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Sample records for eukaryotic abc protein

  1. Function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ABC proteins in lipid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Antje; Devaux, Philippe F; Herrmann, Andreas

    2005-03-21

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic origins are implicated in the transport of lipids. In humans, members of the ABC protein families A, B, C, D and G are mutated in a number of lipid transport and metabolism disorders, such as Tangier disease, Stargardt syndrome, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, adrenoleukodystrophy or sitosterolemia. Studies employing transfection, overexpression, reconstitution, deletion and inhibition indicate the transbilayer transport of endogenous lipids and their analogs by some of these proteins, modulating lipid transbilayer asymmetry. Other proteins appear to be involved in the exposure of specific lipids on the exoplasmic leaflet, allowing their uptake by acceptors and further transport to specific sites. Additionally, lipid transport by ABC proteins is currently being studied in non-human eukaryotes, e.g. in sea urchin, trypanosomatides, arabidopsis and yeast, as well as in prokaryotes such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis. Here, we review current information about the (putative) role of both pro- and eukaryotic ABC proteins in the various phenomena associated with lipid transport. Besides providing a better understanding of phenomena like lipid metabolism, circulation, multidrug resistance, hormonal processes, fertilization, vision and signalling, studies on pro- and eukaryotic ABC proteins might eventually enable us to put a name on some of the proteins mediating transbilayer lipid transport in various membranes of cells and organelles. It must be emphasized, however, that there are still many uncertainties concerning the functions and mechanisms of ABC proteins interacting with lipids. In particular, further purification and reconstitution experiments with an unambiguous role of ATP hydrolysis are needed to demonstrate a clear involvement of ABC proteins in lipid transbilayer asymmetry.

  2. Evolutionary Pattern of N-Glycosylation Sequon Numbers  in Eukaryotic ABC Protein Superfamilies

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    R. Shyama Prasad Rao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins contain a large number of NXS/T sequences (where X is any amino acid except proline which are the potential sites of asparagine (N linked glycosylation. However, the patterns of occurrence of these N-glycosylation sequons in related proteins or groups of proteins and their underlying causes have largely been unexplored. We computed the actual and probabilistic occurrence of NXS/T sequons in ABC protein superfamilies from eight diverse eukaryotic organisms. The ABC proteins contained significantly higher NXS/T sequon numbers compared to respective genome-wide average, but the sequon density was significantly lower owing to the increase in protein size and decrease in sequon specific amino acids. However, mammalian ABC proteins have significantly higher sequon density, and both serine and threonine containing sequons (NXS and NXT have been positively selected—against the recent findings of only threonine specific Darwinian selection of sequons in proteins. The occurrence of sequons was positively correlated with the frequency of sequon specific amino acids and negatively correlated with proline and the NPS/T sequences. Further, the NPS/T sequences were significantly higher than expected in plant ABC proteins which have the lowest number of NXS/T sequons. Accord- ingly, compared to overall proteins, N-glycosylation sequons in ABC protein superfamilies have a distinct pattern of occurrence, and the results are discussed in an evolutionary perspective.

  3. Evolutionary Pattern of N-Glycosylation Sequon Numbers in Eukaryotic ABC Protein Superfamilies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Buus, Ole Thomsen; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Many proteins contain a large number of NXS/T sequences (where X is any amino acid except proline) which are the potential sites of asparagine (N) linked glycosylation. However, the patterns of occurrence of these N-glycosylation sequons in related proteins or groups of proteins and their underly......Many proteins contain a large number of NXS/T sequences (where X is any amino acid except proline) which are the potential sites of asparagine (N) linked glycosylation. However, the patterns of occurrence of these N-glycosylation sequons in related proteins or groups of proteins...... higher than expected in plant ABC proteins which have the lowest number of NXS/T sequons. Accord- ingly, compared to overall proteins, N-glycosylation sequons in ABC protein superfamilies have a distinct pattern of occurrence, and the results are discussed in an evolutionary perspective...

  4. Protein splicing and its evolution in eukaryotes

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    Starokadomskyy P. L.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Inteins, or protein introns, are parts of protein sequences that are post-translationally excised, their flanking regions (exteins being spliced together. This process was called protein splicing. Originally inteins were found in prokaryotic or unicellular eukaryotic organisms. But the general principles of post-translation protein rearrangement are evolving yielding different post-translation modification of proteins in multicellular organisms. For clarity, these non-intein mediated events call either protein rearrangements or protein editing. The most intriguing example of protein editing is proteasome-mediated splicing of antigens in vertebrates that may play important role in antigen presentation. Other examples of protein rearrangements are maturation of Hg-proteins (critical receptors in embryogenesis as well as maturation of several metabolic enzymes. Despite a lack of experimental data we try to analyze some intriguing examples of protein splicing evolution.

  5. Eukaryotic protein production in designed storage organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Margarita; Llompart, Blanca; Lasserre-Ramassamy, Sabine; Llop-Tous, Immaculada; Bastida, Miriam; Marzabal, Pau; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Saloheimo, Markku; Heifetz, Peter B; Ludevid, M Dolors

    2009-01-28

    Protein bodies (PBs) are natural endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or vacuole plant-derived organelles that stably accumulate large amounts of storage proteins in seeds. The proline-rich N-terminal domain derived from the maize storage protein gamma zein (Zera) is sufficient to induce PBs in non-seed tissues of Arabidopsis and tobacco. This Zera property opens up new routes for high-level accumulation of recombinant proteins by fusion of Zera with proteins of interest. In this work we extend the advantageous properties of plant seed PBs to recombinant protein production in useful non-plant eukaryotic hosts including cultured fungal, mammalian and insect cells. Various Zera fusions with fluorescent and therapeutic proteins accumulate in induced PB-like organelles in all eukaryotic systems tested: tobacco leaves, Trichoderma reesei, several mammalian cultured cells and Sf9 insect cells. This accumulation in membranous organelles insulates both recombinant protein and host from undesirable activities of either. Recombinant protein encapsulation in these PBs facilitates stable accumulation of proteins in a protected sub-cellular compartment which results in an enhancement of protein production without affecting the viability and development of stably transformed hosts. The induced PBs also retain the high-density properties of native seed PBs which facilitate the recovery and purification of the recombinant proteins they contain. The Zera sequence provides an efficient and universal means to produce recombinant proteins by accumulation in ER-derived organelles. The remarkable cross-kingdom conservation of PB formation and their biophysical properties should have broad application in the manufacture of non-secreted recombinant proteins and suggests the existence of universal ER pathways for protein insulation.

  6. Eukaryotic protein production in designed storage organelles

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    Saloheimo Markku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein bodies (PBs are natural endoplasmic reticulum (ER or vacuole plant-derived organelles that stably accumulate large amounts of storage proteins in seeds. The proline-rich N-terminal domain derived from the maize storage protein γ zein (Zera is sufficient to induce PBs in non-seed tissues of Arabidopsis and tobacco. This Zera property opens up new routes for high-level accumulation of recombinant proteins by fusion of Zera with proteins of interest. In this work we extend the advantageous properties of plant seed PBs to recombinant protein production in useful non-plant eukaryotic hosts including cultured fungal, mammalian and insect cells. Results Various Zera fusions with fluorescent and therapeutic proteins accumulate in induced PB-like organelles in all eukaryotic systems tested: tobacco leaves, Trichoderma reesei, several mammalian cultured cells and Sf9 insect cells. This accumulation in membranous organelles insulates both recombinant protein and host from undesirable activities of either. Recombinant protein encapsulation in these PBs facilitates stable accumulation of proteins in a protected sub-cellular compartment which results in an enhancement of protein production without affecting the viability and development of stably transformed hosts. The induced PBs also retain the high-density properties of native seed PBs which facilitate the recovery and purification of the recombinant proteins they contain. Conclusion The Zera sequence provides an efficient and universal means to produce recombinant proteins by accumulation in ER-derived organelles. The remarkable cross-kingdom conservation of PB formation and their biophysical properties should have broad application in the manufacture of non-secreted recombinant proteins and suggests the existence of universal ER pathways for protein insulation.

  7. Arabinogalactan proteins have deep roots in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervé, Cécile; Siméon, Amandine; Jam, Murielle

    2016-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated, hydroxyproline-rich proteins found at the cell surface of plants, where they play key roles in developmental processes. Brown algae are marine, multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. They belong to the phylum Stramenopiles, which...... is unrelated to land plants and green algae (Chloroplastida). Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-rich cell wall. They differ markedly from plants in their cell wall composition, and AGPs have not been reported in brown algae. Here we...... glycan epitopes in a range of brown algal cell wall extracts. We demonstrated that these chimeric AGP-like core proteins are developmentally regulated in embryos of the order Fucales and showed that AGP loss of function seriously impairs the course of early embryogenesis. Our findings shine a new light...

  8. Functional analysis of candidate ABC transporter proteins for sitosterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, C; Elliott, J I; Sardini, A

    2002-01-01

    Two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, ABCG5 and ABCG8, have recently been associated with the accumulation of dietary cholesterol in the sterol storage disease sitosterolemia. These two 'half-transporters' are assumed to dimerize to form the complete sitosterol transporter which reduces...... the absorption of sitosterol and related molecules in the intestine by pumping them back into the lumen. Although mutations altering ABCG5 and ABCG8 are found in affected patients, no functional demonstration of sitosterol transport has been achieved. In this study, we investigated whether other ABC transporters......-specific ABC transporters have acquired specificity to exclude sitosterol and related sterols like cholesterol presumably because the abundance of cholesterol in the membrane would interfere with their action; in consequence, specific transporters have evolved to handle these sterols....

  9. Export of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using ABC transporter with an attached lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD

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    Moon Yuseok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter secretes the protein through inner and outer membranes simultaneously in gram negative bacteria. Thermostable lipase (TliA of Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1 is secreted through the ABC transporter. TliA has four glycine-rich repeats (GGXGXD in its C-terminus, which appear in many ABC transporter-secreted proteins. From a homology model of TliA derived from the structure of P. aeruginosa alkaline protease (AprA, lipase ABC transporter domains (LARDs were designed for the secretion of fusion proteins. Results The LARDs included four glycine-rich repeats comprising a β-roll structure, and were added to the C-terminus of test proteins. Either Pro-Gly linker or Factor Xa site was added between fusion proteins and LARDs. We attached different length of LARDs such as LARD0, LARD1 or whole TliA (the longest LARD to three types of proteins; green fluorescent protein (GFP, epidermal growth factor (EGF and cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP. These fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli together with ABC transporter of either P. fluorescens or Erwinia chrysanthemi. Export of fusion proteins with the whole TliA through the ABC transporter was evident on the basis of lipase enzymatic activity. Upon supplementation of E. coli with ABC transporter, GFP-LARDs and EGF-LARDs were excreted into the culture supernatant. Conclusion The LARDs or whole TliA were attached to C-termini of model proteins and enabled the export of the model proteins such as GFP and EGF in E. coli supplemented with ABC transporter. These results open the possibility for the extracellular production of recombinant proteins in Pseudomonas using LARDs or TliA as a C-terminal signal sequence.

  10. The ABC of protein kinase conformations.

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    Möbitz, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Due to their involvement in human diseases, protein kinases are an important therapeutic target class. Conformation is a key concept for understanding how functional activity, inhibition and sequence are linked. We assemble and annotate the mammalian structural kinome from the Protein Data Bank on the basis of a universal residue nomenclature. We identify a torsion angle around the Gly of the DFG-motif whose sharp distribution profile corresponds to three eclipsed conformations. This allows the definition a small set of clusters whose distribution shows a bias for the active conformation. A common rationale links the active and inactive state: stabilization of the active conformation, as well as inactivation by displacement of helix-αC or the DFG-motif is governed by the interaction between helix-αC and the DFG motif. In particular, the conformation of the DFG-motif is tightly correlated with the propensity of helix-αC displacement. Our analysis reveals detailed mechanisms for the displacement of helix-αC and the DFG and improves our understanding of the role of individual residues. By pooling conformations from the whole structural kinome, the energetic contributions of sequence and extrinsic factors can be estimated in free energy analyses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eukaryotic LYR Proteins Interact with Mitochondrial Protein Complexes

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    Heike Angerer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria host ancient essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways. LYR (leucine/tyrosine/arginine motif proteins (LYRMs of the Complex1_LYR-like superfamily interact with protein complexes of bacterial origin. Many LYR proteins function as extra subunits (LYRM3 and LYRM6 or novel assembly factors (LYRM7, LYRM8, ACN9 and FMC1 of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS core complexes. Structural insights into complex I accessory subunits LYRM6 and LYRM3 have been provided by analyses of EM and X-ray structures of complex I from bovine and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, respectively. Combined structural and biochemical studies revealed that LYRM6 resides at the matrix arm close to the ubiquinone reduction site. For LYRM3, a position at the distal proton-pumping membrane arm facing the matrix space is suggested. Both LYRMs are supposed to anchor an acyl-carrier protein (ACPM independently to complex I. The function of this duplicated protein interaction of ACPM with respiratory complex I is still unknown. Analysis of protein-protein interaction screens, genetic analyses and predicted multi-domain LYRMs offer further clues on an interaction network and adaptor-like function of LYR proteins in mitochondria.

  12. Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derelle, R.; Torruella, G.; Klimeš, V.; Brinkmann, H.; Kim, E.; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B.F.; Eliáš, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 7 (2015), E693-E699 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24983S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0100; Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Early Career Scientist Program(US) 55007424; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, European Molecular Biology Organization Young Investigator Program(ES) BFU2012-31329; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, "Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa" - European Regional Development Fund(ES) Sev-2012-0208, BES-2013-064004 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : eukaryote phylogeny * phylogenomics * Opimoda * Diphoda * LECA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  13. Starting the protein synthesis machine: eukaryotic translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Thomas; W Hentze, Matthias

    2003-12-01

    The final assembly of the protein synthesis machinery occurs during translation initiation. This delicate process involves both ends of eukaryotic messenger RNAs as well as multiple sequential protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions. As is expected from its critical position in the gene expression pathway between the transcriptome and the proteome, translation initiation is a selective and highly regulated process. This synopsis summarises the current status of the field and identifies intriguing open questions. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diversity and evolution of ABC proteins in mycorrhiza-forming fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2015-12-28

    Transporter proteins are predicted to have an important role in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, due to the fact that this type of an interaction between plants and fungi requires a continuous nutrient and signalling exchange. ABC transporters are one of the large groups of transporter proteins found both in plants and in fungi. The crucial role of plant ABC transporters in the formation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis has been demonstrated recently. Some of the fungal ABC transporter-encoding genes are also induced during the mycorrhiza formation. However, no experimental evidences of the direct involvement of fungal ABC transporters in this process are available so far. To facilitate the identification of fungal ABC proteins with a potential role in the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis, we have performed an inventory of the ABC protein-encoding genes in the genomes of 25 species of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. We have identified, manually annotated and curated more than 1300 gene models of putative ABC protein-encoding genes. Out of those, more than 1000 models are predicted to encode functional proteins, whereas about 300 models represent gene fragments or putative pseudogenes. We have also performed the phylogenetic analysis of the identified sequences. The sets of ABC proteins in the mycorrhiza-forming species were compared to the related saprotrophic or plant-pathogenic fungal species. Our results demonstrate the high diversity of ABC genes in the genomes of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. Via comparison of transcriptomics data from different species, we have identified candidate groups of ABC transporters that might have a role in the process of the mycorrhiza formation. Results of our inventory will facilitate the identification of fungal transporters with a role in the mycorrhiza formation. We also provide the first data on ABC protein-coding genes for the phylum Glomeromycota and for orders Pezizales, Atheliales, Cantharellales and Sebacinales, contributing to

  15. Cryoelectron Microscopic Structures of Eukaryotic Translation Termination Complexes Containing eRF1-eRF3 or eRF1-ABCE1

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    Anne Preis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Termination and ribosome recycling are essential processes in translation. In eukaryotes, a stop codon in the ribosomal A site is decoded by a ternary complex consisting of release factors eRF1 and guanosine triphosphate (GTP-bound eRF3. After GTP hydrolysis, eRF3 dissociates, and ABCE1 can bind to eRF1-loaded ribosomes to stimulate peptide release and ribosomal subunit dissociation. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopic (cryo-EM structures of a pretermination complex containing eRF1-eRF3 and a termination/prerecycling complex containing eRF1-ABCE1. eRF1 undergoes drastic conformational changes: its central domain harboring the catalytically important GGQ loop is either packed against eRF3 or swung toward the peptidyl transferase center when bound to ABCE1. Additionally, in complex with eRF3, the N-terminal domain of eRF1 positions the conserved NIKS motif proximal to the stop codon, supporting its suggested role in decoding, yet it appears to be delocalized in the presence of ABCE1. These results suggest that stop codon decoding and peptide release can be uncoupled during termination.

  16. Evolution of DNA replication protein complexes in eukaryotes and Archaea.

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    Nicholas Chia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The replication of DNA in Archaea and eukaryotes requires several ancillary complexes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, replication factor C (RFC, and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM complex. Bacterial DNA replication utilizes comparable proteins, but these are distantly related phylogenetically to their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts at best. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. The number of subunits in each complex is constant across all taxa. However, they vary subtly with regard to composition. In some taxa the subunits are all identical in sequence, while in others some are homologous rather than identical. In the case of eukaryotes, there is no phylogenetic variation in the makeup of each complex-all appear to derive from a common eukaryotic ancestor. This is not the case in Archaea, where the relationship between the subunits within each complex varies taxon-to-taxon. We have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of these relationships in order to better understand the gene duplications and divergences that gave rise to the homologous subunits in Archaea. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This domain level difference in evolution suggests that different forces have driven the evolution of DNA replication proteins in each of these two domains. In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota.

  17. Localization of checkpoint and repair proteins in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the cellular response to DNA damage depends on the type of DNA structure being recognized by the checkpoint and repair machinery. DNA ends and single-stranded DNA are hallmarks of double-strand breaks and replication stress. These two structures are recognized by distinct sets...... is largely controlled by a network of protein-protein interactions, with the Mre11 complex initiating assembly at DNA ends and replication protein A directing recruitment to single-stranded DNA. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cellular organization of DSB repair and checkpoint proteins...... focusing on budding yeast and mammalian cells....

  18. Structural organization of essential iron-sulfur clusters in the evolutionarily highly conserved ATP-binding cassette protein ABCE1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthelme, Dominik; Scheele, Urte; Dinkelaker, Stephanie; Janoschka, Adam; MacMillan, Fraser; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Stagni, Marco Salamone; Bill, Eckhard; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Schuenemann, Volker; Tampe, Robert; Schünemann, Volker

    2007-01-01

    The ABC protein ABCE1, formerly named RNase L inhibitor RLI1, is one of the most conserved proteins in evolution and is expressed in all organisms except eubacteria. Because of its fundamental role in translation initiation and/or ribosome biosynthesis, ABCE1 is essential for life. Its molecular

  19. Structure of ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnerciks, Joseph K; Andress, Edward J; Nicolaou, Michael; Linton, Kenneth J

    2011-09-07

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are primary active membrane proteins that translocate solutes (allocrites) across lipid bilayers. The prototypical ABC transporter consists of four domains: two cytoplasmic NBDs (nucleotide-binding domains) and two TMDs (transmembrane domains). The NBDs, whose primary sequence is highly conserved throughout the superfamily, bind and hydrolyse ATP to power the transport cycle. The TMDs, whose primary sequence and protein fold can be quite disparate, form the translocation pathway across the membrane and generally (but not always) determine allocrite specificity. Structure determination of ABC proteins initially took advantage of the relative ease of expression and crystallization of the hydrophilic bacterial NBDs in isolation from the transporter complex, and revealed detailed information on the structural fold of these domains, the amino acids involved in the binding and hydrolysis of nucleotide, and the head-to-tail arrangement of the NBD-NBD dimer interface. More recently, several intact transporters have been crystallized and three types have, so far, been characterized: type I and II ABC importers, and ABC exporters. All three are present in prokaryotes, but only the ABC exporters appear to be present in eukaryotes. Their structural determination has provided insight into the mechanisms of energy and signal transduction between the NBDs and TMDs (i.e. between the ATP- and allocrite-binding sites) and, for some, the nature of the allocrite-binding site(s) within the TMDs. In this chapter, we focus primarily on the ABC exporters and describe the structural, biochemical and biophysical evidence for and against the controversial bellows-like mechanism proposed for allocrite efflux.

  20. Regulated eukaryotic DNA replication origin firing with purified proteins.

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    Yeeles, Joseph T P; Deegan, Tom D; Janska, Agnieszka; Early, Anne; Diffley, John F X

    2015-03-26

    Eukaryotic cells initiate DNA replication from multiple origins, which must be tightly regulated to promote precise genome duplication in every cell cycle. To accomplish this, initiation is partitioned into two temporally discrete steps: a double hexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is first loaded at replication origins during G1 phase, and then converted to the active CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase during S phase. Here we describe the reconstitution of budding yeast DNA replication initiation with 16 purified replication factors, made from 42 polypeptides. Origin-dependent initiation recapitulates regulation seen in vivo. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibits MCM loading by phosphorylating the origin recognition complex (ORC) and promotes CMG formation by phosphorylating Sld2 and Sld3. Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) promotes replication by phosphorylating MCM, and can act either before or after CDK. These experiments define the minimum complement of proteins, protein kinase substrates and co-factors required for regulated eukaryotic DNA replication.

  1. Substrate protein recognition mechanism of archaeal and eukaryotic chaperonins.

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    Shrestha, Pooja; Jayasinghe, Manori; Stan, George

    2009-03-01

    Chaperonins are double ring-shaped biological nanomachines that assist protein folding. Spectacular conformational changes take place within each chaperonin ring using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. These changes result in transitions from the open to the closed ring. Substrate proteins bind to the open ring and are encapsulated within the closed ring cavity. We focus on the substrate protein recognition mechanism of archaeal and eukaryotic chaperonins. We predict substrate protein binding sites using structural and bioinformatic analyses of functional states during the chaperonin cycle. Based on large changes in solvent accessible surface area and contact maps we glean the functional role of chaperonin amino acids. During the transition between open to closed chaperonin ring, the largest change in accessible surface area of amino acids is found in helical protrusion and two helices located at the cavity opening. Our calculations suggest that the helical protrusion and two helices constitute the substrate protein binding site.

  2. Specificity and evolvability in eukaryotic protein interaction networks.

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    Pedro Beltrao

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Progress in uncovering the protein interaction networks of several species has led to questions of what underlying principles might govern their organization. Few studies have tried to determine the impact of protein interaction network evolution on the observed physiological differences between species. Using comparative genomics and structural information, we show here that eukaryotic species have rewired their interactomes at a fast rate of approximately 10(-5 interactions changed per protein pair, per million years of divergence. For Homo sapiens this corresponds to 10(3 interactions changed per million years. Additionally we find that the specificity of binding strongly determines the interaction turnover and that different biological processes show significantly different link dynamics. In particular, human proteins involved in immune response, transport, and establishment of localization show signs of positive selection for change of interactions. Our analysis suggests that a small degree of molecular divergence can give rise to important changes at the network level. We propose that the power law distribution observed in protein interaction networks could be partly explained by the cell's requirement for different degrees of protein binding specificity.

  3. Structural and evolutionary divergence of eukaryotic protein kinases in Apicomplexa

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    Talevich Eric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Apicomplexa constitute an evolutionarily divergent phylum of protozoan pathogens responsible for widespread parasitic diseases such as malaria and toxoplasmosis. Many cellular functions in these medically important organisms are controlled by protein kinases, which have emerged as promising drug targets for parasitic diseases. However, an incomplete understanding of how apicomplexan kinases structurally and mechanistically differ from their host counterparts has hindered drug development efforts to target parasite kinases. Results We used the wealth of sequence data recently made available for 15 apicomplexan species to identify the kinome of each species and quantify the evolutionary constraints imposed on each family of apicomplexan kinases. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific adaptations in selected families, namely cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK and CLK/LAMMER, which have been identified as important in the pathogenesis of these organisms. Bayesian analysis of selective constraints imposed on these families identified the sequence and structural features that most distinguish apicomplexan protein kinases from their homologs in model organisms and other eukaryotes. In particular, in a subfamily of CDKs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum crk-5, the activation loop contains a novel PTxC motif which is absent from all CDKs outside Apicomplexa. Our analysis also suggests a convergent mode of regulation in a subset of apicomplexan CDPKs and mammalian MAPKs involving a commonly conserved arginine in the αC helix. In all recognized apicomplexan CLKs, we find a set of co-conserved residues involved in substrate recognition and docking that are distinct from metazoan CLKs. Conclusions We pinpoint key conserved residues that can be predicted to mediate functional differences from eukaryotic homologs in three identified kinase families. We discuss the structural, functional and

  4. The classification, structure and functioning of Ago proteins in Eukaryotes

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    Aleksandra Poterala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ago proteins are members of the highly specialized and conserved Argonaute family, primarily responsible for regulation of gene expression. As a part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs Ago proteins are responsible for binding a short RNA and cleavage/inhibition of translation of target mRNAs. Phosphorylation may work as the switch between those two functions, but the role of magnesium ion concentration is also taken into consideration. Recent reports indicate that Ago proteins can interact with an mRNA and cause inhibition of translation without the participation of a short RNA. As key elements in RNA interference processes, Ago proteins are an important and intensively exploited area of research. Furthermore, these proteins are involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination, modifications of chromatin, and alternative splicing. Their role in the cell cycle and senescence is also being studied. In addition, Ago expression is tissue-specific, which potentially may be used for diagnostic purposes. Understanding the mechanisms of Ago functioning is therefore crucial for understanding many cellular processes. The following article presents a detailed description of the Ago proteins including their post-translational modifications, recent data and hypotheses concerning their interactions with short RNAs and mRNAs as well as the mechanisms of siRNA/miRNA sorting into individual members of the Ago subfamily, and their role in eukaryotic cells. The latest classification of Ago proteins within the Argonaute family based on evolutionary studies and their possible interactions with DNA are also described.

  5. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in aquatic invertebrates: Evolutionary significance and application in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is known to play a fundamental role in biological processes and is highly conserved across animal taxa. The ABC proteins function as active transporters for multiple substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. As this superfamily is derived from a common ancestor, ABC genes have evolved via lineage-specific duplications through the process of adaptation. In this review, we summarized information about the ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates, considering their evolution and putative functions in defense mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to examine the evolutionary significance of ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates. Particularly, a massive expansion of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-mediated efflux transporters was identified in the absence of the ABCG2 (BCRP) gene in Ecdysozoa and Platyzoa, suggesting that a loss of Abcg2 gene occurred sporadically in these species during divergence of Protostome to Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, in aquatic invertebrates, the ecotoxicological significance of MXR is discussed while considering the role of MXR-mediated efflux transporters in response to various environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Searching for the role of protein phosphatases in eukaryotic microorganisms

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    da-Silva A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference for specific protein substrates together with differential sensitivity to activators and inhibitors has allowed classification of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs into four major types designated types 1, 2A, 2B and 2C (PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP2C, respectively. Comparison of sequences within their catalytic domains has indicated that PP1, PP2A and PP2B are members of the same gene family named PPP. On the other hand, the type 2C enzyme does not share sequence homology with the PPP members and thus represents another gene family, known as PPM. In this report we briefly summarize some of our studies about the role of serine/threonine phosphatases in growth and differentiation of three different eukaryotic models: Blastocladiella emersonii, Neurospora crassa and Dictyostelium discoideum. Our observations suggest that PP2C is the major phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of amidotransferase, an enzyme that controls cell wall synthesis during Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore germination. We also report the existence of a novel acid- and thermo-stable protein purified from Neurospora crassa mycelia, which specifically inhibits the PP1 activity of this fungus and mammals. Finally, we comment on our recent results demonstrating that Dictyostelium discoideum expresses a gene that codes for PP1, although this activity has never been demonstrated biochemically in this organism.

  7. Evolution of an intricate J-protein network driving protein disaggregation in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillegoda, Nadinath B; Stank, Antonia; Malinverni, Duccio; Alberts, Niels; Szlachcic, Anna; Barducci, Alessandro; De Los Rios, Paolo; Wade, Rebecca C; Bukau, Bernd

    2017-05-15

    Hsp70 participates in a broad spectrum of protein folding processes extending from nascent chain folding to protein disaggregation. This versatility in function is achieved through a diverse family of J-protein cochaperones that select substrates for Hsp70. Substrate selection is further tuned by transient complexation between different classes of J-proteins, which expands the range of protein aggregates targeted by metazoan Hsp70 for disaggregation. We assessed the prevalence and evolutionary conservation of J-protein complexation and cooperation in disaggregation. We find the emergence of a eukaryote-specific signature for interclass complexation of canonical J-proteins. Consistently, complexes exist in yeast and human cells, but not in bacteria, and correlate with cooperative action in disaggregation in vitro. Signature alterations exclude some J-proteins from networking, which ensures correct J-protein pairing, functional network integrity and J-protein specialization. This fundamental change in J-protein biology during the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition allows for increased fine-tuning and broadening of Hsp70 function in eukaryotes.

  8. Large-scale analysis of phosphorylation site occupancy in eukaryotic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Møller, Ian Max

    2012-01-01

    in proteins is currently lacking. We have therefore analyzed the occurrence and occupancy of phosphorylated sites (~ 100,281) in a large set of eukaryotic proteins (~ 22,995). Phosphorylation probability was found to be much higher in both the  termini of protein sequences and this is much pronounced...... maximum randomness. An analysis of phosphorylation motifs indicated that just 40 motifs and a much lower number of associated kinases might account for nearly 50% of the known phosphorylations in eukaryotic proteins. Our results provide a broad picture of the phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteins....

  9. Reexamining opportunities for therapeutic protein production in eukaryotic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine B; Wright, Chapman; Kuo, Angel; Colant, Noelle; Westoby, Matthew; Love, J Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Antibodies are an important class of therapeutics and are predominantly produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines. While this manufacturing platform is sufficiently productive to supply patient populations of currently approved therapies, it is unclear whether or not the current CHO platform can address two significant areas of need: affordable access to biologics for patients around the globe and production of unprecedented quantities needed for very large populations of patients. Novel approaches to recombinant protein production for therapeutic biologic products may be needed, and might be enabled by non-mammalian expression systems and recent advances in bioengineering. Eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi, microalgae, and protozoa offer the potential to produce high-quality antibodies in large quantities. In this review, we lay out the current understanding of a wide range of species and evaluate based on theoretical considerations which are best poised to deliver a step change in cost of manufacturing and volumetric productivity within the next decade.Related article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bit.26383/full. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. ProteinHistorian: tools for the comparative analysis of eukaryote protein origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Capra

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of a protein reflects the functional history of its ancestors. Recent phylogenetic studies identified distinct evolutionary signatures that characterize proteins involved in cancer, Mendelian disease, and different ontogenic stages. Despite the potential to yield insight into the cellular functions and interactions of proteins, such comparative phylogenetic analyses are rarely performed, because they require custom algorithms. We developed ProteinHistorian to make tools for performing analyses of protein origins widely available. Given a list of proteins of interest, ProteinHistorian estimates the phylogenetic age of each protein, quantifies enrichment for proteins of specific ages, and compares variation in protein age with other protein attributes. ProteinHistorian allows flexibility in the definition of protein age by including several algorithms for estimating ages from different databases of evolutionary relationships. We illustrate the use of ProteinHistorian with three example analyses. First, we demonstrate that proteins with high expression in human, compared to chimpanzee and rhesus macaque, are significantly younger than those with human-specific low expression. Next, we show that human proteins with annotated regulatory functions are significantly younger than proteins with catalytic functions. Finally, we compare protein length and age in many eukaryotic species and, as expected from previous studies, find a positive, though often weak, correlation between protein age and length. ProteinHistorian is available through a web server with an intuitive interface and as a set of command line tools; this allows biologists and bioinformaticians alike to integrate these approaches into their analysis pipelines. ProteinHistorian's modular, extensible design facilitates the integration of new datasets and algorithms. The ProteinHistorian web server, source code, and pre-computed ages for 32 eukaryotic genomes are

  11. Protein-protein interactions in the cyanobacterial KaiABC circadian clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egli, M.; Pattanayek, R.; Pattanayek, S. (Vanderbilt)

    2008-01-10

    The discovery that the central oscillator of the cyanobacterial KaiABC circadian clock can be reconstituted in vitro by the protein components KaiA, KaiB and KaiC renders this biological timer a unique target for biochemical and structural studies. The oscillator can be monitored through changes in the KaiC phosphorylation status that is modulated by KaiA and KaiB. As the 24-h period of the recombinant clock remains unaltered as a result of modest variation of temperature, interactions between the three Kai proteins not only form the basis for rhythmic control of levels of KaiC phosphorylation but also provide temperature compensation. A profound understanding of how this biological timer works requires a dissection of the functions of, and interactions between, the three proteins. Three-dimensional structures of the individual Kai proteins have been determined, and the KaiA-KaiC complex has been studied using hybrid structural methods. This chapter provides an overview of progress in the characterization of the cyanobacterial circadian clock with an emphasis on structural aspects of individual Kai proteins and the binary KaiA-KaiC complex.

  12. Evolutionary origin, diversification and specialization of eukaryotic MutS homolog mismatch repair proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Culligan, Kevin M.; Meyer-Gauen, Gilbert; Lyons-Weiler, James; Hays, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Most eubacteria, and all eukaryotes examined thus far, encode homologs of the DNA mismatch repair protein MutS. Although eubacteria encode only one or two MutS-like proteins, eukaryotes encode at least six distinct MutS homolog (MSH) proteins, corresponding to conserved (orthologous) gene families. This suggests evolution of individual gene family lines of descent by several duplication/specialization events. Using quantitative phylogenetic analyses (RASA, or relative apparent synapomorphy an...

  13. A versatile selection system for folding competent proteins using genetic complementation in a eukaryotic host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, C.; Kjaerulff, S.; Muller, S.

    2010-01-01

    -control systems to retain misfolded proteins in the ER and redirect them for cytosolic degradation, thereby only allowing folded proteins to reach the cell surface. Accordingly, the folding potential of the tested protein determines the ability of autotrophic colony growth. This system was successfully......Recombinant expression of native or modified eukaryotic proteins is pivotal for structural and functional studies and for industrial and pharmaceutical production of proteins. However, it is often impeded by the lack of proper folding. Here, we present a stringent and broadly applicable eukaryotic...... in vivo selection system for folded proteins. It is based on genetic complementation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth marker gene invertase fused C-terminally to a protein library. The fusion proteins are directed to the secretion system, utilizing the ability of the eukaryotic protein quality...

  14. Conservation and Variability of Synaptonemal Complex Proteins in Phylogenesis of Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Grishaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the origin and evolution of meiosis include the enigmatic variability of the synaptonemal complexes (SCs which, being morphology similar, consist of different proteins in different eukaryotic phyla. Using bioinformatics methods, we monitored all available eukaryotic proteomes to find proteins similar to known SC proteins of model organisms. We found proteins similar to SC lateral element (LE proteins and possessing the HORMA domain in the majority of the eukaryotic taxa and assume them the most ancient among all SC proteins. Vertebrate LE proteins SYCP2, SYCP3, and SC65 proved to have related proteins in many invertebrate taxa. Proteins of SC central space are most evolutionarily variable. It means that different protein-protein interactions can exist to connect LEs. Proteins similar to the known SC proteins were not found in Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta, Charophyta, Xanthophyta, Dinoflagellata, and primitive Coelomata. We conclude that different proteins whose common feature is the presence of domains with a certain conformation are involved in the formation of the SC in different eukaryotic phyla. This permits a targeted search for orthologs of the SC proteins using phylogenetic trees. Here we consider example of phylogenetic trees for protozoans, fungi, algae, mosses, and flowering plants.

  15. Protein knockouts in living eukaryotes using deGradFP and green fluorescent protein fusion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caussinus, Emmanuel; Kanca, Oguz; Affolter, Markus

    2013-09-24

    This unit describes deGradFP (degrade Green Fluorescent Protein), an easy-to-implement protein knockout method applicable in any eukaryotic genetic system. Depleting a protein in order to study its function in a living organism is usually achieved at the gene level (genetic mutations) or at the RNA level (RNA interference and morpholinos). However, any system that acts upstream of the proteic level depends on the turnover rate of the existing target protein, which can be extremely slow. In contrast, deGradFP is a fast method that directly depletes GFP fusion proteins. In particular, deGradFP is able to counteract maternal effects in embryos and causes early and fast onset loss-of-function phenotypes of maternally contributed proteins. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Role of NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic motif in the subcellular localization of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D: Common features in eukaryotic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Asaka; Asahina, Kota; Okamoto, Takumi; Kawaguchi, Kosuke [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kostsin, Dzmitry G. [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Institute of Biophysics and Cell Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Academicheskaya Str. 27, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kashiwayama, Yoshinori [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Takanashi, Kojiro; Yazaki, Kazufumi [Laboratory of Plant Gene Expression, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoko University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Imanaka, Tsuneo, E-mail: imanaka@pha.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Morita, Masashi [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • ABCD proteins classifies based on with or without NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment. • The ABCD proteins with the segment are targeted peroxisomes. • The ABCD proteins without the segment are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. • The role of the segment in organelle targeting is conserved in eukaryotic organisms. - Abstract: In mammals, four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 possesses the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and are targeted to peroxisomes, while ABCD4 lacking the region is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on hydropathy plot analysis, we found that several eukaryotes have ABCD protein homologs lacking the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment (H0 motif). To investigate whether the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in subcellular localization is conserved across species, we expressed ABCD proteins from several species (metazoan, plant and fungi) in fusion with GFP in CHO cells and examined their subcellular localization. ABCD proteins possessing the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif were localized to peroxisomes, while ABCD proteins lacking this region lost this capacity. In addition, the deletion of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif of ABCD protein resulted in their localization to the ER. These results suggest that the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in organelle targeting is widely conserved in living organisms.

  17. Computational modeling of protein interactions and phosphoform kinetics in the KaiABC cyanobacterial circadian clock

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The KaiABC circadian clock from cyanobacteria is the only known three-protein oscillatory system which can be reconstituted outside the cell and which displays sustained periodic dynamics in various molecular state variables. Despite many recent experimental and theoretical studies there are several open questions regarding the central mechanism(s) responsible for creating this ~24 hour clock in terms of molecular assembly/disassembly of the proteins and site-dependent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of KaiC monomers. Simulations of protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation reactions constrained by analytical fits to partial reaction experimental data support the central mechanism of oscillation as KaiB-induced KaiA sequestration in KaiABC complexes associated with the extent of Ser431 phosphorylation in KaiC hexamers. A simple two-state deterministic model in terms of the degree of phosphorylation of Ser431 and Thr432 sites alone can reproduce the previously observed circadian oscillation in the...

  18. Asymmetric switching in a homodimeric ABC transporter: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Aittoniemi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ABC transporters are a large family of membrane proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes, including multidrug and tumor resistance and ion channel regulation. Advances in the structural and functional understanding of ABC transporters have revealed that hydrolysis at the two canonical nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs is co-operative and non-simultaneous. A conserved core architecture of bacterial and eukaryotic ABC exporters has been established, as exemplified by the crystal structure of the homodimeric multidrug exporter Sav1866. Currently, it is unclear how sequential ATP hydrolysis arises in a symmetric homodimeric transporter, since it implies at least transient asymmetry at the NBSs. We show by molecular dynamics simulation that the initially symmetric structure of Sav1866 readily undergoes asymmetric transitions at its NBSs in a pre-hydrolytic nucleotide configuration. MgATP-binding residues and a network of charged residues at the dimer interface are shown to form a sequence of putative molecular switches that allow ATP hydrolysis only at one NBS. We extend our findings to eukaryotic ABC exporters which often consist of two non-identical half-transporters, frequently with degeneracy substitutions at one of their two NBSs. Interestingly, many residues involved in asymmetric conformational switching in Sav1866 are substituted in degenerate eukaryotic NBS. This finding strengthens recent suggestions that the interplay of a consensus and a degenerate NBS in eukaroytic ABC proteins pre-determines the sequence of hydrolysis at the two NBSs.

  19. A novel nucleolar G-protein conserved in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Jensen, B C; Kifer, C T; Parsons, M

    2001-01-01

    We describe here a novel, evolutionarily conserved set of predicted G-proteins. The founding member of this family, TbNOG1, was identified in a two-hybrid screen as a protein that interacts with NOPP44/46, a nucleolar phosphoprotein of Trypanosoma brucei. The biological relevance of the interaction was verified by co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation. TbNOG1 localized to the trypanosome nucleolus and interacted with domains of NOPP44/46 that are found in several other nucleolar proteins. Genes encoding proteins highly related to TbNOG1 are present in yeast and metazoa, and related G domains are found in bacteria. We show that NOG1 proteins in humans and Saccharomyces cerevisae are also nucleolar. The S. cerevisae NOG1 gene is essential for cell viability, and mutations in the predicted G motifs abrogate function. Together these data suggest that NOG1 may play an important role in nucleolar functions. The GTP-binding region of TbNOG1 is similar to those of Obg and DRG proteins, which, together with NOG, form a newly recognized family of G-proteins, herein named ODN. The ODN family differs significantly from other G-protein families, and shows several diagnostic sequence characteristics. All organisms appear to possess an ODN gene, pointing to the biological significance of this family of G-proteins.

  20. Structure and Dynamics of Membrane Proteins and Membrane Associated Proteins with Native Bicelles from Eukaryotic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrt, Sean T; Draney, Adrian W; Singaram, Indira; Lorieau, Justin L

    2017-10-10

    In vitro studies of protein structure, function, and dynamics typically preclude the complex range of molecular interactions found in living tissues. In vivo studies elucidate these complex relationships, yet they are typically incompatible with the extensive and controlled biophysical experiments available in vitro. We present an alternative approach by extracting membranes from eukaryotic tissues to produce native bicelles to capture the rich and complex molecular environment of in vivo studies while retaining the advantages of in vitro experiments. Native bicelles derived from chicken egg or mouse cerebrum tissues contain a rich composition of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidic acid (PA), lysolipids, cholesterol, ceramides (CM), and sphingomyelin (SM). The bicelles also contain source-specific lipids such as triacylglycerides (TAGs) and sulfatides from egg and brain tissues, respectively. With the influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide (HAfp) and the C-terminal Src homology domain of lymphocyte-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (lck-cSH2), we show that membrane proteins and membrane associated proteins reconstituted in native bicelles produce high-resolution NMR data and probe native protein-lipid interactions.

  1. Heme Assimilation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Requires Cell-surface-anchored Protein Shu1 and Vacuolar Transporter Abc3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourer, Thierry; Normant, Vincent; Labbé, Simon

    2017-03-24

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe shu1+ gene encodes a cell-surface protein required for assimilation of exogenous heme. In this study, shaving experiments showed that Shu1 is released from membrane preparations when spheroplast lysates are incubated with phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Shu1 cleavability by PI-PLC and its predicted hydropathy profile strongly suggested that Shu1 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. When heme biosynthesis is selectively blocked in hem1Δ mutant cells, the heme analog zinc mesoporphyrin IX (ZnMP) first accumulates into vacuoles and then subsequently, within the cytoplasm in a rapid and Shu1-dependent manner. An HA4-tagged shu1+ allele that retained wild-type function localizes to the cell surface in response to low hemin concentrations, but under high hemin concentrations, Shu1-HA4 re-localizes to the vacuolar membrane. Inactivation of abc3+, encoding a vacuolar membrane transporter, results in hem1Δ abc3Δ mutant cells being unable to grow in the presence of hemin as the sole iron source. In hem1Δ abc3Δ cells, ZnMP accumulates primarily in vacuoles and does not sequentially accumulate in the cytosol. Consistent with a role for Abc3 as vacuolar hemin exporter, results with hemin-agarose pulldown assays showed that Abc3 binds to hemin. In contrast, an Abc3 mutant in which an inverted Cys-Pro motif had been replaced with Ala residues fails to bind hemin with high affinity. Taken together, these results show that Shu1 undergoes rapid hemin-induced internalization from the cell surface to the vacuolar membrane and that the transporter Abc3 participates in the mobilization of stored heme from the vacuole to the cytosol. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Family business: the multidrug-resistance related protein (MRP) ABC transporter genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolukisaoglu, H Uner; Bovet, Lucien; Klein, Markus; Eggmann, Thomas; Geisler, Markus; Wanke, Dierk; Martinoia, Enrico; Schulz, Burkhard

    2002-11-01

    Despite the completion of the sequencing of the entire genome of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the exact determination of each single gene and its function remains an open question. This is especially true for multigene families. An approach that combines analysis of genomic structure, expression data and functional genomics to ascertain the role of the members of the multidrug-resistance-related protein ( MRP) gene family, a subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters from Arabidopsis is presented. We used cDNA sequencing and alignment-based re-annotation of genomic sequences to define the exact genic structure of all known AtMRP genes. Analysis of promoter regions suggested different induction conditions even for closely related genes. Expression analysis for the entire gene family confirmed these assumptions. Phylogenetic analysis and determination of segmental duplication in the regions of AtMRP genes revealed that the evolution of the extraordinarily high number of ABC transporter genes in plants cannot solely be explained by polyploidisation during the evolution of the Arabidopsis genome. Interestingly MRP genes from Oryza sativa L. (rice; OsMRP) show very similar genomic structures to those from Arabidopsis. Screening of large populations of T-DNA-mutagenised lines of A. thaliana resulted in the isolation of AtMRP insertion mutants. This work opens the way for the defined analysis of a multigene family of important membrane transporters whose broad variety of functions expands their traditional role as cellular detoxifiers.

  3. Conservation of coevolving protein interfaces bridges prokaryote–eukaryote homologies in the twilight zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rivas, Juan; Marsili, Simone; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions are fundamental for the proper functioning of the cell. As a result, protein interaction surfaces are subject to strong evolutionary constraints. Recent developments have shown that residue coevolution provides accurate predictions of heterodimeric protein interfaces from sequence information. So far these approaches have been limited to the analysis of families of prokaryotic complexes for which large multiple sequence alignments of homologous sequences can be compiled. We explore the hypothesis that coevolution points to structurally conserved contacts at protein–protein interfaces, which can be reliably projected to homologous complexes with distantly related sequences. We introduce a domain-centered protocol to study the interplay between residue coevolution and structural conservation of protein–protein interfaces. We show that sequence-based coevolutionary analysis systematically identifies residue contacts at prokaryotic interfaces that are structurally conserved at the interface of their eukaryotic counterparts. In turn, this allows the prediction of conserved contacts at eukaryotic protein–protein interfaces with high confidence using solely mutational patterns extracted from prokaryotic genomes. Even in the context of high divergence in sequence (the twilight zone), where standard homology modeling of protein complexes is unreliable, our approach provides sequence-based accurate information about specific details of protein interactions at the residue level. Selected examples of the application of prokaryotic coevolutionary analysis to the prediction of eukaryotic interfaces further illustrate the potential of this approach. PMID:27965389

  4. Enhancing the functional content of eukaryotic protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Pandey

    Full Text Available Protein interaction networks are a promising type of data for studying complex biological systems. However, despite the rich information embedded in these networks, these networks face important data quality challenges of noise and incompleteness that adversely affect the results obtained from their analysis. Here, we apply a robust measure of local network structure called common neighborhood similarity (CNS to address these challenges. Although several CNS measures have been proposed in the literature, an understanding of their relative efficacies for the analysis of interaction networks has been lacking. We follow the framework of graph transformation to convert the given interaction network into a transformed network corresponding to a variety of CNS measures evaluated. The effectiveness of each measure is then estimated by comparing the quality of protein function predictions obtained from its corresponding transformed network with those from the original network. Using a large set of human and fly protein interactions, and a set of over 100 GO terms for both, we find that several of the transformed networks produce more accurate predictions than those obtained from the original network. In particular, the HC.cont measure and other continuous CNS measures perform well this task, especially for large networks. Further investigation reveals that the two major factors contributing to this improvement are the abilities of CNS measures to prune out noisy edges and enhance functional coherence in the transformed networks.

  5. A set of ligation-independent in vitro translation vectors for eukaryotic protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endo Yaeta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last decade has brought the renaissance of protein studies and accelerated the development of high-throughput methods in all aspects of proteomics. Presently, most protein synthesis systems exploit the capacity of living cells to translate proteins, but their application is limited by several factors. A more flexible alternative protein production method is the cell-free in vitro protein translation. Currently available in vitro translation systems are suitable for high-throughput robotic protein production, fulfilling the requirements of proteomics studies. Wheat germ extract based in vitro translation system is likely the most promising method, since numerous eukaryotic proteins can be cost-efficiently synthesized in their native folded form. Although currently available vectors for wheat embryo in vitro translation systems ensure high productivity, they do not meet the requirements of state-of-the-art proteomics. Target genes have to be inserted using restriction endonucleases and the plasmids do not encode cleavable affinity purification tags. Results We designed four ligation independent cloning (LIC vectors for wheat germ extract based in vitro protein translation. In these constructs, the RNA transcription is driven by T7 or SP6 phage polymerase and two TEV protease cleavable affinity tags can be added to aid protein purification. To evaluate our improved vectors, a plant mitogen activated protein kinase was cloned in all four constructs. Purification of this eukaryotic protein kinase demonstrated that all constructs functioned as intended: insertion of PCR fragment by LIC worked efficiently, affinity purification of translated proteins by GST-Sepharose or MagneHis particles resulted in high purity kinase, and the affinity tags could efficiently be removed under different reaction conditions. Furthermore, high in vitro kinase activity testified of proper folding of the purified protein. Conclusion Four newly

  6. A Polycomb complex remains bound through DNA replication in the absence of other eukaryotic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Lengsfeld, Bettina M.

    2012-09-17

    Propagation of chromatin states through DNA replication is central to epigenetic regulation and can involve recruitment of chromatin proteins to replicating chromatin through interactions with replication fork components. Here we show using a fully reconstituted T7 bacteriophage system that eukaryotic proteins are not required to tether the Polycomb complex PRC1 to templates during DNA replication. Instead, DNA binding by PRC1 can withstand passage of a simple replication fork.

  7. The P3 domain of eukaryotic RNases P/MRP: making a protein-rich RNA-based enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perederina, Anna; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Ribonuclease (RNase) P is a universal essential RNA-based enzyme made of a catalytic RNA component and a protein part; eukaryotic RNase P is closely related to a universal eukaryotic ribonucleoprotein RNase MRP. The protein part of the eukaryotic RNases P/MRP is dramatically more complex than that in bacterial and archaeal RNases P. The increase in the complexity of the protein part in eukaryotic RNases P/MRP was accompanied by the appearance of a novel structural element in the RNA component: an essential and phylogenetically conserved helix-loop-helix P3 RNA domain. The crystal structure of the P3 RNA domain in a complex with protein components Pop6 and Pop7 has been recently solved. Here we discuss the most salient structural features of the P3 domain as well as its possible role in the evolutionary transition to the protein-rich eukaryotic RNases P/MRP.

  8. Intra-plastid protein trafficking: how plant cells adapted prokaryotic mechanisms to the eukaryotic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, Jose M; Cline, Kenneth

    2013-02-01

    Protein trafficking and localization in plastids involve a complex interplay between ancient (prokaryotic) and novel (eukaryotic) translocases and targeting machineries. During evolution, ancient systems acquired new functions and novel translocation machineries were developed to facilitate the correct localization of nuclear encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast. Because of its post-translational nature, targeting and integration of membrane proteins posed the biggest challenge to the organelle to avoid aggregation in the aqueous compartments. Soluble proteins faced a different kind of problem since some had to be transported across three membranes to reach their destination. Early studies suggested that chloroplasts addressed these issues by adapting ancient-prokaryotic machineries and integrating them with novel-eukaryotic systems, a process called 'conservative sorting'. In the last decade, detailed biochemical, genetic, and structural studies have unraveled the mechanisms of protein targeting and localization in chloroplasts, suggesting a highly integrated scheme where ancient and novel systems collaborate at different stages of the process. In this review we focus on the differences and similarities between chloroplast ancestral translocases and their prokaryotic relatives to highlight known modifications that adapted them to the eukaryotic situation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IRES-Mediated Translation of Membrane Proteins and Glycoproteins in Eukaryotic Cell-Free Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brödel, Andreas K.; Sonnabend, Andrei; Roberts, Lisa O.; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements found in the 5′ untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR) of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established systems. PMID

  10. IRES-mediated translation of membrane proteins and glycoproteins in eukaryotic cell-free systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas K Brödel

    Full Text Available Internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements found in the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established

  11. Optimizing eukaryotic cell hosts for protein production through systems biotechnology and genome-scale modeling.

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    Gutierrez, Jahir M; Lewis, Nathan E

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic cell lines, including Chinese hamster ovary cells, yeast, and insect cells, are invaluable hosts for the production of many recombinant proteins. With the advent of genomic resources, one can now leverage genome-scale computational modeling of cellular pathways to rationally engineer eukaryotic host cells. Genome-scale models of metabolism include all known biochemical reactions occurring in a specific cell. By describing these mathematically and using tools such as flux balance analysis, the models can simulate cell physiology and provide targets for cell engineering that could lead to enhanced cell viability, titer, and productivity. Here we review examples in which metabolic models in eukaryotic cell cultures have been used to rationally select targets for genetic modification, improve cellular metabolic capabilities, design media supplementation, and interpret high-throughput omics data. As more comprehensive models of metabolism and other cellular processes are developed for eukaryotic cell culture, these will enable further exciting developments in cell line engineering, thus accelerating recombinant protein production and biotechnology in the years to come. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Ancient Gamete Fusogen HAP2 Is a Eukaryotic Class II Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fédry, Juliette; Liu, Yanjie; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Pei, Jimin; Li, Wenhao; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Traincard, François; Meola, Annalisa; Bricogne, Gérard; Grishin, Nick V; Snell, William J; Rey, Félix A; Krey, Thomas

    2017-02-23

    Sexual reproduction is almost universal in eukaryotic life and involves the fusion of male and female haploid gametes into a diploid cell. The sperm-restricted single-pass transmembrane protein HAP2-GCS1 has been postulated to function in membrane merger. Its presence in the major eukaryotic taxa-animals, plants, and protists (including important human pathogens like Plasmodium)-suggests that many eukaryotic organisms share a common gamete fusion mechanism. Here, we report combined bioinformatic, biochemical, mutational, and X-ray crystallographic studies on the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii HAP2 that reveal homology to class II viral membrane fusion proteins. We further show that targeting the segment corresponding to the fusion loop by mutagenesis or by antibodies blocks gamete fusion. These results demonstrate that HAP2 is the gamete fusogen and suggest a mechanism of action akin to viral fusion, indicating a way to block Plasmodium transmission and highlighting the impact of virus-cell genetic exchanges on the evolution of eukaryotic life. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Constraints and consequences of the emergence of amino acid repeats in eukaryotic proteins.

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    Chavali, Sreenivas; Chavali, Pavithra L; Chalancon, Guilhem; de Groot, Natalia Sanchez; Gemayel, Rita; Latysheva, Natasha S; Ing-Simmons, Elizabeth; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Balaji, Santhanam; Babu, M Madan

    2017-09-01

    Proteins with amino acid homorepeats have the potential to be detrimental to cells and are often associated with human diseases. Why, then, are homorepeats prevalent in eukaryotic proteomes? In yeast, homorepeats are enriched in proteins that are essential and pleiotropic and that buffer environmental insults. The presence of homorepeats increases the functional versatility of proteins by mediating protein interactions and facilitating spatial organization in a repeat-dependent manner. During evolution, homorepeats are preferentially retained in proteins with stringent proteostasis, which might minimize repeat-associated detrimental effects such as unregulated phase separation and protein aggregation. Their presence facilitates rapid protein divergence through accumulation of amino acid substitutions, which often affect linear motifs and post-translational-modification sites. These substitutions may result in rewiring protein interaction and signaling networks. Thus, homorepeats are distinct modules that are often retained in stringently regulated proteins. Their presence facilitates rapid exploration of the genotype-phenotype landscape of a population, thereby contributing to adaptation and fitness.

  14. Functional and evolutionary characterization of Ohr proteins in eukaryotes reveals many active homologs among pathogenic fungi

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    D.A. Meireles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ohr and OsmC proteins comprise two subfamilies within a large group of proteins that display Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase activity. These proteins were previously thought to be restricted to prokaryotes, but we show here, using iterated sequence searches, that Ohr/OsmC homologs are also present in 217 species of eukaryotes with a massive presence in Fungi (186 species. Many of these eukaryotic Ohr proteins possess an N-terminal extension that is predicted to target them to mitochondria. We obtained recombinant proteins for four eukaryotic members of the Ohr/OsmC family and three of them displayed lipoyl peroxidase activity. Further functional and biochemical characterization of the Ohr homologs from the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Mf_1 (MfOhr, the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, was pursued. Similarly to what has been observed for the bacterial proteins, we found that: (i the peroxidase activity of MfOhr was supported by DTT or dihydrolipoamide (dithiols, but not by β-mercaptoethanol or GSH (monothiols, even in large excess; (ii MfOhr displayed preference for organic hydroperoxides (CuOOH and tBOOH over hydrogen peroxide; (iii MfOhr presented extraordinary reactivity towards linoleic acid hydroperoxides (k=3.18 (±2.13×108 M−1 s−1. Both Cys87 and Cys154 were essential to the peroxidase activity, since single mutants for each Cys residue presented no activity and no formation of intramolecular disulfide bond upon treatment with hydroperoxides. The pKa value of the Cysp residue was determined as 5.7±0.1 by a monobromobimane alkylation method. Therefore, eukaryotic Ohr peroxidases share several biochemical features with prokaryotic orthologues and are preferentially located in mitochondria.

  15. ABCE1 is a highly conserved RNA silencing suppressor.

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    Kairi Kärblane

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1 is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.

  16. 1.55 Å Structure of the Ectoine Binding Protein TeaA of the Osmoregulated TRAP-Transporter TeaABC from Halomonas elongata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Sonja I.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Bienert, Ralf; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Ziegler, Christine

    2008-01-01

    TeaABC from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata belongs to the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP-T), a family of secondary transporters functioning in conjunction with periplasmic substrate binding proteins. TeaABC facilitates the uptake of the compatible

  17. Cryo-EM of dynamic protein complexes in eukaryotic DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingchuan; Yuan, Zuanning; Bai, Lin; Li, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication in Eukaryotes is a highly dynamic process that involves several dozens of proteins. Some of these proteins form stable complexes that are amenable to high-resolution structure determination by cryo-EM, thanks to the recent advent of the direct electron detector and powerful image analysis algorithm. But many of these proteins associate only transiently and flexibly, precluding traditional biochemical purification. We found that direct mixing of the component proteins followed by 2D and 3D image sorting can capture some very weakly interacting complexes. Even at 2D average level and at low resolution, EM images of these flexible complexes can provide important biological insights. It is often necessary to positively identify the feature-of-interest in a low resolution EM structure. We found that systematically fusing or inserting maltose binding protein (MBP) to selected proteins is highly effective in these situations. In this chapter, we describe the EM studies of several protein complexes involved in the eukaryotic DNA replication over the past decade or so. We suggest that some of the approaches used in these studies may be applicable to structural analysis of other biological systems. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  18. Six subgroups and extensive recent duplications characterize the evolution of the eukaryotic tubulin protein family.

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    Findeisen, Peggy; Mühlhausen, Stefanie; Dempewolf, Silke; Hertzog, Jonny; Zietlow, Alexander; Carlomagno, Teresa; Kollmar, Martin

    2014-08-27

    Tubulins belong to the most abundant proteins in eukaryotes providing the backbone for many cellular substructures like the mitotic and meiotic spindles, the intracellular cytoskeletal network, and the axonemes of cilia and flagella. Homologs have even been reported for archaea and bacteria. However, a taxonomically broad and whole-genome-based analysis of the tubulin protein family has never been performed, and thus, the number of subfamilies, their taxonomic distribution, and the exact grouping of the supposed archaeal and bacterial homologs are unknown. Here, we present the analysis of 3,524 tubulins from 504 species. The tubulins formed six major subfamilies, α to ζ. Species of all major kingdoms of the eukaryotes encode members of these subfamilies implying that they must have already been present in the last common eukaryotic ancestor. The proposed archaeal homologs grouped together with the bacterial TubZ proteins as sister clade to the FtsZ proteins indicating that tubulins are unique to eukaryotes. Most species contained α- and/or β-tubulin gene duplicates resulting from recent branch- and species-specific duplication events. This shows that tubulins cannot be used for constructing species phylogenies without resolving their ortholog-paralog relationships. The many gene duplicates and also the independent loss of the δ-, ε-, or ζ-tubulins, which have been shown to be part of the triplet microtubules in basal bodies, suggest that tubulins can functionally substitute each other. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Protein Intake and Mobility Limitation in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: the Health ABC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Denise K; Tooze, Janet A; Garcia, Katelyn; Visser, Marjolein; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2017-08-01

    The current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is based on short-term nitrogen balance studies in young adults and may underestimate the amount needed to optimally preserve physical function in older adults. We examined the association between protein intake and the onset of mobility limitation over 6 years of follow-up in older adults in the Health ABC study. Prospective cohort study. Memphis, Tennessee and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Community-dwelling, initially well-functioning adults aged 70-79 years (n = 1998). Protein intake (g/kg body weight/d) was calculated using an interviewer-administered 108-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Mobility limitation was assessed semi-annually and defined as reporting any difficulty walking one-quarter of a mile or climbing 10 steps on 2 consecutive 6-month contacts. The association between protein intake and incident mobility limitation was examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for demographics, behavioral characteristics, chronic conditions, total energy intake, and height. Mean (SD) protein intake was 0.91 (0.38) g/kg body weight/d, with 43% reporting intakes less than the RDA (0.8 g/kg body weight/d). During 6 years of follow-up, 705 participants (35.3%) developed mobility limitations. Compared to participants in the upper tertile of protein intake (≥1.0 g/kg body weight/d), participants in the lower two tertiles of protein intake (mobility limitation over 6 years of follow-up (RR (95% CI): 1.86 (1.41-2.44) and 1.49 (1.20-1.84), respectively). Lower protein intake was associated with increased risk of mobility limitation in community-dwelling, initially well-functioning older adults. These results suggest that protein intakes of ≥1.0 g/kg body weight/d may be optimal for maintaining physical function in older adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in pathogenesis and multidrug resistance of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.

    2003-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that utilise the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to drive the transport of compounds over biological membranes. They are members of one of the largest protein families to date, present in both pro- and eukaryotic

  1. Kinomer v. 1.0: a database of systematically classified eukaryotic protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David M A; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Barton, Geoffrey J

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of protein function through reversible phosphorylation by protein kinases and phosphatases is a general mechanism controlling virtually every cellular activity. Eukaryotic protein kinases can be classified into distinct, well-characterized groups based on amino acid sequence similarity and function. We recently reported a highly sensitive and accurate hidden Markov model-based method for the automatic detection and classification of protein kinases into these specific groups. The Kinomer v. 1.0 database presented here contains annotated classifications for the protein kinase complements of 43 eukaryotic genomes. These span the taxonomic range and include fungi (16 species), plants (6), diatoms (1), amoebas (2), protists (1) and animals (17). The kinomes are stored in a relational database and are accessible through a web interface on the basis of species, kinase group or a combination of both. In addition, the Kinomer v. 1.0 HMM library is made available for users to perform classification on arbitrary sequences. The Kinomer v. 1.0 database is a continually updated resource where direct comparison of kinase sequences across kinase groups and across species can give insights into kinase function and evolution. Kinomer v. 1.0 is available at http://www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk/kinomer/.

  2. The major architects of chromatin: architectural proteins in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijsterburg, Martijn S; White, Malcolm F; van Driel, Roel; Dame, Remus Th

    2008-01-01

    The genomic DNA of all organisms across the three kingdoms of life needs to be compacted and functionally organized. Key players in these processes are DNA supercoiling, macromolecular crowding and architectural proteins that shape DNA by binding to it. The architectural proteins in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes generally do not exhibit sequence or structural conservation especially across kingdoms. Instead, we propose that they are functionally conserved. Most of these proteins can be classified according to their architectural mode of action: bending, wrapping or bridging DNA. In order for DNA transactions to occur within a compact chromatin context, genome organization cannot be static. Indeed chromosomes are subject to a whole range of remodeling mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the role of (i) DNA supercoiling, (ii) macromolecular crowding and (iii) architectural proteins in genome organization, as well as (iv) mechanisms used to remodel chromosome structure and to modulate genomic activity. We conclude that the underlying mechanisms that shape and remodel genomes are remarkably similar among bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes.

  3. On the monophyly of chromalveolates using a six-protein phylogeny of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, James T; Waanders, Esmé; Keeling, Patrick J

    2005-01-01

    A global phylogeny of major eukaryotic lineages is a significant and ongoing challenge to molecular phylogenetics. Currently, there are five hypothesized major lineages or 'supergroups' of eukaryotes. One of these, the chromalveolates, represents a large fraction of protist and algal diversity. The chromalveolate hypothesis was originally based on similarities between the photosynthetic organelles (plastids) found in many of its members and has been supported by analyses of plastid-related genes. However, since plastids can move between eukaryotic lineages, it is important to provide additional support from data generated from the nuclear-cytosolic host lineage. Genes coding for six different cytosolic proteins from a variety of chromalveolates (yielding 68 new gene sequences) have been characterized so that multiple gene analyses, including all six major lineages of chromalveolates, could be compared and concatenated with data representing all five hypothesized supergroups. Overall support for much of the phylogenies is decreased over previous analyses that concatenated fewer genes for fewer taxa. Nevertheless, four of the six chromalveolate lineages (apicomplexans, ciliates, dinoflagellates and heterokonts) consistently form a monophyletic assemblage, whereas the remaining two (cryptomonads and haptophytes) form a weakly supported group. Whereas these results are consistent with the monophyly of chromalveolates inferred from plastid data, testing this hypothesis is going to require a substantial increase in data from a wide variety of organisms.

  4. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily of the necrotrophic fungal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

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    Hegedus, Dwayne D; Gerbrandt, Kelsey; Coutu, Cathy

    2016-05-01

    Protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of many processes that guide pathogen development throughout the course of infection. A survey of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum genome for genes encoding proteins containing the highly conserved eukaryotic protein kinase (ePK) domain, the largest protein kinase superfamily, revealed 92 S. sclerotiorum ePKs. This review examines the composition of the S. sclerotiorum ePKs based on conserved motifs within the ePK domain family, and relates this to orthologues found in other filamentous fungi and yeasts. The ePKs are also discussed in terms of their proposed role(s) in aspects of host pathogenesis, including the coordination of mycelial growth/development and deployment of pathogenicity determinants in response to environmental stimuli, nutrients and stress. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Direct and specific chemical control of eukaryotic translation with a synthetic RNA-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfless, Stephen J; Belmont, Brian J; de Paz, Alexandra M; Liu, Jessica F; Niles, Jacquin C

    2012-05-01

    Sequence-specific RNA-protein interactions, though commonly used in biological systems to regulate translation, are challenging to selectively modulate. Here, we demonstrate the use of a chemically-inducible RNA-protein interaction to regulate eukaryotic translation. By genetically encoding Tet Repressor protein (TetR)-binding RNA elements into the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of an mRNA, translation of a downstream coding sequence is directly controlled by TetR and tetracycline analogs. In endogenous and synthetic 5'-UTR contexts, this system efficiently regulates the expression of multiple target genes, and is sufficiently stringent to distinguish functional from non-functional RNA-TetR interactions. Using a reverse TetR variant, we illustrate the potential for expanding the regulatory properties of the system through protein engineering strategies.

  6. Protein and DNA modifications: evolutionary imprints of bacterial biochemical diversification and geochemistry on the provenance of eukaryotic epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, L; Burroughs, A Maxwell; Zhang, Dapeng; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M

    2014-07-01

    Epigenetic information, which plays a major role in eukaryotic biology, is transmitted by covalent modifications of nuclear proteins (e.g., histones) and DNA, along with poorly understood processes involving cytoplasmic/secreted proteins and RNAs. The origin of eukaryotes was accompanied by emergence of a highly developed biochemical apparatus for encoding, resetting, and reading covalent epigenetic marks in proteins such as histones and tubulins. The provenance of this apparatus remained unclear until recently. Developments in comparative genomics show that key components of eukaryotic epigenetics emerged as part of the extensive biochemical innovation of secondary metabolism and intergenomic/interorganismal conflict systems in prokaryotes, particularly bacteria. These supplied not only enzymatic components for encoding and removing epigenetic modifications, but also readers of some of these marks. Diversification of these prokaryotic systems and subsequently eukaryotic epigenetics appear to have been considerably influenced by the great oxygenation event in the Earth's history. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study of protein synthesis in in vitro systems: from the prokaryotic reconstituted to the eukaryotic extract-based

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    Hillebrecht Jason R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-free protein synthesis is not only a rapid and high throughput technology to obtain proteins from their genes, but also provides an in vitro platform to study protein translation and folding. A detailed comparison of in vitro protein synthesis in different cell-free systems may provide insights to their biological differences and guidelines for their applications. Results Protein synthesis was investigated in vitro in a reconstituted prokaryotic system, a S30 extract-based system and a eukaryotic system. Compared to the S30 system, protein synthesis in the reconstituted system resulted in a reduced yield, and was more cold-sensitive. Supplementing the reconstituted system with fractions from a size-exclusion separation of the S30 extract significantly increased the yield and activity, to a level close to that of the S30 system. Though protein synthesis in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems showed no significant differences for eukaryotic reporter proteins, drastic differences were observed when an artificial fusion protein was synthesized in vitro. The prokaryotic systems failed to synthesize and correctly fold a significant amount of the full-length fusion protein, even when supplemented with the eukaryotic lysate. The active full-length fusion protein was synthesized only in the eukaryotic system. Conclusion The reconstituted bacterial system is sufficient but not efficient in protein synthesis. The S30 system by comparison contains additional cellular factors capable of enhancing protein translation and folding. The eukaryotic translation machinery may have evolved from its prokaryotic counterpart in order to translate more complex (difficult-to-translate templates into active proteins.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of eukaryote thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs with an emphasis on poplar

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    Duplessis Sébastien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant inducible immunity includes the accumulation of a set of defense proteins during infection called pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, which are grouped into families termed PR-1 to PR-17. The PR-5 family is composed of thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs, which are responsive to biotic and abiotic stress and are widely studied in plants. TLPs were also recently discovered in fungi and animals. In the poplar genome, TLPs are over-represented compared with annual species and their transcripts strongly accumulate during stress conditions. Results Our analysis of the poplar TLP family suggests that the expansion of this gene family was followed by diversification, as differences in expression patterns and predicted properties correlate with phylogeny. In particular, we identified a clade of poplar TLPs that cluster to a single 350 kb locus of chromosome I and that are up-regulated by poplar leaf rust infection. A wider phylogenetic analysis of eukaryote TLPs - including plant, animal and fungi sequences - shows that TLP gene content and diversity increased markedly during land plant evolution. Mapping the reported functions of characterized TLPs to the eukaryote phylogenetic tree showed that antifungal or glycan-lytic properties are widespread across eukaryote phylogeny, suggesting that these properties are shared by most TLPs and are likely associated with the presence of a conserved acidic cleft in their 3D structure. Also, we established an exhaustive catalog of TLPs with atypical architectures such as small-TLPs, TLP-kinases and small-TLP-kinases, which have potentially developed alternative functions (such as putative receptor kinases for pathogen sensing and signaling. Conclusion Our study, based on the most recent plant genome sequences, provides evidence for TLP gene family diversification during land plant evolution. We have shown that the diverse functions described for TLPs are not restricted to specific clades but seem

  9. A feature analysis of lower solubility proteins in three eukaryotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Razvan F; Chan, Gerard T; Zhu, Mang; Wong, Eric T C; Taghizadeh, Farnaz; Hu, Xiaoke; Mehran, Arya E; Johnson, James D; Gsponer, Jörg; Mayor, Thibault

    2015-04-06

    Because misfolded and damaged proteins can form potentially harmful aggregates, all living organisms have evolved a wide variety of quality control mechanisms. However, the timely clearance of aggregation-prone species may not always be achieved, potentially leading to the accumulation of low solubility proteins. At the same time, promiscuity, which can be a driving force for aggregation, is also important to the functionality of certain proteins which have a large number of interaction partners. Considerable efforts have been made towards characterizing why some proteins appear to be more aggregation-prone than others. In this study, we analyze the features of proteins which precipitate following centrifugation in unstressed yeast cells, human SH-SY5Y cells and mouse brain tissue. By normalizing for protein abundance, we devised an approach whereby lower solubility proteins are reliably identified. Our findings indicate that these tend to be longer, low abundance proteins, which contain fewer hydrophobic amino acids. Furthermore, low solubility proteins also contain more low complexity and disordered regions. Overall, we observed an increase in features that link low solubility proteins to functional aggregates. Our results indicate that lower solubility proteins from three biologically distinct model systems share several common traits, shedding light on potentially universal solubility determinants. We set up a novel approach to identify lower solubility proteins in unstressed cells by comparing precipitated proteins with those that remain soluble after centrifugation. By analyzing three eukaryotic model systems in parallel, we were able to identify traits which cross the species barrier, as well as species-specific characteristics. Notably, our analyses revealed a number of primary and secondary structural features that set apart lower solubility proteins, a number of which connected them to a greater potential for promiscuity. This article is part of a Special

  10. Crystal structure of the homology domain of the eukaryotic DNA replication proteins Sld3/Treslin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Sachiko; Shirakihara, Yasuo; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-02

    The initiation of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication requires the formation of an active replicative helicase at the replication origins of chromosomal DNA. Yeast Sld3 and its metazoan counterpart Treslin are the hub proteins mediating protein associations critical for the helicase formation. Here, we show the crystal structure of the central domain of Sld3 that is conserved in Sld3/Treslin family of proteins. The domain consists of two segments with 12 helices and is sufficient to bind to Cdc45, the essential helicase component. The structure model of the Sld3-Cdc45 complex, which is crucial for the formation of the active helicase, is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ngLOC: software and web server for predicting protein subcellular localization in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

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    King Brian R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding protein subcellular localization is a necessary component toward understanding the overall function of a protein. Numerous computational methods have been published over the past decade, with varying degrees of success. Despite the large number of published methods in this area, only a small fraction of them are available for researchers to use in their own studies. Of those that are available, many are limited by predicting only a small number of organelles in the cell. Additionally, the majority of methods predict only a single location for a sequence, even though it is known that a large fraction of the proteins in eukaryotic species shuttle between locations to carry out their function. Findings We present a software package and a web server for predicting the subcellular localization of protein sequences based on the ngLOC method. ngLOC is an n-gram-based Bayesian classifier that predicts subcellular localization of proteins both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The overall prediction accuracy varies from 89.8% to 91.4% across species. This program can predict 11 distinct locations each in plant and animal species. ngLOC also predicts 4 and 5 distinct locations on gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial datasets, respectively. Conclusions ngLOC is a generic method that can be trained by data from a variety of species or classes for predicting protein subcellular localization. The standalone software is freely available for academic use under GNU GPL, and the ngLOC web server is also accessible at http://ngloc.unmc.edu.

  12. Improvement of activity and stability of Chondroitinase ABC I by introducing an aromatic cluster at the surface of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaboddin, Mohammad Esmaeil; Khajeh, Khosro; Maleki, Monireh; Golestani, Abolfazl

    2017-10-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (ChABC I) has been shown to depolymerize a variety of glycosaminoglycan substrates and promote regeneration of damaged spinal cord. However, to date, intrathecal delivery methods have been suboptimal largely due to enzyme instability which necessitates repeated administration to the injured loci. Among the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine has been shown to be more effective in creation of stable clusters and further stabilize of the proteins. Bioinformatics approaches have been used to examine the effect of an extra aromatic cluster at the surface of ChABC I. In this study two amino acids i.e., Asn806 and Gln810 were mutated to tyrosine and to alanine as negative control. In this way, four variants i.e., N806Y/Q810Y, N806A/Q810Y, N806Y/Q810A and N806A/Q810A were created. The results showed that N806Y/Q810Y mutation improved both activity and thermal stability of the enzyme while Ala substitution reduced the enzyme activity and destabilized it. Structural analysis of mutants showed an increase in intrinsic fluorescence intensity and secondary structure content of N806Y/Q810Y mutant when compared to the wild type enzyme indicating a more rigid structure of this variant. Moreover, the N806Y/Q810Y enzyme displayed a remarkable resistance against trypsin degradation with a half-life (t1/2) of 45.0min versus 32.5min of wild-type. In conclusion, the data revealed that structural features and activity of ChABC I can be improved by introducing appropriate aromatic clusters at the surface of the enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein Phylogenies and Signature Sequences: A Reappraisal of Evolutionary Relationships among Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of shared conserved insertion or deletions (indels) in protein sequences is a special type of signature sequence that shows considerable promise for phylogenetic inference. An alternative model of microbial evolution based on the use of indels of conserved proteins and the morphological features of prokaryotic organisms is proposed. In this model, extant archaebacteria and gram-positive bacteria, which have a simple, single-layered cell wall structure, are termed monoderm prokaryotes. They are believed to be descended from the most primitive organisms. Evidence from indels supports the view that the archaebacteria probably evolved from gram-positive bacteria, and I suggest that this evolution occurred in response to antibiotic selection pressures. Evidence is presented that diderm prokaryotes (i.e., gram-negative bacteria), which have a bilayered cell wall, are derived from monoderm prokaryotes. Signature sequences in different proteins provide a means to define a number of different taxa within prokaryotes (namely, low G+C and high G+C gram-positive, Deinococcus-Thermus, cyanobacteria, chlamydia-cytophaga related, and two different groups of Proteobacteria) and to indicate how they evolved from a common ancestor. Based on phylogenetic information from indels in different protein sequences, it is hypothesized that all eukaryotes, including amitochondriate and aplastidic organisms, received major gene contributions from both an archaebacterium and a gram-negative eubacterium. In this model, the ancestral eukaryotic cell is a chimera that resulted from a unique fusion event between the two separate groups of prokaryotes followed by integration of their genomes. PMID:9841678

  14. HSV usurps eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit M for viral protein translation: novel prevention target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cheshenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of genital herpes is a global health priority. B5, a recently identified ubiquitous human protein, was proposed as a candidate HSV entry receptor. The current studies explored its role in HSV infection. Viral plaque formation was reduced by approximately 90% in human cells transfected with small interfering RNA targeting B5 or nectin-1, an established entry receptor. However, the mechanisms were distinct. Silencing of nectin-1 prevented intracellular delivery of viral capsids, nuclear transport of a viral tegument protein, and release of calcium stores required for entry. In contrast, B5 silencing had no effect on these markers of entry, but inhibited viral protein translation. Specifically, viral immediate early genes, ICP0 and ICP4, were transcribed, polyadenylated and transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, but the viral transcripts did not associate with ribosomes or polysomes in B5-silenced cells. In contrast, immediate early gene viral transcripts were detected in polysome fractions isolated from control cells. These findings are consistent with sequencing studies demonstrating that B5 is eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit m (eIF3m. Although B5 silencing altered the polysome profile of cells, silencing had little effect on cellular RNA or protein expression and was not cytotoxic, suggesting that this subunit is not essential for host cellular protein synthesis. Together these results demonstrate that B5 plays a major role in the initiation of HSV protein translation and could provide a novel target for strategies to prevent primary and recurrent herpetic disease.

  15. Eukaryotic Protein Kinases (ePKs of the Helminth Parasite Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerlotini Adhemar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis remains an important parasitic disease and a major economic problem in many countries. The Schistosoma mansoni genome and predicted proteome sequences were recently published providing the opportunity to identify new drug candidates. Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs play a central role in mediating signal transduction through complex networks and are considered druggable targets from the medical and chemical viewpoints. Our work aimed at analyzing the S. mansoni predicted proteome in order to identify and classify all ePKs of this parasite through combined computational approaches. Functional annotation was performed mainly to yield insights into the parasite signaling processes relevant to its complex lifestyle and to select some ePKs as potential drug targets. Results We have identified 252 ePKs, which corresponds to 1.9% of the S. mansoni predicted proteome, through sequence similarity searches using HMMs (Hidden Markov Models. Amino acid sequences corresponding to the conserved catalytic domain of ePKs were aligned by MAFFT and further used in distance-based phylogenetic analysis as implemented in PHYLIP. Our analysis also included the ePK homologs from six other eukaryotes. The results show that S. mansoni has proteins in all ePK groups. Most of them are clearly clustered with known ePKs in other eukaryotes according to the phylogenetic analysis. None of the ePKs are exclusively found in S. mansoni or belong to an expanded family in this parasite. Only 16 S. mansoni ePKs were experimentally studied, 12 proteins are predicted to be catalytically inactive and approximately 2% of the parasite ePKs remain unclassified. Some proteins were mentioned as good target for drug development since they have a predicted essential function for the parasite. Conclusions Our approach has improved the functional annotation of 40% of S. mansoni ePKs through combined similarity and phylogenetic-based approaches. As we

  16. The quaternary structure of the eukaryotic DNA replication proteins Sld7 and Sld3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Hiroshi; Shirakihara, Yasuo; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    The initiation of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication requires the formation of an active replicative helicase at the replication origins of chromosomes. Yeast Sld3 and its metazoan counterpart treslin are the hub proteins mediating protein associations critical for formation of the helicase. The Sld7 protein interacts with Sld3, and the complex formed is thought to regulate the function of Sld3. Although Sld7 is a non-essential DNA replication protein that is found in only a limited range of yeasts, its depletion slowed the growth of cells and caused a delay in the S phase. Recently, the Mdm2-binding protein was found to bind to treslin in humans, and its depletion causes defects in cells similar to the depletion of Sld7 in yeast, suggesting their functional relatedness and importance during the initiation step of DNA replication. Here, the crystal structure of Sld7 in complex with Sld3 is presented. Sld7 comprises two structural domains. The N-terminal domain of Sld7 binds to Sld3, and the C-terminal domains connect two Sld7 molecules in an antiparallel manner. The quaternary structure of the Sld3-Sld7 complex shown from the crystal structures appears to be suitable to activate two helicase molecules loaded onto replication origins in a head-to-head manner.

  17. Structures of eukaryotic ribosomal stalk proteins and its complex with trichosanthin, and their implications in recruiting ribosome-inactivating proteins to the ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Andrew K H; Wong, Eddie C K; Lee, Ka-Ming; Wong, Kam-Bo

    2015-02-25

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP) are RNA N-glycosidases that inactivate ribosomes by specifically depurinating a conserved adenine residue at the α-sarcin/ricin loop of 28S rRNA. Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of the C-terminal domain of the eukaryotic stalk proteins in facilitating the toxic action of RIPs. This review highlights how structural studies of eukaryotic stalk proteins provide insights into the recruitment of RIPs to the ribosomes. Since the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic stalk proteins is involved in specific recognition of elongation factors and some eukaryote-specific RIPs (e.g., trichosanthin and ricin), we postulate that these RIPs may have evolved to hijack the translation-factor-recruiting function of ribosomal stalk in reaching their target site of rRNA.

  18. The Evolutionary History of MAPL (Mitochondria-Associated Protein Ligase and Other Eukaryotic BAM/GIDE Domain Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy G Wideman

    Full Text Available MAPL (mitochondria-associated protein ligase, also called MULAN/GIDE/MUL1 is a multifunctional mitochondrial outer membrane protein found in human cells that contains a unique BAM (beside a membrane domain and a C-terminal RING-finger domain. MAPL has been implicated in several processes that occur in animal cells such as NF-kB activation, innate immunity and antiviral signaling, suppression of PINK1/parkin defects, mitophagy in skeletal muscle, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that the BAM domain is present in diverse organisms in which most of these processes do not occur, including plants, archaea, and bacteria. Thus the conserved function of MAPL and its BAM domain remains an open question. In order to gain insight into its conserved function, we investigated the evolutionary origins of MAPL by searching for homologues in predicted proteomes of diverse eukaryotes. We show that MAPL proteins with a conserved BAM-RING architecture are present in most animals, protists closely related to animals, a single species of fungus, and several multicellular plants and related green algae. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that eukaryotic MAPL proteins originate from a common ancestor and not from independent horizontal gene transfers from bacteria. We also determined that two independent duplications of MAPL occurred, one at the base of multicellular plants and another at the base of vertebrates. Although no other eukaryote genome examined contained a verifiable MAPL orthologue, BAM domain-containing proteins were identified in the protists Bigelowiella natans and Ectocarpus siliculosis. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these proteins are more closely related to prokaryotic BAM proteins and therefore likely arose from independent horizontal gene transfers from bacteria. We conclude that MAPL proteins with BAM-RING architectures have been present in the holozoan and viridiplantae lineages since their very beginnings

  19. The Evolutionary History of MAPL (Mitochondria-Associated Protein Ligase) and Other Eukaryotic BAM/GIDE Domain Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Jeremy G; Moore, Blake P

    2015-01-01

    MAPL (mitochondria-associated protein ligase, also called MULAN/GIDE/MUL1) is a multifunctional mitochondrial outer membrane protein found in human cells that contains a unique BAM (beside a membrane) domain and a C-terminal RING-finger domain. MAPL has been implicated in several processes that occur in animal cells such as NF-kB activation, innate immunity and antiviral signaling, suppression of PINK1/parkin defects, mitophagy in skeletal muscle, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that the BAM domain is present in diverse organisms in which most of these processes do not occur, including plants, archaea, and bacteria. Thus the conserved function of MAPL and its BAM domain remains an open question. In order to gain insight into its conserved function, we investigated the evolutionary origins of MAPL by searching for homologues in predicted proteomes of diverse eukaryotes. We show that MAPL proteins with a conserved BAM-RING architecture are present in most animals, protists closely related to animals, a single species of fungus, and several multicellular plants and related green algae. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that eukaryotic MAPL proteins originate from a common ancestor and not from independent horizontal gene transfers from bacteria. We also determined that two independent duplications of MAPL occurred, one at the base of multicellular plants and another at the base of vertebrates. Although no other eukaryote genome examined contained a verifiable MAPL orthologue, BAM domain-containing proteins were identified in the protists Bigelowiella natans and Ectocarpus siliculosis. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these proteins are more closely related to prokaryotic BAM proteins and therefore likely arose from independent horizontal gene transfers from bacteria. We conclude that MAPL proteins with BAM-RING architectures have been present in the holozoan and viridiplantae lineages since their very beginnings. Our work paves

  20. Non-AUG translation: a new start for protein synthesis in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearse, Michael G; Wilusz, Jeremy E

    2017-09-01

    Although it was long thought that eukaryotic translation almost always initiates at an AUG start codon, recent advancements in ribosome footprint mapping have revealed that non-AUG start codons are used at an astonishing frequency. These non-AUG initiation events are not simply errors but instead are used to generate or regulate proteins with key cellular functions; for example, during development or stress. Misregulation of non-AUG initiation events contributes to multiple human diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration, and modulation of non-AUG usage may represent a novel therapeutic strategy. It is thus becoming increasingly clear that start codon selection is regulated by many trans-acting initiation factors as well as sequence/structural elements within messenger RNAs and that non-AUG translation has a profound impact on cellular states. © 2017 Kearse and Wilusz; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic NEET proteins uncovers a link between a key gene duplication event and the evolution of vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inupakutika, Madhuri A.; Sengupta, Soham; Nechushtai, Rachel; Jennings, Patricia A.; Onuchic, Jose' N.; Azad, Rajeev K.; Padilla, Pamela; Mittler, Ron

    2017-02-01

    NEET proteins belong to a unique family of iron-sulfur proteins in which the 2Fe-2S cluster is coordinated by a CDGSH domain that is followed by the “NEET” motif. They are involved in the regulation of iron and reactive oxygen metabolism, and have been associated with the progression of diabetes, cancer, aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite their important biological functions, the evolution and diversification of eukaryotic NEET proteins are largely unknown. Here we used the three members of the human NEET protein family (CISD1, mitoNEET; CISD2, NAF-1 or Miner 1; and CISD3, Miner2) as our guides to conduct a phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic NEET proteins and their evolution. Our findings identified the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum’s CISD proteins as the closest to the ancient archetype of eukaryotic NEET proteins. We further identified CISD3 homologs in fungi that were previously reported not to contain any NEET proteins, and revealed that plants lack homolog(s) of CISD3. Furthermore, our study suggests that the mammalian NEET proteins, mitoNEET (CISD1) and NAF-1 (CISD2), emerged via gene duplication around the origin of vertebrates. Our findings provide new insights into the classification and expansion of the NEET protein family, as well as offer clues to the diverged functions of the human mitoNEET and NAF-1 proteins.

  2. Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Antibodies against the 2C and 3ABC Nonstructural Proteins Induced by Infecting Pigs with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zezhong; Shao, Junjun; Zhao, Furong; Zhou, Guangqing; Gao, Shandian; Liu, Wei; Lv, Jianliang; Li, Xiumei; Li, Yangfan; Chang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yongguang

    2017-08-01

    The potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) has been accepted in recent years, although their use for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) diagnostics has not been reported. Full-length 3ABC and 2C proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from vaccinated pigs. The recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two CLIAs for the detection of antibodies against nonstructural viral proteins. The diagnostic performance of the two assays was compared by analyzing serum from pigs (naive pigs, n = 63; vaccinated, uninfected pigs, n = 532; naive, infected pigs, n = 117) with a known infection status. The 3ABC-2C CLIA had a higher accuracy rate, with a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and a diagnostic specificity of 96.5%, than the 3ABC CLIA, which had a diagnostic sensitivity of 95.7% and a diagnostic specificity of 96.0%. The results of the 3ABC-2C CLIA also had a high rate of concordance with those of two commercial FMDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits used to assess serum collected from 962 pigs in the field (96.2% and 97.8%, respectively). The 3ABC-2C CLIA detected infection in serum samples from infected pigs earlier than the commercial ELISA kits. In addition, the 3ABC-2C CLIA produced results within 15 min. On the basis of these findings, the 3ABC-2C CLIA could serve as the foundation for the development of penside FMD diagnostics and offers an alternative method to detect FMDV infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. ProteinHistorian: Tools for the Comparative Analysis of Eukaryote Protein Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Capra, John A.; Williams, Alexander G.; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a protein reflects the functional history of its ancestors. Recent phylogenetic studies identified distinct evolutionary signatures that characterize proteins involved in cancer, Mendelian disease, and different ontogenic stages. Despite the potential to yield insight into the cellular functions and interactions of proteins, such comparative phylogenetic analyses are rarely performed, because they require custom algorithms. We developed ProteinHistorian to make too...

  4. Eukaryotic evolutionary transitions are associated with extreme codon bias in functionally-related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Hudson

    Full Text Available Codon bias in the genome of an organism influences its phenome by changing the speed and efficiency of mRNA translation and hence protein abundance. We hypothesized that differences in codon bias, either between-species differences in orthologous genes, or within-species differences between genes, may play an evolutionary role. To explore this hypothesis, we compared the genome-wide codon bias in six species that occupy vital positions in the Eukaryotic Tree of Life. We acquired the entire protein coding sequences for these organisms, computed the codon bias for all genes in each organism and explored the output for relationships between codon bias and protein function, both within- and between-lineages. We discovered five notable coordinated patterns, with extreme codon bias most pronounced in traits considered highly characteristic of a given lineage. Firstly, the Homo sapiens genome had stronger codon bias for DNA-binding transcription factors than the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, whereas the opposite was true for ribosomal proteins--perhaps underscoring transcriptional regulation in the origin of complexity. Secondly, both mammalian species examined possessed extreme codon bias in genes relating to hair--a tissue unique to mammals. Thirdly, Arabidopsis thaliana showed extreme codon bias in genes implicated in cell wall formation and chloroplast function--which are unique to plants. Fourthly, Gallus gallus possessed strong codon bias in a subset of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins--perhaps reflecting the enhanced bioenergetic efficiency in birds that co-evolved with flight. And lastly, the G. gallus genome had extreme codon bias for the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor--which may help to explain their spontaneous recovery from deafness. We propose that extreme codon bias in groups of genes that encode functionally related proteins has a pathway-level energetic explanation.

  5. In situ expression of eukaryotic ice-binding proteins in microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kilpert, Fabian; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Kegel, Jessica U; Krell, Andreas; Mock, Thomas; Valentin, Klaus; Beszteri, Bánk

    2015-01-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have been isolated from various sea-ice organisms. Their characterisation points to a crucial role in protecting the organisms in sub-zero environments. However, their in situ abundance and diversity in natural sea-ice microbial communities is largely unknown. In this study, we analysed the expression and phylogenetic diversity of eukaryotic IBP transcripts from microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. IBP transcripts were found in abundances similar to those of proteins involved in core cellular processes such as photosynthesis. Eighty-nine percent of the IBP transcripts grouped with known IBP sequences from diatoms, haptophytes and crustaceans, but the majority represented novel sequences not previously characterized in cultured organisms. The observed high eukaryotic IBP expression in natural eukaryotic sea ice communities underlines the essential role of IBPs for survival of many microorganisms in communities living under the extreme conditions of polar sea ice. PMID:25885562

  6. In situ expression of eukaryotic ice-binding proteins in microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kilpert, Fabian; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Kegel, Jessica U; Krell, Andreas; Mock, Thomas; Valentin, Klaus; Beszteri, Bánk

    2015-11-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have been isolated from various sea-ice organisms. Their characterisation points to a crucial role in protecting the organisms in sub-zero environments. However, their in situ abundance and diversity in natural sea-ice microbial communities is largely unknown. In this study, we analysed the expression and phylogenetic diversity of eukaryotic IBP transcripts from microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. IBP transcripts were found in abundances similar to those of proteins involved in core cellular processes such as photosynthesis. Eighty-nine percent of the IBP transcripts grouped with known IBP sequences from diatoms, haptophytes and crustaceans, but the majority represented novel sequences not previously characterized in cultured organisms. The observed high eukaryotic IBP expression in natural eukaryotic sea ice communities underlines the essential role of IBPs for survival of many microorganisms in communities living under the extreme conditions of polar sea ice.

  7. Evolution of a domain conserved in microtubule-associated proteins of eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S Rajangam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alex S Rajangam1, Hongqian Yang2, Tuula T Teeri1, Lars Arvestad21KTH Biotechnology, Swedish Center for Biomimetic Fiber Engineering, AlbaNova, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Stockholm Bioinformatics Center and School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: The microtubule network, the major organelle of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, is involved in cell division and differentiation but also with many other cellular functions. In plants, microtubules seem to be involved in the ordered deposition of cellulose microfibrils by a so far unknown mechanism. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAP typically contain various domains targeting or binding proteins with different functions to microtubules. Here we have investigated a proposed microtubule-targeting domain, TPX2, first identified in the Kinesin-like protein 2 in Xenopus. A TPX2 containing microtubule binding protein, PttMAP20, has been recently identified in poplar tissues undergoing xylogenesis. Furthermore, the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB, which is a known inhibitor of cellulose synthesis, was shown to bind specifically to PttMAP20. It is thus possible that PttMAP20 may have a role in coupling cellulose biosynthesis and the microtubular networks in poplar secondary cell walls. In order to get more insight into the occurrence, evolution and potential functions of TPX2-containing proteins we have carried out bioinformatic analysis for all genes so far found to encode TPX2 domains with special reference to poplar PttMAP20 and its putative orthologs in other plants.Keywords: TPX2 domain, MAP20, evolution, microtubule, cellulose, bioinformatics

  8. ESLpred2: improved method for predicting subcellular localization of eukaryotic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava Gajendra PS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expansion of raw protein sequence databases in the post genomic era and availability of fresh annotated sequences for major localizations particularly motivated us to introduce a new improved version of our previously forged eukaryotic subcellular localizations prediction method namely "ESLpred". Since, subcellular localization of a protein offers essential clues about its functioning, hence, availability of localization predictor would definitely aid and expedite the protein deciphering studies. However, robustness of a predictor is highly dependent on the superiority of dataset and extracted protein attributes; hence, it becomes imperative to improve the performance of presently available method using latest dataset and crucial input features. Results Here, we describe augmentation in the prediction performance obtained for our most popular ESLpred method using new crucial features as an input to Support Vector Machine (SVM. In addition, recently available, highly non-redundant dataset encompassing three kingdoms specific protein sequence sets; 1198 fungi sequences, 2597 from animal and 491 plant sequences were also included in the present study. First, using the evolutionary information in the form of profile composition along with whole and N-terminal sequence composition as an input feature vector of 440 dimensions, overall accuracies of 72.7, 75.8 and 74.5% were achieved respectively after five-fold cross-validation. Further, enhancement in performance was observed when similarity search based results were coupled with whole and N-terminal sequence composition along with profile composition by yielding overall accuracies of 75.9, 80.8, 76.6% respectively; best accuracies reported till date on the same datasets. Conclusion These results provide confidence about the reliability and accurate prediction of SVM modules generated in the present study using sequence and profile compositions along with similarity search

  9. In vivo Biotinylation Based Method for the Study of Protein-Protein Proximity in Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Kulyyassov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The spatiotemporal order plays an important role in cell functioning and is affected in many pathologies such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the ultimate goals of molecular biology is reconstruction of the spatiotemporal structure of a living cell at the molecular level. This task includes determination of proximities between different molecular components in the cell and monitoring their time- and physiological state-dependent changes. In many cases, proximity between macromolecules arises due to their interactions; however, the contribution of dynamic self-organization in generation of spatiotemporal order is emerging as another viable possibility. Specifically, in proteomics, this implies that the detection of protein-protein proximity is a more general task than gaining information about physical interactions between proteins, as it could detail aspects of spatial order in vivo that are challenging to reconstitute in binding experiments in vitro. Methods: In this work, we have developed a method of monitoring protein-protein proximity in vivo. For this purpose, the BirA was fused to one of the interaction partners, whereas the BAP was modified to make the detection of its biotinylation possible by mass spectrometry. Results: Using several experimental systems, we showed that the biotinylation is interaction dependent. In addition, we demonstrated that BAP domains with different primary amino acid structures and thus with different molecular weights can be used in the same experiment, providing the possibility of multiplexing. Alternatively to the changes in primary amino acid structure, the stable isotope format can also be used, providing another way to perform multiplexing experiments. Finally, we also demonstrated that our system could help to overcome another limitation of current methodologies to detect protein-protein proximity. For example, one can follow the state of a protein of interest at a defined

  10. Eukaryote-wide sequence analysis of mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane proteins

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    Fujita Naoya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outer membranes of mitochondria are thought to be homologous to the outer membranes of Gram negative bacteria, which contain 100's of distinct families of β-barrel membrane proteins (BOMPs often forming channels for transport of nutrients or drugs. However, only four families of mitochondrial BOMPs (MBOMPs have been confirmed to date. Although estimates as high as 100 have been made in the past, the number of yet undiscovered MBOMPs is an open question. Fortunately, the recent discovery of a membrane integration signal (the β-signal for MBOMPs gave us an opportunity to look for undiscovered MBOMPs. Results We present the results of a comprehensive survey of eukaryotic protein sequences intended to identify new MBOMPs. Our search employs recent results on β-signals as well as structural information and a novel BOMP predictor trained on both bacterial and mitochondrial BOMPs. Our principal finding is circumstantial evidence suggesting that few MBOMPs remain to be discovered, if one assumes that, like known MBOMPs, novel MBOMPs will be monomeric and β-signal dependent. In addition to this, our analysis of MBOMP homologs reveals some exceptions to the current model of the β-signal, but confirms its consistent presence in the C-terminal region of MBOMP proteins. We also report a β-signal independent search for MBOMPs against the yeast and Arabidopsis proteomes. We find no good candidates MBOMPs in yeast but the Arabidopsis results are less conclusive. Conclusions Our results suggest there are no remaining MBOMPs left to discover in yeast; and if one assumes all MBOMPs are β-signal dependent, few MBOMP families remain undiscovered in any sequenced organism.

  11. Altered Escherichia coli membrane protein assembly machinery allows proper membrane assembly of eukaryotic protein vitamin K epoxide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatahet, Feras; Blazyk, Jessica L; Martineau, Eugenie; Mandela, Eric; Zhao, Yongxin; Campbell, Robert E; Beckwith, Jonathan; Boyd, Dana

    2015-12-08

    Functional overexpression of polytopic membrane proteins, particularly when in a foreign host, is often a challenging task. Factors that negatively affect such processes are poorly understood. Using the mammalian membrane protein vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORc1) as a reporter, we describe a genetic selection approach allowing the isolation of Escherichia coli mutants capable of functionally expressing this blood-coagulation enzyme. The isolated mutants map to components of membrane protein assembly and quality control proteins YidC and HslV. We show that changes in the VKORc1 sequence and in the YidC hydrophilic groove along with the inactivation of HslV promote VKORc1 activity and dramatically increase its expression level. We hypothesize that such changes correct for mismatches in the membrane topogenic signals between E. coli and eukaryotic cells guiding proper membrane integration. Furthermore, the obtained mutants allow the study of VKORc1 reaction mechanisms, inhibition by warfarin, and the high-throughput screening for potential anticoagulants.

  12. Structural and dynamic characterization of eukaryotic gene regulatory protein domains in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Andrew Loyd [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    Solution NMR was primarily used to characterize structure and dynamics in two different eukaryotic protein systems: the δ-Al-ε activation domain from c-jun and the Drosophila RNA-binding protein Sex-lethal. The second system is the Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein, an RNA-binding protein which is the ``master switch`` in sex determination. Sxl contains two adjacent RNA-binding domains (RBDs) of the RNP consensus-type. The NMR spectrum of the second RBD (Sxl-RBD2) was assigned using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR, and an intermediate-resolution family of structures was calculated from primarily NOE distance restraints. The overall fold was determined to be similar to other RBDs: a βαβ-βαβ pattern of secondary structure, with the two helices packed against a 4-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet. In addition 15N T1, T2, and 15N/1H NOE relaxation measurements were carried out to characterize the backbone dynamics of Sxl-RBD2 in solution. RNA corresponding to the polypyrimidine tract of transformer pre-mRNA was generated and titrated into 3 different Sxl-RBD protein constructs. Combining Sxl-RBD1+2 (bht RBDs) with this RNA formed a specific, high affinity protein/RNA complex that is amenable to further NMR characterization. The backbone 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances of Sxl-RBD1+2 were assigned using a triple-resonance approach, and 15N relaxation experiments were carried out to characterize the backbone dynamics of this complex. The changes in chemical shift in Sxl-RBD1+2 upon binding RNA are observed using Sxl-RBD2 as a substitute for unbound Sxl-RBD1+2. This allowed the binding interface to be qualitatively mapped for the second domain.

  13. Horizontal transfer of a eukaryotic plastid-targeted protein gene to cyanobacteria

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    Keeling Patrick J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal or lateral transfer of genetic material between distantly related prokaryotes has been shown to play a major role in the evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes, but exchange of genes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is not as well understood. In particular, gene flow from eukaryotes to prokaryotes is rarely documented with strong support, which is unusual since prokaryotic genomes appear to readily accept foreign genes. Results Here, we show that abundant marine cyanobacteria in the related genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus acquired a key Calvin cycle/glycolytic enzyme from a eukaryote. Two non-homologous forms of fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA are characteristic of eukaryotes and prokaryotes respectively. However, a eukaryotic gene has been inserted immediately upstream of the ancestral prokaryotic gene in several strains (ecotypes of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. In one lineage this new gene has replaced the ancestral gene altogether. The eukaryotic gene is most closely related to the plastid-targeted FBA from red algae. This eukaryotic-type FBA once replaced the plastid/cyanobacterial type in photosynthetic eukaryotes, hinting at a possible functional advantage in Calvin cycle reactions. The strains that now possess this eukaryotic FBA are scattered across the tree of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, perhaps because the gene has been transferred multiple times among cyanobacteria, or more likely because it has been selectively retained only in certain lineages. Conclusion A gene for plastid-targeted FBA has been transferred from red algae to cyanobacteria, where it has inserted itself beside its non-homologous, functional analogue. Its current distribution in Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus is punctate, suggesting a complex history since its introduction to this group.

  14. Classification of a Haemophilus influenzae ABC Transporter HI1470/71 through Its Cognate Molybdate Periplasmic Binding Protein, MolA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado-Lee, Leidamarie; Lee, Allen; Rees, Douglas C.; Pinkett, Heather W. (CIT); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    molA (HI1472) from H. influenzae encodes a periplasmic binding protein (PBP) that delivers substrate to the ABC transporter MolB{sub 2}C{sub 2} (formerly HI1470/71). The structures of MolA with molybdate and tungstate in the binding pocket were solved to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. The MolA-binding protein binds molybdate and tungstate, but not other oxyanions such as sulfate and phosphate, making it the first class III molybdate-binding protein structurally solved. The {approx}100 {mu}M binding affinity for tungstate and molybdate is significantly lower than observed for the class II ModA molybdate-binding proteins that have nanomolar to low micromolar affinity for molybdate. The presence of two molybdate loci in H. influenzae suggests multiple transport systems for one substrate, with molABC constituting a low-affinity molybdate locus.

  15. Comparative and functional genomics of Legionella identified eukaryotic like proteins as key players in host-pathogen interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGomez-Valero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although best known for its ability to cause severe pneumonia in people whose immune defenses are weakened, Legionella pneumophila and Legionella longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature, where they parasitize protozoa. Adaptation to the host environment and exploitation of host cell functions are critical for the success of these intracellular pathogens. The establishment and publication of the complete genome sequences of L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae isolates paved the way for major breakthroughs in understanding the biology of these organisms. In this review we present the knowledge gained from the analyses and comparison of the complete genome sequences of different L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae strains. Emphasis is given on putative virulence and Legionella life cycle related functions, such as the identification of an extended array of eukaryotic-like proteins, many of which have been shown to modulate host cell functions to the pathogen's advantage. Surprisingly, many of the eukaryotic domain proteins identified in L. pneumophila as well as many substrates of the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system essential for intracellular replication are different between these two species, although they cause the same disease. Finally, evolutionary aspects regarding the eukaryotic like proteins in Legionella are discussed.

  16. An emergency brake for protein synthesis The integrated stress response is able to rapidly shut down the synthesis of proteins in eukaryotic cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hronová, Vladislava; Valášek, Leoš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, APR 25 (2017), s. 1-3, č. článku e27085. ISSN 2050-084X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : synthesis of proteins * eukaryotic cells * eIF2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.725, year: 2016

  17. A multi-species indirect ELISA for detection of non-structural protein 3ABC specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, M; Basagoudanavar, S H; Tamil Selvan, R P; Das, Varsha; Ngangom, Pravina; Sreenivasa, B P; Hegde, Raveendra; Venkataramanan, R

    2015-04-01

    Reliable diagnostic tests that are able to distinguish infected from vaccinated animals are a critical component of regional control programs for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the affected countries. Non-structural protein (NSP) serology based on the 3ABC protein has been widely used for this purpose, and several kits are commercially available worldwide. This report presents the development of a 3ABC-antigen-based indirect ELISA, employing a peroxidase-conjugated protein G secondary antibody that can detect antibodies from multiple species. Recombinant 3ABC protein was expressed in insect cells and purified using affinity column chromatography. Using this protein, an indirect ELISA was developed and validated for the detection of NSP antibodies in serum samples collected from animals with different status of FMD. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were found to be 95.8 (95 % CI: 92.8-97.8) and 97.45 % (95 % CI: 94.8-99.0), respectively. The in-house ELISA compared well with the commercially available prioCHECK FMDV NS-FMD kit, with a high agreement between the tests, as determined by the kappa coefficient, which was 0.87. The in-house ELISA showed higher sensitivity for detecting vaccinated and subsequently infected animals, when compared to the reference test. Both of the tests were able to detect NSP antibodies as early as 7-8 days after experimental infection.

  18. Loss of plastoglobule kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 causes conditional degreening, modified prenyl-lipids, and recruitment of the jasmonic acid pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid-protein particles. This study examines the function of PG-localized kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several lines of evidence suggested that ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 form a protein complex. Null mutants for both genes (abc1k1 and abc1k3) and the dou...

  19. Structure of Mth11/Mth Rpp29, an essential protein subunit of archaeal and eukaryotic RNase P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomershine, William P; McElroy, Craig A; Tsai, Hsin-Yue; Wilson, Ross C; Gopalan, Venkat; Foster, Mark P

    2003-12-23

    We have determined the solution structure of Mth11 (Mth Rpp29), an essential subunit of the RNase P enzyme from the archaebacterium Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus (Mth). RNase P is a ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein enzyme primarily responsible for cleaving the 5' leader sequence during maturation of tRNAs in all three domains of life. In eubacteria, this enzyme is made up of two subunits: a large RNA ( approximately 120 kDa) responsible for mediating catalysis, and a small protein cofactor ( approximately 15 kDa) that modulates substrate recognition and is required for efficient in vivo catalysis. In contrast, multiple proteins are associated with eukaryotic and archaeal RNase P, and these proteins exhibit no recognizable homology to the conserved bacterial protein subunit. In reconstitution experiments with recombinantly expressed and purified protein subunits, we found that Mth Rpp29, a homolog of the Rpp29 protein subunit from eukaryotic RNase P, is an essential protein component of the archaeal holoenzyme. Consistent with its role in mediating protein-RNA interactions, we report that Mth Rpp29 is a member of the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold family. In addition to a structured beta-barrel core, it possesses unstructured N- and C-terminal extensions bearing several highly conserved amino acid residues. To identify possible RNA contacts in the protein-RNA complex, we examined the interaction of the 11-kDa protein with the full 100-kDa Mth RNA subunit by using NMR chemical shift perturbation. Our findings represent a critical step toward a structural model of the RNase P holoenzyme from archaebacteria and higher organisms.

  20. ABC transporters are involved in defense against permethrin insecticide in the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Comandatore, Francesco; Sassera, Davide; Rossi, Paolo; Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico; Favia, Guido; Genchi, Claudio; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2014-07-29

    Proteins from the ABC family (ATP-binding cassette) represent the largest known group of efflux pumps, responsible for transporting specific molecules across lipid membranes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In arthropods they have been shown to play a role in insecticide defense/resistance. The presence of ABC transporters and their possible association with insecticide transport have not yet been investigated in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, the major vector of human malaria in the Middle East and South Asian regions. Here we investigated the presence and role of ABCs in transport of permethrin insecticide in a susceptible strain of this mosquito species. To identify ABC transporter genes we obtained a transcriptome from untreated larvae of An. stephensi and then compared it with the annotated transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae. To analyse the association between ABC transporters and permethrin we conducted bioassays with permethrin alone and in combination with an ABC inhibitor, and then we investigated expression profiles of the identified genes in larvae exposed to permethrin. Bioassays showed an increased mortality of mosquitoes when permethrin was used in combination with the ABC-transporter inhibitor. Genes for ABC transporters were detected in the transcriptome, and five were selected (AnstABCB2, AnstABCB3, AnstABCB4, AnstABCmember6 and AnstABCG4). An increased expression in one of them (AnstABCG4) was observed in larvae exposed to the LD50 dose of permethrin. Contrary to what was found in other insect species, no up-regulation was observed in the AnstABCB genes. Our results show for the first time the involvement of ABC transporters in larval defense against permethrin in An. stephensi and, more in general, confirm the role of ABC transporters in insecticide defense. The differences observed with previous studies highlight the need of further research as, despite the growing number of studies on ABC transporters in insects, the

  1. ABC transporter Cdr1p harbors charged residues in the intracellular loop and nucleotide-binding domain critical for protein trafficking and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Banerjee, Atanu; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Mondal, Alok Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-08-01

    The ABC transporter Cdr1 protein of Candida albicans, which plays a major role in antifungal resistance, has two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). The 12 transmembrane helices of TMDs that are interconnected by extracellular and intracellular loops (ICLs) mainly harbor substrate recognition sites where drugs bind while cytoplasmic NBDs hydrolyze ATP which powers drug efflux. The coupling of ATP hydrolysis to drug transport requires proper communication between NBDs and TMDs typically accomplished by ICLs. This study examines the role of cytoplasmic ICLs of Cdr1p by rationally predicting the critical residues on the basis of their interatomic distances. Among nine pairs that fall within a proximity of trafficking. These results point to a new role for ICL/NBD interacting residues in PDR ABC transporters in protein folding and trafficking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab Is Conferred by Mutations in an ABC Transporter Subfamily A Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Tek Tay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional chemical insecticides and bacterial toxins to control lepidopteran pests of global agriculture has imposed significant selection pressure leading to the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Transgenic crops (e.g., cotton expressing the Bt Cry toxins are now used world wide to control these pests, including the highly polyphagous and invasive cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. Since 2004, the Cry2Ab toxin has become widely used for controlling H. armigera, often used in combination with Cry1Ac to delay resistance evolution. Isolation of H. armigera and H. punctigera individuals heterozygous for Cry2Ab resistance in 2002 and 2004, respectively, allowed aspects of Cry2Ab resistance (level, fitness costs, genetic dominance, complementation tests to be characterised in both species. However, the gene identity and genetic changes conferring this resistance were unknown, as was the detailed Cry2Ab mode of action. No cross-resistance to Cry1Ac was observed in mutant lines. Biphasic linkage analysis of a Cry2Ab-resistant H. armigera family followed by exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC marker mapping and candidate gene sequencing identified three independent resistance-associated INDEL mutations in an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC transporter gene we named HaABCA2. A deletion mutation was also identified in the H. punctigera homolog from the resistant line. All mutations truncate the ABCA2 protein. Isolation of further Cry2Ab resistance alleles in the same gene from field H. armigera populations indicates unequal resistance allele frequencies and the potential for Bt resistance evolution. Identification of the gene involved in resistance as an ABC transporter of the A subfamily adds to the body of evidence on the crucial role this gene family plays in the mode of action of the Bt Cry toxins. The structural differences between the ABCA2, and that of the C subfamily required for Cry1Ac toxicity, indicate differences in the

  3. C-terminal motif prediction in eukaryotic proteomes using comparative genomics and statistical over-representation across protein families

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    Cutler Sean R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The carboxy termini of proteins are a frequent site of activity for a variety of biologically important functions, ranging from post-translational modification to protein targeting. Several short peptide motifs involved in protein sorting roles and dependent upon their proximity to the C-terminus for proper function have already been characterized. As a limited number of such motifs have been identified, the potential exists for genome-wide statistical analysis and comparative genomics to reveal novel peptide signatures functioning in a C-terminal dependent manner. We have applied a novel methodology to the prediction of C-terminal-anchored peptide motifs involving a simple z-statistic and several techniques for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Results We examined the statistical over-representation of position-specific C-terminal tripeptides in 7 eukaryotic proteomes. Sequence randomization models and simple-sequence masking were applied to the successful reduction of background noise. Similarly, as C-terminal homology among members of large protein families may artificially inflate tripeptide counts in an irrelevant and obfuscating manner, gene-family clustering was performed prior to the analysis in order to assess tripeptide over-representation across protein families as opposed to across all proteins. Finally, comparative genomics was used to identify tripeptides significantly occurring in multiple species. This approach has been able to predict, to our knowledge, all C-terminally anchored targeting motifs present in the literature. These include the PTS1 peroxisomal targeting signal (SKL*, the ER-retention signal (K/HDEL*, the ER-retrieval signal for membrane bound proteins (KKxx*, the prenylation signal (CC* and the CaaX box prenylation motif. In addition to a high statistical over-representation of these known motifs, a collection of significant tripeptides with a high propensity for biological function exists

  4. Localization of the plasmid-encoded proteins TraI and MobA in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silby, Mark W; Ferguson, Gayle C; Billington, Craig; Heinemann, Jack A

    2007-03-01

    Conjugation mediates gene transfer not only between bacterial species but also from bacteria to yeast, plant, and animal cells. DNA transferred by conjugative plasmids from bacteria to eukaryotes must traverse subcellular membranes in the recipient before the transferred genes can be expressed and inherited. This process is most likely facilitated by putative DNA pilot proteins such as VirD2 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid. Here, we test this model as a general feature of trans-kingdom conjugation using the DNA-relaxases TraI and MobA of the IncP and IncQ groups. TraI localized unambiguously and uniformly to the nuclei of both yeast and human cells, whereas MobA displayed a range of subcellular localization patterns. The tendency to localize to the nucleus was not correlated with predicted nuclear localization sequence motifs in either protein, suggesting a lack of stringent requirements for nuclear localizing potential in pilot proteins mediating conjugative DNA transfer to eukaryotes. Further, our results indicate that nuclear localization ability may be more commonly associated with conjugative pilot proteins than previously recognized.

  5. Plasmid-Encoded RepA Proteins Specifically Autorepress Individual repABC Operons in the Multipartite Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żebracki, Kamil; Koper, Piotr; Marczak, Małgorzata; Skorupska, Anna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobia commonly have very complex genomes with a chromosome and several large plasmids that possess genes belonging to the repABC family. RepA and RepB are members of the ParA and ParB families of partitioning proteins, respectively, whereas RepC is crucial for plasmid replication. In the repABC replicons, partitioning and replication functions are transcriptionally linked resulting in complex regulation of rep gene expression. The genome of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 (RtTA1) consists of a chromosome and four plasmids (pRleTA1a-d), equipped with functional repABC genes. In this work, the regulation of transcription of the individual repABC cassettes of the four RtTA1 plasmids was studied. The involvement of the RepA and RepB as well as parS-like centromere sites in this process was depicted, demonstrating some dissimilarity in expression of respective rep regions. RtTA1 repABC genes of individual plasmids formed operons, which were negatively regulated by RepA and RepB. Individual RepA were able to bind to DNA without added nucleotides, but in the presence of ADP, bound specifically to their own operator sequences containing imperfect palindromes, and caused operon autorepression, whereas the addition of ATP stimulated non-specific binding of RepA to DNA. The RepA proteins were able to dimerize/oligomerize: in general dimers formed independently of ATP or ADP, although ATP diminished the concentration of oligomers that were produced. By the comprehensive approach focusing on a set of plasmids instead of individual replicons, the work highlighted subtle differences between the organization and regulation of particular rep operons as well as the structures and specificity of RepA proteins, which contribute to the fine-tuned coexistence of several replicons with similar repABC cassettes in the complex bacterial genome.

  6. Identification and analysis of the acetylated status of poplar proteins reveals analogous N-terminal protein processing mechanisms with other eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Cai; Zhu, Hang-Yong; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Ning, De-Li; Wang, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei-Hua; Yang, Chuan-Ping; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The N-terminal protein processing mechanism (NPM) including N-terminal Met excision (NME) and N-terminal acetylation (N(α)-acetylation) represents a common protein co-translational process of some eukaryotes. However, this NPM occurred in woody plants yet remains unknown. To reveal the NPM in poplar, we investigated the N(α)-acetylation status of poplar proteins during dormancy by combining tandem mass spectrometry with TiO2 enrichment of acetylated peptides. We identified 58 N-terminally acetylated (N(α)-acetylated) proteins. Most proteins (47, >81%) are subjected to N(α)-acetylation following the N-terminal removal of Met, indicating that N(α)-acetylation and NME represent a common NPM of poplar proteins. Furthermore, we confirm that poplar shares the analogous NME and N(α)-acetylation (NPM) to other eukaryotes according to analysis of N-terminal features of these acetylated proteins combined with genome-wide identification of the involving methionine aminopeptidases (MAPs) and N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) enzymes in poplar. The N(α)-acetylated reactions and the involving enzymes of these poplar proteins are also identified based on those of yeast and human, as well as the subcellular location information of these poplar proteins. This study represents the first extensive investigation of N(α)-acetylation events in woody plants, the results of which will provide useful resources for future unraveling the regulatory mechanisms of N(α)-acetylation of proteins in poplar.

  7. Discovery of novel DENN proteins: implications for the evolution of eukaryotic intracellular membrane structures and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng eZhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tripartite DENN module, comprised of a N-terminal longin domain, followed by DENN and d-DENN domains, is a GDP-GTP exchange factor (GEFs for Rab GTPases, which are regulators of practically all membrane trafficking events in eukaryotes. Using sequence and structure analysis we identify multiple novel homologs of the DENN module, many of which can be traced back to the ancestral eukaryote. These findings provide unexpected leads regarding key cellular processes such as autophagy, vesicle-vacuole interactions, chromosome segregation and human disease. Of these, SMCR8, the folliculin interacting protein-1 and 2 (FNIP1 and FNIP2, nitrogen permease regulator 2 (NPR2 and NPR3 are proposed to function in recruiting Rab GTPases during different steps of autophagy, fusion of autophagosomes with the vacuole and regulation of cellular metabolism. Another novel DENN protein identified in this study is C9ORF72; expansions of the hexanucleotide GGGGCC in its first intron have been recently implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD. While this mutation is proposed to cause a RNA-level defect, the identification of C9ORF72 as a potential DENN-type GEF raises the possibility that at least part of the pathology might relate to a specific Rab-dependent vesicular trafficking process, as has been observed in the case of some other neurological conditions with similar phenotypes. We present evidence that the longin domain, such as those found in the DENN module, are likely to have been ultimately derived from the related domains found in prokaryotic GTPase-activating proteins of MglA-like GTPases. Thus, the origin of the longin domains from this ancient GTPase-interacting domain, concomitant with the radiation of GTPases, especially of the Rab clade, played an important role in the dynamics of eukaryotic intracellular membrane systems.

  8. Discovery of Novel DENN Proteins: Implications for the Evolution of Eukaryotic Intracellular Membrane Structures and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dapeng; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; He, Fang; Aravind, L

    2012-01-01

    The tripartite DENN module, comprised of a N-terminal longin domain, followed by DENN, and d-DENN domains, is a GDP-GTP exchange factor (GEFs) for Rab GTPases, which are regulators of practically all membrane trafficking events in eukaryotes. Using sequence and structure analysis we identify multiple novel homologs of the DENN module, many of which can be traced back to the ancestral eukaryote. These findings provide unexpected leads regarding key cellular processes such as autophagy, vesicle-vacuole interactions, chromosome segregation, and human disease. Of these, SMCR8, the folliculin interacting protein-1 and 2 (FNIP1 and FNIP2), nitrogen permease regulator 2 (NPR2), and NPR3 are proposed to function in recruiting Rab GTPases during different steps of autophagy, fusion of autophagosomes with the vacuole and regulation of cellular metabolism. Another novel DENN protein identified in this study is C9ORF72; expansions of the hexanucleotide GGGGCC in its first intron have been recently implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). While this mutation is proposed to cause a RNA-level defect, the identification of C9ORF72 as a potential DENN-type GEF raises the possibility that at least part of the pathology might relate to a specific Rab-dependent vesicular trafficking process, as has been observed in the case of some other neurological conditions with similar phenotypes. We present evidence that the longin domain, such as those found in the DENN module, are likely to have been ultimately derived from the related domains found in prokaryotic GTPase-activating proteins of MglA-like GTPases. Thus, the origin of the longin domains from this ancient GTPase-interacting domain, concomitant with the radiation of GTPases, especially of the Rab clade, played an important role in the dynamics of eukaryotic intracellular membrane systems.

  9. Abc1: a new ABC transporter from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P U; Davis, K; Nielsen, O

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated the abc1 gene from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Sequence analysis suggests that the Abc1 protein is a member of the ABC superfamily of transporters and is composed of two structurally homologous halves, each consisting of a hydrophobic region of six transmembrane...... domains and a hydrophilic region containing one ATP-binding site. The abc1 gene appears to be expressed under all growth conditions but gene disruption experiments indicate that it is not essential for growth. The sequence of the abc1 gene has been deposited in the EMBL data library under the Accession...

  10. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  11. Expression and cytosolic assembly of the S-layer fusion protein mSbsC-EGFP in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenhuis Marten

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Native as well as recombinant bacterial cell surface layer (S-layer protein of Geobacillus (G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 assembles to supramolecular structures with an oblique symmetry. Upon expression in E. coli, S-layer self assembly products are formed in the cytosol. We tested the expression and assembly of a fusion protein, consisting of the mature part (aa 31–1099 of the S-layer protein and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein, in eukaryotic host cells, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human HeLa cells. Results Upon expression in E. coli the recombinant mSbsC-EGFP fusion protein was recovered from the insoluble fraction. After denaturation by Guanidine (Gua-HCl treatment and subsequent dialysis the fusion protein assembled in solution and yielded green fluorescent cylindric structures with regular symmetry comparable to that of the authentic SbsC. For expression in the eukaryotic host Saccharomyces (S. cerevisiae mSbsC-EGFP was cloned in a multi-copy expression vector bearing the strong constitutive GPD1 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosophate-dehydrogenase promoter. The respective yeast transfomants were only slightly impaired in growth and exhibited a needle-like green fluorescent pattern. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM studies revealed the presence of closely packed cylindrical structures in the cytosol with regular symmetry comparable to those obtained after in vitro recrystallization. Similar structures are observed in HeLa cells expressing mSbsC-EGFP from the Cytomegalovirus (CMV IE promoter. Conclusion The mSbsC-EGFP fusion protein is stably expressed both in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in HeLa cells. Recombinant mSbsC-EGFP combines properties of both fusion partners: it assembles both in vitro and in vivo to cylindrical structures that show an intensive green fluorescence. Fusion of proteins to S-layer proteins may be a useful tool for high level expression in yeast and HeLa cells of

  12. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), a "multitasking" ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Susan P C

    2014-11-07

    The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) encoded by ABCC1 was originally discovered as a cause of multidrug resistance in tumor cells. However, it is now clear that MRP1 serves a broader role than simply mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of drugs from cells. The antioxidant GSH and the pro-inflammatory cysteinyl leukotriene C4 have been identified as key physiological organic anions effluxed by MRP1, and an ever growing body of evidence indicates that additional lipid-derived mediators are also substrates of this transporter. As such, MRP1 is a multitasking transporter that likely influences the etiology and progression of a host of human diseases. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Manipulating the glycosylation pathway in bacterial and lower eukaryotes for production of therapeutic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted prot...

  14. Intra-axonal synthesis of eukaryotic translation initiation factors regulates local protein synthesis and axon growth in rat sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Amar N; MacGibeny, Margaret A; Gervasi, Noreen M; Gioio, Anthony E; Kaplan, Barry B

    2013-04-24

    Axonal protein synthesis is a complex process involving selective mRNA localization and translational regulation. In this study, using in situ hybridization and metabolic labeling, we show that the mRNAs encoding eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 are present in the axons of rat sympathetic neurons and are locally translated. We also report that a noncoding microRNA, miR16, modulates the axonal expression of eIF2B2 and eIF4G2. Transfection of axons with precursor miR16 and anti-miR16 showed that local miR16 levels modulated axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 mRNA and protein levels, as well as axon outgrowth. siRNA-mediated knock-down of axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 mRNA also resulted in a significant decrease in axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 protein. Moreover, results of metabolic labeling studies showed that downregulation of axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 expression also inhibited local protein synthesis and axon growth. Together, these data provide evidence that miR16 mediates axonal growth, at least in part, by regulating the local protein synthesis of eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 in the axon.

  15. Footprinting analysis of interactions between the largest eukaryotic RNase P/MRP protein Pop1 and RNase P/MRP RNA components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Robert D; Perederina, Anna; Berezin, Igor; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2015-09-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) P and RNase MRP are closely related catalytic ribonucleoproteins involved in the metabolism of a wide range of RNA molecules, including tRNA, rRNA, and some mRNAs. The catalytic RNA component of eukaryotic RNase P retains the core elements of the bacterial RNase P ribozyme; however, the peripheral RNA elements responsible for the stabilization of the global architecture are largely absent in the eukaryotic enzyme. At the same time, the protein makeup of eukaryotic RNase P is considerably more complex than that of the bacterial RNase P. RNase MRP, an essential and ubiquitous eukaryotic enzyme, has a structural organization resembling that of eukaryotic RNase P, and the two enzymes share most of their protein components. Here, we present the results of the analysis of interactions between the largest protein component of yeast RNases P/MRP, Pop1, and the RNA moieties of the enzymes, discuss structural implications of the results, and suggest that Pop1 plays the role of a scaffold for the stabilization of the global architecture of eukaryotic RNase P RNA, substituting for the network of RNA-RNA tertiary interactions that maintain the global RNA structure in bacterial RNase P. © 2015 Fagerlund et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  16. Footprinting analysis of interactions between the largest eukaryotic RNase P/MRP protein Pop1 and RNase P/MRP RNA components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Robert D.; Perederina, Anna; Berezin, Igor; Krasilnikov, Andrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) P and RNase MRP are closely related catalytic ribonucleoproteins involved in the metabolism of a wide range of RNA molecules, including tRNA, rRNA, and some mRNAs. The catalytic RNA component of eukaryotic RNase P retains the core elements of the bacterial RNase P ribozyme; however, the peripheral RNA elements responsible for the stabilization of the global architecture are largely absent in the eukaryotic enzyme. At the same time, the protein makeup of eukaryotic RNase P is considerably more complex than that of the bacterial RNase P. RNase MRP, an essential and ubiquitous eukaryotic enzyme, has a structural organization resembling that of eukaryotic RNase P, and the two enzymes share most of their protein components. Here, we present the results of the analysis of interactions between the largest protein component of yeast RNases P/MRP, Pop1, and the RNA moieties of the enzymes, discuss structural implications of the results, and suggest that Pop1 plays the role of a scaffold for the stabilization of the global architecture of eukaryotic RNase P RNA, substituting for the network of RNA–RNA tertiary interactions that maintain the global RNA structure in bacterial RNase P. PMID:26135751

  17. Bacterial eukaryotic type serine-threonine protein kinases: from structural biology to targeted anti-infective drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilenko, Valery N; Osolodkin, Dmitry I; Lakatosh, Sergey A; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N; Shtil, Alexander A

    2011-01-01

    Signaling through protein kinases is an evolutionary conserved, widespread language of biological regulation. The eukaryotic type serine-threonine protein kinases (STPKs) found in normal human microbiote and in pathogenic bacteria play a key role in regulation of microbial survival, virulence and pathogenicity. Therefore, down-regulation of bacterial STPKs emerges as an attractive approach to cure infections. In this review we focused on actinobacterial STPKs to demonstrate that these enzymes can be used for crystal structure studies, modeling of 3D structure, construction of test systems and design of novel chemical libraries of low molecule as weight inhibitors. In particular, the prototypic pharmacological antagonists of Mycobacterium tuberculosis STPKs are perspective for development of a novel generation of drugs to combat the socially important disease. These inhibitors may modulate both actinobacterial and host STPKs and trigger programmed death of pathogenic bacteria.

  18. ExDom: an integrated database for comparative analysis of the exon-intron structures of protein domains in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasi, Ashwini; Philip, Philge; Manikandan, Vinu; Senapathy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    We have developed ExDom, a unique database for the comparative analysis of the exon-intron structures of 96 680 protein domains from seven eukaryotic organisms (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, Rattus norvegicus, Danio rerio, Gallus gallus and Arabidopsis thaliana). ExDom provides integrated access to exon-domain data through a sophisticated web interface which has the following analytical capabilities: (i) intergenomic and intragenomic comparative analysis of exon-intron structure of domains; (ii) color-coded graphical display of the domain architecture of proteins correlated with their corresponding exon-intron structures; (iii) graphical analysis of multiple sequence alignments of amino acid and coding nucleotide sequences of homologous protein domains from seven organisms; (iv) comparative graphical display of exon distributions within the tertiary structures of protein domains; and (v) visualization of exon-intron structures of alternative transcripts of a gene correlated to variations in the domain architecture of corresponding protein isoforms. These novel analytical features are highly suited for detailed investigations on the exon-intron structure of domains and make ExDom a powerful tool for exploring several key questions concerning the function, origin and evolution of genes and proteins. ExDom database is freely accessible at: http://66.170.16.154/ExDom/.

  19. Reduction of U(VI) by the deep subsurface bacterium, Thermus scotoductus SA-01, and the involvement of the ABC transporter protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Errol Duncan; Piater, Lizelle Ann; van Heerden, Esta

    2012-02-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of uranium on the growth of the bacterium Thermus scotoductus strain SA-01 as well as the whole cell U(VI) reduction capabilities of the organism. Also, site-directed mutagenesis confirmed the identity of a protein capable of a possible alternative mechanism of U(VI) reduction. SA-01 can grow aerobically in up to 1.25 mM uranium and has the capability to reduce low levels of U(VI) in under 20 h. TEM analysis performed on cells exposed to uranium showed extracellular and membrane-bound accumulation of uranium. The reductase-like protein was surprisingly identified as a peptide ABC transporter, peptide-binding protein. This study showcases the concept of protein promiscuity, where this protein with a distinct function in situ can also have the unintended function of a reactant for the reduction of U(VI). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phospho.ELM: A database of experimentally verified phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diella, F.; Cameron, S.; Gemund, C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Post-translational phosphorylation is one of the most common protein modifications. Phosphoserine, threonine and tyrosine residues play critical roles in the regulation of many cellular processes. The fast growing number of research reports on protein phosphorylation points to a general...... instances for 556 phosphorylated proteins. Conclusion: Phospho. ELM will be a valuable tool both for molecular biologists working on protein phosphorylation sites and for bioinformaticians developing computational predictions on the specificity of phosphorylation reactions....

  1. Camps 2.0: exploring the sequence and structure space of prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and viral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Sindy; Hartmann, Holger; Martin-Galiano, Antonio J; Fuchs, Angelika; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2012-03-01

    Structural bioinformatics of membrane proteins is still in its infancy, and the picture of their fold space is only beginning to emerge. Because only a handful of three-dimensional structures are available, sequence comparison and structure prediction remain the main tools for investigating sequence-structure relationships in membrane protein families. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the structural families corresponding to α-helical membrane proteins with at least three transmembrane helices. The new version of our CAMPS database (CAMPS 2.0) covers nearly 1300 eukaryotic, prokaryotic, and viral genomes. Using an advanced classification procedure, which is based on high-order hidden Markov models and considers both sequence similarity as well as the number of transmembrane helices and loop lengths, we identified 1353 structurally homogeneous clusters roughly corresponding to membrane protein folds. Only 53 clusters are associated with experimentally determined three-dimensional structures, and for these clusters CAMPS is in reasonable agreement with structure-based classification approaches such as SCOP and CATH. We therefore estimate that ∼1300 structures would need to be determined to provide a sufficient structural coverage of polytopic membrane proteins. CAMPS 2.0 is available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/CAMPS2.0/. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. iLoc-Euk: a multi-label classifier for predicting the subcellular localization of singleplex and multiplex eukaryotic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chen Chou

    Full Text Available Predicting protein subcellular localization is an important and difficult problem, particularly when query proteins may have the multiplex character, i.e., simultaneously exist at, or move between, two or more different subcellular location sites. Most of the existing protein subcellular location predictor can only be used to deal with the single-location or "singleplex" proteins. Actually, multiple-location or "multiplex" proteins should not be ignored because they usually posses some unique biological functions worthy of our special notice. By introducing the "multi-labeled learning" and "accumulation-layer scale", a new predictor, called iLoc-Euk, has been developed that can be used to deal with the systems containing both singleplex and multiplex proteins. As a demonstration, the jackknife cross-validation was performed with iLoc-Euk on a benchmark dataset of eukaryotic proteins classified into the following 22 location sites: (1 acrosome, (2 cell membrane, (3 cell wall, (4 centriole, (5 chloroplast, (6 cyanelle, (7 cytoplasm, (8 cytoskeleton, (9 endoplasmic reticulum, (10 endosome, (11 extracellular, (12 Golgi apparatus, (13 hydrogenosome, (14 lysosome, (15 melanosome, (16 microsome (17 mitochondrion, (18 nucleus, (19 peroxisome, (20 spindle pole body, (21 synapse, and (22 vacuole, where none of proteins included has ≥25% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. The overall success rate thus obtained by iLoc-Euk was 79%, which is significantly higher than that by any of the existing predictors that also have the capacity to deal with such a complicated and stringent system. As a user-friendly web-server, iLoc-Euk is freely accessible to the public at the web-site http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iLoc-Euk. It is anticipated that iLoc-Euk may become a useful bioinformatics tool for Molecular Cell Biology, Proteomics, System Biology, and Drug Development Also, its novel approach will further stimulate the development of

  3. Identification and analysis of the acetylated status of poplar proteins reveals analogous N-terminal protein processing mechanisms with other eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Cai Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The N-terminal protein processing mechanism (NPM including N-terminal Met excision (NME and N-terminal acetylation (N(α-acetylation represents a common protein co-translational process of some eukaryotes. However, this NPM occurred in woody plants yet remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To reveal the NPM in poplar, we investigated the N(α-acetylation status of poplar proteins during dormancy by combining tandem mass spectrometry with TiO2 enrichment of acetylated peptides. We identified 58 N-terminally acetylated (N(α-acetylated proteins. Most proteins (47, >81% are subjected to N(α-acetylation following the N-terminal removal of Met, indicating that N(α-acetylation and NME represent a common NPM of poplar proteins. Furthermore, we confirm that poplar shares the analogous NME and N(α-acetylation (NPM to other eukaryotes according to analysis of N-terminal features of these acetylated proteins combined with genome-wide identification of the involving methionine aminopeptidases (MAPs and N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat enzymes in poplar. The N(α-acetylated reactions and the involving enzymes of these poplar proteins are also identified based on those of yeast and human, as well as the subcellular location information of these poplar proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first extensive investigation of N(α-acetylation events in woody plants, the results of which will provide useful resources for future unraveling the regulatory mechanisms of N(α-acetylation of proteins in poplar.

  4. Effect of the deletion of qmoABC and the promoter distal gene encoding a hypothetical protein on sulfate-reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zane, Grant M.; Yen, Huei-chi Bill; Wall, Judy D.

    2010-03-18

    The pathway of electrons required for the reduction of sulfate in sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is not yet fully characterized. In order to determine the role of a transmembrane protein complex suggested to be involved in this process, a deletion of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was created by marker exchange mutagenesis that eliminated four genes putatively encoding the QmoABC complex and a hypothetical protein (DVU0851). The Qmo complex (quinone-interacting membrane-bound oxidoreductase) is proposed to be responsible for transporting electrons to the dissimilatory adenosine-5?phosphosulfate (APS) reductase in SRB. In support of the predicted role of this complex, the deletion mutant was unable to grow using sulfate as its sole electron acceptor with a range of electron donors. To explore a possible role for the hypothetical protein in sulfate reduction, a second mutant was constructed that had lost only the gene that codes for DVU0851. The second constructed mutant grew with sulfate as the sole electron acceptor; however, there was a lag that was not present with the wild-type or complemented strain. Neither deletion strain was significantly impaired for growth with sulfite or thiosulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Complementation of the D(qmoABC-DVU0851) mutant with all four genes or only the qmoABC genes restored its ability to grow by sulfate respiration. These results confirmed the prediction that the Qmo complex is in the electron pathway for sulfate-reduction and revealed that no other transmembrane complex could compensate when Qmo was lacking.

  5. Structural disorder in eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pancsa

    Full Text Available Based on early bioinformatic studies on a handful of species, the frequency of structural disorder of proteins is generally thought to be much higher in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. To refine this view, we present here a comparative prediction study and analysis of 194 fully described eukaryotic proteomes and 87 reference prokaryotes for structural disorder. We found that structural disorder does distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes, but its frequency spans a very wide range in the two superkingdoms that largely overlap. The number of disordered binding regions and different Pfam domain types also contribute to distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes. Unexpectedly, the highest levels--and highest variability--of predicted disorder is found in protists, i.e. single-celled eukaryotes, often surpassing more complex eukaryote organisms, plants and animals. This trend contrasts with that of the number of domain types, which increases rather monotonously toward more complex organisms. The level of structural disorder appears to be strongly correlated with lifestyle, because some obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts have the lowest levels, whereas host-changing parasites have the highest level of predicted disorder. We conclude that protists have been the evolutionary hot-bed of experimentation with structural disorder, in a period when structural disorder was actively invented and the major functional classes of disordered proteins established.

  6. Gene Ontology consistent protein function prediction: the FALCON algorithm applied to six eukaryotic genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourmpetis, Y.A.I.; Dijk, van A.D.J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) is a hierarchical vocabulary for the description of biological functions and locations, often employed by computational methods for protein function prediction. Due to the structure of GO, function predictions can be self- contradictory. For example, a protein may be predicted to

  7. Early stages in the biogenesis of eukaryotic β-barrel proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jores, Tobias; Rapaport, Doron

    2017-09-01

    The endosymbiotic organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts harbour, similarly to their prokaryotic progenitors, β-barrel proteins in their outer membrane. These proteins are encoded on nuclear DNA, translated on cytosolic ribosomes and imported into their target organelles by a dedicated machinery. Recent studies have provided insights into the import into the organelles and the membrane insertion of these proteins. Although the cytosolic stages of their biogenesis are less well defined, it is speculated that upon their synthesis, chaperones prevent β-barrel proteins from aggregation and keep them in an import-competent conformation. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge about the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins, focusing on the early stages from the translation on cytosolic ribosomes to the recognition on the surface of the organelle. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Speed Controls in Translating Secretory Proteins in Eukaryotes - an Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlab, Shelly; Linial, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Protein translation is the most expensive operation in dividing cells from bacteria to humans. Therefore, managing the speed and allocation of resources is subject to tight control. From bacteria to humans, clusters of relatively rare tRNA codons at the N′-terminal of mRNAs have been implicated in attenuating the process of ribosome allocation, and consequently the translation rate in a broad range of organisms. The current interpretation of “slow” tRNA codons does not distinguish between protein translations mediated by free- or endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes. We demonstrate that proteins translated by free- or ER-bound ribosomes exhibit different overall properties in terms of their translation efficiency and speed in yeast, fly, plant, worm, bovine and human. We note that only secreted or membranous proteins with a Signal peptide (SP) are specified by segments of “slow” tRNA at the N′-terminal, followed by abundant codons that are considered “fast.” Such profiles apply to 3100 proteins of the human proteome that are composed of secreted and signal peptide (SP)-assisted membranous proteins. Remarkably, the bulks of the proteins (12,000), or membranous proteins lacking SP (3400), do not have such a pattern. Alternation of “fast” and “slow” codons was found also in proteins that translocate to mitochondria through transit peptides (TP). The differential clusters of tRNA adapted codons is not restricted to the N′-terminal of transcripts. Specifically, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are unified by clusters of low adapted tRNAs codons at the C′-termini. Furthermore, selection of amino acids types and specific codons was shown as the driving force which establishes the translation demands for the secretory proteome. We postulate that “hard-coded” signals within the secretory proteome assist the steps of protein maturation and folding. Specifically, “speed control” signals for delaying the translation

  9. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  10. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  11. Cell-Free Protein Synthesis: Pros and Cons of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemella, Anne; Thoring, Lena; Hoffmeister, Christian; Kubick, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    From its start as a small-scale in vitro system to study fundamental translation processes, cell-free protein synthesis quickly rose to become a potent platform for the high-yield production of proteins. In contrast to classical in vivo protein expression, cell-free systems do not need time-consuming cloning steps, and the open nature provides easy manipulation of reaction conditions as well as high-throughput potential. Especially for the synthesis of difficult to express proteins, such as toxic and transmembrane proteins, cell-free systems are of enormous interest. The modification of the genetic code to incorporate non-canonical amino acids into the target protein in particular provides enormous potential in biotechnology and pharmaceutical research and is in the focus of many cell-free projects. Many sophisticated cell-free systems for manifold applications have been established. This review describes the recent advances in cell-free protein synthesis and details the expanding applications in this field. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Crystallographic studies on B12 binding proteins in eukaryotes and prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Narayanasami

    2013-01-01

    The x-ray crystal structures of several important vitamin B12 binding proteins that have been solved in recent years have enhanced our current understanding in the vitamin B12 field. These structurally diverse groups of B12 binding proteins perform various important biological activities, both by transporting B12 as well as catalyzing various biological reactions. An in-depth comparative analysis of these structures was carried out using PDB coordinates of a carefully chosen database of B12 binding proteins to correlate the overall folding of the molecule with phylogeny, the B12 interactions, and with their biological function. The structures of these proteins are discussed in the context of this comparative analysis. PMID:23395752

  13. Large-Scale Discovery and Characterization of Protein Regulatory Motifs in Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Daniel S.; Elemento, Olivier; Tavazoie, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The increasing ability to generate large-scale, quantitative proteomic data has brought with it the challenge of analyzing such data to discover the sequence elements that underlie systems-level protein behavior. Here we show that short, linear protein motifs can be efficiently recovered from proteome-scale datasets such as sub-cellular localization, molecular function, half-life, and protein abundance data using an information theoretic approach. Using this approach, we have identified many known protein motifs, such as phosphorylation sites and localization signals, and discovered a large number of candidate elements. We estimate that ∼80% of these are novel predictions in that they do not match a known motif in both sequence and biological context, suggesting that post-translational regulation of protein behavior is still largely unexplored. These predicted motifs, many of which display preferential association with specific biological pathways and non-random positioning in the linear protein sequence, provide focused hypotheses for experimental validation. PMID:21206902

  14. HupB Is a Bacterial Nucleoid-Associated Protein with an Indispensable Eukaryotic-Like Tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Hołówka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria, chromosomal DNA must be efficiently compacted to fit inside the small cell compartment while remaining available for the proteins involved in replication, segregation, and transcription. Among the nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs responsible for maintaining this highly organized and yet dynamic chromosome structure, the HU protein is one of the most conserved and highly abundant. HupB, a homologue of HU, was recently identified in mycobacteria. This intriguing mycobacterial NAP is composed of two domains: an N-terminal domain that resembles bacterial HU, and a long and distinctive C-terminal domain that contains several PAKK/KAAK motifs, which are characteristic of the H1/H5 family of eukaryotic histones. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo binding of HupB on the chromosome scale. By using PALM (photoactivated localization microscopy and ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing, we observed that the C-terminal domain is indispensable for the association of HupB with the nucleoid. Strikingly, the in vivo binding of HupB displayed a bias from the origin (oriC to the terminus (ter of the mycobacterial chromosome (numbers of binding sites decreased toward ter. We hypothesized that this binding mode reflects a role for HupB in organizing newly replicated oriC regions. Thus, HupB may be involved in coordinating replication with chromosome segregation.

  15. Complementation of the xeroderma pigmentosum DNA repair synthesis defect with Escherichia coli UvrABC proteins in a cell-free system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, T.; Wood, R.D. (Clare Hall Labs., South Mimms (England)); Grossman, L.; Hansson, J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-01-11

    A newly developed cell-free system was used to study DNA repair synthesis carried out by extracts from human cell lines in vitro. Extracts from a normal human lymphoid cell line and from cell lines established from individuals with hereditary dysplastic nevus syndrome performed damage-dependent repair synthesis in plasmid DNA treated with cis- or trans-diamminedichloro-platinum(II) or irradiated with ultraviolet light. Cell extracts of xeroderma pigmentosum origin (complementation groups A, C, D, and G) are deficient in DNA repair synthesis. When damaged plasmid DNA was pretreated with purified Escherichia coli UvrABC proteins, xeroderma pigmentosum cell extracts were able to carry out DNA repair synthesis. The ability of E. coli UvrABC proteins to complement xeroderma pigmentosum cell extracts indicates that the extracts are deficient in incision, but can carry out later steps of repair. Thus the in vitro system provides results that are in agreement with the incision defect found from studies of xeroderma pigmentosum cells.

  16. MacB ABC transporter is a dimer whose ATPase activity and macrolide-binding capacity are regulated by the membrane fusion protein MacA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong Ting; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Barrera, Nelson P; Frankish, Helen M; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W; Robinson, Carol V; Borges-Walmsley, M Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2009-01-09

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled.

  17. The Evolutionary History of MAPL (Mitochondria-Associated Protein Ligase) and Other Eukaryotic BAM/GIDE Domain Proteins: e0128795

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeremy G Wideman; Blake P Moore

    2015-01-01

      MAPL (mitochondria-associated protein ligase, also called MULAN/GIDE/MUL1) is a multifunctional mitochondrial outer membrane protein found in human cells that contains a unique BAM (beside a membrane...

  18. The Evolutionary History of MAPL (Mitochondria-Associated Protein Ligase) and Other Eukaryotic BAM/GIDE Domain Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wideman, Jeremy G; Moore, Blake P

    2015-01-01

    MAPL (mitochondria-associated protein ligase, also called MULAN/GIDE/MUL1) is a multifunctional mitochondrial outer membrane protein found in human cells that contains a unique BAM (beside a membrane...

  19. Mimivirus reveals Mre11/Rad50 fusion proteins with a sporadic distribution in eukaryotes, bacteria, viruses and plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mre11/Rad50 complex and the homologous SbcD/SbcC complex in bacteria play crucial roles in the metabolism of DNA double-strand breaks, including DNA repair, genome replication, homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining in cellular life forms and viruses. Here we investigated the amino acid sequence of the Mimivirus R555 gene product, originally annotated as a Rad50 homolog, and later shown to have close homologs in marine microbial metagenomes. Results Our bioinformatics analysis revealed that R555 protein sequence is constituted from the fusion of an N-terminal Mre11-like domain with a C-terminal Rad50-like domain. A systematic database search revealed twelve additional cases of Mre11/Rad50 (or SbcD/SbcC fusions in a wide variety of unrelated organisms including unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, the megaplasmid of a bacterium associated to deep-sea hydrothermal vents (Deferribacter desulfuricans and the plasmid of Clostridium kluyveri. We also showed that R555 homologs are abundant in the metagenomes from different aquatic environments and that they most likely belong to aquatic viruses. The observed phyletic distribution of these fusion proteins suggests their recurrent creation and lateral gene transfers across organisms. Conclusions The existence of the fused version of protein sequences is consistent with known functional interactions between Mre11 and Rad50, and the gene fusion probably enhanced the opportunity for lateral transfer. The abundance of the Mre11/Rad50 fusion genes in viral metagenomes and their sporadic phyletic distribution in cellular organisms suggest that viruses, plasmids and transposons played a crucial role in the formation of the fusion proteins and their propagation into cellular genomes.

  20. FFPred 2.0: improved homology-independent prediction of gene ontology terms for eukaryotic protein sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Minneci

    Full Text Available To understand fully cell behaviour, biologists are making progress towards cataloguing the functional elements in the human genome and characterising their roles across a variety of tissues and conditions. Yet, functional information - either experimentally validated or computationally inferred by similarity - remains completely missing for approximately 30% of human proteins. FFPred was initially developed to bridge this gap by targeting sequences with distant or no homologues of known function and by exploiting clear patterns of intrinsic disorder associated with particular molecular activities and biological processes. Here, we present an updated and improved version, which builds on larger datasets of protein sequences and annotations, and uses updated component feature predictors as well as revised training procedures. FFPred 2.0 includes support vector regression models for the prediction of 442 Gene Ontology (GO terms, which largely expand the coverage of the ontology and of the biological process category in particular. The GO term list mainly revolves around macromolecular interactions and their role in regulatory, signalling, developmental and metabolic processes. Benchmarking experiments on newly annotated proteins show that FFPred 2.0 provides more accurate functional assignments than its predecessor and the ProtFun server do; also, its assignments can complement information obtained using BLAST-based transfer of annotations, improving especially prediction in the biological process category. Furthermore, FFPred 2.0 can be used to annotate proteins belonging to several eukaryotic organisms with a limited decrease in prediction quality. We illustrate all these points through the use of both precision-recall plots and of the COGIC scores, which we recently proposed as an alternative numerical evaluation measure of function prediction accuracy.

  1. Pre-expression of a sulfhydryl oxidase significantly increases the yields of eukaryotic disulfide bond containing proteins expressed in the cytoplasm of E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enlund Eveliina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disulfide bonds are one of the most common post-translational modifications found in proteins. The production of proteins that contain native disulfide bonds is challenging, especially on a large scale. Either the protein needs to be targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes or to the prokaryotic periplasm. These compartments that are specialised for disulfide bond formation have an active catalyst for their formation, along with catalysts for isomerization to the native state. We have recently shown that it is possible to produce large amounts of prokaryotic disulfide bond containing proteins in the cytoplasm of wild-type bacteria such as E. coli by the introduction of catalysts for both of these processes. Results Here we show that the introduction of Erv1p, a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide isomerase allows the efficient formation of natively folded eukaryotic proteins with multiple disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm of E. coli. The production of disulfide bonded proteins was also aided by the use of an appropriate fusion protein to keep the folding intermediates soluble and by choice of media. By combining the pre-expression of a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide isomerase with these other factors, high level expression of even complex disulfide bonded eukaryotic proteins is possible Conclusions Our results show that the production of eukaryotic proteins with multiple disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm of E. coli is possible. The required exogenous components can be put onto a single plasmid vector allowing facile transfer between different prokaryotic strains. These results open up new avenues for the use of E. coli as a microbial cell factory.

  2. Archaeal Genome Guardians Give Insights into Eukaryotic DNA Replication and Damage Response Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the third domain of life, archaea, like the eukarya and bacteria, must have robust DNA replication and repair complexes to ensure genome fidelity. Archaea moreover display a breadth of unique habitats and characteristics, and structural biologists increasingly appreciate these features. As archaea include extremophiles that can withstand diverse environmental stresses, they provide fundamental systems for understanding enzymes and pathways critical to genome integrity and stress responses. Such archaeal extremophiles provide critical data on the periodic table for life as well as on the biochemical, geochemical, and physical limitations to adaptive strategies allowing organisms to thrive under environmental stress relevant to determining the boundaries for life as we know it. Specifically, archaeal enzyme structures have informed the architecture and mechanisms of key DNA repair proteins and complexes. With added abilities to temperature-trap flexible complexes and reveal core domains of transient and dynamic complexes, these structures provide insights into mechanisms of maintaining genome integrity despite extreme environmental stress. The DNA damage response protein structures noted in this review therefore inform the basis for genome integrity in the face of environmental stress, with implications for all domains of life as well as for biomanufacturing, astrobiology, and medicine.

  3. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Lou, Wanghuai; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Sun, Zuxia; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso)4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592), an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso)4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso)4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP). Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso)4E with other reported plant eIF(iso)4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso)4E belongs to the eIF(iso)4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso)4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso)4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso)4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso)4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. These results inferred that CmeIF(iso)4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso)4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  4. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  5. ABC Kinga kauplused = ABC King shoe stores

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Kristiine keskuses, Tartu Kaubamajas ja Pärnus Port Artur 2 asuvate ABC Kinga kaupluste sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekid Andres Labi ja Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ), loetletud nende ühiselt tehtud töid

  6. The role of the atypical kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in abscisic acid responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eManara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase is represented in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling.

  7. p23 and HSP20/alpha-crystallin proteins define a conserved sequence domain present in other eukaryotic protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ranea, J A; Mirey, Gladys; Camonis, Jacques; Valencia, Alfonso

    2002-10-09

    We identified families of proteins characterized by the presence of a domain similar to human p23 protein, which include proteins such as Sgt1, involved in the yeast kinetochore assembly; melusin, involved in specific interactions with the cytoplasmic integrin beta1 domain; Rar1, related to pathogenic resistance in plants, and to development in animals; B5+B5R flavo-hemo cytochrome NAD(P)H oxidoreductase type B in humans and mice; and NudC, involved in nucleus migration during mitosis. We also found that p23 and the HSP20/alpha-crystallin family of heat shock proteins, which share the same three-dimensional folding, show a pattern of conserved residues that points to a common origin in the evolution of both protein domains. The p23 and HSP20/alpha-crystallin phylogenetic relationship and their similar role in chaperone activity suggest a common function, probably involving protein-protein interaction, for those proteins containing p23-like domains.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyoung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.. Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1 gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5′-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suyoung; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Dongyoung; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Heung Tae; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Choi, Woobong

    2014-12-01

    Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1) gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5'-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.

  10. Of bits and bugs--on the use of bioinformatics and a bacterial crystal structure to solve a eukaryotic repeat-protein structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Graebsch

    Full Text Available Pur-α is a nucleic acid-binding protein involved in cell cycle control, transcription, and neuronal function. Initially no prediction of the three-dimensional structure of Pur-α was possible. However, recently we solved the X-ray structure of Pur-α from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and showed that it contains a so-called PUR domain. Here we explain how we exploited bioinformatics tools in combination with X-ray structure determination of a bacterial homolog to obtain diffracting crystals and the high-resolution structure of Drosophila Pur-α. First, we used sensitive methods for remote-homology detection to find three repetitive regions in Pur-α. We realized that our lack of understanding how these repeats interact to form a globular domain was a major problem for crystallization and structure determination. With our information on the repeat motifs we then identified a distant bacterial homolog that contains only one repeat. We determined the bacterial crystal structure and found that two of the repeats interact to form a globular domain. Based on this bacterial structure, we calculated a computational model of the eukaryotic protein. The model allowed us to design a crystallizable fragment and to determine the structure of Drosophila Pur-α. Key for success was the fact that single repeats of the bacterial protein self-assembled into a globular domain, instructing us on the number and boundaries of repeats to be included for crystallization trials with the eukaryotic protein. This study demonstrates that the simpler structural domain arrangement of a distant prokaryotic protein can guide the design of eukaryotic crystallization constructs. Since many eukaryotic proteins contain multiple repeats or repeating domains, this approach might be instructive for structural studies of a range of proteins.

  11. The Evolutionary History of MAPL (Mitochondria-Associated Protein Ligase) and Other Eukaryotic BAM/GIDE Domain Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wideman, Jeremy G.; Moore, Blake. P.

    2015-01-01

    MAPL (mitochondria-associated protein ligase, also called MULAN/GIDE/MUL1) is a multifunctional mitochondrial outer membrane protein found in human cells that contains a unique BAM (beside a membrane) domain and a C-terminal RING-finger domain. MAPL has been implicated in several processes that occur in animal cells such as NF-kB activation, innate immunity and antiviral signaling, suppression of PINK1/parkin defects, mitophagy in skeletal muscle, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Previous stu...

  12. The Cytophaga hutchinsonii ChTPSP: First characterized bifunctional TPS-TPP protein as putative ancestor of all eukaryotic trehalose biosynthesis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonce, Nelson; Wuyts, Jan; Verschooten, Katrien; Vandesteene, Lies; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    The most widely distributed pathway to synthesize trehalose in nature consists of two consecutive enzymatic reactions with a trehalose-6-P (T6P)-synthase (TPS) enzyme, producing the intermediate T6P, and a T6P-phosphatase (TPP) enzyme, which dephosphorylates T6P to produce trehalose and inorganic phosphate. In plants, these enzymes are called Class I and Class II proteins, respectively, with some Class I proteins being active enzymes. The Class II proteins possess both TPS and TPP consensus regions but appear to have lost enzymatic activity during evolution. Plants also contain an extra group of enzymes of small protein size, of which some members have been characterized as functional TPPs. These Class III proteins have less sequence similarity with the Class I and Class II proteins. Here, we characterize for the first time, by using biochemical analysis and yeast growth complementation assays, the existence of a natural TPS-TPP bifunctional enzyme found in the bacterial species Cytophaga hutchinsonii. Through phylogenetic analysis, we show that prokaryotic genes such as ChTPSP might be the ancestor of the eukaryotic trehalose biosynthesis genes. Second, we show that plants have recruited during evolution, possibly by horizontal transfer from bacteria such as Rhodoferax ferrireducens, a new type of small protein, encoding TPP activity, which have been named Class III proteins. RfTPP has very high TPP activity upon expression in yeast. Finally, we demonstrate that TPS gene duplication, the recruitment of the Class III enzymes, and recruitment of an N-terminal regulatory element, which regulates the Class I enzyme activity in higher plants, were initiated very early in eukaryan evolution as the three classes of trehalose biosynthesis genes are already present in the alga Ostreococcus tauri.

  13. Oxygen and nitrate-dependent regulation of dmsABC operon expression in Escherichia coli: sites for Fnr and NarL protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Jeffrey A

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli can respire anaerobically using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO or trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO as the terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic energy generation. Expression of the dmsABC genes that encode the membrane-associated DMSO/TMAO reductase is positively regulated during anaerobic conditions by the Fnr protein and negatively regulated by the NarL protein when nitrate is present. Results The regions of dmsA regulatory DNA required for Fnr and NarL interactions in response to anaerobiosis and nitrate, respectively, were examined. Mutations within the Fnr site that deviated from the wild type sequence, TTGATaccgAACAA, or that removed an entire half-site, either impaired or abolished the anaerobic activation of dmsA-lacZ expression. The region for phosphorylated NarL (NarL-phosphate binding at the dmsA promoter was identified by DNase I and hydroxyl radical footprinting methods. A large 97 bp region that overlaps the Fnr and RNA polymerase recognition sites was protected by NarL-phosphate but not by the non-phosphorylated form of NarL. Hydroxyl radical footprinting analysis confirmed the NarL-phosphate DNase I protections of both dmsA strands and revealed 8–9 protected sites of 3–5 bp occurring at ten bp intervals that are offset by 3 bp in the 3' direction. Conclusion These findings suggest that multiple molecules of phosphorylated NarL bind along one face of the DNA and may interfere with Fnr and/or RNA polymerase interactions at the dmsA regulatory region. The interplay of these transcription factors insures a hierarchical expression of the dmsABC genes when respiration of the preferred electron acceptors, oxygen and nitrate, is not possible.

  14. A rapid screening method to monitor expression of various recombinant proteins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jebanathirajah, J.A.; Andersen, S.; Blagoev, B.

    2002-01-01

    Rapid methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to monitor recombinant protein expression from various prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell culture systems were devised. Intracellular as well as secreted proteins from both induced and constitutive...... expression systems were measured and monitored from whole cells and growth media, thus providing an alternative to time-consuming traditional methods for screening and monitoring of protein expression. The methods described here involve minimal processing of samples and are therefore relevant to high...

  15. Evaluation of the in vitro expression of ATP binding-cassette (ABC) proteins in an Ixodes ricinus cell line exposed to ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangia, Carlo; Vismarra, Alice; Kramer, Laura; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Porretta, Daniele; Otranto, Domenico; Epis, Sara; Grandi, Giulio

    2016-04-18

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens causing human and animal disease. Acaricides are used to control tick infestation, although there are increasing reports of resistance. Recently, over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (P-glycoproteins, PgP) has been implicated in resistance to the acaricide ivermectin in the ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ixodid tick cell lines have been used to investigate drug resistance mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate expression of several PgPs in the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM19 and to determine modulation of expression following treatment with ivermectin. IRE/CTVM19 cells were treated with different concentrations of ivermectin (0, 11, 22 or 33 μM) and incubated for 10 days. Evaluation of viability and relative expression of ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCB8 and ABCB10 genes were carried out at day 10 post treatment. Cell viability ranged between 84% and 92% with no significant differences between untreated and treated cells. qRT-PCR showed that ABC pump expression was not significantly modulated by ivermectin treatment. Expression of the ABCB8 PgP subfamily revealed a biphasic trend, based on the ivermectin concentration. ABCB6 and ABCB10 gene expression was not modulated by ivermectin treatment and ABCB1 expression was not detected. This is the first report of PgP expression in an I. ricinus-derived tick cell line. Development of an in vitro model for the study of acaricide resistance mechanisms would greatly facilitate screening for drug resistance in ticks.

  16. Differentiation of infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease by the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins 3D, 3AB and 3ABC in ELISA using antigens expressed in baculovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; Madsen, K.G.; Madsen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    a positive result in both the 3AB and the 3ABC ELISA's. Two cattle that had been both vaccinated and infected also gave, positive results in both tests, suggesting that the 3AB and 3ABC ELISA's, but not the 3D ELISA might represent a reliable means of detecting infection in a vaccinated population.......The baculovirus expression system was found to be efficient at expressing the 3D, the 3AB and the 3ABC non-structural proteins (NSP) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as antigens recognised by immune sera in ELISA. ELISA's using 3D, 3AB and 3ABC detected antibodies from day 8 and 10 after...... experimental infection of susceptible cattle and sheep and cattle remained seropositive for more than 395 days. The ELISA's detected antibodies against any of the seven serotypes of FMDV. The 3D ELISA was specific and precise and as sensitive as established ELISA's which measure antibody to structural proteins...

  17. abc3+ encodes an iron-regulated vacuolar ABC-type transporter in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Benoît; Jbel, Mehdi; Mercier, Alexandre; Labbé, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown the fundamental contribution of the yeast vacuole as a site for storage and detoxification of metals. Whereas the transmembrane proteins responsible for iron transport into and out of the vacuole have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, less information is available concerning the mobilization of vacuolar iron stores in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this study, we report the identification of a gene designated abc3(+) that encodes a protein which exhibits sequence homology with the ABCC subfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters. The transcription of abc3(+) is induced by low concentrations of iron but repressed by high levels of iron. The iron-mediated repression of abc3(+) required a functional fep1(+) gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Fep1 associates with the abc3(+) promoter in vivo, in an iron-dependent manner. Microscopic analyses revealed that a functional Abc3-green fluorescent protein localizes to the membrane vacuole when iron levels were low. Abc3 was required for growth in low-iron medium in the absence of the transport system mediated by Fio1 and Fip1. abc3Delta cells exhibited increased levels of expression of the frp1(+)-encoded ferric reductase, suggesting a loss of Fep1 repression and, consequently, the activation of Fep1-regulated genes. When abc3(+) was expressed using the nmt1(+) promoter system, its induction led to a reduced transcriptional activity of the frp1(+) gene. Because S. pombe does not possess vacuolar membrane-localized orthologs to S. cerevisiae Fth1, Fet5, and Smf3, our findings suggested that Abc3 may be responsible for mobilizing stored iron from the vacuole to the cytosol in response to iron deficiency.

  18. abc3+ Encodes an Iron-Regulated Vacuolar ABC-Type Transporter in Schizosaccharomyces pombe▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Benoît; Jbel, Mehdi; Mercier, Alexandre; Labbé, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown the fundamental contribution of the yeast vacuole as a site for storage and detoxification of metals. Whereas the transmembrane proteins responsible for iron transport into and out of the vacuole have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, less information is available concerning the mobilization of vacuolar iron stores in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this study, we report the identification of a gene designated abc3+ that encodes a protein which exhibits sequence homology with the ABCC subfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters. The transcription of abc3+ is induced by low concentrations of iron but repressed by high levels of iron. The iron-mediated repression of abc3+ required a functional fep1+ gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Fep1 associates with the abc3+ promoter in vivo, in an iron-dependent manner. Microscopic analyses revealed that a functional Abc3-green fluorescent protein localizes to the membrane vacuole when iron levels were low. Abc3 was required for growth in low-iron medium in the absence of the transport system mediated by Fio1 and Fip1. abc3Δ cells exhibited increased levels of expression of the frp1+-encoded ferric reductase, suggesting a loss of Fep1 repression and, consequently, the activation of Fep1-regulated genes. When abc3+ was expressed using the nmt1+ promoter system, its induction led to a reduced transcriptional activity of the frp1+ gene. Because S. pombe does not possess vacuolar membrane-localized orthologs to S. cerevisiae Fth1, Fet5, and Smf3, our findings suggested that Abc3 may be responsible for mobilizing stored iron from the vacuole to the cytosol in response to iron deficiency. PMID:19915076

  19. Comparative analysis of serine/arginine-rich proteins across 27 eukaryotes: insights into sub-family classification and extent of alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale N Richardson

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing (AS of pre-mRNA is a fundamental molecular process that generates diversity in the transcriptome and proteome of eukaryotic organisms. SR proteins, a family of splicing regulators with one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs at the N-terminus and an arg/ser-rich domain at the C-terminus, function in both constitutive and alternative splicing. We identified SR proteins in 27 eukaryotic species, which include plants, animals, fungi and "basal" eukaryotes that lie outside of these lineages. Using RNA recognition motifs (RRMs as a phylogenetic marker, we classified 272 SR genes into robust sub-families. The SR gene family can be split into five major groupings, which can be further separated into 11 distinct sub-families. Most flowering plants have double or nearly double the number of SR genes found in vertebrates. The majority of plant SR genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, in all paralogous SR genes in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and maize, one of the two paralogs is preferentially expressed throughout plant development. We also assessed the extent of AS in SR genes based on a splice graph approach (http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/gmap_SRgenes. AS of SR genes is a widespread phenomenon throughout multiple lineages, with alternative 3' or 5' splicing events being the most prominent type of event. However, plant-enriched sub-families have 57%-88% of their SR genes experiencing some type of AS compared to the 40%-54% seen in other sub-families. The SR gene family is pervasive throughout multiple eukaryotic lineages, conserved in sequence and domain organization, but differs in gene number across lineages with an abundance of SR genes in flowering plants. The higher number of alternatively spliced SR genes in plants emphasizes the importance of AS in generating splice variants in these organisms.

  20. Rapportering med ABC modellen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    I denne artikel diskuteres Activity Based Costing (ABC) som rapporterings-teknik for kunde profitabilitet. Der argumenteres for, at indtægtserhvervel-sen inkl. dens direkte omkostningsforbrug bør adskilles fra omkostnings-beskrivelsen til produktfremstilling. Dvs. der gennemføres en aktivitetsba......-seret rapportering for indtægter og en ABC model for omkostningsforbrug til produktfremstilling. Modellen er tilført logiske beslutningsobjekter (klas-sifikationer), som er opbygget niveaubaseret. Samtidigt føres belæg for, at ABC modellen bør baseres på logiske fordelinger til kalkulationsobjektet i stedet...

  1. Arabinogalactan proteins have deep roots in eukaryotes: identification of genes and epitopes in brown algae and their role in Fucus serratus embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Cécile; Siméon, Amandine; Jam, Murielle; Cassin, Andrew; Johnson, Kim L; Salmeán, Armando A; Willats, William G T; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony; Kloareg, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated, hydroxyproline-rich proteins found at the cell surface of plants, where they play key roles in developmental processes. Brown algae are marine, multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. They belong to the phylum Stramenopiles, which is unrelated to land plants and green algae (Chloroplastida). Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-rich cell wall. They differ markedly from plants in their cell wall composition, and AGPs have not been reported in brown algae. Here we investigated the presence of chimeric AGP-like core proteins in this lineage. We report that the genome sequence of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus encodes AGP protein backbone motifs, in a gene context that differs considerably from what is known in land plants. We showed the occurrence of AGP glycan epitopes in a range of brown algal cell wall extracts. We demonstrated that these chimeric AGP-like core proteins are developmentally regulated in embryos of the order Fucales and showed that AGP loss of function seriously impairs the course of early embryogenesis. Our findings shine a new light on the role of AGPs in cell wall sensing and raise questions about the origin and evolution of AGPs in eukaryotes. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Iowa ABC connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    For several years the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT), Iowa State University, the Federal Highway Administration, : and several Iowa counties have been working to develop accelerated bridge construction (ABC) concepts, details, and processes....

  3. The ABC transporter gene family of Daphnia pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Phil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large gene superfamily of ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters encodes membrane proteins involved in trafficking processes across biological membranes and further essential cell biological functions. ABC transporters are evolutionary ancient and involved in the biochemical defence against toxicants. We report here a genome-wide survey of ABC proteins of Daphnia pulex, providing for the first time information on ABC proteins in crustacea, a primarily aquatic arthropod subphylum of high ecological and economical importance. Results We identified 64 ABC proteins in the Daphnia genome, which possesses members of all current ABC subfamilies A to H. To unravel phylogenetic relationships, ABC proteins of Daphnia were compared to those from yeast, worm, fruit fly and human. A high conservation of Daphnia of ABC transporters was observed for proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes, including the mitochondrial half transporters of the ABCB subfamily, which function in iron metabolism and transport of Fe/S protein precursors, and the members of subfamilies ABCD, ABCE and ABCF, which have roles in very long chain fatty acid transport, initiation of gene transcription and protein translation, respectively. A number of Daphnia proteins showed one-to-one orthologous relationships to Drosophila ABC proteins including the sulfonyl urea receptor (SUR, the ecdysone transporter ET23, and the eye pigment precursor transporter scarlet. As the fruit fly, Daphnia lacked homologues to the TAP protein, which plays a role in antigene processing, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, which functions as a chloride channel. Daphnia showed two proteins homologous to MDR (multidrug resistance P-glycoproteins (ABCB subfamily and six proteins homologous to MRPs (multidrug resistance-associated proteins (ABCC subfamily. However, lineage specific gene duplications in the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies complicated the

  4. Eukaryotic glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Hiren J; Gupta, Ramneek

    2015-01-01

    This chapter runs through several online predictors enabling prediction of glycosylation sites on protein sequences. Most online methods provide in place documentation and examples, but this chapter provides a general overview and workflow for each method....

  5. ATPase activity regulation by leader peptide processing of ABC transporter maturation and secretion protein, NukT, for lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sen; Nagao, Jun-Ichi; Nishie, Mami; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1 is produced by Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1. The dual functional transporter NukT, an ABC transporter maturation and secretion protein, contributes to cleavage of the leader peptide from the prepeptide (modified NukA) and the final transport of nukacin ISK-1. NukT consists of an N-terminal peptidase domain (PEP), a C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD), and a transmembrane domain (TMD). In this study, NukT and its peptidase-inactive mutant were expressed, purified, and reconstituted into liposomes for analysis of their peptidase and ATPase activities. The ATPase activity of the NBD region was shown to be required for the peptidase activity of the PEP region. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that leader peptide cleavage by the PEP region significantly enhanced the ATPase activity of the NBD region. Taken together, the presented results offer new insights into the processing mechanism of lantibiotic transporters and the necessity of interdomain cooperation.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the W2 domain of Drosophila melanogaster eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5C domain-containing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Hong; Liu, Huihui; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2012-11-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5C domain-containing protein (ECP) is composed of two independently folded domains which belong to the basic leucine-zipper and W2 domain-containing protein (BZW) family. Based on the sequence similarity between the C-terminal W2 domain of ECP and some eukaryotic translation initiation factors (such as eIF2Bℇ, eIF4γ, eIF5 etc.), ECP has been speculated to participate in the translation initiation process. Structural information on the C-terminal W2 domain of ECP would be helpful in understanding the specific cellular function of this protein. Here, the W2 domain of ECP was expressed and crystallized. Crystals grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method diffracted to 2.70 Å resolution and belonged to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a=b=81.05, c=57.44 Å. The Matthews coefficient suggested that there was one molecule per asymmetric unit in the crystal.

  7. An ABC transporter B family protein, ABCB19, is required for cytoplasmic streaming and gravitropism of the inflorescence stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Keishi; Ueda, Haruko; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    A significant feature of plant cells is the extensive motility of organelles and the cytosol, which was originally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. We suggested previously that a three-way interaction between plant-specific motor proteins myosin XIs, actin filaments, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. (1) Currently, however, there are no reports of molecular components for cytoplasmic streaming other than the actin-myosin-cytoskeleton and ER-related proteins. In the present study, we found that elongated cells of inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit vigorous cytoplasmic streaming. Statistical analysis showed that the maximal velocity of plastid movements is 7.26 µm/s, which is much faster than the previously reported velocities of organelles. Surprisingly, the maximal velocity of streaming in the inflorescence stem cells was significantly reduced to 1.11 µm/s in an Arabidopsis mutant, abcb19-101, which lacks ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUBFAMILY B19 (ABCB19) that mediates the polar transport of the phytohormone auxin together with PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Polar auxin transport establishes the auxin concentration gradient essential for plant development and tropisms. Deficiency of ABCB19 activity eventually caused enhanced gravitropic responses of the inflorescence stems and abnormally flexed inflorescence stems. These results suggest that ABCB19-mediated auxin transport plays a role not only in tropism regulation, but also in cytoplasmic streaming.

  8. A new method for predicting the subcellular localization of eukaryotic proteins with both single and multiple sites: Euk-mPLoc 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chen Chou

    Full Text Available Information of subcellular locations of proteins is important for in-depth studies of cell biology. It is very useful for proteomics, system biology and drug development as well. However, most existing methods for predicting protein subcellular location can only cover 5 to 12 location sites. Also, they are limited to deal with single-location proteins and hence failed to work for multiplex proteins, which can simultaneously exist at, or move between, two or more location sites. Actually, multiplex proteins of this kind usually posses some important biological functions worthy of our special notice. A new predictor called "Euk-mPLoc 2.0" is developed by hybridizing the gene ontology information, functional domain information, and sequential evolutionary information through three different modes of pseudo amino acid composition. It can be used to identify eukaryotic proteins among the following 22 locations: (1 acrosome, (2 cell wall, (3 centriole, (4 chloroplast, (5 cyanelle, (6 cytoplasm, (7 cytoskeleton, (8 endoplasmic reticulum, (9 endosome, (10 extracell, (11 Golgi apparatus, (12 hydrogenosome, (13 lysosome, (14 melanosome, (15 microsome (16 mitochondria, (17 nucleus, (18 peroxisome, (19 plasma membrane, (20 plastid, (21 spindle pole body, and (22 vacuole. Compared with the existing methods for predicting eukaryotic protein subcellular localization, the new predictor is much more powerful and flexible, particularly in dealing with proteins with multiple locations and proteins without available accession numbers. For a newly-constructed stringent benchmark dataset which contains both single- and multiple-location proteins and in which none of proteins has pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same location, the overall jackknife success rate achieved by Euk-mPLoc 2.0 is more than 24% higher than those by any of the existing predictors. As a user-friendly web-server, Euk-mPLoc 2.0 is freely accessible at http

  9. Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), a “Multitasking” ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Susan P. C.

    2014-01-01

    The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) encoded by ABCC1 was originally discovered as a cause of multidrug resistance in tumor cells. However, it is now clear that MRP1 serves a broader role than simply mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of drugs from cells. The antioxidant GSH and the pro-inflammatory cysteinyl leukotriene C4 have been identified as key physiological organic anions effluxed by MRP1, and an ever growing body of evidence indicates that additional lipid-derived mediators are also substrates of this transporter. As such, MRP1 is a multitasking transporter that likely influences the etiology and progression of a host of human diseases. PMID:25281745

  10. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eFerreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR. In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is of extreme added value to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps, multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5 and breast resistance associated protein (BCRP. In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants, with chemosensitizer potential, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in 1 regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; 2 cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and 3 ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clear suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish.

  11. Isolation and characterization of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system genes from loofah witches' broom phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Lin; Ho, Kuo-Chieh

    2007-10-01

    A clone containing a 3903 bp EcoRI-restriction fragment was obtained from a lambda(ZAP) genomic library of loofah witches' broom (LfWB) phytoplasma by plaque hybridization using a PCR fragment as a probe. Sequence analysis revealed that this fragment contained three open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequences of ORF 1 and ORF 2 showed a high homology with the ATP-binding proteins of the ABC transporter system genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and encoded proteins with a molecular mass of 36 and 30 kDa, respectively. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, secondary structure, hydrophilicity and a signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus, we predicted that ORF 3 might encode a specific solute-binding prolipoprotein of the ABC transporter system with a molecular mass of 62 kDa. The cleavage site of this prolipoprotein signal peptide was similar to those of gram-positive bacteria. In addition to nutrient uptake, ABC transporter systems of bacteria also play a role in signal transduction, drug-resistance and perhaps virulence. The possible implications of the system to the survival and the pathogenesis of phytoplasma were discussed.

  12. ABC's of Being Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  13. Small RNAs with 5'-polyphosphate termini associate with a Piwi-related protein and regulate gene expression in the single-celled eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanbang; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M; Pompey, Justine M; Hackney, Jason A; Singh, Upinder

    2008-11-01

    Small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in diverse biological processes, including heterochromatin formation and DNA elimination, developmental regulation, and cell differentiation. In the single-celled eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, we have identified a population of small RNAs of 27 nt size that (i) have 5'-polyphosphate termini, (ii) map antisense to genes, and (iii) associate with an E. histolytica Piwi-related protein. Whole genome microarray expression analysis revealed that essentially all genes to which antisense small RNAs map were not expressed under trophozoite conditions, the parasite stage from which the small RNAs were cloned. However, a number of these genes were expressed in other E. histolytica strains with an inverse correlation between small RNA and gene expression level, suggesting that these small RNAs mediate silencing of the cognate gene. Overall, our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has an abundant 27 nt small RNA population, with features similar to secondary siRNAs from C. elegans, and which appear to regulate gene expression. These data indicate that a silencing pathway mediated by 5'-polyphosphate siRNAs extends to single-celled eukaryotic organisms.

  14. Small RNAs with 5′-Polyphosphate Termini Associate with a Piwi-Related Protein and Regulate Gene Expression in the Single-Celled Eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanbang; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M.; Pompey, Justine M.; Hackney, Jason A.; Singh, Upinder

    2008-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in diverse biological processes, including heterochromatin formation and DNA elimination, developmental regulation, and cell differentiation. In the single-celled eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, we have identified a population of small RNAs of 27 nt size that (i) have 5′-polyphosphate termini, (ii) map antisense to genes, and (iii) associate with an E. histolytica Piwi-related protein. Whole genome microarray expression analysis revealed that essentially all genes to which antisense small RNAs map were not expressed under trophozoite conditions, the parasite stage from which the small RNAs were cloned. However, a number of these genes were expressed in other E. histolytica strains with an inverse correlation between small RNA and gene expression level, suggesting that these small RNAs mediate silencing of the cognate gene. Overall, our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has an abundant 27 nt small RNA population, with features similar to secondary siRNAs from C. elegans, and which appear to regulate gene expression. These data indicate that a silencing pathway mediated by 5′-polyphosphate siRNAs extends to single-celled eukaryotic organisms. PMID:19043551

  15. Small RNAs with 5'-polyphosphate termini associate with a Piwi-related protein and regulate gene expression in the single-celled eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbang Zhang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in diverse biological processes, including heterochromatin formation and DNA elimination, developmental regulation, and cell differentiation. In the single-celled eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, we have identified a population of small RNAs of 27 nt size that (i have 5'-polyphosphate termini, (ii map antisense to genes, and (iii associate with an E. histolytica Piwi-related protein. Whole genome microarray expression analysis revealed that essentially all genes to which antisense small RNAs map were not expressed under trophozoite conditions, the parasite stage from which the small RNAs were cloned. However, a number of these genes were expressed in other E. histolytica strains with an inverse correlation between small RNA and gene expression level, suggesting that these small RNAs mediate silencing of the cognate gene. Overall, our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has an abundant 27 nt small RNA population, with features similar to secondary siRNAs from C. elegans, and which appear to regulate gene expression. These data indicate that a silencing pathway mediated by 5'-polyphosphate siRNAs extends to single-celled eukaryotic organisms.

  16. Phosphorylation in vitro of eukaryotic initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 by protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Benne, R; Hershey, J W

    1976-01-01

    Purified protein synthesis initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 from rabbit reticulocytes were phosphorylated in vitro with protein kinases isolated from the same source. The highest levels of phosphorylation resulted from incubation of the factors with a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase...

  17. Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

    2012-07-11

    Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

  18. NMR screening and crystal quality of bacterially expressed prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins in a structural genomics pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang; Wilson, Ian A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    In the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, one-dimensional (1D) 1H NMR spectroscopy is routinely used to characterize the folded state of protein targets and, thus, serves to guide subsequent crystallization efforts and to identify proteins for NMR structure determination. Here, we describe 1D 1H NMR screening of a group of 79 mouse homologue proteins, which correlates the NMR data with the outcome of subsequent crystallization experiments and crystallographic structure determination. Based on the 1D 1H NMR spectra, the proteins are classified into four groups, “A” to “D.” A-type proteins are candidates for structure determination by NMR or crystallography; “B”-type are earmarked for crystallography; “C” indicates folded globular proteins with broadened line shapes; and “D” are nonglobular, “unfolded” polypeptides. The results obtained from coarse- and fine-screen crystallization trials imply that only A- and B-type proteins should be used for extensive crystallization trials in the future, with C and D proteins subjected only to coarse-screen crystallization trials. Of the presently studied 79 soluble protein targets, 63% yielded A- or B-quality 1D 1H NMR spectra. Although similar yields of crystallization hits were obtained for all four groups, A to D, crystals from A- and B-type proteins diffracted on average to significantly higher resolution than crystals produced from C- or D-type proteins. Furthermore, the output of refined crystal structures from this test set of proteins was 4-fold higher for A- and B-type than for C- and D-type proteins. PMID:15677718

  19. Enhancing in silico protein-based vaccine discovery for eukaryotic pathogens using predicted peptide-MHC binding and peptide conservation scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Goodswen

    Full Text Available Given thousands of proteins constituting a eukaryotic pathogen, the principal objective for a high-throughput in silico vaccine discovery pipeline is to select those proteins worthy of laboratory validation. Accurate prediction of T-cell epitopes on protein antigens is one crucial piece of evidence that would aid in this selection. Prediction of peptides recognised by T-cell receptors have to date proved to be of insufficient accuracy. The in silico approach is consequently reliant on an indirect method, which involves the prediction of peptides binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. There is no guarantee nevertheless that predicted peptide-MHC complexes will be presented by antigen-presenting cells and/or recognised by cognate T-cell receptors. The aim of this study was to determine if predicted peptide-MHC binding scores could provide contributing evidence to establish a protein's potential as a vaccine. Using T-Cell MHC class I binding prediction tools provided by the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource, peptide binding affinity to 76 common MHC I alleles were predicted for 160 Toxoplasma gondii proteins: 75 taken from published studies represented proteins known or expected to induce T-cell immune responses and 85 considered less likely vaccine candidates. The results show there is no universal set of rules that can be applied directly to binding scores to distinguish a vaccine from a non-vaccine candidate. We present, however, two proposed strategies exploiting binding scores that provide supporting evidence that a protein is likely to induce a T-cell immune response-one using random forest (a machine learning algorithm with a 72% sensitivity and 82.4% specificity and the other, using amino acid conservation scores with a 74.6% sensitivity and 70.5% specificity when applied to the 160 benchmark proteins. More importantly, the binding score strategies are valuable evidence contributors to the overall in silico

  20. Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliou Vasilis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There exist four fundamentally different classes of membrane-bound transport proteins: ion channels; transporters; aquaporins; and ATP-powered pumps. ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are an example of ATP-dependent pumps. ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in all prokaryotes, as well as plants, fungi, yeast and animals. These pumps can move substrates in (influx or out (efflux of cells. In mammals, ABC transporters are expressed predominantly in the liver, intestine, blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, placenta and kidney. ABC proteins transport a number of endogenous substrates, including inorganic anions, metal ions, peptides, amino acids, sugars and a large number of hydrophobic compounds and metabolites across the plasma membrane, and also across intracellular membranes. The human genome contains 49 ABC genes, arranged in eight subfamilies and named via divergent evolution. That ABC genes are important is underscored by the fact that mutations in at least I I of these genes are already known to cause severe inherited diseases (eg cystic fibrosis and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy [X-ALD]. ABC transporters also participate in the movement of most drugs and their metabolites across cell surface and cellular organelle membranes; thus, defects in these genes can be important in terms of cancer therapy, pharmacokinetics and innumerable pharmacogenetic disorders.

  1. A novel class of eukaryotic zinc-binding proteins is required for disease resistance signaling in barley and development in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasu, K; Lahaye, T; Tan, M W; Zhou, F; Azevedo, C; Schulze-Lefert, P

    1999-11-12

    Barley Rar1 is a convergence point in the signaling of resistance to powdery mildew, triggered by multiple race-specific resistance (R) genes. Rar1 is shown to function upstream of H2O2 accumulation in attacked host cells, which precedes localized host cell death. We isolated Rar1 by map-based cloning. The sequence of the deduced 25.5 kDa protein reveals two copies of a 60-amino acid domain, CHORD, conserved in tandem organization in protozoa, plants, and metazoa. CHORD defines a novel eukaryotic Zn2+-binding domain. Silencing of the C. elegans CHORD-containing gene, chp, results in semisterility and embryo lethality, suggesting an essential function of the wild-type gene in nematode development. Our findings indicate that plant R genes have recruited a fundamental cellular control element for signaling of disease resistance and cell death.

  2. Myxoma Virus Immunomodulatory Protein M156R is a Structural Mimic of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor eIF2 alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Yee, Adelinda; Liu, Furong; Goshe, Michael B.; Edwards, Aled M.; Smith, Richard D.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Dever, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2002-10-04

    M156R, the product of the myxoma virus M156R open reading frame, is a protein of unknown function. However, several homologs of M156R from other viruses are immunomodulatory proteins that bind to interferon-induced protein kinase PKR and inhibit phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2a. In this study, we have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of M156R, the first structure of a myxoma virus protein. The fold consists of a five-stranded antiparallel b-barrel with two of the strands connected by a long loop and a short a-helix. The similarity between M156R and the predicted S1 motif structure of eIF2a suggests that the viral homologs are pseudosubstrate inhibitors of PKR that mimic eIF2a in order to compete for binding to PKR. A homology modeled structure of the well studied vaccinia virus K3L was generated based on alignment with M156R. Residues important for binding to PKR are conserved residues on the surface of the b-barrel and in the mobile loop, identifying the putative PKR recognition motif.

  3. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase cytoplasmic tail binding protein-1 (MTCBP-1) acts as an eukaryotic aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the methionine salvage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Wakako; Gotoh, Isamu; Uekita, Takamasa; Seiki, Motoharu

    2005-06-01

    MTCBP-1 was identified as a protein that binds the cytoplasmic tail of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14). Since MTCBP-1 has a putative beta-barrel structure, it is presumably a member of the recently proposed cupin superfamily that contains tremendously diverged functions of proteins in spite of their well-conserved beta-barrel structure. MTCBP-1 shows significant homology to the bacterial aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the cupin family, which is an enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway (MTA cycle). Since it is difficult to speculate the functions of cupin proteins simply based on their sequence homology, we examined whether the eukaryotic ARD homologs surely function in the methionine metabolism. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, yeast could grow when substrate of MTA cycle was provided. Disruption of the yeast ARD homolog, YMR009w gene, abolished ability of the cells to grow in this culture condition. Re-expression of either the YMR009w or MTCBP-1 gene restored the cell growth. Mutation analysis revealed that the glutamic acid residue in the beta-barrel fold and the N-terminal extension from the beta-barrel fold were found to be important for the activity to restore the growth. Thus, MTCBP-1 isolated as a binding protein for MT1-MMP was demonstrated to function as an ARD-like enzyme in the MTA cycle in yeast.

  4. Gateway-compatible vectors for high-throughput protein expression in pro- and eukaryotic cell-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagoski, Dejan; Mureev, Sergey; Giles, Nichole; Johnston, Wayne; Dahmer-Heath, Mareike; Škalamera, Dubravka; Gonda, Thomas J; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2015-02-10

    Although numerous techniques for protein expression and production are available the pace of genome sequencing outstrips our ability to analyze the encoded proteins. To address this bottleneck, we have established a system for parallelized cloning, DNA production and cell-free expression of large numbers of proteins. This system is based on a suite of pCellFree Gateway destination vectors that utilize a Species Independent Translation Initiation Sequence (SITS) that mediates recombinant protein expression in any in vitro translation system. These vectors introduce C or N terminal EGFP and mCherry fluorescent and affinity tags, enabling direct analysis and purification of the expressed proteins. To maximize throughput and minimize the cost of protein production we combined Gateway cloning with Rolling Circle DNA Amplification. We demonstrate that as little as 0.1 ng of plasmid DNA is sufficient for template amplification and production of recombinant human protein in Leishmania tarentolae and Escherichia coli cell-free expression systems. Our experiments indicate that this approach can be applied to large gene libraries as it can be reliably performed in multi-well plates. The resulting protein expression pipeline provides a valuable new tool for applications of the post genomic era. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Soy Isoflavone Equol May Increase Cancer Malignancy via Up-regulation of Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis Initiation Factor eIF4G*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Parra, Columba; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Martinez-Montemayor, Michelle; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2012-01-01

    Dietary soy is thought to be cancer-preventive; however, the beneficial effects of soy on established breast cancer is controversial. We recently demonstrated that dietary daidzein or combined soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) increased primary mammary tumor growth and metastasis. Cancer-promoting molecules, including eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factors (eIF) eIF4G and eIF4E, were up-regulated in mammary tumors from mice that received dietary daidzein. Herein, we show that increased eIF expression in tumor extracts of mice after daidzein diets is associated with protein expression of mRNAs with internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) that are sensitive to eIF4E and eIF4G levels. Results with metastatic cancer cell lines show that some of the effects of daidzein in vivo can be recapitulated by the daidzein metabolite equol. In vitro, equol, but not daidzein, up-regulated eIF4G without affecting eIF4E or its regulator, 4E-binding protein (4E-BP), levels. Equol also increased metastatic cancer cell viability. Equol specifically increased the protein expression of IRES containing cell survival and proliferation-promoting molecules and up-regulated gene and protein expression of the transcription factor c-Myc. Moreover, equol increased the polysomal association of mRNAs for p 120 catenin and eIF4G. The elevated eIF4G in response to equol was not associated with eIF4E or 4E-binding protein in 5′ cap co-capture assays or co-immunoprecipitations. In dual luciferase assays, IRES-dependent protein synthesis was increased by equol. Therefore, up-regulation of eIF4G by equol may result in increased translation of pro-cancer mRNAs with IRESs and, thus, promote cancer malignancy. PMID:23095751

  6. The soy isoflavone equol may increase cancer malignancy via up-regulation of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor eIF4G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Parra, Columba; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Martinez-Montemayor, Michelle; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2012-12-07

    Dietary soy is thought to be cancer-preventive; however, the beneficial effects of soy on established breast cancer is controversial. We recently demonstrated that dietary daidzein or combined soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) increased primary mammary tumor growth and metastasis. Cancer-promoting molecules, including eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factors (eIF) eIF4G and eIF4E, were up-regulated in mammary tumors from mice that received dietary daidzein. Herein, we show that increased eIF expression in tumor extracts of mice after daidzein diets is associated with protein expression of mRNAs with internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) that are sensitive to eIF4E and eIF4G levels. Results with metastatic cancer cell lines show that some of the effects of daidzein in vivo can be recapitulated by the daidzein metabolite equol. In vitro, equol, but not daidzein, up-regulated eIF4G without affecting eIF4E or its regulator, 4E-binding protein (4E-BP), levels. Equol also increased metastatic cancer cell viability. Equol specifically increased the protein expression of IRES containing cell survival and proliferation-promoting molecules and up-regulated gene and protein expression of the transcription factor c-Myc. Moreover, equol increased the polysomal association of mRNAs for p 120 catenin and eIF4G. The elevated eIF4G in response to equol was not associated with eIF4E or 4E-binding protein in 5' cap co-capture assays or co-immunoprecipitations. In dual luciferase assays, IRES-dependent protein synthesis was increased by equol. Therefore, up-regulation of eIF4G by equol may result in increased translation of pro-cancer mRNAs with IRESs and, thus, promote cancer malignancy.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of the numbers, lengths and amino acid compositions of transmembrane helices in prokaryotic, eukaryotic and viral integral membrane proteins of high-resolution structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidijam, Massoud; Azizpour, Sonia; Patching, Simon G

    2017-02-15

    We report a comprehensive analysis of the numbers, lengths and amino acid compositions of transmembrane helices in 235 high-resolution structures of integral membrane proteins. The properties of 1551 transmembrane helices in the structures were compared with those obtained by analysis of the same amino acid sequences using topology prediction tools. Explanations for the 81 (5.2%) missing or additional transmembrane helices in the prediction results were identified. Main reasons for missing transmembrane helices were mis-identification of N-terminal signal peptides, breaks in α-helix conformation or charged residues in the middle of transmembrane helices and transmembrane helices with unusual amino acid composition. The main reason for additional transmembrane helices was mis-identification of amphipathic helices, extramembrane helices or hairpin re-entrant loops. Transmembrane helix length had an overall median of 24 residues and an average of 24.9 ± 7.0 residues and the most common length was 23 residues. The overall content of residues in transmembrane helices as a percentage of the full proteins had a median of 56.8% and an average of 55.7 ± 16.0%. Amino acid composition was analysed for the full proteins, transmembrane helices and extramembrane regions. Individual proteins or types of proteins with transmembrane helices containing extremes in contents of individual amino acids or combinations of amino acids with similar physicochemical properties were identified and linked to structure and/or function. In addition to overall median and average values, all results were analysed for proteins originating from different types of organism (prokaryotic, eukaryotic, viral) and for subgroups of receptors, channels, transporters and others.

  8. MPN+, a putative catalytic motif found in a subset of MPN domain proteins from eukaryotes and prokaryotes, is critical for Rpn11 function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Kay

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three macromolecular assemblages, the lid complex of the proteasome, the COP9-Signalosome (CSN and the eIF3 complex, all consist of multiple proteins harboring MPN and PCI domains. Up to now, no specific function for any of these proteins has been defined, nor has the importance of these motifs been elucidated. In particular Rpn11, a lid subunit, serves as the paradigm for MPN-containing proteins as it is highly conserved and important for proteasome function. Results We have identified a sequence motif, termed the MPN+ motif, which is highly conserved in a subset of MPN domain proteins such as Rpn11 and Csn5/Jab1, but is not present outside of this subfamily. The MPN+ motif consists of five polar residues that resemble the active site residues of hydrolytic enzyme classes, particularly that of metalloproteases. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the MPN+ residues are important for the function of Rpn11, while a highly conserved Cys residue outside of the MPN+ motif is not essential. Single amino acid substitutions in MPN+ residues all show similar phenotypes, including slow growth, sensitivity to temperature and amino acid analogs, and general proteasome-dependent proteolysis defects. Conclusions The MPN+ motif is abundant in certain MPN-domain proteins, including newly identified proteins of eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea thought to act outside of the traditional large PCI/MPN complexes. The putative catalytic nature of the MPN+ motif makes it a good candidate for a pivotal enzymatic function, possibly a proteasome-associated deubiquitinating activity and a CSN-associated Nedd8/Rub1-removing activity.

  9. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  10. Methylation of human eukaryotic elongation factor alpha (eEF1A) by a member of a novel protein lysine methyltransferase family modulates mRNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Magnus E; Malecki, Jedrzej; Nilges, Benedikt S; Moen, Anders; Leidel, Sebastian A; Falnes, Pål Ø

    2017-08-21

    Many cellular proteins are methylated on lysine residues and this has been most intensively studied for histone proteins. Lysine methylations on non-histone proteins are also frequent, but in most cases the functional significance of the methylation event, as well as the identity of the responsible lysine (K) specific methyltransferase (KMT), remain unknown. Several recently discovered KMTs belong to the so-called seven-β-strand (7BS) class of MTases and we have here investigated an uncharacterized human 7BS MTase currently annotated as part of the endothelin converting enzyme 2, but which should be considered a separate enzyme. Combining in vitro enzymology and analyzes of knockout cells, we demonstrate that this MTase efficiently methylates K36 in eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that this novel KMT is named eEF1A-KMT4 (gene name EEF1AKMT4), in agreement with the recently established nomenclature. Furthermore, by ribosome profiling we show that the absence of K36 methylation affects translation dynamics and changes translation speed of distinct codons. Finally, we show that eEF1A-KMT4 is part of a novel family of human KMTs, defined by a shared sequence motif in the active site and we demonstrate the importance of this motif for catalytic activity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Cell and molecular biology of ATP-binding cassette proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Kazufumi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Takanashi, Kojiro

    2009-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large and diverse superfamily of membrane-bound and soluble proteins, which are involved in a wide range of biological processes in all organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Genome analyses of model plants, for example, Arabidopsis and rice, have revealed that plants have more than double numbers of this family member in their genomes compared to animals and insects. In recent years, various biochemical and physiological functions of ABC proteins in plants have been reported. Some are relevant for the defense mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas others are involved in the basic functions necessary for maintaining the plant life. Here, we provide an updated inventory of plant ABC proteins and summarize their tissue specificities, membrane localizations, and physiological functions.

  12. Overview: ABC transporters and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, M M; Ambudkar, S V

    2001-12-01

    ABC transporters are found in all known organisms, and approximately 1,100 different transporters belonging to this family have been described in the literature. The family is defined by homology within the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) region, which extends outside of the more typical Walker motifs found in all ATP-binding proteins. Most family members also contain transmembrane domains involved in recognition of substrates, which are transported across, into, and out of cell membranes, but some members utilize ABCs as engines to regulate ion channels. There are approximately 50 known ABC transporters in the human, and there are currently 13 genetic diseases associated with defects in 14 of these transporters. The most common genetic disease conditions include cystic fibrosis, Stargardt disease, age-related macular degeneration, adrenoleukodystrophy, Tangier disease, Dubin-Johnson syndrome and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. At least 8 members of this family are involved in the transport of a variety of amphipathic compounds, including anticancer drugs, and some appear to contribute to the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy.

  13. A conserved domain important for association of eukaryotic J-protein co-chaperones Jjj1 and Zuo1 with the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschner, Lindsey A; Sharma, Ruchika; Shrestha, Om Kumar; Meyer, Alison E; Craig, Elizabeth A

    2015-05-01

    J-proteins, obligate co-chaperones, provide specialization for Hsp70 function in a variety of cellular processes. Two of the 13 J-proteins of the yeast cytosol/nucleus, Zuo1 and Jjj1, are associated with 60S ribosomal subunits. Abundant Zuo1 facilitates folding of nascent polypeptides; Jjj1, of much lower abundance, functions in ribosome biogenesis. However, overexpression of Jjj1 substantially rescues growth defects of cells lacking Zuo1. We analyzed a region held in common by Zuo1 and Jjj1, outside the signature J-domain found in all J-proteins. This shared "zuotin homology domain" (ZHD) is important for ribosome association of both proteins. An N-terminal segment of Jjj1, containing the J-domain and ZHD, is ribosome-associated and, like full-length Jjj1, is competent to rescue both the cold- and cation-sensitivity of ∆zuo1. However, this fragment, when expressed at normal levels, cannot rescue the cytosolic ribosome biogenesis defect of ∆jjj1. Our results are consistent with a model in which the primary functions of Zuo1 and Jjj1 occur in the cytosol. In addition, our data suggest that Zuo1 and Jjj1 bind overlapping sites on ribosomes due to an interaction via their common ZHDs, but Jjj1 binds primarily to pre-60S particles and Zuo1 to mature subunits. We hypothesize that ZUO1 and JJJ1, which are conserved throughout eukaryotes, arose from an ancient duplication of a progenitor J-protein gene that encoded the ZHD ribosome-binding region; subsequently, specialized roles and additional ribosome interaction sites evolved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction of Prevotella intermedia Strain 17 Leucine-Rich Repeat Domain Protein AdpF with Eukaryotic Cells Promotes Bacterial Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipanwita; Kang, Dae-Joong; Anaya-Bergman, Cecilia; Wyant, Tiana; Ghosh, Arnab K.; Miyazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an oral bacterium implicated in a variety of oral diseases. Although internalization of this bacterium by nonphagocytic host cells is well established, the molecular players mediating the process are not well known. Here, the properties of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain protein, designated AdpF, are described. This protein contains a leucine-rich region composed of 663 amino acid residues, and molecular modeling shows that it folds into a classical curved solenoid structure. The cell surface localization of recombinant AdpF (rAdpF) was confirmed by electron and confocal microscopy analyses. The recombinant form of this protein bound fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the protein was internalized by host cells, with the majority of the process accomplished within 30 min. The internalization of rAdpF was inhibited by nystatin, cytochalasin, latrunculin, nocodazole, and wortmannin, indicating that microtubules, microfilaments, and signal transduction are required for the invasion. It is noteworthy that preincubation of eukaryotic cells with AdpF increased P. intermedia 17 internalization by 5- and 10-fold for HeLa and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines, respectively. The addition of the rAdpF protein was also very effective in inducing bacterial internalization into the oral epithelial cell line HN4, as well as into primary cells, including human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Finally, cells exposed to P. intermedia 17 internalized the bacteria more readily upon reinfection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that rAdpF plays a role in the internalization of P. intermedia 17 by a variety of host cells. PMID:24711565

  15. The Xenopus laevis Atg4B Protease: Insights into Substrate Recognition and Application for Tag Removal from Proteins Expressed in Pro- and Eukaryotic Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Steffen; Görlich, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    During autophagy, members of the ubiquitin-like Atg8 protein family get conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine and act as protein-recruiting scaffolds on the autophagosomal membrane. The Atg4 protease produces mature Atg8 from C-terminally extended precursors and deconjugates lipid-bound Atg8. We now found that Xenopus laevis Atg4B (xAtg4B) is ideally suited for proteolytic removal of N-terminal tags from recombinant proteins. To implement this strategy, an Atg8 cleavage module is inserted in between tag and target protein. An optimized xAtg4B protease fragment includes the so far uncharacterized C-terminus, which crucially contributes to recognition of the Xenopus Atg8 homologs xLC3B and xGATE16. xAtg4B-mediated tag cleavage is very robust in solution or on-column, efficient at 4°C and orthogonal to TEV protease and the recently introduced proteases bdSENP1, bdNEDP1 and xUsp2. Importantly, xLC3B fusions are stable in wheat germ extract or when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but cleavable by xAtg4B during or following purification. We also found that fusions to the bdNEDP1 substrate bdNEDD8 are stable in S. cerevisiae. In combination, or findings now provide a system, where proteins and complexes fused to xLC3B or bdNEDD8 can be expressed in a eukaryotic host and purified by successive affinity capture and proteolytic release steps.

  16. Protein N-glycosylation in eukaryotic microalgae and its impact on the production of nuclear expressed biopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eMathieu-Rivet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are currently used for the production of food compounds. Recently, few microalgae species have been investigated as potential biofactories for the production of biopharmaceuticals. Indeed in this context, microalgae are cheap, classified as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS organisms and can be grown easily. However, problems remain to be solved before any industrial production of microalgae-made biopharmaceuticals. Among them, post-translational modifications of the proteins need to be considered. Especially, N-glycosylation acquired by the secreted recombinant proteins is of major concern since most of the biopharmaceuticals are N-glycosylated and it is well recognized that glycosylation represent one of their critical quality attribute. Therefore, the evaluation of microalgae as alternative cell factory for biopharmaceutical productions thus requires to investigate their N-glycosylation capability in order to determine to what extend it differs from their human counterpart and to determine appropriate strategies for remodelling the microalgae glycosylation into human-compatible oligosaccharides. Here, we review the secreted recombinant proteins which have been successfully produced in microalgae. We also report on recent bioinformatics and biochemical data concerning the structure of glycans N-linked to proteins from various microalgae phyla and comment the consequences on the glycan engineering strategies that may be necessary to render those microalgae-made biopharmaceuticals compatible with human therapy.

  17. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Osborne, Edward John; Clark, Richard M; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2013-05-10

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone-regulated transporter E

  18. CpLEA5, the Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Gene from Chimonanthus praecox, Possesses Low Temperature and Osmotic Resistances in Prokaryote and Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiling Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants synthesize and accumulate a series of stress-resistance proteins to protect normal physiological activities under adverse conditions. Chimonanthus praecox which blooms in freezing weather accumulates late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEAs in flowers, but C. praecox LEAs are little reported. Here, we report a group of five LEA genes of C. praecox (CpLEA5, KT727031. Prokaryotic-expressed CpLEA5 was employed in Escherichia coli to investigate bioactivities and membrane permeability at low-temperature. In comparison with the vacant strains, CpLEA5-containing strains survived in a 20% higher rate; and the degree of cell membrane damage in CpLEA5-containing strains was 55% of that of the vacant strains according to a conductivity test, revealing the low-temperature resistance of CpLEA5 in bacteria. CpLEA5 was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Interestingly, besides low-temperature resistance, CpLEA5 conferred high resistance to salt and alkali in CpLEA5 overexpressing yeast. The CpLEA5 gene was transferred into Arabidopsis thaliana to also demonstrate CpLEA5 actions in plants. As expected, the transgenic lines were more resistant against low-temperature and drought while compared with the wild type. Taken together, CpLEA5-conferred resistances to several conditions in prokaryote and eukaryotes could have great value as a genetic technology to enhance osmotic stress and low-temperature tolerance.

  19. IMPACT is a developmentally regulated protein in neurons that opposes the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase GCN2 in the modulation of neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffé, Martín; Hajj, Glaucia N M; Azevedo, Hátylas F; Alves, Viviane S; Castilho, Beatriz A

    2013-04-12

    The product of the mouse Imprinted and Ancient gene, IMPACT, is preferentially expressed in neurons. We have previously shown that IMPACT overexpression inhibits the activation of the protein kinase GCN2, which signals amino acid starvation. GCN2 phosphorylates the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in inhibition of general protein synthesis but increased translation of specific messages, such as ATF4. GCN2 is also involved in the regulation of neuronal functions, controlling synaptic plasticity, memory, and feeding behavior. We show here that IMPACT abundance increases during differentiation of neurons and neuron-like N2a cells, whereas GCN2 displays lowered activation levels. Upon differentiation, IMPACT associates with translating ribosomes, enhances translation initiation, and down-regulates the expression of ATF4. We further show that endogenous IMPACT promotes neurite outgrowth whereas GCN2 is a strong inhibitor of spontaneous neuritogenesis. Together, these results uncover the participation of the GCN2-IMPACT module of translational regulation in a highly controlled step in the development of the nervous system.

  20. IMPACT Is a Developmentally Regulated Protein in Neurons That Opposes the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Kinase GCN2 in the modulation of Neurite Outgrowth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffé, Martín; Hajj, Glaucia N. M.; Azevedo, Hátylas F.; Alves, Viviane S.; Castilho, Beatriz A.

    2013-01-01

    The product of the mouse Imprinted and Ancient gene, IMPACT, is preferentially expressed in neurons. We have previously shown that IMPACT overexpression inhibits the activation of the protein kinase GCN2, which signals amino acid starvation. GCN2 phosphorylates the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in inhibition of general protein synthesis but increased translation of specific messages, such as ATF4. GCN2 is also involved in the regulation of neuronal functions, controlling synaptic plasticity, memory, and feeding behavior. We show here that IMPACT abundance increases during differentiation of neurons and neuron-like N2a cells, whereas GCN2 displays lowered activation levels. Upon differentiation, IMPACT associates with translating ribosomes, enhances translation initiation, and down-regulates the expression of ATF4. We further show that endogenous IMPACT promotes neurite outgrowth whereas GCN2 is a strong inhibitor of spontaneous neuritogenesis. Together, these results uncover the participation of the GCN2-IMPACT module of translational regulation in a highly controlled step in the development of the nervous system. PMID:23447528

  1. The prediction of organelle-targeting peptides in eukaryotic proteins with Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indio, Valentina; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Savojardo, Castrense; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2013-04-15

    Targeting peptides are the most important signal controlling the import of nuclear encoded proteins into mitochondria and plastids. In the lack of experimental information, their prediction is an essential step when proteomes are annotated for inferring both the localization and the sequence of mature proteins. We developed TPpred a new predictor of organelle-targeting peptides based on Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields. TPpred is trained on a non-redundant dataset of proteins where the presence of a target peptide was experimentally validated, comprising 297 sequences. When tested on the 297 positive and some other 8010 negative examples, TPpred outperformed available methods in both accuracy and Matthews correlation index (96% and 0.58, respectively). Given its very low-false-positive rate (3.0%), TPpred is, therefore, well suited for large-scale analyses at the proteome level. We predicted that from ∼4 to 9% of the sequences of human, Arabidopsis thaliana and yeast proteomes contain targeting peptides and are, therefore, likely to be localized in mitochondria and plastids. TPpred predictions correlate to a good extent with the experimental annotation of the subcellular localization, when available. TPpred was also trained and tested to predict the cleavage site of the organelle-targeting peptide: on this task, the average error of TPpred on mitochondrial and plastidic proteins is 7 and 15 residues, respectively. This value is lower than the error reported by other methods currently available. The TPpred datasets are available at http://biocomp.unibo.it/valentina/TPpred/. TPpred is available on request from the authors. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Protein N-glycosylation in eukaryotic microalgae and its impact on the production of nuclear expressed biopharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu-Rivet, Elodie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Vanier, Gaëtan; Ovide, Clément; Burel, Carole; Lerouge, Patrice; Bardor, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are currently used for the production of food compounds. Recently, few microalgae species have been investigated as potential biofactories for the production of biopharmaceuticals. Indeed in this context, microalgae are cheap, classified as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) organisms and can be grown easily. However, problems remain to be solved before any industrial production of microalgae-made biopharmaceuticals. Among them, post-translational modifications of the proteins nee...

  3. Identification of the pentapeptide constituting a dominant epitope common to all eukaryotic heat shock protein 90 molecular chaperones

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimoto, Jun; Fukuma, Yutaka; Mizuno, Akio; Nemoto, Takayuki K.

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that, in human heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 (hHsp90), there are 4 highly immunogenic sites, designated sites Ia, Ib, Ic, and II. This study was performed to further characterize their epitopes and to identify the epitope that is potentially common to all members of the Hsp90 family. Panning of a bacterial library carrying randomized dodecapeptides revealed that Glu251-Ser-X-Asp254 constituted site Ia and Pro295-Ile-Trp-Thr-Arg299, site Ic. Site II (Asp701-Pro717) was com...

  4. γ-Carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase: a novel cell cycle-related basal body protein in the early branching eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Ku, Fu-Man; Lin, Rose; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Petrus

    2017-09-26

    γ-Carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase (CMD) participates in the β-ketoadipate pathway, which catalyzes aromatic compounds to produce acetyl- or succinyl-CoA, in prokaryotes and yeast. Our previous study demonstrated that expression of a CMD homologue that contains two signatures (dualCMD) is negatively regulated by iron in Trichomonas vaginalis. However, we were not able to identify the components of the β-ketoadipate pathway in the parasite's genome. These observations prompted us to investigate the biological functions of this novel CMD homologue in T. vaginalis. The specific anti-TvCMD1 antibody was generated, and the expression of TvCMD1 in T. vaginalis cultured under iron-rich and iron-deficient were evaluated. Phylogenetic, metabolomic and substrate induction (protocatechuate and benzoate) analysis were conducted to clarify the function of dualCMD in trichomonad cells. Subcellular localization of TvCMD1 was observed by confocal microscopy. The cell cycle-related role of TvCMD1 was assessed by treating cells with G2/M inhibitor nocodazole. We confirmed that T. vaginalis is not able to catabolize the aromatic compounds benzoate and protocatechuate, which are known substrates of the β-ketoadipate pathway. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that TvCMD1 is spatially associated with the basal body, a part of the cytoskeletal organizing center in T. vaginalis. TvCMD1 accumulated upon treatment with the G2/M inhibitor nocodazole. Additionally, TvCMD1 was expressed and transported to/from the basal body during cytokinesis, suggesting that TvCMD1 plays a role in cell division. We demonstrated that TvCMD1 is unlikely to participate in the β-ketoadipate pathway and demonstrated that it is a novel basal body-localizing (associated) protein. This model sheds light on the importance of genes that are acquired laterally in the coevolution of ancient protists, which surprisingly functions in cell cycle regulation of T. vaginalis.

  5. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in normal and pathological lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Deen, M; de Vries, EGE; Timens, W; Scheper, RJ; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette ( ABC) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein ( P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 ( MRP1) and

  6. ABC and MFS transporters from Botrytis cinerea involved in sensitivity to fungicides and natural toxic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.

    2003-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters are two major classes of proteins involved in drug resistance. ABC transporter proteins are primary transporters that use the energy generated by ATP hydrolysis to transport drugs over membranes, while MFS transport

  7. The Tangier disease gene product ABC1 controls the cellular apolipoprotein-mediated lipid removal pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Richard M.; Wade, David P.; Garvin, Michael R.; Wang, Xingbo; Schwartz, Karen; Porter, J. Gordon; Seilhamer, Jeffrey J.; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Oram, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The ABC1 transporter was identified as the defect in Tangier disease by a combined strategy of gene expression microarray analysis, genetic mapping, and biochemical studies. Patients with Tangier disease have a defect in cellular cholesterol removal, which results in near zero plasma levels of HDL and in massive tissue deposition of cholesteryl esters. Blocking the expression or activity of ABC1 reduces apolipoprotein-mediated lipid efflux from cultured cells, and increasing expression of ABC1 enhances it. ABC1 expression is induced by cholesterol loading and cAMP treatment and is reduced upon subsequent cholesterol removal by apolipoproteins. The protein is incorporated into the plasma membrane in proportion to its level of expression. Different mutations were detected in the ABC1 gene of 3 unrelated patients. Thus, ABC1 has the properties of a key protein in the cellular lipid removal pathway, as emphasized by the consequences of its defect in patients with Tangier disease. PMID:10525055

  8. Novel highly thermostable endolysin from Thermus scotoductus MAT2119 bacteriophage Ph2119 with amino acid sequence similarity to eukaryotic peptidoglycan recognition proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotka, Magdalena; Kaczorowska, Anna-Karina; Stefanska, Aleksandra; Morzywolek, Agnieszka; Fridjonsson, Olafur H; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Kozlowski, Lukasz; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur O; Kristjansson, Jakob K; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we present the discovery and characterization of a highly thermostable endolysin from bacteriophage Ph2119 infecting Thermus strain MAT2119 isolated from geothermal areas in Iceland. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene affiliated the strain with the species Thermus scotoductus. Bioinformatics analysis has allowed identification in the genome of phage 2119 of an open reading frame (468 bp in length) coding for a 155-amino-acid basic protein with an Mr of 17,555. Ph2119 endolysin does not resemble any known thermophilic phage lytic enzymes. Instead, it has conserved amino acid residues (His(30), Tyr(58), His(132), and Cys(140)) that form a Zn(2+) binding site characteristic of T3 and T7 lysozymes, as well as eukaryotic peptidoglycan recognition proteins, which directly bind to, but also may destroy, bacterial peptidoglycan. The purified enzyme shows high lytic activity toward thermophiles, i.e., T. scotoductus (100%), Thermus thermophilus (100%), and Thermus flavus (99%), and also, to a lesser extent, toward mesophilic Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., Escherichia coli (34%), Serratia marcescens (28%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (13%), and Salmonella enterica serovar Panama (10%). The enzyme has shown no activity against a number of Gram-positive bacteria analyzed, with the exception of Deinococcus radiodurans (25%) and Bacillus cereus (15%). Ph2119 endolysin was found to be highly thermostable: it retains approximately 87% of its lytic activity after 6 h of incubation at 95°C. The optimum temperature range for the enzyme activity is 50°C to 78°C. The enzyme exhibits lytic activity in the pH range of 6 to 10 (maximum at pH 7.5 to 8.0) and is also active in the presence of up to 500 mM NaCl.

  9. MadR1, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell cycle stress response protein that is a member of a widely conserved protein class of prokaryotic, eukaryotic and archeal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rebecca; Ramirez, Melissa V; England, Kathleen; Slayden, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    Stress-induced molecular programs designed to stall division progression are nearly ubiquitous in bacteria, with one well-known example being the participation of the SulA septum inhibiting protein in the SOS DNA damage repair response. Mycobacteria similarly demonstrate stress-altered growth kinetics, however no such regulators have been found in these organisms. We therefore set out to identify SulA-like regulatory proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A bioinformatics modeling-based approach led to the identification of rv2216 as encoding for a protein with weak similarity to SulA, further analysis distinguished this protein as belonging to a group of uncharacterized growth promoting proteins. We have named the mycobacterial protein encoded by rv2216 morphology altering division regulator protein 1, MadR1. Overexpression of madR1 modulated cell length while maintaining growth kinetics similar to wild-type, and increased the proportion of bent or V-form cells in the population. The presence of MadR1-GFP at regions of cellular elongation (poles) and morphological differentiation (V-form) suggests MadR1 involvement in phenotypic heterogeneity and longitudinal cellular growth. Global transcriptional analysis indicated that MadR1 functionality is linked to lipid editing programs required for growth and persistence. This is the first report to differentiate the larger class of these conserved proteins from SulA proteins and characterizes MadR1 effects on the mycobacterial cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters. PMID:22489166

  11. Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  12. TaAbc1, a Member of Abc1-Like Family Involved in Hypersensitive Response against the Stripe Rust Fungal Pathogen in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaojie; Duan, Yinghui; Yin, Shuining; Zhang, Hongchang; Huang, Li; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-01-01

    To search for genes involved in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) defense response to the infection of stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), we identified and cloned a new wheat gene similar to the genes in the Abc1-like gene family. The new gene, designated as TaAbc1, encodes a 717-amino acid, 80.35 kD protein. The TaAbc1 protein contains two conserved domains shared by Abc1-like proteins, two trans-membrane domains at the C-terminal, and a 36-amino acid chloroplast targeting presequence at the N-terminal. Characterization of TaAbc1 expression revealed that gene expression was tissue-specific and could be up-regulated by biotic agents (e.g., stripe rust pathogen) and/or by an abiotic stress like wounding. High-fold induction was associated with the hypersensitive response (HR) triggered only by avirulent stripe rust pathotypes, suggesting that TaAbc1 is a rust-pathotype specific HR-mediator. Down-regulating TaAbc1 reduced HR but not the overall resistance level in Suwon11 to CYR23, suggesting TaAbc1 was involved in HR against stripe rust, but overall host resistance is not HR-dependent. PMID:23527058

  13. Autophagy in unicellular eukaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.A.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Cells need a constant supply of precursors to enable the production of macromolecules to sustain growth and survival. Unlike metazoans, unicellular eukaryotes depend exclusively on the extracellular medium for this supply. When environmental nutrients become depleted, existing cytoplasmic components

  14. [Construction of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 and histidine eukaryotic expression plasmid and synthesis of chitosan/pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, Yang; Shiyi, Li; Di, Zhang; Ying, Wu; Tao, Yang; Changhong, Liu

    2014-10-01

    To clone and construct a eukaryotic expression vector of human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 and histidine in vitro and synthesize chitosan (CS)/pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His nanoparticles. pMD18T-hBMP2-His was digested by EcoR I and BamH I to obtain the hBMP2-His gene, which was inserted into pIRES2-EGFP to form pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His. Afterward, CS, which exhibited five different molecular weights and deacetylation degrees, was complexed with pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His to form CS/pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His nanoparticles; in this procedure, a desolvent method was used at different N/P ratios (amino in CS to phospho in plasmid DNA). The gene-encapsulating ability of CS was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and fluorescence spectrophotometry; size, distribution, and potential were analyzed using a ZetaPALS analyzer. The shape of the nanoparticles was observed under an atomic force microscope. 1) pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His was constructed after the cloned hBMP2-His gene was confirmed by sequencing. 2) CS/pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His nanoparticles were synthesized and pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His was packaged by CS. 3) CS/pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His nanoparticles were globular with an average size of 111.7 nm to 3,214.2 nm and an average zeta-potential of 4.93 mV to 16.79 mV. CS/pIRES2-EGFP-hBMP2-His nanospheres are successfully synthesized.

  15. The Intracellular Scots Pine Shoot Symbiont Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 Aggregates around the Host Nucleus and Encodes Eukaryote-Like Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimäki, Janne J.; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Halonen, Outi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endophytes are microbes that inhabit plant tissues without any apparent signs of infection, often fundamentally altering plant phenotypes. While endophytes are typically studied in plant roots, where they colonize the apoplast or dead cells, Methylobacterium extorquens strain DSM13060 is a facultatively intracellular symbiont of the meristematic cells of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot tips. The bacterium promotes host growth and development without the production of known plant growth-stimulating factors. Our objective was to examine intracellular colonization by M. extorquens DSM13060 of Scots pine and sequence its genome to identify novel molecular mechanisms potentially involved in intracellular colonization and plant growth promotion. Reporter construct analysis of known growth promotion genes demonstrated that these were only weakly active inside the plant or not expressed at all. We found that bacterial cells accumulate near the nucleus in intact, living pine cells, pointing to host nuclear processes as the target of the symbiont’s activity. Genome analysis identified a set of eukaryote-like functions that are common as effectors in intracellular bacterial pathogens, supporting the notion of intracellular bacterial activity. These include ankyrin repeats, transcription factors, and host-defense silencing functions and may be secreted by a recently imported type IV secretion system. Potential factors involved in host growth include three copies of phospholipase A2, an enzyme that is rare in bacteria but implicated in a range of plant cellular processes, and proteins putatively involved in gibberellin biosynthesis. Our results describe a novel endophytic niche and create a foundation for postgenomic studies of a symbiosis with potential applications in forestry and agriculture. PMID:25805725

  16. Politseiniku lustlik ABC / Pekka Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Pekka, 1965-

    1999-01-01

    Politsei on välja andnud 'Politseiniku ABC', mis antakse igale politseinikule. Karikaturist Heiki Ernits on peaaegu igale taskuraamatu leheküljele joonistanud pildikese mundrimeestest kentsakates situatsioonides.

  17. The Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, John L; Aceti, David J; Bingman, Craig A; Fox, Brian G; Frederick, Ronnie O; Makino, Shin-ichi; Nichols, Karl W; Phillips, George N; Primm, John G; Sahu, Sarata C; Vojtik, Frank C; Volkman, Brian F; Wrobel, Russell L; Zolnai, Zsolt

    2009-04-01

    The Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG) is a "specialized" or "technology development" center supported by the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). CESG's mission is to develop improved methods for the high-throughput solution of structures from eukaryotic proteins, with a very strong weighting toward human proteins of biomedical relevance. During the first three years of PSI-2, CESG selected targets representing 601 proteins from Homo sapiens, 33 from mouse, 10 from rat, 139 from Galdieria sulphuraria, 35 from Arabidopsis thaliana, 96 from Cyanidioschyzon merolae, 80 from Plasmodium falciparum, 24 from yeast, and about 25 from other eukaryotes. Notably, 30% of all structures of human proteins solved by the PSI Centers were determined at CESG. Whereas eukaryotic proteins generally are considered to be much more challenging targets than prokaryotic proteins, the technology now in place at CESG yields success rates that are comparable to those of the large production centers that work primarily on prokaryotic proteins. We describe here the technological innovations that underlie CESG's platforms for bioinformatics and laboratory information management, target selection, protein production, and structure determination by X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available The ATP-binding cassette (ABC gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.

  19. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  20. Development of an inactivated 3C(pro)-3ABC (mu3ABC) ELISA to differentiate cattle infected with foot and mouth disease virus from vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisombundit, Vasinee; Tungthumniyom, Nattarat; Linchongsubongkoch, Wilai; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Sariya, Ladawan; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa

    2013-03-01

    Foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is still endemic in Asia, Africa, and a few countries in South America. Subclinical and persistent infections usually occur in vaccinated cattle exposed to FMDV. Successful control and eradication measures need a diagnostic assay that can distinguish between immune responses to infection and vaccination. The non-structural 3ABC ELISA is the most reliable differential diagnostic assay. However, expression of the native 3ABC gene in insect cells yielded truncated versions of the proteins; thus, a monoclonal antibody to capture digested proteins is needed to develop the assay. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple indirect 3ABC ELISA using complete 3ABC protein. The full-length mutated 3ABC protein with inactive 3C(pro) (mu3ABC) gene was constructed. The histidine-tagged mu3ABC protein was produced in insect cells for easy purification and measuring. This permits simple assay design and reproducible assay development. mu3ABC ELISA had diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of 96.6% and 84%, respectively, compared to Ceditest(®) FMDV-NS. Agreement of both assays was excellent with κ value of 0.823 (p<0.05). The mu3ABC ELISA could distinguish infected from vaccinated animals. These factors are necessary for the successful development of an in-house NSP-based ELISA. Availability of a reliable assay with acceptable costs would facilitate successful disease control and the establishment of disease-free zones. Expansion of such zones may ultimately decrease the risk of introducing FMDV into disease-free countries, thus accelerating global FMD control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymorphism in ABC transporter genes of Dirofilaria immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Mani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites. ABC transporters, mainly from sub-families B, C and G, may contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR by active efflux of drugs out of the cell. Gene products of ABC transporters may thus serve as the targets for agents that may modulate susceptibility to drugs, by inhibiting drug transport. ABC transporters are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological functions critical to the parasite, such as sterol transport, and therefore may also serve as the target for drugs that can act as anthelmintics on their own. Knowledge of polymorphism in these ABC transporter genes in nematode parasites could provide useful information for the process of drug design. We have identified 15 ABC transporter genes from sub-families A, B, C and G, in D. immitis, by comparative genomic approaches and analyzed them for polymorphism. Whole genome sequencing data from four ML susceptible (SUS and four loss of efficacy (LOE pooled populations were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping. Out of 231 SNPs identified in those 15 ABC transporter genes, 89 and 75 of them were specific to the SUS or LOE populations, respectively. A few of the SNPs identified may affect gene expression, protein function, substrate specificity or resistance development and may be useful for transporter inhibitor/anthelmintic drug design, or in order to anticipate resistance development.

  2. Polymorphism in ABC transporter genes of Dirofilaria immitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thangadurai; Bourguinat, Catherine; Prichard, Roger K

    2017-08-01

    Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites. ABC transporters, mainly from sub-families B, C and G, may contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR) by active efflux of drugs out of the cell. Gene products of ABC transporters may thus serve as the targets for agents that may modulate susceptibility to drugs, by inhibiting drug transport. ABC transporters are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological functions critical to the parasite, such as sterol transport, and therefore may also serve as the target for drugs that can act as anthelmintics on their own. Knowledge of polymorphism in these ABC transporter genes in nematode parasites could provide useful information for the process of drug design. We have identified 15 ABC transporter genes from sub-families A, B, C and G, in D. immitis, by comparative genomic approaches and analyzed them for polymorphism. Whole genome sequencing data from four ML susceptible (SUS) and four loss of efficacy (LOE) pooled populations were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Out of 231 SNPs identified in those 15 ABC transporter genes, 89 and 75 of them were specific to the SUS or LOE populations, respectively. A few of the SNPs identified may affect gene expression, protein function, substrate specificity or resistance development and may be useful for transporter inhibitor/anthelmintic drug design, or in order to anticipate resistance development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  3. Transfer of DNA from Bacteria to Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Lacroix

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the members of the Agrobacterium genus have been considered the only bacterial species naturally able to transfer and integrate DNA into the genomes of their eukaryotic hosts. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that this ability to genetically transform eukaryotic host cells might be more widespread in the bacterial world. Indeed, analyses of accumulating genomic data reveal cases of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes and suggest that it represents a significant force in adaptive evolution of eukaryotic species. Specifically, recent reports indicate that bacteria other than Agrobacterium, such as Bartonella henselae (a zoonotic pathogen, Rhizobium etli (a plant-symbiotic bacterium related to Agrobacterium, or even Escherichia coli, have the ability to genetically transform their host cells under laboratory conditions. This DNA transfer relies on type IV secretion systems (T4SSs, the molecular machines that transport macromolecules during conjugative plasmid transfer and also during transport of proteins and/or DNA to the eukaryotic recipient cells. In this review article, we explore the extent of possible transfer of genetic information from bacteria to eukaryotic cells as well as the evolutionary implications and potential applications of this transfer.

  4. Therapeutic potential of inhibiting ABCE1 and eRF3 genes via siRNA strategy using chitosan nanoparticles in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Bagdat Burcu; Asik, Mehmet Dogan; Kara, Goknur; Turk, Mustafa; Denkbas, Emir Baki

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, targeted cancer therapy strategies have begun to take the place of the conventional treatments. Inhibition of the specific genes, involved in cancer progress, via small interfering RNA (siRNA) has become one of the promising therapeutic approaches for cancer therapy. However, due to rapid nuclease degradation and poor cellular uptake of siRNA, a suitable carrier for siRNA penetration inside the cells is required. We used chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) to efficiently deliver ATP-binding casette E1 (ABCE1) and eukaryotic release factor 3 (eRF3)-targeting siRNAs, individually and together, to reduce the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. The CS-NPs were generated by ionic gelation method using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a crosslinker. Nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained with diameters ranging between 110 and 230 nm and the zeta potential of approximately 27 mV optimizing the solution pH to 4.5 and CS/TPP mass ratio to 3:1. Loading efficiencies of 98.69 % ± 0.051 and 98.83 % ± 0.047 were achieved when ABCE1 siRNA and eRF3 siRNA were entrapped into the NPs, respectively. Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that siRNA-loaded CS-NPs were more effective on cancer cells when compared to siRNAs without CS-NPs. Parallel results were also obtained by apoptosis/necrosis, double-staining analysis. Within our study, the potency of ABCE1 and eRF3 siRNAs were shown for the first time with this kind of polymeric delivery system. The results also indicated that ABCE1 and eRF3, important molecules in protein synthesis, could serve as effective targets to inhibit the cancer cells.

  5. Therapeutic potential of inhibiting ABCE1 and eRF3 genes via siRNA strategy using chitosan nanoparticles in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, Bagdat Burcu; Asik, Mehmet Dogan [Hacettepe University, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division (Turkey); Kara, Goknur [Hacettepe University, Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department (Turkey); Turk, Mustafa [Kirikkale University, Bioengineering Department (Turkey); Denkbas, Emir Baki, E-mail: denkbas@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department (Turkey)

    2015-04-15

    In recent years, targeted cancer therapy strategies have begun to take the place of the conventional treatments. Inhibition of the specific genes, involved in cancer progress, via small interfering RNA (siRNA) has become one of the promising therapeutic approaches for cancer therapy. However, due to rapid nuclease degradation and poor cellular uptake of siRNA, a suitable carrier for siRNA penetration inside the cells is required. We used chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) to efficiently deliver ATP-binding casette E1 (ABCE1) and eukaryotic release factor 3 (eRF3)-targeting siRNAs, individually and together, to reduce the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. The CS-NPs were generated by ionic gelation method using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a crosslinker. Nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained with diameters ranging between 110 and 230 nm and the zeta potential of approximately 27 mV optimizing the solution pH to 4.5 and CS/TPP mass ratio to 3:1. Loading efficiencies of 98.69 % ± 0.051 and 98.83 % ± 0.047 were achieved when ABCE1 siRNA and eRF3 siRNA were entrapped into the NPs, respectively. Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that siRNA-loaded CS-NPs were more effective on cancer cells when compared to siRNAs without CS-NPs. Parallel results were also obtained by apoptosis/necrosis, double-staining analysis. Within our study, the potency of ABCE1 and eRF3 siRNAs were shown for the first time with this kind of polymeric delivery system. The results also indicated that ABCE1 and eRF3, important molecules in protein synthesis, could serve as effective targets to inhibit the cancer cells.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the galacto-N-biose-/lacto-N-biose I-binding protein (GL-BP) of the ABC transporter from Bifidobacterium longum JCM1217

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Jun [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Fushinobu, Shinya [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Kitaoka, Motomitsu [National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ashida, Hisashi [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kumagai, Hidehiko; Katayama, Takane, E-mail: takane@ishikawa-pu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Bioresources and Biotechnology, Ishikawa Prefectural University, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8836 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kenji [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2007-09-01

    Preliminary X-ray analysis of the galacto-N-biose-/lacto-N-biose I-binding protein (GL-BP) of the ABC transporter from B. longum is described. A recombinant galacto-N-biose-/lacto-N-biose I-binding protein (GL-BP) from Bifidobacterium longum JCM1217 has been prepared and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 10 mg ml{sup −1} purified enzyme, 0.01 M zinc sulfate, 0.1 M MES buffer pH 5.9–6.4 and 20–22%(v/v) PEG MME 550 in the presence of 5 mM disaccharide ligands. Suitable crystals grew after 10 d incubation at 293 K. The crystals belong to space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.3, b = 143.6, c = 114.6 Å for the lacto-N-biose I complex and a = 106.4, b = 143.4, c = 115.5 Å for the galacto-N-biose complex, and diffracted to 1.85 and 1.99 Å resolution, respectively.

  7. Comparative genomics of Eukaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, Vera van

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing comparative genomics methods in eukaryotes, with an emphasis on applications for gene function prediction and regulatory element detection. In the past, methods have been developed to predict functional associations between gene pairs in prokaryotes. The challenge

  8. Iowa ABC connections : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) and other organizations have : been developing accelerated bridge construction (ABC) concepts, details, and : processes, and Iowa has come to be viewed as a national leader in the area of : ABC. However, th...

  9. Comparison of mechanistic transport cycle models of ABC exporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Rose-Sperling, Dania; Hellmich, Ute A; Stockner, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life, carry out essential substrate transport reactions across cell membranes. Their transmembrane domains bind and translocate substrates and are connected to a pair of nucleotide binding domains, which bind and hydrolyze ATP to energize import or export of substrates. Over four decades of investigations into ABC transporters have revealed numerous details from atomic-level structural insights to their functional and physiological roles. Despite all these advances, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanistic principles of ABC transporter function remains elusive. The human multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1, also referred to as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is one of the most intensively studied ABC exporters. Using ABCB1 as the reference point, we aim to compare the dominating mechanistic models of substrate transport and ATP hydrolysis for ABC exporters and to highlight the experimental and computational evidence in their support. In particular, we point out in silico studies that enhance and complement available biochemical data. "This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain." Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Single mutation in Shine-Dalgarno-like sequence present in the amino terminal of lactate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium effects the production of an eukaryotic protein expressed in a prokaryotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Mustafa; Mutlu, Ozal; Erdemir, Aysegul; Ozkan, Ebru; Saricay, Yunus; Turgut-Balik, Dilek

    2013-06-01

    One of the most important step in structure-based drug design studies is obtaining the protein in active form after cloning the target gene. In one of our previous study, it was determined that an internal Shine-Dalgarno-like sequence present just before the third methionine at N-terminus of wild type lactate dehydrogenase enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum prevent the translation of full length protein. Inspection of the same region in P. vivax LDH, which was overproduced as an active enzyme, indicated that the codon preference in the same region was slightly different than the codon preference of wild type PfLDH. In this study, 5'-GGAGGC-3' sequence of P. vivax that codes for two glycine residues just before the third methionine was exchanged to 5'-GGAGGA-3', by mimicking P. falciparum LDH, to prove the possible effects of having an internal SD-like sequence when expressing an eukaryotic protein in a prokaryotic system. Exchange was made by site-directed mutagenesis. Results indicated that having two glycine residues with an internal SD-like sequence (GGAGGA) just before the third methionine abolishes the enzyme activity due to the preference of the prokaryotic system used for the expression. This study emphasizes the awareness of use of a prokaryotic system to overproduce an eukaryotic protein.

  11. Expression pattern of the human ABC transporters in pluripotent embryonic stem cells and in their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Zsuzsa; Lőrincz, Réka; Szebényi, Kornélia; Péntek, Adrienn; Varga, Nóra; Likó, István; Várady, György; Szakács, Gergely; Orbán, Tamás I; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Agota

    2014-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have key roles in various physiological functions as well as providing chemical defense and stress tolerance in human tissues. In this study, we have examined the expression pattern of all ABC proteins in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and in their differentiated progenies. We paid special attention to the cellular expression and localization of multidrug transporter ABC proteins. Stem cell differentiation was carried out without chemical induction or cell sorting, and specialized cell types were separated mechanically. Cellular features regarding pluripotency and tissue identity, as well as ABC transporter expression were studied by flow cytomtery, immuno-microscopy, and qPCR-based low-density arrays. Pluripotent hESCs and differentiated cell types (cardiomyocytes, neuronal cells, and mesenchymal stem cells) were distinguished by morphology, immunostaining markers, and selected mRNA expression patterns. We found that the mRNA expression levels of the 48 human ABC proteins also clearly distinguished the pluripotent and the respective differentiated cell types. When multidrug and lipid transporter ABC protein expression was examined by using well characterized specific antibodies by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, the protein expression data corresponded well to the mRNA expression results. Moreover, the cellular localization of these important human ABC transporter proteins could be established in the pluripotent and differentiated hESC derived samples. These studies provide valuable information regarding ABC protein expression in human stem cells and their differentiated offspring. The results may also help to obtain further information concerning the specialized cellular functions of selected ABC transporters. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  12. Insight into Two ABC Transporter Families Involved in Lantibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides, which contain (methyl-lanthionine-rings are called lantibiotics. They are produced by several Gram-positive bacteria and are mainly active against these bacteria. Although these are highly potent antimicrobials, some human pathogenic bacteria express specific ABC transporters that confer resistance and counteract their antimicrobial activity. Two distinct ABC transporter families are known to be involved in this process. These are the Cpr- and Bce-type ABC transporter families, named after their involvement in cationic peptide resistance in Clostridium difficile, and bacitracin efflux in Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Both resistance systems differentiate to each other in terms of the proteins involved. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and describe the divergence as well as the common features present in both the systems to confer lantibiotic resistance.

  13. [Plant ABC transporters--the family with tradition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiński, Michał; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2006-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which are found in all species, are known mainly for their ability to confer drug resistance. They have been thoroughly studied in mammals, where they became the center of interest for clinical reasons related to the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy treatment. Less is known about plant members of the ABC family, however, growing number of reports on their role in different physiological processes attract attention. The vacuolar ABC transporters in plants characterized to date are involved in the intracellular sequestration of cytotoxins (e.g. herbicides), as well as the products of endogenous metabolism like chlorophyll catabolites. Others localized within plasma membrane are active in the transport of secondary metabolites or phytohormones. Finally certain transporters are present in cell organelles and play a role in such processes as P oxidation. Here, we briefly introduce these proteins, and describe structural characteristic and physiological aspect of their activity in a plant cell.

  14. HIV-1 Replication and the Cellular Eukaryotic Translation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic translation is a complex process composed of three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. During infections by RNA- and DNA-viruses, the eukaryotic translation machinery is used to assure optimal viral protein synthesis. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 uses several non-canonical pathways to translate its own proteins, such as leaky scanning, frameshifting, shunt, and cap-independent mechanisms. Moreover, HIV-1 modulates the host translation machinery by targeting key translation factors and overcomes different cellular obstacles that affect protein translation. In this review, we describe how HIV-1 proteins target several components of the eukaryotic translation machinery, which consequently improves viral translation and replication.

  15. ABC transporters, atherosclerosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael L; Mujawar, Zahedi; Tamehiro, Norimasa

    2010-08-01

    Atherosclerosis, driven by inflamed lipid-laden lesions, can occlude the coronary arteries and lead to myocardial infarction. This chronic disease is a major and expensive health burden. However, the body is able to mobilize and excrete cholesterol and other lipids, thus preventing atherosclerosis by a process termed reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Insight into the mechanism of RCT has been gained by the study of two rare syndromes caused by the mutation of ABC transporter loci. In Tangier disease, loss of ABCA1 prevents cells from exporting cholesterol and phospholipid, thus resulting in the build-up of cholesterol in the peripheral tissues and a loss of circulating HDL. Consistent with HDL being an athero-protective particle, Tangier patients are more prone to develop atherosclerosis. Likewise, sitosterolemia is another inherited syndrome associated with premature atherosclerosis. Here mutations in either the ABCG5 or G8 loci, prevents hepatocytes and enterocytes from excreting cholesterol and plant sterols, including sitosterol, into the bile and intestinal lumen. Thus, ABCG5 and G8, which from a heterodimer, constitute a transporter that excretes cholesterol and dietary sterols back into the gut, while ABCA1 functions to export excess cell cholesterol and phospholipid during the biogenesis of HDL. Interestingly, a third protein, ABCG1, that has been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic activity in mice, may also act to transfer cholesterol to mature HDL particles. Here we review the relationship between the lipid transport activities of these proteins and their anti-atherosclerotic effect, particularly how they may reduce inflammatory signaling pathways. Of particular interest are recent reports that indicate both ABCA1 and ABCG1 modulate cell surface cholesterol levels and inhibit its partitioning into lipid rafts. Given lipid rafts may provide platforms for innate immune receptors to respond to inflammatory signals, it follows that loss of ABCA1 and ABCG1

  16. Precambrian Skeletonized Microbial Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Jere H.

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal heterotrophic eukaryotes are mostly absent from the Precambrian, although algal eukaryotes appear about 2.2 billion years ago. Tintinnids, radiolaria and foraminifera have molecular origins well back into the Precambrian yet no representatives of these groups are known with certainty in that time. These data infer times of the last common ancestors, not the appearance of true representatives of these groups which may well have diversified or not been preserved since those splits. Previous reports of these groups in the Precambrian are misinterpretations of other objects in the fossil record. Reported tintinnids at 1600 mya from China are metamorphic shards or mineral artifacts, the many specimens from 635-715 mya in Mongolia may be eukaryotes but they are not tintinnids, and the putative tintinnids at 580 mya in the Doushantou formation of China are diagenetic alterations of well-known acritarchs. The oldest supposed foraminiferan is Titanotheca from 550 to 565 mya rocks in South America and Africa is based on the occurrence of rutile in the tests and in a few modern agglutinated foraminifera, as well as the agglutinated tests. Neither of these nor the morphology are characteristic of foraminifera; hence these fossils remain as indeterminate microfossils. Platysolenites, an agglutinated tube identical to the modern foraminiferan Bathysiphon, occurs in the latest Neoproterozoic in Russia, Canada, and the USA (California). Some of the larger fossils occurring in typical Ediacaran (late Neoproterozoic) assemblages may be xenophyophorids (very large foraminifera), but the comparison is disputed and flawed. Radiolaria, on occasion, have been reported in the Precambrian, but the earliest known clearly identifiable ones are in the Cambrian. The only certain Precambrian heterotrophic skeletal eukaryotes (thecamoebians) occur in fresh-water rocks at about 750 mya. Skeletonized radiolaria and foraminifera appear sparsely in the Cambrian and radiate in the Ordovician

  17. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  18. The ABCs of particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Biron, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    For lovers of rhymes and anthropomorphic Higgs bosons, Symmetry presents its first published board book, The ABCs of Particle Physics. Use it as an illustrated guide to basic particle- and astrophysics terms, or read it to your infant at bedtime, if you don’t mind their first word being “quark.”

  19. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  20. The Genome of Naegleria gruberi Illuminates Early Eukaryotic Versatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Ginger, Michael L.; Dacks, Joel; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Field, Mark C.; Kuo, Alan; Paredez, Alex; Chapman, Jarrod; Pham, Jonathan; Shu, Shengqiang; Neupane, Rochak; Cipriano, Michael; Mancuso, Joel; Tu, Hank; Salamov, Asaf; Lindquist, Erika; Shapiro, Harris; Lucas, Susan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cande, W. Zacheus; Fulton, Chandler; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Dawson, Scott C.

    2010-03-01

    Genome sequences of diverse free-living protists are essential for understanding eukaryotic evolution and molecular and cell biology. The free-living amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi belongs to a varied and ubiquitous protist clade (Heterolobosea) that diverged from other eukaryotic lineages over a billion years ago. Analysis of the 15,727 protein-coding genes encoded by Naegleria's 41 Mb nuclear genome indicates a capacity for both aerobic respiration and anaerobic metabolism with concomitant hydrogen production, with fundamental implications for the evolution of organelle metabolism. The Naegleria genome facilitates substantially broader phylogenomic comparisons of free-living eukaryotes than previously possible, allowing us to identify thousands of genes likely present in the pan-eukaryotic ancestor, with 40% likely eukaryotic inventions. Moreover, we construct a comprehensive catalog of amoeboid-motility genes. The Naegleria genome, analyzed in the context of other protists, reveals a remarkably complex ancestral eukaryote with a rich repertoire of cytoskeletal, sexual, signaling, and metabolic modules.

  1. abc: An Extensible AspectJ Compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its front end is built using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... overview of how to use abc to implement an extension. We illustrate the extension mechanisms of abc through a number of small, but nontrivial, examples. We then proceed to contrast the design goals of abc with those of the original AspectJ compiler, and how these different goals have led to different...

  2. Purification and biochemical characterisation of the yeast ABC transporter Pdr11p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub, Katrine Rude

    Sterols constitute an essential lipid class in eukaryotic membranes where intracellular distributions are highly regulated. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae sterol uptake has been attributed to the two plasma membrane-localised ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, Aus1p and Pdr11p. These....../reconstitution protocol and adding new insight to the biochemical behaviour of Pdr11p this work paves for future studies to unravel the sterol transport mechanism....

  3. Mitochondrion-related organelles in eukaryotic protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiflett, April M; Johnson, Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of mitochondrion-type genes in organisms thought to lack mitochondria led to the demonstration that hydrogenosomes share a common ancestry with mitochondria, as well as the discovery of mitosomes in multiple eukaryotic lineages. No examples of examined eukaryotes lacking a mitochondrion-related organelle exist, implying that the endosymbiont that gave rise to the mitochondrion was present in the first eukaryote. These organelles, known as hydrogenosomes, mitosomes, or mitochondrion-like organelles, are typically reduced, both structurally and biochemically, relative to classical mitochondria. However, despite their diversification and adaptation to different niches, all appear to play a role in Fe-S cluster assembly, as observed for mitochondria. Although evidence supports the use of common protein targeting mechanisms in the biogenesis of these diverse organelles, divergent features are also apparent. This review examines the metabolism and biogenesis of these organelles in divergent unicellular microbes, with a focus on parasitic protists.

  4. Recombinant Trichomonas vaginalis eIF-5A protein expressed from a eukaryotic system binds specifically to mammalian and putative trichomonal eIF-5A response elements (EREs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Carrillo, Laura Vázquez; Torres-Romero, Julio César; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Ponce-Regalado, María Dolores; Camarillo, César López; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2016-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis eIF-5A-like protein (TveIF-5A) belongs to the highly conserved eIF-5A family of proteins that contains a unique polyamine-derived amino acid, hypusine. Recently, we determined that the polyamine putrescine is required for tveif-5a mRNA stability, and it is necessary for stability and maturation of the TveIF-5A protein. Eukaryotic eIF-5A is known to be involved in mRNA turnover and is capable of sequence-specific RNA binding to eIF-5A response elements (EREs). These ERE sequences are present in diverse mammalian mRNAs, including human cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2). Here, we cloned the complete coding sequence of TveIF-5A and overexpressed it in a eukaryotic system. The recombinant protein (rTveIF-5A) was purified in soluble form using size-exclusion chromatography. Because of the polyamine-dependent regulation of TvCP39 (a protease of T. vaginalis) at the protein and RNA messenger (mRNA) levels, we looked for an ERE-like structure in the 3' region of tvcp39 mRNA. In RNA gel-shift assays, rTveIF-5A bound to transcripts at the EREs of cox-2 or tvcp39 mRNAs. This work shows the eIF-5A/ERE-like interaction in T. vaginalis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 interacts with the putative ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Lisa N; Swapna, Ganduri; Chavadi, Sivagami Sundaram; Tufariello, JoAnn M; Mi, Kaixia; Drumm, Joshua E; Lam, TuKiet T; Zhu, Guofeng; Zhan, Chenyang; Vilchéze, Catherine; Arcos, Jesus; Chen, Yong; Bi, Lijun; Mehta, Simren; Porcelli, Steven A; Almo, Steve C; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Jacobs, William R; Torrelles, Jordi B; Chan, John

    2017-07-01

    We have previously shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth and may be required for the establishment of tuberculous persistence. Here, yeast two-hybrid and affinity chromatography experiments have demonstrated that Rv2623 interacts with one of the two forkhead-associated domains (FHA I) of Rv1747, a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter annotated to export lipooligosaccharides. FHA domains are signaling protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions to modulate a wide variety of biological processes via binding to conserved phosphorylated threonine (pT)-containing oligopeptides of the interactors. Biochemical, immunochemical and mass spectrometric studies have shown that Rv2623 harbors pT and specifically identified threonine 237 as a phosphorylated residue. Relative to wild-type Rv2623 (Rv2623WT), a mutant protein in which T237 has been replaced with a non-phosphorylatable alanine (Rv2623T237A) exhibits decreased interaction with the Rv1747 FHA I domain and diminished growth-regulatory capacity. Interestingly, compared to WT bacilli, an M. tuberculosis Rv2623 null mutant (ΔRv2623) displays enhanced expression of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), while the ΔRv1747 mutant expresses decreased levels of PIMs. Animal studies have previously shown that ΔRv2623 is hypervirulent, while ΔRv1747 is growth-attenuated. Collectively, these data have provided evidence that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth; and this interaction is mediated via the recognition of the conserved Rv2623 pT237-containing FHA-binding motif by the Rv1747 FHA I domain. The divergent aberrant PIM profiles and the opposing in vivo growth phenotypes of ΔRv2623 and ΔRv1747, together with the annotated lipooligosaccharide exporter function of Rv1747, suggest that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to modulate mycobacterial growth by negatively regulating the activity of Rv1747; and that Rv

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 interacts with the putative ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Glass

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth and may be required for the establishment of tuberculous persistence. Here, yeast two-hybrid and affinity chromatography experiments have demonstrated that Rv2623 interacts with one of the two forkhead-associated domains (FHA I of Rv1747, a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter annotated to export lipooligosaccharides. FHA domains are signaling protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions to modulate a wide variety of biological processes via binding to conserved phosphorylated threonine (pT-containing oligopeptides of the interactors. Biochemical, immunochemical and mass spectrometric studies have shown that Rv2623 harbors pT and specifically identified threonine 237 as a phosphorylated residue. Relative to wild-type Rv2623 (Rv2623WT, a mutant protein in which T237 has been replaced with a non-phosphorylatable alanine (Rv2623T237A exhibits decreased interaction with the Rv1747 FHA I domain and diminished growth-regulatory capacity. Interestingly, compared to WT bacilli, an M. tuberculosis Rv2623 null mutant (ΔRv2623 displays enhanced expression of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs, while the ΔRv1747 mutant expresses decreased levels of PIMs. Animal studies have previously shown that ΔRv2623 is hypervirulent, while ΔRv1747 is growth-attenuated. Collectively, these data have provided evidence that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth; and this interaction is mediated via the recognition of the conserved Rv2623 pT237-containing FHA-binding motif by the Rv1747 FHA I domain. The divergent aberrant PIM profiles and the opposing in vivo growth phenotypes of ΔRv2623 and ΔRv1747, together with the annotated lipooligosaccharide exporter function of Rv1747, suggest that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to modulate mycobacterial growth by negatively regulating the activity of Rv1747

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 interacts with the putative ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufariello, JoAnn M.; Mi, Kaixia; Zhu, Guofeng; Zhan, Chenyang; Vilchéze, Catherine; Arcos, Jesus; Chen, Yong; Bi, Lijun; Porcelli, Steven A.; Almo, Steve C.; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Jacobs, William R.; Torrelles, Jordi B.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth and may be required for the establishment of tuberculous persistence. Here, yeast two-hybrid and affinity chromatography experiments have demonstrated that Rv2623 interacts with one of the two forkhead-associated domains (FHA I) of Rv1747, a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter annotated to export lipooligosaccharides. FHA domains are signaling protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions to modulate a wide variety of biological processes via binding to conserved phosphorylated threonine (pT)-containing oligopeptides of the interactors. Biochemical, immunochemical and mass spectrometric studies have shown that Rv2623 harbors pT and specifically identified threonine 237 as a phosphorylated residue. Relative to wild-type Rv2623 (Rv2623WT), a mutant protein in which T237 has been replaced with a non-phosphorylatable alanine (Rv2623T237A) exhibits decreased interaction with the Rv1747 FHA I domain and diminished growth-regulatory capacity. Interestingly, compared to WT bacilli, an M. tuberculosis Rv2623 null mutant (ΔRv2623) displays enhanced expression of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), while the ΔRv1747 mutant expresses decreased levels of PIMs. Animal studies have previously shown that ΔRv2623 is hypervirulent, while ΔRv1747 is growth-attenuated. Collectively, these data have provided evidence that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth; and this interaction is mediated via the recognition of the conserved Rv2623 pT237-containing FHA-binding motif by the Rv1747 FHA I domain. The divergent aberrant PIM profiles and the opposing in vivo growth phenotypes of ΔRv2623 and ΔRv1747, together with the annotated lipooligosaccharide exporter function of Rv1747, suggest that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to modulate mycobacterial growth by negatively regulating the activity of Rv1747; and that Rv

  8. ABC Transporters, Atherosclerosis and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Michael L.; Mujawar, Zahedi; Tamehiro, Norimasa

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, driven by inflamed lipid-laden lesions, can occlude the coronary arteries and lead to myocardial infarction. This chronic disease is a major and expensive health burden. However, the body is able to mobilize and excrete cholesterol and other lipids, thus preventing atherosclerosis by a process termed reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Insight into the mechanism of RCT has been gained by the study of two rare syndromes caused by the mutation of ABC transporter loci. In Tangi...

  9. ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transport System Solute-binding Protein-guided Identification of Novel d-Altritol and Galactitol Catabolic Pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelecki, Daniel J; Vetting, Matthew W; Chou, Liyushang; Al-Obaidi, Nawar; Bouvier, Jason T; Almo, Steven C; Gerlt, John A

    2015-11-27

    Innovations in the discovery of the functions of uncharacterized proteins/enzymes have become increasingly important as advances in sequencing technology flood protein databases with an exponentially growing number of open reading frames. This study documents one such innovation developed by the Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI; U54GM093342), the use of solute-binding proteins for transport systems to identify novel metabolic pathways. In a previous study, this strategy was applied to the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters. Here, we apply this strategy to the ATP-binding cassette transporters and report the discovery of novel catabolic pathways for d-altritol and galactitol in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. These efforts resulted in the description of three novel enzymatic reactions as follows: 1) oxidation of d-altritol to d-tagatose via a dehydrogenase in Pfam family PF00107, a previously unknown reaction; 2) phosphorylation of d-tagatose to d-tagatose 6-phosphate via a kinase in Pfam family PF00294, a previously orphan EC number; and 3) epimerization of d-tagatose 6-phosphate C-4 to d-fructose 6-phosphate via a member of Pfam family PF08013, another previously unknown reaction. The epimerization reaction catalyzed by a member of PF08013 is especially noteworthy, because the functions of members of PF08013 have been unknown. These discoveries were assisted by the following two synergistic bioinformatics web tools made available by the Enzyme Function Initiative: the EFI-Enzyme Similarity Tool and the EFI-Genome Neighborhood Tool. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Subnanometre-resolution electron cryomicroscopy structure of a heterodimeric ABC exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JungMin; Wu, Shenping; Tomasiak, Thomas M; Mergel, Claudia; Winter, Michael B; Stiller, Sebastian B; Robles-Colmanares, Yaneth; Stroud, Robert M; Tampé, Robert; Craik, Charles S; Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-15

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters translocate substrates across cell membranes, using energy harnessed from ATP binding and hydrolysis at their nucleotide-binding domains. ABC exporters are present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, with examples implicated in multidrug resistance of pathogens and cancer cells, as well as in many human diseases. TmrAB is a heterodimeric ABC exporter from the thermophilic Gram-negative eubacterium Thermus thermophilus; it is homologous to various multidrug transporters and contains one degenerate site with a non-catalytic residue next to the Walker B motif. Here we report a subnanometre-resolution structure of detergent-solubilized TmrAB in a nucleotide-free, inward-facing conformation by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. The reconstructions clearly resolve characteristic features of ABC transporters, including helices in the transmembrane domain and nucleotide-binding domains. A cavity in the transmembrane domain is accessible laterally from the cytoplasmic side of the membrane as well as from the cytoplasm, indicating that the transporter lies in an inward-facing open conformation. The two nucleotide-binding domains remain in contact via their carboxy-terminal helices. Furthermore, comparison between our structure and the crystal structures of other ABC transporters suggests a possible trajectory of conformational changes that involves a sliding and rotating motion between the two nucleotide-binding domains during the transition from the inward-facing to outward-facing conformations.

  11. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-09-26

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F.; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-01-01

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe. PMID:26323761

  13. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  14. Dephosphorylation of the Core Clock Protein KaiC in the Cyanobacterial KaiABC Circadian Oscillator Proceeds via an ATP Synthase Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egli, Martin; Mori, Tetsuya; Pattanayek, Rekha; Xu, Yao; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H. (Vanderbilt)

    2014-10-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC in the presence of ATP, to tick in a temperature-compensated manner. KaiC, the central cog of this oscillator, forms a homohexamer with 12 ATP molecules bound between its N- and C-terminal domains and exhibits unusual properties. Both the N-terminal (CI) and C-terminal (CII) domains harbor ATPase activity, and the subunit interfaces between CII domains are the sites of autokinase and autophosphatase activities. Hydrolysis of ATP correlates with phosphorylation at threonine and serine sites across subunits in an orchestrated manner, such that first T432 and then S431 are phosphorylated, followed by dephosphorylation of these residues in the same order. Although structural work has provided insight into the mechanisms of ATPase and kinase, the location and mechanism of the phosphatase have remained enigmatic. From the available experimental data based on a range of approaches, including KaiC crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering models, metal ion dependence, site-directed mutagenesis (i.e., E318, the general base), and measurements of the associated clock periods, phosphorylation patterns, and dephosphorylation courses as well as a lack of sequence motifs in KaiC that are typically associated with known phosphatases, we hypothesized that KaiCII makes use of the same active site for phosphorylation and dephosphorlyation. We observed that wild-type KaiC (wt-KaiC) exhibits an ATP synthase activity that is significantly reduced in the T432A/S431A mutant. We interpret the first observation as evidence that KaiCII is a phosphotransferase instead of a phosphatase and the second that the enzyme is capable of generating ATP, both from ADP and P{sub i} (in a reversal of the ATPase reaction) and from ADP and P-T432/P-S431 (dephosphorylation). This new concept regarding the mechanism of dephosphorylation is also supported by the

  15. Symbiosis and the origin of eukaryotic motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.

    1991-01-01

    Ongoing work to test the hypothesis of the origin of eukaryotic cell organelles by microbial symbioses is discussed. Because of the widespread acceptance of the serial endosymbiotic theory (SET) of the origin of plastids and mitochondria, the idea of the symbiotic origin of the centrioles and axonemes for spirochete bacteria motility symbiosis was tested. Intracellular microtubular systems are purported to derive from symbiotic associations between ancestral eukaryotic cells and motile bacteria. Four lines of approach to this problem are being pursued: (1) cloning the gene of a tubulin-like protein discovered in Spirocheata bajacaliforniesis; (2) seeking axoneme proteins in spirochets by antibody cross-reaction; (3) attempting to cultivate larger, free-living spirochetes; and (4) studying in detail spirochetes (e.g., Cristispira) symbiotic with marine animals. Other aspects of the investigation are presented.

  16. Expression of eukaryotic polypeptides in chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2013-06-04

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  17. CRN13 candidate effectors from plant and animal eukaryotic pathogens are DNA-binding proteins which trigger host DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Garcés, Diana; Camborde, Laurent; Pel, Michiel J C; Jauneau, Alain; Martinez, Yves; Néant, Isabelle; Leclerc, Catherine; Moreau, Marc; Dumas, Bernard; Gaulin, Elodie

    2016-04-01

    To successfully colonize their host, pathogens produce effectors that can interfere with host cellular processes. Here we investigated the function of CRN13 candidate effectors produced by plant pathogenic oomycetes and detected in the genome of the amphibian pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BdCRN13). When expressed in Nicotiana, AeCRN13, from the legume root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, increases the susceptibility of the leaves to the oomycete Phytophthora capsici. When transiently expressed in amphibians or plant cells, AeCRN13 and BdCRN13 localize to the cell nuclei, triggering aberrant cell development and eventually causing cell death. Using Förster resonance energy transfer experiments in plant cells, we showed that both CRN13s interact with nuclear DNA and trigger plant DNA damage response (DDR). Mutating key amino acid residues in a predicted HNH-like endonuclease motif abolished the interaction of AeCRN13 with DNA, the induction of DDR and the enhancement of Nicotiana susceptibility to P. capsici. Finally, H2AX phosphorylation, a marker of DNA damage, and enhanced expression of genes involved in the DDR were observed in A. euteiches-infected Medicago truncatula roots. These results show that CRN13 from plant and animal eukaryotic pathogens promotes host susceptibility by targeting nuclear DNA and inducing DDR. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 504945883 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rate/sulfonate/bicarbonate ABC transporter protein Leptolyngbya sp. PCC 7376 MEKKRLFFLKNDYFDISHKKVIKVISCLLIG...LFFSLTLSNCTQPAAQPLRIGANLWPGYETLYLARELGYYGDKPIHLVDYPSGTEEVRAYRHNEIEGAGLSIDQAIVLATTQKNIKIVGIMDISHGGDAILGKPGMSN

  19. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 427722762 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 89 ... nitrate/sulfonate/bicarbonate ABC transporter protein Leptolyngbya sp. PCC 7376 MEKKRLFFLKNDYFDISHKKVI...KVISCLLIGLFFSLTLSNCTQPAAQPLRIGANLWPGYETLYLARELGYYGDKPIHLVDYPSGTEEVRAYRHNEIEGAGLSIDQAIVLATTQKNIKIVGIMDISHGGDA

  20. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology in Gastrointestinal Medicine and Hepatology: Basic Paradigms of Molecular Cell Biology. Part C: Protein Synthesis and Post-Translational Processing in Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Wild

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The translation of mRNA constitutes the first step in the synthesis of a functional protein. The polypeptide chain is subsequently folded into the appropriate three-dimensional configuration and undergoes a variety of processing steps before being converted into its active form. These processing steps are intimately related to the cellular events that occur in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments, and determine the sorting and transport of different proteins to their appropriate destinations within the cell. While the regulation of gene expression occurs primarily at the level of transcription, the expression of many genes can also be controlled at the level of translation. Most proteins can be regulated in response to extracellular signals. In addition, intracellular protein levels can be controlled by differential rates of protein degradation. Thus, the regulation of both the amounts and activities of intracellular proteins ultimately determines all aspects of cell behaviour.

  1. Wireless technology for ABC Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

      In medical emergency service (EMS) the ABC status (Airway-Breathing-Circulation) of victims is essential in the decision making process regarding prioritizing and treatment. Today's use of information technology does, however, not inform directly about "A" and "B". The parameters are evaluated....... Firstly in the daily EMS work where the collected data can be available at the hospital before the victim arrives and data can be used in the before-arrival-planning process. Secondly in larger incidents with several victims where a WBMS can support rescuers at the incident site in the assessment...

  2. Molecular paleontology and complexity in the last eukaryotic common ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumandou, V Lila; Wickstead, Bill; Ginger, Michael L; van der Giezen, Mark; Dacks, Joel B; Field, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryogenesis, the origin of the eukaryotic cell, represents one of the fundamental evolutionary transitions in the history of life on earth. This event, which is estimated to have occurred over one billion years ago, remains rather poorly understood. While some well-validated examples of fossil microbial eukaryotes for this time frame have been described, these can provide only basic morphology and the molecular machinery present in these organisms has remained unknown. Complete and partial genomic information has begun to fill this gap, and is being used to trace proteins and cellular traits to their roots and to provide unprecedented levels of resolution of structures, metabolic pathways and capabilities of organisms at these earliest points within the eukaryotic lineage. This is essentially allowing a molecular paleontology. What has emerged from these studies is spectacular cellular complexity prior to expansion of the eukaryotic lineages. Multiple reconstructed cellular systems indicate a very sophisticated biology, which by implication arose following the initial eukaryogenesis event but prior to eukaryotic radiation and provides a challenge in terms of explaining how these early eukaryotes arose and in understanding how they lived. Here, we provide brief overviews of several cellular systems and the major emerging conclusions, together with predictions for subsequent directions in evolution leading to extant taxa. We also consider what these reconstructions suggest about the life styles and capabilities of these earliest eukaryotes and the period of evolution between the radiation of eukaryotes and the eukaryogenesis event itself.

  3. Endosymbiosis and Eukaryotic Cell Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, John M

    2015-10-05

    Understanding the evolution of eukaryotic cellular complexity is one of the grand challenges of modern biology. It has now been firmly established that mitochondria and plastids, the classical membrane-bound organelles of eukaryotic cells, evolved from bacteria by endosymbiosis. In the case of mitochondria, evidence points very clearly to an endosymbiont of α-proteobacterial ancestry. The precise nature of the host cell that partnered with this endosymbiont is, however, very much an open question. And while the host for the cyanobacterial progenitor of the plastid was undoubtedly a fully-fledged eukaryote, how - and how often - plastids moved from one eukaryote to another during algal diversification is vigorously debated. In this article I frame modern views on endosymbiotic theory in a historical context, highlighting the transformative role DNA sequencing played in solving early problems in eukaryotic cell evolution, and posing key unanswered questions emerging from the age of comparative genomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tissue-specific transcript profiling for ABC transporters in the sequestering larvae of the phytophagous leaf beetle Chrysomela populi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja S Strauss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. RESULTS: In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp. RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. CONCLUSION: We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a

  5. ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters in normal and pathological lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmer-Bosscha Hetty

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP are highly expressed in bronchial epithelium. This review aims to give new insights in the possible functions of ABC molecules in the lung in view of their expression in different cell types. Furthermore, their role in protection against noxious compounds, e.g. air pollutants and cigarette smoke components, will be discussed as well as the (malfunction in normal and pathological lung. Several pulmonary drugs are substrates for ABC transporters and therefore, the delivery of these drugs to the site of action may be highly dependent on the presence and activity of many ABC transporters in several cell types. Three ABC transporters are known to play an important role in lung functioning. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene can cause cystic fibrosis, and mutations in ABCA1 and ABCA3 are responsible for respectively Tangier disease and fatal surfactant deficiency. The role of altered function of ABC transporters in highly prevalent pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have hardly been investigated so far. We especially focused on polymorphisms, knock-out mice models and in vitro results of pulmonary research. Insight in the function of ABC transporters in the lung may open new ways to facilitate treatment of lung diseases.

  6. Playware ABC: Engineering Play for Everybody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Playware ABC concept, and how it allows anybody, anywhere, anytime to be building bodies and brains, which facilitates users to construct, combine and create. The Playware ABC concept focuses engineering and IT system development on creating solutions that are usable by all...

  7. abc: An extensible AspectJ compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its frontend is built, using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...

  8. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Eukaryotic DNA Replicases

    KAUST Repository

    Zaher, Manal S.

    2014-11-21

    The current model of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork includes three replicative DNA polymerases, polymerase α/primase complex (Pol α), polymerase δ (Pol δ), and polymerase ε (Pol ε). The primase synthesizes 8–12 nucleotide RNA primers that are extended by the DNA polymerization activity of Pol α into 30–35 nucleotide RNA-DNA primers. Replication factor C (RFC) opens the polymerase clamp-like processivity factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and loads it onto the primer-template. Pol δ utilizes PCNA to mediate highly processive DNA synthesis, while Pol ε has intrinsic high processivity that is modestly stimulated by PCNA. Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand in a division of labor that is not strict. The three polymerases are comprised of multiple subunits and share unifying features in their large catalytic and B subunits. The remaining subunits are evolutionarily not related and perform diverse functions. The catalytic subunits are members of family B, which are distinguished by their larger sizes due to inserts in their N- and C-terminal regions. The sizes of these inserts vary among the three polymerases, and their functions remain largely unknown. Strikingly, the quaternary structures of Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ε are arranged similarly. The catalytic subunits adopt a globular structure that is linked via its conserved C-terminal region to the B subunit. The remaining subunits are linked to the catalytic and B subunits in a highly flexible manner.

  10. Cytokinesis in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, David A; Trautmann, Susanne; McCollum, Dannel

    2002-06-01

    Cytokinesis is the final event of the cell division cycle, and its completion results in irreversible partition of a mother cell into two daughter cells. Cytokinesis was one of the first cell cycle events observed by simple cell biological techniques; however, molecular characterization of cytokinesis has been slowed by its particular resistance to in vitro biochemical approaches. In recent years, the use of genetic model organisms has greatly advanced our molecular understanding of cytokinesis. While the outcome of cytokinesis is conserved in all dividing organisms, the mechanism of division varies across the major eukaryotic kingdoms. Yeasts and animals, for instance, use a contractile ring that ingresses to the cell middle in order to divide, while plant cells build new cell wall outward to the cortex. As would be expected, there is considerable conservation of molecules involved in cytokinesis between yeast and animal cells, while at first glance, plant cells seem quite different. However, in recent years, it has become clear that some aspects of division are conserved between plant, yeast, and animal cells. In this review we discuss the major recent advances in defining cytokinesis, focusing on deciding where to divide, building the division apparatus, and dividing. In addition, we discuss the complex problem of coordinating the division cycle with the nuclear cycle, which has recently become an area of intense research. In conclusion, we discuss how certain cells have utilized cytokinesis to direct development.

  11. Quantitative proteomics identifies Gemin5, a scaffolding protein involved in ribonucleoprotein assembly, as a novel partner for eukaryotic initiation factor 4E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro-Monti, Ivo; Mohammed, Shabaz; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    Protein complexes are dynamic entities; identification and quantitation of their components is critical in elucidating functional roles under specific cellular conditions. We report the first quantitative proteomic analysis of the human cap-binding protein complex. Components and proteins...... levels of Gemin5:eIF4E complexes were found in phorbol ester treated HEK293 cells. Gemin5 and eIF4E co-localized to cytoplasmic P-bodies in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Interaction between eIF4E and Gemin5 and their co-localization to the P-bodies, may serve to recruit capped mRNAs to these RNP...... complexes, for functions related to RNP assembly, remodeling and/or transition from active translation to mRNA degradation. Our results demonstrate that our quantitative proteomic strategy can be applied to the identification and quantitation of protein complex components in human cells grown under...

  12. Localization of BiP to translating ribosomes increases soluble accumulation of secreted eukaryotic proteins in an Escherichia coli cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, John P; Bonomo, Jeanne; Swartz, James R

    2011-08-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident Hsp70 chaperone, BiP, docks to the Sec translocon and interacts co-translationally with polypeptides entering the ER to encourage proper folding. In order to recreate this interaction in Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) reactions, a fusion protein was formed between the ribosome-binding portion of the E. coli protein trigger factor (TF) and BiP. The biophysical affinity to ribosomes as well as the characteristic Hsp70 ATPase activity were both verified for the fusion protein. When added to E. coli-based CFPS reactions, the TF-BiP fusion chaperone increased soluble yields of several protein fragments that are normally secreted through the ER and have poor solubility in typical CFPS reactions. For comparison, a fusion between TF and the native E. coli Hsp70, DnaK, was also constructed. This fusion was also biologically active and increased soluble yields of certain protein targets in CFPS. The TF-BiP fusion described in this study can be seen as a first step in reconstituting and better understanding ER folding pathways in the prokaryotic environment of E. coli CFPS. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Matchout deuterium labelling of proteins for small-angle neutron scattering studies using prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and high cell-density cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, O; Weidenhaupt, M; Callow, P; Martel, A; Moulin, M; Perkins, S J; Haertlein, M; Forsyth, V T

    2017-07-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a powerful technique for the characterisation of macromolecular structures and interactions. Its main advantage over other solution state approaches is the ability to use D 2 O/H 2 O solvent contrast variation to selectively match out specific parts of a multi-component system. While proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids are readily distinguished in this way, it is not possible to locate different parts of a protein-protein system without the introduction of additional contrast by selective deuteration. Here, we describe new methods by which 'matchout labelled' proteins can be produced using Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris expression systems in high cell-density cultures. The method is designed to produce protein that has a scattering length density that is very close to that of 100% D 2 O, providing clear contrast when used with hydrogenated partner proteins in a complex. This allows the production of a single sample system for which SANS measurements at different solvent contrasts can be used to distinguish and model the hydrogenated component, the deuterated component, and the whole complex. The approach, which has significant cost advantages, has been extensively tested for both types of expression system.

  14. A functional chimaeric S-layer-enhanced green fluorescent protein to follow the uptake of S-layer-coated liposomes into eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Nicola; Küpcü, Seta; Moncayo, Gerald; Klimt, Sigrid; Ecker, Rupert C; Hofer-Warbinek, Renate; Egelseer, Eva M; Sleytr, Uwe B; Sára, Margit

    2004-04-15

    The chimaeric gene encoding a C-terminally truncated form of the S-layer protein SbpA of Bacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 and the EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was ligated into plasmid pET28a and cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Just 1 h after induction of expression an intense EGFP fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of the host cells. Expression at 28 degrees C instead of 37 degrees C resulted in clearly increased fluorescence intensity, indicating that the folding process of the EGFP moiety was temperature sensitive. To maintain the EGFP fluorescence, isolation of the fusion protein from the host cells had to be performed in the presence of reducing agents. SDS/PAGE analysis, immunoblotting and N-terminal sequencing of the isolated and purified fusion protein confirmed the presence of both the S-layer protein and the EGFP moiety. The fusion protein had maintained the ability to self-assemble in suspension and to recrystallize on peptidoglycan-containing sacculi or on positively charged liposomes, as well as to fluoresce. Comparison of fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of recombinant EGFP and rSbpA(31-1068)/EGFP revealed identical maxima at 488 and 507 nm respectively. The uptake of liposomes coated with a fluorescent monomolecular protein lattice of rSbpA(31-1068)/EGFP into HeLa cells was studied by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The major part of the liposomes was internalized within 2 h of incubation and entered the HeLa cells by endocytosis.

  15. A conserved domain important for association of eukaryotic J-protein co-chaperones Jjj1 and Zuo1 with the ribosome

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschner, Lindsey A.; Sharma, Ruchika; Shrestha, Om Kumar; Meyer, Alison E.; Craig, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    J-proteins, obligate co-chaperones, provide specialization for Hsp70 function in a variety of cellular processes. Two of the 13 J-proteins of the yeast cytosol/nucleus, Zuo1 and Jjj1, are associated with 60S ribosomal subunits. Abundant Zuo1 facilitates folding of nascent polypeptides; Jjj1, of much lower abundance, functions in ribosome biogenesis. However, overexpression of Jjj1 substantially rescues growth defects of cells lacking Zuo1. We analyzed a region held in common by Zuo1 and Jjj1,...

  16. ABC transporters as multidrug resistance mechanisms and the development of chemosensitizers for their reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Cheol-Hee

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major problems related with anticancer chemotherapy is resistance against anticancer drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are a family of transporter proteins that are responsible for drug resistance and a low bioavailability of drugs by pumping a variety of drugs out cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. One strategy for reversal of the resistance of tumor cells expressing ABC transporters is combined use of anticancer drugs with chemosensitizers. In this review, the physiological functions and structures of ABC transporters, and the development of chemosensitizers are described focusing on well-known proteins including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein.

  17. An ABC for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Costa Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education; British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters; Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  18. An ABC for decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa, E-mail: luiz_mogi@yahoo.com.br [Associacao de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Bruna Cortez [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)

  19. Proteomic and Real-Time PCR analyses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae VL3 exposed to microcystin-LR reveals a set of protein alterations transversal to several eukaryotic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valério, Elisabete; Campos, Alexandre; Osório, Hugo; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2016-03-15

    Some of the most common toxins present in freshwater, in particular microcystins (MCs), are produced by cyanobacteria. These toxins have a negative impact on human health, being associated with episodes of acute hepatotoxicity and being considered potentially carcinogenic to humans. To date the exact mechanisms of MC-induced toxicity and tumor promotion were not completely elucidated. To get new insights underlying microcystin-LR (MCLR) molecular mechanisms of toxicity we have performed the proteomic profiling using two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed for 4 h-1 nM and 1 μM of MCLR, and compared them to the control (cells not exposed to MCLR). We identified 14 differentially expressed proteins. The identified proteins are involved in metabolism, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and stress response. Furthermore, we evaluated the relative expression of yeast's PP1 and PP2A genes and also of genes from the Base Excision Repair (BER) DNA-repair system, and observed that three out of the five genes analyzed displayed dose-dependent responses. Overall, the different proteins and genes affected are related to oxidative stress and apoptosis, thus reinforcing that it is probably the main mechanism of MCLR toxicity transversal to several organisms, especially at lower doses. Notwithstanding these MCLR responsive proteins could be object of further studies to evaluate their suitability as biomarkers of exposure to the toxin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  1. Human ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1): Genomic organization and identification of the genetic defect in the original Tangier disease kindred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaley, Alan T.; Rust, Stephan; Rosier, Marie; Knapper, Cathy; Naudin, Laurent; Broccardo, Cyril; Peterson, Katherine M.; Koch, Christine; Arnould, Isabelle; Prades, Catherine; Duverger, Nicholas; Funke, Harald; Assman, Gerd; Dinger, Maria; Dean, Michael; Chimini, Giovanna; Santamarina-Fojo, Silvia; Fredrickson, Donald S.; Denefle, Patrice; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1999-01-01

    Tangier disease is characterized by low serum high density lipoproteins and a biochemical defect in the cellular efflux of lipids to high density lipoproteins. ABC1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, recently has been identified as the defective gene in Tangier disease. We report here the organization of the human ABC1 gene and the identification of a mutation in the ABC1 gene from the original Tangier disease kindred. The organization of the human ABC1 gene is similar to that of the mouse ABC1 gene and other related ABC genes. The ABC1 gene contains 49 exons that range in size from 33 to 249 bp and is over 70 kb in length. Sequence analysis of the ABC1 gene revealed that the proband for Tangier disease was homozygous for a deletion of nucleotides 3283 and 3284 (TC) in exon 22. The deletion results in a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon starting at nucleotide 3375. The product is predicted to encode a nonfunctional protein of 1,084 aa, which is approximately half the size of the full-length ABC1 protein. The loss of a Mnl1 restriction site, which results from the deletion, was used to establish the genotype of the rest of the kindred. In summary, we report on the genomic organization of the human ABC1 gene and identify a frameshift mutation in the ABC1 gene of the index case of Tangier disease. These results will be useful in the future characterization of the structure and function of the ABC1 gene and the analysis of additional ABC1 mutations in patients with Tangier disease. PMID:10535983

  2. The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD)

    OpenAIRE

    Perier, R. C.; Praz, V; Junier, T; Bonnard, C.; Bucher, P

    2000-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD) is an annotated non-redundant collection of eukaryotic POL II promoters for which the transcription start site has been determined experimentally. Access to promoter sequences is provided by pointers to positions in nucleotide sequence entries. The annotation part of an entry includes a description of the initiation site mapping data, exhaustive cross-references to the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, SWISS-PROT, TRANSFAC and other databases, as well a...

  3. Involvement of the Eukaryote-Like Kinase-Phosphatase System and a Protein That Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 in Emergence of Cephalosporin Resistance in Cephalosporin-Sensitive Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein Mutants in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbonnet, Charlene; Tait-Kamradt, Amelia; Garcia-Solache, Monica; Dunman, Paul; Coleman, Jeffrey; Arthur, Michel; Rice, Louis B

    2016-04-05

    The intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecium to ceftriaxone and cefepime (here referred to as "cephalosporins") is reliant on the presence of class A penicillin-binding proteins (Pbps) PbpF and PonA. Mutants lacking these Pbps exhibit cephalosporin susceptibility that is reversible by exposure to penicillin and by selection on cephalosporin-containing medium. We selected two cephalosporin-resistant mutants (Cro1 and Cro2) of class A Pbp-deficient E. faecium CV598. Genome analysis revealed changes in the serine-threonine kinase Stk in Cro1 and a truncation in the associated phosphatase StpA in Cro2 whose respective involvements in resistance were confirmed in separate complementation experiments. In an additional effort to identify proteins linked to cephalosporin resistance, we performed tandem affinity purification using Pbp5 as bait in penicillin-exposed E. faecium; these experiments yielded a protein designated Pbp5-associated protein (P5AP). Transcription of the P5AP gene was increased after exposure to penicillin in wild-type strains and in Cro2 and suppressed in Cro2 complemented with the wild-type stpA Transformation of class A Pbp-deficient strains with the plasmid-carried P5AP gene conferred cephalosporin resistance. These data suggest that Pbp5-associated cephalosporin resistance in E. faecium devoid of typical class A Pbps is related to the presence of P5AP, whose expression is influenced by the activity of the serine-threonine phosphatase/kinase system. β-Lactam antibiotics remain our most effective therapies against susceptible Gram-positive bacteria. The intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecium to β-lactams, particularly to cephalosporins, therefore represents a major limitation of therapy. Although the primary mechanism of resistance to β-lactams in E. faecium is the presence of low-affinity monofunctional transpeptidase (class B) penicillin-binding protein Pbp5, the interaction of Pbp5 with other proteins is fundamental to maintain a

  4. Structure of the archaeal Kae1/Bud32 fusion protein MJ1130: a model for the eukaryotic EKC/KEOPS subcomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Arnaud; Lopreiato, Raffaele; Graille, Marc; Collinet, Bruno; Forterre, Patrick; Libri, Domenico; van Tilbeurgh, Herman

    2008-09-03

    The EKC/KEOPS yeast complex is involved in telomere maintenance and transcription. The Bud32p and kinase-associated endopeptidase 1 (Kaelp) components of the complex are totally conserved in eukarya and archaea. Their genes are fused in several archaeal genomes, suggesting that they physically interact. We report here the structure of the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Kae1/Bud32 fusion protein MJ1130. Kae1 is an iron protein with an ASKHA fold and Bud32 is an atypical small RIO-type kinase. The structure MJ1130 suggests that association with Kae1 maintains the Bud32 kinase in an inactive state. We indeed show that yeast Kae1p represses the kinase activity of yeast Bud32p. Extensive conserved interactions between MjKae1 and MjBud32 suggest that Kae1p and Bud32p directly interact in both yeast and archaea. Mutations that disrupt the Kae1p/Bud32p interaction in the context of the yeast complex have dramatic effects in vivo and in vitro, similar to those observed with deletion mutations of the respective components. Direct interaction between Kae1p and Bud32p in yeast is required both for the transcription and the telomere homeostasis function of EKC/KEOPS.

  5. Norovirus translation requires an interaction between the C Terminus of the genome-linked viral protein VPg and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Liliane; Bailey, Dalan; Leen, Eoin N; Emmott, Edward P; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Roberts, Lisa O; Curry, Stephen; Locker, Nicolas; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2014-08-01

    Viruses have evolved a variety of mechanisms to usurp the host cell translation machinery to enable translation of the viral genome in the presence of high levels of cellular mRNAs. Noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in man, have evolved a mechanism that relies on the interaction of translation initiation factors with the virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5' end of the viral RNA. To further characterize this novel mechanism of translation initiation, we have used proteomics to identify the components of the norovirus translation initiation factor complex. This approach revealed that VPg binds directly to the eIF4F complex, with a high affinity interaction occurring between VPg and eIF4G. Mutational analyses indicated that the C-terminal region of VPg is important for the VPg-eIF4G interaction; viruses with mutations that alter or disrupt this interaction are debilitated or non-viable. Our results shed new light on the unusual mechanisms of protein-directed translation initiation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, W.

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Introduction; Polytene Chromosomel Giant Chromosomes in Ciliates; The sp-I Genes in the Balbiani Rings of Chironomus Salivary Glands; The White Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster; The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dense Cluster of Functionally Related Vital Genes in the DOPA Decarboxylase Region of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome; Heat Shock Puffs and Response to Environmental Stress; The Y Chromosomal Lampbrush Loops of Drosophila; Contributions of Electron Microscopic Spreading Preparations (''Miller Spreads'') to the Analysis of Chromosome Structure; Replication of DNA in Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Gene Amplification in Dipteran Chromosomes; The Significance of Plant Transposable Elements in Biologically Relevant Processes; Arrangement of Chromosomes in Interphase Cell Nuclei; Heterochromatin and the Phenomenon of Chromosome Banding; Multiple Nonhistone Protein-DNA Complexes in Chromatin Regulate the Cell- and Stage-Specific Activity of an Eukaryotic Gene; Genetics of Sex Determination in Eukaryotes; Application of Basic Chromosome Research in Biotechnology and Medicine. This book presents an overview of various aspects of chromosome research.

  7. Involvement of the Eukaryote-Like Kinase-Phosphatase System and a Protein That Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 in Emergence of Cephalosporin Resistance in Cephalosporin-Sensitive Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein Mutants in Enterococcus faecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Desbonnet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecium to ceftriaxone and cefepime (here referred to as “cephalosporins” is reliant on the presence of class A penicillin-binding proteins (Pbps PbpF and PonA. Mutants lacking these Pbps exhibit cephalosporin susceptibility that is reversible by exposure to penicillin and by selection on cephalosporin-containing medium. We selected two cephalosporin-resistant mutants (Cro1 and Cro2 of class A Pbp-deficient E. faecium CV598. Genome analysis revealed changes in the serine-threonine kinase Stk in Cro1 and a truncation in the associated phosphatase StpA in Cro2 whose respective involvements in resistance were confirmed in separate complementation experiments. In an additional effort to identify proteins linked to cephalosporin resistance, we performed tandem affinity purification using Pbp5 as bait in penicillin-exposed E. faecium; these experiments yielded a protein designated Pbp5-associated protein (P5AP. Transcription of the P5AP gene was increased after exposure to penicillin in wild-type strains and in Cro2 and suppressed in Cro2 complemented with the wild-type stpA. Transformation of class A Pbp-deficient strains with the plasmid-carried P5AP gene conferred cephalosporin resistance. These data suggest that Pbp5-associated cephalosporin resistance in E. faecium devoid of typical class A Pbps is related to the presence of P5AP, whose expression is influenced by the activity of the serine-threonine phosphatase/kinase system.

  8. ABCs of Oral Health: Nutrition - Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primary teeth by age 3. More ABCs of Oral Health A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | ... Children Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | ...

  9. A statistical anomaly indicates symbiotic origins of eukaryotic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Suneyna; Mittal, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Compositional analyses of nucleic acids and proteins have shed light on possible origins of living cells. In this work, rigorous compositional analyses of ∼5000 plasma membrane lipid constituents of 273 species in the three life domains (archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryotes) revealed a remarkable statistical paradox, indicating symbiotic origins of eukaryotic cells involving eubacteria. For lipids common to plasma membranes of the three domains, the number of carbon atoms in eubacteria was found to be similar to that in eukaryotes. However, mutually exclusive subsets of same data show exactly the opposite—the number of carbon atoms in lipids of eukaryotes was higher than in eubacteria. This statistical paradox, called Simpson's paradox, was absent for lipids in archaea and for lipids not common to plasma membranes of the three domains. This indicates the presence of interaction(s) and/or association(s) in lipids forming plasma membranes of eubacteria and eukaryotes but not for those in archaea. Further inspection of membrane lipid structures affecting physicochemical properties of plasma membranes provides the first evidence (to our knowledge) on the symbiotic origins of eukaryotic cells based on the “third front” (i.e., lipids) in addition to the growing compositional data from nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:25631820

  10. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cytoskeletons: Structure and Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-03-01

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is an assembly of filamentous proteins and a host of associated proteins that collectively serve functional needs ranging from spatial organization and transport to the production and transmission of forces. These systems can exhibit a wide variety of non-equilibrium, self-assembled phases depending on context and function. While much recent progress has been made in understanding the self-organization, rheology and nonlinear mechanical properties of such active systems, in this talk, we will concentrate on some emerging aspects of cytoskeletal physics that are promising. One such aspect is the influence of cytoskeletal network topology and its dynamics on both active and passive intracellular transport. Another aspect we will highlight is the interplay between chirality of filaments, their elasticity and their interactions with the membrane that can lead to novel conformational states with functional implications. Finally we will consider homologs of cytoskeletal proteins in bacteria, which are involved in templating cell growth, segregating genetic material and force production, which we will discuss with particular reference to contractile forces during cell division. These prokaryotic structures function in remarkably similar yet fascinatingly different ways from their eukaryotic counterparts and can enrich our understanding of cytoskeletal functioning as a whole.

  11. Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 ‘full-size’, 21 ‘half-size’ and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

  12. Selective substrate uptake: The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) importers in pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kari J; Song, Saemee; Mason, Kevin; Pinkett, Heather W

    2018-04-01

    The uptake of nutrients, including metals, amino acids and peptides are required for many biological processes. Pathogenic bacteria scavenge these essential nutrients from microenvironments to survive within the host. Pathogens must utilize a myriad of mechanisms to acquire these essential nutrients from the host while mediating the effects of toxicity. Bacteria utilize several transport proteins, including ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to import and expel substrates. ABC transporters, conserved across all organisms, are powered by the energy from ATP to move substrates across cellular membranes. In this review, we will focus on nutrient uptake, the role of ABC importers at the host-pathogen interface, and explore emerging therapies to combat pathogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Massive expansion of the calpain gene family in unicellular eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calpains are Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases that participate in a range of crucial cellular processes. Dysfunction of these enzymes may cause, for instance, life-threatening diseases in humans, the loss of sex determination in nematodes and embryo lethality in plants. Although the calpain family is well characterized in animal and plant model organisms, there is a great lack of knowledge about these genes in unicellular eukaryote species (i.e. protists. Here, we study the distribution and evolution of calpain genes in a wide range of eukaryote genomes from major branches in the tree of life. Results Our investigations reveal 24 types of protein domains that are combined with the calpain-specific catalytic domain CysPc. In total we identify 41 different calpain domain architectures, 28 of these domain combinations have not been previously described. Based on our phylogenetic inferences, we propose that at least four calpain variants were established in the early evolution of eukaryotes, most likely before the radiation of all the major supergroups of eukaryotes. Many domains associated with eukaryotic calpain genes can be found among eubacteria or archaebacteria but never in combination with the CysPc domain. Conclusions The analyses presented here show that ancient modules present in prokaryotes, and a few de novo eukaryote domains, have been assembled into many novel domain combinations along the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. Some of the new calpain genes show a narrow distribution in a few branches in the tree of life, likely representing lineage-specific innovations. Hence, the functionally important classical calpain genes found among humans and vertebrates make up only a tiny fraction of the calpain family. In fact, a massive expansion of the calpain family occurred by domain shuffling among unicellular eukaryotes and contributed to a wealth of functionally different genes.

  14. Structure of a Type-1 Secretion System ABC Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jacob L W; Acheson, Justin F; Zimmer, Jochen

    2017-03-07

    Type-1 secretion systems (T1SSs) represent a widespread mode of protein secretion across the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria. The T1SS is composed of an inner-membrane ABC transporter, a periplasmic membrane-fusion protein, and an outer-membrane porin. These three components assemble into a complex spanning both membranes and providing a conduit for the translocation of unfolded polypeptides. We show that ATP hydrolysis and assembly of the entire T1SS complex is necessary for protein secretion. Furthermore, we present a 3.15-Å crystal structure of AaPrtD, the ABC transporter found in the Aquifex aeolicus T1SS. The structure suggests a substrate entry window just above the transporter's nucleotide binding domains. In addition, highly kinked transmembrane helices, which frame a narrow channel not observed in canonical peptide transporters, are likely involved in substrate translocation. Overall, the AaPrtD structure supports a polypeptide transport mechanism distinct from alternating access. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A cobalt-containing eukaryotic nitrile hydratase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Salette; Yang, Xinhang; Bennett, Brian; Holz, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase), an industrially important enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of nitriles to their corresponding amides, has only been characterized from prokaryotic microbes. The putative NHase from the eukaryotic unicellular choanoflagellate organism Monosiga brevicollis (MbNHase) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting enzyme expressed as a single polypeptide with fused α- and β-subunits linked by a seventeen-histidine region. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated that MbNHase exists primarily as an (αβ)2 homodimer in solution, analogous to the α2β2 homotetramer architecture observed for prokaryotic NHases. The NHase enzyme contained its full complement of Co(III) and was fully functional without the co-expression of an activator protein or E. coli GroES/EL molecular chaperones. The homology model of MbNHase was developed identifying Cys400, Cys403, and Cys405 as active site ligands. The results presented here provide the first experimental data for a mature and active eukaryotic NHase with fused subunits. Since this new member of the NHase family is expressed from a single gene without the requirement of an activator protein, it represents an alternative biocatalyst for industrial syntheses of important amide compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Eukaryotic organisms in Proterozoic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A H; Javaux, E J; Hewitt, D; Cohen, P

    2006-06-29

    The geological record of protists begins well before the Ediacaran and Cambrian diversification of animals, but the antiquity of that history, its reliability as a chronicle of evolution and the causal inferences that can be drawn from it remain subjects of debate. Well-preserved protists are known from a relatively small number of Proterozoic formations, but taphonomic considerations suggest that they capture at least broad aspects of early eukaryotic evolution. A modest diversity of problematic, possibly stem group protists occurs in ca 1800-1300 Myr old rocks. 1300-720 Myr fossils document the divergence of major eukaryotic clades, but only with the Ediacaran-Cambrian radiation of animals did diversity increase within most clades with fossilizable members. While taxonomic placement of many Proterozoic eukaryotes may be arguable, the presence of characters used for that placement is not. Focus on character evolution permits inferences about the innovations in cell biology and development that underpin the taxonomic and morphological diversification of eukaryotic organisms.

  17. Eukaryotic vs. cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schmelling, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Slides of my talk about the differences between eukaryotic and cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis.  The talk is a more generell overview about the differences of the two systems. Slides and Figures are my own. For comments, questions and suggestions please contact me via twitter @derschmelling or via mail

  18. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC method helps reduce some of the unnecessary overhead cost items and increase on some other cost components. This helps increase the relative efficiency of the system by reducing total cost of project.

  19. The ABC of ABC-transport in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, S

    2003-01-01

    Living organisms of our earth can be divided into two groups, the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, a special compartment in the cell, where the genetic material, the DNA is located. The DNA in the prokaryotic cell is floating freely in the cell. The eukaryotes, that

  20. Distinct gene number-genome size relationships for eukaryotes and non-eukaryotes: gene content estimation for dinoflagellate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Hou

    Full Text Available The ability to predict gene content is highly desirable for characterization of not-yet sequenced genomes like those of dinoflagellates. Using data from completely sequenced and annotated genomes from phylogenetically diverse lineages, we investigated the relationship between gene content and genome size using regression analyses. Distinct relationships between log(10-transformed protein-coding gene number (Y' versus log(10-transformed genome size (X', genome size in kbp were found for eukaryotes and non-eukaryotes. Eukaryotes best fit a logarithmic model, Y' = ln(-46.200+22.678X', whereas non-eukaryotes a linear model, Y' = 0.045+0.977X', both with high significance (p0.91. Total gene number shows similar trends in both groups to their respective protein coding regressions. The distinct correlations reflect lower and decreasing gene-coding percentages as genome size increases in eukaryotes (82%-1% compared to higher and relatively stable percentages in prokaryotes and viruses (97%-47%. The eukaryotic regression models project that the smallest dinoflagellate genome (3x10(6 kbp contains 38,188 protein-coding (40,086 total genes and the largest (245x10(6 kbp 87,688 protein-coding (92,013 total genes, corresponding to 1.8% and 0.05% gene-coding percentages. These estimates do not likely represent extraordinarily high functional diversity of the encoded proteome but rather highly redundant genomes as evidenced by high gene copy numbers documented for various dinoflagellate species.

  1. ABC model and the management of costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravdić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When a company has multiple objectives at the same time, they all must be considered and balanced when making any business decisions. Linking the markets, capital and resources so as to thus ensure the highest yield is, In fact, the search for competitive advantage as a basic condition for survival in a market economy. In highly detailed systems based on the management of costs or ABC (activity based costing systems, the cost of activities often result in erroneous evaluation of aggregate costs of the action. Improvements in information technology and monitoring decrease of technology costs enabled the ABC system to become a feasible system calculating costs in many organizations.

  2. ABC: A Franco-British Intra-Group Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    John, Innes; Pierre, Mevellec; University of Dundee; University of Nantes

    1994-01-01

    This case study describes the implementation of ABC in two factories within the one British multinational group in France and Britain. It also explores the similarities and differences between the assessment, implementation and use of the ABC system in these two factories. The French managers assessed ABC with the major objective of product costing whereas in the British factory ABC was used mainly for cost management. However, it is important to realise that the French homogeneous cost pools...

  3. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with (/sup 3/H)- and (/sup 14/C)adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture.

  4. Protein Phosphatase 2A Negatively Regulates Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E Phosphorylation and eIF4F Assembly through Direct Dephosphorylation of Mnk and eIF4E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikun Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E is frequently overexpressed in human cancers and is associated with cellular transformation, tumorigenesis, and metastatic progression. It is known that Mnks can phosphorylate eIF4E. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A functions as a tumor suppressor, and it was previously suggested to regulate eIF4E phosphorylation. However, how PP2A regulates eIF4E phosphorylation has not been fully addressed. In this study, we have not only validated the role of PP2A in regulation of eIF4E phosphorylation but also demonstrated the mechanism underlying this process. Inhibition of PP2A using either okadaic acid or PP2A small interfering RNA (siRNA increased eIF4E phosphorylation, which could be abolished by the presence of the Mnk inhibitor CGP57380 or deficiency of Mnk genes. Thus, Mnks are involved in PP2A-mediated regulation of eIF4E phosphorylation. Moreover, a dephosphorylation assay revealed that PP2A could directly dephosphorylate Mnk1 and eIF4E. m7GTP pull-down assay detected more eIF4G and phospho-eIF4E and less 4EBP-1 in PP2A siRNA-transfected cells than in control siRNA-transfected cells, indicating an increased cap binding of eIF4F complex. Accordingly, okadaic acid treatment or PP2A knockdown increased the levels of c-Myc and Mcl-1, which are proteins known to be regulated by a cap-dependent translation mechanism. Taken together, we conclude that PP2A negatively regulates eIF4E phosphorylation and eIF4F complex assembly through dephosphorylation of Mnk and eIF4E, thus suggesting a novel mechanism by which PP2A exerts its tumor-suppressive function.

  5. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantæ and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity and citotoxicity are also reviewed.

  6. The eukaryotic promoter database (EPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périer, R C; Praz, V; Junier, T; Bonnard, C; Bucher, P

    2000-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD) is an annotated non-redundant collection of eukaryotic POL II promoters for which the transcription start site has been determined experimentally. Access to promoter sequences is provided by pointers to positions in nucleotide sequence entries. The annotation part of an entry includes a description of the initiation site mapping data, exhaustive cross-references to the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, SWISS-PROT, TRANSFAC and other databases, as well as bibliographic references. EPD is structured in a way that facilitates dynamic extraction of biologically meaningful promoter subsets for comparative sequence analysis. WWW-based interfaces have been developed that enable the user to view EPD entries in different formats, to select and extract promoter sequences according to a variety of criteria, and to navigate to related databases exploiting different cross-references. The EPD web site also features yearly updated base frequency matrices for major eukaryotic promoter elements. EPD can be accessed at http://www.epd.isb-sib.ch

  7. Environment sensing and response mediated by ABC transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser Loren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transporter proteins are one of an organism’s primary interfaces with the environment. The expressed set of transporters mediates cellular metabolic capabilities and influences signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks. The functional annotation of most transporters is currently limited to general classification into families. The development of capabilities to map ligands with specific transporters would improve our knowledge of the function of these proteins, improve the annotation of related genomes, and facilitate predictions for their role in cellular responses to environmental changes. Results To improve the utility of the functional annotation for ABC transporters, we expressed and purified the set of solute binding proteins from Rhodopseudomonas palustris and characterized their ligand-binding specificity. Our approach utilized ligand libraries consisting of environmental and cellular metabolic compounds, and fluorescence thermal shift based high throughput ligand binding screens. This process resulted in the identification of specific binding ligands for approximately 64% of the purified and screened proteins. The collection of binding ligands is representative of common functionalities associated with many bacterial organisms as well as specific capabilities linked to the ecological niche occupied by R. palustris. Conclusion The functional screen identified specific ligands that bound to ABC transporter periplasmic binding subunits from R. palustris. These assignments provide unique insight for the metabolic capabilities of this organism and are consistent with the ecological niche of strain isolation. This functional insight can be used to improve the annotation of related organisms and provides a route to evaluate the evolution of this important and diverse group of transporter proteins.

  8. ABC information, fairness perceptions, and interfirm negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masschelein, S.J.M.; Cardinaels, E.; van den Abbeele, A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of more precise cost information on contract renegotiations between supply-chain parties. Specifically, we experimentally investigate the benefits of activity-based costing (ABC) information to address common supplychain inefficiencies that are caused by the buyer or the

  9. Unraveling adaptation in eukaryotic pathways: lessons from protocells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna De Palo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic adaptation pathways operate within wide-ranging environmental conditions without stimulus saturation. Despite numerous differences in the adaptation mechanisms employed by bacteria and eukaryotes, all require energy consumption. Here, we present two minimal models showing that expenditure of energy by the cell is not essential for adaptation. Both models share important features with large eukaryotic cells: they employ small diffusible molecules and involve receptor subunits resembling highly conserved G-protein cascades. Analyzing the drawbacks of these models helps us understand the benefits of energy consumption, in terms of adjustability of response and adaptation times as well as separation of cell-external sensing and cell-internal signaling. Our work thus sheds new light on the evolution of adaptation mechanisms in complex systems.

  10. Unraveling adaptation in eukaryotic pathways: lessons from protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, Giovanna; Endres, Robert G

    2013-10-01

    Eukaryotic adaptation pathways operate within wide-ranging environmental conditions without stimulus saturation. Despite numerous differences in the adaptation mechanisms employed by bacteria and eukaryotes, all require energy consumption. Here, we present two minimal models showing that expenditure of energy by the cell is not essential for adaptation. Both models share important features with large eukaryotic cells: they employ small diffusible molecules and involve receptor subunits resembling highly conserved G-protein cascades. Analyzing the drawbacks of these models helps us understand the benefits of energy consumption, in terms of adjustability of response and adaptation times as well as separation of cell-external sensing and cell-internal signaling. Our work thus sheds new light on the evolution of adaptation mechanisms in complex systems.

  11. EFEKTIVITAS IMPLEMENTASI CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPOSIBILITY PT. ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkiaji Rikky Djunaedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were 1 to analyze public perceptions on the effectiveness of the implementation of CSR of PT. A B C; 2 to analyze the implementation of CSR activities by PT. A B C; 3 to formulate strategies to improve the effectiveness of the implementation of CSR of PT. A B C. The method used in this research was descriptive analysis with a survey approach to measure expectations and performance assessment on the CSR implemented programs by the public, and there were respondents 104 respondents involved in this study. This study used the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA aiming to determine the effectiveness of the programs that have been implemented and to map the relationship between the expectations and the performance of each variable. Furthermore, using a SWOT analysis of the data processing and of the objectives of the program made by CSR is expected to provide recommendations to develop strategies in order to increase the effectiveness of CSR program of ABC Company.Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR, mining industry, implementation analysis, IPA, SWOTAbstrakTujuan dari  penelitian ini adalah 1 menganalisis persepsi masyarakat teradap efektivitas implementasi CSR PT. ABC; 2 menganalisis pelaksanaan  kegiatan CSR oleh PT. ABC; 3 merumuskan strategi untuk meningkatkan efektivitas implementasi CSR PT. ABC. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis deskriptif dengan pendekatan survey untuk mengukur harapan dan penilaian kinerja oleh masyarakat atas program CSR yang diterapkan. Jumlah responden sebanyak 104 orang.  Dalam penelitian ini digunakan Analisis Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas dari program-program yang telah dijalankan serta  memetakan hubungan antara harapan dengan kinerja dari masing-masing variabel. Selanjutnya menggunakan analisis SWOT dari hasil pengolahan data dan dari tujuan program dibuat oleh CSR sehingga dapat memberikan rekomendasi

  12. Functional characterization of the Shigella dysenteriae heme ABC transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Kimberly A; Wilks, Angela

    2008-08-05

    The heme ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ShuUV, of Shigella dysenteriae has been incorporated into proteoliposomes. Functional characterization of ShuUV revealed that ATP hydrolysis and transport of heme from the periplasmic binding protein, ShuT, to the cytoplasmic binding protein, ShuS, are coupled. Site-directed mutagenesis of ShuT residues proposed to be required for stabilization of the complex abolished heme transport. Furthermore, residues His-252 and His-262, located in the translocation channel of ShuU, were required for the release of heme from ShuT and translocation to ShuS. The initial functional characterization of an in vitro heme uptake system provides a platform for future spectroscopic studies.

  13. DNA Mismatch Repair in Eukaryotes and Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Fukui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA mismatch repair (MMR corrects mismatched base pairs mainly caused by DNA replication errors. The fundamental mechanisms and proteins involved in the early reactions of MMR are highly conserved in almost all organisms ranging from bacteria to human. The significance of this repair system is also indicated by the fact that defects in MMR cause human hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancers as well as sporadic tumors. To date, 2 types of MMRs are known: the human type and Escherichia coli type. The basic features of the former system are expected to be universal among the vast majority of organisms including most bacteria. Here, I review the molecular mechanisms of eukaryotic and bacterial MMR, emphasizing on the similarities between them.

  14. How eukaryotic filamentous pathogens evade plant recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Garcia, Ely; Valent, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes employ sophisticated mechanisms for evading host recognition. After host penetration, many fungi and oomycetes establish a biotrophic interaction. It is assumed that different strategies employed by these pathogens to avoid triggering host defence responses, including establishment of biotrophic interfacial layers between the pathogen and host, masking of invading hyphae and active suppression of host defence mechanisms, are essential for a biotrophic parasitic lifestyle. During the infection process, filamentous plant pathogens secrete various effectors, which are hypothesized to be involved in facilitating effective host infection. Live-cell imaging of fungi and oomycetes secreting fluorescently labeled effector proteins as well as functional characterization of the components of biotrophic interfaces have led to the recent progress in understanding how eukaryotic filamentous pathogens evade plant recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two highly similar DEAD box proteins, OsRH2 and OsRH34, homologous to eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII, play roles of the exon junction complex in regulating growth and development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Sie, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Yu-Fu; Huang, Tian-Sheng; Lu, Chung-An

    2016-04-12

    The exon junction complex (EJC), which contains four core components, eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII (eIF4AIII), MAGO/NASHI (MAGO), Y14/Tsunagi/RNA-binding protein 8A, and Barentsz/Metastatic lymph node 51, is formed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, and plays important roles in gene expression. Genes encoding core EJC components have been found in plants, including rice. Currently, the functional characterizations of MAGO and Y14 homologs have been demonstrated in rice. However, it is still unknown whether eIF4AIII is essential for the functional EJC in rice. This study investigated two DEAD box RNA helicases, OsRH2 and OsRH34, which are homologous to eIF4AIII, in rice. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that OsRH2 and OsRH34 had 99 % identity and 100 % similarity, and their gene expression patterns were similar in various rice tissues, but the level of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings. From bimolecular fluorescence complementation results, OsRH2 and OsRH34 interacted physically with OsMAGO1 and OsY14b, respectively, which indicated that both of OsRH2 and OsRH34 were core components of the EJC in rice. To study the biological roles of OsRH2 and OsRH34 in rice, transgenic rice plants were generated by RNA interference. The phenotypes of three independent OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines included dwarfism, a short internode distance, reproductive delay, defective embryonic development, and a low seed setting rate. These phenotypes resembled those of mutants with gibberellin-related developmental defects. In addition, the OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines exhibited the accumulation of unspliced rice UNDEVELOPED TAPETUM 1 mRNA. Rice contains two eIF4AIII paralogous genes, OsRH2 and OsRH34. The abundance of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings, suggesting that the OsRH2 is major eIF4AIII in rice. Both OsRH2 and OsRH34 are core components of the EJC

  16. ABC of physics a very brief guide

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    2012-01-01

    This little book concentrates on the foundations of modern physics (its "ABC's") and its most fundamental constants: c - the velocity of light and ? - the quantum of action. First of all, the book is addressed to professional physicists, but in order to achieve maximal concentration and clarity it uses the simplest (high school) mathematics. As a result many pages of the book will be useful to college students and may appeal to a more general audience.

  17. The A-B-C of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    specifically the source separation of compostable kitchen waste. The investigation was carried out before and after the introduction of a system, facilitating such separation, in a Danish community. Hypotheses derived from the A-B-C model, predicting that changes over time in the correlation between attitude...... and behaviour would be influenced by (a) the introduction of the system, and (b) the pre-intervention structural conditions for different groups of households, were supported....

  18. Open questions on the origin of eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the origin of the eukaryotic cell remains enigmatic. It is now known that the last eukaryotic common ancestor was complex and that endosymbiosis played a crucial role in eukaryogenesis at least via the acquisition of the alphaproteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. However, the nature of the mitochondrial host is controversial, although the recent discovery of an archaeal lineage phylogenetically close to eukaryotes reinforces models proposing archaea-derived hosts. We argue that, in addition to improved phylogenomic analyses with more comprehensive taxon sampling to pinpoint the closest prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes, determining plausible mechanisms and selective forces at the origin of key eukaryotic features, such as the nucleus or the bacterial-like eukaryotic membrane system, is essential to constrain existing models. PMID:26455774

  19. Structural view on recycling of archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes after canonical termination and ribosome rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckenberg, Sibylle; Becker, Thomas; Beckmann, Roland

    2012-12-01

    Ribosome recycling usually occurs after canonical termination triggered by a stop codon. Additionally, ribosomes that are stalled by aberrant mRNAs need to be recognized and subsequently recycled. In eukaryotes and archaea, the factors involved in canonical termination and ribosome rescue are structurally and functionally related. Both termination and ribosome rescue are mediated by class I release factors (eRF1/aRF1 in eukaryotic/archaeal termination) or their paralogs (Pelota/aPelota for ribosome rescue) and homologs of translational GTPases (eRF3/aEF1α in termination, Hbs1/aEF1α in ribosome rescue). These events are followed by recycling of the ribosome. Recently the ATPase ABCE1 was shown to be the main ribosome recycling factor. In concert with eRF1 or Pelota, ABCE1 dissociates the ribosome into subunits. During the past two years, several structures of ribosome rescue and ribosome recycling complexes have been solved by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography. These structures along with recent functional data make it possible to propose a molecular model of these late translation events in termination and recycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Involvement of the carboxyl-terminal region of the yeast peroxisomal half ABC transporter Pxa2p in its interaction with Pxa1p and in transporter function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chuang

    Full Text Available The peroxisome is a single membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells involved in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation of fatty acids. The human genetic disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene (encoding ALDP, a peroxisomal half ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporter. This disease is characterized by defective peroxisomal β-oxidation and a large accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in brain white matter, adrenal cortex, and testis. ALDP forms a homodimer proposed to be the functional transporter, whereas the peroxisomal transporter in yeast is a heterodimer comprising two half ABC transporters, Pxa1p and Pxa2p, both orthologs of human ALDP. While the carboxyl-terminal domain of ALDP is engaged in dimerization, it remains unknown whether the same region is involved in the interaction between Pxa1p and Pxa2p.Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that the carboxyl-terminal region (CT of Pxa2p, but not of Pxa1p, is required for their interaction. Further analysis indicated that the central part of the CT (designated CT2 of Pxa2p was indispensable for its interaction with the carboxyl terminally truncated Pxa1_NBD. An interaction between the CT of Pxa2p and Pxa1_NBD was not detected, but could be identified in the presence of Pxa2_NBD-CT1. A single mutation of two conserved residues (aligned with X-ALD-associated mutations at the same positions in ALDP in the CT2 of the Pxa2_NBD-CT protein impaired its interaction with Pxa1_NBD or Pxa1_NBD-CT, resulting in a mutant protein that exhibited a proteinase K digestion profile different from that of the wild-type protein. Functional analysis of these mutant proteins on oleate plates indicated that they were defective in transporter function.The CT of Pxa2p is involved in its interaction with Pxa1p and in transporter function. This concept may be applied to human ALDP studies, helping to establish the pathological mechanism for CT-related X

  1. Soil eukaryotic functional diversity, a metatranscriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Julie; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Verner, Marie-Christine; Debaud, Jean-Claude; Lemaire, Marc; Wésolowski-Louvel, Micheline; Marmeisse, Roland

    2007-11-01

    To appreciate the functional diversity of communities of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms we evaluated an experimental approach based on the construction and screening of a cDNA library using polyadenylated mRNA extracted from a forest soil. Such a library contains genes that are expressed by each of the different organisms forming the community and represents its metatranscriptome. The diversity of the organisms that contributed to this library was evaluated by sequencing a portion of the 18S rDNA gene amplified from either soil DNA or reverse-transcribed RNA. More than 70% of the sequences were from fungi and unicellular eukaryotes (protists) while the other most represented group was the metazoa. Calculation of richness estimators suggested that more than 180 species could be present in the soil samples studied. Sequencing of 119 cDNA identified genes with no homologues in databases (32%) and genes coding proteins involved in different biochemical and cellular processes. Surprisingly, the taxonomic distribution of the cDNA and of the 18S rDNA genes did not coincide, with a marked under-representation of the protists among the cDNA. Specific genes from such an environmental cDNA library could be isolated by expression in a heterologous microbial host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is illustrated by the functional complementation of a histidine auxotrophic yeast mutant by two cDNA originating possibly from an ascomycete and a basidiomycete fungal species. Study of the metatranscriptome has the potential to uncover adaptations of whole microbial communities to local environmental conditions. It also gives access to an abundant source of genes of biotechnological interest.

  2. Evolution of networks and sequences in eukaryotic cell cycle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Frederick R; Buchler, Nicolas E; Skotheim, Jan M

    2011-12-27

    The molecular networks regulating the G1-S transition in budding yeast and mammals are strikingly similar in network structure. However, many of the individual proteins performing similar network roles appear to have unrelated amino acid sequences, suggesting either extremely rapid sequence evolution, or true polyphyly of proteins carrying out identical network roles. A yeast/mammal comparison suggests that network topology, and its associated dynamic properties, rather than regulatory proteins themselves may be the most important elements conserved through evolution. However, recent deep phylogenetic studies show that fungal and animal lineages are relatively closely related in the opisthokont branch of eukaryotes. The presence in plants of cell cycle regulators such as Rb, E2F and cyclins A and D, that appear lost in yeast, suggests cell cycle control in the last common ancestor of the eukaryotes was implemented with this set of regulatory proteins. Forward genetics in non-opisthokonts, such as plants or their green algal relatives, will provide direct information on cell cycle control in these organisms, and may elucidate the potentially more complex cell cycle control network of the last common eukaryotic ancestor.

  3. Metabolic symbiosis at the origin of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Garćia, P; Moreira, D

    1999-03-01

    Thirty years after Margulis revived the endosymbiosis theory for the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, two novel symbiosis hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes have been put forward. Both propose that eukaryotes arose through metabolic symbiosis (syntrophy) between eubacteria and methanogenic Archaea. They also propose that this was mediated by interspecies hydrogen transfer and that, initially, mitochondria were anaerobic. These hypotheses explain the mosaic character of eukaryotes (i.e. an archaeal-like genetic machinery and a eubacterial-like metabolism), as well as distinct eukaryotic characteristics (which are proposed to be products of symbiosis). Combined data from comparative genomics, microbial ecology and the fossil record should help to test their validity.

  4. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    -books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: First, the ABC model is too difficult to implement. Second, the data foundation for the model is not available...... in the required quality in the ERP systems used by the businesses. In this article we will explore ways of overcoming these two related problems. We will explore these issues particularly in relation to small and medium enterprises. Through a theoretical analysis and practical implementation in a medium sized...... solutions that can be used in small and medium enter-prises....

  5. The product of the ABC half-transporter gene ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) is expressed in the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, E; Khodjakov, A; Volk, E L

    2000-01-01

    The products of the ABC gene family can be generally classified as either full-transporters of half-transporters. Full-transporters are expressed in the plasma membrane, whereas half-transporters are usually found in intracellular membranes. Recently, an ABC half-transporter, the ABCG2 gene product...... by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. This protein is highly overexpressed in several drug-resistant cell lines and localizes predominantly to the plasma membrane, instead of to intracellular membranes as seen with all other known half-transporters. Therefore, BCRP/MXR is unique among the ABC half......-transporters by being localized to the plasma membrane....

  6. astroABC: Approximate Bayesian Computation Sequential Monte Carlo sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elise

    2017-05-01

    astroABC is a Python implementation of an Approximate Bayesian Computation Sequential Monte Carlo (ABC SMC) sampler for parameter estimation. astroABC allows for massive parallelization using MPI, a framework that handles spawning of processes across multiple nodes. It has the ability to create MPI groups with different communicators, one for the sampler and several others for the forward model simulation, which speeds up sampling time considerably. For smaller jobs the Python multiprocessing option is also available.

  7. Predictive Structure and Topology of Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Andreoletti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette (ABC transporters, which are called ABCD1, ABCD2 and ABCD3, are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of various lipids that allow their degradation inside the organelle. Defective ABCD1 leads to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids and is associated with a complex and severe neurodegenerative disorder called X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD. Although the nucleotide-binding domain is highly conserved and characterized within the ABC transporters family, solid data are missing for the transmembrane domain (TMD of ABCD proteins. The lack of a clear consensus on the secondary and tertiary structure of the TMDs weakens any structure-function hypothesis based on the very diverse ABCD1 mutations found in X-ALD patients. Therefore, we first reinvestigated thoroughly the structure-function data available and performed refined alignments of ABCD protein sequences. Based on the 2.85  Å resolution crystal structure of the mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB10, here we propose a structural model of peroxisomal ABCD proteins that specifies the position of the transmembrane and coupling helices, and highlight functional motifs and putative important amino acid residues.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin increases resistin messenger ribonucleic acid through the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase-activating transcription factor 4-CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α homologous protein pathway in THP-1 human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Junpei; Onuma, Hiroshi; Ochi, Fumihiro; Hirai, Hiroki; Takemoto, Koji; Miyoshi, Akiko; Matsushita, Manami; Kadota, Yuko; Ohashi, Jun; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori; Nishida, Wataru; Hashida, Seiichi; Ishii, Eiichi; Osawa, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. In humans, the resistin gene is mainly expressed in monocytes and macrophages. Tunicamycin is known to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reduce resistin gene expression in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ER stress affects resistin gene expression in human monocytes. The relationship between resistin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and ER stress markers mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in isolated monocytes of 30 healthy volunteers. The effect of endotoxin/lipopolysaccharides or tunicamycin on resistin gene expression was analyzed in THP-1 human monocytes. Signaling pathways leading to resistin mRNA were assessed by the knockdown using small interfering RNA or overexpression of key molecules involved in unfolded protein response. Resistin mRNA was positively associated with immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP) or CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA in human isolated monocytes. In THP-1 cells, lipopolysaccharides increased mRNA of BiP, pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase (PERK) and CHOP, as well as resistin. Tunicamycin also increased resistin mRNA. This induction appeared to be dose- and time-dependent. Tunicamycin-induced resistin mRNA was inhibited by chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid. The knockdown of either PERK, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) or CHOP reduced tunicamycin-induced resistin mRNA. Conversely, overexpression of ATF4 or CHOP increased resistin mRNA. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin increased resistin mRNA through the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway in THP-1 human monocytes. ER stress could lead to insulin resistance through enhanced resistin gene expression in human monocytes.

  9. Genome-wide identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 50 catfish ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikai Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a large set of full-length transcripts was recently assembled in catfish, annotation of large gene families, especially those with duplications, is still a great challenge. Most often, complexities in annotation cause mis-identification and thereby much confusion in the scientific literature. As such, detailed phylogenetic analysis and/or orthology analysis are required for annotation of genes involved in gene families. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter gene superfamily is a large gene family that encodes membrane proteins that transport a diverse set of substrates across membranes, playing important roles in protecting organisms from diverse environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we identified a set of 50 ABC transporters in catfish genome. Phylogenetic analysis allowed their identification and annotation into seven subfamilies, including 9 ABCA genes, 12 ABCB genes, 12 ABCC genes, 5 ABCD genes, 2 ABCE genes, 4 ABCF genes and 6 ABCG genes. Most ABC transporters are conserved among vertebrates, though cases of recent gene duplications and gene losses do exist. Gene duplications in catfish were found for ABCA1, ABCB3, ABCB6, ABCC5, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF2 and ABCG2. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The whole set of catfish ABC transporters provide the essential genomic resources for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of ABC drug efflux transporters. The establishment of orthologies should allow functional inferences with the information from model species, though the function of lineage-specific genes can be distinct because of specific living environment with different selection pressure.

  10. A multidrug ABC transporter with a taste for salt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Velamakanni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available LmrA is a multidrug ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter from Lactococcus lactis with no known physiological substrate, which can transport a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents and toxins from the cell. The protein can functionally replace the human homologue ABCB1 (also termed multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein MDR1 in lung fibroblast cells. Even though LmrA mediates ATP-dependent transport, it can use the proton-motive force to transport substrates, such as ethidium bromide, across the membrane by a reversible, H(+-dependent, secondary-active transport reaction. The mechanism and physiological context of this reaction are not known.We examined ion transport by LmrA in electrophysiological experiments and in transport studies using radioactive ions and fluorescent ion-selective probes. Here we show that LmrA itself can transport NaCl by a similar secondary-active mechanism as observed for ethidium bromide, by mediating apparent H(+-Na(+-Cl(- symport. Remarkably, LmrA activity significantly enhances survival of high-salt adapted lactococcal cells during ionic downshift.The observations on H(+-Na(+-Cl(- co-transport substantiate earlier suggestions of H(+-coupled transport by LmrA, and indicate a novel link between the activity of LmrA and salt stress. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of investigations into the bioenergetics of substrate translocation by ABC transporters for our understanding of fundamental mechanisms in this superfamily. This study represents the first use of electrophysiological techniques to analyze substrate transport by a purified multidrug transporter.

  11. In vitro functional characterization of BtuCD-F, the Escherichia coli ABC transporter for vitamin B-12 uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borths, EL; Poolman, B; Hvorup, RN; Locher, KP; Rees, DC; Hvorup, Rikki N.; Locher, Kaspar P.; Rees, Douglas C.

    2005-01-01

    BtuCD is an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter that facilitates uptake of vitamin B-12 into the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. The crystal structures of BtuCD and its cognate periplasmic binding protein BtuF have been recently determined. We have now explored BtuCD-F function in vitro, both in

  12. Biochemical evidence for the presence of two α-glucoside ABC-transport systems in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Sonja M.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus can utilize different carbohydrates, such as starch, maltose and trehalose. Uptake of α-glucosides is mediated by two different, binding protein-dependent, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type transport systems. The maltose transporter also transports

  13. Non-coding RNAs: the architects of eukaryotic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, J S

    2001-11-01

    Around 98% of all transcriptional output in humans is non-coding RNA. RNA-mediated gene regulation is widespread in higher eukaryotes and complex genetic phenomena like RNA interference, co-suppression, transgene silencing, imprinting, methylation, and possibly position-effect variegation and transvection, all involve intersecting pathways based on or connected to RNA signaling. I suggest that the central dogma is incomplete, and that intronic and other non-coding RNAs have evolved to comprise a second tier of gene expression in eukaryotes, which enables the integration and networking of complex suites of gene activity. Although proteins are the fundamental effectors of cellular function, the basis of eukaryotic complexity and phenotypic variation may lie primarily in a control architecture composed of a highly parallel system of trans-acting RNAs that relay state information required for the coordination and modulation of gene expression, via chromatin remodeling, RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions. This system has interesting and perhaps informative analogies with small world networks and dataflow computing.

  14. ABC implementation in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropole: How far ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this qualitative study, a literature review and interviews were used to establish what factors are responsible for the successful implementation of ABC. ... In addition, the use of ABC in conjunction with capital investment decisions may ensure that correct decisions are made when critical long-term projects are considered.

  15. Dashboard auditing of ABC (Activity-Based Costing). Theoretical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC). It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process of an enterprise from steel industry according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC).

  16. Dashboard Auditing of Activity-Based Costing (ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC. It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC.

  17. The eukaryotic fossil record in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, N.

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defining constituents of the Phanerozoic biosphere, but they also extend well back into the Proterozoic record, primarily in the form of microscopic body fossils. Criteria for identifying pre-Ediacaran eukaryotes include large cell size, morphologically complex cell walls and/or the recognition of diagnostically eukaryotic cell division patterns. The oldest unambiguous eukaryote currently on record is an acanthomorphic acritarch (Tappania) from the Palaeoproterozoic Semri Group of central India. Older candidate eukaryotes are difficult to distinguish from giant bacteria, prokaryotic colonies or diagenetic artefacts. In younger Meso- and Neoproterozoic strata, the challenge is to recognize particular grades and clades of eukaryotes, and to document their macro-evolutionary expression. Distinctive unicellular forms include mid-Neoproterozoic testate amoebae and phosphate biomineralizing 'scale-microfossils' comparable to an extant green alga. There is also a significant record of seaweeds, possible fungi and problematica from this interval, documenting multiple independent experiments in eukaryotic multicellularity. Taxonomically resolved forms include a bangiacean red alga and probable vaucheriacean chromalveolate algae from the late Mesoproterozoic, and populations of hydrodictyacean and siphonocladalean green algae of mid Neoproterozoic age. Despite this phylogenetic breadth, however, or arguments from molecular clocks, there is no convincing evidence for pre-Ediacaran metazoans or metaphytes. The conspicuously incomplete nature of the Proterozoic record makes it difficult to resolve larger-scale ecological and evolutionary patterns. Even so, both body fossils and biomarker data point to a pre-Ediacaran biosphere dominated overwhelming by prokaryotes. Contemporaneous eukaryotes appear to be limited to conspicuously shallow water environments, and exhibit fundamentally lower levels of morphological diversity and evolutionary turnover than

  18. CodABC: a computational framework to coestimate recombination, substitution, and molecular adaptation rates by approximate Bayesian computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Miguel; Lopes, Joao S; Beaumont, Mark A; Posada, David

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of substitution and recombination rates can provide important insights into the molecular evolution of protein-coding sequences. Here, we present a new computational framework, called "CodABC," to jointly estimate recombination, substitution and synonymous and nonsynonymous rates from coding data. CodABC uses approximate Bayesian computation with and without regression adjustment and implements a variety of codon models, intracodon recombination, and longitudinal sampling. CodABC can provide accurate joint parameter estimates from recombining coding sequences, often outperforming maximum-likelihood methods based on more approximate models. In addition, CodABC allows for the inclusion of several nuisance parameters such as those representing codon frequencies, transition matrices, heterogeneity across sites or invariable sites. CodABC is freely available from http://code.google.com/p/codabc/, includes a GUI, extensive documentation and ready-to-use examples, and can run in parallel on multicore machines. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Anionic lipids and the maintenance of membrane electrostatics in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Jaillais, Yvon

    2017-02-01

    A wide range of signaling processes occurs at the cell surface through the reversible association of proteins from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Some low abundant lipids are enriched at the membrane of specific compartments and thereby contribute to the identity of cell organelles by acting as biochemical landmarks. Lipids also influence membrane biophysical properties, which emerge as an important feature in specifying cellular territories. Such parameters are crucial for signal transduction and include lipid packing, membrane curvature and electrostatics. In particular, membrane electrostatics specifies the identity of the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Membrane surface charges are carried by anionic phospholipids, however the exact nature of the lipid(s) that powers the plasma membrane electrostatic field varies among eukaryotes and has been hotly debated during the last decade. Herein, we discuss the role of anionic lipids in setting up plasma membrane electrostatics and we compare similarities and differences that were found in different eukaryotic cells.

  20. Automated Eukaryotic Gene Structure Annotation Using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, B J; Salzberg, S L; Zhu, W; Pertea, M; Allen, J E; Orvis, J; White, O; Buell, C R; Wortman, J R

    2007-12-10

    EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

  1. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  2. LC-MS/MS Based Quantitation of ABC and SLC Transporter Proteins in Plasma Membranes of Cultured Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells and Immortalized ARPE19 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkonen, Laura; Sato, Kazuki; Reinisalo, Mika; Kidron, Heidi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Watanabe, Michitoshi; Uchida, Yasuo; Urtti, Arto; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2017-03-06

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier between neural retina and choroid. The RPE has several important vision supporting functions, such as transport mechanisms that may also modify pharmacokinetics in the posterior eye segment. Expression of plasma membrane transporters in the RPE cells has not been quantitated. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare transporter protein expression in the ARPE19 cell line and hfRPE (human fetal RPE) cells by using quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP). Among 41 studied transporters, 16 proteins were expressed in hfRPE and 13 in ARPE19 cells. MRP1, MRP5, GLUT1, 4F2hc, TAUT, CAT1, LAT1, and MATE1 proteins were detected in both cell lines within 4-fold differences. MPR7, OAT2 and RFC1 were detected in the hfRPE cells, but their expression levels were below the limit of quantification in ARPE19 cells. PCFT was detected in both studied cell lines, but the expression was over 4-fold higher in hfRPE cells. MCT1, MCT4, MRP4, and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase were upregulated in the ARPE19 cell line showing over 4-fold differences in the quantitative expression values. Expression levels of 25 transporters were below the limit of quantification in both cell models. In conclusion, we present the first systematic and quantitative study on transporter protein expression in the plasma membranes of ARPE19 and hfRPE cells. Overall, transporter expression in the ARPE19 and hfRPE cells correlated well and the absolute expression levels were similar, but not identical. The presented quantitative expression levels could be a useful basis for further studies on drug permeation in the outer blood-retinal barrier.

  3. The ABC of ABC : An analysis of attribute-based credentials in the light of data protection, privacy and identity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenhof, P.E.I.; Koning, Merel; Alpár, Gergely; Hoepman, J.H.; Padullés, Joan Balcells; i Martínez, Agustí Cerrillo; Poch, Miquel Peguera; López, Ismael Peña; de Moner, María José Pifarré; Solana, Mònica Vilasau

    2014-01-01

    Our networked society increasingly needs secure identity sys- tems. The Attribute-based credential (ABC) technology is designed to be privacy-friendlier than contemporary authentication methods, which often suffer from information leakage. So far, however, some of the wider implications of ABC have

  4. The effects of flavonoids on the ABC transporters: consequences for the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Paxton, James W

    2013-03-01

    The flavonoids are a large group of dietary plant compounds with suggested health benefits. There is accumulating evidence that many of these flavonoids can interact with the major drug transporters (and metabolizing enzymes) in the body, leading to alterations in the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs, and thus their efficacy and toxicity. This review summarizes and updates the reported in vitro and in vivo interactions between common dietary flavonoids and the major drug-effluxing ABC transporters; these include P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance proteins 1 and 2. In contrast to previous reviews, the ADME of flavonoids are considered, along with their glycosides and Phase II conjugates. The authors also consider their possible interactions with the ABC transporters in the oral absorption, distribution into pharmacological sanctuaries and excretion of substrate drugs. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched to identify appropriate in vitro and in vivo ABC transporter-flavonoid interactions, particularly within the last 10 years. Caution is advised when taking flavonoid-containing supplements or herbal remedies concurrently with drugs. Further clinical studies are warranted to explore the impact of flavonoids and their metabolites on the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity of drugs.

  5. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, t...

  6. Metabolic Constraints on the Eukaryotic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2009-04-01

    Mutualism, obligate mutualism, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic ‘fusion’ of Serial Endosymbiosis Theory represent progressively more rapid and less distorted real-time communication between biological structures instantiating information sources. Such progression in accurate information transmission requires, in turn, progressively greater channel capacity that, through the homology between information source uncertainty and free energy density, requires ever more energetic metabolism. The eukaryotic transition, according to this model, may have been entrained by an ecosystem resilience shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism.

  7. Using mass spectrometry for identification of ABC transporters from Xanthomonas citri and mutants expressed in different growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, J.N.; Balan, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Xanthomonas citri is a phytopathogenic bacterium that infects citrus plants causing significant losses for the economy. In our group, we have focused on the identification and characterization of ABC transport proteins of this bacterium, in order to determinate their function for growth in vitro and in vivo, during infection. ABC transporters represent one of the largest families of proteins, which transport since small molecules as ions up to oligopeptides and sugars. In prokaryotic cells many works have reported the ABC transport function in pathogenesis, resistance, biofilm formation, infectivity and DNA repair, but until our knowledge, there is no data related to these transporters and X. citri. So, In order to determinate which transporters are expressed in X. citri, we started a proteomic analysis based on mono and bi-dimensional gels associated to mass spectrometry analyses. After growing X. citri and two different mutants deleted for ssuA and nitA genes in LB and minimum media, cellular extracts were obtained and used for preparation of mono and bi-dimensional gels. Seven bands covering the expected mass of ABC transporter components (20 kDa to 50 kDa) in SDS-PAGE were cut off the gel, treated with trypsin and submitted to the MS for protein identification. The results of 2D gels were good enough and will serve as a standard for development of similar experiments in large scale. (author)

  8. Leading role of TBP in the Establishment of Complexity in Eukaryotic Transcription Initiation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiryo Kawakami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While both archaeal and eukaryotic transcription initiation systems utilize TBP (TATA box-binding protein and TFIIB (transcription factor IIB, eukaryotic systems include larger numbers of initiation factors. It remains uncertain how eukaryotic transcription initiation systems have evolved. Here, we investigate the evolutionary development of TBP and TFIIB, each of which has an intramolecular direct repeat, using two evolutionary indicators. Inter-repeat sequence dissimilarity (dDR, distance between direct repeats indicates that the asymmetry of two repeats in TBP and TFIIB has gradually increased during evolution. Interspecies sequence diversity (PD, phylogenetic diversity indicates that the resultant asymmetric structure, which is related to the ability to interact with multiple factors, diverged in archaeal TBP and archaeal/eukaryotic TFIIB during evolution. Our findings suggest that eukaryotic TBP initially acquired multiple Eukarya-specific interactors through asymmetric evolution of the two repeats. After the asymmetric TBP generated the complexity of the eukaryotic transcription initiation systems, its diversification halted and its asymmetric structure spread throughout eukaryotic species.

  9. A Putative Bacterial ABC Transporter Circumvents the Essentiality of Signal Peptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hiroshi Morisaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The type I signal peptidase of Staphylococcus aureus, SpsB, is an attractive antibacterial target because it is essential for viability and extracellularly accessible. We synthesized compound 103, a novel arylomycin-derived inhibitor of SpsB with significant potency against various clinical S. aureus strains (MIC of ~1 µg/ml. The predominant clinical strain USA300 developed spontaneous resistance to compound 103 with high frequency, resulting from single point mutations inside or immediately upstream of cro/cI, a homolog of the lambda phage transcriptional repressor cro. These cro/cI mutations led to marked (>50-fold overexpression of three genes encoding a putative ABC transporter. Overexpression of this ABC transporter was both necessary and sufficient for resistance and, notably, circumvented the essentiality of SpsB during in vitro culture. Mutation of its predicted ATPase gene abolished resistance, suggesting a possible role for active transport; in these bacteria, resistance to compound 103 occurred with low frequency and through mutations in spsB. Bacteria overexpressing the ABC transporter and lacking SpsB were capable of secreting a subset of proteins that are normally cleaved by SpsB and instead were cleaved at a site distinct from the canonical signal peptide. These bacteria secreted reduced levels of virulence-associated proteins and were unable to establish infection in mice. This study reveals the mechanism of resistance to a novel arylomycin derivative and demonstrates that the nominal essentiality of the S. aureus signal peptidase can be circumvented by the upregulation of a putative ABC transporter in vitro but not in vivo.

  10. Horizontal gene acquisitions by eukaryotes as drivers of adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönknecht, Gerald; Weber, Andreas P M; Lercher, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to vertical gene transfer from parent to offspring, horizontal (or lateral) gene transfer moves genetic information between different species. Bacteria and archaea often adapt through horizontal gene transfer. Recent analyses indicate that eukaryotic genomes, too, have acquired numerous genes via horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and other lineages. Based on this we raise the hypothesis that horizontally acquired genes may have contributed more to adaptive evolution of eukaryotes than previously assumed. Current candidate sets of horizontally acquired eukaryotic genes may just be the tip of an iceberg. We have recently shown that adaptation of the thermoacidophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria to its hot, acid, toxic-metal laden, volcanic environment was facilitated by the acquisition of numerous genes from extremophile bacteria and archaea. Other recently published examples of horizontal acquisitions involved in adaptation include ice-binding proteins in marine algae, enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis in aphids, and genes involved in fungal metabolism. Editor's suggested further reading in BioEssays Jumping the fine LINE between species: Horizontal transfer of transposable elements in animals catalyses genome evolution Abstract. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Functions of ABC transporters in plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thanh Ha Thi; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-08-27

    ABC transporters are essential for plant development, playing roles in processes such as gametogenesis, seed development, seed germination, organ formation, and secondary growth. ABC transporters are directly energized by ATP and can transport complex organic materials against concentration gradients; thus, they are uniquely suited to provide the complex building blocks required for the development of specialized plant cells. We review recent progress in our understanding of the contribution ABC transporters make to the growth and development of plants, including their roles in protective layer formation and in transporting phytohormones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2002-03-01

    ancestrally biciliate clade, named 'bikonts'. The apparently conflicting rRNA and protein trees can be reconciled with each other and this ultrastructural interpretation if long-branch distortions, some mechanistically explicable, are allowed for. Bikonts comprise two groups: corticoflagellates, with a younger anterior cilium, no centrosomal cone and ancestrally a semi-rigid cell cortex with a microtubular band on either side of the posterior mature centriole; and Rhizaria [a new infrakingdom comprising Cercozoa (now including Ascetosporea classis nov.), Retaria phylum nov., Heliozoa and Apusozoa phylum nov.], having a centrosomal cone or radiating microtubules and two microtubular roots and a soft surface, frequently with reticulopodia. Corticoflagellates comprise photokaryotes (Plantae and chromalveolates, both ancestrally with cortical alveoli) and Excavata (a new protozoan infrakingdom comprising Loukozoa, Discicristata and Archezoa, ancestrally with three microtubular roots). All basal eukaryotic radiations were of mitochondrial aerobes; hydrogenosomes evolved polyphyletically from mitochondria long afterwards, the persistence of their double envelope long after their genomes disappeared being a striking instance of membrane heredity. I discuss the relationship between the 13 protozoan phyla recognized here and revise higher protozoan classification by updating as subkingdoms Lankester's 1878 division of Protozoa into Corticata (Excavata, Alveolata; with prominent cortical microtubules and ancestrally localized cytostome--the Parabasalia probably secondarily internalized the cytoskeleton) and Gymnomyxa [infrakingdoms Sarcomastigota (Choanozoa, Amoebozoa) and Rhizaria; both ancestrally with a non-cortical cytoskeleton of radiating singlet microtubules and a relatively soft cell surface with diffused feeding]. As the eukaryote root almost certainly lies within Gymnomyxa, probably among the Sarcomastigota, Corticata are derived. Following the single symbiogenetic origin of

  13. Control of zinc homeostasis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens via zur and the zinc uptake genes znuABC and zinT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhubhanil, Sakkarin; Sittipo, Panida; Chaoprasid, Paweena; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Sukchawalit, Rojana; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2014-11-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens zinc uptake regulator (Zur) was shown to negatively regulate the zinc uptake genes znuABC, encoding a zinc transport system belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, and zinT, which encodes a periplasmic zinc-binding protein. The expression of znuABC and zinT was inducible when cells were grown in medium containing a metal chelator (EDTA), and this induction was shown to be specific for zinc depletion. The expression of znuABC was reduced in response to increased zinc in a dose-dependent manner, and zinT had a less pronounced but similar pattern of zinc-regulated expression. The inactivation of zur led to constitutively high expression of znuABC and zinT. In addition, a zur mutant had an increased total zinc content compared to the WT NTL4 strain, whereas the inactivation of zinT caused a reduction in the total zinc content. The zinT gene is shown to play a dominant role and to be more important than znuA and znuB for A. tumefaciens survival under zinc deprivation. ZinT can function even when ZnuABC is inactivated. However, mutations in zur, znuA, znuB or zinT did not affect the virulence of A. tumefaciens. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.bhattacharjee@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands); Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size {approx}45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size {approx}50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  15. Functionally Relevant Residues of Cdr1p: A Multidrug ABC Transporter of Human Pathogenic Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced intracellular accumulation of drugs (due to rapid efflux mediated by the efflux pump proteins belonging to ABC (ATP Binding Cassette and MFS (Major Facilitators superfamily is one of the most common strategies adopted by multidrug resistance (MDR pathogenic yeasts. To combat MDR, it is essential to understand the structure and function of these transporters so that inhibitors/modulators to these can be developed. The sequence alignments of the ABC transporters reveal selective divergence within much conserved domains of Nucleotide-Binding Domains (NBDs which is unique to all fungal transporters. Recently, the role of conserved but divergent residues of Candida Drug Resistance 1 (CDR1, an ABC drug transporter of human pathogenic Candida albicans, has been examined with regard to ATP binding and hydrolysis. In this paper, we focus on some of the recent advances on the relevance of divergent and conserved amino acids of CaCdr1p and also discuss as to how drug interacts with Trans Membrane Domains (TMDs residues for its extrusion from MDR cells.

  16. Atypical mitochondrial inheritance patterns in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Sophie; Stewart, Donald T

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is predominantly maternally inherited in eukaryotes. Diverse molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of strict maternal inheritance (SMI) of mtDNA have been described, but the evolutionary forces responsible for its predominance in eukaryotes remain to be elucidated. Exceptions to SMI have been reported in diverse eukaryotic taxa, leading to the prediction that several distinct molecular mechanisms controlling mtDNA transmission are present among the eukaryotes. We propose that these mechanisms will be better understood by studying the deviations from the predominating pattern of SMI. This minireview summarizes studies on eukaryote species with unusual or rare mitochondrial inheritance patterns, i.e., other than the predominant SMI pattern, such as maternal inheritance of stable heteroplasmy, paternal leakage of mtDNA, biparental and strictly paternal inheritance, and doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. The potential genes and mechanisms involved in controlling mitochondrial inheritance in these organisms are discussed. The linkage between mitochondrial inheritance and sex determination is also discussed, given that the atypical systems of mtDNA inheritance examined in this minireview are frequently found in organisms with uncommon sexual systems such as gynodioecy, monoecy, or andromonoecy. The potential of deviations from SMI for facilitating a better understanding of a number of fundamental questions in biology, such as the evolution of mtDNA inheritance, the coevolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and, perhaps, the role of mitochondria in sex determination, is considerable.

  17. Comparative genomics and evolution of eukaryotic phospholipidbiosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2006-12-01

    Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses. For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Furthermore, several unicellular eukaryotes maintain bacterial-type enzymes and reactions for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system. Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase.

  18. Exploitation of eukaryotic subcellular targeting mechanisms by bacterial effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stuart W; Galán, Jorge E

    2013-05-01

    Several bacterial species have evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. These effectors have the capacity to modulate host cell pathways in order to promote bacterial survival and replication. The spatial and temporal context in which the effectors exert their biochemical activities is crucial for their function. To fully understand effector function in the context of infection, we need to understand the mechanisms that lead to the precise subcellular localization of effectors following their delivery into host cells. Recent studies have shown that bacterial effectors exploit host cell machinery to accurately target their biochemical activities within the host cell.

  19. Selective Increase of Two ABC Drug Efflux Transporters at the Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Suggests Induced Pharmacoresistance in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Michael R.; Jacob, Dena A.; Campos, Christopher; Miller, David S.; Maragakis, Nicholas J.; Pasinelli, Piera; Trotti, Davide

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters in the CNS are predominantly localized to the luminal surface of endothelial cells in capillaries to impede CNS accumulation of xenobiotics. Inflammatory mediators and cellular stressors regulate their activity. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons characterized by extensive neuroinflammation. Here we tested the hypothesis that disease-driven changes in ABC transporter expression and function occur in ALS. Given the multitude of ABC transporters with their widespread substrate recognition, we began by examining expression levels of several ABC transporters. We found a selective increase in only two transporters; P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) both at mRNA and protein levels, in the SOD1-G93A mouse model of ALS, specifically in disease-affected CNS regions. Detailed analysis revealed a similar disease-driven increase in P-gp and BCRP levels in spinal cord microvessels, indicating that their altered expression occurs at the blood spinal cord barrier. Transport activity of P-gp and BCRP increased with disease progression in spinal cord and cerebral cortex capillaries. Finally, P-gp and BCRP protein expression also increased in spinal cords of ALS patients. Preclinical drug trials in the mouse model of ALS have failed to decisively slow or arrest disease progression; pharmacoresistance imparted by ABC transporters is one possible explanation for these failures. Our observations have large implications for ALS therapeutics in humans and suggest that the obstacle provided by these transporters to drug treatments must be overcome to develop effective ALS pharmacotherapies. PMID:22521463

  20. Bacterial inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase ("IMPDH") DNA as a dominant selectable marker in mammals and other eukaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, Eliezer [Chicago, IL; Baccam, Mekhine J [Woodridge, IL

    2007-02-27

    The present invention relates to a nucleic acid sequence and its corresponding protein sequence useful as a dominant selectable marker in eukaryotes. More specifically the invention relates to a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial IMPDH gene that has been engineered into a eukaryotic expression vectors, thereby permitting bacterial IMPDH expression in mammalian cells. Bacterial IMPDH expression confers resistance to MPA which can be used as dominant selectable marker in eukaryotes including mammals. The invention also relates to expression vectors and cells that express the bacterial IMPDH gene as well as gene therapies and protein synthesis.

  1. Investigating the structural and functional features of representative recombinants of chondroitinase ABC I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Khadijeh; Shirdel, Seyedeh Akram; Shamsi, Masoumeh; Jafarian, Vahab; Khalifeh, Khosrow

    2017-12-01

    Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main inhibitors for axon regeneration after damaging of Central Nervous System (CNS). Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) can degrade CSPGs by removing chondroitin and dermatan sulfate side chains from proteoglycans. Hence, it may be considered as an attractive candidate in biomedicine. For practical applications of this enzyme, increasing the effective circulating level and reducing the number and volume of injections for patients is one of the main concerns which is directly related to conformational stability and catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. Structural examination of C-terminal domain of cABC I reveals that there are a few numbers of residues in helical conformation which are positioned at the context of a cohesive structural organization of β-strands. In line with our previous studies on C-terminal domain of cABC I and regarding the residues in α-helix conformation; we designed and constructs some representative mutants including M889K, M889L, L679D/M889K and L679S/M889K. According to structural and functional characterization of protein variants and regarding the wide range of variability in determining parameters for β-sheet conformation, we proposed a model in which the structural integrity of β-strands at C-terminal domain can be manipulated and directed toward a new patterns of organization, some of them may have positive effects on the structural and functional features of the enzyme. Using this strategy it may be possible to improve functional and structural features of the enzyme by engineering the intra-molecular interactions in positions far from the active site of the enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ABC implementation in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    iSouthern African Business Review Special Edition Accounting Research 2015. ABC implementation in ..... International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 1(2):144–150. Gunasekaran, A. ... study of a Chinese multinational company.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ABC COSTING IN A SERVICES PROVIDER COMPANY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luiz Ricardo Aguena Jacintho Gil de Castro; Fernando de Almeida Santos

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the Activity-Based Cost (ABC) method in a company of taxes and accounting services and outlines the positive and negative aspects encountered during implementation...

  4. GPS-ABC: Gaussian Process Surrogate Approximate Bayesian Computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeds, E.; Welling, M.; Zhang, N.; Tian, J.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists often express their understanding of the world through a computationally demanding simulation program. Analyzing the posterior distribution of the parameters given observations (the inverse problem) can be extremely challenging. The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework is the

  5. Compilation of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) bridges : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) technologies has been occurring across the country, many times in : isolation. Although FHWA and others have worked to facilitate communication between these efforts, there was not a : comprehensiv...

  6. The ABC daycare disaster of Hermosillo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Chang, Philip; Maguina, Pirko; Combs, Elena; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-01-01

    On June 5, 2009, the ABC Daycare facility in Hermosillo, Mexico, caught on fire with an estimated 142 children and 6 adult caregivers inside. The purpose of this article is to describe the factors contributing to the disaster including care of the survivors, tertiary burn center triage, patient transport, and treatment for this international mass casualty event. Finally, the results of an investigation performed by the Mexican Government are reviewed. A summary of the Mexican Government's investigation of the circumstances of fire and an examination of prevention lapses in other Mexican daycare centers was obtained from their public Web site. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the children transported to the burn center were obtained from the patients' medical records and transport data sheets. The ABC Daycare had many fire safety breaches that contributed to the severity of the tragedy. Twenty-nine children died at the scene and more than 35 children were hospitalized throughout Mexico. A total of 12 children were transported to two Shriners Hospitals, 9 to Sacramento, and 3 to Cincinnati. The mean age of patients sent to the Shriners Hospitals was 2.9 ± 0.16 years (2-4 years), with 5 being male and 7 female. The mean duration between injury and arrival was 9.2 ± 2.1 days, the burn size was 43.0 ± 6.8% TBSA (6.5-80%), and there were 3.75 operations per patient. Four had fourth-degree burns requiring finger amputations (2), flaps to cover bone (1), or a through-knee amputation (1). Ten patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and nine patients (seven with inhalation injury) required mechanical ventilation for a mean of 23.6 ± 10.3 days. All the surviving children were discharged after a mean length of stay of 45.9 ± 8.7 days. In the first year postinjury, seven children were readmitted a total of 11 times for reconstructive surgery, wound care, or rehabilitation. Ultimately, a total of 49 children died. A review of other daycare centers

  7. Communities of microbial eukaryotes in the mammalian gut within the context of environmental eukaryotic diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Walters, William A.; Lauber, Christian L.; Clemente, Jose C.; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Teiling, Clotilde; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Brunelle, Julie; Driscoll, Mark; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A.; Knight, Rob

    2014-06-19

    Eukaryotic microbes (protists) residing in the vertebrate gut influence host health and disease, but their diversity and distribution in healthy hosts is poorly understood. Protists found in the gut are typically considered parasites, but many are commensal and some are beneficial. Further, the hygiene hypothesis predicts that association with our co-evolved microbial symbionts may be important to overall health. It is therefore imperative that we understand the normal diversity of our eukaryotic gut microbiota to test for such effects and avoid eliminating commensal organisms. We assembled a dataset of healthy individuals from two populations, one with traditional, agrarian lifestyles and a second with modern, westernized lifestyles, and characterized the human eukaryotic microbiota via high-throughput sequencing. To place the human gut microbiota within a broader context our dataset also includes gut samples from diverse mammals and samples from other aquatic and terrestrial environments. We curated the SILVA ribosomal database to reflect current knowledge of eukaryotic taxonomy and employ it as a phylogenetic framework to compare eukaryotic diversity across environment. We show that adults from the non-western population harbor a diverse community of protists, and diversity in the human gut is comparable to that in other mammals. However, the eukaryotic microbiota of the western population appears depauperate. The distribution of symbionts found in mammals reflects both host phylogeny and diet. Eukaryotic microbiota in the gut are less diverse and more patchily distributed than bacteria. More broadly, we show that eukaryotic communities in the gut are less diverse than in aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and few taxa are shared across habitat types, and diversity patterns of eukaryotes are correlated with those observed for bacteria. These results outline the distribution and diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities in the mammalian gut and across

  8. ABC-B transporter genes in Dirofilaria immitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguinat, Catherine; Che, Hua; Mani, Thangadurai; Keller, Kathy; Prichard, Roger K

    2016-08-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode causing infection and heartworm disease in dogs and other canids, cats, and occasionally in humans. Prevention with macrocyclic lactones (ML) is recommended during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been reported. ABC-B transporter genes are thought to be involved in the mechanism of ML resistance in other nematodes. This study aimed to identify all the ABC-B transporter genes in D. immitis using as a reference the nDi.2.2 D. immitis whole genome, which is not completely annotated. Using bioinformatic tools and PCR amplification on pooled D. immitis genomic DNA and on pooled cDNA, nine ABC transporter genes including one pseudogene were characterized. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses allowed identification of three P-glycoproteins (Pgps) (Dim-pgp-3 Dim-pgp-10, Dim-pgp-11), of two ABC-B half transporter genes (one ortholog of Cel-haf-4 and Cel-haf-9; and one ortholog of Cel-haf-1 and Cel-haf-3), of one ABC half transporter gene (ortholog of Cel-haf-5) that contained an ABC-C motif, and of one additional half transporter that would require functional study for characterization. The number of ABC-B transporter genes identified was lower than in Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus. Further studies are needed to understand their possible role in ML resistance in D. immitis. These ABC transporters constitute a base for ML resistance investigation in D. immitis and advance our understanding of the molecular biology of this parasite. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Reproduction, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing questions about reproduction, individuality, and the units of selection in symbiotic associations, with special attention to the origin of the eukaryotic cell. Three kinds of reproduction are distinguished, and a possible evolutionary sequence giving rise to a mitochondrion-containing eukaryotic cell from an endosymbiotic partnership is analyzed as a series of transitions between each of the three forms of reproduction. The sequence of changes seen in this “egalitarian” evolutionary transition is compared with those that apply in “fraternal” transitions, such as the evolution of multicellularity in animals. PMID:26286983

  10. Metodologia ABC: implantação numa microempresa ABC methodology: implementation on a micro firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duran

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a implantação da metodologia de custos baseados em atividades numa microempresa do ramo metalúrgico. A proposta pretende demonstrar a viabilidade de aplicar esta técnica em empresas sem importar seu tamanho, só realizando algumas adaptações que garantam baixo investimento e curto espaço de tempo para obter os resultados. Na parte final do trabalho se realiza uma análise dos resultados obtidos verificando-se o potencial da informação gerada pela metodologia e seu uso como ferramenta de gestão.This paper presents an implementation of the activity based costing (ABC methodology in a small firm. The approach presented is intended to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the ABC methodology at any sized firm, only through few adaptations for ensuring low investments fees and speed in obtaining results and information from the system. Discussion about the results obtained during the implementation case are presented and the potential of using the information generated from the system as a managing tool is commented.

  11. Comparison of two eukaryotic systems for the expression of VP6 protein of rotavirus specie A: transient gene expression in HEK293-T cells and insect cell-baculovirus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, Haroldo Cid; da Silva E Mouta Junior, Sérgio; de Mendonça, Marcos César Lima; de Souza Pereira, Mirian Claudia; da Rocha Nogueira, Alanderson; de Azevedo, Maria Luiza Borges; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; de Moraes, Márcia Terezinha Baroni

    2012-09-01

    The VP6 protein of rotavirus A (RVA) is a target antigen used for diagnostic assays and also for the development of new RVA vaccines. We have compared the expression of VP6 protein in human embryonic kidney (HEK293-T) cells with results obtained using a well-established insect cell-baculovirus system. The recombinant VP6 (rVP6) expressed in HEK293-T cells did not present degradation and also retained the ability to form trimers. In the insect cell-baculovirus system, rVP6 was expressed at higher levels and with protein degradation as well as partial loss of ability to form trimers was observed. Therefore, HEK293-T cells represent a less laborious alternative system than insect cells for expression of rVP6 from human RVA.

  12. Biosynthesis of selenocysteine on its tRNA in eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ming Xu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenocysteine (Sec is cotranslationally inserted into protein in response to UGA codons and is the 21st amino acid in the genetic code. However, the means by which Sec is synthesized in eukaryotes is not known. Herein, comparative genomics and experimental analyses revealed that the mammalian Sec synthase (SecS is the previously identified pyridoxal phosphate-containing protein known as the soluble liver antigen. SecS required selenophosphate and O-phosphoseryl-tRNA([Ser]Sec as substrates to generate selenocysteyl-tRNA([Ser]Sec. Moreover, it was found that Sec was synthesized on the tRNA scaffold from selenide, ATP, and serine using tRNA([Ser]Sec, seryl-tRNA synthetase, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA([Ser]Sec kinase, selenophosphate synthetase, and SecS. By identifying the pathway of Sec biosynthesis in mammals, this study not only functionally characterized SecS but also assigned the function of the O-phosphoseryl-tRNA([Ser]Sec kinase. In addition, we found that selenophosphate synthetase 2 could synthesize monoselenophosphate in vitro but selenophosphate synthetase 1 could not. Conservation of the overall pathway of Sec biosynthesis suggests that this pathway is also active in other eukaryotes and archaea that synthesize selenoproteins.

  13. Interaction of triclosan with eukaryotic membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygre, Henning; Moe, Grete; Skålevik, Rita; Holmsen, Holm

    2003-06-01

    The possibility that triclosan and PVM/MA (polyvinylmethyl ether/maleic acid) copolymer, additives to dentrifrices, could interact with eukaryotic membrane lipids was studied by two methods: first, by determining the pressure/molecular area isotherms at 37 degrees C of glycerophospholipid monolayers, using the Langmuir technique; and second, by phase-transition parameters in liposomes of the same lipids, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Triclosan interacted, in a concentration-independent manner, with monolayers of saturated phosphatidylcholines (PC; i.e. markers of the outer membrane leaflet of eukaryotic cells). Triclosan and PVM/MA copolymer mixtures were shown to clearly interact in a concentration-dependent manner with PC. Triclosan was found to interact with liposomes of saturated and unsaturated phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylserines (PS; i.e. markers of the inner membrane leaflet of eukaryotic cells), and saturated ethanolamines (PE; i.e. markers of the inner membrane leaflet of eukaryotic cells), resulting in a decrease of the lipid melting temperature (Tm). PVM/MA copolymer changed the Tm of PS, PC, and PE in different manners. By adding PVM/MA or triclosan-PVM/MA copolymer mixtures to 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (SOPS) no lipid transitions were detected. A biphasic change of the PC transition temperature resulted when triclosan or triclosan PVM/MA copolymer mixtures were added, indicating domain formation and change of the lipid polymorphism.

  14. Accurate Black Hole Spin Measurements using ABC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Andrew

    time. In particular, a class of methods col- lectively called Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) is capable of exploiting the fact that it is possible to simulate instrumental effects to a high degree of accuracy in order to build reliable statistical models incorporating pile-up and related effects. With the loss of the Hitomi spacecraft, it is more important than ever to make full use of the data we collect with current instruments. We propose an ambitious program to estimate the spins of 13 black holes in X-ray binaries using observations with XMMNewton s EPIC MOS and pn, Suzaku s XIS and Chandra s ACIS and HETG instruments. We will build a general framework for dealing with pile-up in spectral modeling using ABC and refine current instrumental simulators for inclusion in this framework. Coupled with state-of-the- art sampling methods, this will allow us to take advantage of dozens of observations in the archives of all three instruments. We will be able to estimate spins to much bet- ter accuracy than ever before and test current models for black hole formation as well as jet launching mechanisms. The program will deliver a considerable legacy, because the statistical and methodological framework will be general. Application to other instruments suffering from photon pile-up, e.g. Swift/XRT, Fermi/GBM, ASCA/SIS, and GALEX, will only require is a model capable of simulating the relevant instrumental effects. This will enable other science cases beyond that proposed here which rely on precise spectral measurements or cases where pile-up cannot be avoided, e.g. high-precision radius measurements in neutron stars, understanding X-ray dust scattering, and stellar evolution studies of globular clusters.

  15. Differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected animals from vaccinated animals using a blocking ELISA based on baculovirus expressed FMDV 3ABC antigen and a 3ABC monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; de Stricker, K.; Dyrting, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    with homologous FMDV, positive reactions were obtained in all but one case. In some of these cattle the antibody response was detected late in comparison to the non-vaccinated infected cattle. The test gave results that compared favourably with two commercial ELISA's when used to test sera from cattle, pigs......A blocking ELISA that differentiated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected animals from vaccinated animals was developed which uses baculovirus expressed FMDV 3ABC non-structural protein as antigen and monoclonal antibody against FMDV 3ABC non-structural protein as capture and detector...... antibody. Sera from naive, vaccinated and infected cattle, sheep and pigs were examined. The specificity of the test was high. Non-specific reactions observed in particular in sera of cattle and sheep could be removed by filtration and inactivation. Positive reactions were obtained for sera from cattle...

  16. Single Mutation in Shine-Dalgarno-Like Sequence Present in the Amino Terminal of Lactate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium Effects the Production of an Eukaryotic Protein Expressed in a Prokaryotic System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cicek, M.; Mutlu, O.; Erdemir, A.; Ozkan, E.; Saricay, Y.; Turgut-Balik, D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important step in structure-based drug design studies is obtaining the protein in active form after cloning the target gene. In one of our previous study, it was determined that an internal Shine-Dalgarno-like sequence present just before the third methionine at N-terminus of wild

  17. "ABC's Earthquake" (Experiments and models in seismology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Ana Almeida, Portugal Almeida, Ana Escola Básica e Secundária Dr. Vieira de Carvalho Moreira da Maia, Portugal The purpose of this presentation, in poster format, is to disclose an activity which was planned and made by me, in a school on the north of Portugal, using a kit of materials simple and easy to use - the sismo-box. The activity "ABC's Earthquake" was developed under the discipline of Natural Sciences, with students from 7th grade, geosciences teachers and other areas. The possibility of work with the sismo-box was seen as an exciting and promising opportunity to promote science, seismology more specifically, to do science, when using the existing models in the box and with them implement the scientific method, to work and consolidate content and skills in the area of Natural Sciences, to have a time of sharing these materials with classmates, and also with other teachers from the different areas. Throughout the development of the activity, either with students or teachers, it was possible to see the admiration by the models presented in the earthquake-box, as well as, the interest and the enthusiasm in wanting to move and understand what the results after the proposed procedure in the script. With this activity, we managed to promote: - educational success in this subject; a "school culture" with active participation, with quality, rules, discipline and citizenship values; fully integration of students with special educational needs; strengthen the performance of the school as a cultural, informational and formation institution; provide activities to date and innovative; foment knowledge "to be, being and doing" and contribute to a moment of joy and discovery.Learn by doing!

  18. Phenotypic, Proteomic, and Genomic Characterization of a Putative ABC-Transporter Permease Involved in Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinna; Liu, Weibing; Lametsch, René

    2011-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is able to form biofilms in food processing environments. Previously, we have reported that an lm.G_1771 gene (encoding a putative ABC-transporter permease) was involved in negative regulation of L. monocytogenes biofilm formation using LM-49, a biofilm......-enhanced mutant isolated on Tn917 mutagenesis (AEM 2008 p.7675–7683). Here, the possible action of this ABC-transporter permease in L. monocytogenes biofilm formation was characterized by phenotypic, proteomic, and genomic analyses using an lm.G_1771 gene deletant (Δ1771). The Δ1771 mutant exhibited the same.......G_1771 could play a vital role in regulating candidate genes involved in biofilm formation such as genes encoding cell surface proteins (Dlt), cell surface anchor proteins (SrtA), and transcriptional regulators (GntR) contributing to negative reglution of biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes. The mutant...

  19. Searching for the fastest dynamo: laminar ABC flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Alexandros

    2011-08-01

    The growth rate of the dynamo instability as a function of the magnetic Reynolds number R(M) is investigated by means of numerical simulations for the family of the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flows and for two different forcing scales. For the ABC flows that are driven at the largest available length scale, it is found that, as the magnetic Reynolds number is increased: (a) The flow that results first in a dynamo is the 2 1/2-dimensional flow for which A=B and C=0 (and all permutations). (b) The second type of flow that results in a dynamo is the one for which A=B≃2C/5 (and permutations). (c) The most symmetric flow, A=B=C, is the third type of flow that results in a dynamo. (d) As R(M) is increased, the A=B=C flow stops being a dynamo and transitions from a local maximum to a third-order saddle point. (e) At larger R(M), the A=B=C flow reestablishes itself as a dynamo but remains a saddle point. (f) At the largest examined R(M), the growth rate of the 2 1/2-dimensional flows starts to decay, the A=B=C flow comes close to a local maximum again, and the flow A=B≃2C/5 (and permutations) results in the fastest dynamo with growth rate γ≃0.12 at the largest examined R(M). For the ABC flows that are driven at the second largest available length scale, it is found that (a) the 2 1/2-dimensional flows A=B,C=0 (and permutations) are again the first flows that result in a dynamo with a decreased onset. (b) The most symmetric flow, A=B=C, is the second type of flow that results in a dynamo. It is, and it remains, a local maximum. (c) At larger R(M), the flow A=B≃2C/5 (and permutations) appears as the third type of flow that results in a dynamo. As R(M) is increased, it becomes the flow with the largest growth rate. The growth rates appear to have some correlation with the Lyapunov exponents, but constructive refolding of the field lines appears equally important in determining the fastest dynamo flow.

  20. Novel RNA-binding protein P311 binds eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit b (eIF3b) to promote translation of transforming growth factor β1-3 (TGF-β1-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Michael M; Lv, Kaosheng; Meredith, Stephen C; Martindale, Jennifer L; Gorospe, Myriam; Schuger, Lucia

    2014-12-05

    P311, a conserved 8-kDa intracellular protein expressed in brain, smooth muscle, regenerating tissues, and malignant glioblastomas, represents the first documented stimulator of TGF-β1-3 translation in vitro and in vivo. Here we initiated efforts to define the mechanism underlying P311 function. PONDR® (Predictor Of Naturally Disordered Regions) analysis suggested and CD confirmed that P311 is an intrinsically disordered protein, therefore requiring an interacting partner to acquire tertiary structure and function. Immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectroscopy identified eIF3 subunit b (eIF3b) as a novel P311 binding partner. Immunohistochemical colocalization, GST pulldown, and surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that P311-eIF3b interaction is direct and has a Kd of 1.26 μm. Binding sites were mapped to the non-canonical RNA recognition motif of eIF3b and a central 11-amino acid-long region of P311, here referred to as eIF3b binding motif. Disruption of P311-eIF3b binding inhibited translation of TGF-β1, 2, and 3, as indicated by luciferase reporter assays, polysome fractionation studies, and Western blot analysis. RNA precipitation assays after UV cross-linking and RNA-protein EMSA demonstrated that P311 binds directly to TGF-β 5'UTRs mRNAs through a previously unidentified RNA recognition motif-like motif. Our results demonstrate that P311 is a novel RNA-binding protein that, by interacting with TGF-βs 5'UTRs and eIF3b, stimulates the translation of TGF-β1, 2, and 3. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Sequence analyses reveal that a TPR–DP module, surrounded by recombinable flanking introns, could be at the origin of eukaryotic Hop and Hip TPR–DP domains and prokaryotic GerD proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR–DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR–DP domains. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-008-0083-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18987995

  2. Sequence analyses reveal that a TPR-DP module, surrounded by recombinable flanking introns, could be at the origin of eukaryotic Hop and Hip TPR-DP domains and prokaryotic GerD proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Torres, Jorge; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR-DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR-DP domains.

  3. Insights into the Initiation of Eukaryotic DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Irina; Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Colbert, Max K; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a highly regulated event in eukaryotic cells to ensure that the entire genome is copied once and only once during S phase. The primary target of cellular regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication initiation is the assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase, the 11-subunit assembly that unwinds DNA at a replication fork. The replication fork helicase, called CMG for Cdc45-Mcm2-7, and GINS, assembles in S phase from the constituent Cdc45, Mcm2-7, and GINS proteins. The assembly and activation of the CMG replication fork helicase during S phase is governed by 2 S-phase specific kinases, CDK and DDK. CDK stimulates the interaction between Sld2, Sld3, and Dpb11, 3 initiation factors that are each required for the initiation of DNA replication. DDK, on the other hand, phosphorylates the Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 subunits of the Mcm2-7 complex. Sld3 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2-7 in a manner that depends on DDK, and recent work suggests that Sld3 binds directly to Mcm2-7 and also to single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, recent work demonstrates that Sld3 and its human homolog Treslin substantially stimulate DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. These data suggest that the initiation factor Sld3/Treslin coordinates the assembly and activation of the eukaryotic replication fork helicase by recruiting Cdc45 to Mcm2-7, stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, and binding directly to single-stranded DNA as the origin is melted.

  4. Nucleotide-induced conformational dynamics in ABC transporters from structure-based coarse grained modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechsig, Holger

    2016-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which mediate the exchange of diverse substrates across membranes powered by ATP molecules. Our understanding of their activity is still hampered since the conformational dynamics underlying the operation of such proteins cannot yet be resolved in detailed molecular dynamics studies. Here a coarse grained model which allows to mimic binding of nucleotides and follow subsequent conformational motions of full-length transporter structures in computer simulations is proposed and implemented. To justify its explanatory quality, the model is first applied to the maltose transporter system for which multiple conformations are known and we find that the model predictions agree remarkably well with the experimental data. For the MalK subunit the switching from open to the closed dimer configuration upon ATP binding is reproduced and, moreover, for the full-length maltose transporter, progression from inward-facing to the outward-facing state is correctly obtained. For the heme transporter HmuUV, for which only the free structure could yet be determined, the model was then applied to predict nucleotide-induced conformational motions. Upon binding of ATP-mimicking ligands the structure changed from a conformation in which the nucleotide-binding domains formed an open shape, to a conformation in which they were found in tight contact, while, at the same time, a pronounced rotation of the transmembrane domains was observed. This finding is supported by normal mode analysis, and, comparison with structural data of the homologous vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD suggests that the observed rotation mechanism may contribute a common functional aspect for this class of ABC transporters. Although in HmuuV noticeable rearrangement of essential transmembrane helices was detected, there are no indications from our simulations that ATP binding alone may facilitate propagation of substrate molecules in this transporter

  5. Evolution of the 2'-5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase family in eukaryotes and bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Karina Hansen; Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Reitamm, Tonu

    2009-01-01

    system. In view of these observations, we have pursued the idea that OAS genes could be present in other metazoans and in unicellular organisms as well. We have identified a number of OAS1 genes in annelids, mollusks, a cnidarian, chordates, and unicellular eukaryotes and also found a family of proteins...

  6. Unique properties of eukaryote-type actin and profilin horizontally transferred to cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Guljamow

    Full Text Available A eukaryote-type actin and its binding protein profilin encoded on a genomic island in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 co-localize to form a hollow, spherical enclosure occupying a considerable intracellular space as shown by in vivo fluorescence microscopy. Biochemical and biophysical characterization reveals key differences between these proteins and their eukaryotic homologs. Small-angle X-ray scattering shows that the actin assembles into elongated, filamentous polymers which can be visualized microscopically with fluorescent phalloidin. Whereas rabbit actin forms thin cylindrical filaments about 100 µm in length, cyanobacterial actin polymers resemble a ribbon, arrest polymerization at 5-10 µm and tend to form irregular multi-strand assemblies. While eukaryotic profilin is a specific actin monomer binding protein, cyanobacterial profilin shows the unprecedented property of decorating actin filaments. Electron micrographs show that cyanobacterial profilin stimulates actin filament bundling and stabilizes their lateral alignment into heteropolymeric sheets from which the observed hollow enclosure may be formed. We hypothesize that adaptation to the confined space of a bacterial cell devoid of binding proteins usually regulating actin polymerization in eukaryotes has driven the co-evolution of cyanobacterial actin and profilin, giving rise to an intracellular entity.

  7. Eukaryotic Ribonucleases P/MRP: the Crystal Structure of the P3 Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perederina, A.; Esakova, O; Quan, C; Khanova, E; Krasilnikov, A

    2010-01-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) P is a site-specific endoribonuclease found in all kingdoms of life. Typical RNase P consists of a catalytic RNA component and a protein moiety. In the eukaryotes, the RNase P lineage has split into two, giving rise to a closely related enzyme, RNase MRP, which has similar components but has evolved to have different specificities. The eukaryotic RNases P/MRP have acquired an essential helix-loop-helix protein-binding RNA domain P3 that has an important function in eukaryotic enzymes and distinguishes them from bacterial and archaeal RNases P. Here, we present a crystal structure of the P3 RNA domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP in a complex with RNase P/MRP proteins Pop6 and Pop7 solved to 2.7 {angstrom}. The structure suggests similar structural organization of the P3 RNA domains in RNases P/MRP and possible functions of the P3 domains and proteins bound to them in the stabilization of the holoenzymes' structures as well as in interactions with substrates. It provides the first insight into the structural organization of the eukaryotic enzymes of the RNase P/MRP family.

  8. Eukaryotic ribonucleases P/MRP: the crystal structure of the P3 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perederina, Anna; Esakova, Olga; Quan, Chao; Khanova, Elena; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2010-02-17

    Ribonuclease (RNase) P is a site-specific endoribonuclease found in all kingdoms of life. Typical RNase P consists of a catalytic RNA component and a protein moiety. In the eukaryotes, the RNase P lineage has split into two, giving rise to a closely related enzyme, RNase MRP, which has similar components but has evolved to have different specificities. The eukaryotic RNases P/MRP have acquired an essential helix-loop-helix protein-binding RNA domain P3 that has an important function in eukaryotic enzymes and distinguishes them from bacterial and archaeal RNases P. Here, we present a crystal structure of the P3 RNA domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP in a complex with RNase P/MRP proteins Pop6 and Pop7 solved to 2.7 A. The structure suggests similar structural organization of the P3 RNA domains in RNases P/MRP and possible functions of the P3 domains and proteins bound to them in the stabilization of the holoenzymes' structures as well as in interactions with substrates. It provides the first insight into the structural organization of the eukaryotic enzymes of the RNase P/MRP family.

  9. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  10. The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD): recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périer, R C; Junier, T; Bonnard, C; Bucher, P

    1999-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD) is an annotated non-redundant collection of eukaryotic POL II promoters, for which the transcription start site has been determined experimentally. Access to promoter sequences is provided by pointers to positions in nucleotide sequence entries. The annotation part of an entry includes description of the initiation site mapping data, cross-references to other databases, and bibliographic references. EPD is structured in a way that facilitates dynamic extraction of biologically meaningful promoter subsets for comparative sequence analysis. Recent efforts have focused on exhaustive cross-referencing to the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, and on the improvement of the WWW-based user interfaces and data retrieval mechanisms. EPD can be accessed at http://www.epd.isb-sib.ch

  11. The Future of Multiplexed Eukaryotic Genome Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David B; Aboulhouda, Soufiane; Hysolli, Eriona; Smith, Cory J; Wang, Stan; Castanon, Oscar; Church, George M

    2017-12-28

    Multiplex genome editing is the simultaneous introduction of multiple distinct modifications to a given genome. Though in its infancy, maturation of this field will facilitate powerful new biomedical research approaches and will enable a host of far-reaching biological engineering applications, including new therapeutic modalities and industrial applications, as well as "genome writing" and de-extinction efforts. In this Perspective, we focus on multiplex editing of large eukaryotic genomes. We describe the current state of multiplexed genome editing, the current limits of our ability to multiplex edits, and provide perspective on the many applications that fully realized multiplex editing technologies would enable in higher eukaryotic genomes. We offer a broad look at future directions, covering emergent CRISPR-based technologies, advances in intracellular delivery, and new DNA assembly approaches that may enable future genome editing on a massively multiplexed scale.

  12. Release of hyaluronate from eukaryotic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Prehm, P

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of hyaluronate shedding from eukaryotic cell lines was analysed. All cell lines shed identical sizes of hyaluronate as were retained on the surface. They differed in the amount of hyaluronate synthesized and in the proportions of hyaluronate which were released and retained. A method was developed which could discriminate between shedding due to intramolecular degradation and that due to dissociation as intact macromolecules. This method was applied to B6 and SV3T3 cells in orde...

  13. Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Colomban de; Audic, Stéphane; Henry, Nicolas; Decelle, Johan; Mahé, Frédéric; Logares, Ramiro; Lara, Enrique; Berney, Cédric; Le Bescot, Noan; Probert, Ian; Carmichael, Margaux; Poulain, Julie; Romac, Sarah; Colin, Sébastien; Aury, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Marine plankton support global biological and geochemical processes. Surveys of their biodiversity have hitherto been geographically restricted and have not accounted for the full range of plankton size. We assessed eukaryotic diversity from 334 size-fractionated photic-zone plankton communities collected across tropical and temperate oceans during the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition. We analyzed 18S ribosomal DNA sequences across the intermediate plankton-size spectrum from the smallest ...

  14. Ciliary contact interactions dominate surface scattering of swimming eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Dunkel, Jörn; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2013-01-22

    Interactions between swimming cells and surfaces are essential to many microbiological processes, from bacterial biofilm formation to human fertilization. However, despite their fundamental importance, relatively little is known about the physical mechanisms that govern the scattering of flagellated or ciliated cells from solid surfaces. A more detailed understanding of these interactions promises not only new biological insights into structure and dynamics of flagella and cilia but may also lead to new microfluidic techniques for controlling cell motility and microbial locomotion, with potential applications ranging from diagnostic tools to therapeutic protein synthesis and photosynthetic biofuel production. Due to fundamental differences in physiology and swimming strategies, it is an open question of whether microfluidic transport and rectification schemes that have recently been demonstrated for pusher-type microswimmers such as bacteria and sperm cells, can be transferred to puller-type algae and other motile eukaryotes, because it is not known whether long-range hydrodynamic or short-range mechanical forces dominate the surface interactions of these microorganisms. Here, using high-speed microscopic imaging, we present direct experimental evidence that the surface scattering of both mammalian sperm cells and unicellular green algae is primarily governed by direct ciliary contact interactions. Building on this insight, we predict and experimentally verify the existence of optimal microfluidic ratchets that maximize rectification of initially uniform Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suspensions. Because mechano-elastic properties of cilia are conserved across eukaryotic species, we expect that our results apply to a wide range of swimming microorganisms.

  15. A possible mechanism for exonuclease 1-independent eukaryotic mismatch repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyrov, Farid A.; Genschel, Jochen; Fang, Yanan; Penland, Elisabeth; Edelmann, Winfried; Modrich, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Mismatch repair contributes to genetic stability, and inactivation of the mammalian pathway leads to tumor development. Mismatch correction occurs by an excision-repair mechanism and has been shown to depend on the 5′ to 3′ hydrolytic activity exonuclease 1 (Exo1) in eukaryotic cells. However, genetic and biochemical studies have indicated that one or more Exo1-independent modes of mismatch repair also exist. We have analyzed repair of nicked circular heteroduplex DNA in extracts of Exo1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblast cells. Exo1-independent repair under these conditions is MutLα-dependent and requires functional integrity of the MutLα endonuclease metal-binding motif. In contrast to the Exo1-dependent reaction, we have been unable to detect a gapped excision intermediate in Exo1-deficient extracts when repair DNA synthesis is blocked. A possible explanation for this finding has been provided by analysis of a purified system comprised of MutSα, MutLα, replication factor C, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, replication protein A, and DNA polymerase δ that supports Exo1-independent repair in vitro. Repair in this system depends on MutLα incision of the nicked heteroduplex strand and dNTP-dependent synthesis-driven displacement of a DNA segment spanning the mismatch. Such a mechanism may account, at least in part, for the Exo1-independent repair that occurs in eukaryotic cells, and hence the modest cancer predisposition of Exo1-deficient mammalian cells. PMID:19420220

  16. Eukaryotic RNA polymerase subunit RPB8 is a new relative of the OB family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, S; Kelly, G; Reischl, J; Weinzierl, R O; Matthews, S

    1998-02-01

    RNA polymerase II subunit RPB8 is an essential subunit that is highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution and is present in all three types of nuclear RNA polymerases. We report the first high resolution structural insight into eukaryotic RNA polymerase architecture with the solution structure of RPB8 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It consists of an eight stranded, antiparallel beta-barrel, four short helical regions and a large, unstructured omega-loop. The strands are connected in classic Greek-key fashion. The overall topology is unusual and contains a striking C2 rotational symmetry. Furthermore, it is most likely a novel associate of the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide (OB) binding protein class.

  17. Enzymes from Higher Eukaryotes for Industrial Biocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Liu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial production of fine chemicals, feed and food ingredients, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and their respective intermediates relies on an increasing application of biocatalysis, i.e. on enzyme or whole-cell catalyzed conversions of molecules. Simple procedures for discovery, cloning and over-expression as well as fast growth favour fungi, yeasts and especially bacteria as sources of biocatalysts. Higher eukaryotes also harbour an almost unlimited number of potential biocatalysts, although to date the limited supply of enzymes, the high heterogeneity of enzyme preparations and the hazard of infectious contaminants keep some interesting candidates out of reach for industrial bioprocesses. In the past only a few animal and plant enzymes from agricultural waste materials were employed in food processing. The use of bacterial expression strains or non-conventional yeasts for the heterologous production of efficient eukaryotic enzymes can overcome the bottleneck in enzyme supply and provide sufficient amounts of homogenous enzyme preparations for reliable and economically feasible applications at large scale. Ideal enzymatic processes represent an environmentally friendly, »near-to-completion« conversion of (mostly non-natural substrates to pure products. Recent developments demonstrate the commercial feasibility of large-scale biocatalytic processes employing enzymes from higher eukaryotes (e.g. plants, animals and also their usefulness in some small-scale industrial applications.

  18. ABC drug transporters: hereditary polymorphisms and pharmacological impact in MDR1, MRP1 and MRP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerb, R; Hoffmeyer, S; Brinkmann, U

    2001-02-01

    Transport by ATP-dependent efflux pumps, such as P-glycoprotein (PGP) and multi-drug resistance related proteins (MRPs), influences bioavailability and disposition of drugs. These efflux pumps serve as defence mechanisms and determine bioavailability and CNS concentrations of many drugs. However, despite the fact that substantial data have been accumulated on the structure, function and pharmacological role of ABC transporters and even though modification of PGP function is an important mechanism of drug interactions and adverse effects in humans, there is a striking lack of data on variability of the underlying genes. This review focuses on the human drug transporter proteins PGP (MDR1) and the multi-drug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2. An overview is provided of pharmacologically relevant genetic, structural and functional data as well as on hereditary polymorphisms, their phenotypical consequences and pharmacological implications.

  19. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe mam1 gene encodes an ABC transporter mediating secretion of M-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P U; Davey, William John; Nielsen, O

    1997-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cells of opposite mating type communicate via diffusible peptide pheromones prior to mating. We have cloned the S. pombe mam1 gene, which encodes a 1336-amino acid protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. The mam1 gene is only...... expressed in M cells and the gene product is responsible for the secretion of the mating pheromone. M-factor, a nonapeptide that is S-farnesylated and carboxy-methylated on its C-terminal cysteine residue. The predicted Mam1 protein is highly homologous to mammalian multiple drug-resistance proteins...... and to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE6 gene product, which mediates export of a-factor mating pheromone. We show that STE6 can also mediate secretion of M-factor in S. pombe....

  20. Pseudo-immunolabelling with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) due to the presence of endogenous biotin in retinal Müller cells of goldfish and salamander

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharjee, J.; Nunes Cardozo, B.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.; Vrensen, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Immunodetection techniques are dependent on enzyme-protein conjugates for the visualisation of antigen-antibody complexes. One of the most widely used is the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. The present study demonstrates that direct treatment of goldfish and salamander retinal

  1. The Escherichia coli TatABC system and a Bacillus subtilis TatAC-type system recognise three distinct targeting determinants in twin-arginine signal peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendel, Sharon; McCarthy, Andrew; Barnett, James P.; Eijlander, Robyn T.; Nenninger, Anja; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Robinson, Colin

    2008-01-01

    The Tat system transports folded proteins across bacterial and thylakoid membranes. In Gram-negative organisms, it is encoded by tatABC genes and the system recognizes substrates bearing signal peptides with a conserved twin-arginine motif. Most Gram-positive organisms lack a tatB gene, indicating

  2. ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

    1996-04-01

    Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC.

  3. Costs equations for cost modeling: application of ABC Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fabiano Bertollo Santana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at providing an application of the ABC Matrix model - a management tool that models processes and activities. The ABC Matrix is based on matrix multiplication, using a fast algorithm for the development of costing systems and the subsequent translation of the costs in cost equations and systems. The research methodology is classified as a case study, using the simulation data to validate the model. The conclusion of the research is that the algorithm presented is an important development, because it is an effective approach to calculating the product cost and because it provides simple and flexible algorithm design software for controlling the cost of products

  4. Sistema de costos ABC, en la mediana empresa industrial mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    López-Mejía, María Rosa; Universidad Autónoma de Puebla; Gómez-Martínez, Alicia; Universidad Autónoma de Puebla; Marín-Hernández, Salvador; Universidad de Murcia

    2011-01-01

    La gestión de costos en las empresas es un tema relevante en el ámbito de fuerte competencia de los mercados globales. En aras de mejorar su eficiencia, algunas compañías han adoptado el Sistema de Costos Basado en Actividades (ABC). Por tal motivo, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, en la práctica, por qué una empresa ha adoptado el ABC. La investigación se realizó con una empresa mediana industrial de Puebla, México, a la cual se le aplicó un estudio de caso y se buscó conocer: los mo...

  5. Playware ABC 2: a Disruptive Technology for Global Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2017-01-01

    The Playware ABC concept is used to create solutions that are usable by all kinds of users and contexts in our globalized society. In this paper, the Playware ABC can be exemplified with the development of the modular interactive tiles for health prevention and rehabilitation of anybody, anywhere......, anytime. The paper gives examples of how playware becomes a disruptive technology for global development, for instance in the health sector. For instance, in Tanzania doctors and community-based rehabilitation workers are constructing and combining modular playware tiles to easily create the right kind...... of intervention for their patients in both urban and deep rural areas in Tanzania....

  6. A novel protein kinase-like domain in a selenoprotein, widespread in the tree of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dudkiewicz

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins serve important functions in many organisms, usually providing essential oxidoreductase enzymatic activity, often for defense against toxic xenobiotic substances. Most eukaryotic genomes possess a small number of these proteins, usually not more than 20. Selenoproteins belong to various structural classes, often related to oxidoreductase function, yet a few of them are completely uncharacterised.Here, the structural and functional prediction for the uncharacterised selenoprotein O (SELO is presented. Using bioinformatics tools, we predict that SELO protein adopts a three-dimensional fold similar to protein kinases. Furthermore, we argue that despite the lack of conservation of the "classic" catalytic aspartate residue of the archetypical His-Arg-Asp motif, SELO kinases might have retained catalytic phosphotransferase activity, albeit with an atypical active site. Lastly, the role of the selenocysteine residue is considered and the possibility of an oxidoreductase-regulated kinase function for SELO is discussed.The novel kinase prediction is discussed in the context of functional data on SELO orthologues in model organisms, FMP40 a.k.a.YPL222W (yeast, and ydiU (bacteria. Expression data from bacteria and yeast suggest a role in oxidative stress response. Analysis of genomic neighbourhoods of SELO homologues in the three domains of life points toward a role in regulation of ABC transport, in oxidative stress response, or in basic metabolism regulation. Among bacteria possessing SELO homologues, there is a significant over-representation of aquatic organisms, also of aerobic ones. The selenocysteine residue in SELO proteins occurs only in few members of this protein family, including proteins from Metazoa, and few small eukaryotes (Ostreococcus, stramenopiles. It is also demonstrated that enterobacterial mchC proteins involved in maturation of bactericidal antibiotics, microcins, form a distant subfamily of the SELO proteins.The new

  7. Exploring the roles of basal transcription factor 3 in eukaryotic growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Wang, Wenyi; Xu, Mengyun; Tu, Jumin

    2015-01-01

    Basal transcription factor 3 (BTF3) has been reported to play a significant part in the transcriptional regulation linking with eukaryotes growth and development. Alteration in the BTF3 gene expression patterns or variation in their activities adds to the explanation of different signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Moreover, BTF3s often respond to numerous stresses, and subsequently they are involved in regulation of various mechanisms. BTF3 proteins also function through protein-protein contact, which can assist us to identify the multifaceted processes of signaling and transcriptional regulation controlled by BTF3 proteins. In this review, we discuss current advances made in starting to explore the roles of BTF3 transcription factors in eukaryotes especially in plant growth and development.

  8. What's in a genome? The C-value enigma and the evolution of eukaryotic genome content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Tyler A; Gregory, T Ryan

    2015-09-26

    Some notable exceptions aside, eukaryotic genomes are distinguished from those of Bacteria and Archaea in a number of ways, including chromosome structure and number, repetitive DNA content, and the presence of introns in protein-coding regions. One of the most notable differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes is in size. Unlike their prokaryotic counterparts, eukaryotes exhibit enormous (more than 60,000-fold) variability in genome size which is not explained by differences in gene number. Genome size is known to correlate with cell size and division rate, and by extension with numerous organism-level traits such as metabolism, developmental rate or body size. Less well described are the relationships between genome size and other properties of the genome, such as gene content, transposable element content, base pair composition and related features. The rapid expansion of 'complete' genome sequencing projects has, for the first time, made it possible to examine these relationships across a wide range of eukaryotes in order to shed new light on the causes and correlates of genome size diversity. This study presents the results of phylogenetically informed comparisons of genome data for more than 500 species of eukaryotes. Several relationships are described between genome size and other genomic parameters, and some recommendations are presented for how these insights can be extended even more broadly in the future. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Structural basis for the initiation of eukaryotic transcription-coupled DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jun; Lahiri, Indrajit; Wang, Wei; Wier, Adam; Cianfrocco, Michael A.; Chong, Jenny; Hare, Alissa A.; Dervan, Peter B.; DiMaio, Frank; Leschziner, Andres E.; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is an important and well-conserved sub-pathway of nucleotide excision repair that preferentially removes DNA lesions from the template strand that block translocation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB, also known as ERCC6) protein in humans (or its yeast orthologues, Rad26 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhp26 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is among the first proteins to be recruited to the lesion-arrested Pol II during ...

  10. Convergent use of RhoGAP toxins by eukaryotic parasites and bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Colinet

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of host Rho GTPases is a widespread strategy employed by bacterial pathogens to manipulate mammalian cellular functions and avoid immune defenses. Some bacterial toxins mimic eukaryotic Rho GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs to inactivate mammalian GTPases, probably as a result of evolutionary convergence. An intriguing question remains whether eukaryotic pathogens or parasites may use endogenous GAPs as immune-suppressive toxins to target the same key genes as bacterial pathogens. Interestingly, a RhoGAP domain-containing protein, LbGAP, was recently characterized from the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and shown to protect parasitoid eggs from the immune response of Drosophila host larvae. We demonstrate here that LbGAP has structural characteristics of eukaryotic RhoGAPs but that it acts similarly to bacterial RhoGAP toxins in mammals. First, we show by immunocytochemistry that LbGAP enters Drosophila immune cells, plasmatocytes and lamellocytes, and that morphological changes in lamellocytes are correlated with the quantity of LbGAP they contain. Demonstration that LbGAP displays a GAP activity and specifically interacts with the active, GTP-bound form of the two Drosophila Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2, both required for successful encapsulation of Leptopilina eggs, was then achieved using biochemical tests, yeast two-hybrid analysis, and GST pull-down assays. In addition, we show that the overall structure of LbGAP is similar to that of eukaryotic RhoGAP domains, and we identify distinct residues involved in its interaction with Rac GTPases. Altogether, these results show that eukaryotic parasites can use endogenous RhoGAPs as virulence factors and that despite their differences in sequence and structure, eukaryotic and bacterial RhoGAP toxins are similarly used to target the same immune pathways in insects and mammals.

  11. Interaction between Polypeptide 3ABC and the 5′-Terminal Structural Elements of the Genome of Aichi Virus: Implication for Negative-Strand RNA Synthesis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Shigeo; Sasaki, Jun; Taniguchi, Koki

    2008-01-01

    Secondary structural elements at the 5′ end of picornavirus genomic RNA function as cis-acting replication elements and are known to interact specifically with viral P3 proteins in several picornaviruses. In poliovirus, ribonucleoprotein complex formation at the 5′ end of the genome is required for negative-strand synthesis. We have previously shown that the 5′-end 115 nucleotides of the Aichi virus genome, which are predicted to fold into two stem-loops (SL-A and SL-C) and one pseudoknot (PK-B), act as a cis-acting replication element and that correct folding of these structures is required for negative-strand synthesis. In this study, we investigated the interaction between the 5′-terminal 120 nucleotides of the genome and the P3 proteins, 3AB, 3ABC, 3C, and 3CD, by gel shift assay and Northwestern analysis. The results showed that 3ABC and 3CD bound to the 5′-terminal region specifically. The binding of 3ABC was observed on both assays, while that of 3CD was detected only on Northwestern analysis. No binding of 3AB or 3C was observed. Binding assays using mutant RNAs demonstrated that disruption of the base pairings of the stem of SL-A and one of the two stem segments of PK-B (stem-B1) abolished the 3ABC binding. In addition, the specific nucleotide sequence of stem-B1 was responsible for the efficient 3ABC binding. These results suggest that the interaction of 3ABC with the 5′-terminal region of the genome is involved in negative-strand synthesis. On the other hand, the ability of 3CD to interact with the 5′-terminal region did not correlate with the RNA replication ability. PMID:18448525

  12. Interaction between polypeptide 3ABC and the 5'-terminal structural elements of the genome of Aichi virus: implication for negative-strand RNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Shigeo; Sasaki, Jun; Taniguchi, Koki

    2008-07-01

    Secondary structural elements at the 5' end of picornavirus genomic RNA function as cis-acting replication elements and are known to interact specifically with viral P3 proteins in several picornaviruses. In poliovirus, ribonucleoprotein complex formation at the 5' end of the genome is required for negative-strand synthesis. We have previously shown that the 5'-end 115 nucleotides of the Aichi virus genome, which are predicted to fold into two stem-loops (SL-A and SL-C) and one pseudoknot (PK-B), act as a cis-acting replication element and that correct folding of these structures is required for negative-strand synthesis. In this study, we investigated the interaction between the 5'-terminal 120 nucleotides of the genome and the P3 proteins, 3AB, 3ABC, 3C, and 3CD, by gel shift assay and Northwestern analysis. The results showed that 3ABC and 3CD bound to the 5'-terminal region specifically. The binding of 3ABC was observed on both assays, while that of 3CD was detected only on Northwestern analysis. No binding of 3AB or 3C was observed. Binding assays using mutant RNAs demonstrated that disruption of the base pairings of the stem of SL-A and one of the two stem segments of PK-B (stem-B1) abolished the 3ABC binding. In addition, the specific nucleotide sequence of stem-B1 was responsible for the efficient 3ABC binding. These results suggest that the interaction of 3ABC with the 5'-terminal region of the genome is involved in negative-strand synthesis. On the other hand, the ability of 3CD to interact with the 5'-terminal region did not correlate with the RNA replication ability.

  13. Gene expression of ABC transporters in Cooperia oncophora after field and laboratory selection with macrocyclic lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tydén, Eva; Skarin, Moa; Höglund, Johan

    2014-12-01

    The most widespread helminth parasites of grazing cattle in northern Europe are the gastrointestinal nematodes Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. Heavy reliance on the use of macrocyclic lactone (ML) in cattle has led to world-wide emergence of resistance to this drug class in C. oncophora. There is evidence that members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, such as P-glycoproteins (P-gp) and multidrug-resistant proteins (MRP), play a role in resistance to ML. In this study gene expression of Con-pgp9, Con-pgp11, Con-pgp12, Con-pgp16 and Con-mrp1 was examined in two isolates of C. oncophora sharing the same genetic background but exposed to ML differently. For isolate one (Laboratory-selected), adult worms were recovered before and after treatment with ML in vivo. For isolate two (Field-selected), adult worms were collected from tracer animals that had never received anthelmintics themselves. One group grazed together with untreated animals and one group grazed with animals that received suppressive prophylactic treatment with ML at monthly intervals for up to two consecutive grazing seasons. Real-time PCR data demonstrated differences in gene expression after ML selection, with the highest constitutive expression levels for Con-pgp16 and Con-mrp1. Remarkably, the same pattern of increasing expression levels of the ABC transport genes was observed in both Laboratory- and Field-selected isolates, despite the Field-selected isolate not being directly exposed to ML. The higher expression levels of ABC transporters observed in the Field-selected isolate was thus not a response to direct exposure to ML, but rather appeared to reflect a genetic characteristic inherited from worms in the previous generation which had survived exposure to ML in the co-grazing treated animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotes: The weak-link model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    The significance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic evolution remains controversial. Although many eukaryotic genes are of bacterial origin, they are often interpreted as being derived from mitochondria or plastids. Because of their fixed gene pool and gene loss, however, mitochondria and plastids alone cannot adequately explain the presence of all, or even the majority, of bacterial genes in eukaryotes. Available data indicate that no insurmountable barrier to HGT exists, even in complex multicellular eukaryotes. In addition, the discovery of both recent and ancient HGT events in all major eukaryotic groups suggests that HGT has been a regular occurrence throughout the history of eukaryotic evolution. A model of HGT is proposed that suggests both unicellular and early developmental stages as likely entry points for foreign genes into multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:24037739

  15. Patterns of prokaryotic lateral gene transfers affecting parasitic microbial eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmark, Cecilia; Foster, Peter G; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influence of lateral gene transfer on gene origins and biology in eukaryotes is poorly understood compared with those of prokaryotes. A number of independent investigations focusing on specific genes, individual genomes, or specific functional categories from various eukaryotes have...... indicated that lateral gene transfer does indeed affect eukaryotic genomes. However, the lack of common methodology and criteria in these studies makes it difficult to assess the general importance and influence of lateral gene transfer on eukaryotic genome evolution. RESULTS: We used a phylogenomic...... approach to systematically investigate lateral gene transfer affecting the proteomes of thirteen, mainly parasitic, microbial eukaryotes, representing four of the six eukaryotic super-groups. All of the genomes investigated have been significantly affected by prokaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers...

  16. Tuning the drug efflux activity of an ABC transporter in vivo by in vitro selected DARPin binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A Seeger

    Full Text Available ABC transporters use the energy from binding and hydrolysis of ATP to import or extrude substrates across the membrane. Using ribosome display, we raised designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins against detergent solubilized LmrCD, a heterodimeric multidrug ABC exporter from Lactococcus lactis. Several target-specific DARPin binders were identified that bind to at least three distinct, partially overlapping epitopes on LmrD in detergent solution as well as in native membranes. Remarkably, functional screening of the LmrCD-specific DARPin pools in L. lactis revealed three homologous DARPins which, when generated in LmrCD-expressing cells, strongly activated LmrCD-mediated drug transport. As LmrCD expression in the cell membrane was unaltered upon the co-expression of activator DARPins, the activation is suggested to occur at the level of LmrCD activity. Consistent with this, purified activator DARPins were found to stimulate the ATPase activity of LmrCD in vitro when reconstituted in proteoliposomes. This study suggests that membrane transporters are tunable in vivo by in vitro selected binding proteins. Our approach could be of biopharmaceutical importance and might facilitate studies on molecular mechanisms of ABC transporters.

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breinig Tanja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic viruses, the elucidation of key processes in viral replication through the development of systems that allow the replication of higher eukayotic viruses in yeast, and the use of yeast in antiviral drug development and vaccine production.

  18. A general strategy to construct small molecule biosensors in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Justin; Jester, Benjamin W; Tinberg, Christine E; Mandell, Daniel J; Antunes, Mauricio S; Chari, Raj; Morey, Kevin J; Rios, Xavier; Medford, June I; Church, George M; Fields, Stanley; Baker, David

    2015-12-29

    Biosensors for small molecules can be used in applications that range from metabolic engineering to orthogonal control of transcription. Here, we produce biosensors based on a ligand-binding domain (LBD) by using a method that, in principle, can be applied to any target molecule. The LBD is fused to either a fluorescent protein or a transcriptional activator and is destabilized by mutation such that the fusion accumulates only in cells containing the target ligand. We illustrate the power of this method by developing biosensors for digoxin and progesterone. Addition of ligand to yeast, mammalian, or plant cells expressing a biosensor activates transcription with a dynamic range of up to ~100-fold. We use the biosensors to improve the biotransformation of pregnenolone to progesterone in yeast and to regulate CRISPR activity in mammalian cells. This work provides a general methodology to develop biosensors for a broad range of molecules in eukaryotes.

  19. A tree of life based on ninety-eight expressed genes conserved across diverse eukaryotic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Jayaswal

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies have resulted in the accumulation of large data sets in the public domain, facilitating comparative studies to provide novel insights into the evolution of life. Phylogenetic studies across the eukaryotic taxa have been reported but on the basis of a limited number of genes. Here we present a genome-wide analysis across different plant, fungal, protist, and animal species, with reference to the 36,002 expressed genes of the rice genome. Our analysis revealed 9831 genes unique to rice and 98 genes conserved across all 49 eukaryotic species analysed. The 98 genes conserved across diverse eukaryotes mostly exhibited binding and catalytic activities and shared common sequence motifs; and hence appeared to have a common origin. The 98 conserved genes belonged to 22 functional gene families including 26S protease, actin, ADP-ribosylation factor, ATP synthase, casein kinase, DEAD-box protein, DnaK, elongation factor 2, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphatase 2A, ras-related protein, Ser/Thr protein phosphatase family protein, tubulin, ubiquitin and others. The consensus Bayesian eukaryotic tree of life developed in this study demonstrated widely separated clades of plants, fungi, and animals. Musa acuminata provided an evolutionary link between monocotyledons and dicotyledons, and Salpingoeca rosetta provided an evolutionary link between fungi and animals, which indicating that protozoan species are close relatives of fungi and animals. The divergence times for 1176 species pairs were estimated accurately by integrating fossil information with synonymous substitution rates in the comprehensive set of 98 genes. The present study provides valuable insight into the evolution of eukaryotes.

  20. Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrillo Juan I

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell growth underlies many key cellular and developmental processes, yet a limited number of studies have been carried out on cell-growth regulation. Comprehensive studies at the transcriptional, proteomic and metabolic levels under defined controlled conditions are currently lacking. Results Metabolic control analysis is being exploited in a systems biology study of the eukaryotic cell. Using chemostat culture, we have measured the impact of changes in flux (growth rate on the transcriptome, proteome, endometabolome and exometabolome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each functional genomic level shows clear growth-rate-associated trends and discriminates between carbon-sufficient and carbon-limited conditions. Genes consistently and significantly upregulated with increasing growth rate are frequently essential and encode evolutionarily conserved proteins of known function that participate in many protein-protein interactions. In contrast, more unknown, and fewer essential, genes are downregulated with increasing growth rate; their protein products rarely interact with one another. A large proportion of yeast genes under positive growth-rate control share orthologs with other eukaryotes, including humans. Significantly, transcription of genes encoding components of the TOR complex (a major controller of eukaryotic cell growth is not subject to growth-rate regulation. Moreover, integrative studies reveal the extent and importance of post-transcriptional control, patterns of control of metabolic fluxes at the level of enzyme synthesis, and the relevance of specific enzymatic reactions in the control of metabolic fluxes during cell growth. Conclusion This work constitutes a first comprehensive systems biology study on growth-rate control in the eukaryotic cell. The results have direct implications for advanced studies on cell growth, in vivo regulation of metabolic fluxes for comprehensive metabolic engineering, and for

  1. Dynamics of 'abc' and 'qd' constant parameters induction generator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajardo-R, L.A.; Medina, A.; Iov, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, parametric sensibility effects on dynamics of the induction generator in the presence of local perturbations are investigated. The study is conducted in a 3x2 MW wind park dealing with abc, qd0 and qd reduced order, induction generator model respectively, and with fluxes as state v...

  2. Sistema de costos ABC en la mediana empresa industrial mexicana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez-Mejia, Maria Rosa; Gomez-Martinez, Alicia; Marin-Hernandez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    ... industriales; aunado a lo antes expuesto, se advierte que el sistema de costos ABC o ABM, llamado asi por sus siglas en ingles activity-based costing o activity based management, resulta interesante y conveniente para empresas en ambientes competitivos que requieren reducir costos (Chenhall & Langfield-Smith, 1998). Constantemente se senala que el sistema d...

  3. I am Calm: Towards a Psychoneurological Evaluation of ABC Ringtones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N.A. Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology-Based Computing (ABC suggests that socio-cultural, neurological, and physiological parameters of normal human interaction with the world can be applied to current technology in order to improve Human-Computer Interaction (HCI. To challenge this theory, we hypothesized smartphone ringtones that could be targeted to specific people in a manner that would inform them without disturbing their work or the work of others. In this paper we report the quantitative data from the first formal trials of these ‘ABC ringtones’. Beta Wave activity patterns were recorded in the brains of 10 participants exposed to 5 different ringtones at three different volumes while they were focused on performing a typing test in a noisy environment. Our preliminary findings seem to show that the ABC ringtones - at a volume too low to be consciously heard - triggered a response in the pre-attentive part of the brain, and that the embedded information was transferred to the attentive part of the brain by an internal mechanism that did not disrupt the work being done in the typing task. We propose that these results provide preliminary evidence for the ABC model of HCI and its explanation of the centering mechanism that is requisite if Peripheral Interaction is to be applied in changing Ubiquitous Computing into Calm Technology.

  4. The Value of Green Technology at ABC Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    A challenge facing community colleges nationwide is to reduce the carbon footprint of campuses by initiating green technology initiatives. This case study assessed the effect of switching from paper assignments to a learning management system at ABC Community College. The topic is important because federal and state funding, as well as…

  5. Hernie de richter revelee par un abces inguinal droit | Kanassoua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : la hernie de Richter est une forme rare de diagnostic difficile à cause de sa symptomatologie atypique. Le retard de consultation favorise le développement de phlegmon pyostercoral. Mots-clés : Hernie de Richter, étranglement, abcès. Richter hernia revealed by right inguinal abscess. Objectives: Report a ...

  6. ABC transporters from Botrytis cinerea in biotic and abiotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, H.

    2004-01-01

    Botrytis cinereais the causal agent of grey mould disease on a wide variety of crop plants. It is relatively insensitive to natural and synthetic fungitoxic compounds. This thesis describes how ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters contribute to protection by actively

  7. ABC transporters van Botrytis cinerea in biotische en abiotische interacties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, H.

    2005-01-01

    Op 29 november 2004 promoveerde Henk-jan Schoonbeek aan Wageningen Universiteit op het proefschrift getiteld 'ABC transporters from Botrytis cinerea in biotic and abiotic interactions'. Promotor was Prof. dr. ir. P.J.G.M. de Wit en co-promotor was dr.ir. M.A. de Waard, leerstoelgroep Fytopathologie,

  8. Selections from the ABC 2012 Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2013-01-01

    The 13 Favorite Assignments featured here were presented at the 2012 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii. A variety of learning objectives are featured, including the following: enhancing resume's visual impact, interpersonal skills, social media, team building, web design, community service projects,…

  9. ABC transporter genes and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Møller, Holger Jon

    2012-01-01

    Alterations of pancreatic β-cell cholesterol content may contribute to β-cell dysfunction. Two important determinants of intracellular cholesterol content are the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters A1 (ABCA1) and -G1 (ABCG1). Whether genetic variation in ABCA1 and ABCG1 predicts risk of type 2...... diabetes in the general population is unknown....

  10. Accelerated bridge construction (ABC) decision making and economic modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In this FHWA-sponsored pool funded study, a set of decision making tools, based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was developed. This tool set is prepared for transportation specialists and decision-makers to determine if ABC is more effective ...

  11. ABC of oral bioavailability: transporters as gatekeepers in the gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, C. G.; Geier, A.; Oude Elferink, R. P. J.

    2003-01-01

    MDR1 (ABCB1), MRP2 (ABCC2), and BCRP (ABCG2) are members of the family of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These are plasma membrane transporters that are expressed in various organs. The role of MDR1 and MRP2 in the hepatobiliary system is well defined; both contribute to bile formation by

  12. Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB Recovery Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungor, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2008-01-01

    In a human predictive learning experiment, the strengths of ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects after discrimination reversal learning were compared. Initially, a discrimination between two stimuli (X+, Y-) was trained in Context A. During Phase 2, participants received discrimination reversal training (X-, Y+) either in Context A (Group AAB) or in…

  13. O subsistema americano, Rio Branco e o ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Frazão Conduru

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as motivações e objetivos que levaram o Brasil a participar de negociações com a Argentina e o Chile, entre 1907 e 1915, para a assinatura de um tratado de "cordial inteligência política", conhecido como ABC. Com vistas a situar essa iniciativa no contexto internacional do período, examina a configuração do subsistema americano bem como o papel do pan-americanismo. A fim de identificar seu significado político, analisa os fundamentos da política externa de Rio Branco (1902-1912 e as mais relevantes interpretações do ABC na historiografia, utilizando como recursos metodológicos os conceitos de sistemas de Estados e de hegemonia.The article discusses the motivations and purposes that lead Brazil to take part in negotiations with Argentina and Chile, between 1907 and 1915, to sign a treaty of "friendly political intelligence", known as ABC. In order to place this initiative in the international context of the period, the article surveys the characteristics of the American international system as well as the role played by pan-americanism. To identify its political significance, it studies the foundations of Rio Branco's foreign policy (1902-1912 and the most relevant interpretations of the ABC in the historiography using the concepts of states system and hegemony as methodological resources.

  14. A biobrick library for cloning custom eukaryotic plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante, Marco; Grünberg, Raik; Isalan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often require customised variations of plasmids that are not commercially available. Here we demonstrate the applicability and versatility of standard synthetic biological parts (biobricks) to build custom plasmids. For this purpose we have built a collection of 52 parts that include multiple cloning sites (MCS) and common protein tags, protein reporters and selection markers, amongst others. Importantly, most of the parts are designed in a format to allow fusions that maintain the reading frame. We illustrate the collection by building several model contructs, including concatemers of protein binding-site motifs, and a variety of plasmids for eukaryotic stable cloning and chromosomal insertion. For example, in 3 biobrick iterations, we make a cerulean-reporter plasmid for cloning fluorescent protein fusions. Furthermore, we use the collection to implement a recombinase-mediated DNA insertion (RMDI), allowing chromosomal site-directed exchange of genes. By making one recipient stable cell line, many standardised cell lines can subsequently be generated, by fluorescent fusion-gene exchange. We propose that this biobrick collection may be distributed peer-to-peer as a stand-alone library, in addition to its distribution through the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (http://partsregistry.org/).

  15. A biobrick library for cloning custom eukaryotic plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Constante

    Full Text Available Researchers often require customised variations of plasmids that are not commercially available. Here we demonstrate the applicability and versatility of standard synthetic biological parts (biobricks to build custom plasmids. For this purpose we have built a collection of 52 parts that include multiple cloning sites (MCS and common protein tags, protein reporters and selection markers, amongst others. Importantly, most of the parts are designed in a format to allow fusions that maintain the reading frame. We illustrate the collection by building several model contructs, including concatemers of protein binding-site motifs, and a variety of plasmids for eukaryotic stable cloning and chromosomal insertion. For example, in 3 biobrick iterations, we make a cerulean-reporter plasmid for cloning fluorescent protein fusions. Furthermore, we use the collection to implement a recombinase-mediated DNA insertion (RMDI, allowing chromosomal site-directed exchange of genes. By making one recipient stable cell line, many standardised cell lines can subsequently be generated, by fluorescent fusion-gene exchange. We propose that this biobrick collection may be distributed peer-to-peer as a stand-alone library, in addition to its distribution through the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (http://partsregistry.org/.

  16. Structural genomics of eukaryotic targets at a laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Didier; Poussin-Courmontagne, Pierre; Rosé, David; Ripp, Raymond; Litt, Alain; Thierry, Jean-Claude; Moras, Dino

    2005-01-01

    Structural genomics programs are distributed worldwide and funded by large institutions such as the NIH in United-States, the RIKEN in Japan or the European Commission through the SPINE network in Europe. Such initiatives, essentially managed by large consortia, led to technology and method developments at the different steps required to produce biological samples compatible with structural studies. Besides specific applications, method developments resulted mainly upon miniaturization and parallelization. The challenge that academic laboratories faces to pursue structural genomics programs is to produce, at a higher rate, protein samples. The Structural Biology and Genomics Department (IGBMC - Illkirch - France) is implicated in a structural genomics program of high eukaryotes whose goal is solving crystal structures of proteins and their complexes (including large complexes) related to human health and biotechnology. To achieve such a challenging goal, the Department has established a medium-throughput pipeline for producing protein samples suitable for structural biology studies. Here, we describe the setting up of our initiative from cloning to crystallization and we demonstrate that structural genomics may be manageable by academic laboratories by strategic investments in robotic and by adapting classical bench protocols and new developments, in particular in the field of protein expression, to parallelization.

  17. Structure of a eukaryotic SWEET transporter in a homotrimeric complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yuyong; Cheung, Lily S; Li, Shuo; Eom, Joon-Seob; Chen, Li-Qing; Xu, Yan; Perry, Kay; Frommer, Wolf B; Feng, Liang

    2015-11-12

    Eukaryotes rely on efficient distribution of energy and carbon skeletons between organs in the form of sugars. Glucose in animals and sucrose in plants serve as the dominant distribution forms. Cellular sugar uptake and release require vesicular and/or plasma membrane transport proteins. Humans and plants use proteins from three superfamilies for sugar translocation: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the sodium solute symporter family (SSF; only in the animal kingdom), and SWEETs. SWEETs carry mono- and disaccharides across vacuolar or plasma membranes. Plant SWEETs play key roles in sugar translocation between compartments, cells, and organs, notably in nectar secretion, phloem loading for long distance translocation, pollen nutrition, and seed filling. Plant SWEETs cause pathogen susceptibility possibly by sugar leakage from infected cells. The vacuolar Arabidopsis thaliana AtSWEET2 sequesters sugars in root vacuoles; loss-of-function mutants show increased susceptibility to Pythium infection. Here we show that its orthologue, the vacuolar glucose transporter OsSWEET2b from rice (Oryza sativa), consists of an asymmetrical pair of triple-helix bundles, connected by an inversion linker transmembrane helix (TM4) to create the translocation pathway. Structural and biochemical analyses show OsSWEET2b in an apparent inward (cytosolic) open state forming homomeric trimers. TM4 tightly interacts with the first triple-helix bundle within a protomer and mediates key contacts among protomers. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the close paralogue SWEET1 from Arabidopsis identified key residues in substrate translocation and protomer crosstalk. Insights into the structure-function relationship of SWEETs are valuable for understanding the transport mechanism of eukaryotic SWEETs and may be useful for engineering sugar flux.

  18. Heteronuclear multidimensional NMR and homology modelling studies of the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the human mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB6

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    Kurashima-Ito, Kaori [RIKEN, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory (Japan); Ikeya, Teppei [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), (Japan); Senbongi, Hiroshi [Mitochondrial Diseases Group, MRC Dunn Human NutritionUnit (United Kingdom); Tochio, Hidehito [International Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Supramolecular Biology, Yokohama City University, Molecular Biophysics Laboratory (Japan); Mikawa, Tsutomu [RIKEN, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory (Japan); Shibata, Takehiko [RIKEN, Shibata Distinguished Senior Scientist Laboratory (Japan); Ito, Yutaka [RIKEN, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory (Japan)], E-mail: ito-yutaka@center.tmu.ac.jp

    2006-05-15

    Human ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 6 (ABCB6) is a mitochondrial ABC transporter, and presumably contributes to iron homeostasis. Aimed at understanding the structural basis for the conformational changes accompanying the substrate-transportation cycle, we have studied the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of ABCB6 (ABCB6-C) in both the nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR and homology modelling. A non-linear sampling scheme was utilised for indirectly acquired {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N dimensions of all 3D triple-resonance NMR experiments, in order to overcome the instability and the low solubility of ABCB6-C. The backbone resonances for approximately 25% of non-proline residues, which are mostly distributed around the functionally important loops and in the Helical domain, were not observed for nucleotide-free form of ABCB6-C. From the pH, temperature and magnetic field strength dependencies of the resonance intensities, we concluded that this incompleteness in the assignments is mainly due to the exchange between multiple conformations at an intermediate rate on the NMR timescale. These localised conformational dynamics remained in ADP-bound ABCB6-C except for the loops responsible for adenine base and {alpha}/{beta}-phosphate binding. These results revealed that the localised dynamic cooperativity, which was recently proposed for a prokaryotic ABC MJ1267, also exists in a higher eukaryotic ABC, and is presumably shared by all members of the ABC family. Since the Helical domain is the putative interface to the transmembrane domain, this cooperativity may explain the coupled functions between domains in the substrate-transportation cycle.

  19. Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes: Who is hosting whom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eTellez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms represent the largest component of biodiversity in our world. For millions of years, prokaryotic microorganisms have functioned as a major selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. Microbes that live inside and on animals outnumber the animals’ actual somatic and germ cells by an estimated 10-fold. Collectively, the intestinal microbiome represents a ‘forgotten organ’, functioning as an organ inside another that can execute many physiological responsibilities. The nature of primitive eukaryotes was drastically changed due to the association with symbiotic prokaryotes facilitating mutual coevolution of host and microbe. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. From termites and honey bees to ruminants and mammals, depending on novel biochemistries provided by the prokaryotic microbiome, the association helps to metabolize several nutrients that the host cannot digest and converting these into useful end products (such as short chain fatty acids, a process which has huge impact on the biology and homeostasis of metazoans. More importantly, in a direct and/or indirect way, the intestinal microbiota influences the assembly of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, helps to educate immune system, affects the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, modulates proliferation and differentiation of its epithelial lineages, regulates angiogenesis, and modifies the activity of enteric as well as the central nervous system,. Despite these important effects, the mechanisms by which the gut microbial community influences the host’s biology remains almost entirely unknown. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification between prokaryotes and eukaryotes which encourage us to postulate: Who is

  20. [Effects of chondroitinase ABC combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on repair of spinal cord injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in repair spinal cord injury of rats. Primary BMSCs were isolated and cultured from the femur and tibia of neonatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The spinal cord injury model was established in 24 adult SD male rats (weighing, 200-230 g), which were randomly divided into control group (group A), BMSCs transplantation group (group B), ChABC injection group (group C), and ChABC and BMSCs transplantation group (group D), 6 rats in each group. At 7 and 14 days after injury, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score criteria was used to evaluate the hindlimb motor function; at 14 days after injury, the injured spinal cord tissue was perfused and stained by HE for further calculation of the injury area. Immunofluorescence staining were used for observing the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and GFAP/growth associated protein 43 (GAP43). At 7 days after injury, three joints movement of the hindlimbs were recovered in all groups, and no significant difference in the BBB score was found among 4 groups (P > 0.05). At 14 days after injury, no load drag was observed in 3 joints of the hindlimbs in groups A, B, and C, but weight-bearing plantar or occasional dorsalis pedis weight-bearing walking was observed in group D with no plantar walking. The BBB score of group D was significantly higher than that of the other 3 groups (P injury, the GFAP/CSPG double immunofluorescence staining showed that the astroglial scar damage zone in group D was significantly reduced, and no cavity formation was found. And the fluorescence intensity in groups C and D was significantly lower than that in group B (P transplantation in early injury may promote the regeneration of nerve fibers, and repair spinal cord injury in rats.

  1. Design and chemical synthesis of eukaryotic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ze-Xiong; Liu, Duo; Li, Bing-Zhi; Zhao, Meng; Zeng, Bo-Xuan; Wu, Yi; Shen, Yue; Lin, Tao; Yang, Ping; Dai, Junbiao; Cai, Yizhi; Yang, Huanming; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-11-27

    Following the discovery of the DNA double helix structure and the advancement of genome sequencing, we have entered a promising stage with regard to genome writing. Recently, a milestone breakthrough was achieved in the chemical synthesis of designer yeast chromosomes. Here, we review the systematic approaches to the de novo synthesis of designer eukaryotic chromosomes, with an emphasis on technologies and methodologies that enable design, building, testing and debugging. The achievement of chemically synthesized genomes with customized genetic features offers an opportunity to rebuild genome organization, remold biological functions and promote life evolution, which will be of great benefit for application in medicine and industrial manufacturing.

  2. Multiple, non-allelic, intein-coding sequences in eukaryotic RNA polymerase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butler Margaret I

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inteins are self-splicing protein elements. They are translated as inserts within host proteins that excise themselves and ligate the flanking portions of the host protein (exteins with a peptide bond. They are encoded as in-frame insertions within the genes for the host proteins. Inteins are found in all three domains of life and in viruses, but have a very sporadic distribution. Only a small number of intein coding sequences have been identified in eukaryotic nuclear genes, and all of these are from ascomycete or basidiomycete fungi. Results We identified seven intein coding sequences within nuclear genes coding for the second largest subunits of RNA polymerase. These sequences were found in diverse eukaryotes: one is in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (RPA2 from the ascomycete fungus Phaeosphaeria nodorum, one is in the RNA polymerase III (RPC2 of the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum and four intein coding sequences are in RNA polymerase II genes (RPB2, one each from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the zygomycete fungus Spiromyces aspiralis and the chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Coelomomyces stegomyiae. The remaining intein coding sequence is in a viral relic embedded within the genome of the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum. The Chlamydomonas and Dictyostelium inteins are the first nuclear-encoded inteins found outside of the fungi. These new inteins represent a unique dataset: they are found in homologous proteins that form a paralogous group. Although these paralogues diverged early in eukaryotic evolution, their sequences can be aligned over most of their length. The inteins are inserted at multiple distinct sites, each of which corresponds to a highly conserved region of RNA polymerase. This dataset supports earlier work suggesting that inteins preferentially occur in highly conserved regions of their host proteins. Conclusion The identification of these new inteins

  3. ABCG9, ABCG11 and ABCG14 ABC transporters are required for vascular development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hir, Rozenn; Sorin, Clément; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Moritz, Thomas; Schaller, Hubert; Tellier, Frédérique; Robert, Stéphanie; Morin, Halima; Bako, Laszlo; Bellini, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    In order to obtain insights into the regulatory pathways controlling phloem development, we characterized three genes encoding membrane proteins from the G sub-family of ABC transporters (ABCG9, ABCG11 and ABCG14), whose expression in the phloem has been confirmed. Mutations in the genes encoding these dimerizing 'half transporters' are semi-dominant and result in vascular patterning defects in cotyledons and the floral stem. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments demonstrated that these proteins dimerize, either by flexible pairing (ABCG11 and ABCG9) or by forming strict heterodimers (ABCG14). In addition, metabolome analyses and measurement of sterol ester contents in the mutants suggested that ABCG9, ABCG11 and ABCG14 are involved in lipid/sterol homeostasis regulation. Our results show that these three ABCG genes are required for proper vascular development in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. GPS-ABC radiated chamber testing overview and results : GPS-ABC Workshop VI : RTCA Washington, DC, March 30, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This presentation, which was given during the GPS-ABC Workshop VI in Washington, DC on March 30, 2017 details the authors' radiated testing protocols and results. GPS receiver testing was carried out April 25-29, 2016 at the Army : Research Laborator...

  5. Design Principles of Phosphorylation-Dependent Timekeeping in Eukaryotic Circadian Clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Koji L; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2017-10-16

    The circadian clock in cyanobacteria employs a posttranslational oscillator composed of a sequential phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle of KaiC protein, in which the dynamics of protein structural changes driven by temperature-compensated KaiC's ATPase activity are critical for determining the period. On the other hand, circadian clocks in eukaryotes employ transcriptional feedback loops as a core mechanism. In this system, the dynamics of protein accumulation and degradation affect the circadian period. However, recent studies of eukaryotic circadian clocks reveal that the mechanism controlling the circadian period can be independent of the regulation of protein abundance. Instead, the circadian substrate is often phosphorylated at multiple sites at flexible protein regions to induce structural changes. The phosphorylation is catalyzed by kinases that induce sequential multisite phosphorylation such as casein kinase 1 (CK1) with temperature-compensated activity. We propose that the design principles of phosphorylation-dependent circadian-period determination in eukaryotes may share characteristics with the posttranslational oscillator in cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Mcm10: A Dynamic Scaffold at Eukaryotic Replication Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Baxley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To complete the duplication of large genomes efficiently, mechanisms have evolved that coordinate DNA unwinding with DNA synthesis and provide quality control measures prior to cell division. Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10 is a conserved component of the eukaryotic replisome that contributes to this process in multiple ways. Mcm10 promotes the initiation of DNA replication through direct interactions with the cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45-minichromosome maintenance complex proteins 2-7 (Mcm2-7-go-ichi-ni-san GINS complex proteins, as well as single- and double-stranded DNA. After origin firing, Mcm10 controls replication fork stability to support elongation, primarily facilitating Okazaki fragment synthesis through recruitment of DNA polymerase-α and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Based on its multivalent properties, Mcm10 serves as an essential scaffold to promote DNA replication and guard against replication stress. Under pathological conditions, Mcm10 is often dysregulated. Genetic amplification and/or overexpression of MCM10 are common in cancer, and can serve as a strong prognostic marker of poor survival. These findings are compatible with a heightened requirement for Mcm10 in transformed cells to overcome limitations for DNA replication dictated by altered cell cycle control. In this review, we highlight advances in our understanding of when, where and how Mcm10 functions within the replisome to protect against barriers that cause incomplete replication.

  7. 75 FR 49549 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC & D), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption... operation of this trackage in FD 35356, ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of...

  8. The structure of TON1937 from archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 reveals a eukaryotic HEAT-like architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Hee; Kim, Yi-Seul; Rojviriya, Catleya; Cha, Hyung Jin; Ha, Sung-Chul; Kim, Yeon-Gil

    2013-10-01

    The members of the ARM/HEAT repeat-containing protein superfamily in eukaryotes have been known to mediate protein-protein interactions by using their concave surface. However, little is known about the ARM/HEAT repeat proteins in prokaryotes. Here we report the crystal structure of TON1937, a hypothetical protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1. The structure reveals a crescent-shaped molecule composed of a double layer of α-helices with seven anti-parallel α-helical repeats. A structure-based sequence alignment of the α-helical repeats identified a conserved pattern of hydrophobic or aliphatic residues reminiscent of the consensus sequence of eukaryotic HEAT repeats. The individual repeats of TON1937 also share high structural similarity with the canonical eukaryotic HEAT repeats. In addition, the concave surface of TON1937 is proposed to be its potential binding interface based on this structural comparison and its surface properties. These observations lead us to speculate that the archaeal HEAT-like repeats of TON1937 have evolved to engage in protein-protein interactions in the same manner as eukaryotic HEAT repeats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study the effect of His-tag on chondroitinase ABC I based on characterization of enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenya; Li, Ye; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (ChSase ABC I) which could degrade chondroitin sulfate (CS) to low molecular weight CS was expressed with His-tag in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3). The effect of His-tag on ChSase ABC I was investigated compared with ChSase ABC I which cut His-tag for the first time. After three steps purification, the specific activity of His-ChSase ABC I was 201.9±5.4 IU/mg which was two times lower than ChSase ABC I. Results of multi angle light scattering (MALS) and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) showed that the polymeric state of His-ChSase ABC I was not effected by His-tag and it was monomer, and ChSase ABC I was the same. The optimal temperature and pH of His-ChSase ABC I were 37 °C and 7.5, and were almost same with ChSase ABC I. Vmax and kcat/Km of His-ChSase ABC I were 2.4±0.1 μmol/Ls, and 22.2±0.4 L/(μmols) and catalytic efficiency was lower than ChSase ABC I. Generally, His-tag had no effect on polymeric state, optimal temperature and pH, had little negative impact on specific activity, kcat/Km and secondary-structure of ChSase ABC I. This study might guide the application of ChSase ABC I in industrial production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of the core histone doublet and DNA topo II genes of Marseilleviridae: evidence of proto-eukaryotic provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erives, Albert J

    2017-11-28

    While the genomes of eukaryotes and Archaea both encode the histone-fold domain, only eukaryotes encode the core histone paralogs H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. With DNA, these core histones assemble into the nucleosomal octamer underlying eukaryotic chromatin. Importantly, core histones for H2A and H3 are maintained as neofunctionalized paralogs adapted for general bulk chromatin (canonical H2 and H3) or specialized chromatin (H2A.Z enriched at gene promoters and cenH3s enriched at centromeres). In this context, the identification of core histone-like "doublets" in the cytoplasmic replication factories of the Marseilleviridae (MV) is a novel finding with possible relevance to understanding the origin of eukaryotic chromatin. Here, we analyze and compare the core histone doublet genes from all known MV genomes as well as other MV genes relevant to the origin of the eukaryotic replisome. Using different phylogenetic approaches, we show that MV histone domains encode obligate H2B-H2A and H4-H3 dimers of possible proto-eukaryotic origin. MV core histone moieties form sister clades to each of the four eukaryotic clades of canonical and variant core histones. This suggests that MV core histone moieties diverged prior to eukaryotic neofunctionalizations associated with paired linear chromosomes and variant histone octamer assembly. We also show that MV genomes encode a proto-eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II enzyme that forms a sister clade to eukaryotes. This is a relevant finding given that DNA topo II influences histone deposition and chromatin compaction and is the second most abundant nuclear protein after histones. The combined domain architecture and phylogenomic analyses presented here suggest that a primitive origin for MV histone genes is a more parsimonious explanation than horizontal gene transfers + gene fusions + sufficient divergence to eliminate relatedness to eukaryotic neofunctionalizations within the H2A and H3 clades without loss of relatedness to each of

  11. Identification of five partial ABC genes in the liver of the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii and sensitivity of ABCB1 and ABCC2 to Cd exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchi, Sara, E-mail: zucchi2@unisi.i [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Corsi, Ilaria [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Luckenbach, Till [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bard, Shannon Mala [Environmental Programmes, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street, Life Science Centre, Room 820, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1 (Canada); Regoli, Francesco [Department of Biochemistry, Biology and Genetics, Polytechnic University of Marches, Ancona (Italy); Focardi, Silvano [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Several ABC transporters have been characterized from many aquatic organisms, but no information is yet available for Antarctic fish. The aim of this work was to identify the expression of genes for ABC proteins in Trematomus bernacchii, a bioindicator species of the Southern Ocean. Partial cDNA sequences of ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC4 and ABCC9 were cloned from liver. Using RACE technology, 3.5 and 2.2 kb contigs were obtained for ABCB1 and ABCC2. Considering the elevated natural bioavailability of cadmium at Terra Nova Bay, responsiveness of ABCB1 and ABCC2 to this element was investigated under laboratory conditions. ABCB1 and ABCC2 mRNA levels were approximately four-fold higher in Cd-exposed fish compared to the controls. Induction of ABCB1 protein was also found by western blot. This study provides the first identification of five ABC genes in the liver of an Antarctic key species, some of which may be involved in cellular detoxification. - The presence of five partial sequences showing homology with ABC transporters and the sensitivity of ABCB1 and ABCC2 toward cadmium were determined in the liver of T. bernacchii.

  12. The origin of the eukaryotic cell based on conservation of existing interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Albert D G

    2006-01-01

    Current theories about the origin of the eukaryotic cell all assume that during evolution a prokaryotic cell acquired a nucleus. Here, it is shown that a scenario in which the nucleus acquired a plasma membrane is inherently less complex because existing interfaces remain intact during evolution. Using this scenario, the evolution to the first eukaryotic cell can be modeled in three steps, based on the self-assembly of cellular membranes by lipid-protein interactions. First, the inclusion of chromosomes in a nuclear membrane is mediated by interactions between laminar proteins and lipid vesicles. Second, the formation of a primitive endoplasmic reticulum, or exomembrane, is induced by the expression of intrinsic membrane proteins. Third, a plasma membrane is formed by fusion of exomembrane vesicles on the cytoskeletal protein scaffold. All three self-assembly processes occur both in vivo and in vitro. This new model provides a gradual Darwinistic evolutionary model of the origins of the eukaryotic cell and suggests an inherent ability of an ancestral, primitive genome to induce its own inclusion in a membrane.

  13. Evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes—a perspective from the inferred ancestral domain architectures†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gihon, Inbar; Fong, Jessica H.; Sharan, Roded; Nussinov, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Most eukaryotic proteins are composed of two or more domains. These assemble in a modular manner to create new proteins usually by the acquisition of one or more domains to an existing protein. Promiscuous domains which are found embedded in a variety of proteins and co-exist with many other domains are of particular interest and were shown to have roles in signaling pathways and mediating network communication. The evolution of domain promiscuity is still an open problem, mostly due to the lack of sequenced ancestral genomes. Here we use inferred domain architectures of ancestral genomes to trace the evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes. We find an increase in average promiscuity along many branches of the eukaryotic tree. Moreover, domain promiscuity can proceed at almost a steady rate over long evolutionary time or exhibit lineage-specific acceleration. We also observe that many signaling and regulatory domains gained domain promiscuity around the Bilateria divergence. In addition we show that those domains that played a role in the creation of two body axes and existed before the divergence of the bilaterians from fungi/metazoan achieve a boost in their promiscuities during the bilaterian evolution. PMID:21127809

  14. Evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes--a perspective from the inferred ancestral domain architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gihon, Inbar; Fong, Jessica H; Sharan, Roded; Nussinov, Ruth; Przytycka, Teresa M; Panchenko, Anna R

    2011-03-01

    Most eukaryotic proteins are composed of two or more domains. These assemble in a modular manner to create new proteins usually by the acquisition of one or more domains to an existing protein. Promiscuous domains which are found embedded in a variety of proteins and co-exist with many other domains are of particular interest and were shown to have roles in signaling pathways and mediating network communication. The evolution of domain promiscuity is still an open problem, mostly due to the lack of sequenced ancestral genomes. Here we use inferred domain architectures of ancestral genomes to trace the evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes. We find an increase in average promiscuity along many branches of the eukaryotic tree. Moreover, domain promiscuity can proceed at almost a steady rate over long evolutionary time or exhibit lineage-specific acceleration. We also observe that many signaling and regulatory domains gained domain promiscuity around the Bilateria divergence. In addition we show that those domains that played a role in the creation of two body axes and existed before the divergence of the bilaterians from fungi/metazoan achieve a boost in their promiscuities during the bilaterian evolution.

  15. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  16. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwan; Jo, Youmi; Jang, Song Yee; Kwon, Haenaem; Irie, Yasuhiko; Parsek, Matthew R.; Kim, Myung Hee; Choi, Sang Ho

    2015-01-01

    A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose. PMID:26406498

  17. Heterotopic expression of class B floral homeotic genes supports a modified ABC model for tulip (Tulipa gesneriana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Akira; Saeki, Hiroshi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter

    2003-07-01

    In higher eudicotyledonous angiosperms the floral organs are typically arranged in four different whorls, containing sepals, petals, stamens and carpels. According to the ABC model, the identity of these organs is specified by floral homeotic genes of class A, A+B, B+C and C, respectively. In contrast to the sepal and petal whorls of eudicots, the perianths of many plants from the Liliaceae family have two outer whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, called tepals. To explain the Liliaceae flower morphology, van Tunen et al. (1993) proposed a modified ABC model, exemplified with tulip. According to this model, class B genes are not only expressed in whorls 2 and 3, but also in whorl 1. Thus the organs of both whorls 1 and 2 express class A plus class B genes and, therefore, get the same petaloid identity. To test this modified ABC model we have cloned and characterized putative class B genes from tulip. Two DEF- and one GLO-like gene were identified, named TGDEFA, TGDEFB and TGGLO. Northern hybridization analysis showed that all of these genes are expressed in whorls 1, 2 and 3 (outer and inner tepals and stamens), thus corroborating the modified ABC model. In addition, these experiments demonstrated that TGGLO is also weakly expressed in carpels, leaves, stems and bracts. Gel retardation assays revealed that TGGLO alone binds to DNA as a homodimer. In contrast, TGDEFA and TGDEFB cannot homodimerize, but make heterodimers with PI. Homodimerization of GLO-like protein has also been reported for lily, suggesting that this phenomenon is conserved within Liliaceae plants or even monocot species.

  18. GxySBA ABC transporter of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its role in sugar utilization and vir gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlei; Binns, Andrew N

    2014-09-01

    Monosaccharides available in the extracellular milieu of Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be transported into the cytoplasm, or via the periplasmic sugar binding protein, ChvE, play a critical role in controlling virulence gene expression. The ChvE-MmsAB ABC transporter is involved in the utilization of a wide range of monosaccharide substrates but redundant transporters are likely given the ability of a chvE-mmsAB deletion strain to grow, albeit more slowly, in the presence of particular monosaccharides. In this study, a putative ABC transporter encoded by the gxySBA operon is identified and shown to be involved in the utilization of glucose, xylose, fucose, and arabinose, which are also substrates for the ChvE-MmsAB ABC transporter. Significantly, GxySBA is also shown to be the first characterized glucosamine ABC transporter. The divergently transcribed gene gxyR encodes a repressor of the gxySBA operon, the function of which can be relieved by a subset of the transported sugars, including glucose, xylose, and glucosamine, and this substrate-induced expression can be repressed by glycerol. Furthermore, deletion of the transporter can increase the sensitivity of the virulence gene expression system to certain sugars that regulate it. Collectively, the results reveal a remarkably diverse set of substrates for the GxySBA transporter and its contribution to the repression of sugar sensitivity by the virulence-controlling system, thereby facilitating the capacity of the bacterium to distinguish between the soil and plant environments. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Gene expression modulation of ABC transporter genes in response to permethrin in adults of the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrantonio, Valentina; Ferrari, Marco; Epis, Sara; Negri, Agata; Scuccimarra, Giulia; Montagna, Matteo; Favia, Guido; Porretta, Daniele; Urbanelli, Sandra; Bandi, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    Living organisms have evolved an array of genes coding for detoxifying enzymes and efflux protein pumps, to cope with endogenous and xenobiotic toxic compounds. The study of the genes activated during toxic exposure is relevant to the area of arthropod vector control, since these genes are one of the targets upon which natural selection acts for the evolution of insecticide resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate to insecticide detoxification acting as efflux pumps, that reduce the intracellular concentration of toxic compounds, or of their metabolic derivatives. Here we analyzed the modulation of the expression of six genes coding for ABC transporters, after the exposure of adult females and males of the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, a major malaria vector in Asia, to permethrin. Male and female mosquitoes were exposed to insecticide for one hour, then the expression profiles of the ABC transporter genes AnstABCB2, AnstABCB3, AnstABCB4, AnstABCBmember6, AnstABCC11, and AnstABCG4 were analysed after one and 24h. Our results showed that three genes (AnstABCB2, AnstABCBmember6, AnstABCG4) were up-regulated in both sexes; two of these (AnstABCBmember6 and AnstABCG4) have previously been shown to be up-regulated also in larval stages of An. stephensi, supporting a role for these genes in permethrin defence in larvae as well as in adults. Finally, the same ABC transporter genes were activated both in females and males; however, the timing of gene induction was different, with a prompter induction in females than in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of cysteine patterns in the large extracellular loop of tetraspanins from animals, fungi, plants and single-celled eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalle, Rob; Mares, Roso; Garcia-España, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    By analyzing the evolution of cysteine patterns in the large extracellular loop (LEL) of tetraspanins across all eukaryotes, we report the following: (1) the origin of the cysteine-cysteine-glycine (CCG) motif in the common ancestor of unikonts (Animalia, fungi and amoebozoa); (2) tracing cysteine motifs on an eukaryotic phylogeny which includes protists, animals and plants match organismal evolution; (3) using this evolutionary approach we have determined some of the cysteines in these proteins that are involved in specific bonds in the LEL. Our study provides a framework to better understand tetraspanin formation, diversification and the evolutionary history of these important proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Posttranscriptional mechanisms in controlling eukaryotic circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Weng, Wenya; Guo, Jinhu

    2011-05-20

    The circadian clock is essential in almost all living organisms to synchronise biochemical, metabolic, physiological and behavioural cycles to daily changing environmental factors. In a highly conserved fashion, the circadian clock is primarily controlled by multiple positive and negative molecular circuitries that control gene expression. More recently, research in Neurospora and other eukaryotes has uncovered the involvement of additional regulatory components that operate at the posttranslational level to fine tune the circadian system. Though it remains poorly understood, a growing body of evidence has shown that posttranscriptional regulation controls the expression of both circadian oscillator and output gene transcripts at a number of different steps. This regulation is crucial for driving and maintaining robust circadian rhythms. Here we review recent advances in circadian rhythm research at the RNA level. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soanes, Darren; Richards, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Gene transfer has been identified as a prevalent and pervasive phenomenon and an important source of genomic innovation in bacteria. The role of gene transfer in microbial eukaryotes seems to be of a reduced magnitude but in some cases can drive important evolutionary innovations, such as new functions that underpin the colonization of different niches. The aim of this review is to summarize published cases that support the hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a role in the evolution of phytopathogenic traits in fungi and oomycetes. Our survey of the literature identifies 46 proposed cases of transfer of genes that have a putative or experimentally demonstrable phytopathogenic function. When considering the life-cycle steps through which a pathogen must progress, the majority of the HGTs identified are associated with invading, degrading, and manipulating the host. Taken together, these data suggest HGT has played a role in shaping how fungi and oomycetes colonize plant hosts.

  3. [Peroxisomal ABC transporters and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geillon, Flore; Trompier, Doriane; Gondcaille, Catherine; Lizard, Gérard; Savary, Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease associated with mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes for a peroxisomal ABC transporter. Thanks to the efforts of the ELA foundation and to the recent successes of gene therapy published in Science in 2009, X-ALD is better known but still remains poorly understood. The exact role of ABCD1 and its homologs, as well as the exact link between the biochemical and metabolic peroxisomal defects and the clinical symptoms of the disease remain to be elucidated. This review summarizes the knowledge concerning the subfamily D of the ABC transporter family and concerning X-ALD, the most frequent peroxisomal disorder. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ABC COSTING IN A SERVICES PROVIDER COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo Aguena Jacintho Gil de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of the Activity-Based Cost (ABC method in a company of taxes and accounting services and outlines the positive and negative aspects encountered during implementation. It should be taken into account that this work has been developed in the fiscal area of cost verification. Bibliographical references, internal company documents and interviews with industry officials and the administrator responsible for the company were used. In the evolving of operations, the costs of the fiscal area and their main activities have been described monthly and through this information, drivers have been developed and the ABC (Activity-Based Costing method has been adopted. With the implementation it became clear that the system provides better visualization for the decision making process, it also provided learning for the company, so that the method should be used for an undetermined period of time.

  5. A STUDY ON THE ABC APPROACH IN COST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta ISAI; Riana Iren RADU; Camelia IONESCU

    2014-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC), an alternative approach to traditional accounting, represents a costing methodology that identifies the main cost drivers, or the main activities in an organization, thus assigning the cost of the products and services according to the number of specific activities or transactions used in the development process of a product or service. This system is based on the measurement of all the activities performed within an organization and provides the companies with t...

  6. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  7. An Evolutionary Network of Genes Present in the Eukaryote Common Ancestor Polls Genomes on Eukaryotic and Mitochondrial Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Schenk, Marc; Dagan, Tal; Martin, William F.

    2012-01-01

    To test the predictions of competing and mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes, we identified from a sample of 27 sequenced eukaryotic and 994 sequenced prokaryotic genomes 571 genes that were present in the eukaryote common ancestor and that have homologues among eubacterial and archaebacterial genomes. Maximum-likelihood trees identified the prokaryotic genomes that most frequently contained genes branching as the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear homologues. Among the archaebacteria, euryarchaeote genomes most frequently harbored the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear gene, whereas among eubacteria, the α-proteobacteria were most frequently represented within the sister group. Only 3 genes out of 571 gave a 3-domain tree. Homologues from α-proteobacterial genomes that branched as the sister to nuclear genes were found more frequently in genomes of facultatively anaerobic members of the rhiozobiales and rhodospirilliales than in obligate intracellular ricketttsial parasites. Following α-proteobacteria, the most frequent eubacterial sister lineages were γ-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, and firmicutes, which were also the prokaryote genomes least frequently found as monophyletic groups in our trees. Although all 22 higher prokaryotic taxa sampled (crenarchaeotes, γ-proteobacteria, spirochaetes, chlamydias, etc.) harbor genes that branch as the sister to homologues present in the eukaryotic common ancestor, that is not evidence of 22 different prokaryotic cells participating at eukaryote origins because prokaryotic “lineages” have laterally acquired genes for more than 1.5 billion years since eukaryote origins. The data underscore the archaebacterial (host) nature of the eukaryotic informational genes and the eubacterial (mitochondrial) nature of eukaryotic energy metabolism. The network linking genes of the eukaryote ancestor to contemporary homologues distributed across prokaryotic genomes elucidates eukaryote gene origins in a

  8. Novel understanding of ABC transporters ABCB1/MDR/P-glycoprotein, ABCC2/MRP2, and ABCG2/BCRP in colorectal pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Svenningsen, Katrine; Almind Knudsen, Lina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in colonic pathophysiology as they had recently been related to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. METHODS: Literature search was conducted on PubMed using combinations of the following terms: ABC transporters, ATP binding cassette...... transporter proteins, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative, colitis, Crohns disease, colorectal cancer, colitis, intestinal inflammation, intestinal carcinogenesis, ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp/CD243/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), Abcb1...... pathogen-free Abcb1 KO mice. The Abcb1 KO mice might thus serve as a model in which diet/environmental factors and microbes may be controlled and investigated in relation to intestinal inflammation. Potential molecular mechanisms include defective transport of inflammatory mediators and/or phospholipid...

  9. EVpedia: A community web resource for prokaryotic and eukaryotic extracellular vesicles research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Kyum; Lee, Jaewook; Simpson, Richard J; Lötvall, Jan; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-04-01

    For cell-to-cell communication, all living cells including archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes secrete nano-sized membrane vesicles into the extracellular space. These extracellular vesicles harbor specific subsets of proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, lipids, and metabolites that represent their cellular status. These vesicle-specific cargos are considered as novel diagnostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets. With the advancement in high-throughput technologies on multiomics studies and improvements in bioinformatics approaches, a huge number of vesicular proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, lipids, and metabolites have been identified, and our understanding of these complex extracellular organelles has considerably increased during these past years. In this review, we highlight EVpedia (http://evpedia.info), a community web portal for systematic analyses of prokaryotic and eukaryotic extracellular vesicles research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene transfer from bacteria and archaea facilitated evolution of an extremophilic eukaryote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönknecht, Gerald; Chen, Wei-Hua; Ternes, Chad M; Barbier, Guillaume G; Shrestha, Roshan P; Stanke, Mario; Bräutigam, Andrea; Baker, Brett J; Banfield, Jillian F; Garavito, R Michael; Carr, Kevin; Wilkerson, Curtis; Rensing, Stefan A; Gagneul, David; Dickenson, Nicholas E; Oesterhelt, Christine; Lercher, Martin J; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-03-08

    Some microbial eukaryotes, such as the extremophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria, live in hot, toxic metal-rich, acidic environments. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptation, we sequenced the 13.7-megabase genome of G. sulphuraria. This alga shows an enormous metabolic flexibility, growing either photoautotrophically or heterotrophically on more than 50 carbon sources. Environmental adaptation seems to have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer from various bacteria and archaea, often followed by gene family expansion. At least 5% of protein-coding genes of G. sulphuraria were probably acquired horizontally. These proteins are involved in ecologically important processes ranging from heavy-metal detoxification to glycerol uptake and metabolism. Thus, our findings show that a pan-domain gene pool has facilitated environmental adaptation in this unicellular eukaryote.

  11. High-level assessment of LANL ABC Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-15

    An annual weapon`s grade Pu disposition goal should be stated and related to the amount of Pu that needs to be disposed of. It needs to be determined to what extent it is possible to destroy Pu without building up any new Pu, i.e., how realistic this goal is. The strong positive Doppler coefficient for a Pu core might require the addition of some fertile material to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient. This in turn will affect the net Pu disposition rate. If a fertile material is required throughout the life of the ABC to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient, the difference between the molten salt ABC and other reactors in regard to Pu disposition is not a principled difference anymore but one of degree. A rationale has then to be developed that explains why {open_quotes}x{close_quotes} kg production of fissile material are acceptable but {open_quotes}y{close_quotes} kg are not. It is important to determine how a requirement for electricity production will impact on the ABC design choices. It is conceivable that DOE will not insist on electricity generation. In this case advantage has to be taken in terms of design simplifications and relaxed operating conditions.

  12. A conserved mechanism for extracellular signaling in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallio, Marco; Sturgill, Gwen; Rather, Philip; Kylsten, Per

    2002-09-17

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) is a key mediator of cell communication during animal development and homeostasis. In Drosophila, the signaling event is commonly regulated by the polytopic membrane protein Rhomboid (RHO), which mediates the proteolytic activation of EGFr ligands, allowing the secretion of the active signal. Until very recently, the biochemical function of RHO had remained elusive. It is now believed that Drosophila RHO is the founder member of a previously undescribed family of serine proteases, and that it could be directly responsible for the unusual, intramembranous cleavage of EGFr ligands. Here we show that the function of RHO is conserved in Gram-negative bacteria. AarA, a Providencia stuartii RHO-related protein, is active in Drosophila on the fly EGFr ligands. Vice versa, Drosophila RHO-1 can effectively rescue the bacterium's ability to produce or release the signal that activates density-dependent gene regulation (or quorum sensing). This study provides the first evidence that prokaryotic and eukaryotic RHOs could have a conserved role in cell communication and that their biochemical properties could be more similar than previously anticipated.

  13. Elongation factor methyltransferase 3--a novel eukaryotic lysine methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lelin; Hamey, Joshua J; Hart-Smith, Gene; Erce, Melissa A; Wilkins, Marc R

    2014-08-22

    Here we describe the discovery of Saccharomycescerevisiae protein YJR129Cp as a new eukaryotic seven-beta-strand lysine methyltransferase. An immunoblotting screen of 21 putative methyltransferases showed a loss in the methylation of elongation factor 2 (EF2) on knockout of YJR129C. Mass spectrometric analysis of EF2 tryptic peptides localised this loss of methylation to lysine 509, in peptide LVEGLKR. In vitro methylation, using recombinant methyltransferases and purified EF2, validated YJR129Cp as responsible for methylation of lysine 509 and Efm2p as responsible for methylation at lysine 613. Contextualised on previously described protein structures, both sites of methylation were found at the interaction interface between EF2 and the 40S ribosomal subunit. In line with the recently discovered Efm1 and Efm2 we propose that YJR129C be named elongation factor methyltransferase 3 (Efm3). The human homolog of Efm3 is likely to be the putative methyltransferase FAM86A, according to sequence homology and multiple lines of literature evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Eukaryotic and archaeal TBP and TFB/TF(II)B follow different promoter DNA bending pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Andreas; Holzmeister, Phil; Blombach, Fabian; Schulz, Sarah; von Voithenberg, Lena Voith; Lamb, Don C; Werner, Finn; Tinnefeld, Philip; Grohmann, Dina

    2014-06-01

    During transcription initiation, the promoter DNA is recognized and bent by the basal transcription factor TATA-binding protein (TBP). Subsequent association of transcription factor B (TFB) with the TBP-DNA complex is followed by the recruitment of the ribonucleic acid polymerase resulting in the formation of the pre-initiation complex. TBP and TFB/TF(II)B are highly conserved in structure and function among the eukaryotic-archaeal domain but intriguingly have to operate under vastly different conditions. Employing single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we monitored DNA bending by eukaryotic and archaeal TBPs in the absence and presence of TFB in real-time. We observed that the lifetime of the TBP-DNA interaction differs significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic system. We show that the eukaryotic DNA-TBP interaction is characterized by a linear, stepwise bending mechanism with an intermediate state distinguished by a distinct bending angle. TF(II)B specifically stabilizes the fully bent TBP-promoter DNA complex and we identify this step as a regulatory checkpoint. In contrast, the archaeal TBP-DNA interaction is extremely dynamic and TBP from the archaeal organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius strictly requires TFB for DNA bending. Thus, we demonstrate that transcription initiation follows diverse pathways on the way to the formation of the pre-initiation complex. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Microtubules in bacteria: Ancient tubulins build a five-protofilament homolog of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pilhofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules play crucial roles in cytokinesis, transport, and motility, and are therefore superb targets for anti-cancer drugs. All tubulins evolved from a common ancestor they share with the distantly related bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, but while eukaryotic tubulins evolved into highly conserved microtubule-forming heterodimers, bacterial FtsZ presumably continued to function as single homopolymeric protofilaments as it does today. Microtubules have not previously been found in bacteria, and we lack insight into their evolution from the tubulin/FtsZ ancestor. Using electron cryomicroscopy, here we show that the tubulin homologs BtubA and BtubB form microtubules in bacteria and suggest these be referred to as "bacterial microtubules" (bMTs. bMTs share important features with their eukaryotic counterparts, such as straight protofilaments and similar protofilament interactions. bMTs are composed of only five protofilaments, however, instead of the 13 typical in eukaryotes. These and other results suggest that rather than being derived from modern eukaryotic tubulin, BtubA and BtubB arose from early tubulin intermediates that formed small microtubules. Since we show that bacterial microtubules can be produced in abundance in vitro without chaperones, they should be useful tools for tubulin research and drug screening.

  16. Widespread Horizontal Gene Transfer from Circular Single-stranded DNA Viruses to Eukaryotic Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jiatao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to vertical transmission, organisms can also acquire genes from other distantly related species or from their extra-chromosomal elements (plasmids and viruses via horizontal gene transfer (HGT. It has been suggested that phages represent substantial forces in prokaryotic evolution. In eukaryotes, retroviruses, which can integrate into host genome as an obligate step in their replication strategy, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. Unlike retroviruses, few members of other virus families are known to transfer genes to host genomes. Results Here we performed a systematic search for sequences related to circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that the replication initiation protein (Rep-related sequences of geminiviruses, nanoviruses and circoviruses have been frequently transferred to a broad range of eukaryotic species, including plants, fungi, animals and protists. Some of the transferred viral genes were conserved and expressed, suggesting that these genes have been coopted to assume cellular functions in the host genomes. We also identified geminivirus-like and parvovirus-like transposable elements in genomes of fungi and lower animals, respectively, and thereby provide direct evidence that eukaryotic transposons could derive from ssDNA viruses. Conclusions Our discovery extends the host range of circular ssDNA viruses and sheds light on the origin and evolution of these viruses. It also suggests that ssDNA viruses act as an unforeseen source of genetic innovation in their hosts.

  17. THE COMPLEX ORGANIZATION OF EUKARYOTIC CELL NUCLEUS (III: THE NUCLEAR MATRIX AND THE NUCLEAR LAMINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian S. Cimpeanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A large variety of nuclear fibrous proteins (such as actin, myosin, lamin B, transcription factors, topoisomerases, etc represent constitutive elements of complex structures present in the eukaryotic nuclei: the nuclear matrix and the nuclear lamina, repectively. These nuclear compartments, with fibrous network-like structure, play crucialroles in structural organization of nuclei, chromatin remodeling, DNA transcription, signals transduction, cell cycle regulation, embryonic development and other nuclear basic processes.

  18. THE COMPLEX ORGANIZATION OF EUKARYOTIC CELL NUCLEUS (III): THE NUCLEAR MATRIX AND THE NUCLEAR LAMINA

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian S. Cimpeanu; Mirela Campeanu

    2015-01-01

    A large variety of nuclear fibrous proteins (such as actin, myosin, lamin B, transcription factors, topoisomerases, etc) represent constitutive elements of complex structures present in the eukaryotic nuclei: the nuclear matrix and the nuclear lamina, repectively. These nuclear compartments, with fibrous network-like structure, play crucialroles in structural organization of nuclei, chromatin remodeling, DNA transcription, signals transduction, cell cycle regulation, embryonic development and...

  19. Chimeric viruses blur the borders between the major groups of eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Simon; Enault, Francois; Bronner, Gisèle; Vaulot, Daniel; Forterre, Patrick; Krupovic, Mart

    2013-01-01

    Metagenomic studies have uncovered an astonishing diversity of ssDNA viruses encoding replication proteins (Reps) related to those of eukaryotic Circoviridae, Geminiviridae or Nanoviridae; however, exact evolutionary relationships among these viruses remain obscure. Recently, a unique chimeric virus (CHIV) genome, which has apparently emerged via recombination between ssRNA and ssDNA viruses, has been discovered. Here we report on the assembly of 13 new CHIV genomes recovered f...

  20. [Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B and leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan Xia; Wu, Ye; Niu, Zheng Ping; Jiang, Yu Wu

    2009-10-18

    Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is one of the most prevalent inherited white matter disorders in childhood, and it's the only known hereditary human disease due to the direct defects in protein synthesis process, with the gene defects in EIF2B1-5, encoding the five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF2B alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon ) respectively. eIF2B is essential for the protein translation initiation process, and its action is realized via eukaryotic translation initiation factor2 (eIF2). Phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and eIF2Bepsilon is an important way to regulate eIF2B function, and thus play a key role in control of the protein translation level under physiological condition. Mutant eIF2B results in functional defects and decrease of the overall protein translation in cells, but in increase the translation of proteins with multiple upstream open reading frames, such as activating transcription factor 4 (AFT4), which leads to the susceptibility to unfolded protein response under stress, and the following apoptosis. The exact pathogenic mechanisms of VWM are far from well understood. It's suggested that level of AFT4 in cells with eIF2B mutations is higher than in wild type cells under physiological condition, which makes the mutant cells more susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Under stress, the defect eIF2B leads to a vicious cycle of UPR activation, which may underlie the neurological aggravation in VWM patients after minor stress, a specific clinical feature of VWM. Elucidating the pathogenesis of VWM will be helpful to further understand the protein translation process in eukaryotic cells, and provide a clue for possible therapeutic targets and treatment strategies in the future.

  1. Molecular characterisation of ABC-type multidrug efflux systems in Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Clinton; Reid, Sharon J; Abratt, Valerie R

    2015-04-01

    Administration of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. can prevent antibiotic associated diarrhoea since they can survive the often harsh conditions of the gut. In Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum(T) NCIMB 702259, two gene clusters, with homology to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of efflux transporters, were identified and studied to assess their functional contribution to antibiotic resistance. Both gene clusters contained two genes encoding putative efflux transporters and a regulator gene, upstream of the structural genes. Reverse transcriptase analysis indicated that the genes in each cluster were transcribed as operons, one where all three genes, including a putative MarR-type regulator were transcribed together (BLLJ_1496/1495/1494), and the other where the two ABC-type transporter genes (BLLJ_1837/1836) were co-transcribed, but excluded the putative regulator (BLLJ_1838). Heterologous expression of the cloned BLLJ_1837/1836 transporter genes in Lactococcus lactis conferred resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline by increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration between 1.5 and 3 fold. The presence of these genes also allowed a 16% increase in the efflux of Hoechst 33342 from L. lactis cells containing the two transporter genes, BLLJ_1837-6. In B. longum, an increase in the levels of transcription of 3.3 fold was observed for BLLJ_1837 in the presence of erythromycin, as measured by multiplex quantitative PCR. In contrast to this, the expression of the genes of the BLLJ_1495/1494 operon in L. lactis did not show significant drug resistance functionality. Gel shift experiments showed that in the BLLJ_1495/1494 operon, the putative MarR-type regulator protein (BLLJ_1496) bound with high affinity to the DNA sequence upstream of the operon in which it was located but this was not erythromycin dependent. This study demonstrated the occurrence of a drug inducible, ABC-type transporter system (BLLJ_1837/1836) in B. longum as well as a

  2. Hepatic ABC transporters and triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, John S; Chung, Soonkyu; Shelness, Gregory S

    2012-06-01

    Elevated plasma triglyceride and reduced HDL concentrations are prominent features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Individuals with Tangier disease also have elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low HDL, resulting from mutations in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), an integral membrane protein that facilitates nascent HDL particle assembly. Past studies attributed the inverse relationship between plasma HDL and triglyceride to intravascular lipid exchange and catabolic events. However, recent studies also suggest that hepatic signaling and lipid mobilization and secretion may explain how HDL affects plasma triglyceride concentrations. Hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout mice have markedly reduced plasma HDL and a two-fold increase in triglyceride due to failure to assemble nascent HDL particles by hepatocytes, causing increased catabolism of HDL apolipoprotein A-I and increased hepatic production of triglyceride-enriched VLDL. In-vitro studies suggest that nascent HDL particles may induce signaling to decrease triglyceride secretion. Inhibition of microRNA 33 expression in nonhuman primates augments hepatic ABCA1, genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, and decreases expression of lipogenic genes, causing increased plasma HDL and decreased triglyceride levels. New evidence suggests potential mechanisms by which hepatic ABCA1-mediated nascent HDL formation regulates VLDL-triglyceride production and contributes to the inverse relationship between plasma HDL and triglyceride.

  3. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A of wheat: Identification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Regulation of senescence by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A: implications for plant growth and development. Trends Plant Sci. 9: 174-179. Zhou et al. 2117. Tome ME, Fiser SM, Payne CM, Gerner EW (1997). Excess putrescine accumulation inhibits the formation of modified eukaryotic initiation.

  4. Causes and consequences of eukaryotization through mutualistic endosymbiosis and compartmentalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews and extends ideas of eukaryotization by endosymbiosis. These ideas are put within an historical context of processes that may have led up to eukaryotization and those that seem to have resulted from this process. Our starting point for considering the emergence and development of

  5. pqiABC and yebST, Putative mce Operons of Escherichia coli, Encode Transport Pathways and Contribute to Membrane Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takayuki; Zhang-Akiyama, Qiu-Mei

    2017-01-01

    The membranes of single-cell organisms are crucial as the first line of defense. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is an asymmetric bilayer in which lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and phospholipids are localized in the outer and inner leaflet, respectively. This asymmetry is important for membrane integrity. In Escherichia coli, the Mla transport pathway maintains this asymmetry by removing phospholipids from the outer leaflet. The MlaD component of this system is a mammalian cell entry (MCE) domain protein, and E. coli has two other MCE domain proteins of unknown function (PqiB and YebT). Here, we show that these two proteins are components of novel transport pathways that contribute to membrane integrity. The pqiAB operon is regulated by SoxS and RpoS. The yebST operon contains pqiAB homologues. Here, we found a third member of the pqi operon, ymbA (pqiC). A PqiB-PqiC complex bridges the inner and the outer membrane, and in other bacteria, pqiBC genes are located in operons together with transporter proteins. We show here that simultaneous deletion of pqiABC and yebST operons in an Δmla background rendered cells more sensitive to SDS-EDTA, and the SDS-EDTA sensitivity of mla mutants was rescued by additional copies of pqiABC We also found that the yebST operon was induced by a defect in LPS molecules. In conclusion, PqiABC and YebST are novel transport pathways related to the Mla transport pathway and important for membrane integrity. Membranes of bacteria are crucial for stress resistance. The composition of the E. coli outer membrane is asymmetric, with asymmetry maintained by the Mla ABC transport pathway. We propose that the stress-inducible pqiABC operon and homologous yebST operon, both of previously unknown function, encode transport pathway proteins related to the Mla transport pathway. Deletion of these operons rendered cells more sensitive to membrane stress, and additional copies of pqiABC suppressed the SDS-EDTA sensitivity of mla mutant