and sperm with low PLA activity (non-apoptotic sperms. Conclusion: Bcl-2 protein supplementation exerts its protective effect on spermatozoa against apoptosis-like changes developed during cryopreservation.

  15. Maytenus ilicifolia dry extract protects normal cells, induces apoptosis and regulates Bcl-2 in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes de; Oliveira, Ana Luiza Cabral de Sá Leitão; Pessoa, Jonas Bispo; Garcia, Vinícios Barreto; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Souza, Tatiane Pereira de; Petrovick, Pedro Ros; Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de

    2013-11-01

    Maytenus is the largest genus of the family Celastraceae and the species Maytenus ilicifolia (popularly known as 'Espinheira Santa'). It is widely used in traditional Brazilian medicine to treat stomach conditions including nausea, gastritis, and ulcers. In this study, the apoptotic effects of a spray-dried extract of M. ilicifolia (SDEMI) was evaluated using human hepatocellular cells (HepG2), colorectal carcinoma cells (HT-29), and normal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Cells were treated with SDEMI for 4 and 24 h, then were assayed for levels of apoptosis, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 by flow cytometry, immunostaining, and Western blot, respectively. Significant differences between groups were determined using analysis of variance (P < 0.05). For HepG2 and HT-29 cells treated with SDEMI, various cytotoxic effects were observed compared with control cells at all timepoints assayed (P < 0.001). Furthermore, positive caspase-3 staining and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were observed, consistent with the induction of cell death detected in these cell lines. In contrast, treatment of HaCaT cells with SDEMI was associated with a protective effect compared with control cells at both timepoints (P < 0.001). For example, increased expression of Bcl-2 and negative caspase-3 staining were detected. Taken together, these results suggest that SDEMI protects normal cells, while SDEMI mediates induction of apoptosis via down-regulation of Bcl-2 and involvement of caspase-3 in human carcinoma cells.

  16. Onco-miR-24 regulates cell growth and apoptosis by targeting BCL2L11 in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide; however, the molecular mechanism in tumorigenesis still needs exploration. BCL2L11 belongs to the BCL-2 family, and acts as a central regulator of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade and mediates cell apoptosis. Although miRNAs have been reported to be involved in each stage of cancer development, the role of miR-24 in GC has not been reported yet. In the present study, miR-24 was found to be up-regulated while the expression of BCL2L11 was inhibited in tumor tissues of GC. Studies from both in vitro and in vivo shown that miR-24 regulates BCL2L11 expression by directly binding with 3′UTR of mRNA, thus promoting cell growth, migration while inhibiting cell apoptosis. Therefore, miR-24 is a novel onco-miRNA that can be potential drug targets for future clinical use.

  17. Germ cell apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in porcine testis under normal and heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaorui; Xi, Huaming; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Yajun; Li, Qinghong; He, Junping

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether an elevated ambient temperature (37-40°C) had an effect on the apoptosis of germ cells and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in porcine testis. Six boars were used. Three boars were subjected to an elevated ambient temperature (37-40°C, 7days, 3h per day) as a heat stress (HS) group. The other 3 boars were kept in a room temperature house (20-27°C) as a control group. All boars were castrated and the testes were harvested. TUNEL assay was used for the detection of apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR were used to analyze protein and mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and Bax in response to heat treatment. The results showed that apoptotic signals increased under heat stress conditions compared with the control (Pheat treatment were spermatocytes and spermatids. In both the control and experimental groups, Bcl-2 was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and differentiating spermatids and Bcl-2 preferentially localized close to the seminiferous tubule's luminal surface in late spermatocytes and spermatids. Compared with the control group, the expression levels of Bcl-2 protein and mRNA significantly increased in heat treatment group, while the expression levels of Bax protein and mRNA did not show significant changes between the control and experimental group. Low to moderate Bax immunoreactivity staining was observed in all kinds of germ cells in the control group. Strong staining was observed in spermatogonia, and low to moderate Bax staining was observed in spermatocytes and spermatids. A redistribution of Bax from a cytoplasmic to perinuclear or nuclear localization could be observed in the spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids obtained in the heat treated group. These results showed that elevated ambient temperatures induced germ cell apoptosis. In response to heat stress, the expression of Bcl-2 increased and a redistribution of Bax from a

  18. [Effects of blueberry on apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in HSC-T6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuang; Cheng, Mingliang; Yang, Demeng; Liu, Yang; Guan, Li; Wu, Jun

    2015-08-18

    To investigate the effects of blueberry on the apoptosis, expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC-T6). 10% blueberry serum at low, middle and high dose, 10% Fu-Fang-Bie-Jia-Ruan-Gan tablet serum and 10% saline serum were prepared by method of serum pharmacology. Subcultured HSC-T6 was divided into saline serum control group, blueberry serum at low, middle, high dose and Fu-Fang-Bie-Jia-Ruan-Gan tablet serum group, and then was respectively incubated at different dose of 10% blueberry serum, 10% Fu-Fang-Bie-Jia-Ruan-Gan tablet serum and 10% saline serum for 72 hours.Apoptosis of HSC-T6 was detected using flow cytometry with annexin V FITC/PI double staining. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in HSC-T6 were examined using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. There was no significant difference for HSC-T6 Bax protein expression in the low, middle and high dose blueberry serum groups, compared with saline serum control group, respectively.In the high-dose blueberry serum group HSC-T6 early and total apoptosis rate increased significantly compared with the saline serum control group (5.55% ± 0.98% vs 2.53% ± 0.46%, 7.01% ± 1.05% vs 2.96% ± 0.81%, both Pblueberry serum group showed no significant difference with the saline serum control group. Blueberry can induce HSC-T6 apoptosis by down-regulating Bcl-2 expression and decreasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in HSC-T6 cells, so it may have potential interference effects on hepatic fibrosis.

  19. [Different regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis and Bcl-2 gene expression in quescent and proliferative human fibroblasts infected with cytomegalovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, N E; Sokolova, T M; Medzhidova, M G; Kushch, A A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dynamics ofmitochondrial apoptosis (MA) in cells at different stages of proliferation and with different susceptibility to cytomegalovirus (CMV). It has been found that in quiescent human fibroblasts (HF) CMV regulates MA at the level of bcl-2 gene transcription, exerting both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects. Suppression of bcl-2 transcription is greater in HF-977 line, which is highly susceptible to CMV in comparison with HF-1068 line. The effect of proliferative activity on MA was studied using CMV-infected HF-110044 line at the G0- or S-phase. A direct correlation was established between accumulation of cytochrome c and caspase 3 (MA markers) and production of IE72, pp65 and gB (CMV proteins). In G0-fibrob-lasts, viral replication was highly productive and bcl-2 expression was 10-fold as high as in S-phase cells, in which viral protein production and cell death were much lower. The increased gene transcription and accumulation of Bcl-2 protein enhanced cell viability and provided synthesis of viral proteins. Impaired structure of actin microfilaments, a caspase 3 target, coincided with pronounced suppression of gamma-actin gene in S-phase HF-110044. Our findings provide an insight into CMV-induced mechanisms of MA which lead to rapid death of infected quiescent fibroblasts and to slow death of cells infected at the stage of DNA synthesis.

  20. Influence of acute ethanol intoxication on neuronal apoptosis and Bcl-2 protein expression after severe traumatic brain injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Min

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To study the influence and mechanism of acute ethanol intoxication (AEI on rat neu-ronal apoptosis after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were ran-domly divided into four groups: normal control, AEI-only, TBI-only and TBI+AEI (n=24 for each. Severe TBI model was developed according to Feeney’s method. Rats in TBI+AEI group were firstly subjected to AEI, and then suf-fered head trauma. In each group, animals were sacrificed at 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 168 h after TBI. The level of neuronal apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 protein were deter-mined by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Results: Apoptotic cells mainly distributed in the cortex and white matter around the damaged area. Neuronal apoptosis significantly increased at 6 h after trauma and peaked at 72 h. Both the level of neuronal apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 protein in TBI-only group and TBI+AEI group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05. Compared with TBI-only group, the two indexes were much higher in TBI+AEI group at all time points (P<0.05. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that AEI can increase neuronal apoptosis after severe TBI. Key words: Craniocerebral trauma; Apoptosis; Alcoholism

  1. HA14-1 selectively induces apoptosis in Bcl-2-overexpressing leukemia/lymphoma cells, and enhances cytarabine-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, J D; Wood, N J; Johnson, L; McHugh, G; Tan, J; Wood, F; Cox, J; Wickham, N W

    2003-11-01

    The Bcl-2 oncoprotein is commonly overexpressed in hematological malignancy, where it promotes the survival of neoplastic cells. Recently, a small molecule (HA14-1) was reported to bind the surface pocket of Bcl-2 that mediates antiapoptotic interactions, triggering apoptosis in a Bcl-2-transfected cell line. We investigated the activity of this compound in a panel of malignant hematopoietic cell lines. Consistent with its proposed role as a Bcl-2 inhibitor, HA14-1 was most cytotoxic in lines expressing high levels of Bcl-2. In addition, at lower concentrations (5-12.5 muM), the compound predominantly triggered apoptosis. However, at concentrations two-fold higher than this and above, increasing primary necrosis was observed, suggesting the onset of interactions supplementary to Bcl-2 inhibition. In experiments on primary cells, 25 muM HA14-1 induced extensive apoptosis in acute leukemic blasts, but also suppressed normal hematopoietic colony formation to <50% of baseline. Importantly, low-concentration HA14-1 (5 muM) was nontoxic to normal colony-forming cells, whereas it enhanced the cytotoxicity of the antileukemia drug cytarabine in Bcl-2-positive lymphoblastic leukemia cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that HA14-1 at low concentration selectively triggers apoptosis in malignant hematopoietic cells that overexpress Bcl-2. Agents of this class may have particular utility in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs.

  2. PENGARUH EKSTRAK ETHANOL PROPOLIS TERHADAP EKSPRESI PROTEIN Bcl2, CYCLIN D1 DAN INDUKSI APOPTOSIS PADA KULTUR SEL KANKER KOLON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Yuniarto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kanker kolorektal menempati urutan kejadian kanker ketiga di seluruh dunia, dengan lebih dari 1 juta angka kejadian tiap tahunnya. Berbagai strategi terapi pengobatan kanker kolorektal tetapi relatif belum optimal. Oleh karena itu, terdapat kebutuhan mengembangkan terapi alternatif sebagai pendamping. Propolis menunjukkan aktivitas proapoptosis pada berbagai jenis sel kanker. Mengetahui pengaruh pemberian propolis yang berasal dari Kerjo, Karanganyar, Indonesia terhadap induksi proses apoptosis dan aktivitas antiproliferasi, terutama terkait dengan penekanan ekspresi protein Bcl 2 dan cyclin D1 pada kultur sel WiDr (cell line kanker kolon. Penelitian eksperimental laboratorik menggunakan post test with control group design. Penelitian dilakukan pada kultur sel WiDr (sel kanker kolon dengan pemberian propolis. Pengamatan ekspresi protein Cyclin D1 dan Bcl2 dilakukan dengan metode imunositokimia, sedangkan pengamatan induksi apoptosis dilakukan dengan flowcytometry. Analisis statistik dengan uji Kruskal-Wallis, signifikan bila p <0,05. Rata-rata ekspresi Bcl2 pada kelima kelompok yaitu kontrol 83.40 ± 0.69 μg/ml, EEP 1/2 IC50 60.63 ± 0.40, EEP IC50 33.77 ± 1.08 μg/ml, EEP 2 IC50 24.28 ± 1.91 μg/ml, 5fluorouracil 12.74 ± 2.19 μg/ml. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna ekspresi Bcl2 antara kelompok uji dibandingkan kelompok kontrol (p < 0,001. Rata-rata ekspresi cyclin D1 pada kelima kelompok yaitu kontrol 83.77 ± 0.39 μg/ml, EEP 1/2 IC50 61.44 ± 0.41, EEP IC50 36.67 ± 1.18 μg/ml, EEP 2 IC50 24.50 ± 0.38 μg/ml, 5fluorouracil 13.42 ± 1.04μg/ml. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna ekspresi cyclin D1 antara kelompok uji dibandingkan kelompok kontrol (p < 0,001. Pemberian ekstrak etanol propolis mempunyai pengaruh menekan ekspresi Bcl2, cyclin D1, dan menginduksi apoptosis pada kultur sel kanker kolon (WiDr Cell Line.   Kata Kunci: Ekstrak Ethanol Propolis, Bcl2, cyclin D1, Sel WiDr

  3. Influence of acute ethanol intoxication on neuronal apoptosis and Bcl-2 protein expression after severe traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Liu, Wei-Guo; Wen, Liang; Du, Hang-Gen; Yin, Li-Chun; Chen, Li

    2013-01-01

    To study the influence and mechanism of acute ethanol intoxication (AEI) on rat neuronal apoptosis after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, AEI-only, TBI-only and TBI+AEI (n equal to 24 for each). Severe TBI model was developed according to Feeney's method. Rats in TBI+AEI group were firstly subjected to AEI, and then suffered head trauma. In each group, animals were sacrificed at 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 168 h after TBI. The level of neuronal apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 protein were determined by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Apoptotic cells mainly distributed in the cortex and white matter around the damaged area. Neuronal apoptosis significantly increased at 6 h after trauma and peaked at 72 h. Both the level of neuronal apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 protein in TBI-only group and TBI+AEI group were higher than those in control group (P less than 0.05). Compared with TBI-only group, the two indexes were much higher in TBI+AEI group at all time points (P less than 0.05). Our findings suggest that AEI can increase neuronal apoptosis after severe TBI.

  4. Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Si, Tianlei; Xu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Fuqiang; Wang, Lufeng; Pan, Siyi

    2015-08-04

    The decreased reproductive capacity of men is an important factor contributing to infertility. Accumulating evidence has shown that Electromagnetic radiation potentially has negative effects on human health. However, whether radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) affects the human reproductive system still requires further investigation. Therefore, The present study investigates whether RF-EMR at a frequency of 900 MHz can trigger sperm cell apoptosis and affect semen morphology, concentration, and microstructure. Twenty four rats were exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation with a special absorption rate of 0.66 ± 0.01 W/kg for 2 h/d. After 50d, the sperm count, morphology, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), representing the sum of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, were investigated. Western blotting and reverse transcriptase PCR were used to determine the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and genes, including bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. In the present study, the percentage of apoptotic sperm cells in the exposure group was significantly increased by 91.42% compared with the control group. Moreover, the ROS concentration in exposure group was increased by 46.21%, while the TAC was decreased by 28.01%. Radiation also dramatically decreased the protein and mRNA expression of bcl-2 and increased that of bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. RF-EMR increases the ROS level and decreases TAC in rat sperm. Excessive oxidative stress alters the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and triggers sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  5. What drives intense apoptosis resistance and propensity for necrosis in glioblastoma? A role for Bcl2L12 as a multifunctional cell death regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegh, Alexander H; Chin, Lynda; Louis, David N; DePinho, Ronald A

    2008-09-15

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common type of primary brain cancer and carries a dismal prognosis primarily due to the emergence of resistance towards extant radiation, conventional and targeted chemotherapies. Although GBM resists therapy-induced apoptosis, tumors show a seemingly paradoxical propensity for florid intratumoral necrogenesis. This necrosis manifests pathologically as microscopic foci or confluent expanses of necrotic tumor. While it is now well recognized that necrosis is an active cell death process and that apoptosis and necrosis death modalities are intertwined on multiple levels, the precise molecular mechanisms and genetic elements underlying these forms of cell death in GBM remain areas of active investigation. In recent oncogenomic studies, we identified a novel GBM oncoprotein, Bcl2-Like 12 (Bcl2L12), which is significantly expressed in the majority of primary GBM tumor specimens and distantly related to canonical Bcl-2 proteins. Due to its distinctive impact on cell death signaling, Bcl2L12 phenocopies pro-necrotic and anti-apoptotic propensities of high grade glioma: Mechanistically, we determined that unlike prototypic Bcl-2 family members, Bcl2L12 does not safeguard mitochondrial membrane integrity, but instead potently inhibits apoptosis at the level of post-mitochondrial effector caspase-3/7 activation. A combination of enforced expression, RNAi-mediated extinction, co-localization and protein interaction studies revealed that Bcl2L12 inhibits caspases 3 and 7 via distinct mechanisms. Direct physical interaction underlies Bcl2L12's inhibition of caspase-7 processing, whereas Bcl2L12-induced transcriptional upregulation of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin is instrumental to neutralization of caspase-3 activation. Mirroring the cellular phenotype elicited by energy depletion, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of post-mitochondrial apoptosis signaling molecules, Bcl2L12 promotes necrogenesis in glial cells in the context

  6. Characterization of apoptosis and autophagy through Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression in gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargasetia, Teresa Liliana; Shahib, Nurhalim; Martaadisoebrata, Djamhoer; Dhianawaty, Diah; Hernowo, Bethy

    2015-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is not clearly known. In this study, immunoexpression of proteins Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 in trophoblastic lesions and normal trophoblastic tissue was conducted to study the mechanism of apoptotic and autophagic cell death that is expected to complete the study of GTD pathogenesis. Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression were studied on complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and normal placenta slides. The average total scores of Bcl-2 immunoexpression had a decreasing value, starting from partial hydatidiform mole (3.09), complete hydatidiform mole (2.36), invasive mole (1.18) to choriocarcinoma (0) when compared to normal placenta (6). The results showed no significant difference in Beclin-1 immunoexpression total score between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole, namely that the value of the average total score of Beclin-1 was low (2.27, 2.45 and 2.36), but on the contrary choriocarcinoma showed an increasing strong Beclin-1 expression with the average total score of 4.57. Bcl-2 expression decreases in line with the excessive proliferation of trophoblast cells in hydatidiform mole and leads to malignancy in invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. The decreased expression of Beclin-1 that leads to autophagy defects in complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole shows the role of autophagy as tumor suppressor, whereas strong Beclin-1 expression shows the survival role of autophagy in choriocarcinoma. The change of Bcl-2 activity as antiapoptosis and Beclin-1 as proautophagy plays a role in pathogenesis of GTD.

  7. Characterization of apoptosis and autophagy through Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression in gestational trophoblastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Liliana Wargasetia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD is not clearly known. Objective: In this study, immunoexpression of proteins Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 in trophoblastic lesions and normal trophoblastic tissue was conducted to study the mechanism of apoptotic and autophagic cell death that is expected to complete the study of GTD pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression were studied on complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and normal placenta slides. Results: The average total scores of Bcl-2 immunoexpression had a decreasing value, starting from partial hydatidiform mole (3.09, complete hydatidiform mole (2.36, invasive mole (1.18 to choriocarcinoma (0 when compared to normal placenta (6. The results showed no significant difference in Beclin-1 immunoexpression total score between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole, namely that the value of the average total score of Beclin-1 was low (2.27, 2.45 and 2.36, but on the contrary choriocarcinoma showed an increasing strong Beclin-1 expression with the average total score of 4.57. Conclusion: Bcl-2 expression decreases in line with the excessive proliferation of trophoblast cells in hydatidiform mole and leads to malignancy in invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. The decreased expression of Beclin-1 that leads to autophagy defects in complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole shows the role of autophagy as tumor suppressor, whereas strong Beclin-1 expression shows the survival role of autophagy in choriocarcinoma. The change of Bcl-2 activity as antiapoptosis and Beclin-1 as proautophagy plays a role in pathogenesis of GTD.

  8. Placental apoptosis in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, and HELLP syndrome: an immunohistochemical study with caspase-3 and bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, U; Cavkaytar, S; Sirvan, L; Danisman, N

    2013-01-01

    To examine the placental expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, IUGR, and HELLP syndrome. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 50 pregnant women between December 2006 and August 2007 at Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women Health Research and Education Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Placental tissue samples were obtained from 15 pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, 15 pregnancies with normotensive IUGR, five pregnancies with HELLP syndrome, and 15 gestational age-matched normotensive pregnancies without intrauterine infection as a control group. The placental expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 has been investigated by immunohistochemical staining. Caspase-3 immunostaining score was significantly higher in each group when compared with the control group (p = 0.002). However there was no statistically signifant difference with bcl-2 immunostaining in each group when compared with the control group. Apoptotic marker caspase-3 is significantly increased in the villous trophoblasts of patients with preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and IUGR indicating increased placental apoptosis.

  9. Anti-cell death engineering of CHO cells: co-overexpression of Bcl-2 for apoptosis inhibition, Beclin-1 for autophagy induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Ha, Tae Kwang; Park, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Gyun Min

    2013-08-01

    Genetic engineering approaches to inhibit cell death in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures have been limited primarily to anti-apoptosis engineering. Recently, autophagy has received attention as a new anti-cell death engineering target in addition to apoptosis. In order to achieve a more efficient protection of cells from the stressful culture conditions, the simultaneous targeting of anti-apoptosis and pro-autophagy in CHO cells (DG44) was attempted by co-overexpressing an anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and a key regulator of autophagy pathway, Beclin-1, respectively. Co-overexpression of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 exhibited a longer culture period as well as higher viability during serum-free suspension culture, compared with the control (without co-overexpression of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1) and Bcl-2 overexpression only. In addition to the efficient inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2 overexpression, Beclin-1 overexpression successfully induced the increase in the autophagic marker protein, LC3-II, and autophagosome formation with the decrease in mTOR activity. Co-immunoprecipitation and qRT-PCR experiments revealed that the enforced expression of Beclin-1 increased Ulk1 expression and level of free-Beclin-1 that did not bind to the Bcl-2 despite the Bcl-2 overexpression. Under other stressful culture conditions such as treatment with sodium butyrate and hyperosmolality, co-overexpression of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 also protected the cells from cell death more efficiently than Bcl-2 overexpression only, implying the potential of autophagy induction. Taken together, the data obtained here provide the evidence that pro-autophagy engineering together with anti-apoptosis engineering yields a synergistic effect and successfully enhances the anti-cell death engineering of CHO cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Vaccinia virus proteins A52 and B14 Share a Bcl-2-like fold but have evolved to inhibit NF-kappaB rather than apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Graham

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototype poxvirus, encodes numerous proteins that modulate the host response to infection. Two such proteins, B14 and A52, act inside infected cells to inhibit activation of NF-kappaB, thereby blocking the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have solved the crystal structures of A52 and B14 at 1.9 A and 2.7 A resolution, respectively. Strikingly, both these proteins adopt a Bcl-2-like fold despite sharing no significant sequence similarity with other viral or cellular Bcl-2-like proteins. Unlike cellular and viral Bcl-2-like proteins described previously, A52 and B14 lack a surface groove for binding BH3 peptides from pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-like proteins and they do not modulate apoptosis. Structure-based phylogenetic analysis of 32 cellular and viral Bcl-2-like protein structures reveals that A52 and B14 are more closely related to each other and to VACV N1 and myxoma virus M11 than they are to other viral or cellular Bcl-2-like proteins. This suggests that a progenitor poxvirus acquired a gene encoding a Bcl-2-like protein and, over the course of evolution, gene duplication events have allowed the virus to exploit this Bcl-2 scaffold for interfering with distinct host signalling pathways.

  11. Inhibition of BCL-2 leads to increased apoptosis and delayed neuronal differentiation in human ReNcell VM cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Michael; Jaeger, Alexandra; Weiss, Dieter G; Kriehuber, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    BCL-2 is a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle progression and neural developmental processes. Its function in the latter process is not well understood and needs further elucidation. Therefore, we characterized the protein expression kinetics of BCL-2 and associated regulatory proteins of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway during the process of neuronal differentiation in ReNcell VM cells with and without functional inhibition of BCL-2 by its competitive ligand HA14-1. Inhibition of BCL-2 caused a diminished BCL-2 expression and higher levels of cleaved BAX, activated Caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, all pro-apoptotic markers, when compared with untreated differentiating cells. In parallel, flow cytometric analysis of HA14-1-treated cells revealed a delayed differentiation into HuC/D+ neuronal cells when compared to untreated differentiating cells. In conclusion, BCL-2 possess a protective function in fully differentiated ReNcell VM cells. We propose that the pro-survival signaling of BCL-2 is closely connected with its stimulatory effects on neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuronal apoptosis induced by pharmacological concentrations of 3-hydroxykynurenine: characterization and protection by dantrolene and Bcl-2 overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H; Leeds, P; Chen, R W; Wei, W; Leng, Y; Bredesen, D E; Chuang, D M

    2000-07-01

    We have studied neurotoxicity induced by pharmacological concentrations of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), an endogenous toxin implicated in certain neurodegenerative diseases, in cerebellar granule cells, PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, and GT1-7 hypothalamic neurosecretory cells. In all three cell types, the toxicity was induced in a dose-dependent manner by 3-HK at high micromolar concentrations and had features characteristic of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation and internucleosomal DNA cleavage. In cerebellar granule cells, the 3-HK neurotoxicity was unaffected by xanthine oxidase inhibitors but markedly potentiated by superoxide dismutase and its hemelike mimetic, MnTBAP [manganese(III) tetrakis(benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride]. Catalase blocked 3-HK neurotoxicity in the absence and presence of superoxide dismutase or MnTBAP. The formation of H(2)O(2) was demonstrated in PC12 and GT1-7 cells treated with 3-HK, by measuring the increase in the fluorescent product, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein. In both PC12 and cerebellar granule cells, inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporter that mediates the uptake of 3-HK failed to block 3-HK toxicity. However, their toxicity was slightly potentiated by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. Taken together, our results suggest that neurotoxicity induced by pharmacological concentrations of 3-HK in these cell types is mediated primarily by H(2)O(2), which is formed most likely by auto-oxidation of 3-HK in extracellular compartments. 3-HK-induced death of PC12 and GT1-7 cells was protected by dantrolene, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. The protection by dantrolene was associated with a marked increase in the protein level of Bcl-2, a prominent antiapoptotic gene product. Moreover, overexpression of Bcl-2 in GT1-7 cells elicited by gene transfection suppressed 3-HK toxicity. Thus, dantrolene may elicit its neuroprotective effects by mechanisms involving up-regulation of the level and function

  13. Apoptosis in haematological cancer : regulation by mitochondria, the BCL-2 family and IAPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Aniek Odorica de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of studies that investigated several aspects of apoptosis in lymphoid malignancies. Resistance to apoptosis is an important asset of cancer cells, which allows them to evade cell death signals instigated by the changes they undergo during transformation, such as

  14. Quantification of Bax/Bcl-2 ratios in peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes and their relation to susceptibility to anti-Fas (anti-CD95)-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vliet, H. J.; Wever, P. C.; van Diepen, F. N.; Yong, S. L.; ten Berge, I. J.

    1997-01-01

    Neutrophils have the shortest half-life among circulating leucocytes and rapidly undergo apoptosis in vitro. The homologous Bcl-2 and Bax proteins have opposing effects, with Bcl-2 extending cellular survival and Bax promoting cell death following an apoptotic stimulus. We determined Bcl-2 to Bax

  15. Apoptosis through Bcl-2/Bax and cleaved caspase up-regulation in melanoma treated by boron neutron capture therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Faião-Flores

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a binary treatment involving selective accumulation of boron carriers in a tumor followed by irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam. The neutron capture reaction with a boron-10 nucleus yields high linear energy transfer (LET particles, alpha and (7Li, with a range of 5 to 9 µm. These particles can only travel very short distances and release their damaging energy directly into the cells containing the boron compound. We aimed to evaluate proliferation, apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM modifications of B16F10 melanoma and normal human melanocytes after BNCT. The amounts of soluble collagen and Hsp47, indicating collagen synthesis in the ECM, as well as the cellular markers of apoptosis, were investigated. BNCT decreased proliferation, altered the ECM by decreasing collagen synthesis and induced apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2/Bax in melanoma. Additionally, BNCT also increased the levels of TNF receptor and the cleaved caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9 in melanoma. These results suggest that multiple pathways related to cell death and cell cycle arrest are involved in the treatment of melanoma by BNCT.

  16. Lysosomal cathepsin initiates apoptosis, which is regulated by photodamage to Bcl-2 at mitochondria in photodynamic therapy using a novel photosensitizer, ATX-s10 (Na).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Shuji; Usuda, Jitsuo; Hirata, Takeshi; Inoue, Tatsuya; Ohtani, Keishi; Maehara, Sachio; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Kentarou; Tsunoda, Yoshihiko; Kuroiwa, Yukari; Yamada, Kimito; Tsutsui, Hidemitsu; Furukawa, Kinya; Okunaka, Tetsuya; Oleinick, Nancy L; Kato, Harubumi

    2006-08-01

    ATX-s10 is a novel and second-generation photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In order to conduct clinical trials of ATX-s10-PDT and/or extend its clinical applications, it is very important to elucidate the mechanisms of the action of ATX-s10-PDT. We examined the apoptic response against ATX-s10-PDT using a Bcl-2 or Bcl-2 mutant overexpressing cells. Using fluorescent microscopy, ATX-s10 localized not only to mitochondria but also to lysosomes and possibly other intracellular organelles, but not to the plasma membrane or the nucleus. These results suggest that ATX-s10-PDT can damage mitochondria and lysosomes. By Western blot analysis, ATX-s10-PDT damaged Bcl-2, which localized preferentially at mitochondrial membranes, and caused Bcl-2 to cross-link immediately after laser irradiation. However, ATX-s10-PDT was not able to rapidly induce morphologically typical apoptosis (i.e. chromatin condensation and fragmentation) as PDT using mitochondria targeted photosensitizers, such as phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4). Pharmacological inhibitions of lysosomal cytokine protease cathepsins, such as cathepsin B and D, protected MCF-7c3 cells (human breast cancer cells expressing stably transfected procaspase-3) from apoptosis caused by ATX-s10-PDT. Overexpression of wild-type Bcl-2 or Bcl-2Delta33-54 resulted in relative resistance of cells to ATX-s10-PDT, as assessed by the degree of morphological apoptosis or loss of clonogenicity. We conclude that lysosomal damage by ATX-s10-PDT can initiate apoptotic response and this apoptotic pathway can be regulated by photodamage to Bcl-2 via mitochondrial damage.

  17. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis: impaired clearance of bacteria from the blood due to increased apoptosis in the spleen in Bcl-2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Andreas; von Mering, Matthias; Spreer, Annette; Diem, Ricarda; Eiffert, Helmut; Noeske, Christiane; Bunkowski, Stefanie; Gold, Ralf; Nau, Roland

    2004-06-01

    Necrotic and apoptotic neuronal cell death can be found in pneumococcal meningitis. We investigated the role of Bcl-2 as an antiapoptotic gene product in pneumococcal meningitis using Bcl-2 knockout (Bcl-2(-/-)) mice. By using a model of pneumococcal meningitis induced by intracerebral infection, Bcl-2-deficient mice and control littermates were assessed by clinical score and a tight rope test at 0, 12, 24, 32, and 36 h after infection. Then mice were sacrificed, the bacterial titers in blood, spleen, and cerebellar homogenates were determined, and the brain and spleen were evaluated histologically. The Bcl-2-deficient mice developed more severe clinical illness, and there were significant differences in the clinical score at 24, 32, and 36 h and in the tight rope test at 12 and 32 h. The bacterial titers in the blood were greater in Bcl-2-deficient mice than in the controls (7.46 +/- 1.93 log CFU/ml versus 5.16 +/- 0.96 log CFU/ml [mean +/- standard deviation]; P < 0.01). Neuronal damage was most prominent in the hippocampal formation, but there were no significant differences between groups. In situ tailing revealed only a few apoptotic neurons in the brain. In the spleen, however, there were significantly more apoptotic leukocytes in Bcl-2-deficient mice than in controls (5,148 +/- 3,406 leukocytes/mm2 versus 1,070 +/- 395 leukocytes/mm2; P < 0.005). Bcl-2 appears to counteract sepsis-induced apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes, thereby enhancing clearance of bacteria from the blood.

  18. MicroRNA-184 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of human colon cancer SW480 and HCT116 cells by downregulating C-MYC and BCL-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Bing; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Li, Gang; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Qiu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of microRNA-184 (miR-184) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human colon cancer cells through the regulation of C-MYC and BCL-2. Human colon cancer tissues were selected as case group, and adjacent normal tissues were as control group. Human colon cancer SW480 and HCT116 cells were allocated into blank, miR-184 mimic negative control (mimic-NC), miR-184 inhibitor NC (inhibitor-NC), miR-184 mimic, and miR-184 inhibitor groups. Flow cytometry, Annexin V/PI and MTT assay were used to examine the cell cycle, apoptosis and viability. The expressions of C-MYC, BCL-2 and miR-184 were detected via immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). C-MYC and BCL-2 were direct targets to miR-184. The growth of colon cancer cells in the miR-184 mimic group was inhibited and exhibited an increase in apoptosis. Cell growth in the miR-184 mimic group was increased in addition to the inhibition of apoptosis. Compared with miR-184 mimic group, the expressions of C-MYC and BCL-2 in miR-184 inhibitor group were increased. The expressions of C-MYC and BCL-2 in colon cancer tissues exhibited high levels of expression, while miR-184 displayed relatively low levels in comparison to the adjacent normal tissues. An association was detected regarding the expressions of miR-184, C-MYC and BCL-2 with the differentiation, invasion depth and lymph node metastasis. MiR-184 expression was negatively related to C-MYC and BCL-2 expressions. Our study suggested that miR-184 could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of colon cancer cells by down-regulating expressions of C-MYC and BCL-2. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Induction of Apoptosis by Fucoidan in Human Leukemia U937 Cells through Activation of p38 MAPK and Modulation of Bcl-2 Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hyun Choi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated possible mechanisms on the apoptosis induction of human leukemic cells by fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide found in marine algae. Fucoidan treatment of cells resulted in inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis, as measured by 3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was associated with the proteolytic activation of caspases, Bid cleavage, insertion of pro-apoptotic Bax into the mitochondria, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, and loss of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP in U937 cells. However, apoptosis induced by fucoidan was attenuated by caspase inhibitors, indicating that fucoidan-induced apoptosis was dependent on the activation of caspases. Furthermore, fucoidan treatment effectively activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, and significantly reduced fucoidan-induced apoptosis through inhibition of Bax translocation and caspases activation, suggesting that the activation of p38 MAPK may play a key role in fucoidan-induced apoptosis. In addition, the authors found fucoidan-induced significantly attenuated in Bcl-2 overexpressing U937 cells, and pretreatment with fucoidan and HA 14-1, a small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor, markedly increased fucoidan-mediated apoptosis in Bcl-2 overexpressing U937 cells. Our findings imply that we may attribute some of the biological functions of p38 MAPK and Bcl-2 to their ability to inhibit fucoidan-induced apoptosis.

  20. Melatonin may play a role in modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression levels to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, Mehran [Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Paramedicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mihandoost, Ehsan, E-mail: mihandoost.e@gmail.com [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehrizadeh, Zargham [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazzaz, Javad Tavakkoly [Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The close relationship between free radicals effects and apoptosis process has been proved. Melatonin has been reported as a direct free radical scavenger. We investigated the capability of melatonin in the modification of radiation-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-associated upstream regulators expression in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 8 Gy at a dose rate of 101 cGy/min with or without melatonin pretreatments at different concentrations of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into eight groups of control, irradiation-only, vehicle-only, vehicle plus irradiation, 10 mg/kg melatonin alone, 10 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation, 100 mg/kg melatonin alone and 100 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were taken 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation for evaluation of flow cytometric analysis of apoptotic lymphocytes using Annexin V/PI assay and measurement of bax and bcl-2 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT{sup 2}qPCR). Irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation showed an increase in the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes significantly different from control group (P < 0.01), while melatonin pretreatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced it as compared with the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P < 0.01) in all time points. This reduced apoptosis by melatonin was related to the downregulation of bax, upregulation of bcl-2, and therefore reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Our results suggest that melatonin in these doses may provide modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression as well as bax/bcl-2 ratio to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis.

  1. The Impact of Adenosine Fast Induction of Myocardial Arrest during CABG on Myocardial Expression of Apoptosis-Regulating Genes Bax and Bcl-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shalaby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We studied the effect of fast induction of cardiac arrest with denosine on myocardial bax and bcl-2 expression. Methods and Results. 40 elective CABG patients were allocated into two groups. The adenosine group (n=20 received 250 μg/kg adenosine into the aortic root followed by blood potassium cardioplegia. The control group received potassium cardioplegia in blood. Bcl-2 and bax were measured. Bax was reduced in the postoperative biopsies (1.38 versus 0.47, P=.002 in the control group. Bcl-2 showed a reducing tendency (0.14 versus 0.085, P=.07. After the adenosine treatment, the expression of both bax (0.52 versus 0.59, P=.4 and bcl-2 (0.104 versus 0.107, P=.4 remained unaltered after the operation. Conclusion. Open heart surgery is associated with rapid reduction in the expression of apoptosis regulating genes bax and bcl-2. Fast Adenosine induction abolished changes in their expression.

  2. Effects of Recombinant Overexpression of Bcl2 on the Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Osteogenic/Odontogenic Differentiation Potential of Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Ye, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Dissanayaka, Waruna Lakmal; Cheung, Gary Shun Pan; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-04-01

    The therapeutic usefulness of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) is severely limited by low survivability upon transplantation in situ because of the presence of various proapoptotic factors within damaged/diseased tissues (ie, hypoxia and inflammation). One strategy to enhance the survivability of grafted DPSCs could be recombinant overexpression of antiapoptotic genes, such as the B-cell lymphoma 2 gene (Bcl2). DPSCs were transfected with the Bcl2 and/or GFP gene. Cell density and mitotic activity of transfected DPSCs within in vitro culture were evaluated with the water soluble tetrazolium salt-8 (WST-8) and bromodeoxyuridine assay, respectively, whereas apoptosis was evaluated through the detection of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments. The osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation potential of these cells was evaluated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase, and alizarin red staining. Bcl2-transfected DPSCs exhibited consistently higher cell densities than the GFP-transfected control within in vitro culture, and this was not because of the higher mitotic rate but was instead attributed to enhanced cell survivability because of the inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl2. Recombinant overexpression of Bcl2 inhibited the osteogenic/odontogenic potential of DPSCs, as indicated by lower levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized calcium deposition, together with the down-regulated expression of several key osteogenic/odontogenic gene markers including collagen I, osteocalcin, dentin matrix protein-1, bone sialoprotein, and alkaline phosphatase. The results place a "caveat" or limitation on the use of recombinant Bcl2 overexpression as a therapeutic strategy for improving the survivability of grafted DPSCs in that the osteogenic/odontogenic potential of these cells may be compromised despite enhanced survival within the host. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. RLIP76-dependent suppression of PI3K/AKT/Bcl-2 pathway by miR-101 induces apoptosis in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing; Song, Qi; Cai, Yi; Wang, Peng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Dong, E-mail: zhangd1117@yahoo.com

    2015-08-07

    MicroRNA-101 (miR-101) participates in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in various cancers. However, its biological functions in prostate cancer are still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that miR-101 represents a critical role in regulating cell apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. We first demonstrated that miR-101 treatment promoted apoptosis in DU145 and PC3 cells by using flow cytometric analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To verify the mechanisms, we identified a novel miR-101 target, Ral binding protein 1 (RLIP76). We found miR-101 transfection significantly suppresses RLIP76 expression, which can transactivate phosphorylation of PI3K-Akt signaling, and resulted in an amplification of Bcl2-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RLIP76 overexpression could reverse the anti-tumor effects of miR-101 in DU145 and PC3 cells by using flow cytometry assay and MTT assay. Taken together, our results revealed that the effect of miR-101 on prostate cancer cell apoptosis was due to RLIP76 regulation of the PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • miR-101 inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. • miR-101 directly targeted and regulated RLIP76 expression. • miR-101 suppressed PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 signaling pathway by targeting RLIP76.

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis and caspase-8 and Bcl-2 expression induced by injectable seed extract of Coix lacryma-jobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Zhang, Bing-Yuan; Jia, Zhuo-Xia; Wu, Wen-Jin; Lu, Zheng-Qiao

    2011-06-01

    Many Chinese herbs, especially herbal injections, have been shown to have anti-tumor effects in recent years. However, since most reports focus on the clinical effectiveness of these herbs, their mechanisms of action are not well understood. In this study, we assessed apoptosis in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line HepG2 induced by an injectable extract from the seed of Coix lacryma-jobi (Semen coicis, SC), and monitored the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-8. Injectable SC was applied to HepG2 cells at different concentrations and the cells were collected 12, 24 and 48 hours later. 5-fluorouracil was used as a positive control group, and fluorescence-activated cell-sorting cytometry was used to measure the apoptosis rate of HepG2 cells and the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-8 proteins. SC induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the expression of caspase-8 was elevated and prolonged. However, it did not significantly influence the expression of Bcl-2. Injectable SC may induce apoptosis in HCC cells by regulating the expression of caspase-8.

  5. Inhibition of Cathepsin S Induces Mitochondrial ROS That Sensitizes TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis Through p53-Mediated Downregulation of Bcl-2 and c-FLIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bo Ram; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Woo, Seon Min; Choe, Misun; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Lee, Young-Kyung; Yoon, Gyesoon; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2017-08-01

    Cathepsin S is highly expressed in various cancer cells, and it has protumoral effects, including promotion of migration, invasion, and neovascularization. In this study, we show that inhibition of cathepsin S could sensitize cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. An inhibitor of cathepsin S (Z-FL-COCHO; ZFL) markedly induced apoptosis in human renal cancer cells treated with TRAIL. In contrast, combined treatment with ZFL and TRAIL had no effect on normal cells. ZFL downregulated Bcl-2 expression at the transcriptional level in a p53-dependent manner, and overexpression of Bcl-2 also markedly blocked apoptosis induced by combined treatment with ZFL and TRAIL. In addition, ZFL induced downregulation of c-FLIP, and overexpression of c-FLIP blocked the apoptosis induced by ZFL plus TRAIL. Moreover, ZFL increased the expression of Cbl, an E3 ligase of c-FLIP, in a p53-dependent manner, and knockdown of Cbl markedly prevented c-FLIP downregulation and the apoptosis induced by ZFL plus TRAIL. Interestingly, ZFL induced p53 expression via production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also demonstrated that downregulation of cathepsin S by small interfering RNA sensitized TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in Caki cells. These results reveal the importance of cathepsin S on resistance against TRAIL, and inhibition of cathepsin S activity plays a crucial role in TRAIL-mediated cell death of cancer cells. Our results indicated that inhibition of cathepsin S stimulates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through downregulation of Bcl-2 and Cbl-mediated c-FLIP by ROS-mediated p53 expression. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 215-233.

  6. The targeted inhibition of mitochondrial Hsp90 overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chunlan [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Oh, Joon Seok; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, Jee Suk [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Geol [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science, Institute for Biomedical and Health Sciences, Jungwon University, Chungbuk, 367-805 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yoo Jin; Jang, Min Seok [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeob [Department of Rheumatology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jun [Department of Toxicology, Hangzhou Normal University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310036 China (China); Lee, Sang Hwa [Department of Microbiology and, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Young [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Hyun, E-mail: yhyoo@dau.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that a Gamitrinib variant containing triphenylphosphonium (G-TPP) binds to mitochondrial Hsp90 and rapidly inhibits its activity, thus inducing the apoptotic pathway in the cells. Accordingly, G-TPP shows a potential as a promising drug for the treatment of cancer. A cell can die from different types of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, and autophagic cell death. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms and modes of cell death in the G-TPP-treated Hep3B and U937 cell lines. We discovered that G-TPP kills the U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway and the overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly inhibits U937 cell death to G-TPP. We further discovered that G-TPP kills the Hep3B cells by activating necroptosis in combination with the partial activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, G-TPP overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. We also observed that G-TPP induces compensatory autophagy in the Hep3B cell line. We further found that whereas there is a Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction in response to G-TPP, silencing the beclin 1 gene failed to block LC3-II accumulation in the Hep3B cells, indicating that G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent protective autophagy in Hep3B cells. Taken together, these data reveal that G-TPP induces cell death through a combination of death pathways, including necroptosis and apoptosis, and overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. These findings are important for the therapeutic exploitation of necroptosis as an alternative cell death program to bypass the resistance to apoptosis. Highlights: ► G-TPP binds to mitochondrial Hsp90. ► G-TPP induces apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cancer cells. ► G-TPP induces combination of death pathways in Hep3B cell. ► G-TPP overcomes the resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. ► G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent

  7. FGF-2 inhibits TNF-α mediated apoptosis through upregulation of Bcl2-A1 and Bcl-xL in ATDC5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hey-Ryun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available FGF-2 is involved in cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis, andangiogenesis in a wide variety of cells. FRGRs, PI3K and MAPkinases are well known mediators of FGF signaling. Despite itsknown roles during many developmental processes, includingosteogenesis, there are few known targets of FGF-2. In thepresent study, we identified Bcl2-A1 and Bcl-xL as two prominenttargets involved in promoting cell survival. Pretreatmentof ATDC5 cells with FGF-2 increased cell survival, whilesiRNAs specific for Bcl2-A1 and Bcl-xL compromised the anti-apoptotic effect of FGF-2, sensitized the cells to apoptosistriggered by TNF-α. Chemical inhibition of FGFR, NFkB, andPI3K activity by PD173074, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, andLY294002 respectively abrogated the FGF-2-mediated inductionof Bcl2-A1 and Bcl-xL expression. Taken together, our datademonstrate that a subset of Bcl2 family proteins are the targetsof FGF-2 signaling that promotes the survival of ATDC5cells. [BMB reports 2012; 45(5: 287-292

  8. Doxycycline Protects Thymic Epithelial Cells from Mitomycin C-Mediated Apoptosis In Vitro via Trx2-NF-κB-Bcl-2/Bax Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-associated and stress-induced involution of the thymus is accompanied by reduced numbers of thymic epithelial cells (TECs and severe reduction in peripheral T cell repertoire specificities. These events seriously affect immune function, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Our preliminary findings showed that doxycycline (Dox could drive the proliferation of a TEC line (MTEC1 cells partially via the MAPK signaling pathway. Dox can also up-regulate IL-6 and GM-CSF expression via the NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathways. Herein, we investigate the effects and mechanisms used by Dox that protect against mitomycin C (MMC-induced MTEC1 cell apoptosis. Methods: MTEC1 cells were treated with Dox, MMC, and Dox plus MMC for different amounts of time. The expression of Trx2, NF-κB, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins were then detected by western blotting. Results: Our findings show that Dox protects MTEC1 cells from MMC-induced apoptosis. Dox up-regulated the expression of Trx2 and promoted NF-κB phosphorylation. Meanwhile, Dox also increased the expression of Bcl-2, partially reduced the expression of Bax, and normalized the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax. Conclusion: Dox exerts an anti-apoptosis function via the NF-κB-Bcl-2/Bax and Trx2-ASK1/JNK pathways in vitro. Therefore, Dox may represent a drug that could be used to attenuate thymic senescence, rescue thymic function, and promote T cell reconstitution.

  9. Melatonin is involved in the apoptosis and necrosis of pancreatic cancer cell line SW-1990 via modulating of Bcl-2/Bax balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunfang; Wu, Airong; Zhu, Hua; Fang, Huaying; Xu, Lele; Ye, Jianxin; Shen, Jiaqing

    2013-03-01

    Melatonin influences a number of physiological processes and is believed to play an antitumoral role in several types of cancers, but its impact on pancreatic cancer is not fully clarified. The growth inhibitory effect of melatonin on pancreatic cancer cell line SW-1990 was detected in vitro and in vivo. Annexin V/PI assay was applied to detect apoptosis and necrosis in SW-1990 cells. Changes of Bcl-2 and Bax expression were investigated by RT-PCR and Western blot. An obvious growth inhibition was found in SW-1990 after melatonin or combined treatment with melatonin and gemicitabine through both apoptosis and necrosis in vitro, and also found in transplanted tumors in nude mice. RT-PCR and Western blot showed that Bcl-2 expression was downregulated, while Bax expression was upregulated, after melatonin treatment. Melatonin may be a pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic agent for pancreatic cancer cells via its modulation of Bcl-2/Bax balance. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. High amounts of fluoride induce apoptosis/cell death in matured ameloblast-like LS8 cells by downregulating Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhang, Yanli; Li, Yanling; Hao, Ying; Zhou, Mi; Dong, Nan; Duan, Xiaohong

    2013-09-01

    Excessive fluoride intake during enamel formation may result in enamel fluorosis and apoptosis is regarded to be involved in the process by an unclear mechanism. We hypothesize that excessive fluoride might cause apoptosis in the ameloblasts and fluoride-induced apoptosis varies with the maturation stages of ameloblasts. We set up an in vitro differentiation model of ameloblasts by using retinoic acid (RA) and dexamethasone (DEX) to induce the maturation of mouse ameloblast-like LS8 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of two enamel matrix proteins and two enamel proteinases were downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in the RA/DEX induced cells, indicating RA/DEX induced cells possessed the characteristics of matured ameloblasts. The strengthened endocytosis function and decreased intracellular pH value inside RA/DEX treated ameloblasts confirmed the maturation inducing effect of RA/DEX on ameloblasts. Excessive fluoride inhibited cell proliferation of ameloblasts within 72h. High amounts of fluoride also induced more apoptosis/dead cells and reduced the expression of Bcl-2, but to a different degree in the non-induced cells and RA/DEX induced cells. We inferred that high doses of fluoride may easily target the transitional/early maturation ameloblasts and cause apoptosis or cell death. Bcl-2 might be involved in this process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sanguinarine induces apoptosis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells via the regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-9-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Sik; Jung, Won-Kyo; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Taek Rim; Kim, Hyung Keun

    2012-01-01

    Sanguinarine is an alkaloid obtained from the bloodroot plant Sanguinaria canadensis and has beneficial effects on oxidative stress and inflammatory disorders. Previous reports have demonstrated that sanguinarine also exhibit anticancer properties. In the current study, we investigated the effects of sanguinarine on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. It was observed that sanguinarine treatment induces a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis of human colon cancer cells. We also investigated the effects of sanguinarine on the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, and the results revealed that there was an increase in Bax and a decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein levels. Moreover, sanguinarine treatment significantly increases the activation of caspases 3 and 9 that are the key executioners in apoptosis. Our results suggest that sanguinarine induces apoptosis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells and may have a potential therapeutic use in the treatment of human colon cancer.

  12. The miR-573/apoM/Bcl2A1-dependent signal transduction pathway is essential for hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Hu, Xiu-Mei; Zhao, Jia-Yi; Huang, Jin-Lan; Ma, Xin; Li, Shu-Fen; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Wu, Xiao-Juan; Sha, Yan-Hua; Gao, Ji-Juan; Wang, Yan-Chao; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with an increasing incidence worldwide. Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a novel apolipoprotein that is mainly expressed in liver and kidney tissues. However, the anti-tumor properties of apoM remain largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-tumor activities and mechanisms of apoM in HCC both in vivo and in vitro. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay results showed that apoM was a potential target of hsa-miR-573 and was downregulated after transfection with hsa-miR-573 mimics. Overexpression of apoM suppressed migration, invasion, and proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro. Overexpression of hsa-miR-573 in hepatoma cells reduced apoM expression, leading to promotion of the invasion, migration, and proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro. In addition, hsa-miR-573 markedly promoted growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice with an accompanying reduction in cell apoptosis. ApoM markedly inhibited growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice and promoted cell apoptosis. Moreover, Bcl2A1 mRNA and protein levels were inhibited by apoM overexpression and an increase in apoptosis rate by apoM was markedly compensated by Bcl2A1 overexpression in HepG2 cells. These results provide evidence that hsa-miR-573 promoted tumor growth by inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis and this pro-tumor effect might be mediated through Bcl2A1 in an apoM-dependent manner. Therefore, our findings may be useful to improve understanding of the critical effects of hsa-miR-573 and apoM in HCC pathogenesis.

  13. JNK-Bcl-2/Bcl-xL-Bax/Bak Pathway Mediates the Crosstalk between Matrine-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis via Interplay with Beclin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is associated with drug resistance which has been a threat in chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The interconnected molecular regulators between autophagy and apoptosis serve as switching points critical to the ultimate outcome of the cell. Our study was performed to investigate the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in HCC after the treatment of matrine. Flow cytometry and TUNEL (terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay were used to detect apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Bax oligomerization and Cytochrome c release assay were performed. Immunoprecipitation and siRNA transfection were used to detect the interplay between Bcl-2/Bcl-xL,Bax, and Beclin 1. Our results showed that: (1 matrine not only activated caspase and PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, but also triggered autophagy as shown by the increased levels of LC3II, Beclin 1, and PI3KC3, and the decreased level of p62; (2 matrine treatment promoted the JNK-Bcl-2/ Bcl-xL-Bax/Bak pathway; (3 Bax was oligomerized, the mitochondrial membrane potential altered, and Cytochrome c was released subsequently; (4 Bax interacts with Beclin 1 and inhibits autophagy, which may be a new crosstalk point; and (5 finally, we showed that matrine suppressed the growth of a MHCC97L xenograft in vivo for the first time. In conclusion, the JNK-Bcl-2/Bcl-xL-Bax/Bak pathway mediates the crosstalk between matrine-induced autophagy and apoptosis via interplay with Beclin 1.

  14. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masoumeh Falah,1,2 Mohammad Najafi,2 Massoud Houshmand,3 Mohammad Farhadi1 1ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Biochemistry Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran Abstract: Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. Keywords: age-related hearing impairment (ARHI, presbycusis, biomarker, treatment

  15. Enhanced stability of Mcl1, a prosurvival Bcl2 relative, blunts stress-induced apoptosis, causes male sterility, and promotes tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Toru; Coultas, Leigh; Metcalf, Donald; van Delft, Mark F; Glaser, Stefan P; Takiguchi, Megumi; Strasser, Andreas; Bouillet, Philippe; Adams, Jerry M; Huang, David C S

    2014-01-07

    The B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) relative Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl1) is essential for cell survival during development and for tissue homeostasis throughout life. Unlike Bcl2, Mcl1 turns over rapidly, but the physiological significance of its turnover has been unclear. We have gained insight into the roles of Mcl1 turnover in vivo by analyzing mice harboring a modified allele of Mcl1 that serendipitously proved to encode an abnormally stabilized form of Mcl1 due to a 13-aa N-terminal extension. Although the mice developed normally and appeared unremarkable, the homozygous males unexpectedly proved infertile due to defective spermatogenesis, which was evoked by enhanced Mcl1 prosurvival activity. Under unstressed conditions, the modified Mcl1 is present at levels comparable to the native protein, but it is markedly stabilized in cells subjected to stresses, such as protein synthesis inhibition or UV irradiation. Strikingly, the modified Mcl1 allele could genetically complement the loss of Bcl2, because introduction of even a single allele significantly ameliorated the severe polycystic kidney disease and consequent runting caused by Bcl2 loss. Significantly, the development of c-MYC-induced acute myeloid leukemia was also accelerated in mice harboring that Mcl1 allele. Our collective findings reveal that, under certain circumstances, the N terminus of Mcl1 regulates its degradation; that some cell types require degradation of Mcl1 to induce apoptosis; and, most importantly, that rapid turnover of Mcl1 can serve as a tumor-suppressive mechanism.

  16. Effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on human lung carcinoma PG cell line: ATO induced apoptosis of PG cells and decreased expression of Bcl-2, Pgp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bo; Zhou, Gengyin; Zhang, Qinghui; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Weihua; Kakudo, Kennichi

    2004-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been established to be an effective agent for treating newly diagnosed and relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. Laboratory data suggest that ATO induces apoptosis of hematopoietic or several solid tumor cells. However, to date, its effect on lung carcinoma has not been fully explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ATO on human lung carcinoma PG cells in vitro. We found ATO significantly inhibited the proliferation of PG cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ATO-induced apoptosis of PG cells was confirmed by the observance of typical morphological changes and detected by the analysis of flow cytometry (FCM). ATO significantly inhibited Bcl-2 and Pgp expression of PG cells by SABC immunohistochemistry and FCM analysis. In conclusion, our findings indicated that ATO induced apoptosis of PG cells and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Pgp expressions, and these data might provide some theoretical basis for its clinical use in treating lung carcinoma.

  17. The C. elegans protein CEH-30 protects male-specific neurons from apoptosis independently of the Bcl-2 homolog CED-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Hillel T; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-12-01

    The developmental control of apoptosis is fundamental and important. We report that the Caenorhabditis elegans Bar homeodomain transcription factor CEH-30 is required for the sexually dimorphic survival of the male-specific CEM (cephalic male) sensory neurons; the homologous cells of hermaphrodites undergo programmed cell death. We propose that the cell-type-specific anti-apoptotic gene ceh-30 is transcriptionally repressed by the TRA-1 transcription factor, the terminal regulator of sexual identity in C. elegans, to cause hermaphrodite-specific CEM death. The established mechanism for the regulation of specific programmed cell deaths in C. elegans is the transcriptional control of the BH3-only gene egl-1, which inhibits the Bcl-2 homolog ced-9; similarly, most regulation of vertebrate apoptosis involves the Bcl-2 superfamily. In contrast, ceh-30 acts within the CEM neurons to promote their survival independently of both egl-1 and ced-9. Mammalian ceh-30 homologs can substitute for ceh-30 in C. elegans. Mice lacking the ceh-30 homolog Barhl1 show a progressive loss of sensory neurons and increased sensory-neuron cell death. Based on these observations, we suggest that the function of Bar homeodomain proteins as cell-type-specific inhibitors of apoptosis is evolutionarily conserved.

  18. Canonical Bcl-2 Motifs of the Na+/K+ Pump Revealed by the BH3 Mimetic Chelerythrine: Early Signal Transducers of Apoptosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Lauf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chelerythrine [CET], a protein kinase C [PKC] inhibitor, is a prop-apoptotic BH3-mimetic binding to BH1-like motifs of Bcl-2 proteins. CET action was examined on PKC phosphorylation-dependent membrane transporters (Na+/K+ pump/ATPase [NKP, NKA], Na+-K+-2Cl+ [NKCC] and K+-Cl- [KCC] cotransporters, and channel-supported K+ loss in human lens epithelial cells [LECs]. Methods: K+ loss and K+ uptake, using Rb+ as congener, were measured by atomic absorption/emission spectrophotometry with NKP and NKCC inhibitors, and Cl- replacement by NO3ˉ to determine KCC. 3H-Ouabain binding was performed on a pig renal NKA in the presence and absence of CET. Bcl-2 protein and NKA sequences were aligned and motifs identified and mapped using PROSITE in conjunction with BLAST alignments and analysis of conservation and structural similarity based on prediction of secondary and crystal structures. Results: CET inhibited NKP and NKCC by >90% (IC50 values ∼35 and ∼15 µM, respectively without significant KCC activity change, and stimulated K+ loss by ∼35% at 10-30 µM. Neither ATP levels nor phosphorylation of the NKA α1 subunit changed. 3H-ouabain was displaced from pig renal NKA only at 100 fold higher CET concentrations than the ligand. Sequence alignments of NKA with BH1- and BH3-like motifs containing pro-survival Bcl-2 and BclXl proteins showed more than one BH1-like motif within NKA for interaction with CET or with BH3 motifs. One NKA BH1-like motif (ARAAEILARDGPN was also found in all P-type ATPases. Also, NKA possessed a second motif similar to that near the BH3 region of Bcl-2. Conclusion: Findings support the hypothesis that CET inhibits NKP by binding to BH1-like motifs and disrupting the α1 subunit catalytic activity through conformational changes. By interacting with Bcl-2 proteins through their complementary BH1- or BH3-like-motifs, NKP proteins may be sensors of normal and pathological cell functions, becoming important yet

  19. Genetic Variants in the Apoptosis Gene BCL2L1 Improve Response to Interferon-Based Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 3 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Nygaard Clausen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation upstream of the apoptosis pathway has been associated with outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. We investigated genetic polymorphisms in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway to assess their influence on sustained virological response (SVR to pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV treatment of HCV genotypes 1 and 3 infections. We conducted a candidate gene association study in a prospective cohort of 201 chronic HCV-infected individuals undergoing treatment with pegIFN/RBV. Differences between groups were compared in logistic regression adjusted for age, HCV viral load and interleukin 28B genotypes. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in the B-cell lymphoma 2-like 1 (BCL2L1 gene were significantly associated with SVR. SVR rates were significantly higher for carriers of the beneficial rs1484994 CC genotypes. In multivariate logistic regression, the rs1484994 SNP combined CC + TC genotypes were associated with a 3.4 higher odds ratio (OR in SVR for the HCV genotype 3 (p = 0.02. The effect estimate was similar for genotype 1, but the association did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, anti-apoptotic SNPs in the BCL2L1 gene were predictive of SVR to pegIFN/RBV treatment in HCV genotypes 1 and 3 infected individuals. These SNPs may be used in prediction of SVR, but further studies are needed.

  20. Amygdalin induces apoptosis through regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Shin, Mal-Soon; Yang, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young-Sick; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Kim, Jullia; Kim, Khae-Hawn; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2006-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common non-skin cancers in men. Amygdalin is one of the nitrilosides, natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of plants of the prunasin family that have been used to treat cancers and relieve pain. In particular, D-amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-beta-D-gentiobioside) is known to exhibit selective killing effect on cancer cells. Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is an important mechanism in cancer treatment. In the present study, we prepared the aqueous extract of the amygdalin from Armeniacae semen and investigated whether this extract induces apoptotic cell death in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. In the present results, DU145 and LNCaP cells treated with amygdalin exhibited several morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Treatment with amygdalin increased expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein, decreased expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, and increased caspase-3 enzyme activity in DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Here, we have shown that amygdalin induces apoptotic cell death in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by caspase-3 activation through down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. The present study reveals that amygdalin may offer a valuable option for the treatment of prostate cancers.

  1. Ziyuglycoside II-induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells by regulating Bax/Bcl-2 expression and activating caspase-3 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziyuglycoside II is an active compound of Sanguisorba officinalis L. that has anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antibiosis, and homeostasis properties. We report here on the anticancer effect of ziyuglycoside II on human gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells. We investigated the effects of ziyuglycoside II on cell growth, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis of this cell line. Our results revealed that ziyuglycoside II could inhibit the proliferation of BGC-823 cells by inducing apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest, which was associated with regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 expression, and activation of the caspase-3 pathway. Our study is the first to report the antitumor potential of ziyuglycoside II in BGC-823 gastric cancer cells. Ziyuglycoside II may become a potential therapeutic agent against gastric cancer in the future.

  2. Overexpression of Endogenous Anti-Oxidants with Selenium Supplementation Protects Trophoblast Cells from Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Apoptosis in a Bcl-2-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Alisha; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Holland, Olivia; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-06-01

    The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red). Placental trophoblast cell lines, BeWo, JEG-3 and Swan-71, were cultured in various concentrations of NaSel or SeMet for 24 h and cell extracts prepared for western blots and enzyme assays. Rotenone and antimycin were used to stimulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce apoptosis. Trophoblast cells supplemented with 100 nM NaSel and 500 nM SeMet exhibited significantly enhanced expression and activity of both GPx and Thx-Red. Antimycin and rotenone were found to generate ROS when measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assay, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Rotenone, 100 μM treatment for 4 h, caused trophoblast cell apoptosis as evidenced by increased Annexin V binding and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In both assays of apoptosis, selenium supplementation was able to prevent apoptosis, preserve Bcl-2 expression and protect trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. This data suggests that selenoproteins such as GPx and Thx-Red have an important role in protecting trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress and that selenium supplementation may be important in treating some placental pathologies.

  3. PI3K and Bcl-2 inhibition primes glioblastoma cells to apoptosis through downregulation of Mcl-1 and Phospho-BAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Fresia; Macleod, David; Shu, Chang; Crary, John F; Canoll, Peter D; Ross, Alonzo H; Siegelin, Markus D

    2014-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant human brain neoplasm with limited therapeutic options. GBMs display a deregulated apoptotic pathway with high levels of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and overt activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. Therefore, combined interference of the PI3K pathway and the Bcl-2 family of proteins is a reasonable therapeutic strategy. ABT-263 (Navitoclax), an orally available small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor, and GDC-0941, a PI3K inhibitor, were used to treat established glioblastoma and glioblastoma neurosphere cells, alone or in combination. Although GDC-0941 alone had a modest effect on cell viability, treatment with ABT-263 displayed a marked reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptotic cell death. Moreover, combinatorial therapy using ABT-263 and GDC-0941 showed an enhanced effect, with a further decrease in cellular viability. Furthermore, combination treatment abrogated the ability of stem cell-like glioma cells to form neurospheres. ABT-263 and GDC-0941, in combination, resulted in a consistent and significant increase of Annexin V positive cells and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential compared with either monotherapy. The combination treatment led to enhanced cleavage of both initiator and effector caspases. Mechanistically, GDC-0941 depleted pAKT (Serine 473) levels and suppressed Mcl-1 protein levels, lowering the threshold for the cytotoxic actions of ABT-263. GDC-0941 decreased Mcl-1 in a posttranslational manner and significantly decreased the half-life of Mcl-1 protein. Ectopic expression of human Mcl-1 mitigated apoptotic cell death induced by the drug combination. Furthermore, GDC-0941 modulated the phosphorylation status of BAD, thereby further enhancing ABT-263-mediated cell death. Combination therapy with ABT-263 and GDC-0941 has novel therapeutic potential by specifically targeting aberrantly active, deregulated pathways in GBM, overcoming

  4. Cytotoxic activity of Justicia spicigera is inhibited by bcl-2 proto-oncogene and induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Cortés, J R; Cantú-Garza, F A; Mendoza-Mata, M T; Chavez-González, M A; Ramos-Mandujano, G; Zambrano-Ramírez, I R

    2001-12-01

    Identification of organic compounds from plants is of clinical significance because of the effect that they might have in patients with haematopoietic disorders. We studied the effect of the plant extract Justicia spicigera (Acanthaceae) in different haematopoietic cells: human leukaemic cell lines, umbilical cord blood cells, and mouse bone marrow cells. By examining colony formation and performing the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay it was shown that the plant extract of Justicia spicigera contains cytotoxic factors for leukaemic cells and has no proliferative activity on normal haematopoietic progenitor cells. Our results show that this plant extract induces apoptosis in the human leukaemia cell line TF-1, but not in the bcl-2 transfectant cell line TB-1. Similar results were obtained using a haemopoietic cell line 32D and 32DBcl2. The cultures of umbilical cord blood cells and mouse bone marrow that contain granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) do not proliferate or become terminally differentiated in the presence of the infusion of Justicia spicigera. GM-CSF that acts by abrogating programmed cell death is not sufficient to inhibit the apoptotic stimulus in TF-1 and 32D cells. Moreover mouse fibroblasts (3T3) and two cervical carcinoma cell lines CALO and INBL, undergo apoptosis in the presence of different concentrations of an infusion from the plant. Our data show that there is a strong correlation between the cytotoxic effect and cell proliferation. Together, these results indicate that the plant infusion of Justicia spicigera does not contain any haematopoietic activity, induces apoptosis inhibited by bcl-2 and is linked to cell proliferation. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 4-Nonylphenol induces disruption of spermatogenesis associated with oxidative stress-related apoptosis by targeting p53-Bcl-2/Bax-Fas/FasL signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peng; Hu, Chunhui; Butler, Holly J; Quan, Chao; Chen, Wei; Huang, Wenting; Tang, Sha; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Meng; Shi, Yuqin; Martin, Francis L; Yang, Kedi

    2017-03-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) is a ubiquitous environmental chemical with estrogenic activity. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that pubertal exposure to NP leads to testicular dysfunction. Herein, 24 7-week-old rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated with NP (0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight every 2 days for 20 consecutive days) by intraperitoneal injection. Compared to untreated controls, the parameters of sperm activation rate, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity, and swimming velocity were significantly lower at doses of 100 mg/kg, while sperm morphological abnormalities were higher, indicating functional disruption and reduced fertilization potential. High exposure to NP (100 mg/kg) resulted in disordered arrangement of spermatoblasts and reduction of spermatocytes in seminiferous tubules, while tissues exhibited a marked decline in testicular fructose content and serum FSH, LH, and testosterone levels. Oxidative stress was induced by NP (50 or 100 mg/kg) as evidenced by elevated MDA, decreased SOD and GSH-Px, and inhibited antioxidant gene expression (CAT, GPx, SOD1, and CYP1B1). In addition, NP treatment decreased proportions of Ki-67-positive cells and increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Rats treated with 100 mg/kg NP exhibited significantly increased mRNA expression of caspase-1, -2, -9, and -11, decreased caspase-8 and PCNA1 mRNA expression, downregulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratios and upregulation of Fas, FasL, and p53 at the protein and mRNA levels. Taken together, NP-induced apoptosis, hormonal deficiencies, and depletion of fructose potentially impairs spermatogenesis and sperm function. p53-independent Fas/FasL-Bax/Bcl-2 pathways may be involved in NP-induced oxidative stress-related apoptosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 739-753, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. µ-Calpain conversion of antiapoptotic Bfl-1 (BCL2A1 into a prodeath factor reveals two distinct alpha-helices inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García Valero

    Full Text Available Anti-apoptotic Bfl-1 and pro-apoptotic Bax, two members of the Bcl-2 family sharing a similar structural fold, are classically viewed as antagonist regulators of apoptosis. However, both proteins were reported to be death inducers following cleavage by the cysteine protease µ-calpain. Here we demonstrate that calpain-mediated cleavage of full-length Bfl-1 induces the release of C-terminal membrane active α-helices that are responsible for its conversion into a pro-apoptotic factor. A careful comparison of the different membrane-active regions present in the Bfl-1 truncated fragments with homologous domains of Bax show that helix α5, but not α6, of Bfl-1 induces cell death and cytochrome c release from purified mitochondria through a Bax/Bak-dependent mechanism. In contrast, both helices α5 and α6 of Bax permeabilize mitochondria regardless of the presence of Bax or Bak. Moreover, we provide evidence that the α9 helix of Bfl-1 promotes cytochrome c release and apoptosis through a unique membrane-destabilizing action whereas Bax-α9 does not display such activities. Hence, despite a common 3D-structure, C-terminal toxic domains present on Bfl-1 and Bax function in a dissimilar manner to permeabilize mitochondria and induce apoptosis. These findings provide insights for designing therapeutic approaches that could exploit the cleavage of endogenous Bcl-2 family proteins or the use of Bfl-1/Bax-derived peptides to promote tumor cell clearance.

  7. Thymoquinone Rescues T Lymphocytes from Gamma Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis and Exhaustion by Modulating Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels and PD-1, Bax, and Bcl-2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Samy Guida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Recent studies have shown that thymoquinone (TQ exerts protective effects against ionizing radiation-induced cataracts in lens after total cranium irradiation of rats. Nevertheless, there is no published work investigated the effects of TQ on T cell development and biology in animal models exposed to gamma radiation. Therefore, in the present study we focused on determining the effects of TQ on radiation damage in the thymus, radiation-induced T cell imbalance, and on immune dysfunction induced by gamma-rays. Methods: Three groups of rats were used: a control group, a gamma-irradiated group, and a gamma-irradiated group that was orally supplemented with TQ. Serum lipid profiles, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured to assess gamma irradiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory capacity. T cell apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. The expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax and caspase-3, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and an exhaustion marker of T cells (PD-1 in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis. The T cell architecture of the thymus gland was evaluated by histological analysis. Results: Exposure to gamma radiation increased triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C, MDA, TNF-α and IL-6 levels and decreased HDL-C levels. The altered lipid profile and MDA and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels induced by exposure to gamma radiation were significantly restored in TQ-treated gamma-irradiated rats. Rats exposed to gamma radiation exhibited increased exhaustion of T lymphocytes via down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and upregulation of PD-1, Bax, and caspase-3 expression, which sensitized these cells to apoptosis. Interestingly, treatment of gamma-irradiated rats with TQ decreased T cell exhaustion and apoptosis by modulating the expression of Bcl-2, PD-1, Bax

  8. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Arene Ru(II Complexes Induce Tumor Cell Apoptosis Through Selectively Binding and Stabilizing bcl-2 G-Quadruplex DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of arene Ru(II complexes coordinated with phenanthroimidazole derivatives, [(η6-C6H6Ru(lCl]Cl(1b L = p-ClPIP = 2-(4-Chlorophenylimidazole[4,5f] 1,10-phenanthroline; 2b L = m-ClPIP = 2-(3-Chlorophenylimidazole[4,5f] 1,10-phenanthroline; 3b L = p-NPIP = 2-(4-Nitrophenylimidazole[4,5f] 1,10-phenanthroline; 4b L = m-NPIP = 2-(3-Nitrophenyl imidazole [4,5f] 1,10-phenanthroline were synthesized in yields of 89.9%–92.7% under conditions of microwave irradiation heating for 30 min to liberate four arene Ru(II complexes (1b, 2b, 3b, 4b. The anti-tumor activity of 1b against various tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The results indicated that this complex blocked the growth of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells with an IC50 of 16.59 μM. Flow cytometric analysis showed that apoptosis of A549 cells was observed following treatment with 1b. Furthermore, the in vitro DNA-binding behaviors that were confirmed by spectroscopy indicated that 1b could selectively bind and stabilize bcl-2 G-quadruplex DNA to induce apoptosis of A549 cells. Therefore, the synthesized 1b has impressive bcl-2 G-quadruplex DNA-binding and stabilizing activities with potential applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  9. The influence of sleep deprivation on expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins p53, bcl-2 and bax following rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Noguti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether paradoxical sleep deprivation could affects the mechanisms and pathways essentials for cancer cells in tongue cancer induced by 4-nitroquinole 1-oxide in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the animals were distributed into 4 groups of 5 animals each treated with 50 ppm 4 nitroquinoline 1 oxide (4 NQO solution through their drinking water for 4 and 12 weeks. The animals were submitted to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD for 72 h using the modified multiple platform method, which consisted of placing 5 mice in a cage (41 × 34 × 16 cm containing 10 circular platforms (3.5 cm in diameter with water 1 cm below the upper surface. The investigations were conducted using immunohistochemistry of p53, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins related to apoptosis and its pathways. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by the Dunn′s test using SPSS software pack (version 1.0. P value < 0.05 was considered for statistic significance. Results: Although no histopathological abnormalities were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure in all groups, in 12 weeks were observed pre-neoplasic lesions. Data analysis revealed statistically significant differences ( P < 0.05 in 4 weeks group for p53 and for bcl-2 and for all immunomarkers after 12 weeks of 4NQO administration. Conclusion: Our results reveal that sleep deprivation exerted alterations in proteins associated with proliferation and apoptosis in carcinogenesis.

  10. MiR-34a, a promising novel biomarker for benzene toxicity, is involved in cell apoptosis triggered by 1,4-benzoquinone through targeting Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujiao; Sun, Pengling; Guo, Xiaoli; Gao, Ai

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to benzene is inevitable, and concerns regarding the adverse health effects of benzene have been raised. Most investigators found that benzene exposure induced hematotoxicity. In this regard, Our study aimed to explore a novel potential biomarker of adverse health effects following benzene exposure and the toxic mechanisms of benzene metabolites in vitro. This study consisted of 314 benzene-exposed workers and 288 control workers, an air benzene concentration of who were 2.64 ± 1.60 mg/m(3) and 0.05 ± 0.01 mg/m(3), respectively. In this population-based study, miR-34a expression was elevated in benzene-exposed workers. The correlation of miR-34a with the airborne benzene concentration, S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA), all of which reflect benzene exposure, was found. Correlation analysis indicated that miR-34a was associated with peripheral blood count, alanine transaminase (ALT) and oxidative stress. Furthermore, multivariate analysis demonstrated that miR-34a expression was strongly associated with white blood cell count (structure loadings = 0.952). In population-based study, miR-34a had the largest contribution to altered peripheral blood counts, which reflect benzene-induced hematotoxicity. The role of miR-34a in benzene toxicity was assessed using lentiviral vector transfection. Results revealed that 1,4-benzoquinone induced abnormal cell apoptosis and simultaneously upregulated miR-34a accompanied with decreased Bcl-2. Finally, inhibition of miR-34a elevated Bcl-2 and decreased 1,4-benzoquinone-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, miR-34a was observed to be involved in benzene-induced hematotoxicity by targeting Bcl-2 and could be regarded as a potential novel biomarker for benzene toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salvianolic acid B inhibits intermittent high glucose-induced INS-1 cell apoptosis through regulation of Bcl-2 proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shanjun; Ren, Younan; Zheng, Haowen; Zhao, Mengqiu; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Yuanmei; Yang, Jieren; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-11-05

    Blood glucose fluctuations, also referred to as intermittent high glucose, have been validated to be more harmful than sustained high glucose in exacerbating pancreatic dysfunction by inducing β cell apoptosis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), an aqueous component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been proved beneficial to pancreatic islet function in diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated the protective effect of Sal B on INS-1 cells exposed to intermittent high glucose and the possible mechanisms implicated. The results indicated that Sal B was able to restore cell viability and suppress INS-1 cell apoptosis induced by intermittent high glucose. Preincubation with Sal B led to a significant decrease of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Exposure to intermittent high glucose induced significant up-regulation of proapoptotic proteins, down-regulation of antiapoptotic protein and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in INS-1 cells, while these changes were reversed effectively in Sal B treated groups. In addition, Sal B markedly attenuated intermittent high glucose-induced oxidative stress as manifested by notably decreased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (MDA). Taken together, these results indicate that Sal B is able to suppress intermittent high glucose-induced INS-1 cell apoptosis, which might be ascribed to regulation of Bcl-2 family protein expression and preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Dracorhodin perchlorate induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells through Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, survivin down-regulation and caspase-3 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed urological malignancies worldwide. Dracorhodin perchlorate, anthocyanin red pigment, has been recently shown to induce apoptotic cell death in several types of cancer cells. However, there is no report elucidating its effect on bladder cancer T24 cells. In this study, for the first time, we investigated the effects of dracorhodin perchlorate on the cell viability and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells. DNA flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that dracorhodin perchlorate markedly rendered apoptosis of T24 cells in a time-dependent manner. Dracorhodin perchlorate significantly induced the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in T24 cells. Furthermore, dracor-hodin perchlorate-induced apoptosis was regulated by activation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and survivin in T24 cells. These in vitro results suggested that dracorhodin perchlorate should be further examined for in vivo activity and molecular mechanism in human bladder cancer.

  13. SF Treg cells transcribing high levels of Bcl-2 and microRNA-21 demonstrate limited apoptosis in RA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Smigielska, Katarzyna; Park, Ji-Ah; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Kim, Hye-Won; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Lee, Eun-Bong; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the turnover of Treg cells in the SF of RA patients. Methods. Treg cells were enumerated in peripheral blood and SF of RA patients and analysed by flow cytometry for expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 and binding of the apoptosis marker

  14. Down-regulation of nectin-4 inhibits apoptosis in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) through targeting Bcl-2/Bax pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weihua; Wu, Ying; Huang, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of nectin-4 in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) cell apoptosis during the disease development and its potential mechanism. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained for the isolation of monocytes and T lymphocytes. siRNA-nectin-4 plasma was constructed for the transfection into T cells using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent. siRNA with no nectin-4 sequence was transfected into T cells for the control group. mRNA expression of nectin-4 in cells was analyzed using RT-PCR method. Effect of netin-4 expression on T cell apoptosis was analyzed with Annexin V-FITC cell apoptosis kit. Moreover, effects of nectin-4 expression on cell apoptotic-related proteins expressions were detected using western blotting analysis. Nectin-4 was significantly overexpressed in cells from SLE group compared with healthy control (HC) group (PSLE group (PSLE (PSLE group. The data presented in this study suggested that nectin-4 may be a therapeutic target for SLE through affecting the cell apoptosis.

  15. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Ki67 in endometrium of ovulatory menstrual cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, HJMM; Heineman, MJ; Evers, JLH

    2002-01-01

    Background. During the menstrual cycle, a rapid sequence of proliferation, differentiation and cell death occurs in the human endometrium. Mechanisms involved in cell proliferation have been studied extensively. Apoptosis has recently been recognized to be a physiologic phenomenon. The aim of this

  16. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Ki67 in endometrium of ovulatory menstrual cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Helena J. M. M.; Heineman, Maas J.; Evers, Johannes L. H.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the menstrual cycle, a rapid sequence of proliferation, differentiation and cell death occurs in the human endometrium. Mechanisms involved in cell proliferation have been studied extensively. Apoptosis has recently been recognized to be a physiologic phenomenon. The aim of this

  17. The effects of escitalopram on myocardial apoptosis and the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in a model of rats with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Hongming; Chai, Fangxian; Liu, Xingde; Berk, Michael

    2014-12-04

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), and influences the occurrence and prognosis of cardiovascular events. Although there is evidence that antidepressants may be cardioprotective after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) comorbid with MDD, the operative pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was therefore to explore the molecular mechanisms of escitalopram on myocardial apoptosis and the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in a rat model of depression during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Rats were divided randomly into 3 groups (n = 8): D group (depression), DI/R group (depression with myocardial I/R) and escitalopram + DI/R group. The rats in all three groups underwent the same chronic mild stress and separation for 21 days, at the same time, in the escitalopram + DI/R group, rats were administered escitalopram by gavage (10 mg/kg/day). Ligation of the rat's left anterior descending branch was done in the myocardial I/R model. Following which behavioral tests were done. The size of the myocardial infarction was detected using 1.5% TTC dye. The Tunel method was used to detect apoptotic myocardial cells, and both the Rt-PCR method and immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. Compared with the D and DI/R groups, rats in Escitalopram + DI/R group showed significantly increased movements and sucrose consumption (P escitalopram + DI/R group was significantly decreased (P escitalopram + DI/R groups (P escitalopram + DI/R group were significantly decreased (P escitalopram + DI/R group (P escitalopram. This suggests that clinically escitalopram may have a direct cardioprotective after acute myocardial infarction.

  18. The influence of sleep deprivation on expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins p53, bcl-2 and bax following rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguti, Juliana; Alvarenga, Tathiana Aparecida; Andersen, Mônica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Oshima, Celina Tijuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether paradoxical sleep deprivation could affects the mechanisms and pathways essentials for cancer cells in tongue cancer induced by 4-nitroquinole 1-oxide in Wistar rats. For this purpose, the animals were distributed into 4 groups of 5 animals each treated with 50 ppm 4 nitroquinoline 1 oxide (4 NQO) solution through their drinking water for 4 and 12 weeks. The animals were submitted to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 72 h using the modified multiple platform method, which consisted of placing 5 mice in a cage (41 × 34 × 16 cm) containing 10 circular platforms (3.5 cm in diameter) with water 1 cm below the upper surface. The investigations were conducted using immunohistochemistry of p53, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins related to apoptosis and its pathways. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by the Dunn's test using SPSS software pack (version 1.0). P value neoplasic lesions. Data analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P alterations in proteins associated with proliferation and apoptosis in carcinogenesis.

  19. Effects of daidzein in regards to cytotoxicity in vitro, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species level, cell cycle arrest and the expression of caspase and Bcl-2 family proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAN, BING-JIE; LI, WEI; JIANG, GUANG-BIN; LAI, SHANG-HAI; ZHANG, CHENG; ZENG, CHUAN-CHUAN; LIU, YUN-JUN

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of daidzein was evaluated in human BEL-7402, A549, HeLa, HepG-2 and MG-63 cancer cell lines. BEL-7402 cells were sensitive to daidzein treatment, with an IC50 value of 59.7±8.1 µM. Daidzein showed no cytotoxic activity toward A549, HeLa, HepG-2 and MG-63 cells. Daidzein increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Morphological and comet assays showed that daidzein effectively induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. Additionally, daidzein caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in the BEL-7402 cell line. Daidzein downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x and Baid proteins and upregulated the levels of Bim protein in the BEL-7402 cells. The results demonstrated that daidzein induced BEL-7402 cell apoptosis through an ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. PMID:26178389

  20. Ginkgo biloba extract mitigates liver fibrosis and apoptosis by regulating p38 MAPK, NF-κB/IκBα, and Bcl-2/Bax signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Wang, Rong Wang, Yujie Wang, Ruqin Peng, Yan Wu, Yongfang Yuan Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai 9th People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Liver fibrosis is the consequence of diverse liver injuries and can eventually develop into liver cirrhosis. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE is an extract from dried ginkgo leaves that has many pharmacological effects because of its various ingredients and has been shown to be hepatoprotective. Purpose and methods: Aimed to investigate the underlying protective mechanisms of GBE on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (C, model group (M, low-dose group (L, and high-dose group (H. Liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 groups M, L, and H: group C was administered saline. In addition, GBE at different doses was used to treat groups L and H. Results: The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson’s trichrome staining, a liver function index, and a liver fibrosis index showed that GBE application noticeably mitigated fibrosis and improved the function of the liver. The western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses indicated that GBE reduced liver fibrosis not only by inhibiting p38 MAPK and NF-κBp65 via inhibition of IκBα degradation but also by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis via downregulation of Bax, upregulation of Bcl-2, and subsequent inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Inflammation-associated factors and hepatic stellate cell (HSC-activation markers further demonstrated that GBE could effectively inhibit HSC activation and inflammation as a result of its regulation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B/IκBα signaling. Conclusion: Our findings indicated a novel role for GBE in the treatment of liver fibrosis. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the following signaling pathways: 1 the p38 MAPK

  1. Phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) from Pseudomonas sp. strain PUP6 selectively induced apoptosis in lung (A549) and breast (MDA MB-231) cancer cells by inhibition of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R Kamaraj; Veena, V; Naik, P Ravindra; Lakshmi, Pragna; Krishna, R; Sudharani, S; Sakthivel, N

    2015-06-01

    Phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), a naturally occurring simple phenazine derivative isolated from Pseudomonas sp. strain PUP6, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity against lung (A549) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines in differential and dose-dependent manner compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PCN-treated cancer cells showed the induction of apoptosis as evidenced by the release of low level of LDH, morphological characteristics, production of reactive oxygen species, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and induction of caspase-3. At molecular level, PCN instigates apoptosis by mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathway via the overexpression of p53, Bax, cytochrome C release and activation of caspase-3 with the inhibition of oncogenic anti-apoptotic proteins such as PARP and Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Bcl-xL). The in silico docking studies of PCN targeted against the anti-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family proteins revealed the interaction of PCN with the BH3 domain, which might lead to the induction of apoptosis due to the inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins. Due to its innate inhibition potential of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, PCN may be used as potent anticancer agent against both lung and breast cancer.

  2. Dentatin Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells via Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Survivin Downregulation, Caspase-9, -3/7 Activation, and NF-κB Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Adam Arbab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was set to investigate antiproliferative potential of dentatin (a natural coumarin isolated from Clausena excavata Burm. F against prostate cancer and to delineate the underlying mechanism of action. Treatment with dentatin dose-dependently inhibited cell growth of PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines, whereas it showed less cytotoxic effects on normal prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1. The inhibitory effect of dentatin on prostate cancer cell growth was due to induction of apoptosis as evidenced by Annexin V staining and cell shrinkage. We found that dentatin-mediated accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and downregulated expression levels of antiapoptotic molecules (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Survivin, leading to disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, cell membrane permeability, and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. These effects were associated with induction of caspase-9, -3/7 activities, and subsequent DNA fragmentation. In addition, we found that dentatin inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation of p65, suggesting dentatin as a potential NF-κB inhibitor. Thus, we suggest that dentatin may have therapeutic value in prostate cancer treatment worthy of further development.

  3. Lycopene Extracts from Different Tomato-Based Food Products Induce Apoptosis in Cultured Human Primary Prostate Cancer Cells and Regulate TP53, Bax and Bcl-2 Transcript Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nathalia da Costa Pereira; Machado, Clara Lima; Trindade, Bruno Boquimpani; Lima, Ingridy Celestino do Canto; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira; Teodoro, Anderson Junger; Takiya, Christina; Borojevic, Radovan

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoids are the main tomato components, especially lycopene. Lycopene is more bioavailable in tomato processed products than in raw tomatos, since formation of lycopene cis-isomers during food processing and storage may increase its biological activity. In the current study, we evaluated the influence of lycopene extracts (5 mg / mL) from different tomato-based food products (paste, sauce, extract and ketchup) on cell viability and apoptosis on primary human prostate cancer cells (PCa cels) for 96h. Using MTT assay, we observed a significant decrease on primary PCa cell viability upon treatment with lycopene extracted from either 4 tomato-based food products. Flow cytometeric analysis revealed that lycopene from tomato extract and tomato sauce promoted up to fifty-fold increase on the proportion of apoptotic cells, when compared to the control group. Using real time PCR assay, we found that lycopene promoted an upregulation of TP53 and Bax transcript expression and also downregulation of Bcl-2 expression in PCa cells. In conclusion, our data demostrate that cis-lycopene promoted a significant inhibition on primary PCa cell viability, as well as an increase on their apoptotic rates, evidencing that cis-lycopene contained in tomato sauce and extract cain mainly modulate of primary human prostate cancer cell survival. PMID:28345329

  4. Expression of the apoptosis-related genes BCL-2 and BAD in human breast carcinoma and their associated relationship with chemosensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuan-ming

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the expression of BCL-2 and BAD genes in tissues of breast carcinoma and investigate the relationship between the expression of BCL-2 and BAD in breast cancer cells with chemosensitivity. Methods Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of BCL-2, BAD in 10 normal breast tissues, 10 breast fibroadenoma tissues, 40 youth human breast carcinoma tissues, 40 menopause human breast carcinoma tissues. And to detect the expression of ER, PR in 80 human breast carcinoma tissues. 20 Surgical samples of breast cancer, diagnosed by pathology, were obtained from The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. The cancer sample cells were cultured separately in the incubator at 37°C, 5% CO2 in vitro. The rate of inhibition of cancer cells in 4 kinds of anticancer drugs-- Epirubicin Adriamycin (EADM,5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu, Navelbine(NVB and Diaminedichloroplatinum (DDP, were assayed by MTT method. Results The expression of BCL-2, BAD genes in young human breast carcinoma tissues were lower than that in menopause human breast carcinoma tissues (P . There was a negative correlation between the positive expression rate of BCL-2 and histologic grade or the lymph node metastasis (P . There was a positive correlation between the expression rates of BCL-2 and of ER, PR (P . The expression of BAD had no relationship with the expression of ER, PR, histologic grade and the lymph node metastasis(P = NS. Sensitivity rates of 20 breast cancer cells in 0.1 × PPC within 48 h in vitro were 30% EADM,20% 5-Fu,45% NVB and 25% DDP. Respectively, the rate of inhibition of EADM,5- Fu, NVB and DDP were significantly higher in the BCL-2 negative cancer cells than in the BCL-2 positive cancer cells. A negative correlation was found between expression of BCL-2 and chemosensitivity for all the 4 anticancer drugs. The inhibition rates of EADM and NVB were significantly lower in the BAD negative cancer cells than in the

  5. Effects of low and hyper Dk rigid gas permeable contact lenses on Bcl-2 expression and apoptosis in the rabbit corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Ladage, P M; Ren, D H; Li, L; Petroll, W M; Jester, J V; Cavanagh, H D

    2001-07-01

    To study Bcl-2 expression and apoptotic cell shedding of the rabbit corneal epithelium during extended wear of low and hyper Dk rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Rabbits were fit with either a low or a hyper Dk RGP lens (Dk/Ltotal= 10 and 97). The rabbits wore the lenses for either 24 hours, 3 days, or 1 week at which point they were humanely sacrificed. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses were performed to detect Bcl-2 in the corneal epithelium; TUNEL assay (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) was used to identify apoptotic epithelial cells. 1) Immunocytochemistry: In the normal cornea, antibodies to Bcl-2 uniformly stained nuclei of all epithelial cell layers. Occasional surface epithelial cells, however, showed no anti-Bcl-2 nuclear staining; concomitant TUNEL assay revealed that all TUNEL-labeled-surface cells were Bcl-2 negative. By contrast, RGP contact lens wear, regardless of test lens oxygen transmissibility or lens wearing interval, significantly decreased both the total number of Bcl-2 negative and TUNEL-labeled cells on the epithelial surface (P Dk lens test group but was similar to control values in the hyper Dk lens test group. Bcl-2 protein seems to play an important role in the regulation of apoptotic cell shedding in the normal rabbit corneal epithelium. The identical staining pattern was seen in previous studies of the normal human cornea. RGP contact lens wear, however, appears to block the changes in Bcl-2 protein prior to apoptotic surface cell shedding, suggesting a lens-related anti-apoptotic effect. Taken together, these findings may explain why contact lens wear reduces surface cell exfoliation as previously reported in human studies.

  6. miR-196b targets c-myc and Bcl-2 expression, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in endometriotic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Wakana; Nasu, Kaei; Nakada, Chisato; Kawano, Yukie; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Narahara, Hisashi

    2013-03-01

    What is the global expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) in endometriotic stromal cells and is miR-196b involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis? Several miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in endometriotic cyst stromal cells (ECSCs), including miR-196b whose expression is repressed in endometriotic stromal cells. Although, histologically, endometriotic tissues and normal proliferative endometrium are similar, a number of distinct molecular differences have been reported to date. The anti-apoptotic and excessive proliferative properties of endometriotic cells are considered to be involved in the development and progression of endometriosis. ECSCs and normal endometrial stromal cells (NESCs) were isolated from ovarian endometriotic tissues and eutopic endometrial tissues, respectively and compared. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs in ECSCs were identified by a global miRNA microarray technique. The roles of miR-196b in ECSC proliferation, apoptosis, and c-myc and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia (Bcl)-2 mRNA expression were investigated with precursor hsa-miR-196b transfection. The methylation status of the miR-196b gene in ECSCs and the effect of a DNA demethylating agent on miR-196b expression were also examined. miRNA microarray analysis identified eight down-regulated miRNAs (including miR-196b) and four up-regulated miRNAs in ECSCs. Compulsory expression of miR-196b directed the inhibition of proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in ECSCs. miR-196b was found to suppress c-myc and Bcl-2 mRNA expression in ECSCs, and there was a significant correlation between miR-196b and HOXA10 expression in ECSCs and NESCs. The miR-196b gene was hypermethylated in ECSCs when compared with NESCs, and the treatment with a DNA demethylating agent restored the expression of miR-196b in ECSCs. miRNA expression profiles were investigated only in the stromal component of ectopic and eutopic endometrium samples. In addition to miR-196b, the roles of other miRNAs aberrantly expressed in

  7. Odontoblast-targeted Bcl-2 Overexpression Promotes Dentin Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjian; Ju, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Objective Bcl-2 is widely expressed in a developing tooth organ and regulates tooth morphogenesis. However, whether Bcl-2 is related to tooth damage repair is unknown yet. Using an odontoblast-targeted Bcl-2 overexpression transgenic mouse (Col2.3Bcl-2) and artificial cavity preparation as a model system, the relationship between Bcl-2 and reparative dentinogenesis is investigated in this study. Methods The odontoblastic-like cell cultures derived from mouse molar pulps were established. The expression of transgenic human Bcl-2 (hBcl-2) and endogenous mouse Bcl-2 (mBcl-2) and mouse Bax (mBax, a Bcl-2 antagonist) was detected in vivo and in vitro by Western blot and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Basal level and artificial cavity-induced odontoblast apoptosis was detected by the Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick End labeling (TUNEL) technique. Reparative dentin formation induced by artificial cavity drilled to a half dentin thickness on mesial cervical region of mandibular first molars 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-op was evaluated histologically and via micro-CT. Results The transgenic hBcl-2 was stably expressed in odontoblasts of the transgenic animals without interference with the expression of mBcl-2 and mBax. Basal level as well as artificial cavity- induced odontoblast apoptosis was prevented by the transgene. Compared to the wild type, the transgenic animals produced reparative dentin with significantly higher mineral density 6 weeks after the operation. Conclusions Bcl-2 overexpression prevents odontoblast apoptosis and promotes dentin damage repair, indicating that genetic manipulation of Bcl-2 may be a novel strategy to maintain the vitality and function of dentine-pulp complex under detrimental mechanical stimuli. PMID:21930259

  8. Odontoblast-targeted Bcl-2 Overexpression Impairs Dentin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjian; Ju, Jun; Gronowicz, Gloria.

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis has been described extensively in tooth development, which is under tight control of multiple apoptosis regulators, including anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, it is totally unclear how Bcl-2 is related to odontogenesis, especially dentinogenesis. Using a transgenic mouse Col2.3Bcl-2 in which human Bcl-2 was overexpressed in odontoblasts, the effect of Bcl-2 on dentinogenesis was investigated. Overexpression of Bcl-2 was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Odontoblast apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and Western blot detection of cleaved caspase-3. Odontoblast differentiation was assessed by real-time PCR detection of dentin matrix expression. Dentin mineralization was evaluated by micro-CT in vivo, and alizarin red S staining and calcium content analysis in vitro. Bcl-2 was found to be overexpressed in odontoblasts and prevent their apoptosis. Odontoblast differentiation and mineralization was inhibited by Bcl-2, as evidenced by lower expressions of DMP-1, OC, and DSPP, and decreased odontoblast mineralization in vitro, as well as decreased dentin thickness and mineral density in vivo when compared to the wild type animals. Inhibition of odontoblast differentiation by Bcl-2 occurs, at least partially, via a suppression of MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In conclusion, Bcl-2 overexpression prevents odontoblast apoptosis and impairs dentin formation, partially via an inhibition of odontoblast differentiation. This study revealed some novel functions of Bcl-2 in dentinogenesis in addition to its anti-apoptotic effect, which shed some light on the genetic complexity of tooth development. PMID:20518070

  9. Vernolide-A, a sesquiterpene lactone from Vernonia cinerea, induces apoptosis in B16F-10 melanoma cells by modulating p53 and caspase-3 gene expressions and regulating NF-κB-mediated bcl-2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Kuttan, Girija

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of vernolide-A on the induction of apoptosis as well as its regulatory effect on the activation of transcription factors in B16F-10 melanoma cells. Treatment of B16F-10 cells with nontoxic concentrations of vernolide-A showed the presence of apoptotic bodies and induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner. Cell-cycle analysis and TUNEL assays also confirmed the observation. The proapoptotic genes, p53, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3, were upregulated in vernolide-A-treated cells, whereas the antiapoptotic gene, Bcl-2, was downregulated. vernolide-A treatment also showed a downregulation of cyclin D1 expression and upregulated p21 and p27 gene expression in B16F-10 melanoma cells. The study also reveals that vernolide-A treatment could alter the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and could inhibit the activation and nuclear translocation of p65, p50, and c-Rel subunits of nuclear factor-κB and other transcription factors, such as c-fos, activated transcription factor-2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response-element-binding protein in B16F-10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that vernolide-A induces apoptosis via activation of p53-induced, caspase-3-mediated proapoptotic signaling and suppression of NF-κB-induced, bcl-2-mediated survival signaling.

  10. Genetic Variants in the Apoptosis Gene BCL2L1 Improve Response to Interferon-Based Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 3 Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Weis, Nina; Ladelund, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation upstream of the apoptosis pathway has been associated with outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We investigated genetic polymorphisms in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway to assess their influence on sustained virological response (SVR) to pegylated interferon...

  11. 4-Acetyl-12,13-epoxyl-9-trichothecene-3, 15-diol from Isaria japonica mediates apoptosis of rat bladder carcinoma NBT-II cells by decreasing anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and increasing pro-apoptotic Bax expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Jang, Seon Il; Kim, Young-Jun; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Won, Hae-Young; Hong, Kyung-Hwan; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kwon, Tae-Oh; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4-acetyl-12,13-epoxyl-9-trichothecene-3, 15-diol (AETD) isolated from Isaria japonica, one of the most popular Chinese fungal medicines, on the induction of apoptosis in rat bladder carcinoma NBT-II cells. AETD was cytotoxic to NBT-II cells, and this cytotoxic effect appears to be attributed to its induction of apoptotic cell death, as AETD induced nuclear morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and increased the proportion of hypodiploid cells and activity of caspase-3. AETD treatment also decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. These results provide important information in understanding the mechanism(s) of AETD-induced apoptosis.

  12. Stimulation of Fas agonistic antibody-mediated apoptosis by heparin-like agents suppresses Hsp27 but not Bcl-2 protective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Florence; Ljubic-Thibal, Vesna; Moulin, Maryline; Goutagny, Nadège; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Arrigo, André-Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We report that in Jurkat T cells or freshly isolated T lymphocytes, physiological concentrations of high-molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides such as heparin, heparan sulfate, and dextran sulfate significantly increased the percentage of cell death induced by Fas IgM agonistic antibody. The phenomenon was caspase dependent and P53 independent and correlated with an increased accessibility of cell surface Fas receptors. We also observed that the Fas IgM agonistic antibody-dependent formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-resistant large structures containing Fas receptor was decreased in the presence of heparin-like agents. In contrast, the different agents had no effect when cell death was triggered by FasL, the natural ligand of Fas that does not generate SDS-resistant forms of Fas. Interestingly, the synergistic effect of heparin-like agents toward Fas IgM agonistic antibody-mediated cell death abolished Hsp27 antiapoptotic activity but did not alter much the protection generated by Bcl-2 expression.

  13. Stimulation of Fas agonistic antibody–mediated apoptosis by heparin-like agents suppresses Hsp27 but not Bcl-2 protective activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Florence; Ljubic-Thibal, Vesna; Moulin, Maryline; Goutagny, Nadège; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Arrigo, André-Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We report that in Jurkat T cells or freshly isolated T lymphocytes, physiological concentrations of high– molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides such as heparin, heparan sulfate, and dextran sulfate significantly increased the percentage of cell death induced by Fas IgM agonistic antibody. The phenomenon was caspase dependent and P53 independent and correlated with an increased accessibility of cell surface Fas receptors. We also observed that the Fas IgM agonistic antibody–dependent formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)–resistant large structures containing Fas receptor was decreased in the presence of heparin-like agents. In contrast, the different agents had no effect when cell death was triggered by FasL, the natural ligand of Fas that does not generate SDS-resistant forms of Fas. Interestingly, the synergistic effect of heparin-like agents toward Fas IgM agonistic antibody–mediated cell death abolished Hsp27 antiapoptotic activity but did not alter much the protection generated by Bcl-2 expression. PMID:15497502

  14. The combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor with the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity by activating both apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue; Kadia, Tapan; Tong, Weigang; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Yu; Yang, Hui; Hu, Yumin; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Viallet, Jean; O'Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2010-08-01

    Single-agent histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have limited clinical activity in human leukemia. Although the way HDACi exert their antileukemia effect is not fully understood, it is accepted that induction of apoptosis is important. We hypothesized, therefore, that combination of an HDACi with a proapoptotic agent, such as the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic GX15-070, could result in enhanced antileukemia activity. We analyzed the cellular and molecular effects of two different HDACi (MGCD0103 and vorinostat) in combination with GX15-070 in leukemia cell lines and primary acute myelogenous leukemia cells. We showed that the combination had synergistic antileukemia effect both in leukemia cell lines and in primary acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Using molecular markers and electron microscopy, we observed that in addition to apoptosis, autophagy accounts for the nonapoptotic decrease in cell viability, an effect that could be inhibited by chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy. Finally, we established a role for calpain activity in the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis by this combination. The combination of an HDACi and GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity, and the effect is mediated by induction of apoptosis and autophagy. The combination should be studied in clinical trials of leukemia and the role of autophagy in leukemia therapy needs to be better understood. (c) 2010 AACR.

  15. Sulforaphene promotes Bax/Bcl2, MAPK-dependent human gastric cancer AGS cells apoptosis and inhibits migration via EGFR, p-ERK1/2 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Arindam; Biswas, Raktim; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Jongkee; Ahn, Jin-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer migration and invasion considered as main causes of this cancer-related death around the world. Sulforaphene (4-isothiocyanato-4R-(methylsulfinyl)-1-butene), a structural analog of sulforaphane, has been found to exhibit anticancer potential against different cancers. Our aim was to investigate whether dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphene (SFE) can promote human gastric cancer (AGS) cells apoptosis and inhibit migration. Cells were treated with various concentrations of SFE and cell viability, morphology, intracellular ROS, migration and different signaling protein expressions were investigated. The results indicate that SFE decreases AGS cell viability and induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Intracellular ROS generation, dose- and time-dependent Bax/Bcl2 alteration and signaling proteins like cytochrome c, Casp-3, Casp-8 and PARP-1 higher expression demonstrated the SFE-induced apoptotic pathway in AGS cells. Again, SFE induced apoptosis also accompanied by the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) like JNK and P-38. Moreover, dose-dependent EGFR, p-ERK1/2 down-regulation and cell migration inhibition at non-toxic concentration confirms SFE activity in AGS cell migration inhibition. Thus, this study demonstrated effective chemotherapeutic potential of SFE by inducing apoptisis as well as inhibiting migration and their preliminary mechanism for human gastric cancer management.

  16. Bcl-2 expression in pancreas development and pancreatic cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campani, D; Esposito, I; Boggi, U; Cecchetti, D; Menicagli, M; De Negri, F; Colizzi, L; Del Chiaro, M; Mosca, F; Fornaciari, G; Bevilacqua, G

    2001-08-01

    Apoptosis is important for both tissue development and differentiation; its deregulation may contribute to tumourigenesis. In order to clarify the role of Bcl-2, an apoptosis-inhibiting protein, in pancreatic morphogenesis and tumour progression, its immunohistochemical expression was evaluated in 12 samples of fetal pancreas, in 10 samples of adult pancreas with ductal hyperplastic lesions, in 120 cases of primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and in 43 synchronous metastatic lymph nodes. To evaluate the role of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer, p53 expression was also studied in tumour samples. Bcl-2 cytoplasmic acinar and ductal immunostaining was found in all fetal and adult tissue samples; ductal hyperplastic lesions were constantly negative. Thirty out of 120 (25%) tumours and 3 out of 43 (7%) lymph nodes expressed Bcl-2, whereas 67 out of 120 (56%) expressed nuclear p53. Well-differentiated tumours (G1) were more frequently Bcl-2-positive (p=0.002); furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between Bcl-2 and p53 expression in primary tumours (p=0.02). Neither Bcl-2 nor p53 influenced patients' prognosis, which was instead affected by N (p=0.02) and M (p<0.0001) status and stage of the disease (p=0.002). It is concluded that Bcl-2 regulates pancreatic morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis from early fetal to adult life and can be considered a phenotypic marker of normal exocrine pancreas. On the other hand, the lack of expression in preneoplastic lesions and the low positivity found in primary tumours and lymph node metastases suggest that Bcl-2 does not play a centralrole in pancreatic tumourigenesis and cancer progression. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Two molluscan BCL-2 family members from Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum: molecular characterization and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Menike, Udeni; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Gang-Joon; Lee, Jehee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2013-06-01

    Apoptosis based immune responses are important component of host defense in mollusks. In this study, we have identified two novel molluscan BCL-2 cDNAs from Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum and named as RpBCL-2A and RpBCL-2B. There were four and three highly conserved BCL-2 homology (BH) regions in RpBCL-2A and RpBCL-2B, respectively suggesting these two genes could be different isoforms of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family. Phylogenetic results revealed that Manila clam BCL-2 genes were clustered closely with invertebrate BCL-2 members. It gives evidence of their common origin and conserved features of invertebrate BCL-2 family. RpBCL-2A and 2B were expressed in tissue-specific manner showing the highest and lowest level of expression in gills and hemocytes, respectively. However there was no clear expression profile difference between two genes. After Vibrio tapetis challenge, transcriptional responses of RpBCL-2A and RpBCL-2B were induced in gills and hemocytes with high variation that could be due to effects of immune reactions of other host defense molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The C. elegans protein CEH-30 protects male-specific neurons from apoptosis independently of the Bcl-2 homolog CED-9

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Hillel T; Horvitz, H. Robert

    2007-01-01

    The developmental control of apoptosis is fundamental and important. We report that the Caenorhabditis elegans Bar homeodomain transcription factor CEH-30 is required for the sexually dimorphic survival of the male-specific CEM (cephalic male) sensory neurons; the homologous cells of hermaphrodites undergo programmed cell death. We propose that the cell-type-specific anti-apoptotic gene ceh-30 is transcriptionally repressed by the TRA-1 transcription factor, the terminal regulator of sexual i...

  19. PRIMA-1 induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells by inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and downregulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, and c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Elham; Safa, Majid; Sharifi, Ali M; Bashash, Davood

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of p53 function triggers cell death and eliminates tumors in vivo. Identification of p53-reactivating small molecules such as PRIMA-1 holds promise for effective new anticancer therapies. Here, we investigated the effects of small molecule PRIMA-1 on cell viability and expression of p53-regulated genes and proteins in the acute promyelocytic leukemia-derived NB4 cell line. Our results showed that PRIMA-1 had antileukemic properties in acute promyelocytic leukemia-derived NB4 cells. PRIMA-1-triggered apoptosis in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner as indicated by the MTT assay and annexin-V staining. Apoptosis induction by PRIMA-1 was associated with caspase-9, caspase-7 activation and PARP cleavage. p21 protein expression was increased after PRIMA-1 treatment and real-time PCR analysis of proapoptotic p53 target genes indicated upregulation of Bax and Noxa. Western blot analysis showed that IκBα phosphorylation and its degradation were inhibited by PRIMA-1. Moreover, protein expression of nuclear factor-κB-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2 and XIAP) and proliferative (c-Myc) gene products was decreased. Importantly, PRIMA-1 did not show any significant apoptotic effect in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These in-vitro studies imply that p53 reactivation by small compounds may become a novel anticancer therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

  20. Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Hadi, A. Hamid A.

    2014-01-01

    Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development. PMID:24808916

  1. Chrysin exerts neuroprotective effects against 3-Nitropropionic acid induced behavioral despair-Mitochondrial dysfunction and striatal apoptosis via upregulating Bcl-2 gene and downregulating Bax-Bad genes in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarajan, Sumathi; Ramachandran, Surekha; Krishnamurthy, Priya

    2016-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex-II that causes transcriptional dysregulation, bioenergetics failure, protein aggregation and oxidative damage similar to Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. Chrysin, a bioactive flavonoid reported to have anti-inflammation, antioxidant, vasorelaxant and neuroprotective property. The present study was framed to determine the neuroprotective efficiency of chrysin upon 3-NP induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and neurodegeneration. 3-NP (10mg/kg b.w. i.p.) administration for 14days exhibited significant (P<0.01) behavioral alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damages to biomolecules, finally causes cell death. Chrysin at 50mg/kg b.w. orally for 14days improved all the behavioral performances and regulated the complex activities in mitochondria. Further, chrysin diminished the oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, nitrite and protein carbonyls) by significantly (P<0.01) improving the antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) in striatal mitochondria. Indeed, chrysin prevents apoptosis by upregulating the Bcl-2 mRNA expression and downregulating the pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bad) mRNAs in 3-NP induced condition. Furthermore, the survival of striatal neurons against 3-NP toxicity was enhanced upon chrysin treatment which was evidenced by observing histopathological studies. Hence, the present study collectively suggests that the chrysin can serve as a potential therapeutic agent on 3-NP induced mitochondrial deficits and subsequent apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Persea declinata (Bl. Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Narrima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persea declinata (Bl. Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill, which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl. Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM. PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development.

  3. Role of Bcl-2 family members in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaki, Tatsushi; Miura, Masayuki

    2004-03-01

    Proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family function as regulators of 'life-or-death' decisions in response to various intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. In mammals, cell death is controlled by pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, which function upstream of the caspase cascade. Structural and functional homologues of the Bcl-2 family proteins also exist in lower eukaryotes, such as nematodes and flies. In nematodes, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, CED-9, functions as a potent cell death inhibitor, and a BH3-only protein, EGL-1, acts as an inhibitor of CED-9 to facilitate the spatio-temporal regulation of programmed cell death. On the other hand, the Drosophila genome encodes two Bcl-2 family proteins, Drob-1/Debcl/dBorg-1/dBok and Buffy/dBorg-2, both of which structurally belong to the pro-apoptotic group, despite abundant similarities in the cell death mechanisms between flies and vertebrates. Drob-1 acts as a pro-apoptotic factor in vitro and in vivo, and Buffy/dBorg-2 exhibits a weak anti-apoptotic function. The ancestral role of the Bcl-2 family protein may be pro-apoptotic, and the evolution of the functions of this family of proteins may be closely linked with the contribution of mitochondria to the cell death pathway.

  4. Bcl-2 antisense therapy in B-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher

    2005-07-01

    Bcl-2 is an apoptosis regulating protein, overexpression of which is associated with chemotherapy resistant disease, aggressive clinical course, and poor survival in patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protein results in an aberrant intrinsic apoptotic pathway that confers a protective effect on malignant cells against a death signal (e.g., chemotherapy or radiotherapy). Downregulation of this oncoprotein, thus, represents a possible new way to target clinically aggressive disease. Preclinical studies have shown that this oncoprotein can be effectively decreased by Bcl-2 antisense in malignant lymphoid cells and can reverse chemotherapy resistance, as well as enhance the anti-apoptotic potential of both chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Ongoing clinical trials are exploring the role of Bcl-2 downregulation with oblimersen (Bcl-2 antisense) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. Early results from these studies are promising and support the proof of the principle. As these studies are completed and mature data emerges, the role of Bcl-2 antisense therapy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies will become clearer.

  5. Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles exhibit chemopreventive potential, antioxidant activity and induce apoptosis through mutant p53, Bcl-2 and pan cytokeratin down-regulation in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, J Grace; Narendhirakannan, R T

    2017-05-01

    Several studies suggest surface modifications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by capping agents or surface coatings could play an important role in biological systems, and site directed delivery. The present study was carried out to assess the antioxidant and apoptotic activities of the Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles in experimentally induced cancer in Swiss albino mice. 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) (single application) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (thrice a week) were applied on the dorsal area of the skin to induce skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice for 16 weeks. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using Vitis vinifera peel and seed aqueous extracts and characterized by Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses. On topical application, peel and seed gold nanoparticles demonstrated chemopreventive potential by significantly (pgold nanoparticles treated mice. The down-regulated expression of mutant p53, Bcl-2 and the levels of pan-cytokeratins might have facilitated the process of apoptosis in the chemical carcinogenesis process. The results were supported by the histopathological evaluation which exhibited mild dysplasia and acanthosis in the skin tissues of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs treated mice. Based on the present study, the chemopreventive action of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs is probably due to its ability to stimulate the antioxidant enzymes within the cells and suppressed abnormal skin cell proliferation that occurred during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Curcumin significantly enhances dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells through down-regulation of p53-dependent Bcl-2 expression and inhibition of Mcl-1 protein stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ram Seo

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathways are important for cell survival and growth, and they are highly activated in cancer cells compared with normal cells. Therefore, these signaling pathways are targets for inducing cancer cell death. The dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 completely inhibited both signaling pathways. However, NVP-BEZ235 had no effect on cell death in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We tested whether combined treatment with natural compounds and NVP-BEZ235 could induce cell death. Among several chemopreventive agents, curcumin, a natural biologically active compound that is extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma species, markedly induced apoptosis in NVP-BEZ235-treated cells. Co-treatment with curcumin and NVP-BEZ235 led to the down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein expression but not mRNA expression. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 completely inhibited curcumin plus NVP-NEZ235-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 was involved in curcumin plus NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis. Curcumin or NVP-BEZ235 alone did not change Bcl-2 mRNA or protein expression, but co-treatment reduced Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression. Combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin reduced Bcl-2 expression in wild-type p53 HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells but not p53-null HCT116 cells. Moreover, Bcl-2 expression was completely reversed by treatment with pifithrin-α, a p53-specific inhibitor. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 also inhibited apoptosis in NVP-BE235 plus curcumin-treated cells. In contrast, NVP-BEZ235 combined with curcumin did not have a synergistic effect on normal human skin fibroblasts and normal human mesangial cells. Taken together, combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin induces apoptosis through p53-dependent Bcl-2 mRNA down-regulation at the transcriptional level and Mcl-1 protein down-regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  7. BCL-2 family proteins: changing partners in the dance towards death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Justin; Osterlund, Elizabeth J; Andrews, David W

    2018-01-01

    The BCL-2 family of proteins controls cell death primarily by direct binding interactions that regulate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) leading to the irreversible release of intermembrane space proteins, subsequent caspase activation and apoptosis. The affinities and relative abundance of the BCL-2 family proteins dictate the predominate interactions between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins that regulate MOMP. We highlight the core mechanisms of BCL-2 family regulation of MOMP with an emphasis on how the interactions between the BCL-2 family proteins govern cell fate. We address the critical importance of both the concentration and affinities of BCL-2 family proteins and show how differences in either can greatly change the outcome. Further, we explain the importance of using full-length BCL-2 family proteins (versus truncated versions or peptides) to parse out the core mechanisms of MOMP regulation by the BCL-2 family. Finally, we discuss how post-translational modifications and differing intracellular localizations alter the mechanisms of apoptosis regulation by BCL-2 family proteins. Successful therapeutic intervention of MOMP regulation in human disease requires an understanding of the factors that mediate the major binding interactions between BCL-2 family proteins in cells.

  8. BCL-2 family proteins as regulators of mitochondria metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Atan

    2016-08-01

    The BCL-2 family proteins are major regulators of apoptosis, and one of their major sites of action are the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular hubs for metabolism and indeed selected BCL-2 family proteins also possess roles related to mitochondria metabolism and dynamics. Here we discuss the link between mitochondrial metabolism/dynamics and the fate of stem cells, with an emphasis on the role of the BID-MTCH2 pair in regulating this link. We also discuss the possibility that BCL-2 family proteins act as metabolic sensors/messengers coming on and off of mitochondria to "sample" the cytosol and provide the mitochondria with up-to-date metabolic information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Bcl-2 Family Proteins in Therapy Responses of Malignant Astrocytic Gliomas: Bcl2L12 and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini M. Kouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is a highly aggressive and lethal brain cancer with a median survival of less than two years after diagnosis. Hallmarks of GBM tumors include soaring proliferative indices, high levels of angiogenesis, diffuse invasion into normal brain parenchyma, resistance toward therapy-induced apoptosis, and pseudopallisading necrosis. Despite the recent advances in neurosurgery, radiation therapy, and the development of targeted chemotherapeutic regimes, GBM remains one of the deadliest types of cancer. Particularly, the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ in combination with radiation therapy prolonged patient survival only marginally, and clinical studies assessing efficacies of targeted therapies, foremost ATP mimetics inhibiting the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, revealed only few initial responders; tumor recurrence is nearly universal, and salvage therapies to combat such progression remain ineffective. Consequently, myriad preclinical and clinical studies began to define the molecular mechanisms underlying therapy resistance of GBM tumors, and pointed to the Bcl-2 protein family, in particular the atypical member Bcl2-Like 12 (Bcl2L12, as important regulators of therapy-induced cell death. This review will discuss the multi-faceted modi operandi of Bcl-2 family proteins, describe their roles in therapy resistance of malignant glioma, and outline current and future drug development efforts to therapeutically target Bcl-2 proteins.

  10. Viral Bcl-2-mediated evasion of autophagy aids chronic infection of gammaherpesvirus 68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-herpesviruses (gammaHVs have developed an interaction with their hosts wherein they establish a life-long persistent infection and are associated with the onset of various malignancies. One critical virulence factor involved in the persistency of murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68 is the viral homolog of the Bcl-2 protein (vBcl-2, which has been implicated to counteract both host apoptotic responses and autophagy pathway. However, the relative significance of the two activities of vBcl-2 in viral persistent infection has yet to be elucidated. Here, by characterizing a series of loss-of-function mutants of vBcl-2, we have distinguished the vBcl-2-mediated antagonism of autophagy from the vBcl-2-mediated inhibition of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. A mutant gammaHV68 virus lacking the anti-autophagic activity of vBcl-2 demonstrates an impaired ability to maintain chronic infections in mice, whereas a mutant virus lacking the anti-apoptotic activity of vBcl-2 establishes chronic infections as efficiently as the wild-type virus but displays a compromised ability for ex vivo reactivation. Thus, the vBcl-2-mediated antagonism of host autophagy constitutes a novel mechanism by which gammaHVs confer persistent infections, further underscoring the importance of autophagy as a critical host determinant in the in vivo latency of gamma-herpesviruses.

  11. Expression of bcl-2 protein in nephroblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, D; Harilal, P; Hadley, L; Chetty, R

    1997-09-01

    Bcl-2 expression has been shown to relate to prognosis in several neoplasms. A study of 139 cases of nephroblastomas was undertaken to ascertain the prognostic value of bcl-2 immunoexpression. Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained with monoclonal anti-bcl-2 antibody using a peroxidase-labelled streptavidin biotin kit. 75.5% of cases showed bcl-2 immunoreactivity, however, heterogeneous staining was observed within each case. No statistically significant correlation was found when bcl-2 expression was compared to histology (P=0.451), disease status (P=0.375) and disease stage (P=0.875). A statistically significant difference in bcl-2 protein was noted when comparing tumours treated with and those not treated with pre-operative chemotherapy (P=0.002). Further analysis of the cases that were treated with pre-operative chemotherapy showed a striking difference in survival periods between bcl-2 positive (shorter) and negative tumours (longer). Although not statistically significant, we think that this finding requires further investigation in other series. The results of bcl-2 immunoexpression in nephroblastomas may have prognostic implications that impact on patient treatment protocols.

  12. Contribució de la sobreexpressió de Bcl-2 i Bcl-xL i la inhibició de l'apoptosi en la progressió metastàtica del càncer de mama.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Amurgo, Yolanda

    2002-01-01

    [cat] Els mecanismes moleculars i cel·lulars responsables del fenotip metastàtic en el càncer de mama són poc coneguts. Tanmateix, l'habilitat de les cèl·lules tumorals per resistir els senyals de mort podria contribuir a crear les condicions favorables per al desenvolupament de les metàstasis. Bcl-2 i Bcl-xL són proteïnes de la família de Bcl-2 capaces d'inhibir l'apoptosi. L'objectiu d'aquest estudi fou obtenir un model experimental de carcinoma de mama ortotòpic amb el qual estudiar la con...

  13. ABT-199, a potent and selective BCL-2 inhibitor, achieves antitumor activity while sparing platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souers, Andrew J; Leverson, Joel D; Boghaert, Erwin R; Ackler, Scott L; Catron, Nathaniel D; Chen, Jun; Dayton, Brian D; Ding, Hong; Enschede, Sari H; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Huang, David C S; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Jin, Sha; Khaw, Seong Lin; Kovar, Peter J; Lam, Lloyd T; Lee, Jackie; Maecker, Heather L; Marsh, Kennan C; Mason, Kylie D; Mitten, Michael J; Nimmer, Paul M; Oleksijew, Anatol; Park, Chang H; Park, Cheol-Min; Phillips, Darren C; Roberts, Andrew W; Sampath, Deepak; Seymour, John F; Smith, Morey L; Sullivan, Gerard M; Tahir, Stephen K; Tse, Chris; Wendt, Michael D; Xiao, Yu; Xue, John C; Zhang, Haichao; Humerickhouse, Rod A; Rosenberg, Saul H; Elmore, Steven W

    2013-02-01

    Proteins in the B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family are key regulators of the apoptotic process. This family comprises proapoptotic and prosurvival proteins, and shifting the balance toward the latter is an established mechanism whereby cancer cells evade apoptosis. The therapeutic potential of directly inhibiting prosurvival proteins was unveiled with the development of navitoclax, a selective inhibitor of both BCL-2 and BCL-2-like 1 (BCL-X(L)), which has shown clinical efficacy in some BCL-2-dependent hematological cancers. However, concomitant on-target thrombocytopenia caused by BCL-X(L) inhibition limits the efficacy achievable with this agent. Here we report the re-engineering of navitoclax to create a highly potent, orally bioavailable and BCL-2-selective inhibitor, ABT-199. This compound inhibits the growth of BCL-2-dependent tumors in vivo and spares human platelets. A single dose of ABT-199 in three patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia resulted in tumor lysis within 24 h. These data indicate that selective pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2 shows promise for the treatment of BCL-2-dependent hematological cancers.

  14. Expression of bcl-2 in the Epithelial Lining of Odontogenic Keratocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Jahanshahi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The aggressive nature and high recurrence rate of Odontogenic Keratocysts (OKCs may be due to unknown factors inherent in the epithelium or because of enzymatic activity in the fibrous wall. Bcl-2 protein is characterized by its ability to inhibit apoptosis.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of bcl-2 protein in OKCs and to compare it with the more common radicular and dentigerous cysts. The possible relationship between inflammation and bcl-2 expression was also investigated.Materials and Methods: Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 20 OKCs, 20 radicular and 20 dentigerous cysts were immunohistochemically analyzed for immunoreactivity of the bcl-2 protein.Results: Bcl-2 expression was observed in 19 OKCs (95%, one radicular cyst (5%and one dentigerous cyst (5%. There was no statistically significant relationship between inflammation and the number of bcl-2 positive cells. Immunoreactivity was mainly noted in the basal or basal/supra basal layers.Conclusion: Considering the fact that bcl-2 over expression may lead to increased survival of epithelial cells, present study may demonstrate a possible relationship between the aggressive nature of OKC and the intrinsic growth potential of its lining epithelium. Furthermore a basal/supra basal distribution of bcl-2 positive cells was seen in some odontogenic keratocysts which may have a significant impact on the behavior of this cyst.

  15. Therapeutics targeting Bcl-2 in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruefli-Brasse, Astrid; Reed, John C

    2017-10-23

    Members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) gene family are attractive targets for cancer therapy as they play a key role in promoting cell survival, a long-since established hallmark of cancer. Clinical utility for selective inhibition of specific anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins has recently been realized with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of venetoclax (formerly ABT-199/GDC-0199) in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with 17p deletion. Despite the impressive monotherapy activity in CLL, such responses have rarely been observed in other B-cell malignancies, and preclinical data suggest that combination therapies will be needed in other indications. Additional selective antagonists of Bcl-2 family members, including Bcl-XL and Mcl-1, are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development and hold the promise of extending clinical utility beyond CLL and overcoming resistance to venetoclax. In addition to direct targeting of Bcl-2 family proteins with BH3 mimetics, combination therapies that aim at down-regulating expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members or restoring expression of pro-apoptotic BH3 family proteins may provide a means to deepen responses to venetoclax and extend the utility to additional indications. Here, we review recent progress in direct and selective targeting of Bcl-2 family proteins for cancer therapy and the search for rationale combinations. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. BCL-2 inhibitors sensitize therapy-resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to VSV oncolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Sara; Beljanski, Vladimir; Van Grevenynghe, Julien; Richards, Stephanie; Ben Yebdri, Fethia; He, Zhong; Nichols, Carmen; Belgnaoui, S Mehdi; Steel, Courtney; Goulet, Marie-Line; Shamy, April; Brown, Dawn; Abesada, Guillermo; Haddad, Elias K; Hiscott, John

    2013-07-01

    Many primary cancers including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are resistant to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced oncolysis due to overexpression of the antiapoptotic and antiautophagic members of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of CLL cell death induced as a consequence of VSV infection in the presence of BCL-2 inhibitors, obatoclax, and ABT-737 in primary ex vivo CLL patient samples. Microarray analysis of primary CD19⁺ CD5⁺ CLL cells treated with obatoclax and VSV revealed changes in expression of genes regulating apoptosis, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and cellular metabolism. A combined therapeutic effect was observed for VSV and BCL-2 inhibitors in cells from untreated patients and from patients unresponsive to standard of care therapy. In addition, combination treatment induced several markers of autophagy--LC3-II accumulation, p62 degradation, and staining of autophagic vacuoles. Inhibition of early stage autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) led to increased apoptosis in CLL samples. Mechanistically, a combination of BCL-2 inhibitors and VSV disrupted inhibitory interactions of Beclin-1 with BCL-2 and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), thus biasing cells toward autophagy. We propose a mechanism in which changes in cellular metabolism, coupled with pharmacologic disruption of the BCL-2-Beclin-1 interactions, facilitate induction of apoptosis and autophagy to mediate the cytolytic effect of VSV.

  17. Microtubule-Targeting Drugs Induce Bcl-2 Phosphorylation and Association with Pin1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Pathan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bcl-2 is a critical suppressor of apoptosis that is overproduced in many types of cancer. Phosphorylation of the Bcl-2 protein is induced on serine residues in tumor cells arrested by microtubule-targeting drugs (paclitaxel, vincristine, nocodazole and has been associated with inactivation of antiapoptotic function through an unknown mechanism. Comparison of a variety of pharmacological inhibitors of serinel threonine-specific protein kinases demonstrated that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, flavopiridol, selectively blocks Bcl-2 phosphorylation induced by antimicrotubule drugs. Bel-2 could also be coimmunoprecipitated with the kinase Cdc2 in M-phase -arrested cells, suggesting that a Cdc2 may be responsible for phosphorylation of Bcl-2 in cells treated with microtubule-targeting drugs. Examination of several serine→alanine substitution mutants of Bcl-2 suggested that serine 70 and serine 87 represent major sites of Bcl2 phosphorylation induced in response to microtubuletargeting drugs. Both these serines are within sequence contexts suitable for proline-directed kinases such as Cdc2. Phosphorylated Bel-2 protein was discovered to associate in M-phase -arrested cells with Pint, a mitotic peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPlase known to interact with substrates of Cdc2 during mitosis. In contrast, phosphorylation of Bcl-2 induced by microtubuletargeting drugs did not alter its ability to associate with Bel-2 (homodimerization, Bax, BAG1, or other Bel-2binding proteins. Since the region in Bcl-2 containing serine 70 and serine 87 represents a proline-rich loop that has been associated with autorepression of its antiapoptotic activity, the discovery of pint interactions with phosphorylated Bcl-2 raises the possibility that pint alters the conformation of Bcl-2 and thereby modulates its function in cells arrested with antimicrotubule drugs.

  18. Dual targeting of Bcl-2 and VEGF: a potential strategy to improve therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Noboru; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Motoyoshi; Porvasnik, Stacy; Urbanek, Cydney; Cao, Wengang; Goodison, Steve; Rosser, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bcl-2 overexpression stimulates angiogenesis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, thus giving these tumors a growth advantage. To further elucidate the relationship between Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in PC-3-Bcl-2 cells, tumorigenicity and angiogenesis were evaluated in our in vitro and in vivo model treated with antisense Bcl-2 oligodeoxynucleotide (ASO) and bevacizumab. In vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays, as well as a xenograft tumor model of the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3-Bcl-2, were subjected to ASO alone, bevacizumab alone, or the combination of ASO and bevacizumab. Protein-based assays (e.g., immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) were utilized to detect molecular changes. Interestingly, targeting Bcl-2 with ASO resulted in the inhibition of in vitro tube formation and inhibition of angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs similar to treatment with bevacizumab. In our PC-3-Bcl-2 xenograft model, ASO alone resulted in 41% reduction in tumor size, bevacizumab alone resulted in a 50% reduction in tumor size, whereas the combination of ASO with bevacizumab was associated with >95% reduction in tumor volume. Reduction in tumor size in all groups was associated with reduction in Bcl-2 and VEGF expression, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis and its associated chemokine production. These findings confirm that Bcl-2 is a pivotal target for cancer therapy and thus, further study of this novel combination of Bcl-2 reduction and angiogenic targeting in human tumors is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dysregulation of BCL-2 family proteins by leukemia fusion genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lauren M; Hanna, Diane T; Khaw, Seong L; Ekert, Paul G

    2017-09-01

    The genomic lesions that characterize acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood include recurrent translocations that result in the expression of fusion proteins that typically involve genes encoding tyrosine kinases, cytokine receptors, and transcription factors. These genetic rearrangements confer phenotypic hallmarks of malignant transformation, including unrestricted proliferation and a relative resistance to apoptosis. In this Minireview, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that link these fusions to the control of cell death. We examine how these fusion genes dysregulate the BCL-2 family of proteins, preventing activation of the apoptotic effectors, BAX and BAK, and promoting cell survival. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. DNA Damage-Binding Complex Recruits HDAC1 to Repress Bcl-2 Transcription in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Han, Chunhua; Eisenhauer, Eric; Kroger, John; Zhao, Weiqiang; Yu, Jianhua; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Liu, Xingluo; Wani, Altaf A.; Wang, Qi-En

    2013-01-01

    Elevated expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 is believed to be one of the contributing factors to an increased relapse rate associated with multiple cisplatin-resistant cancers. DNA damage-binding protein complex subunit 2 (DDB2) has recently been revealed to play an important role in sensitizing human ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis through the down-regulation of Bcl-2, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly defined. Here, we report that DDB2 functions as a transcriptional repressor for Bcl-2 in combination with DDB1. Quantitative ChIP and EMSA analysis revealed that DDB2 binds to a specific cis-acting element at the 5′-end of bcl-2 P1 promoter. Overexpression of DDB2 resulted in marked losses of histone H3K9,14 acetylation along the bcl-2 promoter and enhancer regions, concomitant with a local enrichment of HDAC1 to the bcl-2 P1 core promoter in ovarian cancer cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis and in vitro binding assay identified a physical interaction between DDB1 and HDAC1, while downregulation of HDAC1 significantly enhanced bcl-2 promoter activity. Finally, in comparison to wild-type DDB2, mutated DDB2, which is unable to repress Bcl-2 transcription, mediates a compromised apoptosis upon cisplatin treatment. Taken together, our data support a model wherein DDB1 and DDB2 cooperate with each other to repress bcl-2 transcription. DDB2 recognizes and binds to the bcl-2 P1 promoter, and HDAC1 is recruited through the DDB1 subunit associated with DDB2, to deacetylate histone H3K9,14 across bcl-2 regulatory regions, resulting in suppressed bcl-2 transcription. Thus, increasing the expression of DDB complex may provide a molecular strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:24249678

  1. Immunogenicity of Bcl-2 in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie; Kvistborg, Pia

    2005-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a pivotal regulator of apoptotic cell death and it is overexpressed in many cancers. Consequently, the Bcl-2 protein is an attractive target for drug design, and Bcl-2-specific antisense oligonucleotides or small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitors have shown broad anticancer a...

  2. Identification of an HLA-A*0201 restricted Bcl2-derived epitope expressed on tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Johansen, Britta; Nissen, Mogens H

    2006-01-01

    A large number of human tumor-associated antigen-derived peptides have been identified that are recognized by CTLs in a MHC-I restricted fashion. The apoptosis inhibitory protein Bcl2 is overexpressed in many human cancers as part of their neoplastic phenotype. Since inhibition or loss of Bcl2...... expression might impair tumor growth and survival, this protein may serve as a rational target for vaccine-induced CTL responses. By Western blot technique, we screened a panel of established human tumor cell lines for proteins involved in the apoptotic process. Two of eight tumor cell lines, a B lymphoma...... (Loukes) and a colon carcinoma (CCL220) cell line showed increased Bcl2 protein expression whereas the majority of tumor cell lines expressed proapoptotic proteins. Neither fibroblasts nor peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed Bcl2 expression. An HLA-A*0201 restricted CTL epitope was deduced in silica...

  3. Effect of Bcl-2 rs956572 polymorphism on age-related gray matter volume changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-En Liu

    Full Text Available The anti-apoptotic protein B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 gene is a major regulator of neural plasticity and cellular resilience. Recently, the Bcl-2 rs956572 single nucleotide polymorphism was proposed to be a functional allelic variant that modulates cellular vulnerability to apoptosis. Our cross-sectional study investigated the genetic effect of this Bcl-2 polymorphism on age-related decreases in gray matter (GM volume across the adult lifespan. Our sample comprised 330 healthy volunteers (191 male, 139 female with a mean age of 56.2±22.0 years (range: 21-92. Magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping of the Bcl-2 rs956572 were performed for each participant. The differences in regional GM volumes between G homozygotes and A-allele carriers were tested using optimized voxel-based morphometry. The association between the Bcl-2 rs956572 polymorphism and age was a predictor of regional GM volumes in the right cerebellum, bilateral lingual gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. We found that the volume of these five regions decreased with increasing age (all P<.001. Moreover, the downward slope was steeper among the Bcl-2 rs956572 A-allele carriers than in the G-homozygous participants. Our data provide convergent evidence for the genetic effect of the Bcl-2 functional allelic variant in brain aging. The rs956572 G-allele, which is associated with significantly higher Bcl-2 protein expression and diminished cellular sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis, conferred a protective effect against age-related changes in brain GM volume, particularly in the cerebellum.

  4. Quantification of protein copy number in single mitochondria: The Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoxiang; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Shuyue; Zhu, Shaobin; Xu, Jingyi; Zheng, Yan; Han, Jinyan; Zeng, Jin-Zhang; Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-12-15

    Bcl-2 family proteins, represented by antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and proapoptotic protein Bax, are key regulators of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. To build a quantitative model of how Bcl-2 family protein interactions control mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and subsequent cytochrome c release, it is essential to know the number of proteins in individual mitochondria. Here, we report an effective method to quantify the copy number and distribution of proteins in single mitochondria via immunofluorescent labeling and sensitive detection by a laboratory-built high sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM). Mitochondria isolated from HeLa cells were stained with Alexa Fluor 488 (AF488)-labeled monoclonal antibodies specifically targeting Bcl-2 or Bax and with nucleic acid dye. A series of fluorescent nanospheres with fluorescence intensity calibrated in the unit of molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF)-AF488 were used to construct a calibration curve for converting the immunofluorescence of a single mitochondrion to the number of antibodies bound to it and then to the number of proteins per mitochondrion. Under the normal condition, the measured mean copy numbers were 1300 and 220 per mitochondrion for Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively. A significant variation in protein copy number was identified, which ranged from 130 to 6000 (2.5-97.5%) for Bcl-2 and from 65 to 700 (2.5-97.5%) for Bax, respectively. We observed an approximately 4.4 fold increase of Bax copy number per mitochondrion upon 9h of apoptosis stimulation while the abundance of Bcl-2 remained almost unchanged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Bcl-2 family protein copy number and variance in single mitochondria. Collectively, we demonstrate that the HSFCM-based immunoassay provides a rapid and sensitive method for determining protein copy number distribution in single mitochondria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. BCL2 genotypes and prostate cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Wilfried [Medical University of Graz, Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Graz (Austria); Langsenlehner, Uwe [GKK Outpatient Department, Division of Internal Medicine, Graz (Austria); Krenn-Pilko, Sabine; Langsenlehner, Tanja [Medical University of Graz, Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Graz (Austria); Eder, Petra [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    The antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene is a key player in cancer development and progression. A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (c.-938C>A, rs2279115) in the inhibitory P2 BCL2 gene promoter has been associated with clinical outcomes in various types of cancer. Aim of the present study was to analyze the role of BCL2-938C>A genotypes in prostate cancer mortality. The association between BCL2-938C>A (rs2279115) genotypes and prostate cancer outcome was studied within the prospective PROCAGENE study comprising 702 prostate cancer patients. During a median follow-up time of 92 months, 120 (17.1%) patients died. A univariate Cox regression model showed a significant association of the CC genotype with reduced cancer-specific survival (CSS; hazard ratio, HR, 2.13, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.10-4.12; p = 0.024) and overall survival (OS; HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.58-3.47; p < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression model including age at diagnosis, risk group, and androgen deprivation therapy, the CC genotype remained a significant predictor of poor CSS (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.05-3.99; p = 0.034) and OS (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.51-3.36; p < 0.001). This study provides evidence that the homozygous BCL2-938 CC genotype is associated with OS and C in prostate cancer patients. (orig.) [German] Das antiapoptotische Gen B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) spielt eine Schluesselrolle in der Entstehung und Progression von Krebserkrankungen. Ein funktioneller Einzelnukleotid-Polymorphismus (c.-938C>A, rs2279115) im inhibitorischen P2-BCL2-Promotor wurde mit dem klinischen Outcome verschiedener Krebserkrankungen verknuepft. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Untersuchung der Rolle von BCL2-938C>A-Genotypen fuer die Mortalitaet bei Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom. Der Zusammenhang zwischen BCL2-938C>A-Genotypen (rs2279115) und dem Outcome bei Prostatakrebs wurde in der prospektiven PROCAGENE-Studie, die 702 Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom umfasste, untersucht. Waehrend der medianen

  6. Bcl-2 is a novel interacting partner for the 2-oxoglutarate carrier and a key regulator of mitochondrial glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Heather M.; Marquardt, Kristin; Lash, Lawrence H.; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite making up only a minor fraction of the total cellular glutathione, recent studies indicate that the mitochondrial glutathione pool is essential for cell survival. Selective depletion of mitochondrial glutathione is sufficient to sensitize cells to mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)1 and intrinsic apoptosis. Glutathione is synthesized exclusively in the cytoplasm and must be actively transported into mitochondria. Therefore, regulation of mitochondrial glutathione transport is a key factor in maintaining the antioxidant status of mitochondria. Bcl-2 is resident in the outer mitochondrial membrane where it acts as a central regulator of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. In addition, Bcl-2 displays an antioxidant-like function that has been linked experimentally to the regulation of cellular glutathione content. We have previously demonstrated a novel interaction between recombinant Bcl-2 and reduced glutathione (GSH) which was antagonized by either Bcl-2 homology-3 domain (BH3) mimetics or a BH3-only protein, recombinant Bim. These previous findings prompted us to investigate if this novel Bcl-2/GSH interaction might play a role in regulating mitochondrial glutathione transport. Incubation of primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) with the BH3 mimetic, HA14-1, induced MOS and caused specific depletion of the mitochondrial glutathione pool. Bcl-2 was co-immunoprecipitated with GSH following chemical cross-linking in CGNs and this Bcl-2/GSH interaction was antagonized by pre-incubation with HA14-1. Moreover, both HA14-1 and recombinant Bim inhibited GSH transport into isolated rat brain mitochondria. To further investigate a possible link between Bcl-2 function and mitochondrial glutathione transport, we next examined if Bcl-2 associated with the 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC), an inner mitochondrial membrane protein known to transport glutathione in liver and kidney. Following co-transfection of CHO cells, Bcl-2 was co-immunoprecipitated with OGC

  7. RBP2 Promotes Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia by Upregulating BCL2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wang

    Full Text Available Despite recent increases in the cure rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, adult ALL remains a high-risk disease that exhibits a high relapse rate. In this study, we found that the histone demethylase retinoblastoma binding protein-2 (RBP2 was overexpressed in both on-going and relapse cases of adult ALL, which revealed that RBP2 overexpression was not only involved in the pathogenesis of ALL but that its overexpression might also be related to relapse of the disease. RBP2 knockdown induced apoptosis and attenuated leukemic cell viability. Our results demonstrated that BCL2 is a novel target of RBP2 and supported the notion of RBP2 being a regulator of BCL2 expression via directly binding to its promoter. As the role of RBP2 in regulating apoptosis was confirmed, RBP2 overexpression and activation of BCL2 might play important roles in ALL development and progression.

  8. Role of the antiapoptotic proteins BCL2 and MCL1 in the neonatal mouse ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robin L; Pepling, Melissa E

    2013-02-01

    The mammalian ovarian lifespan is determined at the time of birth through a delicate balance of oocyte survival and apoptosis as primordial follicles form, and the mechanism by which germ cells die is not understood. We hypothesized that two BCL2 family proteins, BCL2 and MCL1, may be responsible for regulating neonatal oocyte survival. Previous work has shown that BCL2 is important for germ cell survival in adult mouse ovaries, but no work has been done to examine its role at the time of birth. To elucidate the effects of BCL2 in the neonatal ovary, we examined ovaries of both Bcl2-overexpressing and knockout transgenic mice. When compared to wild-type mice, neither Bcl2 overexpression nor abrogation significantly altered ovarian histology. Another BCL2 family protein, MCL1, is expressed in human oocytes during ovarian development, suggesting a role for MCL1 in oocyte survival. To test this, we first examined the expression of MCL1 in the newborn mouse ovary. MCL1 was localized to both oocytes and somatic cells during primordial follicle formation. Subsequently, we used an in vitro organ culture system to identify a role for MCL1 in oocyte survival. We found that inhibition of MCL1 with an antibody to MCL1 in culture resulted in a reduced number of germ cells and an increase in cyst breakdown. Our data demonstrate that while BCL2 is not likely involved in perinatal oocyte survival, MCL1 may be an important regulator of the ovarian primordial follicle reserve.

  9. EGFR and Bcl-2 in gastric mucosa of children infected with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ryszczuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins as inhibitory markers of apoptosis in surface epithelial cells and gland cells of antral gastric mucosa in children infected with Helicobacter pylori according to the severity and activity of antral gastritis and to assess the correlation between the number of cells expressing EGFR and the number of cells expressing Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Materials and methods: The study included 44 children: 68.2% with chronic gastritis and positive IgG against H. pylori, and 31.8% with functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and with normal IgG against H. pylori. The evaluation of EGFR expression in gastric mucosa was performed immunohistochemically using monoclonal mouse anti-EGFR antibody. The polyclonal antibody was used to determine the expression of anti-Bcl-2.Results: A significant increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was found in the epithelial cells in severe as well as mild and moderate gastritis in the group of children infected with H. pylori. An increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was also found in the epithelial cells in group I according to the activity of gastritis. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Conclusion: Increased expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins in the epithelial cells and a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children could suggest increased regeneration abilities of gastric mucosa.

  10. Increased expression of Bcl-2 during mucous cell metaplasia induced by endotoxin and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Ray, L.M.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is accompanied by characteristic morphological changes that distinguish apoptosis from other forms of cell death. These changes include DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, cell surface pseudopodia, and finally the cellular collapse into membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies which are rapidly engulfed by macrophages or neighboring cells. Although the morphological features of apoptotic cells are well studied, the biochemical events that control apoptosis are not understood. Programmed cell death is triggered by a variety of pathways that are initiated by different stimuli including noxious agents, DNA damage, the activation of TNF receptors, or the withdrawl of growth factors. The central process of programmed cell death involves a cascade of biochemical events that begins with the initiation of a family of cysteine proteases, including the interleukin-1-{Beta}-converting enzyme, CPP-32, and Apopain. The ratio of Bax, a death-inducer gene, to Bcl-2, an apoptosis suppressor gene, determines whether or not the main apoptotic pathyway is blocked. Apoptosis is suppressed if the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax is > 1, and cells undergo apoptosis if the ratio is < 1. The overexpression of Bcl-2 has been shown to block the apoptotic program triggered by a variety of agents. Therefore, Bcl-2 must be involved in blocking the central pathway of the cell death program. In conclusion, this study showed that high levels of Bcl-2 were detected in some mucous cells at specific time points during mucous cell metaplasia, and this expression was reduced at later time points or was absent after remodeling of this epithelium.

  11. Lymphocytes DNA Content, P53, C-Myc And Bcl-2 As Predictive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell cycle parameters as well as apoptotic and tumor markers directly control cell growth. DNA ploidy and S phase fraction, apoptosis fraction in addition to apoptotic inducer (p53, c-myc) and antiapoptotic marker (Bcl-2) were investigated in childhood with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) leukemia as a predictive ...

  12. Expression of caspase-3, p53 and Bcl-2 in generalized aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdemir B Handan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis, or programmed cell death is a form of physiological cell death. It is increased or decreased in the presence of infection, inflammation or tissue remodelling. Previous studies suggest that apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical features and known indicators of apoptosis (p53, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP Methods Eight patients with GAP, who had sites with probing depths (PD > 5 mm, and 10 periodontally-healthy persons were included in the study. Clinical examinations and PD were performed, and the plaque index and gingival index were recorded. Gingival tissues biopsies were obtained from active site of each patient and from healthy individuals. The expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and p53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry Results There were no significant differences between GAP and control group with respect to levels of caspase-3 and p53 expression (P > 0.05. Contrary, the frequency of grade 3 expression of Bcl-2 was higher in GAP group than the control group. Conclusion The higher frequency of Bcl-2 expression in GAP group indicates and delayed apoptosis can lead to increasing resident inflammatory cells in periodontal tissues and resulting in progressive periodontal destruction.

  13. Withaferin A Suppresses Anti-apoptotic BCL2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apoptotic genes, BCL2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and Survivin), in cervical carcinoma cells. Methods: Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining was used for the investigation of cell apoptosis. RNA RNeasy Kits was used to isolate RNA and Omniscript ...

  14. Mutational analysis of Bax and Bcl-2 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, G. S.; Buitenhuis, C. K.; Martínez Muñoz, C.; Verwijs-Jassen, M.; Behrendt, H.; Zsiros, J.; Smets, L. A.

    1998-01-01

    In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia there are large interpatient variations in levels of the apoptosis-regulating proteins Bax and Bcl-2, but the molecular basis for this variation is unknown. Point-mutations in bax have been reported in cell lines derived from haematological malignancies.

  15. Withaferin A Suppresses Anti-apoptotic BCL2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Anti-apoptotic genes, Cervical cancer, Apoptosis, Cell viability, BCL2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and. Survivin. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical ... proapoptotic and anti-tumor activitities in breast and prostate cancers [15–17]. It is ... polyvinyl idenedi fluoride (PVDF) membrane (GE. Healthcare, Freiburg, Germany) and then.

  16. Effects of Geven root extract on proliferation of HeLa cells and bcl-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell kinetic parameters as proliferation rate (MTT assay), Mitotic Index and apoptotic index were used for experimental cytotoxicity assay of root extract. Furthermore, effects of root extract on gene expression rates which take place in apoptosis mechanism as Bcl-2, Bax, Bak, Bcl-x, Bik, Mcl-1, Bfl-1 were determined by ...

  17. Bcl-2 Conformational Change as an Indicator of Chemotherapy Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiao-kung

    2005-01-01

    .... We propose that Bcl-2 undergoes a conformational change in response to chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and that a Bcl-2-conformation-sensitive antibody can be used...

  18. The small GTPase Rac1 is a novel binding partner of Bcl-2 and stabilizes its antiapoptotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaithan, Rathiga; Kang, Jia; Hirpara, Jayshree L; Loh, Thomas; Goh, Boon Cher; Le Bras, Morgane; Brenner, Catherine; Clement, Marie-Veronique; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2011-06-09

    The small GTPase Rac1 is involved in the activation of the reduced NAD phosphate oxidase complex resulting in superoxide production. We recently showed that Bcl-2 overexpression inhibited apoptosis in leukemia cells by creating a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu, and that inhibiting intracellular superoxide production sensitized Bcl-2-overexpressing cells to apoptotic stimuli. We report here that silencing and functional inhibition of Rac1 block Bcl-2-mediated increase in intracellular superoxide levels in tumor cells. Using confocal, electron microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation, as well as glutathione S-transferase-fusion proteins, we provide evidence for a colocalization and physical interaction between the 2 proteins. This interaction is blocked in vitro and in vivo by the BH3 mimetics as well as by synthetic Bcl-2 BH3 domain peptides. That this interaction is functionally relevant is supported by the ability of the Bcl-2 BH3 peptide as well as the silencing and functional inhibition of Rac1 to inhibit intracellular superoxide production as well as overcome Bcl-2-mediated drug resistance in human leukemia cells and cervical cancer cells. Notably, the interaction was observed in primary cells derived from patients with B-cell lymphoma overexpressing Bcl-2 but not in noncancerous tissue. These data provide a novel facet in the biology of Bcl-2 with potential implications for targeted anticancer drug design.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of Bcl-2 overexpression on nerve cells of rats with acute cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H R; Peng, J H; Zhu, G Y; Xu, R X

    2015-07-13

    We aimed to investigate the influence of lentiviral-mediated Bcl-2 overexpression in cerebral tissues of rats with acute cerebral infarction. Forty-five rats were randomly divided into sham, model, and treatment groups. The sham and model groups were administered a control lentiviral vector via the intracranial arteries 10 days before surgery, while the treatment group received lentivirus encoding a Bcl-2 overexpression vector. We induced cerebral artery infarction using a suture-occlusion method and analyzed the cerebral expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, Bax), total cerebral apoptosis, range of cerebral tissue infarction, and changes in nerve cell function after 72 h. The Bcl-2-encoding lentivirus was well expressed in rat cerebral tissues. The treatment group had significantly higher expression levels of Bcl-2 than the other two groups. After cerebral infarction, the model group had significantly increased expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax protein in cerebral tissues than the sham (P < 0.05). Expression of these apoptosis-related proteins in the treatment group was obviously lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05), but significantly higher than in the sham group (P < 0.05). Compared to sham, neuronal apoptosis levels and infarction range of cerebral tissues was increased in the model and treatment groups; however, these values in the treatment group were significantly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05). Importantly, the treatment group had significantly decreased neurological impairment scores (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Bcl-2 over-expression can decrease neuronal apoptosis in rat cerebral tissue, and thus is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia.

  20. Complex disruption effect of natural polyphenols on Bcl-2-Bax: molecular dynamics simulation and essential dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sharad; Singh, Amit; Mishra, Abha

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a process by which cells died after completing physiological function or after a severe genetic damage. Apoptosis is mainly regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Anti apoptotic protein Bcl-2 prevents the Bax activation/oligomerization to form heterodimer which is responsible for release of the cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol in response to death signal. Quercetin and taxifolin (natural polyphenols) efficiently bound to hydrophobic groove of Bcl-2 and altered the structure by inducing conformational changes. Taxifolin was found more efficient when compared to quercetin in terms of interaction energy and collapse of hydrophobic groove. Taxifolin and quercetin were found to dissociate the Bcl-2-Bax complex during 12 ns MD simulation. The effect of taxifolin and quercetin was, further validated by the MD simulation of ligand-unbound Bcl-2-Bax which showed stability during the simulation. Obatoclax (an inhibitor of Bcl-2) had no significant dissociation effect on Bcl-2-Bax during simulation which favored the previous experimental results and disruption effect of taxifolin and quercetin.

  1. A Review on Structures and Functions of Bcl-2 Family Proteins from Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Dakshinamurthy; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells evade apoptosis, which is regulated by proteins of Bcl-2 family in the intrinsic pathways. Numerous experimental three-dimensional (3D) structures of the apoptotic proteins and the proteins bound with small chemical molecules/peptides/proteins have been reported in the literature. In this review article, the 3D structures of the Bcl-2 family proteins from Homo sapiens and as well complex structures of the anti-apoptotic proteins bound with small molecular inhibitors reported in the literature to date have been comprehensively listed out and described in detail. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms by which the Bcl-2 family proteins modulate the apoptotic processes and strategies for designing antagonists to anti-apoptotic proteins have been concisely discussed.

  2. Immunogenicity of Bcl-2 in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie; Kvistborg, Pia

    2005-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a pivotal regulator of apoptotic cell death and it is overexpressed in many cancers. Consequently, the Bcl-2 protein is an attractive target for drug design, and Bcl-2-specific antisense oligonucleotides or small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitors have shown broad anticancer...... activities in preclinical models and are currently in several clinical trials. The clinical application of immunotherapy against cancer is rapidly moving forward in multiple areas, including the adoptive transfer of anti-tumor-reactive T cells and the use of "therapeutic" vaccines. The overexpression of Bcl......-2 in cancer and the fact that immune escape by down-regulation or loss of expression of this protein would impair sustained tumor growth makes Bcl-2 a very attractive target for anticancer immunotherapy. Herein, we describe spontaneous T-cell reactivity against Bcl-2 in peripheral blood from...

  3. MOMP, cell suicide as a BCL-2 family business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkavan, Halime; Green, Douglas R

    2018-01-01

    Apoptosis shapes development and differentiation, has a key role in tissue homeostasis, and is deregulated in cancer. In most cases, successful apoptosis is triggered by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which defines the mitochondrial or intrinsic pathway and ultimately leads to caspase activation and protein substrate cleavage. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway centered on MOMP is controlled by an intricate network of events that determine the balance of the cell fate choice between survival and death. Here we will review how MOMP proceeds and how the main effectors cytochrome c, a heme protein that has a crucial role in respiration, and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC), as well as other intermembrane space proteins, orchestrate caspase activation. Moreover, we discuss recent insights on the interplay of the upstream coordinators and initiators of MOMP, the BCL-2 family. This review highlights how our increasing knowledge on the regulation of critical checkpoints of apoptosis integrates with understanding of cancer development and has begun to translate into therapeutic clinical benefit.

  4. Two independent positive feedbacks and bistability in the Bcl-2 apoptotic switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complex interplay between B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 family proteins constitutes a crucial checkpoint in apoptosis. Its detailed molecular mechanism remains controversial. Our former modeling studies have selected the 'Direct Activation Model' as a better explanation for experimental observations. In this paper, we continue to extend this model by adding interactions according to updating experimental findings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through mathematical simulation we found bistability, a kind of switch, can arise from a positive (double negative feedback in the Bcl-2 interaction network established by anti-apoptotic group of Bcl-2 family proteins. Moreover, Bax/Bak auto-activation as an independent positive feedback can enforce the bistability, and make it more robust to parameter variations. By ensemble stochastic modeling, we also elucidated how intrinsic noise can change ultrasensitive switches into gradual responses. Our modeling result agrees well with recent experimental data where bimodal Bax activation distributions in cell population were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Along with the growing experimental evidences, our studies successfully elucidate the switch mechanism embedded in the Bcl-2 interaction network and provide insights into pharmacological manipulation of Bcl-2 apoptotic switch as further cancer therapies.

  5. The optimal regulation mode of Bcl-2 apoptotic switch revealed by bistability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiyong; Qi, Hong; Liu, Lili; Jin, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    In most cell types, apoptosis occurs by the mitochondrial outer membrane permeability (MOMP)-mediated pathway, which is controlled by Bcl-2 family proteins (often referred to as Bcl-2 apoptotic switch). These proteins, which display a range of bioactivities, can be divided into four types: effectors, inhibitors, activators and sensitizers. Although the complex interactions among Bcl-2 family members have been studied intensively, a unifying hypothesis for the mechanism they use to regulate MOMP remains elusive. The bistable behaviors are often used to explain the all-or-none decisions of apoptosis. Here, we attempt to reveal the optimal interaction mode by comparing the bistable performances of three different modes (direct activation, indirect activation, and unified mode) proposed by biologists. Using the method that combines mathematical analysis and numerical simulation, we discover that bistability can only emerge from the unified mode when proteins synthesis and degradation are considered, which is in favor of it as an optimal regulation mode of Bcl-2 apoptotic switch. The parameter sensitivity analysis for the unified mode further consolidates this view. Moreover, two-parameter bifurcation analysis suggests that the sensitizers lower the threshold of activation of Bax, but have a negative influence on the width of the bistability region. Our study may provide mechanistic insights into the heterogeneity of tumor cells and the efficiency of BH3 mimetic-mediated killing of cancer cells, and suggest that a combination treatment might be required to overcome apoptosis resistance in the Bcl-2 family targeted therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui, E-mail: thiamtsu@yahoo.com [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheah, Yew-Hoong [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Meenakshii, Nallappan [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  7. Bcl-2 confers survival in cisplatin treated cervical cancer cells: circumventing cisplatin dose-dependent toxicity and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisching, Gina; Loos, Benjamin; Botha, Matthys; Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart

    2015-10-16

    Cisplatin is the main chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of cervical cancers, however resistance to cisplatin is increasingly common and therefore has limited the efficacy and use of this drug in the clinic. Dose-dependent toxicity poses an additional challenge since patients suffer long-term and often permanent side-effects after treatment. Bcl-2 up-regulation has been implicated in the resistance to cisplatin in a variety of cancer cell lines, however its role in cervical cancer is confounding. A low, non-cytotoxic concentration of cisplatin was used in the treatment of HeLa and CaSki cells. Bcl-2 expression was determined through Western blotting and immunocytochemistry before and after treatment with cisplatin. To assess the reliance of the cervical cancer cells on Bcl-2 in the presence of cisplatin, Bcl-2 knock-down was achieved through RNA interference, where after apoptosis was assessed through PARP cleavage (Western blotting), Caspase activity (Caspase-Glo(©)) and PI inclusion analysis (Flow cytometry). Finally, pre-malignant and malignant cervical tissue was analysed for the presence of Bcl-2 through Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Cervical cancer cells upregulate Bcl-2 when treated with a non-cytotoxic concentration of cisplatin, which when silenced, effectively enhanced cisplatin sensitivity, and therefore significantly induced apoptosis. Analysis of the expression profile of Bcl-2 in cervical tissue revealed its up-regulation in cervical carcinoma, which agrees with results obtained from the in vitro data. Our data strongly suggest that utilising a lower dose of cisplatin is feasible when combined with Bcl-2 silencing as an adjuvant treatment, thereby improving both the dose-dependent toxicity, as well as cervical cancer resistance.

  8. Reconstitution of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein into lipid membranes and biophysical evidence for its detergent-driven association with the pro-apoptotic Bax protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallgren, Marcus; Lidman, Martin; Pedersen, Anders; Brännström, Kristoffer; Karlsson, B Göran; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein and its counterpart, the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), are key players in the regulation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, how they interact at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) and there determine whether the cell will live or be sentenced to death remains unknown. Competing models have been presented that describe how Bcl-2 inhibits the cell-killing activity of Bax, which is common in treatment-resistant tumors where Bcl-2 is overexpressed. Some studies suggest that Bcl-2 binds directly to and sequesters Bax, while others suggest an indirect process whereby Bcl-2 blocks BH3-only proteins and prevents them from activating Bax. Here we present the results of a biophysical study in which we investigated the putative interaction of solubilized full-length human Bcl-2 with Bax and the scope for incorporating the former into a native-like lipid environment. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to detect direct Bcl-2-Bax-interactions in the presence of polyoxyethylene-(23)-lauryl-ether (Brij-35) detergent at a level below its critical micelle concentration (CMC). Additional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements confirmed this observation and revealed a high affinity between the Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. Upon formation of this protein-protein complex, Bax also prevented the binding of antimycin A2 (a known inhibitory ligand of Bcl-2) to the Bcl-2 protein, as fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed. In addition, Bcl-2 was able to form mixed micelles with Triton X-100 solubilized neutral phospholipids in the presence of high concentrations of Brij-35 (above its CMC). Following detergent removal, the integral membrane protein was found to have been fully reconstituted into a native-like membrane environment, as confirmed by ultracentrifugation and subsequent SDS-PAGE experiments.

  9. Reconstitution of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein into lipid membranes and biophysical evidence for its detergent-driven association with the pro-apoptotic Bax protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Wallgren

    Full Text Available The anti-apoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 protein and its counterpart, the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, are key players in the regulation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, how they interact at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM and there determine whether the cell will live or be sentenced to death remains unknown. Competing models have been presented that describe how Bcl-2 inhibits the cell-killing activity of Bax, which is common in treatment-resistant tumors where Bcl-2 is overexpressed. Some studies suggest that Bcl-2 binds directly to and sequesters Bax, while others suggest an indirect process whereby Bcl-2 blocks BH3-only proteins and prevents them from activating Bax. Here we present the results of a biophysical study in which we investigated the putative interaction of solubilized full-length human Bcl-2 with Bax and the scope for incorporating the former into a native-like lipid environment. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy was used to detect direct Bcl-2-Bax-interactions in the presence of polyoxyethylene-(23-lauryl-ether (Brij-35 detergent at a level below its critical micelle concentration (CMC. Additional surface plasmon resonance (SPR measurements confirmed this observation and revealed a high affinity between the Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. Upon formation of this protein-protein complex, Bax also prevented the binding of antimycin A2 (a known inhibitory ligand of Bcl-2 to the Bcl-2 protein, as fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed. In addition, Bcl-2 was able to form mixed micelles with Triton X-100 solubilized neutral phospholipids in the presence of high concentrations of Brij-35 (above its CMC. Following detergent removal, the integral membrane protein was found to have been fully reconstituted into a native-like membrane environment, as confirmed by ultracentrifugation and subsequent SDS-PAGE experiments.

  10. Sigma-1 Receptors Regulate Bcl-2 Expression by Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation of Nuclear Factor κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Johann

    2010-01-01

    The expression of Bcl-2, the major antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, is under complex controls of several factors, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). The σ-1 receptor (Sig-1R), which was recently identified as a novel molecular chaperone at the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM), has been shown to exert robust cellular protective actions. However, mechanisms underlying the antiapoptotic action of the Sig-1R remain to be clarified. Here, we found that the Sig-1R promotes cellular survival by regulating the Bcl-2 expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Although both Sig-1Rs and Bcl-2 are highly enriched at the MAM, Sig-1Rs neither associate physically with Bcl-2 nor regulate stability of Bcl-2 proteins. However, Sig-1Rs tonically regulate the expression of Bcl-2 proteins. Knockdown of Sig-1Rs down-regulates whereas overexpression of Sig-1Rs up-regulates bcl-2 mRNA, indicating that the Sig-1R transcriptionally regulates the expression of Bcl-2. The effect of Sig-1R small interfering RNA down-regulating Bcl-2 was blocked by ROS scavengers and by the inhibitor of the ROS-inducible transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Knockdown of Sig-1Rs up-regulates p105, the precursor of NF-κB, while concomitantly decreasing inhibitor of nuclear factor-κBα. Sig-1R knockdown also accelerates the conversion of p105 to the active form p50. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of Sig-1Rs potentiates H2O2-induced apoptosis; the action is blocked by either the NF-κB inhibitor oridonin or overexpression of Bcl-2. Thus, these findings suggest that Sig-1Rs promote cell survival, at least in part, by transcriptionally regulating Bcl-2 expression via the ROS/NF-κB pathway. PMID:19855099

  11. Cannabinoids Regulate Bcl-2 and Cyclin D2 Expression in Pancreatic β Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    Full Text Available Recent reports have shown that cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs are expressed in pancreatic β cells, where they induce cell death and cell cycle arrest by directly inhibiting insulin receptor activation. Here, we report that CB1Rs regulate the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. Treatment of MIN6 and βTC6 cells with a synthetic CB1R agonist, WIN55,212-2, led to a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2, in turn inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of CB1Rs after injury in mice led to increased levels of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 mediated by CB1Rs in the regulation of β-cell survival and growth, and will serve as a basis for developing new therapeutic interventions to enhance β-cell function and growth in diabetes.

  12. Bad, a heterodimeric partner for Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, displaces Bax and promotes cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E; Zha, J; Jockel, J; Boise, L H; Thompson, C B; Korsmeyer, S J

    1995-01-27

    To extend the mammalian cell death pathway, we screened for further Bcl-2 interacting proteins. Both yeast two-hybrid screening and lambda expression cloning identified a novel interacting protein, Bad, whose homology to Bcl-2 is limited to the BH1 and BH2 domains. Bad selectively dimerized with Bcl-xL as well as Bcl-2, but not with Bax, Bcl-xs, Mcl-1, A1, or itself. Bad binds more strongly to Bcl-xL than Bcl-2 in mammalian cells, and it reversed the death repressor activity of Bcl-xL, but not that of Bcl-2. When Bad dimerized with Bcl-xL, Bax was displaced and apoptosis was restored. When approximately half of Bax was heterodimerized, death was inhibited. The susceptibility of a cell to a death signal is determined by these competing dimerizations in which levels of Bad influence the effectiveness of Bcl-2 versus Bcl-xL in repressing death.

  13. Bcl-2 and N-Myc Coexpression Increases IGF-IR and Features of Malignant Growth in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Jasty

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The bcl-2 and c-myc oncogenes cooperate to transform multiple cell types. In the pediatric malignancy NB2, Bcl2 is highly expressed. In tumors with a poor prognosis, N-Myc, a protein homologous to c-Myc, is overexpressed as a result of gene amplification. The present study was designed to determine whether Bcl-2 cooperates with N-Myc to bestow a tumorigenic phenotype to neuroblastoma (NB cells. NB cell lines that at baseline express neither Bcl-2 nor N-Myc were stably transfected to express these gene products. In this model, we found Bcl-2 rescues N-Myc-expressing cells from apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. Coexpression of Bcl-2 and N-Myc supports growth in low serum conditions and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Similarly, in vivo tumorigenic and angiogenic activity was dependent on coexpression. Our data further suggests that the mechanism underlying these changes involves the receptor for insulin growth factor type I (IGF-IR.

  14. The mathematical model of the Bcl-2 family mediated MOMP regulation can perform a non-trivial pattern recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Tokar

    Full Text Available Interactions between individual members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 family of proteins form a regulatory network governing mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP. Bcl-2 family initiated MOMP causes release of the inter-membrane pro-apoptotic proteins to cytosol and creates a cytosolic environment suitable for the executionary phase of apoptosis. We designed the mathematical model of this regulatory network where the synthesis rates of the Bcl-2 family members served as the independent inputs. Using computational simulations, we have then analyzed the response of the model to up-/downregulation of the Bcl-2 proteins. Under several assumptions, and using estimated reaction parameters, a non-linear stimulus-response emerged, whose characteristics are associated with bistability and switch-like behavior. Interestingly, using the principal component analysis (PCA we have shown that the given model of the Bcl-2 family interactions classifies the random combinations of inputs into two distinct classes, and responds to these by one of the two qualitatively distinct outputs. As we showed, the emergence of this behavior requires specific organization of the interactions between particular Bcl-2 proteins.

  15. Inhibition of Bcl-2 potentiates AZD-2014-induced anti-head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Cui, Jiang-Tao, E-mail: cuijingtaopaper@126.com

    2016-09-02

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a therapeutic target for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we evaluated the activity of AZD-2014, a potent mTOR complex 1/2 (mTORC1/2) dual inhibitor, against HNSCC cells. We showed that AZD-2014 blocked mTORC1/2 activation in established and primary human HNSCC cells, where it was anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic. Yet, AZD-2014 was non-cytotoxic to the human oral epithelial cells with low basal mTORC1/2 activation. In an effect to identify possible AZD-2014 resistance factors, we showed that the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 was upregulated in AZD-2014-resistant SQ20B HNSCC cells. Inhibition of Bcl-2 by ABT-737 (a known Bcl-2 inhibitor) or Bcl-2 shRNA dramatically potentiated AZD-2014 lethality against HNSCC cells. On the other hand, exogenous overexpression of Bcl-2 largely attenuated AZD-2014’s activity against HNSCC cells. For the in vivo studies, we showed that oral gavage of AZD-2014 suppressed SQ20B xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. It also significantly improved mice survival. Importantly, AZD-2014’s anti-HNSCC activity in vivo was potentiated with co-administration of ABT-737. The preclinical results of this study suggest that AZD-2014 could be further tested as a valuable anti-HNSCC agent, either alone or in combination with Bcl-2 inhibitors. - Highlights: • AZD-2014 blocks mTORC1/2 activation in HNSCC cells. • AZD-2014 suppresses HNSCC cell proliferation. • AZD-2014 activates caspase-3 and apoptosis in HNSCC cells. • Bcl-2 is the key resistance factor of AZD-2014 in HNSCC cells. • ABT-737 sensitizes AZD-2014-induced anti-HNSCC activity in vivo.

  16. Autophagy blockade sensitizes the anticancer activity of CA-4 via JNK-Bcl-2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yangling; Luo, Peihua; Wang, Jincheng; Dai, Jiabin; Yang, Xiaochun; Wu, Honghai; Yang, Bo, E-mail: yang924@zju.edu.cn; He, Qiaojun, E-mail: qiaojunhe@zju.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) has already entered clinical trials of solid tumors over ten years. However, the limited anticancer activity and dose-dependent toxicity restrict its clinical application. Here, we offered convincing evidence that CA-4 induced autophagy in various cancer cells, which was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the degradation of p62, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence. Interestingly, CA-4-mediated apoptotic cell death was further potentiated by pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) or small interfering RNAs against the autophagic genes (Atg5 and Beclin 1). The enhanced anticancer activity of CA-4 and 3-MA was further confirmed in the SGC-7901 xenograft tumor model. These findings suggested that CA-4-elicited autophagic response played a protective role that impeded the eventual cell death while autophagy inhibition was expected to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy of CA-4. Meanwhile, CA-4 treatment led to phosphorylation/activation of JNK and JNK-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Importantly, JNK inhibitor or JNK siRNA inhibited autophagy but promoted CA-4-induced apoptosis, indicating a key requirement of JNK-Bcl-2 pathway in the activation of autophagy by CA-4. We also identified that pretreatment of Bcl-2 inhibitor (ABT-737) could significantly enhance anticancer activity of CA-4 due to inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, our data suggested that the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway was considered as the critical regulator of CA-4-induced protective autophagy and a potential drug target for chemotherapeutic combination. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibition could be a potential for combretastatin A-4 antitumor efficacy. • The JNK-Bcl-2 pathway plays a critical role in CA-4-induced autophagy. • ABT-737 enhances CA-4 anticancer activity due to inhibition of autophagy.

  17. Association of Bax Expression and Bcl2/Bax Ratio with Clinical and Molecular Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vucicevic Ksenija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, in vivo apoptotic resistance of malignant B lymphocytes results, in part, from the intrinsic defects of their apoptotic machinery. These include genetic alterations and aberrant expression of many apoptosis regulators, among which the Bcl2 family members play a central role.

  18. Autophagy Regulates the Post-Translational Cleavage of BCL-2 and Promotes Neuronal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 is one of the more widely investigated anti-apoptotic protein in mammals, and its levels are critical for protecting from programmed cell death. We report here that the cellular content of BCL-2 is regulated at post-translational level along the autophagy/lysosome pathways in organotypic cultures of post-natal mouse cerebellar cortex. Specifically this mechanism appears to be effective in the cerebellar granule cells (CGCs that are known to undergo massive programmed cell death (apoptosis during post-natal maturation. By the use of specific agonists/antagonist of calcium channels at the endoplasmic reticulum it was possible to understand the pivotal role of calcium release from intracellular stores in CGC neuroprotection. The more general significance of these findings is supported by a very recent study Niemann-Pick transgenic mice.

  19. The effect of AT1 receptor blockade on bax and bcl-2 expression in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Safaeian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and the purpose of the study: Recent studies have indicated the role of apoptosis and angiotensin in the pathogenesis of bleomycin induced-pulmonary fibrosis. Losartan, an angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R antagonist, has ameliorated apoptosis and fibrosis from bleomycin. In this study, alterations in the expression of apoptosis-regulatory genes (bcl-2 and bax were investigated in different cells of lung tissue of mice treated with bleomycin in the presence of losartan. Methods: Losartan (10 mg/kg, i.p. was given to mice two days before administration of bleomycin (3 U/kg and throughout the test period. After two weeks, lung tissues of mice were evaluated for fibrosis by biochemical measurement of collagen deposition and semiquantitative analysis of pathological changes of the lung. The expression of bcl-2 and bax was assessed by immunohistochemical assay using biotin-streptavidin staining method on paraffin-embedded lung tissues. Results and major conclusion: Pre-treatment with losartan significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the increase in lung collagen content and also inhibited the histological changes induced by bleomycin. Immunohistochemical studies showed that losartan significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the bax/bcl-2 expression ratio in the alveolar epithelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and interstitial myofibroblasts. Losartan also inhibited the bcl-2 upregulation which was educed by bleomycin in neutrophils. By reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio as a determinant of susceptibility of a cell to apoptosis, losartan exerted protective effects on the alveolar epithelial cells that may be important in the amelioration of pulmonary fibrosis. These results may help to better understanding of the role of angiotensin II and apoptosis in pulmonary fibrosis.

  20. Structural basis for the conserved binding mechanism of MDM2-inhibiting peptides and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Sung; Ha, Ji-Hyang; Yoon, Ho Sup; Lee, Chong-Kil; Chi, Seung-Wook

    2014-02-28

    The interaction between tumor suppressor p53 and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins serves a critical role in the transcription-independent apoptosis mechanism of p53. Our previous studies showed that an MDM2-inhibiting motif (residues 15-29) in the p53 transactivation domain (p53TAD) mediates the interaction with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In this study, we provided structural models of the complexes between the MDM2-inhibiting p53TAD peptide and Mcl-1, Bcl-w, and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) Bcl-2 using NMR chemical shift perturbation data. The binding mode of the MDM2-inhibiting p53TAD peptide is highly conserved among the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins despite their distinct specificities for pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. We also identified the binding of a phage-display-derived MDM2-inhibiting peptide 12-1 to anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL protein by using NMR spectroscopy. The structural model of the Bcl-XL/12-1 peptide complex revealed that the conserved residues Phe4, Trp8, and Leu11 in the MDM2-inhibiting peptide fit into a hydrophobic cleft of Bcl-XL in a manner similar to that of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) peptides. Our results shed light on the mechanism underlying dual-targeting of the FxxxWxxL-based α-helical motif to MDM2 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins for anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Crystal structure of a BCL-W domain-swapped dimer: implications for the function of BCL-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erinna F; Dewson, Grant; Smith, Brian J; Evangelista, Marco; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Dogovski, Con; Perugini, Matthew A; Colman, Peter M; Fairlie, W Douglas

    2011-10-12

    The prosurvival and proapoptotic proteins of the BCL-2 family share a similar three-dimensional fold despite their opposing functions. However, many biochemical studies highlight the requirement for conformational changes for the functioning of both types of proteins, although structural data to support such changes remain elusive. Here, we describe the X-ray structure of dimeric BCL-W that reveals a major conformational change involving helices α3 and α4 hinging away from the core of the protein. Biochemical and functional studies reveal that the α4-α5 hinge region is required for dimerization of BCL-W, and functioning of both pro- and antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. Hence, this structure reveals a conformational flexibility not seen in previous BCL-2 protein structures and provides insights into how these regulators of apoptosis can change conformation to exert their function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Bcl-2, Bcl-x and Cleaved Caspase-3 in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors and Neurofibromas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARIN S. CUNHA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To study the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, as well the presence of cleaved caspase-3 in neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x and the presence of cleaved caspase 3 were compared to clinicopathological features of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and their impact on survival rates were also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation of Bcl-2, Bcl-x and cleaved caspase-3 was performed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays in 28 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and 38 neurofibromas. Immunoquantification was performed by computerized digital image analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Apoptosis is altered in neurofibromas and mainly in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. High levels of cleaved caspase-3 are more common in tumors with more aggressive histological features and it is associated with lower disease free survival of patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

  3. Bcl-2 protein expression is associated with p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizaki Takashi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental studies have shown that Bcl-2, which has been established as a key player in the control of apoptosis, plays a role in regulating the cell cycle and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Bcl-2 and p27 protein expression, p53 protein expression and the proliferation activity as defined by the MIB-1 counts. The prognostic implication of Bcl-2 protein expression in relation to p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts for breast cancer was also evaluated. Methods The immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 protein was evaluated in a series of 249 invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast, in which p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts had been determined previously. Results The Bcl-2 protein expression was found to be decreased in 105 (42% cases. A decreased Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly correlated with a nuclear grade of III, a negative estrogen receptor, a decreased p27 protein expression, a positive p53 protein expression, positive MIB-1 counts and a positive HER2 protein expression. The incidence of a nuclear grade of III and positive MIB-1 counts increased as the number of abnormal findings of Bcl-2, p27 and p53 protein expressions increased. A univariate analysis indicated a decreased Bcl-2 protein expression to be significantly (p = 0.0089 associated with a worse disease free survival (DFS, while a multivariate analysis indicated the lymph node status and MIB-1 counts to be independently significant prognostic factors for the DFS. Conclusion The Bcl-2 protein expression has a close correlation with p27 and p53 protein expressions and the proliferation activity determined by MIB-1 counts in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The prognostic value of Bcl-2 as well as p27 and p53 protein expressions was dependent on the proliferation activity in breast cancer.

  4. Identification of a novel senolytic agent, navitoclax, targeting the Bcl-2 family of anti-apoptotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Tchkonia, Tamara; Fuhrmann-Stroissnigg, Heike; Dai, Haiming M; Ling, Yuanyuan Y; Stout, Michael B; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Giorgadze, Nino; Johnson, Kurt O; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Robbins, Paul D; Kirkland, James L

    2016-06-01

    Clearing senescent cells extends healthspan in mice. Using a hypothesis-driven bioinformatics-based approach, we recently identified pro-survival pathways in human senescent cells that contribute to their resistance to apoptosis. This led to identification of dasatinib (D) and quercetin (Q) as senolytics, agents that target some of these pathways and induce apoptosis preferentially in senescent cells. Among other pro-survival regulators identified was Bcl-xl. Here, we tested whether the Bcl-2 family inhibitors, navitoclax (N) and TW-37 (T), are senolytic. Like D and Q, N is senolytic in some, but not all types of senescent cells: N reduced viability of senescent human umbilical vein epithelial cells (HUVECs), IMR90 human lung fibroblasts, and murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but not human primary preadipocytes, consistent with our previous finding that Bcl-xl siRNA is senolytic in HUVECs, but not preadipocytes. In contrast, T had little senolytic activity. N targets Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Bcl-w, while T targets Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Mcl-1. The combination of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Bcl-w siRNAs was senolytic in HUVECs and IMR90 cells, while combination of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Mcl-1 siRNAs was not. Susceptibility to N correlated with patterns of Bcl-2 family member proteins in different types of human senescent cells, as has been found in predicting response of cancers to N. Thus, N is senolytic and acts in a potentially predictable cell type-restricted manner. The hypothesis-driven, bioinformatics-based approach we used to discover that dasatinib (D) and quercetin (Q) are senolytic can be extended to increase the repertoire of senolytic drugs, including additional cell type-specific senolytic agents. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bcl-XL is qualitatively different from and ten times more effective than Bcl-2 when expressed in a breast cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leber Brian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are anti-apoptotic paralogues that inhibit apoptosis elicited by a wide variety of stimuli, and play critical roles in cancer development and resistance to treatment. Many clinical studies have indicated that expression of these anti-apoptotic proteins in tumours is associated with poor prognosis. It has therefore been assumed that in cells the essential difference between Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL involves regulation of expression and that they are otherwise functionally similar. To examine this issue, we have compared the function of the proteins and of mutants of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL specifically targeted to different subcellular sites. Methods We generated clones of the human breast cancer line MCF-7 stably expressing known amounts of Bcl-2, or Bcl-XL as determined by quantitative immunoblotting. Clones expressing equivalent amounts of wild-type and mutants of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL with subcellular localization restricted to the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum or outer mitochondrial membrane were studied in both MCF-7 and Rat-1 fibroblasts. In MCF-7 cells we measured the functional activities of these proteins in preventing apoptosis induced by four different agents (doxorubicin, ceramide, thapsigargin, TNF-α. Etoposide and low serum were used to compare the effect of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and mutants located at the endoplasmic reticulum on induction of apoptosis in fibroblasts. Results We noted both qualitative and quantitative differences in the functional activity of these two anti-apoptotic proteins in cells: Bcl-2 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum inhibits apoptosis induced by ceramide and thapsigargin but not by doxorubicin or TNFα, while Bcl-XL at the endoplasmic reticulum is active against all four drugs. In fibroblasts Bcl-2 localized to the ER did not prevent cell death due to etoposide whereas Bcl-XL in the same location did. Finally in MCF-7 cells, Bcl-XL is approximately ten times more active than Bcl-2 in

  6. Regulation of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 Expression in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Cells by Abrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramnath

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of abrin, a toxic lectin isolated from seeds of Abrus precatorius Linn in inducing apoptosis in murine Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA cells was evaluated. Abrin when incubated at the concentration of 10 ng per million DLA cells could bring about cell death as typical morphological changes with apoptosis. However, necrotic cell death dominated when a higher dose of abrin was used. DNA samples, isolated from DLA cells treated with abrin showed fragmentation. Abrin brought about induction of apoptosis by stimulating the expression of pro-apoptotic Caspase-3, at the same time blocking the expression of Bcl-2, which is an anti apoptotic gene. However, the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 has not been observed in control and abrin-treated DLA cells. Results suggested that abrin effectively induced apoptotic changes in the tumor cells that led to cellular death.

  7. Expressão das proteínas BCL-2 e BAX em tumores astrocíticos humanos Expression of BCL-2 and BAX proteins in human astrocytic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique Girão Faria

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os astrocitomas constituem os mais freqüentes tumores primários do sistema nervoso central (SNC. Admite-se que parte do crescimento tumoral seja resultante da inibição da morte celular programada: a apoptose. Tal fenômeno é basicamente regulado pelo equilíbrio entre moléculas antiapoptóticas (ex.: B-cell lymphoma protein 2 [BCL-2] e pró-apoptóticas (ex.: BCL-2 associated protein X [BAX]. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a expressão de BCL-2 e BAX em tumores astrocíticos humanos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se ao estudo imuno-histoquímico dessas proteínas utilizando-se o método da avidina-biotina-peroxidase em 55 astrocitomas (13 do grau I, 14 do II, sete do III e 21 do grau IV e cinco amostras de tecido cerebral não-tumoral (grupo controle. RESULTADOS: Os índices de positividade para BCL-2 e BAX demonstraram propensão ao acréscimo, de acordo com a gradação tumoral, com positividade geral de 43,26% e 24,67%, respectivamente. Essas proteínas não foram detectadas entre os espécimes não-tumorais. Os escores de marcação para BCL-2 apresentaram tendência ao aumento conforme a progressão histológica, enquanto os para BAX mostraram-se semelhantes nas diversas graduações. A análise conjunta dessas proteínas demonstrou significativa correlação com a gradação tumoral (p BACKGROUND: Astrocytomas represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system. Admittedly, part of tumor growth is due to inhibition of programmed cell death: the apoptosis. This phenomenon is basically regulated by the balance between anti-apoptotic (e.g.: B-cell lymphoma protein 2 [BCL-2] and pro-apoptotic (e.g.: BCL-2 associated protein X [BAX] molecules. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of BCL-2 and BAX in human astrocytic tumors of different histopathological grades. MATERIAL AND METHOD: An immunohistochemical study of those proteins using the avidin

  8. Safflor yellow B suppresses angiotensin II-mediated human umbilical vein cell injury via regulation of Bcl-2/p22{sup phox} expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaoyun; He, Yanhao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Disease, Ministry of Education, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Yang, Ming; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Shuping [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Wang, Chunhua, E-mail: chunhuawang2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can cause endothelial dysfunction by promoting intracellular ROS generation. Safflor yellow B (SYB) effectively inhibits ROS generation by upregulating Bcl-2 expression. In this study, we examined the effects of SYB on Ang II-induced injury to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and elucidated the roles of NADPH oxidase and Bcl-2. We treated cultured HUVECs with Ang II, SYB, and Bcl-2 siRNA, and determined NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels. Furthermore, cellular and mitochondrial physiological states were evaluated, and the expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Ang II significantly enhanced intracellular ROS levels, caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and decreased cell viability, leading to apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of AT1R and p22{sup phox}, increased NADPH oxidase activity, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, leading to decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities, which were further strengthened after blocking Bcl-2. Compared to Ang II treatment alone, co-treatment with SYB significantly reversed HUVEC injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SYB could significantly protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced cell damage, and that it does so by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting ROS generation. - Highlights: • Angiotensin II depresses mitochondria physiological function. • Angiotensin II activates NADPH oxidase via up-regulating expresion of p22{sup phox}. • Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in improving mitochondria function and regulates ROS level. • Inhibitor of Bcl-2 promotes angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury. • SYB attenuates angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury via up regulating Bcl-2 expression.

  9. MRP- and BCL-2-mediated drug resistance in human SCLC: effects of apoptotic sphingolipids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadian, M; Leroux, M E; Auzenne, E; Ghosh, S C; Farquhar, D; Evans, R; Spohn, W; Zou, Y; Klostergaard, J

    2009-10-01

    Multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) and BCL-2 contribute to drug resistance expressed in SCLC. To establish whether MRP-mediated drug resistance affects sphingolipid (SL)-induced apoptosis in SCLC, we first examined the human SCLC cell line, UMCC-1, and its MRP over-expressing, drug-resistant subline, UMCC-1/VP. Despite significantly decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin (Dox) and to the etoposide, VP-16, the drug-selected line was essentially equally as sensitive to treatment with exogenous ceramide (Cer), sphingosine (Sp) or dimethyl-sphingosine (DMSP) as the parental line. Next, we observed that high BCL-2-expressing human H69 SCLC cells, that were approximately 160-fold more sensitive to Dox than their combined BCL-2 and MRP-over-expressing (H69AR) counterparts, were only approximately 5-fold more resistant to DMSP. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of either UMCC cell line treated with DMSP-Coumarin revealed comparable extents and kinetics of SL uptake, further ruling out MRP-mediated effects on drug uptake. DMSP potentiated the cytotoxic activity of VP-16 and Taxol, but not Dox, in drug-resistant UMCC-1/VP cells. However, this sensitization did not appear to involve DMSP-mediated effects on the function of MRP in drug export; nor did DMSP strongly shift the balance of pro-apoptotic Sps and anti-apoptotic Sp-1-Ps in these cells. We conclude that SL-induced apoptosis markedly overcomes or bypasses MRP-mediated drug resistance relevant to SCLC and may suggest a novel therapeutic approach to chemotherapy for these tumors.

  10. Upregulation of Bcl-2 at the foetal-maternal interface from mice undergoing abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoja, A Zambon; Zenclussen, M L; Wollenberg, I; Paeschke, S; Sollwedel, A; Gerlof, K; Woiciechowsky, C; Volk, H-D; Zenclussen, A C

    2005-06-01

    Several burning questions remain unanswered in pregnancy-related research. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines orchestrate an intriguing interaction leading either to the development of a normal individual or to its rejection. Augmented Th1 cytokines' production is involved in immunological rejection of the foetus. Excessive production of Th1 cytokines, particularly of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, also triggers apoptosis. Thus, in the present work we investigated the incidence of apoptosis in a well-known experimental model of Th1-induced abortion, characterized by increased local TNF-alpha levels. Apoptosis of lymphocytes as well as their Th1 and Th2 cytokine production were analysed by flow cytometry. TNF-alpha mRNA levels were additionally analysed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in placental and decidual samples. Total placental apoptosis activity was investigated by measuring caspase-3 activity and by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end label staining. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real time RT-PCR were used to localize and quantify several anti- and pro-apoptotic molecules at the foetal-maternal interface. Despite elevated Th1 levels at the foetal-maternal interface, mice undergoing abortion presented comparable apoptotic rates. Interestingly, we found a significant upregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein at the foetal-maternal interface from abortion-prone mice, while no changes could be observed for pro-apoptotic molecules. In the light of our results, we conclude that there is no evidence of increased apoptosis in mice undergoing immunological abortion in spite of elevated TNF-alpha levels. This is probably due to a selective upregulation of anti-apoptotic pathways (i.e. Bcl-2) at the foetal-maternal interface as a compensatory and/or protective mechanism.

  11. Lack of Bcl-2 expression in follicular lymphoma may be caused by mutations in the BCL2 gene or by absence of the t(14;18) translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraders, M; de Jong, D; Kluin, P; Groenen, PC; van Krieken, H

    Follicular lymphoma (FL), except grade 3B, is characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21), which results in over-expression of the Bcl-2 protein. Ten per-cent of all FLs, however, do not show Bcl-2 protein expression with standard immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal Bcl-2

  12. Cif (Cytochrome c efflux-inducing factor) activity is regulated by Bcl-2 and caspases and correlates with the activation of Bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z; Bhalla, K; Pantazis, P; Hendrickson, E A; Wyche, J H

    1999-02-01

    The cytosolic factor Cif (cytochrome c-efflux inducing factor) was activated by the apoptosis inducers staurosporine and anti-Fas antibodies and rapidly induced the efflux of cytochrome c from purified human mitochondria. HL-60 cells that stably overexpressed a bcl-2 cDNA transgene (Bcl-2:HL-60 cells) contained mitochondria and a cytosol that were resistant to exogenous Cif and that lacked detectable endogenous Cif activity, respectively. Therefore, Bcl-2 overexpression negated Cif activity and suggested that the requirement for Cif resides upstream of Bcl-2 on the apoptotic signal transduction pathway. The addition of purified caspase 3, caspase 7, or caspase 8 to the cytosolic extract from Bcl-2:HL-60 cells, however, restored Cif activity, demonstrating that the inhibition of Cif by Bcl-2 overexpression could be overcome by activated caspases. Moreover, the addition of purified caspases to cytosolic extracts prepared from parental HL-60 cells was also sufficient to cause Cif activation, suggesting that caspases might be required for Cif activation. Consistent with these observations, Fas-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells resulted in caspase 8 activation and subsequently in activation of Cif. Finally, we demonstrate that the activation of Cif correlated with the activation of the Bcl-2 family member Bid by caspases and that Cif activity was selectively neutralized by anti-Bid antibodies. Taken together, these results indicate that Cif is identical to Bid and that it can be inhibited by Bcl-2 and activated by caspases. Thus, Cif (Bid) is an important biological regulator for the transduction of apoptotic signals.

  13. Pokemon reduces Bcl-2 expression through NF-κ Bp65: A possible mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinkai; Ning, Qiaoming; Sun, Xiaoning; Tian, De'an

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relationship among Pokemon, NF-κ B p65 and Bcl-2 in hepatoma cells. HCC cell HepG2, SMMC7721 and human fetal liver cell line LO2 cells were used, and expression of Pokemon, NF-κ B p65 and Bcl-2 in three cells were detected by real-time PCR and western blot. Then siRNA of Pokemon was applied to inhibit the expression of Pokemon and NF-κ B p65 and apoptotic rate was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Expressions of Pokemon, NF-κ B p65 and Bcl-2 in human hepatoma cell HepG2, SMMC7721 expression were significantly higher than those in human embryonic stem cells LO2. siRNA of Pokemon inhibited the expression of Pokemon, NF-κ B p65 and Bcl-2 in liver cancer cells, and significantly increased apoptosis of liver cells. While siRNA of NF-κ B p65 inhibited the expression of NF-κ B p65 and Bcl-2, but Pokemon expression in hepatoma cells had no significant change. The proto-oncogene Pokemon can inhibit P14ARF by specific transcription regulation of cell cycle and can induce tumors. In addition, Pokemon can regulate NF-κ B p65 through the expression of apoptosis repressor, and promote the development of liver cancer. It suggests signal network in the liver include the regulation of new non-classical NF-κ B regulatory pathway. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Berberine alleviates preeclampsia possibly by regulating the expression of interleukin-2/interleukin-10 and Bcl-2/Bax

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ailan; Liu, Qingcui; Zhang, Jin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The present study is to investigate the effect of berberine on the expression of inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10, and the expression of apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Bax. A total of 70 SD rats were randomly divided into 7 equal groups, including normal non-pregnant group, normal pregnant group, preeclampsia group, preeclampsia + berberine (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) groups, and preeclampsia + nifedipine (20 mg/kg/day) group. Blood pressure was measured before pregnancy, and ...

  15. Flavopiridol induces BCL-2 expression and represses oncogenic transcription factors in leukemic blasts from adults with refractory acute myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Dwella M.; Joseph, Biju; Hillion, Joelle; Segal, Jodi; Karp, Judith E.; Resar, Linda M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and clinical responses in selected patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A better understanding of the molecular pathways targeted by flavopiridol is needed to design optimal combinatorial therapy. Here, we report that in vivo administration of flavopiridol induced expression of the BCL-2 anti-apoptotic gene in leukemic blasts from adult patients with refractory AML. Moreover, flavopiridol rep...

  16. A novel checkpoint in the Bcl-2–regulated apoptotic pathway revealed by murine cytomegalovirus infection of dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Andoniou, Christopher E.; Andrews, Daniel M.; Manzur, Mitali; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A.

    2004-01-01

    Infection with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has contributed to understanding many aspects of human infection and, additionally, has provided important insight to understanding complex cellular responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a major target for MCMV infection. Here, we analyze the effects of MCMV infection on DC viability, and show that infected DCs become resistant to apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation. The precise contribution of changes in the expression of Bcl-2 family pr...

  17. miR-125b and miR-155 contribute to BCL2 repression and proliferation in response to CD40 ligand (CD154) in human leukemic B-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimott, Shaun; Wagner, Simon D

    2012-01-20

    Developmental stage-specific regulation of BCL2 occurs during B-cell maturation and has a role in normal immunity. CD40 signaling promotes proliferation and rescues B-cells from apoptosis, partly through induction of BCL2L1 and BCL2A1 and repression of BCL2. We previously showed that a stromal cell/CD40 ligand (CD154) culture system reproduced this switch in survival protein expression in primary human leukemic B-cells and we employed this model system to investigate BCL2 repression. BCL2 was post-transcriptionally regulated and the repressed BCL2 mRNA was associated with non-polysomal, but dense fractions on sucrose density gradients. Microarrays identified a set of miRNA that were induced by culture conditions and potentially able to bind to the BCL2 3'-UTR. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-125b and miR-155 repressed BCL2 mRNA but while stromal cell contact alone was sufficient to induce strongly miR-125b this did not cause BCL2 repression. miR-155, which is the most abundant miRNA under basal conditions, specifically required CD154 for further induction above a threshold to exert its full repressive effects. Anti-miR-125b and anti-miR-155 prevented CD154-mediated repression of BCL2 and reduced CD154-mediated proliferation in the MEC1 B-cell line. We suggest that miR-155 and miR-125b, which are induced by CD154 and stromal cell signals, contribute to regulating proliferation and that BCL2 is one of their target mRNAs.

  18. miR-125b and miR-155 Contribute to BCL2 Repression and Proliferation in Response to CD40 Ligand (CD154) in Human Leukemic B-cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimott, Shaun; Wagner, Simon D.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental stage-specific regulation of BCL2 occurs during B-cell maturation and has a role in normal immunity. CD40 signaling promotes proliferation and rescues B-cells from apoptosis, partly through induction of BCL2L1 and BCL2A1 and repression of BCL2. We previously showed that a stromal cell/CD40 ligand (CD154) culture system reproduced this switch in survival protein expression in primary human leukemic B-cells and we employed this model system to investigate BCL2 repression. BCL2 was post-transcriptionally regulated and the repressed BCL2 mRNA was associated with non-polysomal, but dense fractions on sucrose density gradients. Microarrays identified a set of miRNA that were induced by culture conditions and potentially able to bind to the BCL2 3′-UTR. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-125b and miR-155 repressed BCL2 mRNA but while stromal cell contact alone was sufficient to induce strongly miR-125b this did not cause BCL2 repression. miR-155, which is the most abundant miRNA under basal conditions, specifically required CD154 for further induction above a threshold to exert its full repressive effects. Anti-miR-125b and anti-miR-155 prevented CD154-mediated repression of BCL2 and reduced CD154-mediated proliferation in the MEC1 B-cell line. We suggest that miR-155 and miR-125b, which are induced by CD154 and stromal cell signals, contribute to regulating proliferation and that BCL2 is one of their target mRNAs. PMID:22139839

  19. Hypoxia upregulates Bcl-2 expression and suppresses interferon-gamma induced antiangiogenic activity in human tumor derived endothelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Jiang Huai

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxia in solid tumors potentially stimulates angiogenesis by promoting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and upregulating VEGF receptor expression. However, it is unknown whether hypoxia can modulate the effect of anti-angiogenic treatment on tumor-derived endothelium. METHODS: Human tumor-derived endothelial cells (HTDEC) were freshly isolated from surgically removed human colorectal tumors by collagenase\\/DNase digestion and Percol gradient sedimentation. Cell proliferation was assessed by measuring BrdU incorporation, and capillary tube formation was measured using Matrigel. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and ELISA, and Bcl-2 expression was detected by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Under aerobic culture conditions (5% CO2 plus 21% O2) HTDEC expressed less Bcl-2 and were more susceptible to IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis with significant reductions in both cell proliferation and capillary tube formation, when compared with normal human macrovascular and microvascular EC. Following exposure of HTDEC to hypoxia (5% CO2 plus 2% O2), IFN-gamma-induced cell apoptosis, and antiangiogenic activity (i.e. an inhibition in cell proliferation and capillary tube formation) in HTDEC were markedly attenuated. This finding correlated with hypoxia-induced upregulation of Bcl-2 expression in HTDEC. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that hypoxia can protect HTDEC against IFN-gamma-mediated cell death and antiangiogenic activity, and suggest that improvement of tumor oxygenation may potentiate the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies specifically targeting the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.

  20. Glutathione and Bcl-2 targeting facilitates elimination by chemoradiotherapy of human A375 melanoma xenografts overexpressing bcl-xl, bcl-2, and mcl-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bcl-2 is believed to contribute to melanoma chemoresistance. However, expression of Bcl-2 proteins may be different among melanomas. Thus correlations among expression of Bcl-2-related proteins and in vivo melanoma progression, and resistance to combination therapies, was investigated. Methods Human A375 melanoma was injected s.c. into immunodeficient nude mice. Protein expression was studied in tumor samples obtained by laser microdisection. Transfection of siRNA or ectopic overexpression were applied to manipulate proteins which are up- or down-regulated, preferentially, during melanoma progression. Anti-bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides and chemoradiotherapy (glutathione-depleting agents, paclitaxel protein-binding particles, daunorubicin, X rays were administered in combination. Results In vivo A375 cells down-regulated pro-apoptotic bax expression; and up-regulated anti-apoptotic bcl-2, bcl-xl, and mcl-1, however only Bcl-2 appeared critical for long-term tumor cell survival and progression in vivo. Reduction of Bcl-2, combined with partial therapies, decreased melanoma growth. But only Bcl-2 targeting plus the full combination of chemoradiotherapy eradicated A375 melanoma, and led to long-term survival (> 120 days without recurrence in 80% of mice. Tumor regression was not due to immune stimulation. Hematology and clinical chemistry data were within accepted clinical toxicities. Conclusion Strategies to target Bcl-2, may increase the effectiveness of antitumor therapies against melanomas overexpressing Bcl-2 and likely other Bcl-2-related antiapoptotic proteins.

  1. BIM and other BCL-2 family proteins exhibit cross-species conservation of function between zebrafish and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, CA; Flanagan, AM; Ryan, J; Pyati, UJ; Carbonneau, S; Stewart, RA; Langenau, DM; Look, AT; Letai, A

    2011-01-01

    Here we investigate the function of zebrafish Bcl-2 family proteins and demonstrate important conservation of function across zebrafish and mammalian systems. We have isolated a zebrafish ortholog of mammalian BIM and show that it is the most toxic of the zebrafish BH3-only genes examined, sharing this characteristic with the mammalian BIM gene. The zebrafish bad gene shows a complete lack of embryonic lethality, but like mammalian BAD, its pro-apoptotic activity is regulated through phosphorylation of critical serines. We also found that the pattern of mitochondrial dysfunction observed by zebrafish BH3 domain peptides in a mammalian cytochrome c release assay recapitulates the pattern of embryonic lethality induced by the respective mRNA injections in vivo. In contrast to zebrafish Bim, Bid exhibited only weak binding to zebrafish Bcl-2 and moderate-to-weak overall lethality in zebrafish embryos and isolated mitochondria. Given that zebrafish Bcl-2 binds strongly to mammalian BID and BIM peptides and proteins, the protein identified as the zebrafish Bid ortholog has different properties than mammalian BID. Overall, our results demonstrate the high degree of functional conservation between zebrafish and mammalian Bcl-2 family proteins, thus validating the zebrafish as a model system to further dissect the molecular mechanisms that regulate apoptosis in future forward genetic and chemical modifier screens. PMID:18404156

  2. Changes in expression of bcl-2 and bax in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells exposed to ZnCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, M A; Rast, C; Pagnout, C; Vasseur, P

    2005-02-01

    Zinc is involved in many physiological processes and plays a critical role in functional and structural cells. Zinc at concentrations ranging from 100 to 150 micromol L(-1) has been shown to induce morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. At these concentrations, zinc inhibited apoptosis in SHE cells. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action of zinc on the apoptotic pathway. Effects of 100 and 150 micromol L(-1) ZnCl(2) on the expression of two members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins and on the transcription factor c-Myc in SHE cells was investigated using RT-PCR. No effect on the proto-oncogene c-myc was observed. Up-regulation of bcl-2 expression was found and bax expression was reduced. These changes have been corroborated by immunoblotting. Effects of Zn(2+) on bcl-2/bax ratio were confirmed in apoptotic camptothecin-treated SHE cells. Cloned and sequenced cDNAs obtained from RT-PCR amplifications allowed us to check the RT-PCR products encoded the expected proteins. This study demonstrated that zinc acts in the early phases of the apoptotic process by modification of the bcl-2/bax ratio in normal and apoptotic SHE cells.

  3. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits the Proliferation of Renal Carcinoma Cell Line GRC-1 by Inducing an Imbalance Between Bcl2 and Bax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongyong; Liu, Xi; Chang, Kai; Liu, Xia; Xiong, Jie

    2016-11-10

    BACKGROUND Because of the insensitivity of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery remains the primary approach for anticancer treatment. However, patients who do not receive timely diagnoses may not be suitable for surgery, especially in the late phase of tumor development. Thus, the discovery of novel effective treatment is of great importance. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) can inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in many cancer cells. In this paper, we report on an in vitro study to determine the effect of AITC on proliferation and apoptosis of RCC line GRC-1. MATERIAL AND METHODS CCK8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation under gradient concentrations of AITC. Flow cytometry was employed to evaluate cell apoptosis. Real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction quantified mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl-2 genes. Western blotting was further employed for protein expression assay. RESULTS AITC inhibited GRC-1 cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner; it also elevated Bax while suppressing Bcl-2 gene expression at both mRNA and protein levels. In general, increasing concentration of AITC decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. CONCLUSIONS The inhibitory effect of AITC on GRC-1 cells is exerted via cell apoptosis, in which the imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax plays a significant role.

  4. Molecular docking studies of bioactive compounds from Annona muricata Linn as potential inhibitors for Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Rosdi, Mohamad Norisham; Mohd Arif, Shahkila; Abu Bakar, Mohamad Hafizi; Razali, Siti Aisyah; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden; Ya'akob, Harisun

    2018-01-01

    Annona muricata Linn or usually identified as soursop is a potential anticancer plant that has been widely reported to contain valuable chemopreventive agents known as annonaceous acetogenins. The antiproliferative and anticancer activities of this tropical and subtropical plant have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal studies. A. muricata L. exerts inhibition against numerous types of cancer cells, involving multiple mechanism of actions such as apoptosis, a programmed cell death that are mainly regulated by Bcl-2 family of proteins. Nonetheless, the binding mode and the molecular interactions of the plant's bioactive constituents have not yet been unveiled for most of these mechanisms. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the binding interaction of ten bioactive phytochemicals of A. muricata L. to three Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 using an in silico molecular docking analysis software, Autodock 4.2. The stability of the complex with highest affinity was evaluated using MD simulation. We compared the docking analysis of these substances with pre-clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor namely obatoclax. The study identified the potential chemopreventive agent among the bioactive compounds. We also characterized the important interacting residues of protein targets which involve in the binding interaction. Results displayed that anonaine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, showed a high affinity towards the Bcl-2, thus indicating that this compound is a potent inhibitor of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic family of proteins.

  5. Proapoptotic activity of ITM2B(s), a BH3-only protein induced upon IL-2-deprivation which interacts with Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Aarne; Ayllón, Verónica; Dumoutier, Laure; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Rebollo, Angelita

    2002-05-09

    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to induce apoptosis. We used an IL-2-dependent murine T cell line to identify proteins that trigger apoptosis. Here we report the identification, the cloning and characterization of ITM2B(s), a protein induced upon IL-2-deprivation. ITM2B(s), which shares the BH3 domain of Bcl-2 family members, is a cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein. Expression of ITM2B(s) induces apoptosis in IL-2-stimulated cells, but not in IL-4-stimulated cells, while overexpression of the long form of the protein is not able to induce apoptosis. In IL-2-stimulated cells, ITM2B(s) interacts with the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, and does not interact with the proapoptotic Bad. Mutation of the critical L and D residues within the BH3 domain abolished the ability of ITM2B(s) to promote apoptosis.

  6. BET inhibition silences expression of MYCN and BCL2 and induces cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma tumor models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Wyce

    Full Text Available BET family proteins are epigenetic regulators known to control expression of genes involved in cell growth and oncogenesis. Selective inhibitors of BET proteins exhibit potent anti-proliferative activity in a number of hematologic cancer models, in part through suppression of the MYC oncogene and downstream Myc-driven pathways. However, little is currently known about the activity of BET inhibitors in solid tumor models, and whether down-regulation of MYC family genes contributes to sensitivity. Here we provide evidence for potent BET inhibitor activity in neuroblastoma, a pediatric solid tumor associated with a high frequency of MYCN amplifications. We treated a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines with a novel small molecule inhibitor of BET proteins, GSK1324726A (I-BET726, and observed potent growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in most cell lines irrespective of MYCN copy number or expression level. Gene expression analyses in neuroblastoma cell lines suggest a role of BET inhibition in apoptosis, signaling, and N-Myc-driven pathways, including the direct suppression of BCL2 and MYCN. Reversal of MYCN or BCL2 suppression reduces the potency of I-BET726-induced cytotoxicity in a cell line-specific manner; however, neither factor fully accounts for I-BET726 sensitivity. Oral administration of I-BET726 to mouse xenograft models of human neuroblastoma results in tumor growth inhibition and down-regulation MYCN and BCL2 expression, suggesting a potential role for these genes in tumor growth. Taken together, our data highlight the potential of BET inhibitors as novel therapeutics for neuroblastoma, and suggest that sensitivity is driven by pleiotropic effects on cell growth and apoptotic pathways in a context-specific manner.

  7. [Effects of compound Daqiqi decoction combined cisplatin on Bcl-2/Bax expression of nude mice ovarian cancer subcutaneous transplanted tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang-bojun; Wang, Shuang; Li, Shu; Chen, Rong

    2015-04-01

    To determine the compound Daqiqi decoction( CDQD) combined cisplatin plays on the cell apoptosis of subcutaneous transplanted ovarian cancer in nude mice, to provide theory evidence for clinical treatment. Making the models of subcutaneous transplanted ovarian cancer in nude mice, and divide the 40 mice with tumor into 5 groups (n = 8), the model control group, CDQD low dosed group, CDQD high dosed group, cisplatin group, cisplatin combined CDQD group, killing all the mice after 3 weeks' treatment and stripping tumors. Measure the volume and weight of the tumor and calculate tumor growth curve damps, the inhibition rate. Examining the expression of the Bcl-2(B-cell leukemia /lymphoma 2) and Bax (Bcl-2 associated x protein) mRNA and protein by the RT-PCR and the Western blot. (O)The tumor weight shows that there was certain lighter effect in each CDQD group, and compared with cisplatin groups has no statistical significance, the cisplatin combined CDQD group is obviously lighter than that of the other group(P curve damps shows that compared with model control group, the treatment group tumors had some extent narrowing (P < 0.01). (2) RT-PCR results: Bax (Bcl-2 associated x protein) mRNA expression shows that compared with model control group, the treatment group has increased (P < 0.01), and the cisplatin combined CDQD group compared with the other group is the highest, there was significant difference with the rest of the treatment group (P < 0.01). In the Bcl-2 mRNA express lowest in cisplatin combined CDQD group (P < 0.01), there has no difference between CDQD high dose group and cisplatin group. (Western blot shows: compared with model control group, the Bax protein of treatment group has increased expression (P < 0.01), the expression of Bax protein in cisplatin combined CDQD group is the highest(P < 0.01). There has no difference between CDQD high dose group and cisplatin group. The Bcl-2 protein expression of the cisplatin combined CDQD group is the lowest (P

  8. Differential expression of miR-17∼92 identifies BCL2 as a therapeutic target in BCR-ABL-positive B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, M; Elder, A; Battmer, K; Barzan, D; Bomken, S; Ricke-Hoch, M; Schröder, A; Venturini, L; Blair, H J; Vormoor, J; Ottmann, O; Ganser, A; Pich, A; Hilfiker-Kleiner, D; Heidenreich, O; Eder, M

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, BCR-ABL-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) remains a high-risk disease, necessitating the development of novel treatment strategies. As the known oncomir, miR-17∼92, is regulated by BCR-ABL fusion in chronic myeloid leukaemia, we investigated its role in BCR-ABL translocated ALL. miR-17∼92-encoded miRNAs were significantly less abundant in BCR-ABL-positive as compared to -negative ALL-cells and overexpression of miR-17∼19b triggered apoptosis in a BCR-ABL-dependent manner. Stable isotope labelling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) identified several apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl2 as potential targets of miR-17∼19b. We validated Bcl2 as a direct target of this miRNA cluster in mice and humans, and, similar to miR-17∼19b overexpression, Bcl2-specific RNAi strongly induced apoptosis in BCR-ABL-positive cells. Furthermore, BCR-ABL-positive human ALL cell lines were more sensitive to pharmacological BCL2 inhibition than negative ones. Finally, in a xenograft model using patient-derived leukaemic blasts, real-time, in vivo imaging confirmed pharmacological inhibition of BCL2 as a new therapeutic strategy in BCR-ABL-positive ALL. These data demonstrate the role of miR-17∼92 in regulation of apoptosis, and identify BCL2 as a therapeutic target of particular relevance in BCR-ABL-positive ALL. PMID:24280866

  9. The effect of nickel as a nickel chromium restoration corrosion product on gingival fibroblast through analysis of BCl-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX Ady Soesetijo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restoration of NiCr may undergo corrosion process in artificial saliva. Corrosion product is soluble Ni substances in salivary electrolytes. Ni2+ may freely enter the cells through passive transport DMT-1. Ni2+ in the cell causes initiation of the ROS formation,which subsequently can conduct the redoxs reactions leading to DNA damage. The damage DNA affects the genetic expression, especially bcl-2, and even triggers apoptosis. Purpose: The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanism of Ni toxicity as a corrosion product of NiCr restoration on gingival fibroblasts through expression analysis of Bcl-2. Methods: Cells with a density of 105 planted on each coverslip in 72 wells to the treatment group and 24 wells to the control group (24 hours incubation. In the treatment groups, each well exposed with 20 μL artificial saliva containing Ni concentration results immerse each restoration, whereas the control group was exposed to 20 μL artificial saliva (incubation 1, 3, and 7 days. The data collected were subsequently analyzed using two-ways ANOVA, followed by one-way ANOVA. Comparing between experimental groups after one-way ANOVA was conducted using Fisher’s LSD. Whereas, the calculation and documentation of Bcl-2 expression was performed camera of Olympus Microscope BX-50 Japan. Results: Statistical analysis of two-ways ANOVA showed the presence of interaction between the increasing Ni concentration and exposure duration on the expression of Bcl-2 gingival fibroblasts (p=0.021Bcl-2 expression.Latar belakang: Restorasi NiCr dapat mengalami proses korosi di dalam saliva artificial. Produk korosi yang dihasilkan adalah substansi Ni yang terlarut di dalam elektrolit saliva. Ni2+ bebas dapat memasuki sel (fibroblas gingiva melalui transport pasif DMT-1. Ni2+ di dalam sel

  10. Increase in Bcl2 expression of penile and prostate cells of Sprague Dawley male rats following treatment with buceng (combination of Pimpinella alpina molk with Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with buceng combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Pimpinella alpine Molk has been proven to increase testosterone level, decrease apoptosis and caspase3 expression. Bcl2 is an antiapoptotic protein found in cytoplasm which inhibits cells apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of buceng on Bcl2 expression on penile and prostate tissues of the rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats of 90 days old, weighing ± 300 grams, were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A, normal rats. Group B, castrated rats and treated with buceng 100 mg/day, per oral (Cast-Bcg; Group C, castrated rats and treated with 2 ml of water as placebo against buceng (Cast-Plac. Group D, castrated rats, treated with mesterolone 6.75 mg/day, per oral, as exogenous testosterone (Cast-Mest. All rats were treated for 30 days. Manova test was used to analyze the different expression of Bcl2 among groups with significance level at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Castration was associated with significant decrease of Bcl2 expression in the penile and prostate tissues (53.0 and 50.9%, respectively compared to normal rats (82.6 and 84.2%, respectively, p < 0.001. Treatment with mesterolone reversed Bcl2 expression (77.1 and 78.1% to a near normal level. The same level of Bcl2 expression was also observed with buceng treatment (73.8 and 78.2%.Conclusion: The treatment with buceng could enhance Bcl2 expression in penile and prostate tissues, comparable to normal rats and mesterolone treated rats.

  11. DENSpm overcame Bcl-2 mediated resistance against Paclitaxel treatment in MCF-7 breast cancer cells via activating polyamine catabolic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Zeynep; Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Arisan, Elif Damla; Obakan-Yerlikaya, Pınar; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2016-12-01

    The Bcl-2 mediated resistance is one of the most critical obstacle in cancer therapy. Conventional chemotherapeutics such as Paclitaxel, a commonly used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, is not sufficient to overcome Bcl-2 mediated drug resistance mechanism. Thus, combinational drug regimes are favored by researchers to overcome resistance phenotype against drugs. N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSpm), a polyamine analogue, which is a promising drug candidate induced-cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cancer cells such as prostate, melanoma, colon and breast cancer cells via activated polyamine catabolism and reactive oxygen generation. Recent studies indicated the potential therapeutic role of DENSpm in phase I and II trials in breast cancer cases. Although the molecular targets of Paclitaxel in apoptotic cell death mechanism is well documented, the therapeutic effect of DENSpm and Paclitaxel in breast cancer cells has not been investigated yet. In this study, our aim was to determine the time dependent effect of DENSpm and Paclitaxel on apoptotic cell death via determination of polyamine metabolism related targets in wt and Bcl-2 overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In our experimental study, Paclitaxel decreased cell viability in dose-dependent manner within 24h. Co-treatment of Paclitaxel (30nM) with DENSpm (20μM) further increased the cytoxicity of Paclitaxel (30nM) compared to alone Paclitaxel (30nM) treatment in MCF-7 Bcl-2+ breast cancer cells. In addition, we determined that resistance against Paclitaxel-induced apoptotic cell death in Bcl-2 overexpressed MCF-7 cells was overcome due to activation of polyamine catabolic pathway, which caused depletion of polyamines. DENSpm combinational treatment might increase the effect of low cytotoxic paclitaxel in drug-resistant breast cancer cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular and immunohistochemical expression of apoptotic proteins Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase 3 in infantile hemangioma tissues as an effect of propranolol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnęk, Aneta; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Kobos, Józef; Taran, Katarzyna; Przewratil, Przemysław

    2017-05-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumors of childhood. They are characterized by a unique clinical course with two phases, proliferation and involution, which are followed by regression. The therapy of infantile hemangiomas was revolutionized in 2008 by the introduction of propranolol, however, the mechanism of its influence on hemangiomas remains unclear. The study included 71 patients with IHs, 27 of whom were treated with propranolol while the remaining 44 were used as a comparative group. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase3 was determined with immunohistochemistry and mRNA of Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase3 were assessed with the use of RT-PCR. Both methods revealed a statistically significant decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bax in IHs tissues after propranolol treatment. The results obtained for Bax and Bcl-2 proteins may indicate a link between the effect of propranolol and apoptosis. Higher Bax and lower Bcl-2 expression in the propranolol treated group indicates a strong pro- apoptotic action countering any anti-apoptotic activity; apoptosis was indicted in IH tissue as a potential result of propranolol treatment, with potential clinical impact in other tumors. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The inhibition of malignant epithelial cells in mucosal injury in the oral cavity of strains by pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum linn) through Bcl-2 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Hernawati

    2013-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity is a malignant neoplasms derived from epithelia. The malignant neoplasms are cells that have changed their structure and function, and their number becomes increasing abnormally, invasive, and metastatic. Carcinoma can be caused by the resistance of malignant cell apoptosis. Bcl-2 is a proto-oncogene of Bcl family that inhibits the process of cell apoptosis and suppresses Bax protein (pro-apoptotic). The management efforts of cancer diseases,...

  14. A sesquiterpenelactone from Inula britannica induces anti-tumor effects dependent on Bcl-2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Mohamed M; Bai, Nai-Sheng; Chi-Tang-Ho; Rosen, Robert T; White, Eileen; Perez, Denise; Dipaola, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    The over-expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in cancer is associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. The phosphorylation of Bcl-2 is one mechanism by which anti-microtubule agents, such as paclitaxel or docetaxel, may inactivate Bcl-2. Although initially active in clinical studies, current anti-microtubule agents are only temporarily effective and the discovery of new agents is warranted. We isolated and identified two known sesquiterpenelactones, O, O-diacetylbritannilactone (OODABL) and O-acetylbritaanilactone (OABL) from the flowers of the medicinal plant Inula britannica and studied their mechanism of anti-tumor effects. To determine the biological significance of Bcl-2 phosphorylation, we used a baby rat kidney (BRK-p53) cell line that was transformed with EIA and a temperature-sensitive mutant p53. The BRK-p53 cell line was transfected with either a vector with wild type Bcl-2 or a vector in which Bcl-2 had mutations in the paclitaxel phosphorylation sites (pcDNA3.1 V5/His Bcl-2 S70, 87A). OODABL and OABL induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 in breast, ovary and prostate cancer cell lines and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Using the BRK cells with mutant Bcl-2 (BRK-Bcl-2-mt) and control (BRK-Bcl-2-wt), we found that OODABL induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at sites similar to paclitaxel. Phosphorylation of Bcl-2 was important for OODABL-induced cytotoxicity, since the abrogation of phosphorylation in BRK-Bcl-2-mt cells decreased OODABL-induced cytotoxicity. We concluded that OODABL is cytotoxic in multiple tumor cell lines, and the cytotoxicity is dependent, at least in part, on the phosphorylation of Bcl-2.

  15. Bcl-2 degradation is an additional pro-apoptotic effect of polo-like kinase inhibition in cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Svenja; Jafoui, Sami; Wingerter, Lena; Swoboda, Sandra; Mertens, Joachim C; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali; Paul, Andreas; Fingas, Christian D

    2017-01-01

    AIM To examine the influence on apoptotic mechanisms following inhibition of polo-like kinases as therapeutically approach for cholangiocellular cancer treatment. METHODS As most cholangiocarcinomas are chemotherapy-resistant due to mechanisms preventing tumor cell death, we investigated the effect of Cisplatin on cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA) cell lines KMCH-1 and Mz-Ch-1. Polo-like kinases (PLK) are important regulators of the cell cycle and their inhibition is discussed as a potential therapy while PLK inhibition can regulate apoptotic mediators. Here, cells were treated with PLK inhibitor BI6727 (Volasertib), Cisplatin, and in combination of both compounds. Cell viability was assessed by MTT; apoptosis was measured by DAPI staining and caspase-3/-7 assay. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to measure expression levels of apoptosis-related molecules Bax and Bcl-2. RESULTS The cell viability in the CCA cell lines KMCH-1 and Mz-Ch-1 was reduced in all treatment conditions compared to vehicle-treated cells. Co-treatment with BI6727 and cisplatin could even enhance the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin single treatment. Thus, co-treatment of cisplatin with BI6727 could slightly enhance the cytotoxic effect of the cisplatin in both cell lines whereas there was evidence of increased apoptosis induction solely in Mz-Ch-1 as compared to KMCH-1. Moreover, PLK inhibition decreases protein levels of Bcl-2; an effect that can be reversed by the proteasomal degradation inhibitor MG-132. In contrast, protein levels of Bax were not found to be altered by PLK inhibition. These findings indicate that cytotoxic effects of Cisplatin in Mz-Ch-1 cells can be enhanced by cotreatment with BI6727. CONCLUSION In conclusion, BI6727 treatment can sensitize CCA cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis with proteasomal Bcl-2 degradation as an additional pro-apoptotic effect. PMID:28652654

  16. Dexamethasone differentially regulates Bcl-2 family proteins in human proliferative chondrocytes: role of pro-apoptotic Bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Farasat; Chrysis, Dionisios; Huntjens, Kirsten; Chagin, Andrei; Takigawa, Masaharu; Fadeel, Bengt; Sävendahl, Lars

    2014-01-13

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases and cancers. A multitude of undesired side effects have been reported in GC-treated patients including decreased linear bone growth. We have previously reported that GCs activate the caspase cascade and trigger Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in growth plate chondrocytes causing growth retardation in young mice. To further explore the role of mitochondrial apoptosis in GC-induced bone growth retardation, a number of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins were studied in ex vivo cultures of human growth plate cartilage and human HCS-2/8 proliferative chondrocytes exposed to dexamethasone. Dexamethasone was found to increase the pro-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xS, Bad, and Bak as well as the proteolysis of Bid. Anti-Bid small interfering RNA partially rescued the chondrocytes from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that GC treatment differentially regulates Bcl-2 family member proteins to facilitate mitochondrial apoptosis in proliferative chondrocytes thereby contributing to GC-induced bone growth impairment. Prevention of this imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins may provide a new strategy to protect from adverse effects of GCs on bone growth. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. HSpin1, a transmembrane protein interacting with Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, induces a caspase-independent autophagic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, H; Miyashita, T; Nakano, Y; Yamamoto, D

    2003-07-01

    The Drosophila spinster (spin) gene product is required for programmed cell death in the nervous and reproductive systems. We have identified a human homologue of the Drosophila spin gene product (HSpin1). HSpin1 bound to Bcl-2 and apoptosis regulator Bcl-X (Bcl-xL), but not to proapoptotic members such as Bcl-2-associated X protein and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer, in cells treated with TNF-alpha. Exogenous expression of HSpin1 resulted in the cell death without inducing a release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Overexpression of Bcl-xL inhibited the HSpin1-induced cell death. Interestingly, a necrosis inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbomate, but not the pancaspase inhibitors, carbobenzoxy-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone and p35, blocked the HSpin1-induced cell death. HSpin1-induced cell death increases autophagic vacuole and mature form of cathepsin D, suggesting a novel caspase-independent cell death, which is link to autophagy.

  18. Lymphomas with concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations: the critical factors associated with survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathalie A; Savage, Kerry J; Ludkovski, Olga; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Woods, Ryan; Steidl, Christian; Dyer, Martin J S; Siebert, Reiner; Kuruvilla, John; Klasa, Richard; Connors, Joseph M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Horsman, Douglas E

    2009-09-10

    BCL2 and MYC are oncogenes commonly deregulated in lymphomas. Concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations (BCL2(+)/MYC(+)) were identified in 54 samples by karyotype and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization with the aim of correlating clinical and cytogenetic characteristics to overall survival. BCL2(+)/MYC(+) lymphomas were diagnosed as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable (BCLU; n = 36) with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); DLBCL (n = 17), or follicular lymphoma (n = 1). Despite the presence of a t(14;18), 5 cases were BCL2 protein-negative. Nonimmunoglobulin gene/MYC (non-IG/MYC) translocations occurred in 24 of 54 cases (44%) and were highly associated with DLBCL morphology (P survival. A comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of BCL2 and MYC status on all aggressive lymphomas may identify a group of high-risk patients who may benefit from chemotherapeutic regimens that include rituximab and/or BCL2-targeted therapy.

  19. Assessment of expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in lymphoid infiltration in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with nucleoside analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kłoczko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL is characterized by clonal growth and accumulation of mature lymphoid cells due to disturbance in genetically regulated form of cell death called apoptosis. The intrinsic mechanism of apoptosis is controlled by Bcl-2 family proteins. Purine nucleoside analogues induce the apoptosis in cells in a state of quiescence. The aim of the study was to assess expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in neoplastic infiltration in bone marrow in patients with B-CLL treated with nucleoside analogues. The study comprised examination of bone marrow obtained routinely by trephine biopsy from 18 patients with B-CLL diagnosed before administration of purine nucleoside analogues treatment and after its completion. Expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x and Bax proteins was examined. Lymphoid cells in bone marrow were present in all patients before administration of treatment. After treatment in two patients bone marrow was infiltrated in diffuse pattern, whereas other patients presented nodular pattern of infiltration. The difference between stage of infiltration before and after treatment was statistically significant (p<0.002. High percentage of infiltration cells with positive anti Bcl-2 reaction from 42.0% in one patient to 85.33+/-3.06% in four patients before treatment was observed. After treatment percentage of infiltration cells with positive anti Bcl-2 antibody reaction was from 33.0+/-18.38% in two patients to 99.0% in one patient. Positive correlation between stage of infiltration and expression of Bcl-2 protein was confirmed before and after treatment. Such correlations were not observed in case of Bax and Bcl-x. Strong staining of immunohistochemical reaction of cells in lymphoid infiltration with Bcl-2 antibody was confirmed. There was a difference between Bcl-/Bax ratio before and after treatment. Immunohistochemical assessment of expression of Bcl-2 family proteins in cells of lymphoid infiltration in bone

  20. Genetic variation in BCL2 3'-UTR was associated with lung cancer risk and prognosis in male Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bcl-2 is a critical apoptosis inhibitor with established carcinogenic potential, and can confer cancer cell resistance to therapeutic treatments by activating anti-apoptotic cellular defense. We hypothesized that genetic variants of BCL2 gene may be associated with lung cancer susceptibility and prognosis. METHODS: Three selected tagSNPs of BCL2 (rs2279115, rs1801018, and rs1564483 were genotyped in 1017 paired male Chinese lung cancer cases and controls by TaqMan assay. The associations of these variants with risk of lung cancer and overall survival of 242 male advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients were separately investigated. RESULTS: Compared with the BCL2 3'UTR rs1564483GG genotype, the rs1564483GA, AA, and GA+AA genotypes were associated with significantly decreased susceptibilities of lung cancer in male Chinese (adjusted OR = 0.78, 0.73, and 0.76, P = 0.016, 0.038, and 0.007, respectively, while rs1564483A allele has a inverse dose-response relationship with lung cancer risk (P trend = 0.010. These effects were more evident in the elders, smokers, and subjects without family history of cancer (P trend = 0.017, 0.043 and 0.005, respectively. Furthermore, advanced NSCLC males carrying BCL2 rs1564483 GA+AA genotypes had significantly longer median survival time (Long-rank P = 0.036 and decreased death risk (adjusted HR = 0.69, P = 0.027 than patients with rs1564483GG genotype. These effects were more obvious in patients with smoking, stage IIIA, and in patients without surgery but underwent chemotherapy or radiotherapy (adjusted HR = 0.68, 0.49, 0.67, 0.69, 0.50, respectively, all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The BCL2 3'UTR rs1564483A allele was associated with a decreased lung cancer risk and better survival for advanced NSCLC in male Chinese, which may offer a novel biomarker for identifying high-risk population and predicting clinical outcomes.

  1. A Structural Viral Mimic of Prosurvival Bcl-2: A Pivotal Role for Sequestering Proapoptotic Bax and Bak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvansakul,M.; van Delft, M.; Lee, E.; Gulbis, J.; Fairlie, W.; Huang, D.; Colman, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many viruses express antiapoptotic proteins to counter host defense mechanisms that would otherwise trigger the rapid clearance of infected cells. For example, adenoviruses and some {gamma}-herpesviruses express homologs of prosurvival Bcl-2 to subvert the host's apoptotic machinery. Myxoma virus, a double-stranded DNA virus of the pox family, harbors antiapoptotic M11L, its virulence factor. Analysis of its three-dimensional structure reveals that despite lacking any primary sequence similarity to Bcl-2, it adopts a virtually identical protein fold. This allows it to associate with BH3 domains, especially those of Bax and Bak. We found that M11L acts primarily by sequestering Bax and Bak, thereby blocking the killing action of these essential cell-death mediators. These findings expand the family of protein sequences that act like Bcl-2 to block apoptosis and support the conclusion that the prosurvival action of these proteins critically depends on their ability to bind and antagonize Bax and/or Bak.

  2. Immunohistochemical study of ki-67 and bcl-2 expression in some odontogenic cystic lesions with different clinical behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Tabatabaei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cystic lesions with odontogenic epithelial origin and similar clinicoradiographic appearance, show different clinical behaviors. Objective: To compare some factors related to cell proliferation and escape from apoptosis in epithelium covering two groups of odontogenic cystic lesions with different clinical behaviors. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 11 paraffin-embedded samples were selected of each lesions radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and unicystic ameloblastoma. The sample underwent immunohistochemical staining for investigating the expression of ki-67 antigen and bcl-2 protein. Data analyzed with SPSS17 software and Kruskal–Wallis and chi-square statistical tests. Findings: Most of ki-67 positive cells were observed in parabasal layer of odontogenic keratocyst [35.50±26.29%; P=0.001]. The average of ki-67-LI was more in parabasal layer of aggressive group (26.80±37.79% compared to non-aggressive group (4.04±3.38%, was not being statistically significant. The highest average of bcl-2-LI was 95±6.70% in basal layer of odontogenic keratocyst (P=0.001. In all layers, the average of bcl-2-LI was more in aggressive lesions compared to non-aggressive ones and the highest amount was found in basal layer (72.45±3.94×10% which was statistically significant (P=0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, more expression of the markers related to escape from apoptosis in aggressive lesions group compared to non-aggressive group, suggests that escape from apoptosis had a more critical role in aggressive behavior of odontogenic cystic lesions.

  3. Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in oral lichen planus and leukoplakia with different degrees of dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatti, Fernanda Mombrini; Taveira, Luís Antônio de Assis; Soares, Cléverson Teixeira

    2015-02-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause. Malignant transformation in OLP lesions may be favored by changes in the expression of proteins that regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate these issues by immunohistochemical staining for Bcl-2 and Ki-67 and by correlating histopathological findings in samples from lesions of OLP and leukoplakia with epithelial dysplasia. Data for patients with OLP or leukoplakia with moderate or severe epithelial dysplasia recorded during 2006-2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The study samples represented 37 subjects with OLP (n = 14), leukoplakia with moderate (n = 8) or severe (n = 6) epithelial dysplasia, and normal buccal mucosa (controls, n = 9). New sections were subjected to histological examination and immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in the basal layer, suprabasal layer, and inflammatory infiltrate, respectively. All basal layer sections stained either negative or positive in leukoplakia, 85.7% of sections indicated positivity in leukoplakia (64.3%) sections stained positive for Ki-67 in >50% of cells. All suprabasal sections stained either negative or positive in leukoplakia (42.9% and 57.1%, respectively), and control (88.9% and 11.1%, respectively) samples. Suprabasal staining for Ki-67 was negative or positive in leukoplakia (7.1% and 92.9%, respectively), and controls (88.9% and 11.1%, respectively). Staining for Bcl-2 in inflammatory infiltrate in OLP was positive in 92.9% of sections. Expression of Bcl-2 may play a dual role in tumor development and progression. Increased cell proliferation in the epithelium may present a predisposition to cancer in OLP. The expression of Ki-67 can be considered as an adjunct marker for proliferative activity in lesions with malignant potential. The prognostic value of these immunomarkers in the evaluation of precancerous oral lesions requires further investigation. © 2014 The International Society

  4. The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member tBid localizes to mitochondrial contact sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins Guy A

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following cleavage by caspase 8, the C-terminus of Bid translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondria that is dependent upon structures formed by the mitochondrial-specific lipid cardiolipin. Once associated with mitochondria, truncated Bid (tBid causes the potent release of cytochrome c, endonuclease G, and smac. Results We investigated whether tBid localizes specifically to the contact sites of mitochondria purported to be rich in cardiolipin. A point mutation changing the glycine at position 94 to glutamic acid in the BH3 domain of tBid (tBidG94E was principally used because mitochondria treated with this mutant tBid displayed better preservation of the outer membrane than those treated with wild type tBid. Additionally, tBidG94E lowers the cytochrome c releasing activity of tBid without affecting its targeting to mitochondria. Electron microscope tomography coupled with immunogold labeling was used as a new hybrid technique to investigate the three-dimensional distributions of tBid and tBidG94E around the mitochondrial periphery. The statistics of spatial point patterns was used to analyze the association of these proteins with contact sites. Conclusions Immunoelectron tomography with statistical analysis confirmed the preferential association of tBid with mitochondrial contact sites. These findings link these sites with cardiolipin in tBid targeting and suggest a role for Bcl-2 family members in regulating the activity of contact sites in relation to apoptosis. We propose a mechanism whereby Bcl-2 proteins alter mitochondrial function by disrupting cardiolipin containing contact site membranes.

  5. Bcl-2 antisense therapy in B-cell malignant proliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher; Czuczman, Myron S

    2004-08-01

    Overexpression of Bcl-2 oncogene has been clinically associated with an aggressive clinical course, chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, and poor survival in patients with malignant B-cell disorders. Patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have limited therapeutic options. Preclinical and early clinical data have shown that Bcl-2 oncoprotein can be decreased by Bcl-2 antisense therapy. Also, downregulation of Bcl-2 protein can result in reversal of chemotherapy resistance and improved antitumor activity of biologic agents. Various clinical trials are evaluating the role of targeting Bcl-2 as a mechanism to enhance the antitumor potential of chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Early results from these clinical studies are encouraging and confirm the proof of principle for antisense therapy. As current data mature, these trials will hopefully validate preliminary results and establish Bcl-2 antisense as an important addition to the current armamentarium used in the treatment of patients with B-cell neoplasms.

  6. [Salidroside protects cultured rat subventricular zone neural stem cells against hypoxia injury by inhibiting Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expressions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cunfang; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xinlin; Zhang, JiansHui; Yang, Pengbo; Jiao, Qian; Zhang, Pengbo; Lu, Hai-Xia; Liu, Yong

    2013-07-01

    To explore the effects of salidroside (sal) on the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspases-3 proteins in cultured rat subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to hypoxia injury. Primarily cultured SVZ NSCs from adult SD rats were incubated with salidroside (120 and 240 µmol/L) for 24 h prior to exposure to hypoxia. The cell viability was assessed with MTT assay, and the cell apoptosis was analyzed using TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. Western blotting was performed to detect the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 in the cells. Salidroside pretreatment of the cells for 24 h resulted in an obvious resistance to hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis and decrement of cell viability (PSalidroside also antagonized the effect of hypoxia exposure in lowering Bcl-2/Bax ratio apoptosis of rat neural stem cells and decreased the expression of caspases-3 protein (PSalidroside can significantly resist hypoxia-induced. The neuroprotective effect of salidroside may be related to the modulation of expressions of apoptosis-related proteins.

  7. Bcl-2 expression is altered with ovarian tumor progression: an immunohistochemical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Nicole S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The ovarian tumor microenvironment is comprised of tumor cells, surrounding stroma, and circulating lymphocytes, an important component of the immune response, in tumors. Previous reports have shown that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 is overexpressed in many solid neoplasms, including ovarian cancers, and contributes to neoplastic transformation and drug-resistant disease, resulting in poor clinical outcome. Likewise, studies indicate improved clinical outcome with increased presence of lymphocytes. Therefore, we sought to examine Bcl-2 expression in normal, benign, and cancerous ovarian tissues to determine the potential relationship between epithelial and stromal Bcl-2 expression in conjunction with the presence of lymphocytes for epithelial ovarian tumor progression. Methods Ovarian tissue sections were classified as normal (n = 2, benign (n = 17 or cancerous (n = 28 and immunohistochemically stained for Bcl-2. Bcl-2 expression was assessed according to cellular localization, extent, and intensity of staining. The number of lymphocyte nests as well as the number of lymphocytes within these nests was counted. Results While Bcl-2 staining remained cytoplasmic, both percent and intensity of epithelial and stromal Bcl-2 staining decreased with tumor progression. Further, the number of lymphocyte nests dramatically increased with tumor progression. Conclusion The data suggest alterations in Bcl-2 expression and lymphocyte infiltration correlate with epithelial ovarian cancer progression. Consequently, Bcl-2 expression and lymphocyte status may be important for prognostic outcome or useful targets for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Silencing Bcl-2 Expression in Epithelial Cancer Cells Using “Smart” Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ling Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Short interfering RNA (siRNA targeted against anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein proved to knockdown its expression and trigger cancer cell death. We used degradable, pH-sensitive, comb-like [P(EAA-co-BMA-b-PNASI-g-P(HMA-co-TMAEMA] polymer to condense anti-Bcl-2 siRNA into “smart” particles, which proved to shuttle their cargo past the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm of HeLa and UM-SCC-17B cancer cells. HeLa and UM-SCC-17B cancer cells were treated with anti-Bcl-2 particles followed by quantifying Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels using qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. “Smart” anti-Bcl-2 particles selectively suppress Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels in HeLa cells by 50%–60% and 79%–81%, respectively. Similarly, “smart” anti-Bcl-2 particles inhibited Bcl-2 mRNA levels by 30%, 40%, and 20% upon incubation with UM-SCC-17B cancer cells for 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. Bcl-2 protein expression in UM-SCC-17B cancer cells was inhibited by 30% after treatment for 72 h. Results show that pH-sensitive comb-like polymer complex anti-Bcl-2 siRNA forming “smart” nanoparticles that deliver their cargo into the cytoplasm of HeLa and UM-SCC-17B cancer cells causing Bcl-2 knockdown at the mRNA and protein levels.

  9. P53 and MITF/Bcl-2 identified as key pathways in the acquired resistance of NRAS-mutant melanoma to MEK inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Ahmad; Krayem, Mohammad; Salès, François; Hussein, Nader; Badran, Bassam; Robert, Caroline; Awada, Ahmad; Journe, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem E

    2017-09-01

    Activating mutations in Neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS) are found in 15-30% of melanomas and are associated with a poor prognosis. Although MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors used as single agents showed a limited clinical benefit in patients with NRAS-mutant melanoma due to their rather cytostatic effect and high toxicity, their combination with other inhibitors of pathways known to cooperate with MEK inhibition may maximise their antitumour activity. Similarly, in a context where p53 is largely inactivated in melanoma, hyperexpression of Microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) and its downstream anti-apoptotic targets may be the cause of the restraint cytotoxic effects of MEK inhibitors. Indeed, drug combinations targeting both mutant BRAF and MITF or one of its important targets Bcl-2 were effective in mutant BRAF melanoma but had no effect on acquired resistance. Therefore, we aimed to further investigate the downstream MITF targets that can explain this anti-apoptotic effect and to evaluate in parallel the effect of p53 reactivation on the promotion of apoptosis under MEK inhibition in a panel of Q61NRAS-mutant melanoma cells. First, we showed that MEK inhibition (pimasertib) led to a significant inhibition of cell proliferation but with a limited effect on apoptosis that could be explained by the systematic MITF upregulation. Mimicking the MITF effect via cyclic adenosine monophosphate activation conferred resistance to MEK inhibition and upregulated Bcl-2 expression. In addition, acquired resistance to MEK inhibition was associated with a strong activation of the anti-apoptotic signalling MITF/Bcl-2. More importantly, selective Bcl-2 inhibition by ABT-199 or Bcl-2 knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 system annihilated the acquired resistance and restored the sensitivity of NRAS-mutant melanoma cells to MEK inhibition. Strikingly and similarly, direct p53 reactivation (PRIMA-1Met, APR-246) also broke resistance and synergised with MEK

  10. Increased Fas and Bcl-2 Expression on Peripheral Blood T and B Lymphocytes from Juvenile-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, but not from Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete L. Liphaus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Defective regulation of apoptosis may play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Fas and Bcl-2 proteins are involved in the control of apoptosis. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Fas antigen and Bcl-2 protein on peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes from patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM. Thirty-eight patients with JSLE, 19 patients with JRA, 10 patients with JDM and 25 healthy controls entered the study. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were stained for lymphocyte markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and for Fas and Bcl-2 molecules. Expressions were measured by three-color flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test. Percentages of freshly isolated T lymphocytes positively stained for Fas protein from JSLE patients were significantly increased compared to healthy controls, patients with JRA and patients with JDM. Percentages of B lymphocytes positive for Fas from JSLE patients were higher than healthy controls and JRA patients. In addition, Fas expression on T cells from patients with JRA was increased compared to JDM patients. Otherwise, Fas expression on T and B cells from JRA and JDM patients were similar to healthy controls. MFI of Bcl-2 positive T lymphocytes from JSLE patients were significantly increased compared to healthy controls and JRA patients. MFI of Bcl-2 protein on B lymphocytes from JSLE patients was similar to healthy controls and patients with JRA and JDM. Bcl-2 expression did not differ between JRA and JDM patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, increased expression of Fas and Bcl-2 proteins observed in circulating T and B lymphocytes from patients with JSLE, but not from patients with JRA and JDM, suggests that abnormalities of apoptosis may be related to the pathogenesis of JSLE and probably are not a result of chronic inflammation.

  11. Interphase FISH detection of BCL2 rearrangement in follicular lymphoma using breakpoint-flanking probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaandrager, J W; Schuuring, E; Raap, T; Philippo, K; Kleiverda, K; Kluin, P

    Rearrangement of the BCL2 gene is an important parameter for the differential diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Although a relatively large proportion of breakpoints is clustered, many are missed by standard PCR. A FISH assay is therefore desired. Up to now, a lack of probes flanking the BCL2 gene

  12. Bcl-2 protein level in blood of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients, adults or children, with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was not correlated with a bad prognosis or a poorer response to therapy [18,19]. In this study, we investigated the association between blood bcl-2 protein and the occurrence of AML. Bcl-2 levels were compared to those of p53 protein and to the appearance of.

  13. Bcl-2 protein level in blood of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the association between blood bcl-2 protein and the occurrence of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), bcl-2 being an anti-apoptotic protein incriminated in cancer. Blood specimens were collected from 28 patients with AML, either de novo or following myelodysplastic syndrome, and from 25 healthy unrelated ...

  14. Regulation of bcl-2 expression by Ubc9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaohui; Wu, Hailong; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2006-06-10

    Posttranslational modifications mediated by ubiquitin-like proteins have been implicated in regulating a variety of cellular pathways. Although small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a new member of this family, it has caught a great deal of attention recently because of its novel and distinguished functions. Sumoylation is a multiple-step process, involving maturation, activation, conjugation and ligation. Ubc9 is an E2 conjugating enzyme essential for sumoylation. We have previously shown that suppression of sumoylation by a dominant negative Ubc9 mutant (Ubc9-DN) in the estrogen receptor (ER) positive MCF-7 cells is associated with alterations of tumor cell's response to anticancer drugs as well as tumor growth in a xenograft mouse carcinoma model. To dissect the underlying mechanism of Ubc9-associated alterations of drug responsiveness and tumor growth, we profiled gene expression for the cells expressing wild type Ubc9 (Ubc9-WT) and Ubc9-DN. We found that several tumorigenesis-related genes were downregulated in the Ubc9-DN cells. Within this group, we found that over 10 genes are known to be regulated by ER. Experiments using the estrogen response element fused to the luciferase reporter showed that the basal level of luciferase activity was significantly reduced in the Ubc9-DN cells when compared to the vector alone or the Ubc9-WT cells. Furthermore, we found that both the stability and the subcellular localization of steroid hormone receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) were altered in the Ubc9-DN cells. Together, these results suggest that Ubc9 might regulate bcl-2 expression through the ER signaling pathway, which ultimately contributes to the alterations of drug responsiveness and tumor growth.

  15. HPV Status and Its Correlation with BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and Survivin Expression in Breast Cancer in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wen Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent evidence, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV in breast carcinogenesis is controversial. The correlations of HPV infection with the clinicopathological features of breast cancer and the expression of cell cycle/apoptosis-associated proteins have not been well elucidated. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPVs (HR-HPVs infection and BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and survivin expression in breast cancer patients and to investigate the relationship of HPV with these cancer-related proteins, in an attempt to clarify the potential mechanism of HPV in breast cancer pathogenesis. HPV presence in 81 fresh breast cancer tissues was determined by hybrid capture 2 (HC2 assay, and expression of BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and survivin was detected by immunohistochemistry. Here we showed that fourteen (17.3% patients were HR-HPV positive. HPV infection demonstrated no significant correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. HPV-positive tumors showed significantly higher BCL2 and lower p53 expression than HPV-negative tumors. Expression of p21, Rb, and survivin was not associated with HPV status. Our results suggest a possible role of HR-HPV in breast cancer carcinogenesis, in which BCL2 and p53 may be involved.

  16. The nucleolin targeting aptamer AS1411 destabilizes Bcl-2 messenger RNA in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Sridharan; Chen, Weiwei; Spicer, Eleanor K; Courtenay-Luck, Nigel; Fernandes, Daniel J

    2008-04-01

    We sought to determine whether nucleolin, a bcl-2 mRNA-binding protein, has a role in the regulation of bcl-2 mRNA stability in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we examined the efficacy of the aptamer AS1411 in targeting nucleolin and inducing bcl-2 mRNA instability and cytotoxicity in these cells. AS1411 at 5 micromol/L inhibited the growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas 20 micromol/L AS1411 had no effect on the growth rate or viability of normal MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells. This selectivity of AS1411 was related to a greater uptake of AS1411 into the cytoplasm of MCF-7 cells compared with MCF-10A cells and to a 4-fold higher level of cytoplasmic nucleolin in MCF-7 cells. Stable siRNA knockdown of nucleolin in MCF-7 cells reduced nucleolin and bcl-2 protein levels and decreased the half-life of bcl-2 mRNA from 11 to 5 hours. Similarly, AS1411 (10 micromol/L) decreased the half-life of bcl-2 mRNA in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to 1.0 and 1.2 hours, respectively. In contrast, AS1411 had no effect on the stability of bcl-2 mRNA in normal MCF-10A cells. AS1411 also inhibited the binding of nucleolin to the instability element AU-rich element 1 of bcl-2 mRNA in a cell-free system and in MCF-7 cells. Together, the results suggest that AS1411 acts as a molecular decoy by competing with bcl-2 mRNA for binding to cytoplasmic nucleolin in these breast cancer cell lines. This interferes with the stabilization of bcl-2 mRNA by nucleolin and may be one mechanism by which AS1411 induces tumor cell death.

  17. A plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene is proteolytically activated to confer fungal resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kabbage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG family is a multifunctional group of proteins involved in numerous cellular functions ranging from apoptosis to tumorigenesis. These proteins are evolutionarily conserved and encode a characteristic region known as the BAG domain. BAGs function as adapter proteins forming complexes with signaling molecules and molecular chaperones. In humans, a role for BAG proteins has been suggested in tumor growth, HIV infection, and neurodegenerative diseases; as a result, the BAGs are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions, and their expression in cells may serve as a predictive tool for disease development. The Arabidopsis genome contains seven homologs of BAG family proteins (Figure 1, including four with a domain organization similar to animal BAGs (BAG1-4. The remaining three members (BAG5-7 contain a predicted calmodulin-binding motif near the BAG domain, a feature unique to plant BAG proteins that possibly reflects divergent mechanisms associated with plant-specific functions. As reported for animal BAGs, plant BAGs also regulate several stress and developmental processes (Figure 2. The recent article by Li et al. focuses on the role of BAG6 in plant innate immunity. This study shows that BAG6 plays a key role in basal plant defense against fungal pathogens. Importantly, this work further shows that BAG6 is proteolytically activated to induce autophagic cell death and resistance in plants. This finding underscores the importance of proteases in the execution of plant cell death, yet little is known about proteases and their substrates in plants.

  18. Effects of Renal Ischemic Postconditioning on Myocardial Ultrastructural Organization and Myocardial Expression of Bcl-2/Bax in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-zhong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cardioprotective effect of renal ischemic postconditioning (RI-PostC and its mechanisms in a rabbit model. Rabbits underwent 60 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion (LADO and 6 h of reperfusion. The ischemia-reperfusion (IR group underwent LADO and reperfusion only. In the RI-PostC group, the left renal artery underwent 3 cycles of occlusion for 30 seconds and release for 30 seconds, before the coronary artery was reperfused. In the RI-PostC + GF109203X group, the rabbits received 0.05 mg/kg GF109203X (protein kinase C inhibitor intravenously for 10 min followed by RI-PostC. Light microscopy and electron microscopy demonstrated that the RI-PostC group showed less pronounced changes, a smaller infarct region, and less apoptosis than the other two groups. Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression did not differ between the IR and RI-PostC + GF109203X groups. However, in the RI-PostC group, Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly higher and Bax protein expression was significantly lower than in the other two groups (P<0.05. Changes in heart rate and mean arterial pressure were also smaller in the RI-PostC group than in the other two groups. These results indicate that RI-PostC can ameliorate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and increase the Bcl-2/Bax ratio through a mechanism involving protein kinase C.

  19. Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, Tanmay M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Green, Maja M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Hawkins, Christine J., E-mail: c.hawkins@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict

  20. Effects of BCL-2 over-expression on B cells in transgenic rats and rat hybridomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscache, Anne-Laure; Ménoret, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Rémy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Pedros, Christophe; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Buelow, Roland; Anegon, Ignacio

    2011-10-01

    The rat is an important biomedical experimental model that benefited from the recent development of new transgenic and knockout techniques. With the goal to optimize rat mAb production and to analyze the impact of Bcl-2 on B-cell development, we generated bcl-2 transgenic rats. Transgenic rats showed Bcl-2 over-expression in B cells, increased B cell numbers in lymphoid organs, elevated production of immunoglobulins (Igs) and prolonged B-cell survival in vitro. Transgenic rats remained healthy, reproduced normally and did not develop autoimmunity. Fusions with bcl-2 transgenic splenocytes did not result in increased hybridoma generation. A comparison of on- and off-rates of 39 mAbs generated with bcl-2 transgenic and wild-type animals revealed no significant differences. Over-expression of Bcl-2 in hybridomas did not change cell proliferation but resulted in increased Ig production. Bcl-2 transgenic rats will be a useful tool for the generation of rat mAbs, the analysis of B cells in different pathophysiological models, such as autoimmunity, cancer or organ transplantation, and the study of rat B-cell biology.

  1. MicroRNA-10b downregulation mediates acute rejection of renal allografts by derepressing BCL2L11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoyou [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Dong, Changgui [Institute of Molecular Ecology and Evolution, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jiang, Zhengyao [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Wu, William K.K. [Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Matthew T.V. [Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Jie [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Li, Haibin; Qin, Ke [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplantation Medicine Department of Organ Transplantation in Guangzhou Military Region, Institute of Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Nanning, Guangxi 530021 (China); Sun, Xuyong, E-mail: sunxuyong0528@163.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplantation Medicine Department of Organ Transplantation in Guangzhou Military Region, Institute of Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Nanning, Guangxi 530021 (China)

    2015-04-10

    Kidney transplantation is the major therapeutic option for end-stage kidney diseases. However, acute rejection could cause allograft loss in some of these patients. Emerging evidence supports that microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is implicated in acute allograft rejection. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile miRNA expression in normal and acutely rejected kidney allografts. Among 75 identified dysregulated miRNAs, miR-10b was the most significantly downregulated miRNAs in rejected allografts. Transfecting miR-10b inhibitor into human renal glomerular endothelial cells recapitulated key features of acute allograft rejection, including endothelial cell apoptosis, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, and chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2) and chemotaxis of macrophages whereas transfection of miR-10b mimics had opposite effects. Downregulation of miR-10b directly derepressed the expression of BCL2L11 (an apoptosis inducer) as revealed by luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, miR-10b downregulation mediates many aspects of disease pathogenicity of acute kidney allograft rejection. Restoring miR-10b expression in glomerular endothelial cells could be a novel therapeutic approach to reduce acute renal allograft loss. - Highlights: • miR-10b was the most downregulated microRNAs in acutely rejected renal allografts. • miR-10b downregulation triggered glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis. • miR-10b downregulation induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • miR-10b downregulation derepressed its pro-apoptotic target BCL2L11.

  2. Photobiomodulation on Bax and Bcl-2 Proteins and SIRT1/PGC-1α Axis mRNA Expression Levels of Aging Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to analyze the effects of low level laser irradiation (LLLI on Bax and IGF-1 and Bcl-2 protein contents and SIRT1/PGC-1α axis mRNA expression levels to prevent sarcopenia in aged rats. Material and Methods. Twenty female Sprague Dawley rats (18 months old were randomly divided into two groups (n=10 per group: control (CON and LLLI groups. The gallium-aluminum-arsenium (GaAlAs laser irradiation at 810 nm was used in the single point contact mode (3.75 J/cm2; 0.4 cm2; 125 mW/cm2; 30 s. Bax, Bcl-2, and IGF-1 proteins and SIRT1/PGC-1α axis mRNA expression were assessed 24 h after LLLI on gastrocnemius in aged rat. Results. Gastrocnemius muscle weights, gastrocnemius mass/body mass, Bcl-2/BAX ratio, Bcl-2 protein, IGF-1 protein, and the mRNA contents in SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, TMF, and SOD2 were significantly (P<0.05 increased by LLLI compared to CON group without LLLI. However, levels of BAX protein and caspase 3 mRNA were significantly attenuated by LLLI compared to CON group (P<0.05. Conclusion. LLLI at 810 nm inhibits sarcopenia associated with upregulation of Bcl-2/BAX ratio and IGF-1 and SIRT1/PGC-1α axis mRNA expression in aged rats. This indicates that LLLI has potential to decrease progression of myocyte apoptosis in sarcopenic muscles.

  3. Trabectedin Is Active against Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cell and Xenograft Models and Synergizes with Chemotherapy and Bcl-2 Inhibition In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoda, Mir A; Pirker, Christine; Dong, Yawen; Schelch, Karin; Heffeter, Petra; Kryeziu, Kushtrim; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Klikovits, Thomas; Laszlo, Viktoria; Rozsas, Anita; Ozsvar, Judit; Klepetko, Walter; Döme, Balazs; Grusch, Michael; Hegedüs, Balazs; Berger, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is characterized by widespread resistance to systemic therapy. Trabectedin is an antineoplastic agent targeting both the malignant cells and the tumor microenvironment that has been approved for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma and ovarian cancer. In this preclinical study, we evaluated the antineoplastic potential of trabectedin as a single agent and in drug combination approaches in human MPM. Therefore, we utilized an extended panel of MPM cell lines (n = 6) and primary cell cultures from surgical MPM specimens (n = 13), as well as nonmalignant pleural tissue samples (n = 2). Trabectedin exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect in all MPM cell cultures in vitro when growing as adherent monolayers or nonadherent spheroids with IC50 values ≤ 2.6 nmol/L. Nonmalignant mesothelial cells were significantly less responsive. The strong antimesothelioma activity was based on cell-cycle perturbation and apoptosis induction. The activity of trabectedin against MPM cells was synergistically enhanced by coadministration of cisplatin, a drug routinely used for systemic MPM treatment. Comparison of gene expression signatures indicated an inverse correlation between trabectedin response and bcl-2 expression. Accordingly, bcl-2 inhibitors (Obatoclax, ABT-199) markedly synergized with trabectedin paralleled by deregulated expression of the bcl-2 family members bcl-2, bim, bax, Mcl-1, and bcl-xL as a consequence of trabectedin exposure. In addition, trabectedin exerted significant antitumor activity against an intraperitoneal MPM xenograft model. Together, these data suggest that trabectedin exerts strong activity in MPM and synergizes with chemotherapy and experimental bcl-2 inhibitors in vitro Thus, it represents a promising new therapeutic option for MPM. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(10); 2357-69. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. CREB-mediated Bcl-2 expression contributes to RCAN1 protection from hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Sook; Jang, Shin Ah; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2013-05-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is located on the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) locus in human chromosome 21. In this study, we investigated the functional role of RCAN1 in the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated neuronal death signaling. We found that RCAN1 was able to protect the cells from H(2)O(2) -induced cytotoxicity. The expression of RCAN1 caused an inhibition of the H(2)O(2) -induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and AP-1. In contrast, RCAN1 significantly enhanced the activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Furthermore, RCAN1 induced the expression of the CREB target gene, Bcl-2. Consistently, knockdown of endogenous RCAN1 using shRNA down regulated the phosphorylation of CREB and the expression of Bcl-2, which protects the cells from H(2)O(2) -induced cytotoxicity. Our data provide a new mechanism for the cytoprotective function of RCAN1 in response to oxidant-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. AS1411-Induced Growth Inhibition of Glioma Cells by Up-Regulation of p53 and Down-Regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 via Nucleolin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Cheng

    Full Text Available AS1411 binds nucleolin (NCL and is the first oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer to reach phase I and II clinical trials for the treatment of several cancers. However, the mechanisms by which AS1411 targets and kills glioma cells and tissues remain unclear. Here we report that AS1411 induces cell apoptosis and cycle arrest, and inhibits cell viability by up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 in human glioma cells. NCL was overexpressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm in human glioma U87, U251 and SHG44 cells compared to normal human astrocytes (NHA. AS1411 bound NCL and inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells but not NHA, which was accompanied with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1. Moreover, AS1411 treatment resulted in the G2/M cell cycle arrest in glioma cells, which was however abolished by overexpression of NCL. Further, AS1411 induced cell apoptosis, which was prevented by silencing of p53 and overexpression of Bcl-2. In addition, AS1411 inhibited the migration and invasion of glioma cells in an Akt1-dependent manner. Importantly, AS1411 inhibited the growth of glioma xenograft and prolonged the survival time of glioma tumor-bearing mice. These results revealed a promising treatment of glioma by oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer.

  6. Tumor suppressor PDCD4 modulates miR-184-mediated direct suppression of C-MYC and BCL2 blocking cell growth and survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Yan; Liu, Zhen; Yang, Huiling; Yu, Xiaoli; Wu, Qiangyun; Hua, Shengni; Long, Xiaobin; Jiang, Qingping; Song, Ye; Cheng, Chao; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Menyang; Fu, Qiaofen; Lyu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yiyu; Fan, Yue; Liu, Yan; Li, Xin; Fang, Weiyi

    2013-10-24

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a novel tumor suppressor, inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as promotes cell apoptosis in tumors. However, the molecular mechanism of its tumor-suppressive function remains largely unknown in tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, downregulated PDCD4 expression was significantly associated with the status of NPC progression and poor prognosis. PDCD4 markedly suppressed the ability of cell proliferation and cell survival by modulating C-MYC-controlled cell cycle and BCL-2-mediated mitochondrion apoptosis resistance signals, and oncogenic transcription factor C-JUN in NPC. Furthermore, miR-184, a tumor-suppressive miRNA modulated by PDCD4 directly targeting BCL2 and C-MYC, participated in PDCD4-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and survival in NPC. Further, we found that PDCD4 decreased the binding of C-Jun to the AP-1 element on the miR-184 promoter regions by PI3K/AKT/JNK/C-Jun pathway and stimulated miR-184 expression. In clinical fresh specimens, reduced PDCD4 mRNA level was positively correlated with miR-184 expression in NPC. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that PDCD4 as tumor suppressor regulated miR-184-mediated direct targeting of BCL2 and C-MYC via PI3K/AKT and JNK/C-Jun pathway attenuating cell proliferation and survival in NPC.

  7. AS1411-Induced Growth Inhibition of Glioma Cells by Up-Regulation of p53 and Down-Regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 via Nucleolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Siwen; Nigim, Fares; Zhou, Guangtong; Yu, Zhiyun; Song, Yang; Chen, Yong; Li, Yunqian

    2016-01-01

    AS1411 binds nucleolin (NCL) and is the first oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer to reach phase I and II clinical trials for the treatment of several cancers. However, the mechanisms by which AS1411 targets and kills glioma cells and tissues remain unclear. Here we report that AS1411 induces cell apoptosis and cycle arrest, and inhibits cell viability by up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 in human glioma cells. NCL was overexpressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm in human glioma U87, U251 and SHG44 cells compared to normal human astrocytes (NHA). AS1411 bound NCL and inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells but not NHA, which was accompanied with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1. Moreover, AS1411 treatment resulted in the G2/M cell cycle arrest in glioma cells, which was however abolished by overexpression of NCL. Further, AS1411 induced cell apoptosis, which was prevented by silencing of p53 and overexpression of Bcl-2. In addition, AS1411 inhibited the migration and invasion of glioma cells in an Akt1-dependent manner. Importantly, AS1411 inhibited the growth of glioma xenograft and prolonged the survival time of glioma tumor-bearing mice. These results revealed a promising treatment of glioma by oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer.

  8. Decreasing Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 3C (EIF3C) Suppresses Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Lines Through Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weipeng; Li, Xichuan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen; Jia, Yongsheng; Yuan, Shunzong; Huang, Yong; Shi, Yehui; Tong, Zhongsheng

    2017-08-30

    BACKGROUND Translation initiation is the rate limiting step of protein synthesis and is highly regulated. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3C (EIF3C), an oncogene overexpressed in several human cancers, plays an important role in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of EIF3C in breast cancer tissues from 42 patients. We investigated whether EIF3C silencing decreases breast cancer cell proliferation as assessed by colony formation assay, and whether EIF3C gene knockdown induces apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometry analysis. We utilized the stress and apoptosis signaling antibody array kit, while p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, p-Smad2, p-p38 MAPK, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-7 were explored between EIF3C-siRNA and controls. Furthermore, the effects of EIF3C gene knockdown in mTOR pathway were analyzed by western blotting for different cell lines. RESULTS In EIF3C-positive tumors, 32 out of 42 showed significantly higher frequencies of high grade group by immunoreactivity (p=0.0016). BrdU incorporation after four days of cell plating was significantly suppressed in MDA-MB-231 cells by EIF3C knockdown compared with controls, with average changes of 7.8-fold (p<0.01). Clone number was significantly suppressed in MDA-MB-231 cells by EIF3C knockdown compared with controls (p<0.05). Cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the EIF3C-siRNA group when compared with the cells that were transfected with scrambled siRNA (3.51±0.0842 versus 13.24±0.2307, p<0.01). The mTOR signaling pathway was involved in decreasing EIF3C translational efficiency. CONCLUSIONS Unveiling the mechanisms of EIF3 action in tumorigenesis may help identify attractive targets for cancer therapy.

  9. Targeting anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 by AT-101 to increase radiation efficacy: data from in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic studies in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerp, Shuraila F; Stoter, T Rianne; Hoebers, Frank J P; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Dubbelman, Ria; Kuipers, Gitta K; Lafleur, M Vincent M; Slotman, Ben J; Verheij, Marcel

    2015-07-30

    Pro-survival Bcl-2 family members can promote cancer development and contribute to treatment resistance. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is frequently characterized by overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Increased levels of these anti-apoptotic proteins have been associated with radio- and chemoresistance and poor clinical outcome. Inhibition of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members therefore represents an appealing strategy to overcome resistance to anti-cancer therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate combined effects of radiation and the pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor AT-101 in HNSCC in vitro. In addition, we determined human plasma levels of AT-101 obtained from a phase I/II trial, and compared these with the effective in vitro concentrations to substantiate therapeutic opportunities. We examined the effect of AT-101, radiation and the combination on apoptosis induction and clonogenic survival in two HNSCC cell lines that express the target proteins. Apoptosis was assessed by bis-benzimide staining to detect morphological nuclear changes and/or by propidium iodide staining and flow-cytometry analysis to quantify sub-diploid apoptotic nuclei. The type of interaction between AT-101 and radiation was evaluated by calculating the Combination Index (CI) and by performing isobolographic analysis. For the pharmacokinetic analysis, plasma AT-101 levels were measured by HPLC in blood samples collected from patients enrolled in our clinical phase I/II study. These patients with locally advanced HNSCC were treated with standard cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy and received dose-escalating oral AT-101 in a 2-weeks daily schedule every 3 weeks. In vitro results showed that AT-101 enhances radiation-induced apoptosis with CI's below 1.0, indicating synergy. This effect was sequence-dependent. Clonogenic survival assays demonstrated a radiosensitizing effect with a DEF37 of 1.3 at sub-apoptotic concentrations of AT-101. Pharmacokinetic analysis of

  10. The anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are attractive tumor-associated antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straten, Per thor; Andersen, Mads Hald; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2010-01-01

    Anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-2) are pivotal regulators of apoptotic cell death. They are all highly overexpressed in cancers of different origin in which they enhance the survival of the cancer cells. Consequently, they represent prime candidates for anti......-cancer therapy and specific antisense oligonucleotides or small molecule inhibitors have shown broad anti-cancer activities in pre-clinical models and are currently tested in clinical trials. In addition, immune-mediated tumor destruction is emerging as an interesting modality to treat cancer patients. Notably......, spontaneous cellular immune responses against the Bcl-2 family proteins have been identified as frequent features in cancer patients underscoring that these proteins are natural targets for the immune system. Thus, Bcl-2 family may serve as an important and widely applicable target for anti...

  11. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wen; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chung S.; Xu, Qing; Carpizo, Darren; Huang, Huarong; DiPaola, Robert S.; Tan, Xiang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Metformin and aspirin have been studied extensively as cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. However, the effects of their combination on pancreatic cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of metformin and aspirin, alone or in combination, on cell viability, migration, and apoptosis as well as the molecular changes in mTOR, STAT3 and apoptotic signaling pathways in PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells. Metformin and aspirin, at relatively low concentrations, demonstrated synergistically inhibitory effects on cell viability. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and STAT3, and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, metformin combined with aspirin significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Puma, as well as interrupted their interactions. The downregulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was independent of AMPK or STAT3 pathway but partially through mTOR signaling and proteasome degradation. In a PANC-1 xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited tumor growth and downregulated the protein expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in tumors. Taken together, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, supporting the continued investigation of this two drug combination as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26056043

  12. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wen; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chung S; Xu, Qing; Carpizo, Darren; Huang, Huarong; DiPaola, Robert S; Tan, Xiang-Lin

    2015-08-28

    Metformin and aspirin have been studied extensively as cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. However, the effects of their combination on pancreatic cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of metformin and aspirin, alone or in combination, on cell viability, migration, and apoptosis as well as the molecular changes in mTOR, STAT3 and apoptotic signaling pathways in PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells. Metformin and aspirin, at relatively low concentrations, demonstrated synergistically inhibitory effects on cell viability. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and STAT3, and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, metformin combined with aspirin significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Puma, as well as interrupted their interactions. The downregulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was independent of AMPK or STAT3 pathway but partially through mTOR signaling and proteasome degradation. In a PANC-1 xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited tumor growth and downregulated the protein expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in tumors. Taken together, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, supporting the continued investigation of this two drug combination as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer.

  13. Serum levels of bcl-2 and cellular oxidative stress in patients with viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the presence of bcl-2 protein in the serum of patients with viral hepatitis and to find out if there is any correlation between bcl-2 protein levels and cellular oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis. Methods: This study was carried out on 130 patients with viral hepatitis, 70 with chronic hepatitis, 30 with liver cirrhosis and 30 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in addition to 20 healthy persons as the control. Serum bcl-2 protein was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and antioxidant enzymes (GSH, GSH-px, GR and SOD were measured using spectrophotometric analysis. Results: bcl-2 protein level was significantly elevated in the serum of HCC, cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis groups as compared to control group. There were significant positive correlations between higher bcl-2 protein level and viral hepatitis markers (HBsAg, anti-HCV antibodies in HCC and cirrhotic patients as compared to chronic hepatitis group. An increase in oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GSH and GSH-px were observed. However, there was a negative correlation between bcl-2 levels and GR in all studied patient groups. Conclusions: The release of oxidative free radicals, deficiency in antioxidant enzymes and the expression of bcl-2 protein might play a role in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis. The ability to measure bcl-2 protein in the serum could be useful as a prognostic marker of cancer patients.

  14. MLL-Rearranged Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias Activate BCL-2 through H3K79 Methylation and Are Sensitive to the BCL-2-Specific Antagonist ABT-199

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. Benito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapies designed to exploit specific molecular pathways in aggressive cancers are an exciting area of current research. Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL mutations such as the t(4;11 translocation cause aggressive leukemias that are refractory to conventional treatment. The t(4;11 translocation produces an MLL/AF4 fusion protein that activates key target genes through both epigenetic and transcriptional elongation mechanisms. In this study, we show that t(4;11 patient cells express high levels of BCL-2 and are highly sensitive to treatment with the BCL-2-specific BH3 mimetic ABT-199. We demonstrate that MLL/AF4 specifically upregulates the BCL-2 gene but not other BCL-2 family members via DOT1L-mediated H3K79me2/3. We use this information to show that a t(4;11 cell line is sensitive to a combination of ABT-199 and DOT1L inhibitors. In addition, ABT-199 synergizes with standard induction-type therapy in a xenotransplant model, advocating for the introduction of ABT-199 into therapeutic regimens for MLL-rearranged leukemias.

  15. Manganese activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in rat astrocytes by modulating the expression of proteins of the Bcl-2 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura E; Juknat, A Ana; Venosa, Andrea J; Verrengia, Noemi; Kotler, Mónica L

    2008-12-01

    Manganese induces the central nervous system injury leading to manganism, by mechanisms not completely understood. Chronic exposure to manganese generates oxidative stress and induces the mitochondrial permeability transition. In the present study, we characterized apoptotic cell death mechanisms associated with manganese toxicity in rat cortical astrocytes and demonstrated that (i) Mn treatment targets the mitochondria and induces mitochondrial membrane depolarization followed by cytochrome c release to the cytoplasm, (ii) Mn induces both effector caspases 3/7 and 6 as well as PARP-1 cleavage and (iii) Mn shifts the balance of cell death/survival of Bcl-2 family proteins to favor the apoptotic demise of astrocytes. Our model system using cortical rat astrocytes treated with Mn would emerge as a good tool for investigations aimed to elucidate the role of apoptosis in manganism.

  16. Flavopiridol induces BCL-2 expression and represses oncogenic transcription factors in leukemic blasts from adults with refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Dwella M; Joseph, Biju; Hillion, Joelle; Segal, Jodi; Karp, Judith E; Resar, Linda M S

    2011-10-01

    Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and clinical responses in selected patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A better understanding of the molecular pathways targeted by flavopiridol is needed to design optimal combinatorial therapy. Here, we report that in vivo administration of flavopiridol induced expression of the BCL-2 anti-apoptotic gene in leukemic blasts from adult patients with refractory AML. Moreover, flavopiridol repressed the expression of genes encoding oncogenic transcription factors (HMGA1, STAT3, E2F1) and the major subunit of RNA Polymerase II. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the cellular pathways targeted by flavopiridol. Although further studies are needed, our findings also suggest that blocking anti-apoptotic pathways could enhance cytotoxicity with flavopiridol.

  17. A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. Gallant

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the design, fabrication, surface functionalization and experimental characterization of an ultrasonic MEMS biosensor for urinary anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 detection with sub ng/mL sensitivity is presented. It was previously shown that urinary Bcl-2 levels are reliably elevated during early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Our biosensor uses shear horizontal (SH surface acoustic waves (SAWs on surface functionalized ST-cut Quartz to quantify the mass loading change by protein adhesion to the delay path. SH-SAWs were generated and received by a pair of micro-fabricated interdigital transducers (IDTs separated by a judiciously designed delay path. The delay path was surface-functionalized with monoclonal antibodies, ODMS, Protein A/G and Pluronic F127 for optimal Bcl-2 capture with minimal non-specific adsorption. Bcl-2 concentrations were quantified by the resulting resonance frequency shift detected by a custom designed resonator circuit. The target sensitivity for diagnosis and identifying the stage of ovarian cancer was successfully achieved with demonstrated Bcl-2 detection capability of 500 pg/mL. It was also shown that resonance frequency shift increases linearly with increasing Bcl-2 concentration.

  18. The novel Raf inhibitor Raf265 decreases Bcl-2 levels and confers TRAIL-sensitivity to neuroendocrine tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Kathrin; de Toni, Enrico; von Rüden, Janina; Brand, Stephan; Göke, Burkhard; Laubender, Rüdiger P; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2011-04-01

    The tumour-selective death receptor ligand tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising agent for the treatment of human cancer. However, many tumours have evolved mechanisms to resist TRAIL-induced apoptosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that aberrant PI(3)K-Akt-mTOR survival signalling may confer TRAIL resistance by altering the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Here, we show that neuroendocrine tumour (NET) cell lines of heterogeneous origin exhibit a range of TRAIL sensitivities and that TRAIL sensitivity correlates with the expression of FLIP(S), caspase-8, and Bcl-2. Neither single mTOR inhibition by everolimus nor dual mTOR/PI(3)K inhibition by NVP-BEZ235 was able to enhance TRAIL susceptibility in any of the tested cell lines. In contrast, dual PI(3)K-Akt-mTOR and Raf-MEK-Erk pathway inhibition by the IGF-1R inhibitor NVP-AEW541 effectively restored TRAIL sensitivity in NCI-H727 bronchus carcinoid cells. Furthermore, blocking Raf-MEK-Erk signalling by the novel Raf inhibitor Raf265 significantly enhanced TRAIL sensitivity in NCI-H727 and CM insulinoma cells. While having no effect on FLIP(S) or caspase-8 expression, Raf265 strongly decreased Bcl-2 levels in those cell lines susceptible to its TRAIL-sensitizing action. Taken together, our findings suggest that combinations of Raf-MEK-Erk pathway inhibitors and TRAIL might offer a novel therapeutic strategy in NET disease.

  19. Expression of proapoptotic BAX and TP53 genes and antiapoptotic BCL-2 gene in MCF-7 and T-47D tumour cell cultures of the mammary gland after a photodynamic therapy with photolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płonka, Justyna; Latocha, Małgorzata; Kuśmierz, Dariusz; Zielińska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour in women in the whole world. Despite significant developments in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, there is no effective method which would assure total recovery of the patient. Currently available clinical data and laboratory tests indicate a possibility to introduce photodynamic therapy (PDT) to the supplementary treatment of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of PDT with Photolon as a photosensibilizator on the expression of apoptosis associated genes (BCL-2, BAX, TP53) in human breast cancer cell lines, preceded by assessment of survivorship and proliferative activity in the tested cells after PDT. In the present study human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T-47D were used. Photolon (chlorin e6 complex: PVP 1:1) was used as a photosensitizer. Assessments of survivorship and proliferative activity of cells under the influence of PDT (WST-1 test) were conducted along with the expression of selected genes involved in the process of apoptosis: BCL-2, BAX, TP53 (RT-QPCR). PDT limited both survivorship and proliferative activity of breast cancer cells in the two tested lines. In case of T-47D cell line was found increase of BAX and BCL-2 genes expression after PDT and sustained activity of TP53 gene. Conversely, in MCF-7 cell line a decrease in expression was found for both BAX and TP53 genes, but also an increase of BCL-2 gene expression. A progressing decrease (24, 48 and 72 h after PDT) in the count of culture cells, which suggests the occurrence of apoptosis initiated by a photodynamic reaction with simultaneous increase of BCL-2/BAX index, indicates activation of a different endogenous apoptosis pathway than the one examined, namely pointing to suicidal death of cells after PDT.

  20. Functional conservation of the apoptotic machinery from coral to man: the diverse and complex Bcl-2 and caspase repertoires of Acropora millepora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Aurelie; Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Mason, Benjamin M; Huisman, Lotte; Forêt, Sylvain; Weiss, Yvonne; Bull, Tara E; Tomii, Kentaro; Imai, Kenichiro; Hayward, David C; Ball, Eldon E; Miller, David J

    2016-01-16

    Apoptotic cell death is a defining and ubiquitous characteristic of metazoans, but its evolutionary origins are unclear. Although Caenorhabditis and Drosophila played key roles in establishing the molecular bases of apoptosis, it is now clear that cell death pathways of these animals do not reflect ancestral characteristics. Conversely, recent work suggests that the apoptotic networks of cnidarians may be complex and vertebrate-like, hence characterization of the apoptotic complement of representatives of the basal cnidarian class Anthozoa will help us to understand the evolution of the vertebrate apoptotic network. We describe the Bcl-2 and caspase protein repertoires of the coral Acropora millepora, making use of the comprehensive transcriptomic data available for this species. Molecular phylogenetics indicates that some Acropora proteins are orthologs of specific mammalian pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, but the relationships of other Bcl-2 and caspases are unclear. The pro- or anti-apoptotic activities of coral Bcl-2 proteins were investigated by expression in mammalian cells, and the results imply functional conservation of the effector/anti-apoptotic machinery despite limited sequence conservation in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. A novel caspase type ("Caspase-X"), containing both inactive and active caspase domains, was identified in Acropora and appears to be restricted to corals. When expressed in mammalian cells, full-length caspase-X caused loss of viability, and a truncated version containing only the active domain was more effective in inducing cell death, suggesting that the inactive domain might modulate activity in the full-length protein. Structure prediction suggests that the active and inactive caspase domains in caspase-X are likely to interact, resulting in a structure resembling that of the active domain in procaspase-8 and the inactive caspase domain in the mammalian c-FLIP anti-apoptotic factor. The data presented here confirm that

  1. Dimethylfumarate inhibits melanoma cell proliferation via p21 and p53 induction and bcl-2 and cyclin B1 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzki, Irina; Hrgovic, Igor; Hailemariam-Jahn, Tsige; Doll, Monika; Kleemann, Johannes; Valesky, Eva Maria; Kippenberger, Stefan; Kaufmann, Roland; Zoeller, Nadja; Meissner, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that dimethylfumarate (DMF), known as a highly potent anti-psoriatic agent, might have anti-tumorigenic properties in melanoma. It has recently been demonstrated that DMF inhibits melanoma proliferation by apoptosis and cell cycle inhibition and therefore inhibits melanoma metastasis. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms remain to be evaluated. To elucidate the effects of DMF on melanoma cell lines (A375, SK-Mel), we first performed cytotoxicity assays. No significant lactatedehydogenase (LDH) release could be found. In further analysis, we showed that DMF suppresses melanoma cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. To examine whether these effects are conveyed by apoptotic mechanisms, we studied the amount of apoptotic nucleosomes and caspase 3/7 activity using ELISA analysis. Significant apoptosis was induced by DMF in both cell lines, and this could be paralleled with bcl-2 downregulation and PARP-1 cleavage. We also performed cell cycle analysis and found that DMF induced concentration-dependent arrests of G0/G1 as well as G2/M. To examine the underlying mechanisms of cell cycle arrest, we analyzed the expression profiles of important cell cycle regulator proteins such as p53, p21, cyclins A, B1, and D1, and CDKs 3, 4, and 6. Interestingly, DMF induced p53 and p21 yet inhibited cyclin B1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Other cell cycle regulators were not influenced by DMF. The knockdown of DMF induced p53 via siRNA led to significantly reduced apoptosis but had no influence on cell cycle arrest. We examined the adhesion of melanoma cells on lymphendothelial cells during DMF treatment and found a significant reduction in interaction. These data provide evidence that DMF inhibits melanoma proliferation by reinduction of important cell cycle inhibitors leading to a concentration-dependent G0/G1 or G2/M cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis via downregulation of bcl-2 and induction of p53 and PARP-1

  2. The antiproliferative activity of 3-deoxyanthocyanins extracted from red sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) bran through P(53)-dependent and Bcl-2 gene expression in breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganyadevi, P; Saravanakumar, K M; Mohandas, S

    2013-03-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti proliferative activity of 3-deoxyanthocyanin extracted from red sorghum bran on human breast cancer cell line MCF 7. The confirmatory tests were carried out in vitro through the expression studies of p(53) and (bcl) 2 genes in MCF 7 cells. The 3-deoxyanthocyanins were isolated from red sorghum bran and cytotoxic studies were performed in MCF 7 cell line by MTT assay. The mRNA expression levels of p(53) and (bcl) 2 genes were performed using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in MCF 7 cells. On cytotoxic studies, the present data indicates sorghum anthocyanins, which showed 84.09% of inhibition in the proliferation of MCF 7 cells, and the CTC(50) value was 300 μg/ml. The sorghum 3-deoxyanthocyanins induced apoptosis in MCF 7 was mediated by stimulation of the p(53) gene and down regulation of the (bcl) 2 gene. The significance of our work was the anthocyanin isolated from red sorghum bran inhibits the proliferation of human breast cancer cell line. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract treatment in the Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts in the femoral trabecular bone of Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda M.F. Lucinda

    Full Text Available Evaluate the effect of the extract of Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae (EGb in the Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts in the femoral trabecular bone of Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Rats were divided into five groups: osteoporosis; EGb1 (28 mg/kg; EGb2 (56 mg/kg; alendronate (0.2 mg/animal and control. The treatments were conducted for 20 or 30 days. The Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts cells was evaluated in the femoral trabecular bone. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis-induced group (Student's t-test. The other groups were analyzed by ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05. The percentage of Bcl-2 expression was reduced, when the control group (17.95 ± 3.45 20 days; 21.11 ± 3.43 30 days was compared with the osteoporosis group (10.64 ± 3.30 20 days; 9.72 ± 2.84 30 days. Nevertheless, this percentage increased in the EGb2 group (18.58 ± 3.41 20 days; 16.51 ± 1.80 30 days when compared to the osteoporosis group. The EGb increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, suggesting a decrease in osteoblast apoptosis.

  4. Downregulation of microRNA-125a is involved in intervertebral disc degeneration by targeting pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the role of the microRNA-125a (miR-125a and BAK1 in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD. Materials and Methods: Degenerative lumbar nucleus pulposus (NP tissues were obtained from 193 patients who underwent resection, and normal controls consisted of normal NP tissues from 32 patients with traumatic lumbar fracture in our hospital. All patients were graded according to the Pfirrmann criteria. QRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-125a and BAK1, and apoptosis of NP tissues detected by TUNEL staining. After isolation of non- degenerative and degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs, the targeting relationship between miR-125a and BAK1 was verified by dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Flow cytometry was determined the NPCs apoptosis, and Western blot to measure the expressions of BAK1, Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. Results: MiR-125a was reduced while BAK1 was elevated in IDD patients with the increase of Pfirrmann grade. Besides, miRNA-125a was negatively correlated to the NPCs apoptosis, while BAK1 mRNA was positively correlated to cell apoptosis. Additionally, BAK1 is the target gene of miRNA-125a. When transfection of miR-125a mimics in vitro, the apoptosis of NPCs were inhibited, with the down-regulation of BAK1, Caspase-3, and Bax, and the upregulation of Bcl-2. In addition, siBAK1 can reverse the pro-apoptosis function of miR-125a inhibitors in NPCs. Conclusion: miRNA-125a may regulate the apoptosis status of the NPCs by inhibiting the expression of its target gene BAK1, which provided a potential strategy for further development of IDD therapies.

  5. Expression of COX-2 and bcl-2 in oral lichen planus lesions and lichenoid reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreaza, Alven J; Rivera, Helen; Correnti, María

    2014-01-01

    Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions are autoimmune type inflammatory conditions of the oral mucosa with similar clinical and histological characteristics. Recent data suggest that oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) present a greater percentage of malignant transformation than oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective To compare the expression of bcl-2 and COX-2 in OLP and OLR. Methods The study population consisted of 65 cases; 34 cases diagnosed as OLR and 31 as OLP. A retrospective study was done, and bcl-2 and COX-2 expression was semiquantitatively analysed. Results Fifty-three per cent (18/34) of the ORL samples tested positive for COX-2, whereas in the OLP group, 81% of the samples (25/31) immunostained positive for COX-2. The Fisher’s exact test for the expression of COX-2 revealed that there are significant differences between the two groups, P = 0.035. With respect to the expression of the bcl-2 protein, 76% (26/34) of the samples were positive in OLR, while 97% (30/31) were positive in the group with OLP. The Fisher’s exact test for the expression of bcl-2 revealed that there are significant statistical differences between the two groups, P = 0.028. Conclusions The expression of bcl-2 and COX-2 was more commonly expressed in OLP when compared with OLR. PMID:24834112

  6. Prognostic Value of p53 and bcl-2 Expression in Patients Treated with Breast Conservative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Park, In Ae; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2010-01-01

    Prognostic value of p53 and bcl-2 expression on treatment outcome in breast cancer patients has been extensively evaluated, but the results were inconclusive. We evaluated the prognostic significance of these molecular markers in patients treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy. One hundred patients whose immunostaining of p53 and bcl-2 expression was available among 125 patients who underwent radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery and axillary lymph node dissection were enrolled into this study. Eighty-seven patients also received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Conventional clinicopathologic variables and treatment-related factors were also considered. The 5-yr loco-regional relapse-free and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 91.7% and 90.9%, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, T stage and the absence of bcl-2 & estrogen receptor (ER) expression were associated with loco-regional relapse-free survival. When incorporating these variables into Cox proportional hazard model, only bcl-2(-)/ER(-) phenotype was an adverse prognostic factor (P=0.018). As for the distant metastasis-free survival, age, T stage, and p53 expression were significant on univariate analysis. However, p53 expression was the only prognosticator on multivariate analysis (P=0.009). A bcl-2(-)/ER(-) phenotype and p53 expression are useful molecular markers predicting loco-regional relapse-free and distant metastasis-free survival, respectively, in patients treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy. PMID:20119576

  7. Clinical significance of P53 and Bcl-2 in acute myeloid leukemia patients of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetaram Sahu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of p53 and Bcl-2 protein expression in 100 newly diagnosed and 10 relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients was analyzed by immunocytochemistry (ICC. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to assess the relationship between p53, Bcl-2 and clinico-hematologic feature with respect to overall survival (OS using SPSS statistical software. No statistical significance was found in univariate analysis (P=0.60. However, when the subgroups of patients (+1, +2, +3 and +4 were compared, expression of p53 and Bcl-2 protein (1-10%, 11- 30%, 31-50% and >50% was statistically significant (P<0.05. However, in multivariate analysis, p53, immunopositivity was independently associated with a shorter overall survival (OS (P=0.038 while Bcl-2 immunopositivity was associated with longer overall survival (OS (P=0.002. Our finding shows that p53 and Bcl-2 protein overexpression is a strong indicator of response to chemotherapy and overall survival. This study reports for the first time AML in patients from Eastern India.

  8. Serenoa repens treatment modifies bax/bcl-2 index expression and caspase-3 activity in prostatic tissue from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Navarrete, Remigio; Escribano-Burgos, Marta; Farré, Antonio López; García-Cardoso, Juan; Manzarbeitia, Felix; Carrasco, Carolina

    2005-02-01

    Permixon is a lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (SR) widely used to treat men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We tested the effect of this drug on molecular mechanisms associated with apoptosis, such as the Bax-to-Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase-3 activity, in prostatic tissue from men with symptomatic BPH treated for 3 months before surgery. An open, multicenter pilot study of 2 parallel groups of patients with BPH was done. They were randomized to be followed for 3 weeks without any treatment before surgery (control group) or to receive 160 mg SR orally twice daily for a 3-month period preceding the same surgery. Surgery was ultimately performed in 17 controls and 12 patients by transurethral prostate resection or retropubic adenomectomy. Bax and Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 activity were determined by Western blot in 15 controls and 10 patients, and reported in blinded fashion. The Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, which is used as an apoptotic index, was significantly increased in the prostatic tissue of treated patients. The level of the intact 116 kDa poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase form, an enzyme involved in the cell death apoptotic pathway, was also found to be decreased in prostatic tissue from SR treated patients, suggesting increased caspase 3 activity in the prostate. Permixon increased molecular markers involved in the apoptotic process, ie the Bax-to-Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase-3 activity. This could have clinical relevance due to the improvement in symptoms produced by treatment with this drug.

  9. Genetic dissimilarity between primary colorectal carcinomas and their lymph node metastases: ploidy, p53, bcl-2, and c-myc expression--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalata, Khaled Refaat; Elshal, Mohamed Farouk; Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; Shoma, Ashraf

    2015-08-01

    The current paradigm of metastasis proposes that rare cells within primary tumors acquire metastatic capability via sequential mutations, suggesting that metastases are genetically dissimilar from their primary tumors. This study investigated the changes in the level of expression of a well-defined panel of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis markers between the primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and the corresponding synchronous lymph node (LN) metastasis from the same patients. DNA flow cytometry and immunostaining of p53, bcl-2, and c-myc were carried out on 36 cases of CRC radical resection specimens with their corresponding LN metastases. There was very low probability that the histological patterns of primary tumors and LN metastases are independent (p < 0.001). Metastatic tumors were significantly more diffusely positive for p53 than the primary tumors (p < 0.001). Conversely, primary tumors were significantly more diffusely positive for c-myc than metastatic tumors (p = 0.011). No significant difference was found between the LNs and the primary tumors in bcl-2 positivity (p = 0.538) and DNA aneuploidy (p = 0.35), with a tendency towards negative bcl-2 and less aneuploidy in LN metastases than primary tumors. In conclusion, LN metastatic colorectal carcinomas have a tendency of being less differentiated, with a higher incidence of diffuse p53 staining, lower incidence of bcl-2 staining, and less aneuploidy in comparison to their primary counterparts suggesting a more aggressive biological behavior, which could indicate the necessity for more aggressive adjuvant therapy.

  10. Removal of the BH4 Domain from Bcl-2 Protein Triggers an Autophagic Process that Impairs Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Trisciuoglio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we show that forced expression of a B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2 protein lacking residues 1 to 36 at the N-terminal, including the entire Bcl-2 homology 4 (BH4 domain, determines reduction of in vitro and in vivo human melanoma growth. Noteworthy, melanoma cells in vivo exhibit markedly increased autophagy, as response to expression of bcl-2 protein deleted of its BH4 domain. This observation led to the identification of a novel gain of function for bcl-2 protein lacking the BH4 domain. In particular, upon different autophagic stimuli in vitro, overexpression of bcl-2 protein deleted of BH4 domain induces autophagosome accumulation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B-II, reduced expression of p62/SQSTM1 protein, and thereby enhanced autophagic flux. The relevance of Beclin-1 is evidenced by the fact that 1 the autophagy-promoting and growth-inhibiting properties are partially rescued by Beclin-1 knockdown in cells expressing bcl-2 protein lacking the BH4 domain, 2 Beclin-1 only interacts with wild-type but not with deleted bcl-2, and 3 BH4 domain removal from bcl-2 protein does not influence in vitro and in vivo growth of tumor cells expressing low levels of endogenous Beclin-1. These results provide new insight into molecular mechanism of bcl-2 functions and represent a rationale for the development of agents interfering with the BH4 domain of bcl-2 protein.

  11. AS1411-Induced Growth Inhibition of Glioma Cells by Up-Regulation of p53 and Down-Regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 via Nucleolin

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ye; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Siwen; Nigim, Fares; Zhou, Guangtong; YU, ZHIYUN; Song, Yang; Chen, Yong; Li, Yunqian

    2016-01-01

    AS1411 binds nucleolin (NCL) and is the first oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer to reach phase I and II clinical trials for the treatment of several cancers. However, the mechanisms by which AS1411 targets and kills glioma cells and tissues remain unclear. Here we report that AS1411 induces cell apoptosis and cycle arrest, and inhibits cell viability by up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 in human glioma cells. NCL was overexpressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm in human gli...

  12. The antioxidant function of Bcl-2 preserves cytoskeletal stability of cells with defective respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, A M; Ghelli, A; Iommarini, L; Mariani, E; Hoque, M; Zanna, C; Gasparre, G; Rugolo, M

    2008-09-01

    Human thyroid carcinoma XTC.UC1 cells harbor a homoplasmic frameshift mutation in the MT-ND1 subunit of respiratory complex I. When forced to use exclusively oxidative phosphorylation for energy production by inhibiting glycolysis, these cells triggered a caspase-independent cell death pathway, which was associated to a significant imbalance in glutathione homeostasis and a cleavage of the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein significantly increased the level of endogenous reduced glutathione, thus preventing its oxidation after the metabolic stress. Furthermore, Bcl-2 completely inhibited actin cleavage and increased cell adhesion, but was unable to improve cellular viability. Similar effects were obtained when XTC.UC1 cells were incubated with exogenous glutathione. We hence propose that Bcl-2 can safeguard cytoskeletal stability through an antioxidant function.

  13. Combination chemotherapy for head and neck cancer: the addition of Bcl-2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Russo, Lucio; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2009-12-01

    Locoregionally advanced, recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) lacks a validated therapeutic approach. Evidence emphasizes the importance of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and survivin as survival factors in HNSCC cells. Targeting the Bcl-2 system is therefore an attractive strategy for restoring a 'normal' apoptotic process in HNSCC, making cells more susceptible to conventional chemotherapy and disrupting neovascularization. Among Bcl-2 inhibitors, non-peptidic small molecules hold substantial promise in HNSCC adjuvant therapy. Predicting treatment response requires the precise profiling of tumors, ideally by the use of panels that include markers from different pathways; the further definition of such panels may benefit from proteomic and/or pharmacogenomic approaches. Furthermore, in combination treatments, the effect of drug delivery sequence requires further investigation.

  14. The anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are attractive tumor-associated antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straten, Per thor; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2010-01-01

    -cancer therapy and specific antisense oligonucleotides or small molecule inhibitors have shown broad anti-cancer activities in pre-clinical models and are currently tested in clinical trials. In addition, immune-mediated tumor destruction is emerging as an interesting modality to treat cancer patients. Notably......, spontaneous cellular immune responses against the Bcl-2 family proteins have been identified as frequent features in cancer patients underscoring that these proteins are natural targets for the immune system. Thus, Bcl-2 family may serve as an important and widely applicable target for anti......-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies, alone or in the combination with conventional therapy. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of Bcl-2 family proteins as T-cell antigens, which has set the stage for the first explorative trial using these antigens in therapeutic vaccinations against cancer, and discuss future...

  15. Rapid acclimation of juvenile corals to CO2 -mediated acidification by upregulation of heat shock protein and Bcl-2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A; Huisman, L; Forêt, S; Gattuso, J-P; Hayward, D C; Ball, E E; Miller, D J

    2015-01-01

    Corals play a key role in ocean ecosystems and carbonate balance, but their molecular response to ocean acidification remains unclear. The only previous whole-transcriptome study (Moya et al. Molecular Ecology, 2012; 21, 2440) documented extensive disruption of gene expression, particularly of genes encoding skeletal organic matrix proteins, in juvenile corals (Acropora millepora) after short-term (3 d) exposure to elevated pCO2 . In this study, whole-transcriptome analysis was used to compare the effects of such 'acute' (3 d) exposure to elevated pCO2 with a longer ('prolonged'; 9 d) period of exposure beginning immediately post-fertilization. Far fewer genes were differentially expressed under the 9-d treatment, and although the transcriptome data implied wholesale disruption of metabolism and calcification genes in the acute treatment experiment, expression of most genes was at control levels after prolonged treatment. There was little overlap between the genes responding to the acute and prolonged treatments, but heat shock proteins (HSPs) and heat shock factors (HSFs) were over-represented amongst the genes responding to both treatments. Amongst these was an HSP70 gene previously shown to be involved in acclimation to thermal stress in a field population of another acroporid coral. The most obvious feature of the molecular response in the 9-d treatment experiment was the upregulation of five distinct Bcl-2 family members, the majority predicted to be anti-apoptotic. This suggests that an important component of the longer term response to elevated CO2 is suppression of apoptosis. It therefore appears that juvenile A. millepora have the capacity to rapidly acclimate to elevated pCO2 , a process mediated by upregulation of specific HSPs and a suite of Bcl-2 family members. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Electroporation increases antitumoral efficacy of the bcl-2 antisense G3139 and chemotherapy in a human melanoma xenograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldi Alfonso

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleic acids designed to modulate the expression of target proteins remain a promising therapeutic strategy in several diseases, including cancer. However, clinical success is limited by the lack of efficient intracellular delivery. In this study we evaluated whether electroporation could increase the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against bcl-2 (G3139 as well as the efficacy of combination chemotherapy in human melanoma xenografts. Methods Melanoma-bearing nude mice were treated i.v. with G3139 and/or cisplatin (DDP followed by the application of trains of electric pulses to tumors. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were performed to analyze protein and mRNA expression. The effect of electroporation on muscles was determined by histology, while tumor apoptosis and the proliferation index were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides tumor accumulation was measured by FACS and confocal microscopy. Results The G3139/Electroporation combined therapy produced a significant inhibition of tumor growth (TWI, more than 50% accompanied by a marked tumor re-growth delay (TRD, about 20 days. The efficacy of this treatment was due to the higher G3139 uptake in tumor cells which led to a marked down-regulation of bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the G3139/EP combination treatment resulted in an enhanced apoptotic index and a decreased proliferation rate of tumors. Finally, an increased tumor response was observed after treatment with the triple combination G3139/DDP/EP, showing a TWI of about 75% and TRD of 30 days. Conclusions These results demonstrate that electroporation is an effective strategy to improve the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides within tumor cells in vivo and it may be instrumental in optimizing the response of melanoma to chemotherapy. The high response rate observed in this study suggest to apply this strategy for the treatment of melanoma patients.

  17. The HtrA2 Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease is suppressed by the pro-survival Bcl-2 Buffy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Angale, P Githure; Staveley, Brian E

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in High temperature requirement A2 (HtrA2), also designated PARK13, which lead to the loss of its protease activity, have been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). HtrA2 is a mitochondrial protease that translocates to the cytosol upon the initiation of apoptosis where it participates in the abrogation of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) inhibition of caspases. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of the HtrA2 function in the dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila melanogaster results in PD-like phenotypes, and we attempt to restore the age-dependent loss in locomotor ability by co-expressing the sole pro-survival Bcl-2 homologue Buffy. The inhibition of HtrA2 in the dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila resulted in shortened lifespan and impaired climbing ability, and the overexpression of Buffy rescued the reduction in lifespan and the age-dependent loss of locomotor ability. In supportive experiments, the inhibition of HtrA2 in the Drosophila eye results in eye defects, marked by reduction in ommatidia number and increased disruption of the ommatidial array; phenotypes that are suppressed by the overexpression of Buffy.

  18. The Action of Bcl-2 Apoptotic Family Proteins and Caspases in Mediating Follicle Atresia in Adult Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Petculescu-Ciochină

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Among follicles present on the surface of the ovary only a small part reach ovulation, the majority entering atresia, which is an apoptotic process regulated hormonally in general. Apoptosis (from greek: apo = from, ptosis = falling - is a normal physiological process, genetically programmed cell death, which carries energy consumption by activating a program of internal suicide. This occurs at each stage of follicular development and is accompanied by a significant reduction in the number of follicles present at birth. Development stage-dependent mechanisms coordinate the evolution of follicles, leading to ovulation of a very small number of them. At follicular level apoptosis involves many morphological and biochemical processes that are based on pro-and anti-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family of proteins (located on mitochondrial outer membrane and caspases. These changes aim internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, cell retraction followed by its wrinkling, cytoskeleton disruption, preservation of cytoplasmic organelles structure and function, loss of intercellular ties with the reduced expression of conexine 43 (key protein of communication junctions between granulose cells, progressive fragmentation of nucleus and cytoplasm, and finally the appearance of apoptotic bodies, and their inclusion by phagocytes, without the involvement of any inflammatory response.

  19. Role of TRAIL and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim in acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmann, A; Keough, A; Kaufmann, T; Bouillet, P; Brunner, T; Corazza, N

    2011-06-09

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP), paracetamol) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, accidental or intentional overdose causes acute liver failure characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis with high morbidity and mortality. Although many molecular aspects of APAP-induced cell death have been described, no conclusive mechanism has been proposed. We recently identified TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and c-Jun kinase (JNK)-dependent activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim as an important apoptosis amplification pathway in hepatocytes. In this study, we, thus, investigated the role of TRAIL, c-JNK and Bim in APAP-induced liver damage. Our results demonstrate that TRAIL strongly synergizes with APAP in inducing cell death in hepatocyte-like cells lines and primary hepatocyte. Furthermore, we found that APAP strongly induces the expression of Bim in a c-JNK-dependent manner. Consequently, TRAIL- or Bim-deficient mice were substantially protected from APAP-induced liver damage. This study identifies the TRAIL-JNK-Bim axis as a novel target in the treatment of APAP-induced liver damage and substantiates its general role in hepatocyte death.

  20. Bcl-2—Enhanced Efficacy of Microtubule-Targeting Chemotherapy through Bim Overexpression: Implications for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Savry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bcl-2 is commonly overexpressed in tumors, where it is often associated with unfavorable outcome. However, it has also been linked to a favorable sensitivity to microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs. We show that Bcl-2– overexpressing lung and breast cancer cells were more sensitive to both paclitaxel and vinorelbine. Bcl-2 overexpression also significantly potentiated in vivo efficacy of paclitaxel, in terms of tumor volume decrease and survival benefits, in models of nude mice bearing lung cancer xenografts. To further investigate this favorable effect of Bcl-2, a genomic approach was taken. It revealed that Bcl-2 overexpression induced up-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bim in lung cancer cells and that, conversely, Bcl-2 silencing decreased Bim expression level. A gene regulation study implicated the transcription factor Forkhead box-containing protein, class O3a in Bim up-regulation. Lastly, we show that Bim was responsible for MTA-triggered lung cancer cell death through a dynamin-related protein 1–mediated mitochondrial fragmentation. The Bcl-2–governed Bim induction evidence offers for the first time an explanation for the favorable higher sensitivity to treatment shown by Bcl-2–overexpressing cells. We suggest that Bim could be a powerful predictive factor for tumor response to MTA chemotherapy. Our data also give new insight into some failures in the efficacy of therapies targeted against Bcl-2.

  1. Stress Hormone Cortisol Enhances Bcl2 Like-12 Expression to Inhibit p53 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weizhong; Liu, Sanguang; Liang, Yunfei; Zhou, Zegao; Bian, Wei; Liu, Xueqing

    2017-12-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) is unclear. It is suggested that psychological stress associates with the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Bcl2-like protein 12 (Bcl2L12) suppresses p53 protein. This study tests a hypothesis that the major stress hormone, cortisol, inhibits the expression of p53 in HC cells (HCC) via up regulating the expression of Bcl2L12. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with HC to be analyzed for the levels of cortisol. HCC were cultured to assess the role of cortisol in the regulation of the expression of Bcl2L12 and p53 in HCC. We observed that the serum cortisol levels were higher in HC patients. Expression of Bcl2L12 in HCC was correlated with serum cortisol. Cortisol enhanced the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. Bcl2L12 binding to the TP53 promoter was correlated with p53 expression in HCC. Cortisol increased the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC to inhibit p53 expression. Stress hormone cortisol suppresses p53 in HCC via enhancing Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. The results suggest that cortisol may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of HC.

  2. Drosophila larvae lacking the bcl-2 gene, buffy, are sensitive to nutrient stress, maintain increased basal target of rapamycin (Tor signaling and exhibit characteristics of altered basal energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrate Jessica P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 proteins are the central regulators of apoptosis. The two bcl-2 genes in Drosophila modulate the response to stress-induced cell death, but not developmental cell death. Because null mutants are viable, Drosophila provides an optimum model system to investigate alternate functions of Bcl-2 proteins. In this report, we explore the role of one bcl-2 gene in nutrient stress responses. Results We report that starvation of Drosophila larvae lacking the bcl-2 gene, buffy, decreases survival rate by more than twofold relative to wild-type larvae. The buffy null mutant reacted to starvation with the expected responses such as inhibition of target of rapamycin (Tor signaling, autophagy initiation and mobilization of stored lipids. However, the autophagic response to starvation initiated faster in larvae lacking buffy and was inhibited by ectopic buffy. We demonstrate that unusually high basal Tor signaling, indicated by more phosphorylated S6K, was detected in the buffy mutant and that removal of a genomic copy of S6K, but not inactivation of Tor by rapamycin, reverted the precocious autophagy phenotype. Instead, Tor inactivation also required loss of a positive nutrient signal to trigger autophagy and loss of both was sufficient to activate autophagy in the buffy mutant even in the presence of enforced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling. Prior to starvation, the fed buffy mutant stored less lipid and glycogen, had high lactate levels and maintained a reduced pool of cellular ATP. These observations, together with the inability of buffy mutant larvae to adapt to nutrient restriction, indicate altered energy metabolism in the absence of buffy. Conclusions All animals in their natural habitats are faced with periods of reduced nutrient availability. This study demonstrates that buffy is required for adaptation to both starvation and nutrient restriction. Thus, Buffy is a Bcl-2 protein that plays an

  3. Antagonism between apoptotic (Bax/Bcl-2) and anti-apoptotic (IAP) signals in human osteoblastic cells under vector-averaged gravity condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kumei, Yasuhiro; Morita, Sadao; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Ohya, Keiichi; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    2003-12-01

    A functional disorder associated with weightlessness is well documented in osteoblasts. The apototic features of this disorder are poorly understood. Harmful stress induces apoptosis in cells via mitochondria and/or Fas. The Bax triggers cytochrome c release from mitochondria, which can be blocked by the Bcl-2. Released cytochrome c then activates the initiator caspase, caspase-9, which can be blocked by the anti-apototic (IAP) family of molecules. The effector caspase, caspase-3, finally exerts DNA fragmentation. We conducted this study to examine the apoptotic effects of vector-averaged gravity on normal human osteoblastic cells. Cell culture flasks were incubated on the clinostat, which generated vector-averaged gravity condition (simulated microgravity) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours. Upon termination of clinostat cultures, the cell number and cell viability were assessed. DNA fragmentation was analyzed on the agarose-gel electrophoresis. The mRNA levels for Bax, Bcl-2, XIAP, and caspase-3 genes were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Twenty-four hours after starting clinostat rotation, the ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA levels (indicator of apoptosis) were significantly increased to 136% of the 1G static controls. However, the XIAP mRNA levels (anti-apoptotic molecule) were increased concomitantly to 138% of the 1G static controls. Thus, cell proliferation or cell viability was not affected by vector-averaged gravity. DNA fragmentation was not observed in clinostat group as well as in control group. Finally, the caspase-3 mRNA levels were not affected by vector-averaged gravity. Simulated microgravity might modulate some apoptotic signals upstream the mitochondrial pathway.

  4. Expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and survivin in cutaneous and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and survivin in cutaneous and oral squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. ... Conclusion: c-myc expressions correspond to the survivin expressions. c-myc expression was stronger in OSCC than in CSCC and BCC, and weaker in AK than in other malignant tumors.

  5. Alteration of Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio modulates the anticancer activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Real time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses of Bax, Bcl-2 and p53 exhibited aberrant expression profiles of these genes under various treatment conditions. Taken together, the data suggest that the crude methanolic extract of C. benghalensis contains bioactive compounds that may be beneficial in the ...

  6. [Effect of acrylonitrile on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in spermatogenic cell of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lingyun; Ma, Guoyan; Jin, Na; Chen, Ya; Feng, Yujuan; Dang, Yuhui; Xue, Hongli; Li, Zhilan

    2012-07-01

    To explore the effect of acrylonitrile exposure on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in mice spermatogenic cells. Based on body weight, 250 SPF Kunming adult male mice were randomly divided into five groups: negative control group (normal saline 0.01ml/g), three AN exposure groups (intraperitoneal injection of 1.25, 2.50 or 5.00 mg/kg of AN daily for 5 days, respectively) and positive control group (intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide 40mg/kg). Mice were killed in the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day after the first exposure by cervical dislocation. Immunohistochemical method (SABC) was used to detect the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein in spermatogenic cells. The average optical density values of Bcl-2 at five time points of the AN 2.50 mg/kg group and the 21th day point of the AN 1.25mg/kg group were significantly lower than the negative control group (P < 0.05). Except the 21st day point of the AN 1.25 mg/kg group, the mean optical density values of Bax in all time points of AN exposure groups were significantly higher than the negative control group (P < 0.05). The decreased expression of Bcl-2 protein was most distinct in AN 2.50mg/kg group and the positive control group at all time points. The expression of Bax protein was significantly increased in all groups at the 14th day point. The expression of Bcl-2 protein could be weakened in spermatogenic cells induced by AN, especially in the AN 2.50 mg/kg group; while the expression of Bax was enhanced, and the amplitude of change in the 14th day point was more obvious.

  7. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid increases the mRNA ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the colonic mucosa of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun S; Cho, Hye Y; Ha, Yeong L; Park, Jung H Y

    2004-04-01

    Previously we have shown that dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) significantly decreased colon tumor incidence in rats injected with 1,2-dimenthylhydrazine (DMH). The present study was performed to explore the mechanisms responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect of CLA. Four groups of rats received either vehicle or intramuscular injections of DMH at the dose of 15 mg/kg body weight twice per week for 6 weeks and were fed a diet containing either 0% or 1.0% CLA ad libitum for 14 weeks. Dietary CLA decreased cellular proliferation and induced apoptosis in the colonic mucosa of both vehicle and DMH-treated rats. Mucosal levels of prostaglandin (PG) E(2), thromboxane B(2), and 1,2-diacylglycerol decreased in rats fed the 1% CLA diet, whereas cyclooxygenase-2 levels were not affected. Arachidonate content of mucosal phospholipids decreased significantly in rats fed the 1% CLA diet. Reverse transcriptase-polymer chain reaction analysis revealed that the Bax/Bcl-2 transcript ratio was significantly increased in rats fed 1% CLA. To examine whether the 1% CLA diet reduces tumor incidence, the DMH-treated rats were continuously fed the assigned diets for 30 weeks. Tumor incidence was significantly decreased in the CLA-fed group. In conclusion, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that CLA decreases the incidence of colon cancer by decreasing cellular proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the colonic mucosa. These effects may be due in part to decreased PGE(2) levels and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios.

  8. The MUC1 oncomucin regulates pancreatic cancer cell biological properties and chemoresistance. Implication of p42–44 MAPK, Akt, Bcl-2 and MMP13 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tréhoux, Solange; Duchêne, Bélinda; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Van Seuningen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.vanseuningen@inserm.fr

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Loss of MUC1 decreases proliferation and tumor growth via β-catenin and p42–44 MAPK. • Inhibition of MUC1 decreases cell migration and invasion through MMP13. • Loss of MUC1 decreases survival and increases apoptosis via Akt and Bcl-2 pathways. • Loss of MUC1 sensitizes cells to gemcitabine and 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapeutic drugs. - Abstract: MUC1 is an oncogenic mucin overexpressed in several epithelial cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and is considered as a potent target for cancer therapy. To this aim, we undertook to study MUC1 biological effects on pancreatic cancer cells and identify pathways mediating these effects. Our in vitro experiments indicate that inhibiting MUC1 expression decreases cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion, cell survival and increases cell apoptosis. Moreover, lack of MUC1 in these cells profoundly altered their sensitivity to gemcitabine and 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapeutic drugs. In vivo MUC1-KD cell xenografts in SCID mice grew slower. Altogether, we show that MUC1 oncogenic mucin alters proliferation, migration, and invasion properties of pancreatic cancer cells and that these effects are mediated by p42–44 MAPK, Akt, Bcl-2 and MMP13 pathways.

  9. [BNIP3 as an atypical representative of the Bcl-2 protein family. Part 1: BNIP3, a regulator of non-apoptotic programmed cell death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Ewelina; Strzadała, Leon

    2009-09-10

    BNIP3 is classified as a member of the Bcl-2 protein family that regulates programmed cell death and of the BH3-only protein subfamily as it only contains one BH domain. However, the transmembrane domain of BNIP3 is involved in at least some of its pro-apoptotic functions. Although there are some similarities between BNIP3 and other BH3-only proteins, for example the ability to interact with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and to induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria, BNIP3 is undoubtedly distinct in regard to its activity and regulatory mechanisms. Not only can BNIP3 activate apoptosis, but also, or perhaps first of all, it can activate necrosis-like cell death due to its direct interaction with the mitochondrial membrane. BNIP3 is also involved is autophagy, but its role in this process is not yet clearly understood. It is possible that the induction or stimulation of autophagy by this protein can simultaneously inhibit apoptosis, for example in cardiac myocytes. In some cells, BNIP3 is sequestered in the nucleus, where it also acts as an anti-apoptotic factor, namely as a repressor of AIF transcription. This activity may enable tumor cells to achieve resistance to chemotherapeutics. Understanding BNIP3 functions and regulatory mechanisms can point to new molecular targets in the treatment of cancer and ischemic heart or brain diseases.

  10. BNIP3 as an atypical representative of the Bcl-2 protein family. Part 1: BNIP3, a regulator of non-apoptotic programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Swoboda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available BNIP3 is classified as a member of the Bcl-2 protein family that regulates programmed cell death and of the BH3-only protein subfamily as it only contains one BH domain. However, the transmembrane domain of BNIP3 is involved in at least some of its pro-apoptotic functions. Although there are some similarities between BNIP3 and other BH3-only proteins, for example the ability to interact with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and to induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria, BNIP3 is undoubtedly distinct in regard to its activity and regulatory mechanisms. Not only can BNIP3 activate apoptosis, but also, or perhaps first of all, it can activate necrosis-like cell death due to its direct interaction with the mitochondrial membrane. BNIP3 is also involved is autophagy, but its role in this process is not yet clearly understood. It is possible that the induction or stimulation of autophagy by this protein can simultaneously inhibit apoptosis, for example in cardiac myocytes. In some cells, BNIP3 is sequestered in the nucleus, where it also acts as an anti-apoptotic factor, namely as a repressor of AIF transcription. This activity may enable tumor cells to achieve resistance to chemotherapeutics. Understanding BNIP3 functions and regulatory mechanisms can point to new molecular targets in the treatment of cancer and ischemic heart or brain diseases.

  11. Anti-tumour activity of a novel coumarin-chalcone hybrid is mediated through intrinsic apoptotic pathway by inducing PUMA and altering Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Sarkar, Jayanta; Sashidhara, Koneni V; Ali, Shakir; Sinha, Sudhir

    2014-06-01

    Coumarins and chalcones are secondary plant metabolites which have shown an array of pharmacological properties including anti-tumour activity. We have previously reported on the synthesis and anti-proliferative activity of a series of novel coumarin-chalcone hybrids. Now we report on the in vivo efficacy as well as mechanism of action of the most potent molecule of the series, S009-131. Oral administration of this molecule resulted in regression of tumours induced by HeLa cell xenografts in nod SCID mice. The molecule inhibited proliferation of cervical cancer cells (HeLa and C33A) by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase. Apoptosis was induced through induction of caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway and alterations in the cellular levels of Bcl-2 family proteins. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential got highly depleted in S009-131 treated cells due to an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and intracellular ROS. The molecule induced release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and activation of initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspases-3/7. Tumour suppressor protein p53 and its transcriptional target PUMA were up regulated, suggesting their role in mediating the cell death. These results suggest that S009-131 is a potent candidate for the chemotherapy of cervical carcinoma.

  12. CORRELATION BETWEEN PROTEIN-WITH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT-53 (P53, BURKIT CELL LYMPHOMA 2 (BCL2, AND FAS LIGAND (FASL AND VASCULAR-CELL-ADHESION-MOLECULE-1 (VCAM-1 MRNA EXPRESSION LEVELS IN A PATHOGENESIS STUDY OF PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mintareja Teguh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of protein-with-molecular-weight-53 (p53, burkit cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2, Fas ligand (FasL mRNA, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, known as the apoptosis-related molecular pathway, in preeclamptic patients. Methods: Observation on the correlation between the mRNA levels of p53, Bcl2 and FasL and VCAM-1 in 31 subjects at 28-42 weeks gestational age was performed in this study using the real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: The results showed that p53 mRNA increased (>1.2350 ng/μL in the preeclampsia group compared to the normal pregnancy group (p=0.010, Bcl2 mRNA was lower (≤0.9271 ng/μL in the preeclampsia group than the control group (p=0.041. There was also a tendency of increased FasL mRNA expression (>0.5509 ng/μL in the preeclampsia group compared to the normal pregnancy group (p=0.300. The level of VCAM-1 elevated (>890.08 ng/mL in the preeclampsia group compared to the normal pregnancy group (p=0.001. In preeclampsia, the correlation between the Bcl2/p53 ratio and VCAM-1 was r=0.541 (p=0.002, whereas the correlation in normal pregnancy was r=0.099 (p=0.595. Conclusions: There are correlations between the mRNA expression levels of p53 and Bcl2 as an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis along with the VCAM-1 levels in the incidence of preeclampsia. However, no correlation is found between FasL mRNA expression and the incidence of preeclampsia.

  13. Structural Basis for Bc12-Regulated Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marassi, Francesca M

    2005-01-01

    ...; by dimerization with other Bcl-2 family members; by binding to other non-homologous proteins; and by formation of membrane pores that are believed to regulate apoptosis by perturbing mitochondrial physiology...

  14. The inhibition of malignant epithelial cells in mucosal injury in the oral cavity of strains by pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum linn through Bcl-2 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hernawati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity is a malignant neoplasms derived from epithelia. The malignant neoplasms are cells that have changed their structure and function, and their number becomes increasing abnormally, invasive, and metastatic. Carcinoma can be caused by the resistance of malignant cell apoptosis. Bcl-2 is a proto-oncogene of Bcl family that inhibits the process of cell apoptosis and suppresses Bax protein (pro-apoptotic. The management efforts of cancer diseases, however, still have many obstacles. Thus, the researcher was triggered to explore more herbal plants, namely pomegranate. Pomegranate as a medicinal plant is accessible and cheap. Ellagic acid (EA is a single active compound derived from whole pomegranate fruit extract (PGL, which has anti-cancer activity as in vitro, but EA is low concentration in plasma, low water solubility, and insoluble in intestinal. These facts prompted the researcher to compare between pomegranate extract, which consists of several active compounds, and that, which only consists of ellagic acid. Thus, this research is expected to know how some active compounds can work synergistically in the PGL, so the effect can be more potent. Purpose: The purpose of this research, therefore, was to compare EA with PGL in reducing the expression of Bcl-2. Methods: This laboratory experimental research was used 32 male mice (Balb/c in the age of 5 months. They were randomly divided into 4 groups: 2 control groups (K0: which was not exposed with benzopirene and also untreated and K1: which was exposed with benzopirene and also untreated, 2 treatment groups (P1: which was exposed with benzopirene and also treated with EA and P2: which was exposed with benzopirene and also treated with the PGL. Next, an examination was conducted by using immunohistochemical techniques. results: The results then showed that the provision of the PGL could decrease the expression of Bcl-2 significantly higher than that

  15. Targeting anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins in cancer: the importance of intermolecular interactions and protein turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooswinkel, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Bcl-B, een van de anti-apoptotische Bcl-2-eiwitten, is instabiel. Dit beïnvloedt zijn capaciteit om apoptose te blokkeren negatief, toont Rogier Rooswinkel aan. Ook blijkt dat voor alle Bcl-2-familieleden eiwitstabiliteit de bepalende factor is voor hun anti-apoptotische capaciteit. Dit in

  16. Clinical relevance of BCL2, BCL6, and MYC rearrangements in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, M.H.H.; Hermans, J; Wijburg, E; Philippo, K; Geelen, E; van Krieken, J.H.J.M.; de Jong, D; Maartense, E; Schuuring, E; Kluin, P M

    1998-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCL) is characterized by a marked degree of morphologic and clinical heterogeneity. We studied 156 patients with de novo DLCL for rearrangements of the BCL2, BCL6, and MYC oncogenes by Southern blot analysis and BCL2 protein expression. We related these data to the

  17. A New Perspective for Osteosarcoma Therapy: Proteasome Inhibition by MLN9708/2238 Successfully Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest and Attenuates the Invasion Ability of Osteosarcoma Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renhao; Fu, Chunjiang; Sun, Jiabing; Wang, Xvming; Geng, Shuo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zou, Jilong; Bi, Zhenggang; Yang, Chenglin

    2017-01-01

    The proteasome exists in all eukaryotic cells and provides the main route of intracellular proteins degradation involved in cell growth and apoptosis. Proteasome inhibition could block protein degradation pathways and disturb regulatory networks, possibly leading to profound effects on cell growth, particularly in cancer cells. A proteasome inhibitor with an appropriate toxicity index for malignant cells rather than normal cells would be an attractive anticancer therapy. The human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines MG-63 and Saos-2 and normal osteoblast cells were used to study the antitumour activity of the proteasome inhibitor MLN9708/2238. MLN2238 inhibited cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and attenuated the invasion abilities of MG-63 and Saos-2 cells, with little cytotoxicity to normal cells. In addition, MLN2238 promoted antitumour mechanisms including the accumulation of E2F1, P53, P21 and other negative G2/M checkpoint proteins; up-regulated the relative expression ratio of BAX/BCL-2, APAF-1 and pro-apoptotic proteins of the BCL-2 family; triggered mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP); down-regulated BCL-2 and XIAP; activated caspase3/8/9; and suppressed MMP2/9 expression and secretion levels. The proteasome may be a novel biochemical target for OS treatment in vitro. Our study provides a promising mechanistic framework for MLN9708/2238 in OS treatment, supporting its clinical development. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. BAK overexpression mediates p53-independent apoptosis inducing effects on human gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a novel pro-apoptotic gene of the Bcl-2 family. It has been reported that gastric tumors have reduced BAK levels when compared with the normal mucosa. Moreover, mutations of the BAK gene have been identified in human gastrointestinal cancers, suggesting that a perturbation of BAK-mediated apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effects of gene transfer mediated elevations in BAK expression on human gastric cancer cells in vitro. Methods Eukaryotic expression vector for the BAK gene was constructed and transferred into gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-45 (wild-type p53 and MKN-28 (mutant-type p53. RT-PCR and Western Blotting detected cellular BAK gene expression. Cell growth activities were detected by MTT colorimetry and flow cytometry, while apoptosis was assayed by electronic microscopy and TUNEL. Western Blotting and colorimetry investigated cellular caspase-3 activities. Results BAK gene transfer could result in significant BAK overexpression, decreased in vitro growth, cell cycle G0/G1 arrest, and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In transferred cells, inactive caspase-3 precursor was cleaved into the active subunits p20 and p17, during BAK overexpression-induced apoptosis. In addition, this process occurred equally well in p53 wild-type (MKN-45, or in p53 mutant-type (MKN-28 gastric cancer cells. Conclusions The data presented suggests that overexpression of the BAK gene can lead to apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, which does not appear to be dependent on p53 status. The action mechanism of BAK mediated apoptosis correlates with activation of caspase-3. This could be served as a potential strategy for further development of gastric cancer therapies.

  19. Influence of BCL2-938C>A and BAX-248G>A promoter polymorphisms in the development of AML: case-control study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingeetham, Anuradha; Vuree, Sugunakar; Dunna, Nageswara Rao; Gorre, Manjula; Nanchari, Santhoshi Rani; Edathara, Prajitha Mohandas; Meka, Phannibhushann; Annamaneni, Sandhya; Digumarthi, Raghunadharao; Sinha, Sudha; Satti, Vishnupriya

    2015-09-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) proteins are anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic determinants of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and their relative expression determines the cell fate. The promoter polymorphisms in these genes were shown to alter the protein function or expression and exert an impact on apoptosis regulation. Deregulation in the expression of any of these genes leads to disruption of cellular homeostasis and malignant transformation. The present study was aimed to determine the association of BCL2-938C>A and BAX-248G>A promoter polymorphisms with origin and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We also have performed combined genotype analysis to evaluate the cumulative effect of risk genotypes in the AML development. These polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 221 AML patients and 305 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Our study revealed that BCL2-938CA (p = 0.018) and BAX-248GG (0.043) genotypes were significantly associated with increased risk for AML occurrence. BAX-248A allele had shown decreased risk for AML. The combined analysis had shown that BCL2-938CA+AA-BAX-248GG group had a 1.63-fold (95 % CI: 1.08-2.45, p = 0.02) increased risk for AML. None of the clinical variables had shown any significant association with both polymorphisms. With respect to complete remission (CR) rate, BAX-248GG genotype (p = 0.002) and G allele (p = 0.009) had conferred significant risk for complete remission failure. Although the log rank test was not significant, survival analysis had shown a trend where BCL2-938CA genotype, and BAX-248GG had reduced median disease-free survival (DFS) of 9 and 10 months, respectively. In conclusion, BCL2-938C>A and BAX-248G>A gene polymorphisms might contribute to the origin of AML. Moreover, influence of BAX-248GG genotype on CR and DFS rate suggests that the BAX-248G>A polymorphism can serve as

  20. Reversing multidrug resistance in Caco-2 by silencing MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and BCL-2/BCL-xL using liposomal antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Lo

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major impediment to chemotherapy. In the present study, we designed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs against MDR1, MDR-associated protein (MRP1, MRP2, and/or BCL-2/BCL-xL to reverse MDR transporters and induce apoptosis, respectively. The cationic liposomes (100 nm composed of N-[1-(2,3-dioleyloxypropyl]-n,n,n-trimethylammonium chloride and dioleoyl phosphotidylethanolamine core surrounded by a polyethylene glycol (PEG shell were prepared to carry ASOs and/or epirubicin, an antineoplastic agent. We aimed to simultaneously suppress efflux pumps, provoke apoptosis, and enhance the chemosensitivity of human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells to epirubicin. We evaluated encapsulation efficiency, particle size, cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation, mRNA levels, cell cycle distribution, and caspase activity of these formulations. We found that PEGylated liposomal ASOs significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability and thus intensified epirubicin-mediated apoptosis. These formulations also decreased the MDR1 promoter activity levels and enhanced the intracellular retention of epirubicin in Caco-2 cells. Epirubicin and ASOs in PEGylated liposomes remarkably decreased mRNA expression levels of human MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and BCL-2. The combined treatments all significantly increased the mRNA expressions of p53 and BAX, and activity levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9. The formulation of epirubicin and ASOs targeting both pump resistance of MDR1, MRP1, and MRP2 and nonpump resistance of BCL-2/BCL-xL demonstrated more superior effect to all the other formulations used in this study. Our results provide a novel insight into the mechanisms by which PEGylated liposomal ASOs against both resistance types act as activators to epirubicin-induced apoptosis through suppressing MDR1, MRP1, and MRP2, as well as triggering intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathways. The complicated regulation of MDR highlights the necessity

  1. Acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides act as antagonists against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death via Bcl-2/Bax signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Cui; Gao, Lixia; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Wei; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Chunxia

    2015-03-12

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), depolymerized products of chitosan composed of β-(1→4) D-glucosamine units, have broad range of biological activities such as antitumour, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. In this study, peracetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (PACOs) and N-acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (NACOs) were prepared from the COSs by chemcal modification. The structures of these monomers were identified using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. Their antagonist effects against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with the PACOs markedly inhibited glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The PACOs were better glutamate antagonists compared to the COSs and the NACOs, suggesting the peracetylation is essential for the neuroprotective effects of chitosan oligosaccharides. In addition, the PACOs pretreatment significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species production. It also attenuated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies indicated that the PACOs inhibited glutamate-induced cell death by preventing apoptosis through depressing the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that PACOs might be promising antagonists against glutamate-induced neural cell death.

  2. Acetylated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Act as Antagonists against Glutamate-Induced PC12 Cell Death via Bcl-2/Bax Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs, depolymerized products of chitosan composed of β-(1→4 d-glucosamine units, have broad range of biological activities such as antitumour, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. In this study, peracetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (PACOs and N-acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (NACOs were prepared from the COSs by chemcal modification. The structures of these monomers were identified using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. Their antagonist effects against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with the PACOs markedly inhibited glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The PACOs were better glutamate antagonists compared to the COSs and the NACOs, suggesting the peracetylation is essential for the neuroprotective effects of chitosan oligosaccharides. In addition, the PACOs pretreatment significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species production. It also attenuated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies indicated that the PACOs inhibited glutamate-induced cell death by preventing apoptosis through depressing the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that PACOs might be promising antagonists against glutamate-induced neural cell death.

  3. Bcl-2 protein level in blood of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ةدﺎﺤﻟا ﺔﯿﻋﺎﺨﻨﻟا ﺎﯿﻤﯿﻛﻮﻠﻟا. ؛. ضاﺮﻋأ. ضﺮﻣ. ﻚﯿﺘﺳﻼﺒﺴﯾدﻮﻠﯿﻤﻟا. ؛. ﻦﯿﺗوﺮﺑ p53. Résumé. Nous avons recherché la relation entre la protéine bcl-2 dans le sang et l'existence d'une leucémie myéloïde aiguë (LMA), bcl-2 étant une protéine anti-apoptotique incriminée dans le cancer. Des échantillons sanguins ont été prélevés chez 28 patients ...

  4. Binding of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 with different BH3 peptides: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Huihui; Cui, Jinglan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations are utilized to study how different BH3 peptides originating from Bax, Bim, Bik and Noxa interact with Bcl-2, one of the main members of anti-apoptotic proteins. The effects of peptide length, sequence and helical content on the binding affinity are discussed, on which a novel BH3-like peptide is designed in silico with an improved binding property.

  5. Immunohistochemical study of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and Bcl-2 in normal oral mucosa, inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia, oral epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Manuel Antonio Gordón; de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; Galvão, Hébel Cavalcanti

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and the Bcl-2 protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia (IFH), oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Eleven cases of NOM, 16 IFH, 20 OED, and 27 OSCC were selected for analysis of the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and bcl-2 protein. There was an association between the intensity and location of the integrin α₅β₁ expression, especially in the OSCC, that 48.1% of cases showed weak immunoreactivity and 40.7% in the suprabasal layer (P < 0.05). There was an association between the pattern and distribution of fibronectin expression in basement membrane, where 90% of NOM showed a pattern of linear continuous and 80% of OED exhibited focal distribution (P < 0.05). The fibronectin expression in connective tissue was predominantly intense with an association of staining pattern among the different specimens, where 37% of OSCC showed a reticular pattern (P < 0.05). There was an association of bcl-2 protein among the types of specimens, especially in IFH and OSCC, where 100% of the cases exhibited scores 1 of staining (P < 0.05). Within this context, the interaction of integrin α₅β₁ with its main ligand in the extracellular matrix, fibronectin, is suggested to influence the survival of tumor cells and to favor their proliferation by modulating apoptosis through the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins or the suppression of apoptotic mediators.

  6. Serum starvation and thymidine double blocking achieved efficient cell cycle synchronization and altered the expression of p27, p53, bcl-2 in canine breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jinjin; Sun, Dongdong; Yang, Chao; Wang, Yingxue; Sun, Sichao; Li, Qing; Bao, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2016-04-01

    Cell synchronization is an approach to obtain cell populations of the same stage, which is a prerequisite to studying the regulation of cell cycle progression in vivo. Serum starvation and thymidine double blocking (TdR) are two important practices in studying cell cycle synchronization. However, their effects on canine cancer cells as well as the regulatory mechanisms by these two methods are poorly understood. In this study, we determined the optimum conditions of serum starvation and TdR and their effects on cell cycle synchronization. We further explored the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the cell cycle synchronization by investigating the expression of three key genes (p27, p53 and bcl-2). Serum starvation resulted in a reversible cell cycle arrest and synchronously progress through G0/G1. The highest percentage of CHMm cells (87.47%) in G0/G1 stage was obtained after 42 h incubation with 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). TdR double blocking could arrest 98.9% of CHMm cells in G1/S phase (0 h of release), and could arrest 93.74% of CHMm cells in S phase after 4h of release. We also found that the p27, p53, bcl-2 genes were most highly expressed in G0/G1 phase. Our current work revealed that serum starvation and TdR methods could achieve sufficient synchronization of CHMm cells. Moreover, the expression of p27, p53 and bcl-2 genes was related to cyclical movements and apoptosis. Our results will provide a new insight into cell cycle regulation and reprogramming of canine cancer cells induced by serum starvation and TdR blocking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Punicalagin attenuated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion insult via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of Bcl-2, down-regulation of Bax, and caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaidikar, Lavanya; Thakur, Santhrani

    2015-04-01

    Punicalagin (PG) is a hydrolysable tannin compound found in Punica granatum L. The purpose of the present work is to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of PG against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were randomly divided into sham, MCAO, and PG-treated groups. PG (15 and 30 mg/kg), the vehicle was administered orally for 7 days prior to MCAO. Rats were anesthetised with ketamine (100 mg/kg/im), xylazine (10 mg/kg/im) and subjected to 2 h occlusion and 22 h reperfusion. The effects of PG on behavioral deficit and infarct volume, the levels of glutamate and calcium as well as the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated. Moreover, the expressions of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax were detected by Western blotting. As compared with MCAO group, PG-treated rats showed dose-dependent reduction in infarct volume and substantial improvement in behavioral deficit. The levels of glutamate, calcium, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were restored significantly. The Western blotting results revealed that the expression of Bcl-2 was up-regulated and that of caspase-3, Bax were down-regulated when exposed to PG. From our results, it can be concluded that PG showed an ameliorative effect against cerebral I/R injury in rats through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant actions besides it inhibits excitotoxicity. It also suppresses apoptosis through regulating, Bcl-2, caspase-3, and Bax protein expressions, perhaps another mechanism by which PG employs its neuroprotective action.

  8. Effects of selenium on lead-induced alterations in Aβ production and Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiqiang; Fu, Hongjun; Xiao, Yongmei; Zhang, Bo; Sun, Guangshun; Wei, Qing; Ai, Baomin; Hu, Qiansheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in humans and animals have suggested that lead (Pb) may increase the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and accumulation of amyloid β protein (Aβ). Our previous studies have revealed that selenium (Se) can partially improve memory deficits induced by Pb exposure. In this study we sought to investigate the effect of Pb and Se on the endogenous expression of APP, Aβ40 and Bcl-2 family proteins. In vitro, the protein levels of APP and Aβ significantly decreased in SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells co-incubated with Pb-acetate and selenomethionine (SeMet) for 48h, compared with cells treated with Pb-acetate alone. Furthermore, these reductions induced by Se appeared to be concentration-dependent. In Wistar rats, we observed that the mRNA and protein levels of APP, the protein level of Bax, and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein significantly increased after Pb treatment at embryonic stage and in neonates. These increases were significantly reversed by the treatment of Se. Taken together, our results suggest that Se can attenuate the alterations in APP expression and Aβ production as well as Bcl-2 family proteins induced by lead exposure in cells and in animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Herpesvirus pan encodes a functional homologue of BHRF1, the Epstein-Barr virus v-Bcl-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Tracey

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV latently infects about 90% of the human population and is associated with benign and malignant diseases of lymphoid and epithelial origin. BHRF1, an early lytic cycle antigen, is an apoptosis suppressing member of the Bcl-2 family. In vitro studies imply that BHRF1 is dispensable for both virus replication and transformation. However, the fact that BHRF1 is highly conserved not only in all EBV isolates studied to date but also in the analogous viruses Herpesvirus papio and Herpesvirus pan that infect baboons and chimpanzees respectively, suggests BHRF1 may play an important role in vivo. Results Herpesvirus papio BHRF1 has been shown to function in an analogous manner to EBV BHRF1 in response to DNA damaging agents in human keratinocytes. In this study we show that the heterologous expression of the previously uncharacterised Herpesvirus pan BHRF1 in the human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Ramos-BL provides similar anti-apoptotic functions to that of EBV BHRF1 in response to apoptosis triggered by serum withdrawal, etoposide treatment and ultraviolet (UV radiation. We also map the amino acid changes onto the recently solved structure of the EBV BHRF1 and reveal that these changes are unlikely to alter the 3D structure of the protein. Conclusions These findings show that the functional conservation of BHRF1 extends to a lymphoid background, suggesting that the primate virus proteins interact with cellular proteins that are themselves highly conserved across the higher primates. Further weight is added to this suggestion when we show that the difference in amino acid sequences map to regions on the 3D structure of EBV BHRF1 that are unlikely to change the conformation of the protein.

  10. APOPTOSIS AND CHRONIC CARDIAC INSUFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Gasanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into molecular apoptosis mechanisms in patients with cardio-vascular diseases is one of the pressing issues in modern medicine. Many mechanisms of this phenomenon still remain unexamined, the role of inductors and regulators in cardiomyocyte apoptosis has not yet been fully explained. This review summarizes research data that analyze the role that various groups of cell death inductors and regulators, such as FasL, Fas-R and mitochondrial apoptosis factors. Influence of the Bcl-2 protein family as apoptosis regulators is described. Developments in programmed cell death are reviewed.Key words: apoptosis, cell death mechanisms, mitochondria, cardiamyocytes.

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Enhanced Bcl-2 Expression Promote Liver Recovery in a Rat Model of Hepatic Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhu Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation has emerged as an option for the treatment of chronic hepatic cirrhosis, while its therapeutic efficacy could be improved. The bcl-2 gene is anti-apoptotic and can help cell survival and proliferation. Therefore, we explored whether transplanted MSCs with enhanced bcl-2 expression may be beneficial in the treatment of experimental cirrhosis in rats. Methods: MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow, expanded in vitro and transfected with adeno-associated virus (AAV engineered the bcl-2 gene (AAV-bcl-2. Rats with cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 were treated with AAV-bcl-2 infected BMSCs-AAV-bcl-2, with the cells traced in vivo post transplantation. Liver pathology and function were evaluated 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post transplantation, respectively. Results: On day 7 post transplantation, the infused AAV-bcl-2 had integrated into the hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs that expressed albumin (ALB, Cytokeratin 18 (CK18, and hepatocytes nuclear factor 4a (HNF4a. On day 28 post transplantation, rats in the cirrhosis + BMSCs-AAV-bcl-2 group showed the most dense HLCs, highest mRNA and protein levels of ALB, CK18, and HNF4a, compared to the other groups. Their liver function recovered most rapidly in 4 week observation, while histological sign of cirrhosis remained at the end of this period. Conclusion: BMSCs over expressing bcl-2 gene showed better survival, and enhanced the differentiation into hepatocytes-like cells, and appeared to promote the recovery of liver function in rats with experimental cirrhosis.

  12. Expression heterogeneity research of ITGB3 and BCL-2 in lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zong-Jiang; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yue-Bin; Zhou, Kun; Sun, Guo-Ju

    2014-06-01

    To analyze expression heterogeneity of Integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) in lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adenocarcinoma cell line and further provide theoretical direction for molecular biological research of lung adenocarcinoma. Tissue microarray was used to observe relation among expression, heterogeneitpy and clinical characteristics of ITGB3 and BCL-2 in lung cancer. ITGB3 and BCL-2 increased significantly in A549 cells in CAFs group withβ-actin as control; the expression level of BCL-2 also increased in ITGB3 transfected cells with GFP plasmid transfected A549 cells as control; immunohistochemistry staining showed that positive rates of ITGB3, ITGB1 and BCL-2 in normal lung tissues were 0, the positive rates in lung adenocarcinoma were 7.04%, 84.51% and 4.23%, respectively; in the results of immunohistochemistry staining, the expression of Girdin protein in lung adenocarcinoma was homogeneous, however protein expression of ITGB3, ITGB1 and BCL-2 showed different patterns in the same location with significant heterogeneity; majority of ITGB3, ITGB1 or BCL-2 positive tissue showed heterogeneity that expression in trailing edge was higher than that of trailing edge in lung adenocarcinoma tissue, the patients with BCL-2 heterogeneity showed higher lymph node metastasis ratio and lower clinical stage (P0.05). Expression of ITGB3 and BCL-2 in lung adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma cell line showed heterogeneity that expression in trailing edge was higher than that of trailing edge, which may play an important role in promoting tumor lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion, and provides a new research direction for exploration of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous delivery of Paclitaxel and Bcl-2 siRNA via pH-Sensitive liposomal nanocarrier for the synergistic treatment of melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Teegala Lakshminarayan; Garikapati, Koteswara Rao; Reddy, S. Gopal; Reddy, B. V. Subba; Yadav, J. S.; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2016-10-01

    pH-sensitive drug carriers that are sensitive to the acidic (pH = ~6.5) microenvironments of tumor tissues have been primarily used as effective drug/gene/siRNA/microRNA carriers for releasing their payloads to tumor cells/tissues. Resistance to various drugs has become a big hurdle in systemic chemotherapy in cancer. Therefore delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and siRNA’s targeting anti apoptotic genes possess advantages to overcome the efflux pump mediated and anti apoptosis-related drug resistance. Here, we report the development of nanocarrier system prepared from kojic acid backbone-based cationic amphiphile containing endosomal pH-sensitive imidazole ring. This pH-sensitive liposomal nanocarrier effectively delivers anti-cancer drug (Paclitaxel; PTX) and siRNA (Bcl-2), and significantly inhibits cell proliferation and reduces tumor growth. Tumor inhibition response attributes to the synergistic effect of PTX potency and MDR reversing ability of Bcl-2 siRNA in the tumor supporting that kojic acid based liposomal pH-sensitive nanocarrier as efficient vehicle for systemic co-delivery of drugs and siRNA.

  14. Piperine (PP) enhanced mitomycin-C (MMC) therapy of human cervical cancer through suppressing Bcl-2 signaling pathway via inactivating STAT3/NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Zhai; Liu, Hong-Xia; Yang, Lin-Qing; Cui, Li-de; Xu, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Piperine (PP), an alkaloid from black and long peppers (Piper nigrum Linn &Piper longum Linn), exhibits antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the ability of piperine (PP) to reverse the drug resistance of human cervical cancer cells. In our study, the cervica cancer cells resistant to mitomycin-C (MMC) treatment were used. We found the growth inhibitory effects of piperine on human cervical cancer cell, which were resistant to MMC. Piperine and MMC co-treatment resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of the cell proliferation. Decreasing of phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT3) was linked to the suppression of p65 by PP and MMC combinational treatment. Additionally, the presence of PP potentiated the effects of MMC on apoptosis induction in cervical cancer cells with drug resistance, which was dependent on Bcl-2 inhibition. The pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and Bid were up-regulated, accompanied with Caspase cleavage. Moreover, in mice xenograft models, the combined therapy inhibited tumor growth compared to the PP or MMC mono-therapy group. Our data indicated a novel therapeutic strategy of PP to potentiate MMC-induced anti-tumor effect on cervical cancer cells with drug resistance through blocking p-STAT3/p65 and Bcl-2 activation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Chemoresistance to concanamycin A1 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma is attenuated by an HDAC inhibitor partly via suppression of Bcl-2 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamotsu Kiyoshima

    Full Text Available V-ATPase is involved in the acidification of the microenvironment around/in solid tumors, such as oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. V-ATPase is thought to induce tumor invasion and multi-drug resistance in several malignant tumors, and it also contributes to maintaining the intracellular pH under an acidic microenvironment by inducing proton extrusion into the extracellular medium. However, there is little information regarding the effects of V-ATPase inhibitors on OSCCs. In this study, the effects of a V-ATPase inhibitor, concanamycin A1 (CMA, on the proliferation and apoptosis of OSCC were investigated in vitro. We used four OSCC cell lines, MISK81-5, SAS, HSC-4 and SQUU-B. Acridine orange staining revealed that the red fluorescence was reduced in all of the low concentration CMA-treated OSCC cells, indicating that the acidification of vesicular organelles in the OSCCs was prevented by the treatment with low-concentration of CMA. CMA treatment induced apoptosis in MISK81-5, SAS and HSC-4 cells, but not in SQUU-B cells. The p-p38 expression was not altered in CMA-treated SQUU-B cells, but their levels were increased in the other cells. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in CMA-treated SQUU-B cells was dramatically decreased in comparison with that in the other cell lines treated with CMA. However, when the SQUU-B cells were treated with CMA and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, the SQUU-B cells became more susceptible to the CMA-induced apoptosis. SAHA treatment led to a significantly decrease in the Bcl-2 expression in CMA-treated SQUU-B cells, resulting in a dramatically increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in comparison with that observed in the SQUU-B cells treated with CMA alone. These findings suggest that CMA could have an anti-tumor effect on OSCCs. In addition, combination of CMA with other agents, such as SAHA, could help improve the pro-apoptotic effects of CMA even in CMA-resistant OSCC cells.

  16. Deregulated expression of A1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins and Bid, Bad, and Bax proapoptotic genes in polycythemia vera patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy Patricia Lino Gasparotto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis deregulation might have a role in the pathophysiology of polycythemia vera (PV. This study evaluated Bcl-2 molecule expression in CD34+ cells and leukocytes in 12 PV patients. Gene expression was investigated by real time PCR using SybrGreen Quantitect kit and protein expression was evaluated by western-blotting. JAK2 V617F mutation was detected according to Baxter et al (2005. CD34+ cells from PV patients presented higher levels of A1 and Mcl-1 expression (median: 22.6 and 5.2, respectively in comparison with controls (0.9 and 0.5, p=0.004 and p=0.020; while Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression decreased in PV patients (0.18 and 1.19 compared with controls (1.39 and 2.01, p=0.006 and p=0.020. CD34+ cells in PV patients showed an elevated Bid expression (14.4 in comparison with healthy subjects (1.0; p=0.002. Patients' leukocytes showed an A1 augmentation (7.41, p=0.001 and a reduced expression of Bax (0.19; p=0.040 and Bad (0.2; p=0.030. There was no correlation between JAK2 V617F allele burden and molecular expression. PV patients showed alterations in Bcl-2 members' expression, which may interfere with control of apoptotic machinery and contribute to disease pathogenesis.A desregulação da apoptose parece participar da fisiopatologia da policitemia vera (PV. Este estudo avaliou a expressão das moléculas da família Bcl-2 em células hematopoéticas CD34 + e leucócitos de 12 pacientes com PV. Foram realizados: a quantificação da expressão gênica por PCR em tempo real utilizando kit Sybrgreen Quantitect, avaliação da expressão de proteínas por western-blot e detecção da mutação JAK2 V617F segundo Baxter et al. (2005. Células CD34 + dos pacientes com PV apresentaram maior expressão de A1 e Mcl-1 (mediana: 22,6 e 5,2, respectivamente em comparação com controles (0,9 e 0,5, p = 0,004 e p = 0,020 e expressão de Bcl-2 e Bcl-xL diminuída nestes pacientes (0,18 e 1,19 em relação aos controles (1,39 e 2,01, p = 0,006 e p = 0

  17. Immunohistochemical study of p21 and Bcl-2 in leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariya, Rakesh V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2016-11-01

    Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results from genetic damage, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation of damaged cells and the cell death. In the course of its progression, visible changes are taking place at the cellular level (atypical) and the resultant at the tissue level (epithelial dysplasia). The Aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the expressions of intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 in Leukoplakia, oralsubmucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Total 60 cases, 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, 15 cases of oral submucous fibrosis and 15 cases of Leukoplakia were evaluated immunohistochemically for p21 and Bcl-2 expression. p21 showed positive expression in 13 (86.67%) cases out of 15 cases of OSMF, 12 (80%) cases of leukoplakia out of 15 cases and 24 (80%) cases out of 30 cases of OSCC. The Bcl-2 expression was positive in 13 (86.67%) cases of OSMF, all cases of Leukoplakia and 25 (83.33%) cases of OSCC. No statistical significance was noted in the expression of p21 and Bcl-2 positive expression between OSMF, Leukoplakia and OSCC. Statistical analysis for comparison of intensity of p21 expression in different grades of OSCC showed no significance. Statistical significance difference was found between the expressions of Bcl-2 in moderately and poorly differentiated SCC. The intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 expressions in different grades of OSCC indicates a key role in progression of oral neoplasia.

  18. Association of BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism with glioma risk in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qian, Chunfa; Wang, Linxiong; Teng, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2014-03-01

    Glioma is the most common type of primary brain malignancy in adults. The anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of glioma. This study aimed to evaluate the potential association between BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism and glioma susceptibility. This case-control study was conducted in Chinese Han populations consisting of 248 glioma cases and 252 cancer-free controls. The BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and verified using DNA sequencing methods. Our data suggested that the genotype/allele of BCL2-938C>A polymorphism were statistically associated with the increased risk of glioma where the risk of glioma for genotype AA or allele A is significantly higher than wild genotype CC (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-4.10, p = 0.009) or allele C (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.06-1.82, p = 0.016), respectively. In addition, the BCL2-938AA genotype was significantly more common in patients with glioblastoma and in patients with grade IV glioma. Our findings indicate that the BCL2-938C>A polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to glioma in Chinese Han populations and might be used as molecular markers for evaluating glioma risk.

  19. Synthetic Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module actuated by super artificial hTERT promoter selectively inhibits malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Tianbiao; Wu, Hanwei; Lin, Muqi; Wang, Chaoliang; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhou, Qing; Qiao, Baoping; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Guoping; Zhang, Weixing; Huang, Weiren

    2016-01-08

    The synthetic biology technology which enhances the specificity and efficacy of treatment is a novel try in biomedical therapy during recent years. A high frequency of somatic mutations was shown in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter in bladder cancer, indicating that a mutational hTERT promoter might be a tumor-specific element for bladder cancer therapy. In our study, we aimed to construct a synthetic combination module driven by a super artificial hTERT promoter and to investigate its influence on the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer. The dual luciferase assay system was used to verify the driven efficiency and tumor-specificity of the artificial hTERT promoter and to confirm the relationship between ETS-1 and the driven efficiency of the artificial hTERT promoter. CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were used to test the effects of the Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module driven by the artificial hTERT promoter on cell proliferation. Simultaneously, the cell apoptosis was detected by the caspase 3ELISA assay and the flow cytometry analysis after transfection. The results of CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were analyzed by ANOVA. The independent samples t-test was used to analyze other data. We demonstrated that the artificial hTERT promoter had a higher driven efficiency which might be regulated by transcription factor ETS-1 in bladder cancer cells, compared with wild-type hTERT promoter. Meanwhile, the artificial hTERT promoter showed a strong tumor-specific effect. The cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were observed in artificial hTERT promoter- Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module -transfected bladder cancer 5637 and T24 cells, but not in the module -transfected normal human fibroblasts. This module offers us a useful synthetic biology platform to inhibit the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer in a more specific and effective way.

  20. Mechanism of regulation of bcl-2 mRNA by nucleolin and A+U-rich element-binding factor 1 (AUF1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Daniella; Zuraw, Lisa; Ramalingam, Sivakumar; Sengupta, Tapas K; Bandyopadhyay, Sumita; Reuben, Adrian; Fernandes, Daniel J; Spicer, Eleanor K

    2010-08-27

    The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, particularly leukemias. In some cell types this is the result of enhanced stability of bcl-2 mRNA, which is controlled by elements in its 3'-untranslated region. Nucleolin is one of the proteins that binds to bcl-2 mRNA, thereby increasing its half-life. Here, we examined the site on the bcl-2 3'-untranslated region that is bound by nucleolin as well as the protein binding domains important for bcl-2 mRNA recognition. RNase footprinting and RNA fragment binding assays demonstrated that nucleolin binds to a 40-nucleotide region at the 5' end of the 136-nucleotide bcl-2 AU-rich element (ARE(bcl-2)). The first two RNA binding domains of nucleolin were sufficient for high affinity binding to ARE(bcl-2). In RNA decay assays, ARE(bcl-2) transcripts were protected from exosomal decay by the addition of nucleolin. AUF1 has been shown to recruit the exosome to mRNAs. When MV-4-11 cell extracts were immunodepleted of AUF1, the rate of decay of ARE(bcl-2) transcripts was reduced, indicating that nucleolin and AUF1 have opposing roles in bcl-2 mRNA turnover. When the function of nucleolin in MV-4-11 cells was impaired by treatment with the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411, association of AUF1 with bcl-2 mRNA was increased. This suggests that the degradation of bcl-2 mRNA induced by AS1411 results from both interference with nucleolin protection of bcl-2 mRNA and recruitment of the exosome by AUF1. Based on our findings, we propose a model that illustrates the opposing roles of nucleolin and AUF1 in regulating bcl-2 mRNA stability.

  1. The prognostic significance of the immunohistochemical expression of P53 and BCL-2 in endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the frequency of P53 and BCL-2 immunohistochemical expression in 98 patients with endometrial carcinoma, and to correlate it with clinical stage and patient survival. A significant difference was found regarding the frequency of P53 expression when comparing type I and II tumors (23.7% and 54.5%, respectively; p = 0.006. A positive correlation was observed between P53 immunoexpression and patient survival in type I and II tumors (p = 0.009 and p = 0.036, respectively. BCL-2 expression was significantly more frequent in early clinical stages in both types of endometrial cancer (p < 0.001 and 0.002 and correlated with a decrease in overall survival in type I endometrial cancer (p = 0.014. Thus, the prognostic value of these biomarkers in endometrial cancer needs to be further investigated. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 631–635

  2. Crebbp loss cooperates with Bcl2 overexpression to promote lymphoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Idoia; Tadros, Saber; González-Herrero, Inés; Martín-Lorenzo, Alberto; Rodríguez-Hernández, Guillermo; Moore, Dalia; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Blanco, Oscar; Alonso-López, Diego; Rivas, Javier De Las; Hartert, Keenan; Duval, Romain; Klinkebiel, David; Bast, Martin; Vose, Julie; Lunning, Matthew; Fu, Kai; Greiner, Timothy; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Jiménez, Rafael; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Brindle, Paul; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Alizadeh, Ash; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2017-01-01

    CREBBP is targeted by inactivating mutations in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we provide evidence from transgenic mouse models that Crebbp deletion results in deficits in B-cell development and can cooperate with Bcl2 overexpression to promote B-cell lymphoma. Through transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of these B cells, we found that Crebbp inactivation was associated with broad transcriptional alterations, but no changes in the patterns of histone acetylation at the proximal regulatory regions of these genes. However, B cells with Crebbp inactivation showed high expression of Myc and patterns of altered histone acetylation that were localized to intragenic regions, enriched for Myc DNA binding motifs, and showed Myc binding. Through the analysis of CREBBP mutations from a large cohort of primary human FL and DLBCL, we show a significant difference in the spectrum of CREBBP mutations in these 2 diseases, with higher frequencies of nonsense/frameshift mutations in DLBCL compared with FL. Together, our data therefore provide important links between Crebbp inactivation and Bcl2 dependence and show a role for Crebbp inactivation in the induction of Myc expression. We suggest this may parallel the role of CREBBP frameshift/nonsense mutations in DLBCL that result in loss of the protein, but may contrast the role of missense mutations in the lysine acetyltransferase domain that are more frequently observed in FL and yield an inactive protein. PMID:28288979

  3. Limited prognostic value of tissue protein expression levels of BCl-2 in Danish ovarian cancer patients: from the Danish 'MALOVA' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Christensen, Lise Hanne; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2010-01-01

    women diagnosed with low malignant potential ovarian tumors (LMP) and from 582 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC). Using 30% as cutoff level for BCl-2 overexpression, 5% of LMPs were positive with a higher proportion of serous ovarian tumor of LMP, compared to mucinous ovarian tumor of LMP (p...... = 0.02). Women with a BCl-2-positive LMP tumor were older than women with a BCl-2 negative tumor (p = 0.02). Ten percent of OCs were positive for BCl-2 expression (>or=30%). No significant association was found between BCl-2 expression levels and histologic type of tumors (serous vs mucinous, p = 0...

  4. Molecular analysis of neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis reveals a strong role for the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Noxa

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschnek, Susanne; Vier, Juliane; Gautam, Sanjivan; Frankenberg, Tobias; Rangelova, Svetla; Eitz Ferrer, Pedro; Grespi, Francesca; Ottina, Eleonora; Villunger, Andreas; Haecker, Hans; Hacker, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Neutrophils enter the peripheral blood from the bone marrow and die after a short time. Molecular analysis of spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis is difficult as these cells die rapidly and cannot be easily manipulated. We use conditional Hoxb8-expression to generate mouse neutrophils and test the regulation of apoptosis by extensive manipulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Spontaneous apoptosis was preceded by down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Loss of the pro-a...

  5. Bcl-2 regulates HIF-1alpha protein stabilization in hypoxic melanoma cells via the molecular chaperone HSP90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Trisciuoglio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor that is a critical mediator of the cellular response to hypoxia. Enhanced levels of HIF-1alpha, the oxygen-regulated subunit of HIF-1, is often associated with increased tumour angiogenesis, metastasis, therapeutic resistance and poor prognosis. It is in this context that we previously demonstrated that under hypoxia, bcl-2 protein promotes HIF-1/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-mediated tumour angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using human melanoma cell lines and their stable or transient derivative bcl-2 overexpressing cells, the current study identified HIF-1alpha protein stabilization as a key regulator for the induction of HIF-1 by bcl-2 under hypoxia. We also demonstrated that bcl-2-induced accumulation of HIF-1alpha protein during hypoxia was not due to an increased gene transcription or protein synthesis. In fact, it was related to a modulation of HIF-1alpha protein expression at a post-translational level, indeed its degradation rate was faster in the control lines than in bcl-2 transfectants. The bcl-2-induced HIF-1alpha stabilization in response to low oxygen tension conditions was achieved through the impairment of ubiquitin-dependent HIF-1alpha degradation involving the molecular chaperone HSP90, but it was not dependent on the prolyl hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha protein. We also showed that bcl-2, HIF-1alpha and HSP90 proteins form a tri-complex that may contribute to enhancing the stability of the HIF-1alpha protein in bcl-2 overexpressing clones under hypoxic conditions. Finally, by using genetic and pharmacological approaches we proved that HSP90 is involved in bcl-2-dependent stabilization of HIF-1alpha protein during hypoxia, and in particular the isoform HSP90beta is the main player in this phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified the stabilization of HIF-1alpha protein as a mechanism through which bcl-2 induces the

  6. Mechanism of action of EBV, Bcl-2, p53, c-Myc and Rb in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Liu, M-G; Zhang, J-B; Zhang, J-J; Sun, M-M; Yu, Q-K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the mechanism of action of several proteins, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, p53, c-Myc and retinoblastoma (Rb), in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Between July 2010 and July 2015, samples of 142 patients with pathologically confirmed NHL which presented at our institution were included in the observation group. In addition, samples from 55 patients with hyperplastic lymphadenitis presented during the same period were enrolled as control group. The expressions of EBV (+), p53(+), Bcl-2(+), Rb(-) and c-Myc(+) were determined and compared Between July 2010 and July 2015, samples of 142 patients with pathologically confirmed NHL which presented at our institution were included in the observation group. In addition, samples from 55 patients with hyperplastic lymphadenitis presented during the same period were enrolled as control group. The expressions of EBV (+), p53(+), Bcl-2(+), Rb(-) and c-Myc(+) were determined and compared among different subtypes and stages of NHLs of observation group. Besides, the correlation of EBV with p53, Bcl-2, Rb and c-Myc were investigated in NHLs of observation group. In the observation group, the expression rates of EBV(+), p53(+), Bcl-2(+), Rb(-), and c-Myc(+) were significantly higher than those, respectively, in the control group (p EBV expression and the expressions of p53, Bcl-2, Rb and c-Myc in the observation group (p > 0.05). The expression rates of p53(+) and Bcl-2(+) were significantly higher in aggressive and highly-aggressive NHLs than in indolent NHLs of the observation group (p EBV(+), p53(+), Bcl-2(+), Rb(-), and c-Myc(+) were significantly higher in stage III-IV NHLs than in stage I-II NHLs (p EBV(+), p53(+), Bcl-2(+), Rb(-), and c-Myc(+) are closely associated with NHL pathogenesis. Expressions of these proteins are higher in later stages of NHLs, and expressions of p53(+) and Bcl-2(+) are higher in more aggressive NHLs.

  7. Podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis under experimental diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Ha; Moon, Sung Jin; Paeng, Jisun; Kang, Hye-Young; Nam, Bo Young; Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis are two hallmarks of diabetic glomeruli, but the sequence in which these processes occur remains a matter of debate. Here we investigated the effects of inhibiting hypertrophy on apoptosis, and vice versa, in both podocytes and glomeruli, under diabetic conditions. Hypertrophy and apoptosis were inhibited using an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (PKI 166) and a pan-caspase inhibitor (zAsp-DCB), respectively. We observed significant increases in the protein expression of p27, p21, phospho-eukaryotic elongation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and phospho-p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase, in both cultured podocytes exposed to high-glucose (HG) medium, and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat glomeruli. These increases were significantly inhibited by PKI 166, but not by zAsp-DCB. In addition, the amount of protein per cell, the relative cell size, and the glomerular volume were all significantly increased under diabetic conditions, and these changes were also blocked by treatment with PKI 166, but not zAsp-DCB. Increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, together with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, were also observed in HG-stimulated podocytes and DM glomeruli. Treatment with either zAsp-DCB or PKI 166 resulted in a significant attenuation of these effects. Both PKI 166 and zAsp-DCB also inhibited the increase in number of apoptotic cells, as assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL assay. Under diabetic conditions, inhibition of podocyte hypertrophy results in attenuated apoptosis, whereas blocking apoptosis has no effect on podocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis.

  8. Molecular analysis of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 expression in differentially expressing estrogen receptor breast cancer MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-468 cell lines treated with adriamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1 (CCND1 are key elements in cancer development and progression. Bcl-2 acts as a cell death suppressor and is involved in apoptosis regulation. Cyclin D1 is an important regulator of G1/S phase of the cell cycle progression. In addition, estrogen receptor (ER is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer cells. Therefore it is important to determine the Bcl-2 and CCND1 expression in MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell lines with different ER status following Adriamycin (ADR treatment. Methods: Cytotoxicity of ADR (250 and 500nM after 1-5 days exposure of the cell lines was evaluated by MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 in tested cell lines were also analyzed by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry (ICC methods. Results: ADR cytotoxicity was highest in MDA-MB-468 and lowest in MCF7 cells in a time-dependent manner. Bcl-2 mRNA increased in MCF7 and decreased in MDA-MB-468 after exposure to ADR but it was less detectable in T47D cells. The expression of CCND1 in MCF7 with high level of ER expression was higher than the other two cell lines in untreated conditions. However, CCND1 mRNA did not show significant changes after ADR treatment. Immunocytochemical analysis did not show significant differences between Bcl-2 protein expression in the presence or absence of ADR in MDA-MB-468 cell line while in T47D and MCF7 cells its expression decreased after exposure to ADR. In addition to nuclear expression of cyclin D1 in all cell lines, strong cytoplasmic expression of cyclin D1 protein was observed only in MCF7 and T47D cells. Conclusion: The tested cell lines with different levels of ER expression showed differential molecular responses to ADR that is important in tumor-targeted cancer therapy.

  9. Placental apoptosis in recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Atia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an interactive and dynamic biological process involved in all phases of embryogenesis. We aimed to study the effect of placental apoptosis on recurrent miscarriage (RM. Placental tissue samples were collected from 40 women with RM (study group and 30 women with sporadic spontaneous abortion (control group. Samples were prepared and stained immunohistochemically with markers for both the apoptotic protein (p53 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 antibodies. Our results showed that expression of the apoptotic (p53 protein was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the RM group (p = 0.003. By contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 antibodies was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the control group (p = 0.025. We concluded that placental apoptosis plays a crucial role in pregnancy continuation. However, increased p53 expression in placental tissue in early pregnancy could negatively affect pregnancy continuation.

  10. Prognostic role of sensitive-to-apoptosis gene expression in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozden, Sevgi A; Ozyurt, Hazan; Ozgen, Zerrin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between prognosis of rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and expression of sensitive-to-apoptosis (SAG), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-X(L)) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak).......To investigate the association between prognosis of rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and expression of sensitive-to-apoptosis (SAG), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-X(L)) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak)....

  11. Combined targeting of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase eradicates chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bing Z; Mak, Po Yee; Mu, Hong; Zhou, Hongsheng; Mak, Duncan H; Schober, Wendy; Leverson, Joel D; Zhang, Bin; Bhatia, Ravi; Huang, Xuelin; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-09-07

    BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but they rarely eliminate CML stem cells. Disease relapse is common upon therapy cessation, even in patients with complete molecular responses. Furthermore, once CML progresses to blast crisis (BC), treatment outcomes are dismal. We hypothesized that concomitant targeting of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase could overcome these limitations. We demonstrate increased BCL-2 expression at the protein level in bone marrow cells, particularly in Lin(-)Sca-1(+)cKit(+) cells of inducible CML in mice, as determined by CyTOF mass cytometry. Further, selective inhibition of BCL-2, aided by TKI-mediated MCL-1 and BCL-XL inhibition, markedly decreased leukemic Lin(-)Sca-1(+)cKit(+) cell numbers and long-term stem cell frequency and prolonged survival in a murine CML model. Additionally, this combination effectively eradicated CD34(+)CD38(-), CD34(+)CD38(+), and quiescent stem/progenitor CD34(+) cells from BC CML patient samples. Our results suggest that BCL-2 is a key survival factor for CML stem/progenitor cells and that combined inhibition of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase has the potential to significantly improve depth of response and cure rates of chronic-phase and BC CML. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Evaluation of p53 and Bcl-2 genes and proteins expression in human breast cancer T47D cells treated with extracts of Astrodaucus persicus (Boiss. Drude in comparison to Tamoxifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Azizi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and purpose of the study:Screening of different plant components for new anticancer drugs is one of the main research activities throughout the world. In this study, the anticancer effects of Astrodaucus persicus, an Iranian species of family of Umbelliferae, in human breast cancer T47D cells was investigated. Also since tumorigenesis is thought to result from a series of progressive gene alterations, including activa tion of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppres sor genes, expression of two such genes, p53 and Bcl-2 that are believed to play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and cell death were determined. "nMaterials and Methods: The p53 and Bcl-2 genes and proteins expression alterations in T47D cells at RNA synthesis level was studied by using RT-PCR analysis and protein synthesis using immunocytochemistry technique. "nResults: p53 gene expression increased significantly in the presence of both plant extracts but Bcl-2 expression increased significantly in the presence of aerial and decreased significantly in the presence of root extract. In addition, treatment of T47D cells with plant extracts decreased the nuclear staining of p53 and cytoplasmic staining of Bcl-2 proteins. "nConclusion: These results suggest that the methanolic extracts of Astrodaucus persicus especially its root extract may contains bioactive compounds, probably coumarins that prevents proliferation of T47D breast carcinoma cells by mechanisms such as apoptosis. These data are the first report on the possible molecular mechanisms of action of Astrodaucus persicus extracts in breast cancer cell proliferation.

  13. The BCL-2 family protein Bid is critical for pro-inflammatory signaling in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Hans-Georg; Coughlan, Karen S; Kinsella, Sinéad; Breen, Bridget A; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2014-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motoneurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene represent a frequent genetic determinant and recapitulate a disease phenotype similar to ALS when expressed in mice. Previous studies using SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice have suggested a paracrine mechanism of neuronal loss, in which cytokines and other toxic factors released from astroglia or microglia trigger motoneuron degeneration. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines activate death receptors and may downstream from this activate the Bcl-2 family protein, Bid. We here sought to investigate the role of Bid in astrocyte activation and non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration. We found that spinal cord Bid protein levels increased significantly during disease progression in SOD1(G93A) mice. Subsequent experiments in vitro indicated that Bid was expressed at relatively low levels in motoneurons, but was enriched in astrocytes and microglia. Bid was strongly induced in astrocytes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines or exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Experiments in bid-deficient astrocytes or astrocytes treated with a small molecule Bid inhibitor demonstrated that Bid was required for the efficient activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB in response to these pro-inflammatory stimuli. Finally, we found that conditioned medium from wild-type astrocytes, but not from bid-deficient astrocytes, was toxic when applied to primary motoneuron cultures. Collectively, our data demonstrate a new role for the Bcl-2 family protein Bid as a mediator of astrocyte activation during neuroinflammation, and suggest that Bid activation may contribute to non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration in ALS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blocking the binding of WT1 to bcl-2 promoter by G-quadruplex ligand SYUIQ-FM05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Xia Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, wt1, a Wilms’ tumor suppressor gene, is recognized as a critical regulator of tumorigenesis and a potential therapeutic target. WT1 shows the ability to regulate the transcription of bcl-2 by binding to a GC-rich region in the promoter, which can then fold into a special DNA secondary structure called the G-quadruplex. This function merits the exploration of the effect of a G-quadruplex ligand on the binding and subsequent regulation of WT1 on the bcl-2 promoter. In the present study, WT1 was found to bind to the double strand containing the G-quadruplex-forming sequence of the bcl-2 promoter. However, the G-quadruplex ligand SYUIQ-FM05 effectively blocked this binding by interacting with the GC-rich sequence. Our new findings are significant in the exploration of new strategies to block WT1's transcriptional regulation for cancer-cell treatment.

  15. Exhaustive Training Increases Uncoupling Protein 2 Expression and Decreases Bcl-2/Bax Ratio in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effects of oxidative stress due to exhaustive training on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 and Bcl-2/Bax in rat skeletal muscles. A total of 18 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (CON, the trained control group (TC, and the exhaustive trained group (ET. Malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, xanthine oxidase (XOD, ATPase, UCP2, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in red gastrocnemius muscles were measured. Exhaustive training induced ROS increase in red gastrocnemius muscles, which led to a decrease in the cell antiapoptotic ability (Bcl-2/Bax ratio. An increase in UCP2 expression can reduce ROS production and affect mitochondrial energy production. Thus, oxidative stress plays a significant role in overtraining.

  16. Structural and Functional Insight into Canarypox Virus CNP058 Mediated Regulation of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ishtiaq Anasir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death or apoptosis is an important component of host defense systems against viral infection. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 proteins family is the main arbiter of mitochondrially mediated apoptosis, and viruses have evolved sequence and structural mimics of Bcl-2 to subvert premature host cell apoptosis in response to viral infection. The sequencing of the canarypox virus genome identified a putative pro-survival Bcl-2 protein, CNP058. However, a role in apoptosis inhibition for CNP058 has not been identified to date. Here, we report that CNP058 is able to bind several host cell pro-death Bcl-2 proteins, including Bak and Bax, as well as several BH3 only-proteins including Bim, Bid, Bmf, Noxa, Puma, and Hrk with high to moderate affinities. We then defined the structural basis for CNP058 binding to pro-death Bcl-2 proteins by determining the crystal structure of CNP058 bound to Bim BH3. CNP058 adopts the conserved Bcl-2 like fold observed in cellular pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins, and utilizes the canonical ligand binding groove to bind Bim BH3. We then demonstrate that CNP058 is a potent inhibitor of ultraviolet (UV induced apoptosis in a cell culture model. Our findings suggest that CNP058 is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis that is able to bind to BH3 domain peptides from a broad range of pro-death Bcl-2 proteins, and may play a key role in countering premature host apoptosis.

  17. Moringa oleifera: An apoptosis inducer in cancer cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *For correspondence: Email: hasniarsad@usm.my. Sent for review: 15 May 2015 ... Bcl2 proteins which leads to inactivation or reduction in cancer cell apoptosis, hence, agents that are capable of inducing apoptosis in ... quercetin, and kampferol. These compounds act by activating pro-apoptotic protein such as caspases,.

  18. Lycopene modulates cholinergic dysfunction, Bcl-2/Bax balance, and antioxidant enzymes gene transcripts in monosodium glutamate (E621) induced neurotoxicity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Abouzed, Tarek; Nasr, Sherif

    2016-04-01

    The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on brain tissue and the relative ability of lycopene to avert these neurotoxic effects were investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups: group I, untreated (placebo); group II, injected with MSG (5 mg·kg(-1)) s.c.; group III, gastrogavaged with lycopene (10 mg·kg(-1)) p.o.; and group IV received MSG with lycopene with the same mentioned doses for 30 days. The results showed that MSG induced elevation in lipid peroxidation marker and perturbation in the antioxidant homeostasis and increased the levels of brain and serum cholinesterase (ChE), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes BB (CPK-BB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and gene expression were increased and glutathione content was reduced in the MSG-challenged rats, and these effects were ameliorated by lycopene. Furthermore, MSG induced apoptosis in brain tissues reflected in upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax while lycopene upregulated the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Our results indicate that lycopene appears to be highly effective in relieving the toxic effects of MSG by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inducing modifications in the activity of cholinesterase and antioxidant pathways. Interestingly, lycopene protects brain tissue by inhibiting apoptosis signaling induced by MSG.

  19. Cellular responses to a prolonged delay in mitosis are determined by a DNA damage response controlled by Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Didier J; Hain, Karolina O; Allan, Lindsey A; Clarke, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Anti-cancer drugs that disrupt mitosis inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, although the mechanisms of these responses are poorly understood. Here, we characterize a mitotic stress response that determines cell fate in response to microtubule poisons. We show that mitotic arrest induced by these drugs produces a temporally controlled DNA damage response (DDR) characterized by the caspase-dependent formation of γH2AX foci in non-apoptotic cells. Following exit from a delayed mitosis, this initial response results in activation of DDR protein kinases, phosphorylation of the tumour suppressor p53 and a delay in subsequent cell cycle progression. We show that this response is controlled by Mcl-1, a regulator of caspase activation that becomes degraded during mitotic arrest. Chemical inhibition of Mcl-1 and the related proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL by a BH3 mimetic enhances the mitotic DDR, promotes p53 activation and inhibits subsequent cell cycle progression. We also show that inhibitors of DDR protein kinases as well as BH3 mimetics promote apoptosis synergistically with taxol (paclitaxel) in a variety of cancer cell lines. Our work demonstrates the role of mitotic DNA damage responses in determining cell fate in response to microtubule poisons and BH3 mimetics, providing a rationale for anti-cancer combination chemotherapies.

  20. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, downregulates the retroviral oncoprotein Tax and pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Di; Yuan, Yunsheng; Chen, Li; Liu, Xin; Belani, Chandra; Cheng, Hua

    2015-08-14

    Adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive form of hematological malignancy and is caused by chronic infection of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral genome encodes an oncogenic protein, Tax, which plays a key role in transactivating viral gene transcription and in deregulating cellular oncogenic signaling to promote survival, proliferation and transformation of virally infected T cells. Hence, Tax is a desirable therapeutic target, particularly at early stage of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. We here show that niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, induced apoptosis of HTLV-1-transformed T cells. Niclosamide facilitated degradation of the Tax protein in proteasome. Consistent with niclosamide-mediated Tax degradation, this compound inhibited activities of MAPK/ERK1/2 and IκB kinases. In addition, niclosamide downregulated Stat3 and pro-survival Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1 and repressed the viral gene transcription of HTLV-1 through induction of Tax degradation. Since Tax, Stat3 and Mcl-1 are crucial molecules for promoting survival and growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of niclosamide in inducing Tax degradation and downregulating various cellular pro-survival molecules, thereby promoting apoptosis of HTLV-1-associated leukemia cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, downregulates the retroviral oncoprotein Tax and pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Di [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Yuan, Yunsheng [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Engineering Research Center of Cell and Therapeutic Antibody, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Li [Pharmacy College, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou (China); Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Liu, Xin; Belani, Chandra [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Cheng, Hua, E-mail: hcheng@ihv.umaryland.edu [Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive form of hematological malignancy and is caused by chronic infection of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral genome encodes an oncogenic protein, Tax, which plays a key role in transactivating viral gene transcription and in deregulating cellular oncogenic signaling to promote survival, proliferation and transformation of virally infected T cells. Hence, Tax is a desirable therapeutic target, particularly at early stage of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. We here show that niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, induced apoptosis of HTLV-1-transformed T cells. Niclosamide facilitated degradation of the Tax protein in proteasome. Consistent with niclosamide-mediated Tax degradation, this compound inhibited activities of MAPK/ERK1/2 and IκB kinases. In addition, niclosamide downregulated Stat3 and pro-survival Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1 and repressed the viral gene transcription of HTLV-1 through induction of Tax degradation. Since Tax, Stat3 and Mcl-1 are crucial molecules for promoting survival and growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of niclosamide in inducing Tax degradation and downregulating various cellular pro-survival molecules, thereby promoting apoptosis of HTLV-1-associated leukemia cells. - Highlights: • Niclosamide is a promising therapeutic candidate for adult T cell leukemia. • Niclosamide employs a novel mechanism through proteasomal degradation of Tax. • Niclosamide downregulates certain cellular pro-survival molecules.

  2. Bcl-2 homologue Debcl enhances α-synuclein-induced phenotypes in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Githure M’Angale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Parkinson disease (PD is a debilitating movement disorder that afflicts 1–2% of the population over 50 years of age. The common hallmark for both sporadic and familial forms of PD is mitochondrial dysfunction. Mammals have at least twenty proapoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, in contrast, only two Bcl-2 family genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, the proapoptotic mitochondrial localized Debcl and the antiapoptotic Buffy. The expression of the human transgene α-synuclein, a gene that is strongly associated with inherited forms of PD, in dopaminergic neurons (DA of Drosophila, results in loss of neurons and locomotor dysfunction to model PD in flies. The altered expression of Debcl in the DA neurons and neuron-rich eye and along with the expression of α-synuclein offers an opportunity to highlight the role of Debcl in mitochondrial-dependent neuronal degeneration and death. Results The directed overexpression of Debcl using the Ddc-Gal4 transgene in the DA of Drosophila resulted in flies with severely decreased survival and a premature age-dependent loss in climbing ability. The inhibition of Debcl resulted in enhanced survival and improved climbing ability whereas the overexpression of Debcl in the α-synuclein-induced Drosophila model of PD resulted in more severe phenotypes. In addition, the co-expression of Debcl along with Buffy partially counteracts the Debcl-induced phenotypes, to improve the lifespan and the associated loss of locomotor ability observed. In complementary experiments, the overexpression of Debcl along with the expression of α-synuclein in the eye, enhanced the eye ablation that results from the overexpression of Debcl. The co-expression of Buffy along with Debcl overexpression results in the rescue of the moderate developmental eye defects. The co-expression of Buffy along with inhibition of Debcl partially restores the eye to a roughened eye phenotype. Discussion The

  3. Bcl-2 homologue Debcl enhances α-synuclein-induced phenotypes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Angale, P Githure; Staveley, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder that afflicts 1-2% of the population over 50 years of age. The common hallmark for both sporadic and familial forms of PD is mitochondrial dysfunction. Mammals have at least twenty proapoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, in contrast, only two Bcl-2 family genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, the proapoptotic mitochondrial localized Debcl and the antiapoptotic Buffy. The expression of the human transgene α-synuclein, a gene that is strongly associated with inherited forms of PD, in dopaminergic neurons (DA) of Drosophila, results in loss of neurons and locomotor dysfunction to model PD in flies. The altered expression of Debcl in the DA neurons and neuron-rich eye and along with the expression of α-synuclein offers an opportunity to highlight the role of Debcl in mitochondrial-dependent neuronal degeneration and death. The directed overexpression of Debcl using the Ddc-Gal4 transgene in the DA of Drosophila resulted in flies with severely decreased survival and a premature age-dependent loss in climbing ability. The inhibition of Debcl resulted in enhanced survival and improved climbing ability whereas the overexpression of Debcl in the α-synuclein-induced Drosophila model of PD resulted in more severe phenotypes. In addition, the co-expression of Debcl along with Buffy partially counteracts the Debcl-induced phenotypes, to improve the lifespan and the associated loss of locomotor ability observed. In complementary experiments, the overexpression of Debcl along with the expression of α-synuclein in the eye, enhanced the eye ablation that results from the overexpression of Debcl. The co-expression of Buffy along with Debcl overexpression results in the rescue of the moderate developmental eye defects. The co-expression of Buffy along with inhibition of Debcl partially restores the eye to a roughened eye phenotype. The overexpression of Debcl in DA neurons produces flies with

  4. Tyrosine-phosphorylated caveolin-1 (Tyr-14) increases sensitivity to paclitaxel by inhibiting BCL2 and BCLxL proteins via c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajahan, Ayesha N; Dobbin, Zachary C; Hickman, F Edward; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Clarke, Robert

    2012-05-18

    Paclitaxel, an anti-microtubule agent, is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in breast cancer. Nonetheless, resistance to paclitaxel remains a major clinical challenge. The need to better understand the resistant phenotype and to find biomarkers that could predict tumor response to paclitaxel is evident. In estrogen receptor α-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer cells, phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (CAV1) on Tyr-14 facilitates mitochondrial apoptosis by increasing BCL2 phosphorylation in response to low dose paclitaxel (10 nM). However, two variants of CAV1 exist: the full-length form, CAV1α (wild-type CAV1 or wtCAV1), and a truncated form, CAV1β. Only wtCAV1 has the Tyr-14 region at the N terminus. The precise cellular functions of CAV1 variants are unknown. We now show that CAV1 variants play distinct roles in paclitaxel-mediated cell death/survival. CAV1β expression is increased in paclitaxel-resistant cells when compared with sensitive cells. Expression of CAV1β in sensitive cells significantly reduces their responsiveness to paclitaxel. These activities reflect an essential role for Tyr-14 phosphorylation because wtCAV1 expression, but not a phosphorylation-deficient mutant (Y14F), inactivates BCL2 and BCLxL through activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MCF-7 cells that express Y14F are resistant to paclitaxel and are resensitized by co-treatment with ABT-737, a BH3-mimetic small molecule inhibitor. Using structural homology modeling, we propose that phosphorylation on Tyr-14 enables a favorable conformation for proteins to bind to the CAV1 scaffolding domain. Thus, we highlight novel roles for CAV1 variants in cell death; wtCAV1 promotes cell death, whereas CAV1β promotes cell survival by preventing inactivation of BCL2 and BCLxL via JNK in paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis.

  5. A Pan-BCL2 inhibitor renders bone-marrow-resident human leukemia stem cells sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Daniel J; Court Recart, Angela; Sadarangani, Anil; Chun, Hye-Jung; Barrett, Christian L; Krajewska, Maryla; Leu, Heather; Low-Marchelli, Janine; Ma, Wenxue; Shih, Alice Y; Wei, Jun; Zhai, Dayong; Geron, Ifat; Pu, Minya; Bao, Lei; Chuang, Ryan; Balaian, Larisa; Gotlib, Jason; Minden, Mark; Martinelli, Giovanni; Rusert, Jessica; Dao, Kim-Hien; Shazand, Kamran; Wentworth, Peggy; Smith, Kristen M; Jamieson, Christina A M; Morris, Sheldon R; Messer, Karen; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Hudson, Thomas J; Marra, Marco; Frazer, Kelly A; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Reed, John C; Jamieson, Catriona H M

    2013-03-07

    Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) play a pivotal role in the resistance of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and its progression to blast crisis (BC), in part, through the alternative splicing of self-renewal and survival genes. To elucidate splice-isoform regulators of human BC LSC maintenance, we performed whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing, splice-isoform-specific quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), nanoproteomics, stromal coculture, and BC LSC xenotransplantation analyses. Cumulatively, these studies show that the alternative splicing of multiple prosurvival BCL2 family genes promotes malignant transformation of myeloid progenitors into BC LSCS that are quiescent in the marrow niche and that contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notably, sabutoclax, a pan-BCL2 inhibitor, renders marrow-niche-resident BC LSCs sensitive to TKIs at doses that spare normal progenitors. These findings underscore the importance of alternative BCL2 family splice-isoform expression in BC LSC maintenance and suggest that the combinatorial inhibition of prosurvival BCL2 family proteins and BCR-ABL may eliminate dormant LSCs and obviate resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bcl-2 inhibitor uploaded upconversion nanophotosensitizers to overcome the photodynamic therapy resistance of cancer through adjuvant intervention strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Fan, Z.; Zhang, L.; Jin, Z.; Yan, D.; Zhang, Y.; Li, X.; Tu, L.; Xue, B.; Chang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Kong, X.

    2017-01-01

    Similar to many other anticancer therapies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) also suffers from the intrinsic cancer resistance mediated by cell survival pathways. These survival pathways are regulated by various proteins, among which anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 plays an important role in regulation of

  7. Role of bcl-2 oncoprotein in oral potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M Sudha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The product of bcl-2 gene, bcl-2 protein, an anti-apoptotic protein, is known to be over-expressed in potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral cavity. The aim of this study is to compare the topographical aspect and degree of bcl-2 over-expression in potentially malignant disorders including leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF, and oral lichen planus (OLP, with that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and to determine whether bcl-2 protein can be considered as a tumor marker. Materials and Methods : A group of 60 histo-pathologically diagnosed, formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples was included in the study. The study group was further subdivided into four groups: Group I, consisting of oral leukoplakia; Group II, OSMF; Group III, OLP and Group IV, OSCC. These samples were collected from Government Dental College, Bangalore, and then subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC staining using indirect immunoenzyme labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB method. Results : Out of 30 cases of OSCC: 11 (36.7% cases showed greater supra-basal keratinocyte staining; 15 (50% cases showed greater number of positive cells in the basal cell layer, with relatively less number of supra-basal cells showing positive staining; and, rest of the 4 (13.3% cases did not show convincing staining. Among the total 30 cases of potentially malignant disorders: 10 each of leukoplakia, OSMF and OLP, 2 (20%, 2 (20%, 4 (40% of the cases showed greater supra-basal cell layer positive staining and 8 (80%, 6 (60%, 6 (60% of them showed greater basal cell staining, respectively. Two cases of OSMF did not show convincing staining. In the cases that were bcl-2 positive: 2 (6.67% of the OSCC, 3 (30% of leukoplakia, 2 (20% of OSMF and 1 (10% of OLP, showed more than 50% of the cells positive. 25-50% cells were positive in 21 (70% of OSCC, 6 (60% of leukoplakia, 4 (40% of OSMF and 6 (60% of OLP cases. 10

  8. Estimation of BCL-2 protein in carcinoma of the breast and its clinical correlation in locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Himanshu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The change in expression of apoptotic markers (Bcl-2 and Bax proteins brought about by various chemotherapeutic regimens is being used for its predictive value for assessing response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT in locally advanced breast carcinoma (LABC. Aims: (1 Estimation of Bcl 2 expression in LABC, (2 Any change in Bcl 2 expression following chemotherapy in LABC, (3 Any relation of Bcl 2 estimation to changes in size of tumor, nodal status, age, and menopausal status. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study of 120 cases of LABC. Materials and Methods: All cases were subjected to biopsy and the tissue was evaluated immunohistochemically for apoptotic marker Bcl-2 family protein. Three cycles of NACT were given at three-weekly intervals. Modified radical mastectomy was performed and the specimens were re-evaluated for any change in the Bcl-2 family protein. The clinical response and immunohistochemical response were correlated and compared. Statistical Analysis: Coefficient of correlation was calculated by Pearson correlation coefficient (P-value. Results: Clinical response, as measured by reduction in the tumor size, was observed in 81 (67.5% patients while immunohistochemical response was observed in 67 (55.8% patients. Correlation between immunohistochemical and clinical response was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.02. Nodal response was seen in 72 (60% patients. There were no patients in the N o group; 22 (53.7% of the N 1 patients were down-staged to N o , while 19 (46.3% remained N 1 . In patients with N 2 disease, 11 (13.9% were down-staged to N o status, 39 (49.4% were down-staged to N 1 status, and 29 (36.7% did not show any response. Immunohistochemical response was observed in 67 (55.8% patients. Correlation between immunohistochemical and nodal responses was also found to be statistically significant (P = 0.03. Conclusions: This significant positive correlation between clinical and immunohistochemical

  9. Inhibition of Apoptosis Stages of Human Blood Lymphocytes after Exposure to Carbon Monoxide in the Presence of Recombinant Interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhov, V G; Tyunina, O I

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effect of carbon monoxide (60-, 75-, and 90-min exposure) on the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (survivin and Bcl-2) in human blood lymphocytes in the presence of recombinant IL-2 in an apoptosis-inducing dose (0.1 ng/ml). Incubation of cells in atmosphere with carbon monoxide in the presence of recombinant IL-2 was accompanied by accumulation of Bcl-2 protein with simultaneous decrease of survivin content. It was concluded that carbon monoxide plays a role in the dysregulation of apoptosis of human blood lymphocytes Bcl-2 (i.e. CO inhibits the proapoptotic effect of recombinant IL-2).

  10. Mechanism of Regulation of bcl-2 mRNA by Nucleolin and A+U-rich Element-binding Factor 1 (AUF1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Daniella; Zuraw, Lisa; Ramalingam, Sivakumar; Sengupta, Tapas K.; Bandyopadhyay, Sumita; Reuben, Adrian; Fernandes, Daniel J.; Spicer, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, particularly leukemias. In some cell types this is the result of enhanced stability of bcl-2 mRNA, which is controlled by elements in its 3′-untranslated region. Nucleolin is one of the proteins that binds to bcl-2 mRNA, thereby increasing its half-life. Here, we examined the site on the bcl-2 3′-untranslated region that is bound by nucleolin as well as the protein binding domains important for bcl-2 mRNA recognition. RNase footprinting and RNA fragment binding assays demonstrated that nucleolin binds to a 40-nucleotide region at the 5′ end of the 136-nucleotide bcl-2 AU-rich element (AREbcl-2). The first two RNA binding domains of nucleolin were sufficient for high affinity binding to AREbcl-2. In RNA decay assays, AREbcl-2 transcripts were protected from exosomal decay by the addition of nucleolin. AUF1 has been shown to recruit the exosome to mRNAs. When MV-4-11 cell extracts were immunodepleted of AUF1, the rate of decay of AREbcl-2 transcripts was reduced, indicating that nucleolin and AUF1 have opposing roles in bcl-2 mRNA turnover. When the function of nucleolin in MV-4-11 cells was impaired by treatment with the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411, association of AUF1 with bcl-2 mRNA was increased. This suggests that the degradation of bcl-2 mRNA induced by AS1411 results from both interference with nucleolin protection of bcl-2 mRNA and recruitment of the exosome by AUF1. Based on our findings, we propose a model that illustrates the opposing roles of nucleolin and AUF1 in regulating bcl-2 mRNA stability. PMID:20571027

  11. Ceramide-Induced Apoptosis in Renal Tubular Cells: A Role of Mitochondria and Sphingosine-1-Phoshate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Norishi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is synthesized upon stimuli, and induces apoptosis in renal tubular cells (RTCs). Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) functions as a survival factor. Thus, the balance of ceramide/S1P determines ceramide-induced apoptosis. Mitochondria play a key role for ceramide-induced apoptosis by altered mitochondrial outer membrane permeability (MOMP). Ceramide enhances oligomerization of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, ceramide channel, and reduces anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in the MOM. This process alters MOMP, resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome C release into the cytosol, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Ceramide regulates apoptosis through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-dependent and -independent pathways. Conversely, MAPKs alter ceramide generation by regulating the enzymes involving ceramide metabolism, affecting ceramide-induced apoptosis. Crosstalk between Bcl-2 family proteins, ROS, and many signaling pathways regulates ceramide-induced apoptosis. Growth factors rescue ceramide-induced apoptosis by regulating the enzymes involving ceramide metabolism, S1P, and signaling pathways including MAPKs. This article reviews evidence supporting a role of ceramide for apoptosis and discusses a role of mitochondria, including MOMP, Bcl-2 family proteins, ROS, and signaling pathways, and crosstalk between these factors in the regulation of ceramide-induced apoptosis of RTCs. A balancing role between ceramide and S1P and the strategy for preventing ceramide-induced apoptosis by growth factors are also discussed. PMID:25751724

  12. Immunohistological expression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in consecutive biopsies during chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Pløen, John

    2013-01-01

    receiving preoperative CRT (>50.4 Gy and Uracil/Tegafur). Immunohistological expressions of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 were investigated in biopsies taken before treatment, after 2, 4 and 6 weeks of CRT and in specimens from the operation. Decreasing expressions of HIF-1α, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 were observed...

  13. Induction of Apoptosis and expression of Apoptosis-related gene products in response to radiation in murine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, J. S. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Hunter, N. R.; Milas, L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    To analyze the involvement of apoptosis regulatory genes p53, p21{sup waf1/cip1}, bax and bcl-2 in induction of apoptosis by radiation in murine tumors. The radiation-sensitive ovarian carcinoma OCa-I and the radiation-resistant hepatocarcinoma HCa-I were used. Tumors, 8mm in diameter, were irradiated with 25Gy and at various times after irradiation, ranging from 1 to 48 h, were analyzed histologically for apoptosis and by western blot for alterations in the expression of these genes. The p53 status of the tumors were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism assay. Both tumors were positive for wild-type p53. Radiation induced apoptosis in OCa-I but not in HCa-I. Apoptosis developed rapidly, peaked at 2 h after irradiation and returned to almost the background level at 48 h. In OCa-I radiation upregulated the expression of p53, p21{sup waf1/cip1}, and the bcl-2/bax ratio was decreased. In HCa-I radiation increased the expression of both p53 and p21{sup waf1/cip1}, although the increase of the latter was small. The bcl-2/bax ratio was greatly increased. In general the observed changes occurred within a few hours after irradiation, and either preceded or coincided with development of apoptosis. The development of apoptosis required upregulation of both p53 and p21{sup waf1/cip1} as well as a decrease in bcl-2/bax ratio. In contrast, an increase in bcl-2/bax ratio prevented apoptosis in the presence of upregulated p53 and p21{sup waf1/cip1}. These findings identified the involvement of multiple oncogenes in apoptosis regulation in vivo and demonstrate the complexity that may be associated with the use of a single oncogene assessment for predicting the outcome of cancer therapy with cytotoxic agents. (author).

  14. Combination of Bcl-2 and MYC protein expression improves high-risk stratification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang,* Min Zhou,* Jing-Yan Xu,* Bing Chen, Jian OuyangDepartment of Hematology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered as cofirst authorsPurpose: To evaluate whether the addition of two biological markers (MYC and BCL-2 protein overexpression improves the stratification of high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL.Method: Seven risk factors were identified at diagnosis, and a maximum of 7 points were assigned to each patient. The patients were classified according to four risk groups: low (0–1, low-intermediate (2–3, high-intermediate (4, and high (5–7. Only high-risk patients with DLBCL were included in this analysis. We retrospectively examined 20 cases from 2008 to 2013 at the Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital.Results: The median expression of MYC protein was 60%, and 17 of 20 (65% evaluable cases overexpressed MYC. The median expression of BCL-2 protein was also 60%. Eighteen of 20 (90% evaluable cases showed BCL-2 overexpression. Additionally, 12 out of 20 cases (60% demonstrated coexpression of MYC and BCL-2 proteins. The percentages of overall survival and progression-free survival at the median follow-up time (36 months were 33.3%±16.1% and 16.9%±13.5%, respectively. By comparison, nine, four, and 20 patients were classified as high risk based on the International Prognostic Index (IPI, National Comprehensive Cancer Network(NCCN-IPI, and revised IPI criteria, respectively. According to the IPI and NCCN-IPI stratification, the risk groups demonstrated closely overlapping survival curves. In addition, four out of 20 cases were identified as low-intermediate risk according to the NCCN-IPI criteria.Conclusion: The addition of MYC and BCL-2 protein expression to the IPI could identify a subset of DLBCL patients with high-risk clinicopathological characteristics and

  15. Mitochondrial Profiling of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Assessment of Response to Apoptosis Modulating Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Jo; Kojima, Kensuke; McQueen, Teresa; Ruvolo, Vivian; Chachad, Dhruv; Nogueras-Gonzalez, Graciela M; Huang, Xuelin; Pierceall, William E; Dettman, E J; Cardone, Michael H; Shacham, Sharon; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    BH3 profiling measures the propensity of transformed cells to undergo intrinsic apoptosis and is determined by exposing cells to BH3-mimicking peptides. We hypothesized that basal levels of prosurvival BCL-2 family proteins may modulate the predictive power of BH3 profiling and termed it mitochondrial profiling. We investigated the correlation between cell sensitivity to apoptogenic agents and mitochondrial profiling, using a panel of acute myeloid leukemias induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to cytarabine, the BH3 mimetic ABT-199, the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a, or the CRM1 inhibitor KPT-330. We found that the apoptogenic efficacies of ABT-199 and cytarabine correlated well with BH3 profiling reflecting BCL2, but not BCL-XL or MCL-1 dependence. Baseline BCL-2 protein expression analysis increased the ability of BH3 profiling to predict resistance mediated by MCL-1. By utilizing engineered cells with overexpression or knockdown of BCL-2 family proteins, Ara-C was found to be independent, while ABT-199 was dependent on BCL-XL. BCL-2 and BCL-XL overexpression mediated resistance to KPT-330 which was not reflected in the BH3 profiling assay, or in baseline BCL-2 protein levels. In conclusion, mitochondrial profiling, the combination of BH3 profiling and prosurvival BCL-2 family protein analysis, represents an improved approach to predict efficacy of diverse agents in AML and may have utility in the design of more effective drug combinations.

  16. Mitochondrial Profiling of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Assessment of Response to Apoptosis Modulating Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Ishizawa

    Full Text Available BH3 profiling measures the propensity of transformed cells to undergo intrinsic apoptosis and is determined by exposing cells to BH3-mimicking peptides. We hypothesized that basal levels of prosurvival BCL-2 family proteins may modulate the predictive power of BH3 profiling and termed it mitochondrial profiling. We investigated the correlation between cell sensitivity to apoptogenic agents and mitochondrial profiling, using a panel of acute myeloid leukemias induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to cytarabine, the BH3 mimetic ABT-199, the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a, or the CRM1 inhibitor KPT-330. We found that the apoptogenic efficacies of ABT-199 and cytarabine correlated well with BH3 profiling reflecting BCL2, but not BCL-XL or MCL-1 dependence. Baseline BCL-2 protein expression analysis increased the ability of BH3 profiling to predict resistance mediated by MCL-1. By utilizing engineered cells with overexpression or knockdown of BCL-2 family proteins, Ara-C was found to be independent, while ABT-199 was dependent on BCL-XL. BCL-2 and BCL-XL overexpression mediated resistance to KPT-330 which was not reflected in the BH3 profiling assay, or in baseline BCL-2 protein levels. In conclusion, mitochondrial profiling, the combination of BH3 profiling and prosurvival BCL-2 family protein analysis, represents an improved approach to predict efficacy of diverse agents in AML and may have utility in the design of more effective drug combinations.

  17. Pharmacological doses of melatonin induce alterations in mitochondrial mass and potential, bcl-2 levels and K+ currents in UVB-exposed U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Barbara; Luchetti, Francesca; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Arcangeletti, Marcella; Betti, Michele; Cesarini, Erica; Lattanzi, Davide; Ciuffoli, Stefano; Palma, Fulvio; Cuppini, Riccardo; Papa, Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Apoptosis is observed in 'actively' dying cells after the exposure to cell stressors such as ultraviolet light irradiation. Since melatonin has been proposed to act under stressful conditions as cell protection factor, in this study we examined the potential of this molecule when used at pharmacological concentrations to control mitochondrial damage and apoptotic signalling of UVB irradiated U937 human leukaemic cells. Moreover, the effect of melatonin treatment on electrophysiological properties and membrane K(+) currents of irradiated U937 cells was investigated as functional aspects relevant to the anti-apoptotic role of melatonin. The general effect is associated with the restoration of mass, number and membrane potential of mitochondria, with a lower caspase activation and bcl-2 upregulation. In the presence of the caspase inhibitor ZVAD-Fmk, melatonin seems to drive UVB stressed cells to follow the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway, interfering just at the mitochondrial level. Moreover, treatment with melatonin, as well as ZVAD-Fmk, prevented the K(+) current reduction observed late following the UVB insult application, by sparing cells from death; this result also indicates that the decrease of K(+) leakage currents could represent a functional feature of apoptotic process in UV-exposed U937 cells. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Synthetic Tet-inducible small hairpin RNAs targeting hTERT or Bcl-2 inhibit malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer T24 and 5637 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junhao; Liu, Yuchen; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhuang, Chengle; Liu, Li; Fu, Xing; Xu, Wen; Li, Jianfa; Chen, Mingwei; Cai, Zhiming; Huang, Weiren

    2016-03-01

    Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) can inhibit the malignant phenotypes of tumor cell through ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi). However, it is hardly to be regulated and it may induce few phenotypic changes. Here, we build a type of tetracycline (Tet)-inducible vectors which can achieve regulatable expression of shRNA in a time-dependent manner by using synthetic biology approach. In order to prove the effectiveness of this device, we chose hTERT and Bcl-2 as target genes and test the utility of the device on 5637 and T24 cell lines. The experiments show that the Tet-inducible small hairpin RNA can effectively suppress their target genes and generate anti-cancer effects on both 5637 and T24 cell lines. The device we build not only can inhibit proliferation but also can induce apoptosis and suppress migration of the bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and T24. The Tet-inducible small hairpin RNAs may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of human bladder cancer in the future.

  19. MiR-219-5p Inhibits the Growth and Metastasis of Malignant Melanoma by Targeting BCL-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a very dangerous tumor which is resistant to conventional therapy. MicroRNA exerts a vital function in promoting or inhibiting tumor development. The research has investigated the expression and function of miR-219-5p in melanoma. As a result, miR-219-5p expression was distinctly reduced in melanoma tissues and cell lines and was negatively correlated with Bcl-2 protein level in melanoma. Patients with low miR-219-5p level represented obviously a low overall survival in comparison with patients with high miR-219-5p level. The upregulation of miR-219-5p inhibited melanoma growth and metastasis and strengthened melanoma cells chemosensitivity by targeting Bcl-2. Therefore, the modulation of miR-219-5p expression may be a novel treatment strategy in melanoma.

  20. Genetic modification of cold-preserved renal grafts using HSP70 or bcl-2 HVJ-liposome method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Junji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hishinuma, Akira; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2003-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the best time for genetic modification is while the cell viability of the graft is reduced for long-term preservation. The hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposome method, a nonviral gene transfer technique, was used with a luciferase gene to test the efficacy of protein induction under the critical preservation time. Furthermore, we tested this genetic modification with heat shock protein (HSP) 70 or bcl-2 genes to prevent primary nonfunction (PNF) after long-term preservation. Orthotopic rat renal transplantation (RT) was performed using the cuff technique in the syngeneic combination of Lew (major histocompatible complex, haplotype: RT1(l)). Rat kidney grafts were preserved for 24 or 48 h in University of Wisconsin (UW) or Ringer's lactate solution using HVJ method with the luciferase gene. Rats with gene-transfected kidneys were re-laparotomized 48 h after transplantation to estimate the lack of arterial flow in the graft and killed for histological evaluation of the degree of PNF luciferase intensity assay. Then, two functional genes (HSP70 or bcl-2) were tested for the occurrence of PNF and histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the grafted kidneys preserved for 48 h in the UW solution. In the kidneys preserved for 24 h, 50% of the Ringer's lactate group had PNF; but all of the UW group had sufficient blood flow. The graft viability was well corrected by the degree of luciferase intensity. The PNF rate was significantly suppressed in the bcl-2 gene-transfer group, and tended to be reduced in the HSP70 group. The HVJ-liposome method effectively induced the foreign gene for kidney grafts even in the cold-preservation solution. Induction of bcl-2 or the HSP70 gene reduced the occurrence of PNF in the rat renal graft. The results suggest that gene transfer not only maintains graft viability, but also graft activation.

  1. JAK1/2 and BCL2 inhibitors synergize to counteract bone marrow stromal cell-induced protection of AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Riikka; Pemovska, Tea; Popa, Mihaela; Liu, Minxia; Javarappa, Komal K; Majumder, Muntasir M; Yadav, Bhagwan; Tamborero, David; Tang, Jing; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Kontro, Mika; Parsons, Alun; Suvela, Minna; Mayoral Safont, Mireia; Porkka, Kimmo; Aittokallio, Tero; Kallioniemi, Olli; McCormack, Emmet; Gjertsen, Bjørn T; Wennerberg, Krister; Knowles, Jonathan; Heckman, Caroline A

    2017-08-10

    The bone marrow (BM) provides a protective microenvironment to support the survival of leukemic cells and influence their response to therapeutic agents. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the high rate of relapse may in part be a result of the inability of current treatment to effectively overcome the protective influence of the BM niche. To better understand the effect of the BM microenvironment on drug responses in AML, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of 304 inhibitors, including approved and investigational agents, comparing ex vivo responses of primary AML cells in BM stroma-derived and standard culture conditions. In the stroma-based conditions, the AML patient cells exhibited significantly reduced sensitivity to 12% of the tested compounds, including topoisomerase II, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and many tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The loss of TKI sensitivity was most pronounced in patient samples harboring FLT3 or PDGFRB alterations. In contrast, the stroma-derived conditions enhanced sensitivity to Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. Increased cell viability and resistance to specific drug classes in the BM stroma-derived conditions was a result of activation of alternative signaling pathways mediated by factors secreted by BM stromal cells and involved a switch from BCL2 to BCLXL-dependent cell survival. Moreover, the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib restored sensitivity to the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax in AML patient cells ex vivo in different model systems and in vivo in an AML xenograft mouse model. These findings highlight the potential of JAK inhibitors to counteract stroma-induced resistance to BCL2 inhibitors in AML. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Metformin promotes autophagy and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by downregulating Stat3 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y; Ke, C; Tang, Q; Dong, H; Zheng, X; Lin, W; Ke, J; Huang, J; Yeung, S-CJ; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    The antidiabetic drug metformin exerts chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects in many types of malignancies. However, the mechanisms responsible for metformin actions appear diverse and may differ in different types of cancer. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms specific for different cancers is important to optimize strategy for metformin treatment in different cancer types. Here, we investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of metformin on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Metformin selectively inhibited cell growth in ESCC tumor cells but not immortalized noncancerous esophageal epithelial cells. In addition to apoptosis, metformin triggered autophagy. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy sensitized ESCC cells to metformin-induced apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and its downstream target Bcl-2 was inactivated by metformin treatment. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated Stat3 knockdown enhanced metformin-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and concomitantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of metformin on cell viability. Similarly, the Bcl-2 proto-oncogene, an inhibitor of both apoptosis and autophagy, was repressed by metformin. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 protected cells from metformin-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. In vivo, metformin downregulated Stat3 activity and Bcl-2 expression, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibited tumor growth. Together, inactivation of Stat3-Bcl-2 pathway contributes to metformin-induced growth inhibition of ESCC by facilitating crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24577086

  3. Epstein-Barr virus evades CD4+ T cell responses in lytic cycle through BZLF1-mediated downregulation of CD74 and the cooperation of vBcl-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Zuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Evasion of immune T cell responses is crucial for viruses to establish persistence in the infected host. Immune evasion mechanisms of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in the context of MHC-I antigen presentation have been well studied. In contrast, viral interference with MHC-II antigen presentation is less well understood, not only for EBV but also for other persistent viruses. Here we show that the EBV encoded BZLF1 can interfere with recognition by immune CD4+ effector T cells. This impaired T cell recognition occurred in the absence of a reduction in the expression of surface MHC-II, but correlated with a marked downregulation of surface CD74 on the target cells. Furthermore, impaired CD4+ T cell recognition was also observed with target cells where CD74 expression was downregulated by shRNA-mediated inhibition. BZLF1 downregulated surface CD74 via a post-transcriptional mechanism distinct from its previously reported effect on the CIITA promoter. In addition to being a chaperone for MHC-II αβ dimers, CD74 also functions as a surface receptor for macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and enhances cell survival through transcriptional upregulation of Bcl-2 family members. The immune-evasion function of BZLF1 therefore comes at a cost of induced toxicity. However, during EBV lytic cycle induced by BZLF1 expression, this toxicity can be overcome by expression of the vBcl-2, BHRF1, at an early stage of lytic infection. We conclude that by inhibiting apoptosis, the vBcl-2 not only maintains cell viability to allow sufficient time for synthesis and accumulation of infectious virus progeny, but also enables BZLF1 to effect its immune evasion function.

  4. The effect of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract on viability of breast cancer cell line (MCF7 and evaluation of Bax and Bcl2 genes expression level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ahmadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have revealed that the Sidr (Ziziphus spina-christi leaf has anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic Sidr leaf extract on MCF7 cell line viability and evaluation of Bax and Bcl2 genes expression level. Materials and Methods: In this laboratory-experimental study, MCF cells were randomly divided into control group and groups exposed to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/mL of the Sidr leaf hydroalcoholic extract. The cytotoxic effect of the extract was measured using the MTT assay method. Also, the real-time polymerase chain reaction method was used to evaluate Bax and Bcl2 genes expression levels. Results: Viability of the MCF7 cells did not significantly change in group exposed to 0.001 mg/mL of the extract; however, it was significantly decreased in groups exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/mL of the extract (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively. The expression levels of Bcl2 and Bax genes were significantly decreased and increased respectively in MCF7 cells exposed to 1mg/mL of the extract (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: The appropriate doses of the hydroalcoholic Sidr leaf extract have cytotoxic effects on MCF7 cells by inducing apoptosis. So, further research on the anticancer effects of Sidr on breast cancer has a significant place in breast cancer treatment.

  5. Upregulated expression of BCL2, MCM7, and CCNE1 indicate cisplatin-resistance in the set of two human bladder cancer cell lines: T24 cisplatin sensitive and T24R2 cisplatin resistant bladder cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Han Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The mechanism of resistance to cisplatin during treatment of bladder cancer (BC has been a subject of intense investigation in clinical research. This study aims to identify candidate genes associated with resistance to cisplatin, in order to understand the resistance mechanism of BC cells to the drug, by combining the use of microarray profiling, quantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses. Materials and Methods: The cisplatin sensitive human BC cell line (T24 and the cisplatin resistant BC cell line, T24R2, were used for microarray analysis to determine the differential expression of genes that are significant in cisplatin resistance. Candidate upregulated genes belonging to three well-known cancer-related KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (p53 tumor suppressor, apoptosis, and cell cycle were selected from the microarray data. These candidate genes, differentially expressed in T24 and T24R2, were then confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. A fold change ≥2 with a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 18 significantly upregulated genes were detected in the three selected cancer-related pathways in both microarray and RT-PCR analyses. These genes were PRKAR2A, PRKAR2B, CYCS, BCL2, BIRC3, DFFB, CASP6, CDK6, CCNE1, STEAP3, MCM7, ORC2, ORC5, ANAPC1 , and ANAPC7, CDC7, CDC27 , and SKP1 . Western blot analyses also confirmed the upregulation of BCL2, MCM7, and CCNE1 at the protein level, indicating their crucial association with cisplatin resistance. Conclusions: The BCL2, MCM7 , and CCNE1 genes might play distinctive roles in cisplatin resistance in BC.

  6. Ulipristal Acetate Inhibits Progesterone Receptor Isoform A-Mediated Human Breast Cancer Proliferation and BCl2-L1 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esber, Nathalie; Le Billan, Florian; Resche-Rigon, Michèle; Loosfelt, Hugues; Lombès, Marc; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) with its isoforms and ligands are involved in breast tumorigenesis and prognosis. We aimed at analyzing the respective contribution of PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, in breast cancer cell proliferation in a new estrogen-independent cell based-model, allowing independent PR isoforms analysis. We used the bi-inducible human breast cancer cell system MDA-iPRAB. We studied the effects and molecular mechanisms of action of progesterone (P4) and ulipristal acetate (UPA), a new selective progesterone receptor modulator, alone or in combination. P4 significantly stimulated MDA-iPRA expressing cells proliferation. This was associated with P4-stimulated expression of the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2-L1 and enhanced recruitment of PRA, SRC-1 and RNA Pol II onto the +58 kb PR binding motif of the BCL2-L1 gene. UPA decreased cell proliferation and repressed BCL2-L1 expression in the presence of PRA, correlating with PRA and SRC1 but not RNA Pol II recruitment. These results bring new information on the mechanism of action of PR ligands in controlling breast cancer cell proliferation through PRA in an estrogen independent model. Evaluation of PR isoforms ratio, as well as molecular signature studies based on PRA target genes could be proposed to facilitate personalized breast cancer therapy. In this context, UPA could be of interest in endocrine therapy. Further confirmation in the clinical setting is required. PMID:26474308

  7. Coordinate expression of cytokeratins 7 and 14, vimentin, and Bcl-2 in canine cutaneous epithelial tumors and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Jason B; Stern, Adam W; LeClerc, Suzette M; Campbell, Karen L

    2015-07-01

    Forty-seven canine cutaneous epithelial tumors and cysts were examined to determine coordinate expression of cytokeratins 7 (CK7) and 14 (CK14), vimentin, and Bcl-2 using commercially available antibodies. Within non-affected normal skin adjacent to tumors or cysts, CK7 expression was observed in luminal cells in apocrine glands; CK14 expression was observed in the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, basal layer of outer root sheath, sebaceous glands, and myoepithelial cells of apocrine glands; vimentin expression was observed in dermal papilla and scattered non-epithelial cells within the epidermis; and Bcl-2 expression was observed in scattered non-epithelial cells in the epidermis and some apocrine glands. The pattern of expression of CK7 and CK14 in cases of adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac (CK7+/CK14-) and hepatoid gland tumors (CK7-/CK14+) may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Loss of expression of CK14 and vimentin, identifying myoepithelial cells, was observed in apocrine and ceruminous adenocarcinomas. Differences in patterns of expression of Bcl-2 were observed between infundibular keratinizing acanthomas compared to trichoepitheliomas. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Bcl-2 inhibitor uploaded upconversion nanophotosensitizers to overcome the photodynamic therapy resistance of cancer through adjuvant intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Fan, Zhongqi; Zhang, Li; Jin, Zheng; Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Youlin; Li, Xiaodan; Tu, Langping; Xue, Bin; Chang, Yulei; Zhang, Hong; Kong, Xianggui

    2017-11-01

    Similar to many other anticancer therapies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) also suffers from the intrinsic cancer resistance mediated by cell survival pathways. These survival pathways are regulated by various proteins, among which anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 plays an important role in regulation of programmed cell death and has been proved to involve in protecting against oxidative stimuli. Confronted by this challenge, we propose and validate here a novel upconversion photosensitizing nanoplatform which enables significant reduction of cancer resistance and improve PDT efficacy. The upconversion nanophotosensitizer contains the photosensitizing molecules - Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and Bcl-2 inhibitor - ABT737 small molecules, denoted as ABT737@ZnPc-UCNPs. ABT737 molecules were encapsulated, in a pH sensitive way, into the nanoplatform through Poly (ethylene glycol)-Poly (l-histidine) diblock copolymers (PEG-b-PHis). This nanosystem exhibits the superiority of sensitizing tumor cells for PDT through adjuvant intervention strategy. Upon reaching to lysosomes, the acidic environment changes the solubility of PEG-b-PHis, resulting in the burst-release of ABT737 molecules which deplete the Bcl-2 level in tumor cells and leave the tumor cells out from the protection of anti-apoptotic survival pathway in advance. Owing to the sensitization effect of ABT737@ZnPc-UCNPs, the PDT therapeutic efficiency of cancer cells can be significantly potentiated in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A light-up probe targeting for Bcl-2 2345 G-quadruplex DNA with carbazole TO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingchun; Lin, Dayong; Tang, Yalin; Fei, Xuening; Wang, Cuihong; Zhang, Baolian; Zhou, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    As its significant role, the selective recognition of G-quadruplex with specific structures and functions is important in biological and medicinal chemistry. Carbazole derivatives have been reported as a kind of fluorescent probe with many excellent optical properties. In the present study, the fluorescence of the dye (carbazole TO) increased almost 70 fold in the presence of bcl-2 2345 G4 compared to that alone in aqueous buffer condition with almost no fluorescence and 10-30 fold than those in the presence of other DNAs. The binding study results by activity inhibition of G4/Hemin peroxidase experiment, NMR titration and molecular docking simulation showed the high affinity and selectivity to bcl-2 2345 G4 arises from its end-stacking interaction with G-quartet. It is said that a facile approach with excellent sensitive, good selectivity and quick response for bcl-2 2345 G-quadruplex was developed and may be used for antitumor recognition or antitumor agents.

  10. Ulipristal Acetate Inhibits Progesterone Receptor Isoform A-Mediated Human Breast Cancer Proliferation and BCl2-L1 Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Esber

    Full Text Available The progesterone receptor (PR with its isoforms and ligands are involved in breast tumorigenesis and prognosis. We aimed at analyzing the respective contribution of PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, in breast cancer cell proliferation in a new estrogen-independent cell based-model, allowing independent PR isoforms analysis. We used the bi-inducible human breast cancer cell system MDA-iPRAB. We studied the effects and molecular mechanisms of action of progesterone (P4 and ulipristal acetate (UPA, a new selective progesterone receptor modulator, alone or in combination. P4 significantly stimulated MDA-iPRA expressing cells proliferation. This was associated with P4-stimulated expression of the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2-L1 and enhanced recruitment of PRA, SRC-1 and RNA Pol II onto the +58 kb PR binding motif of the BCL2-L1 gene. UPA decreased cell proliferation and repressed BCL2-L1 expression in the presence of PRA, correlating with PRA and SRC1 but not RNA Pol II recruitment. These results bring new information on the mechanism of action of PR ligands in controlling breast cancer cell proliferation through PRA in an estrogen independent model. Evaluation of PR isoforms ratio, as well as molecular signature studies based on PRA target genes could be proposed to facilitate personalized breast cancer therapy. In this context, UPA could be of interest in endocrine therapy. Further confirmation in the clinical setting is required.

  11. Ellagic acid protects against neuron damage in ischemic stroke through regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Shan; Deng, Ran; Li, Shuran; Li, Xu; Li, Keqin; Kebaituli, Gulibanumu; Li, Xueli; Liu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    An oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation model in primary cultured rat cortical neurons was developed for this study to investigate the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a low-molecular-weight polyphenol, on neuron cells and their function, and to evaluate whether EA can be safely utilized by humans as a functional food or therapeutic agent. Administration of EA significantly decreased the volume of cerebrum infarction and the neurological deficit scores of the rats; EA treatment also increased the number of Bcl-2-positive cells and the ratio of Bcl-2-positive to Bax-positive neurons in the semidarkness zone near the brain ischemic focus in the photothrombotic cerebral ischemia model. Treatment of EA resulted in increased neuron viability, cell nuclear integrity, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression in the primary cultured neuron model; EA treatment also lead to a decrease in the number of apoptotic cells. Our results therefore suggest a specific mechanism for the beneficial effects of EA, providing new insights into how it provides neuroprotection. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent new insights on the mechanisms of the brain cell protective activity of EA. Thus, EA may be used in functional foods or medicines to help treat nerve dysfunction, neurodegenerative disease, and aging.

  12. E-cadherin-mediated impairment increases anti-apoptotic mechanism through upregulation of Bcl-2: An immunohistochemical study in various patterns of invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Nikita; Shetty, Devi Charan; Rathore, Ajit Singh; Juneja, Saurabh; Jain, Anshi

    2017-11-01

    Bcl-2 and E-cadherin proteins are known to be involved in the control of apoptotic cell death and invasive potential, respectively, which is an important hallmark of tumor regulation that influences their biologic behavior. This study investigates the relationship of Bcl-2 and E-cadherin immunoexpression in various Bryne's patterns of invasion. Immunohistochemical analyses for Bcl-2 and E-cadherin were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections on 40 cases (32 cases of Oral squamous cell carcinoma and eight cases of controls) and were scored using qualitative and quantitative (percentage positive) analysis. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Correlation between patterns of invasion and qualitative scores of Bcl-2 and E-cadherin was calculated using Spearman rho correlation. Difference of mean percentage of positive cells of Bcl-2 and E-cadherin in different patterns of invasion was tested by ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Bcl-2 and E-cadherin immunoreactivity was positively correlated with Bryne's pattern of invasion (P valueE-cadherin expression with Bryne's patterns 1-5 of invasion. The results pointed to the antagonistic role of E-cadherin and Bcl-2 and thus provide the opportunity for cell survival along with increased invasive potential. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Autophagy and apoptosis: where do they meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Sinha, Niharika; Das, Durgesh Nandini; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis are two important cellular processes with complex and intersecting protein networks; as such, they have been the subjects of intense investigation. Recent advances have elucidated the key players and their molecular circuitry. For instance, the discovery of Beclin-1's interacting partners has resulted in the identification of Bcl-2 as a central regulator of autophagy and apoptosis, which functions by interacting with both Beclin-1 and Bax/Bak respectively. When localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, Bcl-2 inhibits autophagy. Cellular stress causes the displacement of Bcl-2 from Beclin-1 and Bax, thereby triggering autophagy and apoptosis, respectively. The induction of autophagy or apoptosis results in disruption of complexes by BH3-only proteins and through post-translational modification. The mechanisms linking autophagy and apoptosis are not fully defined; however, recent discoveries have revealed that several apoptotic proteins (e.g., PUMA, Noxa, Nix, Bax, XIAP, and Bim) modulate autophagy. Moreover, autophagic proteins that control nucleation and elongation regulate intrinsic apoptosis through calpain- and caspase-mediated cleavage of autophagy-related proteins, which switches the cellular program from autophagy to apoptosis. Similarly, several autophagic proteins are implicated in extrinsic apoptosis. This highlights a dual cellular role for autophagy. On one hand, autophagy degrades damaged mitochondria and caspases, and on the other hand, it provides a membrane-based intracellular platform for caspase processing in the regulation of apoptosis. In this review, we highlight the crucial factors governing the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis and describe the mechanisms controlling cell survival and cell death.

  14. Apoptosis and Molecular Targeting Therapy in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Watari, Hidemichi; AbuAlmaaty, Ali; Ohba, Yusuke; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is the programmed cell death which maintains the healthy survival/death balance in metazoan cells. Defect in apoptosis can cause cancer or autoimmunity, while enhanced apoptosis may cause degenerative diseases. The apoptotic signals contribute into safeguarding the genomic integrity while defective apoptosis may promote carcinogenesis. The apoptotic signals are complicated and they are regulated at several levels. The signals of carcinogenesis modulate the central control points of the apoptotic pathways, including inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). The tumor cells may use some of several molecular mechanisms to suppress apoptosis and acquire resistance to apoptotic agents, for example, by the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 or by the downregulation or mutation of proapoptotic proteins such as BAX. In this review, we provide the main regulatory molecules that govern the main basic mechanisms, extrinsic and intrinsic, of apoptosis in normal cells. We discuss how carcinogenesis could be developed via defective apoptotic pathways or their convergence. We listed some molecules which could be targeted to stimulate apoptosis in different cancers. Together, we briefly discuss the development of some promising cancer treatment strategies which target apoptotic inhibitors including Bcl-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for apoptosis induction. PMID:25013758

  15. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enhance Dexamethasone Sensitivity in Multiple Myeloma Cells by the p53/miR-34a/Bcl-2 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianping; Li, Mengshun; Geng, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Dexamethasone is widely used in multiple myeloma (MM) for its cytotoxic effects on lymphoid cells. However, many MM patients are resistant to dexamethasone, although some can benefit from dexamethasone treatment. In this study, we noted that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) enhanced the dexamethasone sensitivity of MM cells by inducing cell apoptosis. q-PCR analysis revealed that miR-34a could be significantly induced by PUFAs in U266 and primary MM cells. Transfection with miR-34a antagonist or miR-34a agomir could restore or suppress the dexamethasone sensitivity in U266 cells. Both luciferase reporter assay and Western blot showed that Bcl-2 is the direct target of miR-34a in MM cells. In addition, we observed that PUFAs induced p53 protein expression in MM cells under dexamethasone administration. Furthermore, suppressing p53 by its inhibitor, Pifithrin-α, regulated the miR-34a expression and modulated the sensitivity to dexamethasone in U266 cells. In summary, these results suggest that PUFAs enhance dexamethasone sensitivity to MM cells through the p53/miR-34a axis with a likely contribution of Bcl-2 suppression.

  16. Prognostic Impact of Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax Genes in Circulating Immune Cells Derived from Patients with Head and Neck Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Tano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antitumor functions of the host immune system are frequently compromised in patients with malignancies. In the current study, we evaluated the relationship between expression ratio of mRNAs for the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein Bax (the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and clinical outcomes in patients with head and neck carcinomas. The overall survival (OS time of patients with Bcl-2/Bax ratios ≥ 1.2 tended to be longer than that of patients with Bcl-2/Bax ratios < 1.2 but not significantly so (P = .084, n = 61. Disease-free survival (DFS of patients with Bcl-2/Bax ratios ≥ 1.2 was statistically significantly longer than that of patients with Bcl-2/Bax ratios < 1.2 (P = .001, n = 76. All of the patients whose Bcl-2/Bax ratio is ≥ 2.0 were alive after 36 months and survived without any evidence of disease for 24 months (Bcl-2/Bax ≥ 2.0 versus Bcl-2/Bax < 2.0; P = .035, n = 61 in OS, P < .001, n = 76 in DFS, respectively. In 56 patients who received immunochemoradiotherapy using UFT and OK-432 in combination with radiotherapy, a statistically significant relationship between the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and the therapeutic effect estimated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors was observed, as well as a relation with interferon-γ (IFN-γ induction in response to the therapy [P = .002 in complete response versus partial response + stable disease; P = .046 in IFN-γ(+ versus IFN-γ(-]. In addition, there were significant correlations of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio with both the absolute number of CD4+ T cells and the rate of CD4+ T cell and natural killer cell activity. These findings strongly suggest that the balance of expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes in circulating immune cells has a high prognostic value in head and neck cancer patients.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, BCL-2, BAX and VEGFR1 proteins in nephroblastomas A expressão imuno-histoquímica das proteínas p53, BCL-2, BAX e VEGFR1 em nefroblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Percicote

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephroblastoma or Wilms' tumor is the most frequent renal cancer in children. Although its prognosis is favorable for most patients, it may relapse or have a fatal outcome. The characterization of risk groups by applying immunohistochemical biomarkers aims to adapt the treatment to its corresponding group as well as to reduce relapses and fatal outcome. p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2, BCL-2 associated protein X (BAX and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1 are among the most widely studied biomarkers, which are related to the apoptotic pathway, DNA repair and neovascularization. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the immunohistochemical expression of p53, BCL-2, BAX and VEGFR1 in samples of human nephroblastoma and to correlate them with clinicopathological prognostic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-nine surgical specimens of nephroblastoma diagnosed from 1994 to 2007 were selected from the Anatomopathological Service of two hospitals in Curitiba. The immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays was performed through immunoperoxidase staining and the yielded results were compared with clinicopathological prognostic factors. RESULTS: The major immunohistochemical expression of VEGFR1 in blastema and epithelium presented positive association with the risk group. Hence this may be related to higher vascular neoplastic invasion apparently caused by the endothelial growth factor, which maximizes the chances of metastasis and ultimately changes tumor staging, risk group and clinical evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical expression of VEGFR1 substantiated a directly proportional association with the nephroblastoma risk group.INTRODUÇÃO: O nefroblastoma, ou tumor de Wilms, é a neoplasia renal mais frequente na infância. Embora o prognóstico seja favorável para a maioria dos pacientes, muitos evoluem para recidiva ou óbito. A caracterização de grupos de risco por meio de

  18. Cell adhesion and apoptosis in ovarian stromal hyperplasia and hyperthecosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabidze, N; Burkadze, G; Sabakhtarashvili, M

    2006-02-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate cell adhesion and apoptosis in ovarian stromal hyperplasia and hyperthecosis in reproductive women with and without polycystic ovarian disease. We have studied 104 patients with a histological diagnosis of ovarian stromal hyperthecosis and stromal hyperplasia. Paraffin sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, von Gieson and immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) and E-cadherin (cell adhesion marker). We assessed the number of Bcl-2-positive and E-cadherin-positive cells. The patients were divided into 4 groups: group 1-33 patients with polycystic ovarian disease and coexistent stromal hyperthecosis, group 2-28 patients with polycystic ovarian disease and coexistent stromal hyperplasia, group 3-24 patients with ovarian stromal hyperthecosis, group 4-19 patients with ovarian stromal hyperplasia. Our results suggest that in ovarian stromal hyperthecosis and stromal hyperplasia coexistent with polycystic ovarian disease, E-cadherin-positivity in internal and external theca cells, and granulosa cells is associated with Bcl-2 expression. Therefore, ovarian cells expressing Bcl-2 and maintaining E-cadherin-positivity may be the viable cells that escape the apoptotic process. In ovarian stromal hyperthecosis without polycystic ovarian disease, luteinized stromal cells are potentially resistant to apoptosis as they are positive for Bcl-2. In ovarian stromal hyperplasia without polycystic ovarian disease, hyperplastic stromal cells are potentially susceptible to apoptosis as they are negative for Bcl-2. E-cadherin is negative both in stromal hyperthecosis and hyperplasia suggesting that E-cadherin expression in ovary is limited to granulosa and theca cells only. Described characteristics of cell adhesion and apoptosis may play a role in pathogenesis of ovarian stromal hyperthecosis and stromal hyperplasia with and without polycystic ovarian disease.

  19. Caffeic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer Cells Through the Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Chang

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Caffeic acid induces apoptosis by inhibiting Bcl-2 activity, leading to release of cytochrome c and subsequent activation of caspase-3, indicating that caffeic acid induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This also suggests that caffeic acid has a strong anti-tumor effect and may be a promising chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent.

  20. Effects of Hesperidin as a Radioprotector on Apoptosis in Rat Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes after Gamma Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardid R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hesperidin (HES, as the most abundant flavonoid existing in the citrus, is widely used by human daily. The radio-protective effects of Hesperidin have been confirmed in various measurement systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Hesperidin on the changes in the apoptosis level and expression of apoptotic genes target (bax, bcl-2 and ration of bax/bcl-2 in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of male rats after gamma radiation. Materials and Methods: 64 male rats were divided into eight groups: Control, HES (100 mg/kg b.w, orally, 7 days, whole body irradiation with 2 and 8Gy, preadministrated with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of Hesperidin for 7 days before irradiation with 2 and 8 Gy. 24 hours after radiation, apoptotic lymphocytes were evaluated using PE Annexin V Apoptosis detection I kit and the levels of mRNA for bax and bcl-2 were evaluated by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: A significant reduction in apoptosis of the lymphocytes was demonstrated in group animals receiving 8 Gy compared to the group which received 2 Gy irradiation (p<0.0001. However, apoptosis significantly increased in group of rats who received Hesp before irradiation (p<0.05. The increase of apoptosis by Hesperidin administration can be attributed to the decreased expression of bax and significantly reduced expression of bcl-2 and finally increasing the ration of bax/bcl-2. Conclusion: The results suggest that administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg of Hesperidin induces apoptotic effects by changing expression level of bax, bcl-2 and also the ratio of bax/bcl2.

  1. DEOXYNIVALENOL-INDUCED ANIMAL OVARIAN SIGNALING: PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Toman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium toxins stable natural toxins produced by Fusarium species can appear in the food chain. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine: 1. the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON treatment on the ability of rat ovarian cells to release insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and 2. a possible signaling pathway of cell apoptosis through selected markers (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 induced by this natural toxin. Rat ovarian fragments were incubated with DON for 24h: 10, 100 and 1000 ng.ml-1, while the control group received no DON. The secretion of IGF–I was determined by RIA and expression of antiapoptotic (Bcl-2 and proapoptotic (Bax and caspase-3 proteins by Western-blotting analysis. IGF-I release by rat ovarian cells after DON addition was not significantly (P>0.05 stimulated (at the dose 10 ng.ml-1 and inhibited (at the doses 100 and 1000 ng.ml-1 by the toxin. The impact of DON on the expression of Bcl-2 (26 kDa, Bax (23 kDa and caspase-3 (34 kDa was found. Bcl-2 expression was decreased and Bax and caspase-3 increased by DON treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest a direct effect of DON on (1 ovarian functions, (2 mechanisms of proliferation and apoptosis in rat ovarian cells through intracellular regulators: Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3.

  2. Tea polyphenols prevent lung from preneoplastic lesions and effect p53 and bcl-2 gene expression in rat lung tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qihua; Hu, Chengping; Chen, Qiong; Xia, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the cancers that have the highest incidence and the highest mortality rate, and it is of great interest to identify ways to prevent its occurrence. We had established an animal model by using 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection in our previous study, and had observed that the rats lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity were significantly reduced by green tea administration. This study further investigated the effect of tea polyphenols on rat lung preneoplastic lesions using the lung carcinoma model established by 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection. Sprague–Dawley rats of the same age were randomly divided into 10 groups and treated with 3,4-benzopyrene by intra-pulmonary injection. Five groups were given 0.3% solution of tea polyphenols (equivalent to 1.2% of green tea) in drinking water, while the other 5 groups were given pure drinking water. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment. In the control groups of rats, local bronchial inflammation were observed at 1 week after 3,4-benzopyrene treatment. From 4 weeks to 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment, hyperplasia, cell hyperproliferation, heterogeneity were observed in the bronchial epithelium. Meanwhile, the expression of p53 mRNA and protein, as well as the level of bcl-2, increased in the bronchial epithelial lesion. Tea polyphenols treatment significantly alleviated the bronchial epithelial lesions. At the same time, tea polyphenols treatment enhanced p53 expression, but reduced bcl-2 expression. These results indicated that tea polyphenols may have preventive effect against lung preneoplasm lesions, possibly through regulating the expression of some critical genes such as p53 and bcl-2. PMID:23923070

  3. U1 Adaptor Oligonucleotides Targeting BCL2 and GRM1 Suppress Growth of Human Melanoma Xenografts In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Goraczniak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U1 Adaptor is a recently discovered oligonucleotide-based gene-silencing technology with a unique mechanism of action that targets nuclear pre-mRNA processing. U1 Adaptors have two distinct functional domains, both of which must be present on the same oligonucleotide to exert their gene-silencing function. Here, we present the first in vivo use of U1 Adaptors by targeting two different human genes implicated in melanomagenesis, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1, in a human melanoma cell xenograft mouse model system. Using a newly developed dendrimer delivery system, anti-BCL2 U1 Adaptors were very potent and suppressed tumor growth at doses as low as 34 µg/kg with twice weekly intravenous (iv administration. Anti-GRM1 U1 Adaptors suppressed tumor xenograft growth with similar potency. Mechanism of action was demonstrated by showing target gene suppression in tumors and by observing that negative control U1 Adaptors with just one functional domain show no tumor suppression activity. The anti-BCL2 and anti-GRM1 treatments were equally effective against cell lines harboring either wild-type or a mutant V600E B-RAF allele, the most common mutation in melanoma. Treatment of normal immune-competent mice (C57BL6 indicated no organ toxicity or immune stimulation. These proof-of-concept studies represent an in-depth (over 800 mice in ~108 treatment groups validation that U1 Adaptors are a highly potent gene-silencing therapeutic and open the way for their further development to treat other human diseases.

  4. Hepatitis C virus positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas have distinct molecular features and lack BCL2 translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visco, Carlo; Wang, Jinfen; Tisi, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is different from their HCV-negative counterparts, but the underlying molecular and pathological characteristics are largely under investigated. The virus has a role...... apoptotic pathways, have higher proliferative index, and lack BCL2 translocations. CONCLUSIONS: HCV-positive DLBCL have distinct molecular and pathological features compared to the HCV-negative counterparts.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 26 September 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.345 www.bjcancer.com....

  5. Indicators of Apoptosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tissue sections of dystrophic muscle demonstrate apoptotic myonuclei in degenerating muscle fibers of Duchene muscle dystrophy (DMD) patients. The apoptosis cascade can be triggered by 2 main pathways, via an intrinsic, endogenous system such as the mitochondrial Bax/Bcl-2 or via an extrinsic system ...

  6. Boolean model of yeast apoptosis as a tool to study yeast and human apoptotic regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Laleh; Cvijovic, Marija; Petranovic, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential cellular mechanism that is evolutionary conserved, mediated through various pathways and acts by integrating different stimuli. Many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancers are found to be caused by, or associated with, regulations in the cell death pathways. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that shares with human cells components and pathways of the PCD and is therefore used as a model organism. Boolean modeling is becoming promising approach to capture qualitative behavior and describe essential properties of such complex networks. Here we present large literature-based and to our knowledge first Boolean model that combines pathways leading to apoptosis (a type of PCD) in yeast. Analysis of the yeast model confirmed experimental findings of anti-apoptotic role of Bir1p and pro-apoptotic role of Stm1p and revealed activation of the stress protein kinase Hog proposing the maximal level of activation upon heat stress. In addition we extended the yeast model and created an in silico humanized yeast in which human pro- and anti-apoptotic regulators Bcl-2 family and Valosin-contain protein (VCP) are included in the model. We showed that accumulation of Bax in silico humanized yeast shows apoptotic markers and that VCP is essential target of Akt Signaling. The presented Boolean model provides comprehensive description of yeast apoptosis network behavior. Extended model of humanized yeast gives new insights of how complex human disease like neurodegeneration can initially be tested.

  7. Azithromycin ameliorates airway remodeling via inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanqi; Pu, Yue; Li, Diandian; Zhou, Liming; Wan, Lihong

    2017-02-01

    Azithromycin can benefit treating allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. In the present study, we hypothesized that azithromycin alleviated airway epithelium injury through inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis via down regulation of caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in vivo and in vitro. Ovalbumin induced rat asthma model and TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis model were established, respectively. In vivo experiments, airway epithelium was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to histologically evaluate the airway inflammation and remodeling. Airway epithelium apoptotic index (AI) was further analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), while expression of apoptosis related gene (Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-3) in lungs were measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. In vitro experiments, apoptosis were evaluated by Flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL. Above apoptosis related gene were also measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Compared with the OVA group, azithromycin significantly reduced the inflammation score, peribronchial smooth muscle layer thickness, epithelial thickening and goblet cell metaplasia (Pazithromycin-treated rats (Pazithromycin significantly suppressed TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cells apoptosis (PAzithromycin is an attractive treatment option for reducing airway epithelial cell apoptosis by improving the imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inhibiting Caspase-3 level in airway epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fernando, Romaine I. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Siriwardhana, Nalin [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sukhthankar, Mugdha [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parra, Columba de la [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Woraratphoka, Jirayus [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Malone, Christine [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ström, Anders [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Baek, Seung J. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wade, Paul A. [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Saxton, Arnold M. [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Donnell, Robert M. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pestell, Richard G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  9. MicroRNA-650 was a prognostic factor in human lung adenocarcinoma and confers the docetaxel chemoresistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells via regulating Bcl-2/Bax expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs is involved in malignant transformation. We investigated the clinical significance of miR-650 and its involvement in chemoresistance to docetaxel. Our results showed that the relative expression level of miR-650 was significantly higher in LAD tissues than in corresponding nontumor tissues and high level of miR-650 expression was found to be significantly associated with high incidence of lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage and poor prognosis of LAD patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that high miR-650 expression was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Also, we found that the level of miR-650 in LAD tissues was correlated with the response of patients to docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Silencing of miR-650 could increase the in vitro sensitivity of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells to docetaxel, while upregulation of miR-650 decreased the sensitivity of parental LAD cells to docetaxel both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, silencing of miR-650 could enhance the caspase-3-dependent apoptosis, which might be correlated with the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Further researches suggested that inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4 was a direct target of miR-650. Downregulated or upregulated ING4 expression could partially rescue the effects of miR-650 inhibitor or mimics in docetaxel-resistant or parental LAD cells. Furthermore, we found that ING4 was upregulated in docetaxel-responding LAD tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with miR-650. Thus, miR-650 is a novel prognostic marker in LAD and its expression is a potential indicator of chemosensitivity to docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimen.

  10. Chelerythrine down regulates expression of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS by arresting G-Quadruplex structures at their promoter regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Jagannath; Mondal, Soma; Bhattacharjee, Payel; Sengupta, Pallabi; Roychowdhury, Tanaya; Saha, Pranay; Kundu, Pallob; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu

    2017-01-01

    A putative anticancer plant alkaloid, Chelerythrine binds to G-quadruplexes at promoters of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS genes and down regulates their expression. The association of Chelerythrine to G-quadruplex at the promoters of these oncogenes were monitored using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, CD melting, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulation and quantitative RT-PCR technique. The pronounced hypochromism accompanied by red shifts in UV absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ethidium bromide displacement assay indicates end stacking mode of interaction of Chelerythrine with the corresponding G-quadruplex structures. An increase in fluorescence anisotropy and CD melting temperature of Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex revealed the formation of stable Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry data confirmed that Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex formation is thermodynamically favourable. Results of quantative RT-PCR experiment in combination with luciferase assay showed that Chelerythrine treatment to MCF7 breast cancer cells effectively down regulated transcript level of all three genes, suggesting that Chelerythrine efficiently binds to in cellulo quadruplex motifs. MD simulation provides the molecular picture showing interaction between Chelerythrine and G-quadruplex. Binding of Chelerythrine with BCL2, VEGFA and KRAS genes involved in evasion, angiogenesis and self sufficiency of cancer cells provides a new insight for the development of future therapeutics against cancer.

  11. Evidence that the p53 negative / Bcl-2 positive phenotype is an independent indicator of good prognosis in colorectal cancer: A tissue microarray study of 460 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Ian O

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in our understanding of the molecular biology of colorectal cancer have fuelled the search for novel molecular prognostic markers to complement existing staging systems. Markers assessed in combination may perform better than those considered individually. Using high-throughput tissue microarray technology, we describe the prognostic value of combined p53 / Bcl-2 status in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods Tumour samples from 462 patients who underwent elective surgery to resect a primary colorectal cancer between 1994 and 2000 (mean follow-up of 75 months were assembled in tissue microarray format. Clinico-pathological data including tumour grade, stage, vascular invasion status along with disease specific survival data has been collected prospectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 and Bcl-2 expression was performed using antibodies DO-7 (p53 and 124 (Bcl-2, and results correlated with known clinico-pathological variables and outcomes. Results Abnormal nuclear p53 accumulation and Bcl-2 overexpression were detected in 221/445 (49.6% and199/437 (45.5% tumours respectively, with a significant inverse correlation between the two markers (p = 0.023. On univariate analysis no correlations were found between either marker and standard clinico-pathological variables, however nuclear p53 expression was associated with a significantly reduced survival (p = 0.024. Combined analysis of the two markers indicated that 112/432 (24.2% cases displayed a p53(-/Bcl-2(+ phenotype, this occurring more frequently in earlier stage tumours. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant survival advantage in these p53(-/Bcl-2(+ tumours compared with the remaining cases (p = 0.0032. On multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, neither p53 expression nor Bcl-2 expression alone were of independent prognostic significance, however the combined p53(-/Bcl-2(+ phenotype was significantly associated with a good

  12. Mechanisms of hela cell apoptosis induced by abnormal Savda Munziq total phenolics combined with chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Xia; Abliz, Guzalnur; Ye, Wei-Jun; Mutalipu, Zuohelaguli; Li, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Hai-Qin; Buranjiang, Gulimire; Upur, Halmurat

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) total phenolics combined with cisplatin and docetaxel on the Hela cell growth. In vivo cultured Hela cells were treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, total phenolics, cisplatin+total phenolics or docetaxel+total phenolics. MTT was performed to assess inhibition of cell proliferation, flow cytometry to detect apoptosis, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR to test for survivin and Bcl-2 expression. The total phenolics, cisplatin and docetaxel had significant inhibitory and apoptosis-promoting effects on Hela cells (Pphenolics, cisplatin and docetaxel significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and survivin (all Pphenolics, combined with cisplatin and docetaxel, could promote the apoptosis of Hela cells possibly through reducing the expression of Bcl-2 and survivin.

  13. Protein kinase C regulates mitochondrial targeting of Nur77 and its family member Nor-1 in thymocytes undergoing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer; Burger, Megan L; Whang, Hannah; Winoto, Astar

    2010-07-01

    Nur77 orphan steroid receptor and its family member Nor-1 are required for apoptosis of developing T cells. In thymocytes, signals from the TCR complex induce Nur77 and Nor-1 expression followed by translocation from the nucleus to mitochondria. Nur77 and Nor-1 associate with Bcl-2 in the mitochondria, resulting in a conformation change that exposes the Bcl-2 BH3 domain, a presumed pro-apoptotic molecule of Bcl-2. As Nur77 and Nor-1 are heavily phosphorylated, we examined the requirement of Nur77 and Nor-1 phosphorylation in mitochondria translocation and Bcl-2 BH3 exposure. We found that HK434, a PKC agonist, in combination with calcium ionophore, can induce Nur77 and Nor-1 phosphorylation, translocation, Bcl-2 BH3 exposure and thymocyte apoptosis. Inhibitors of both classical and novel forms of PKC were able to block this process. In contrast, only the general but not classical PKC-specific inhibitors were able to block the same process initiated by PMA, a commonly used PKC agonist. These data demonstrate a differential activation of PKC isoforms by PMA and HK434 in thymocytes, and show the importance of PKC in mitochondria translocation of Nur77/Nor-1 and Bcl-2 conformation change during TCR-induced thymocyte apoptosis.

  14. Prognostic Significance of Bcl-2 and p53 Protein Expressions and Ki67 Proliferative Index in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bolat Küçükzeybek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is a high-grade neoplasm that has heterogeneous properties in clinical, morphological, and immunophenotypic aspects. In the present study the effects of p53, Bcl-2, and Ki67 on prognosis and their relationships with clinical parameters were examined. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients who had been diagnosed with nodally located DLBCL at İzmir Atatürk Training and Research Hospital between January 1999 and June 2006 were included in the study. The Ann Arbor classification system was used to determine the stage of the patients. The patients were evaluated according to age, sex, stage, B symptoms, extranodal involvement, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level as well as immunohistochemically. P53 protein and Bcl-2 oncoprotein expressions and Ki67 proliferation index were assessed immunohistochemically. Results: High Bcl-2 expression was found in 9 patients (25.7%, high p53 expression was found in 10 patients (28.6%, and high Ki67 was observed in 23 patients (65.7%. There was no significant correlation between p53 expression, Bcl-2 expression, or Ki67 proliferation index and age, sex, stage, B symptoms, extranodal involvement, LDH level, and overall survival (p>0.05. We did not find a relationship among p53 expression, Bcl-2 expression, Ki67 proliferation index, and prognosis (p>0.05. There was no significant relationship between overall survival and age, sex, stage, B symptoms, extranodal involvement, or LDH level (p>0.05. Our results revealed that Bcl-2 and p53 protein expressions and Ki67 proliferation index have no effect on overall survival of patients with DLBCL. Conclusion: The prognostic importance of p53 and Bcl-2 protein expressions and Ki67 proliferation index in DLBCL, which has biological and clinical heterogeneity, can be understood in a large series of studies that have subclasses and immunohistochemical markers with optimal cut-off values.

  15. MYC expression in concert with BCL2 and BCL6 expression predicts outcome in Chinese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xu Yan

    Full Text Available Recent studies provide convincing evidence that a combined immunohistochemical or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH score of MYC, BCL2, BCL6 proteins and MYC translocations predicted outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP. However, by far, all these researches are based on Western populations. Therefore, we investigate the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression by immunohistochemistry and FISH from 336 de novo DLBCL, NOS treated with CHOP or R-CHOP. Breaks in MYC and BCL6, and fusion in IGH/BCL2 were detected in 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.1% of the cases, respectively, and were not significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Protein overexpression of MYC (≥40%, BCL2 (≥70% and BCL6 (≥50% was encountered in 51%, 51% and 36% of the tumors, respectively. On the basis of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 expression, double-hit scores (DHSs and triple-hit score (THS were assigned to all patients with DLBCL. Patients with high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS had multiple adverse prognostic factors including high LDH level, poor performance status, advanced clinical stage, high International Prognostic Index (IPI score, and non-germinal center B-cell. In univariate analysis, high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS were associated with inferior OS and PFS in both CHOP and R-CHOP cohorts (P0.05. These data together suggest that the immunohistochemical DHSs and THS defined a large subset of DLBCLs with double-hit biology and was strongly associated with poor outcome in patients treated with R-CHOP or CHOP.

  16. MYC Expression in Concert with BCL2 and BCL6 Expression Predicts Outcome in Chinese Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Xu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Luo, Dong-Lan; Zhang, Fen; Cheng, Yu; Luo, Xin-Lan; Xu, Jie; Cheng, Jie; Zhuang, Heng-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies provide convincing evidence that a combined immunohistochemical or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) score of MYC, BCL2, BCL6 proteins and MYC translocations predicted outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). However, by far, all these researches are based on Western populations. Therefore, we investigate the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression by immunohistochemistry and FISH from 336 de novo DLBCL, NOS treated with CHOP or R-CHOP. Breaks in MYC and BCL6, and fusion in IGH/BCL2 were detected in 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.1% of the cases, respectively, and were not significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Protein overexpression of MYC (≥40%), BCL2 (≥70%) and BCL6 (≥50%) was encountered in 51%, 51% and 36% of the tumors, respectively. On the basis of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 expression, double-hit scores (DHSs) and triple-hit score (THS) were assigned to all patients with DLBCL. Patients with high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS had multiple adverse prognostic factors including high LDH level, poor performance status, advanced clinical stage, high International Prognostic Index (IPI) score, and non-germinal center B-cell. In univariate analysis, high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS were associated with inferior OS and PFS in both CHOP and R-CHOP cohorts (P0.05). These data together suggest that the immunohistochemical DHSs and THS defined a large subset of DLBCLs with double-hit biology and was strongly associated with poor outcome in patients treated with R-CHOP or CHOP. PMID:25090026

  17. Superior anti-tumor activity of the MDM2 antagonist idasanutlin and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax in p53 wild-type acute myeloid leukemia models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lehmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venetoclax, a small molecule BH3 mimetic which inhibits the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and idasanutlin, a selective MDM2 antagonist, have both shown activity as single-agent treatments in pre-clinical and clinical studies in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. In this study, we deliver the rationale and molecular basis for the combination of idasanutlin and venetoclax for treatment of p53 wild-type AML. Methods The effect of idasanutlin and venetoclax combination on cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression was investigated in vitro using established AML cell lines. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft models generated in female nude or non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID mice. Mode-of-action analyses were performed by means of cell cycle kinetic studies, RNA sequencing as well as western blotting experiments. Results Combination treatment with venetoclax and idasanutlin results in synergistic anti-tumor activity compared with the respective single-agent treatments in vitro, in p53 wild-type AML cell lines, and leads to strongly superior efficacy in vivo, in subcutaneous and orthotopic AML models. The inhibitory effects of idasanutlin were cell-cycle dependent, with cells arresting in G1 in consecutive cycles and the induction of apoptosis only evident after cells had gone through at least two cell cycles. Combination treatment with venetoclax removed this dependency, resulting in an acceleration of cell death kinetics. As expected, gene expression studies using RNA sequencing showed significant alterations to pathways associated with p53 signaling and cell cycle arrest (CCND1 pathway in response to idasanutlin treatment. Only few gene expression changes were observed for venetoclax treatment and combination treatment, indicating that their effects are mediated mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Protein expression studies demonstrated that

  18. The Bcl-2 homologue Buffy rescues α-synuclein-induced Parkinson disease-like phenotypes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Angale, P Githure; Staveley, Brian E

    2016-05-18

    In contrast to the complexity found in mammals, only two Bcl-2 family genes have been found in Drosophila melanogaster including the pro-cell survival, human Bok-related orthologue, Buffy. The directed expression of α-synuclein, the first gene identified to contribute to inherited forms of Parkinson disease (PD), in the dopaminergic neurons (DA) of flies has provided a robust and well-studied Drosophila model of PD complete with the loss of neurons and accompanying motor defects. To more fully understand the biological basis of Bcl-2 genes in PD, we altered the expression of Buffy in the dopamine producing neurons with and without the expression of α-synuclein, and in the developing neuron-rich eye. To alter the expression of Buffy in the dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila, the Ddc-Gal4 transgene was used. The directed expression of Buffy in the dopamine producing neurons resulted in flies with increased climbing ability and enhanced survival, while the inhibition of Buffy in the dopaminergic neurons reduced climbing ability over time prematurely, similar to the phenotype observed in the α-synuclein-induced Drosophila model of PD. Subsequently, the expression of Buffy was altered in the α-synuclein-induced Drosophila model of PD. Analysis revealed that Buffy acted to rescue the associated loss of locomotor ability observed in the α-synuclein-induced model of PD, while Buffy RNA interference resulted in an enhanced α-synuclein-induced loss of climbing ability. In complementary experiments the overexpression of Buffy in the developing eye suppressed the mild rough eye phenotype that results from Gal4 expression and from α-synuclein expression. When Buffy is inhibited the roughened eye phenotype is enhanced. The inhibition of Buffy in DA neurons produces a novel model of PD in Drosophila. The directed expression of Buffy in DA neurons provide protection and counteracts the α-synuclein-induced Parkinson disease-like phenotypes. Taken all together this

  19. Differences between the CD34+ and CD34- blast compartments in apoptosis resistance in acute myeloid leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijn, van A.; Pol, van der M.A.; Kok, A.; Bontje, PM; Roemen, GM; Beelen, R.H.J.; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; Schuurhuis, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Altered expression of members of the Bcl-2 family might account for the observed apoptosis resistance to chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Given the poor prognosis associated with CD34+ expression in AML, we studied the role of spontaneous apoptosis and

  20. Targeting BCL2 Family in Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells: A Challenge to Cure Diseases with Chronic Inflammations Associated with Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Olsson Åkefeldt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH are common and rare diseases, respectively. They associate myeloid cell recruitment and survival in inflammatory conditions with tissue destruction and bone resorption. Manipulating dendritic cell (DC, and, especially, regulating their half-life and fusion, is a challenge. Indeed, these myeloid cells display pathogenic roles in both diseases and may be an important source of precursors for differentiation of osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing multinucleated giant cells. We have recently documented that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A regulates long-term survival of DC by inducing BCL2A1 expression, in addition to the constitutive MCL1 expression. We summarize bibliography of the BCL2 family members and their therapeutic targeting, with a special emphasis on MCL1 and BCL2A1, discussing their potential impact on RA and LCH. Our recent knowledge in the survival pathway, which is activated to perform DC fusion in the presence of IL-17A, suggests that targeting MCL1 and BCL2A1 in infiltrating DC may affect the clinical outcomes in RA and LCH. The development of new therapies, interfering with MCL1 and BCL2A1 expression, to target long-term surviving inflammatory DC should be translated into preclinical studies with the aim to increase the well-being of patients with RA and LCH.

  1. Synergistic Inhibition of Human Carcinoma Cell Growth via Co-Delivery of p53 Plasmid DNA and bcl-2 Antisense Oligodeoxyribonucleotide by Cholic Acid-modified Polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weecharangsan, Wanlop; Opanasopit, Praneet; Niyomtham, Nattisa; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek; Kewsuwan, Prartana; Lee, Robert J

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the co-delivery of plasmid DNA and antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide (AS ODN) into carcinoma cells by cholic acid-modified polyethylenimine (PEI-CA). PEI-CA/plasmid DNA and AS ODN complexes were formulated and evaluated for delivery of plasmid DNA and AS ODN in HeLa cells. The efficiency of co-delivery of plasmid DNA and AS ODN was evaluated by cell growth inhibition using p53 and bcl-2 AS ODN. AS ODN intracellular delivery and green fluorescent protein expression upon cellular transfection were greater than in cells treated with uncomplexed nucleic acids. Treatment of the cells with PEI-CA/p53 plasmid DNA and bcl-2 AS ODN complexes resulted in cell growth inhibition that was greater than that of either PEI-CA/p53 plasmid DNA complexes or PEI-CA/bcl-2 AS ODN complexes alone. The co-delivery of p53 plasmid DNA and bcl-2 AS ODN in PEI-CA complexes enhanced therapeutic activities of both p53 plasmid DNA and bcl-2 AS ODN. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of beclin 1 in primary salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and its relation to Bcl-2 and p53 and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, L.C.; Huang, S.Y.; Zhang, D.S.; Zhang, S.H.; Li, W.G.; Zheng, P.H.; Chen, Z.W. [Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jinan, China, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2014-03-03

    Beclin 1 plays a critical role in autophagy and functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. The expression and prognostic significance of beclin 1 in head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the expression of beclin 1, Bcl-2, and p53 in head and neck ACC tissue. Tissue samples from 35 cases (15 females, 20 males) of head and neck ACC were utilized for immunohistochemistry. Beclin 1 expression was observed in 32 cases (91.4%) and considered to be high in 15 cases (42.9%) and low in 20 cases (57.1%). Beclin 1 expression was significantly correlated with a histological growth pattern (P=0.046) and histological grade (P=0.037). Beclin 1 expression was inversely correlated with Bcl-2 expression (P=0.013) and significantly associated with overall survival (P=0.006). Bcl-2 and p53 expression were observed in 21 cases (60.0%) and 16 cases (45.7%). Bcl-2 expression was significantly correlated with perineural invasion (P=0.041) and not associated with overall survival (P=0.053). p53 expression was directly correlated with beclin 1 expression (P=0.044). Our results indicated that beclin 1 may be a novel, promising prognostic factor for clinical outcome in head and neck ACC patients and may play a part in the development of head and neck ACC by interacting with Bcl-2 and p53.

  3. Expressions of bax, bcl-2 and Ki-67 in odontogenic keratocysts (Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor) in comparison with ameloblastomas and radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluk Tekkeşın, Merva; Mutlu, Sevcihan; Olgaç, Vakur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the apoptotic features and proliferation potential of odontogenic keratocysts compared with ameloblastomas and radicular cysts by analysing the role of bax, bcl-2, and Ki-67. The study material consisted of 20 odontogenic keratocysts, 20 radicular cysts, and 20 ameloblastomas. Immunohistochemically, bax, bcl-2 and Ki-67 were applied. The positive cells were evaluated in both neoplastic/nonneoplastic odontogenic epithelium and connective tissue cells. Ameloblastoma showed stronger bcl-2 expression than odontogenic keratocysts and radicular cysts. Bcl-2 expression in the whole thickness of epithelium and connective tissue of odontogenic keratocyst was significantly higher than radicular cyst. The expression of bax in the epithelium of radicular cyst was significantly higher than odontogenic keratocyst and ameloblastoma. The lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst showed stronger Ki-67 expression than ameloblastoma and radicular cyst. The proliferation potential of the epithelium and the overexpression of various anti-apoptotic proteins in odontogenic epithelial tumors are quite significant for their clinical behaviour. High expressions of bcl-2 and Ki-67 in odontogenic keratocysts accord with their aggressive clinical behaviour and a high recurrence rate.

  4. Effects and mechanism of downregulation of COX‑2 expression by RNA interference on proliferation and apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF‑7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui; Yang, Sheng; Lin, Shun-Guo; Xu, Chun-Sen; Han, Zhong-Hua

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of RNA interference with prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX‑2) gene on the proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer MCF‑7 cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. The present study constructed the eukaryotic expression vector of the targeted COX‑2 gene, transfected the MCF‑7 cells and screened the stably expressed clone. Changes in the COX‑2 gene expression in breast cancer MCF‑7 cells prior to and following transfection were examined; the proliferation and apoptosis of MCF‑7 cells were analyzed. Furthermore, changes in the protein levels of survivin, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) genes were detected. RNA interference mediated by a lentiviral expression vector significantly decreased the protein expression levels of the COX‑2 gene, and therefore, the proliferation and growth of breast cancer MCF‑7 cells was significantly suppressed and the apoptotic rate increased. Of note, the mRNA and protein expression levels of survivin and Bcl‑2 decreased, while those of Bax increased following COX-2 silencing. RNA interference markedly deactivated the COX‑2 gene, suppressed the proliferation of breast cancer MCF‑7 cells, and, to a certain extent, enhanced the induced spontaneous apoptosis, which is regulated by the Bax gene. These results provided evidence for the potential applications of RNA interference of the targeted COX‑2 gene in gene therapy for the treatment of breast cancer.

  5. Shifting the balance of mitochondrial apoptosis: therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eFulda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Signaling via the intrinsic (mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis represents one of the critical signal transduction cascades that control the regulation of cell death. This pathway is typically altered in human cancers, thereby providing a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. Members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins as well as cell survival signaling cascades such as the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are involved in the regulation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, further insights into the molecular mechanisms that form the basis for the control of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis will likely open new perspectives to bypass evasion of apoptosis and treatment resistance in human cancers.

  6. Immunohistological expression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in consecutive biopsies during chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Pløen, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of rectal cancer, and to investigate the fluctuation of these biomarkers in relation to pathological response to CRT. The study included 86 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma...... receiving preoperative CRT (>50.4 Gy and Uracil/Tegafur). Immunohistological expressions of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 were investigated in biopsies taken before treatment, after 2, 4 and 6 weeks of CRT and in specimens from the operation. Decreasing expressions of HIF-1α, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 were observed...... during CRT, whereas GLUT-1 overall was unchanged. No significant changes of the markers were observed in the interval between CRT and surgery. A significant association was observed between the presence of residual carcinoma after 6 weeks of treatment and pathological response to CRT, but no association...

  7. Acidosis Sensing Receptor GPR65 Correlates with Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Family Member Expression in CLL Cells: Potential Implications for the CLL Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, Ashley E; McColl, Karen S; Zhong, Fei; Ryder, Christopher B; Chang, Ming-Jin; Sattar, Abdus; Caimi, Paolo F; Hill, Brian T; Al-Harbi, Sayer; Almasan, Alexandru; Distelhorst, Clark W

    2014-12-01

    The tumor microenvironment is generally an acidic environment, yet the effect of extracellular acidosis on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not well established. Here we are the first to report that the extracellular acid sensing G-protein coupled receptor, GPR65, is expressed in primary CLL cells where its level correlate strongly with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member levels. GPR65 expression is found normally within the lymphoid lineage and has not been previously reported in CLL. We demonstrate a wide range of GPR65 mRNA expression among CLL 87 patient samples. The correlation between GPR65 mRNA levels and Bcl-2 mRNA levels is particularly strong (r=0.8063, p= CLL tolerance of extracellular acidosis. The correlation of GPR65 with Bcl-2 suggests a novel cytoprotective mechanism that enables CLL cell adaptation to acidic extracellular conditions. These findings suggest the potential value of targeting GPR65 therapeutically.

  8. Immunohistochemistry with apoptotic-antiapoptotic proteins (p53, p21, bax, bcl-2, c-kit, telomerase, and metallothionein as a diagnostic aid in benign, borderline, and malignant serous and mucinous ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Hatice

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many tumors including ovarian cancer, cell proliferation and apoptosis are important in pathogenesis and there are many alterations in most of the genes related to the cell cycle. This study was designed to evaluate immunohistochemistry with apoptotic-antiapoptotic proteins (p53, p21, bax, and bcl-2, c-kit, telomerase, and metallothionein as a diagnostic aid in typing of benign, borderline, and malignant serous and mucinous ovarian tumors. Methods Total of 68 ovarian tumors, 25 benign [13 (19.1% serous and12 (17.6% mucinous], 16 borderline [9 (13.2% serous and 7(10.3% mucinous], and 27 malignant ovarian tumors [24 (35.3% serous and 3 (4.4% mucinous tumors] were included in the study. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p21, bax, bcl–2, telomerase, c-kit, and metallothionein were evaluated. Results When all 68 cases were evaluated as benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumors without considering histopathological subtypes, the p53, p21, bax and metallothionein showed significantly higher staining scores in the borderline and malignant ones (p  Conclusions In conclusion, p53, p21, bax, c-kit, and metallothionein may be helpful for the typing of ovarian tumors as benign, borderline and malignant or serous and mucinous. p53, p21, bax, c-kit, and metallothionein may have different roles in the pathogenesis of ovarian tumor types. p53 and metallothionein may be helpful in the typing of borderline and malignant ovarian tumors. The immunohistochemical staining with bcl-2 and telomerase may not provide meaningful contribution for the typing of ovarian tumors. Virtual slide The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2013030833768498

  9. Immunohistochemistry with apoptotic-antiapoptotic proteins (p53, p21, bax, bcl-2), c-kit, telomerase, and metallothionein as a diagnostic aid in benign, borderline, and malignant serous and mucinous ovarian tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In many tumors including ovarian cancer, cell proliferation and apoptosis are important in pathogenesis and there are many alterations in most of the genes related to the cell cycle. This study was designed to evaluate immunohistochemistry with apoptotic-antiapoptotic proteins (p53, p21, bax, and bcl-2), c-kit, telomerase, and metallothionein as a diagnostic aid in typing of benign, borderline, and malignant serous and mucinous ovarian tumors. Methods Total of 68 ovarian tumors, 25 benign [13 (19.1%) serous and12 (17.6%) mucinous], 16 borderline [9 (13.2%) serous and 7(10.3%) mucinous], and 27 malignant ovarian tumors [24 (35.3%) serous and 3 (4.4%) mucinous tumors] were included in the study. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p21, bax, bcl–2, telomerase, c-kit, and metallothionein were evaluated. Results When all 68 cases were evaluated as benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumors without considering histopathological subtypes, the p53, p21, bax and metallothionein showed significantly higher staining scores in the borderline and malignant ones (p borderline and malignant tumors combined, p53 was not used because all benign tumors has no staining, and p21, bax, and metallothionein was determined the significant predictors for borderline and malignant tumors combined (p borderline and malignant tumors, only p53 was determined the significant predictor for malignant tumors (p borderline and malignant or serous and mucinous. p53, p21, bax, c-kit, and metallothionein may have different roles in the pathogenesis of ovarian tumor types. p53 and metallothionein may be helpful in the typing of borderline and malignant ovarian tumors. The immunohistochemical staining with bcl-2 and telomerase may not provide meaningful contribution for the typing of ovarian tumors. Virtual slide The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2013030833768498 PMID:22995373

  10. Effects of systemic administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor on Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in the lumbar spinal cord of neonatal rats after sciatic nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. Rezende

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF is a cytokine that plays a neuroprotective role in relation to axotomized motoneurons. We determined the effect of daily subcutaneous doses of CNTF (1.2 µg/g for 5 days; N = 13 or PBS (N = 13 on the levels of mRNA for Bcl-2 and Bax, as well as the expression and inter-association of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, and the survival of motoneurons in the spinal cord lumbar enlargement of 2-day-old Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection. Five days after transection, the effects were evaluated on histological and molecular levels using Nissl staining, immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The motoneuron survival ratio, defined as the ratio between the number of motoneurons counted on the lesioned side vs those on the unlesioned side, was calculated. This ratio was 0.77 ± 0.02 for CNTF-treated rats vs 0.53 ± 0.02 for the PBS-treated controls (P < 0.001. Treatment with CNTF modified the level of mRNA, with the expression of Bax RNA decreasing 18% (with a consequent decrease in the level of Bax protein, while the expression of Bcl-2 RNA was increased 87%, although the level of Bcl-2 protein was unchanged. The amount of Bcl-2/Bax heterodimer increased 91% over that found in the PBS-treated controls. These data show, for the first time, that the neuroprotective effect of CNTF on neonatal rat axotomized motoneurons is associated with a reduction in free Bax, due to the inhibition of Bax expression, as well as increased Bcl-2/Bax heterodimerization. Thus, the neuroprotective action of the CNTF on axotomized motoneurons can be related to the inhibition of this apoptotic pathway.

  11. Flavopiridol potentiates the cytotoxic effects of radiation in radioresistant tumor cells in which p53 is mutated or Bcl-2 is overexpressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takamitsu; Omura-Minamisawa, Motoko; Kang, Yun; Cheng, Chao; Inoue, Tomio

    2008-08-01

    Loss of the cell-cycle regulatory protein p53 or overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 is associated with resistance to radiation in several types of cancer cells. Flavopiridol, a synthetic flavone, inhibits the growth of malignant tumors cells in vitro and in vivo through multiple mechanisms. The purpose of the present study is to clarify whether flavopiridol enhances the cytotoxic effects of radiation in tumor cells that contain dysfunction p53 or that overexpress Bcl-2. A human glioma cell line (A172/mp53) stably transfected with a plasmid containing mutated p53 and a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa/bcl-2) transfected with a bcl-2 expression plasmid were used. Cells were incubated with flavopiridol for 24 h after radiation, and then cell viability was determined by a colony formation assay. Foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX were also evaluated as a sensitive indicator of DNA double-strand breaks. Compared with the parental wild-type cells, both transfected cell lines were more resistant to radiation. Post-treatment with flavopiridol increased the cytotoxic effects of radiation in both transfected cell lines, but not in their parental wild-type cell lines. Post-treatment with flavopiridol inhibited sublethal damage repair as well as the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in response to radiation. Flavopiridol enhanced the cytotoxic effect of radiation in radioresistant tumor cells that harbor p53 dysfunction or Bcl-2 overexpression. A combination treatment of flavopiridol with radiation has the potential to conquer the radioresistance of malignant tumors induced by the genetic alteration of p53 or bcl-2.

  12. Targeting PI3K, mTOR, ERK, and Bcl-2 signaling network shows superior antileukemic activity against AML ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongwei; Li, Xinyu; Ma, Jun; Zhao, Jianyun; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Guan; Edwards, Holly; Taub, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hai; Ge, Yubin

    2017-12-05

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains challenging to treat and needs more effective treatments. The PI3K/mTOR pathway is involved in cell survival and has been shown to be constitutively active in 50-80% of AML patients. However, targeting the PI3K/mTOR pathway results in activation of the ERK pathway, which also plays an important role in cell survival. In addition, AML cells often overexpress antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (e.g., Bcl-2), preventing cell death. Thus, our strategy here is to target the PI3K, mTOR (by VS-5584, a PI3K and mTOR dual inhibitor), ERK (by SCH772984, an ERK-selective inhibitor), and Bcl-2 (by ABT-199, a Bcl-2-selective inhibitor) signaling network to kill AML cells. In this study, we show that while inhibition of PI3K, mTOR, and ERK showed superior induction of cell death compared to inhibition of PI3K and mTOR, the levels of cell death were modest in some AML cell lines and primary patient samples tested. Although simultaneous inhibition of PI3K, mTOR, and ERK caused downregulation of Mcl-1 and upregulation of Bim, immunoprecipitation of Bcl-2 revealed increased binding of Bim to Bcl-2, which was abolished by the addition of ABT-199, suggesting that Bim was bound to Bcl-2 which prevented cell death. Treatment with combined VS-5584, SCH772984, and ABT-199 showed significant increase in cell death in AML cell lines and primary patient samples and significant reduction in AML colony formation in primary patient samples, while there was no significant effect on colony formation of normal human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Taken together, our findings show that inhibition of PI3K, mTOR, and ERK synergistically induces cell death in AML cells, and addition of ABT-199 enhances cell death further. Thus, our data support targeting the PI3K, mTOR, ERK, and Bcl-2 signaling network for the treatment of AML. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Curcumin induces apoptosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer cells by targeting multiple pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R M Ruhul Amin

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the Indian spice "Haldi" or "curry powder", has been used for centuries as a traditional remedy for many ailments. Recently, the potential use of curcumin in cancer prevention and therapy urges studies to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with its anti-tumor effects. In the current manuscript, we investigated the mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis in upper aerodigestive tract cancer cell lines and showed that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated by the modulation of multiple pathways such as induction of p73, and inhibition of p-AKT and Bcl-2. Treatment of cells with curcumin induced both p53 and the related protein p73 in head and neck and lung cancer cell lines. Inactivation of p73 by dominant negative p73 significantly protected cells from curcumin-induced apoptosis, whereas ablation of p53 by shRNA had no effect. Curcumin treatment also strongly inhibited p-AKT and Bcl-2 and overexpression of constitutively active AKT or Bcl-2 significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated via activating tumor suppressor p73 and inhibiting p-AKT and Bcl-2.

  14. Apoptosis in oral erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysomali, E; Lozada-Nur, F; Dekker, N P; Papanicolaou, S I; Regezi, J A

    1997-02-01

    Cell death was evaluated in oral erythema multiforme to test the hypothesis that apoptosis may be a mechanism by which keratinocytes die in this condition. Ten erythema multiforme and five control oral mucosa biopsy specimens were evaluated in immunohistochemically stained sections for apoptosis-regulating proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bax, p53, Fas, and Fas-ligand. Apoptotic keratinocytes, determined by a detection method for DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) and by conventional morphologic criteria were counted per high power field. Keratinocyte staining for Bcl-2 protein was comparable in erythema multiforme and controls. Bcl-x expression was reduced in five erythema multiforme cases. Staining for Bax protein differed in six erythema multiforme cases and showed variable intensity in layers under the parakeratin. Only slight differences in staining patterns of Fas and Fas-ligand proteins were noted between erythema multiforme and controls. The number of apoptotic keratinocytes evaluated by morphologic examination was significantly higher in erythema multiforme (mean per high power field, 0.90 +/- 0.2; controls, 0.06 +/- 0.04; p erythema multiforme, 0.43 +/- 0.1; controls, 0.02 +/- 0.02). Overexpression of p53 protein was seen in basal keratinocytes in five erythema multiforme specimens (mean, 17.5 +/- 4.03 per high power field; controls 1.2 +/- 0.3). There is evidence that cell death in erythema multiforme is at least in part due to apoptosis. The apoptotic mechanism may be related to an altered expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins. Although measurable alterations in the phenotypic expression of Fas and Fas-ligand proteins were not apparent, activation of Fas/Fas-ligand system could still be involved in the induction of apoptosis in erythema multiforme.

  15. Differential effects of two pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 gene family on murine bone quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lisa Marie

    Bax and Hrk are pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 gene family. Both Bax and Hrk have been previously implicated in ovarian cell survival. Effects on bone cells have also been studied in several members of the Bcl-2 gene family; thus, the focus of this work was to characterize the bone quality of mice deficient in Bax or Hrk. Bone quality of various age groups (3, 6, 12, 6 and 22 months) of Bax-knockout (KO) and Hrk-KO female mice were compared to age-matched control female mice. Additional groups of 6-month mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to determine whether effects are dependent on ovarian function. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed on all mice to determine bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate bone mechanical properties, 3-point bending, torsion testing and femoral neck fracture were performed on femora, while compression was performed on individual vertebrae. Mechanical properties were rationalized through evaluation of structural (strut analysis, micro computed tomography), remodeling (histomorphometry, osteoclast staining) and material (back-scattered electron imaging, x-ray diffraction) properties. Aged Bax-KO mice do not experience the loss in BMD, bone mechanics and trabecular bone structural properties typically observed with age. Enhanced ovarian cell numbers in Bax-KO mice likely indirectly leads to this enhanced bone phenotype. Ovariectomy results in the loss of the enhanced trabecular bone phenotype, but does not affect the cortical bone phenotype. As such, cortical bone may be protected from typical OVX effects due to sustained osteoblast function in Bax-KO mice. By contrast, young Hrk-KO mice exhibit higher BMD and trabecular bone structural properties compared to control mice, coupled with a compromised mechanical integrity. This subtle transient osteopetrotic-like phenotype is likely influenced by a potentially augmented osteoblast survival, albeit with a compromised activity. This osteopetrotic-like phenotype, and the effect of Hrk

  16. Autophagy in unicellular eukaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.A.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Cells need a constant supply of precursors to enable the production of macromolecules to sustain growth and survival. Unlike metazoans, unicellular eukaryotes depend exclusively on the extracellular medium for this supply. When environmental nutrients become depleted, existing cytoplasmic components