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Sample records for eukaryal trna anticodon

  1. tRNA acceptor-stem and anticodon bases embed separate features of amino acid chemistry

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    Carter, Charles W.; Wolfenden, Richard

    2016-01-01

    abstract The universal genetic code is a translation table by which nucleic acid sequences can be interpreted as polypeptides with a wide range of biological functions. That information is used by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to translate the code. Moreover, amino acid properties dictate protein folding. We recently reported that digital correlation techniques could identify patterns in tRNA identity elements that govern recognition by synthetases. Our analysis, and the functionality of truncated synthetases that cannot recognize the tRNA anticodon, support the conclusion that the tRNA acceptor stem houses an independent code for the same 20 amino acids that likely functioned earlier in the emergence of genetics. The acceptor-stem code, related to amino acid size, is distinct from a code in the anticodon that is related to amino acid polarity. Details of the acceptor-stem code suggest that it was useful in preserving key properties of stereochemically-encoded peptides that had developed the capacity to interact catalytically with RNA. The quantitative embedding of the chemical properties of amino acids into tRNA bases has implications for the origins of molecular biology. PMID:26595350

  2. Loss of wobble uridine modification in tRNA anticodons interferes with TOR pathway signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Scheidt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous work in yeast has suggested that modification of tRNAs, in particular uridine bases in the anticodon wobble position (U34, is linked to TOR (target of rapamycin signaling. Hence, U34 modification mutants were found to be hypersensitive to TOR inhibition by rapamycin. To study whether this involves inappropriate TOR signaling, we examined interaction between mutations in TOR pathway genes (tip41∆, sap190∆, ppm1∆, rrd1∆ and U34 modification defects (elp3∆, kti12∆, urm1∆, ncs2∆ and found the rapamycin hypersensitivity in the latter is epistatic to drug resistance of the former. Epistasis, however, is abolished in tandem with a gln3∆ deletion, which inactivates transcription factor Gln3 required for TOR-sensitive activation of NCR (nitrogen catabolite repression genes. In line with nuclear import of Gln3 being under control of TOR and dephosphorylation by the Sit4 phosphatase, we identify novel TOR-sensitive sit4 mutations that confer rapamycin resistance and importantly, mislocalise Gln3 when TOR is inhibited. This is similar to gln3∆ cells, which abolish the rapamycin hypersensitivity of U34 modification mutants, and suggests TOR deregulation due to tRNA undermodification operates through Gln3. In line with this, loss of U34 modifications (elp3∆, urm1∆ enhances nuclear import of and NCR gene activation (MEP2, GAP1 by Gln3 when TOR activity is low. Strikingly, this stimulatory effect onto Gln3 is suppressed by overexpression of tRNAs that usually carry the U34 modifications. Collectively, our data suggest that proper TOR signaling requires intact tRNA modifications and that loss of U34 modifications impinges on the TOR-sensitive NCR branch via Gln3 misregulation.

  3. Loss of wobble uridine modification in tRNA anticodons interferes with TOR pathway signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Viktor; Jüdes, André; Bär, Christian; Klassen, Roland; Schaffrath, Raffael

    2014-11-29

    Previous work in yeast has suggested that modification of tRNAs, in particular uridine bases in the anticodon wobble position (U34), is linked to TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling. Hence, U34 modification mutants were found to be hypersensitive to TOR inhibition by rapamycin. To study whether this involves inappropriate TOR signaling, we examined interaction between mutations in TOR pathway genes ( tip41 ∆, sap190 ∆, ppm1 ∆, rrd1 ∆) and U34 modification defects ( elp3 ∆, kti 12∆, urm1 ∆, ncs2 ∆) and found the rapamycin hypersensitivity in the latter is epistatic to drug resistance of the former. Epistasis, however, is abolished in tandem with a gln3 ∆ deletion, which inactivates transcription factor Gln3 required for TOR-sensitive activation of NCR (nitrogen catabolite repression) genes. In line with nuclear import of Gln3 being under control of TOR and dephosphorylation by the Sit4 phosphatase, we identify novel TOR-sensitive sit4 mutations that confer rapamycin resistance and importantly, mislocalise Gln3 when TOR is inhibited. This is similar to gln3 ∆ cells, which abolish the rapamycin hypersensitivity of U34 modification mutants, and suggests TOR deregulation due to tRNA undermodification operates through Gln3. In line with this, loss of U34 modifications ( elp3 ∆, urm1 ∆) enhances nuclear import of and NCR gene activation ( MEP2 , GAP1 ) by Gln3 when TOR activity is low. Strikingly, this stimulatory effect onto Gln3 is suppressed by overexpression of tRNAs that usually carry the U34 modifications. Collectively, our data suggest that proper TOR signaling requires intact tRNA modifications and that loss of U34 modifications impinges on the TOR-sensitive NCR branch via Gln3 misregulation.

  4. The absence of A-to-I editing in the anticodon of plant cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG demands a relaxation of the wobble decoding rules.

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    Aldinger, Carolin A; Leisinger, Anne-Katrin; Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A; Igloi, Gabor L

    2012-10-01

    It is a prevalent concept that, in line with the Wobble Hypothesis, those tRNAs having an adenosine in the first position of the anticodon become modified to an inosine at this position. Sequencing the cDNA derived from the gene coding for cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG from several higher plants as well as mass spectrometric analysis of the isoacceptor has revealed that for this kingdom an unmodified A in the wobble position of the anticodon is the rule rather than the exception. In vitro translation shows that in the plant system the absence of inosine in the wobble position of tRNA (Arg) does not prevent decoding. This isoacceptor belongs to the class of tRNA that is imported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria of higher plants. Previous studies on the mitochondrial tRNA pool have demonstrated the existence of tRNA (Arg) ICG in this organelle. In moss the mitochondrial encoded distinct tRNA (Arg) ACG isoacceptor possesses the I34 modification. The implication is that for mitochondrial protein biosynthesis A-to-I editing is necessary and occurs by a mitochondrion-specific deaminase after import of the unmodified nuclear encoded tRNA (Arg) ACG.

  5. Molecular mimicry of human tRNALys anti-codon domain by HIV-1 RNA genome facilitates tRNA primer annealing.

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    Jones, Christopher P; Saadatmand, Jenan; Kleiman, Lawrence; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-02-01

    The primer for initiating reverse transcription in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tRNA(Lys3). Host cell tRNA(Lys) is selectively packaged into HIV-1 through a specific interaction between the major tRNA(Lys)-binding protein, human lysyl-tRNA synthetase (hLysRS), and the viral proteins Gag and GagPol. Annealing of the tRNA primer onto the complementary primer-binding site (PBS) in viral RNA is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of Gag. The mechanism by which tRNA(Lys3) is targeted to the PBS and released from hLysRS prior to annealing is unknown. Here, we show that hLysRS specifically binds to a tRNA anti-codon-like element (TLE) in the HIV-1 genome, which mimics the anti-codon loop of tRNA(Lys) and is located proximal to the PBS. Mutation of the U-rich sequence within the TLE attenuates binding of hLysRS in vitro and reduces the amount of annealed tRNA(Lys3) in virions. Thus, LysRS binds specifically to the TLE, which is part of a larger LysRS binding domain in the viral RNA that includes elements of the Psi packaging signal. Our results suggest that HIV-1 uses molecular mimicry of the anti-codon of tRNA(Lys) to increase the efficiency of tRNA(Lys3) annealing to viral RNA.

  6. Conservation of RNA sequence and cross-linking ability in ribosomes from a higher eukaryote: photochemical cross-linking of the anticodon of P site bound tRNA to the penultimate cytidine of the UACACACG sequence in Artemia salina 18S rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesiolka, J.; Nurse, K.; Klein, J.; Ofengand, J.

    1985-01-01

    The complex of Artemia salina ribosomes and Escherichia coli acetylvalyl-tRNA could be cross-linked by irradiation with near-UV light. Cross-linking required the presence of the codon GUU, GUA being ineffective. The acetylvalyl group could be released from the cross-linked tRNA by treatment with puromycin, demonstrating that cross-linking had occurred at the P site. This was true both for pGUU- and also for poly(U2,G)-dependent cross-linking. All of the cross-linking was to the 18S rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit. Photolysis of the cross-link at 254 nm occurred with the same kinetics as that for the known cyclobutane dimer between this tRNA and Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. T1 RNase digestion of the cross-linked tRNA yielded an oligonucleotide larger in molecular weight than any from un-cross-linked rRNA or tRNA or from a prephotolyzed complex. Extended electrophoresis showed this material to consist of two oligomers of similar mobility, a faster one-third component and a slower two-thirds component. Each oligomer yielded two components on 254-nm photolysis. The slower band from each was the tRNA T1 oligomer CACCUCCCUVACAAGp, which includes the anticodon. The faster band was the rRNA 9-mer UACACACCGp and its derivative UACACACUG. Unexpectedly, the dephosphorylated and slower moving 9-mer was derived from the faster moving dimer. Deamination of the penultimate C to U is probably due to cyclobutane dimer formation and was evidence for that nucleotide being the site of cross-linking. Direct confirmation of the cross-linking site was obtained by Z-gel analysis

  7. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

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    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  8. Nucleotide sequence of a human tRNA gene heterocluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.N.; Pirtle, I.L.; Pirtle, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Leucine tRNA from bovine liver was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human gene library harbored in Charon-4A of bacteriophage lambda. The human DNA inserts from plaque-pure clones were characterized by restriction endonuclease mapping and Southern hybridization techniques, using both [3'- 32 P]-labeled bovine liver leucine tRNA and total tRNA as hybridization probes. An 8-kb Hind III fragment of one of these γ-clones was subcloned into the Hind III site of pBR322. Subsequent fine restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis of this plasmid DNA indicated the presence of four tRNA genes within the 8-kb DNA fragment. A leucine tRNA gene with an anticodon of AAG and a proline tRNA gene with an anticodon of AGG are in a 1.6-kb subfragment. A threonine tRNA gene with an anticodon of UGU and an as yet unidentified tRNA gene are located in a 1.1-kb subfragment. These two different subfragments are separated by 2.8 kb. The coding regions of the three sequenced genes contain characteristic internal split promoter sequences and do not have intervening sequences. The 3'-flanking region of these three genes have typical RNA polymerase III termination sites of at least four consecutive T residues

  9. Identification and codon reading properties of 5-cyanomethyl uridine, a new modified nucleoside found in the anticodon wobble position of mutant haloarchaeal isoleucine tRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debabrata; Köhrer, Caroline; Su, Dan; Babu, I Ramesh; Chan, Clement T Y; Liu, Yuchen; Söll, Dieter; Blum, Paul; Kuwahara, Masayasu; Dedon, Peter C; Rajbhandary, Uttam L

    2014-02-01

    Most archaea and bacteria use a modified C in the anticodon wobble position of isoleucine tRNA to base pair with A but not with G of the mRNA. This allows the tRNA to read the isoleucine codon AUA without also reading the methionine codon AUG. To understand why a modified C, and not U or modified U, is used to base pair with A, we mutated the C34 in the anticodon of Haloarcula marismortui isoleucine tRNA (tRNA2(Ile)) to U, expressed the mutant tRNA in Haloferax volcanii, and purified and analyzed the tRNA. Ribosome binding experiments show that although the wild-type tRNA2(Ile) binds exclusively to the isoleucine codon AUA, the mutant tRNA binds not only to AUA but also to AUU, another isoleucine codon, and to AUG, a methionine codon. The G34 to U mutant in the anticodon of another H. marismortui isoleucine tRNA species showed similar codon binding properties. Binding of the mutant tRNA to AUG could lead to misreading of the AUG codon and insertion of isoleucine in place of methionine. This result would explain why most archaea and bacteria do not normally use U or a modified U in the anticodon wobble position of isoleucine tRNA for reading the codon AUA. Biochemical and mass spectrometric analyses of the mutant tRNAs have led to the discovery of a new modified nucleoside, 5-cyanomethyl U in the anticodon wobble position of the mutant tRNAs. 5-Cyanomethyl U is present in total tRNAs from euryarchaea but not in crenarchaea, eubacteria, or eukaryotes.

  10. Methylated nucleosides in tRNA and tRNA methyltransferases

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    Hiroyuki eHori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, more than 90 modified nucleosides have been found in tRNA and the biosynthetic pathways of the majority of tRNA modifications include a methylation step(s. Recent studies of the biosynthetic pathways have demonstrated that the availability of methyl group donors for the methylation in tRNA is important for correct and efficient protein synthesis. In this review, I focus on the methylated nucleosides and tRNA methyltransferases. The primary functions of tRNA methylations are linked to the different steps of protein synthesis, such as the stabilization of tRNA structure, reinforcement of the codon–anticodon interaction, regulation of wobble base pairing, and prevention of frameshift errors. However, beyond these basic functions, recent studies have demonstrated that tRNA methylations are also involved in the RNA quality control system and regulation of tRNA localization in the cell. In a thermophilic eubacterium, tRNA modifications and the modification enzymes form a network that responses to temperature changes. Furthermore, several modifications are involved in genetic diseases, infections, and the immune response. Moreover, structural, biochemical, and bioinformatics studies of tRNA methyltransferases have been clarifying the details of tRNA methyltransferases and have enabled these enzymes to be classified. In the final section, the evolution of modification enzymes is discussed.

  11. tRNA's wobble decoding of the genome: 40 years of modification.

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    Agris, Paul F; Vendeix, Franck A P; Graham, William D

    2007-02-09

    The genetic code is degenerate, in that 20 amino acids are encoded by 61 triplet codes. In 1966, Francis Crick hypothesized that the cell's limited number of tRNAs decoded the genome by recognizing more than one codon. The ambiguity of that recognition resided in the third base-pair, giving rise to the Wobble Hypothesis. Post-transcriptional modifications at tRNA's wobble position 34, especially modifications of uridine 34, enable wobble to occur. The Modified Wobble Hypothesis proposed in 1991 that specific modifications of a tRNA wobble nucleoside shape the anticodon architecture in such a manner that interactions were restricted to the complementary base plus a single wobble pairing for amino acids with twofold degenerate codons. However, chemically different modifications at position 34 would expand the ability of a tRNA to read three or even four of the fourfold degenerate codons. One foundation of Crick's Wobble Hypothesis was that a near-constant geometry of canonical base-pairing be maintained in forming all three base-pairs between the tRNA anticodon and mRNA codon on the ribosome. In accepting an aminoacyl-tRNA, the ribosome requires maintenance of a specific geometry for the anticodon-codon base-pairing. However, it is the post-transcriptional modifications at tRNA wobble position 34 and purine 37, 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, that pre-structure the anticodon domain to ensure the correct codon binding. The modifications create both the architecture and the stability needed for decoding through restraints on anticodon stereochemistry and conformational space, and through selective hydrogen bonding. A physicochemical understanding of modified nucleoside contributions to the tRNA anticodon domain architecture and its decoding of the genome has advanced RNA world evolutionary theory, the principles of RNA chemistry, and the application of this knowledge to the introduction of new amino acids to proteins.

  12. A Comprehensive tRNA Deletion Library Unravels the Genetic Architecture of the tRNA Pool

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    Bloom-Ackermann, Zohar; Navon, Sivan; Gingold, Hila; Towers, Ruth; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Dahan, Orna

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the architecture of the tRNA pool is a prime challenge in translation research, as tRNAs govern the efficiency and accuracy of the process. Towards this challenge, we created a systematic tRNA deletion library in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aimed at dissecting the specific contribution of each tRNA gene to the tRNA pool and to the cell's fitness. By harnessing this resource, we observed that the majority of tRNA deletions show no appreciable phenotype in rich medium, yet under more challenging conditions, additional phenotypes were observed. Robustness to tRNA gene deletion was often facilitated through extensive backup compensation within and between tRNA families. Interestingly, we found that within tRNA families, genes carrying identical anti-codons can contribute differently to the cellular fitness, suggesting the importance of the genomic surrounding to tRNA expression. Characterization of the transcriptome response to deletions of tRNA genes exposed two disparate patterns: in single-copy families, deletions elicited a stress response; in deletions of genes from multi-copy families, expression of the translation machinery increased. Our results uncover the complex architecture of the tRNA pool and pave the way towards complete understanding of their role in cell physiology. PMID:24453985

  13. Use of a Yeast tRNase Killer Toxin to Diagnose Kti12 Motifs Required for tRNA Modification by Elongator.

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    Mehlgarten, Constance; Prochaska, Heike; Hammermeister, Alexander; Abdel-Fattah, Wael; Wagner, Melanie; Krutyhołowa, Rościsław; Jun, Sang Eun; Kim, Gyung-Tae; Glatt, Sebastian; Breunig, Karin D; Stark, Michael J R; Schaffrath, Raffael

    2017-09-05

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are killed by zymocin, a tRNase ribotoxin complex from Kluyveromyces lactis , which cleaves anticodons and inhibits protein synthesis. Zymocin's action requires specific chemical modification of uridine bases in the anticodon wobble position (U34) by the Elongator complex (Elp1-Elp6). Hence, loss of anticodon modification in mutants lacking Elongator or related KTI ( K. lactis Toxin Insensitive) genes protects against tRNA cleavage and confers resistance to the toxin. Here, we show that zymocin can be used as a tool to genetically analyse KTI12 , a gene previously shown to code for an Elongator partner protein. From a kti12 mutant pool of zymocin survivors, we identify motifs in Kti12 that are functionally directly coupled to Elongator activity. In addition, shared requirement of U34 modifications for nonsense and missense tRNA suppression ( SUP4 ; SOE1 ) strongly suggests that Kti12 and Elongator cooperate to assure proper tRNA functioning. We show that the Kti12 motifs are conserved in plant ortholog DRL1/ELO4 from Arabidopsis thaliana and seem to be involved in binding of cofactors (e.g., nucleotides, calmodulin). Elongator interaction defects triggered by mutations in these motifs correlate with phenotypes typical for loss of U34 modification. Thus, tRNA modification by Elongator appears to require physical contact with Kti12, and our preliminary data suggest that metabolic signals may affect proper communication between them.

  14. Snapshots of Dynamics in Synthesizing N6-isopentenyladenosine at tRNA Anticodon†,‡

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    Chimnaronk, Sarin; Forouhar, Farhad; Sakai, Junichi; Yao, Min; Tron, Cecile M.; Atta, Mohamed; Fontecave, Marc; Hunt, John F.; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial and eukaryotic transfer RNAs that decode codons starting with uridine have a hydrophobically-hypermodified adenosine at the position 37 (A37) adjacent to the 3′-end of the anticodon, which is essential for efficient and highly accurate protein translation by the ribosome. However, it remains unclear how the corresponding tRNAs are selected to be modified by alkylation at the correct position of the adenosine base. We have determined a series of the crystal structures of bacterial tRNA isopentenyltransferase (MiaA) in apo- and tRNA-bound forms, which completely render snapshots of substrate selections during modification of RNA. A compact evolutionary inserted domain (herein ‘swinging domain’) in MiaA that exhibits as a highly mobile entity moves around the catalytic domain as likely to reach and trap the tRNA substrate. Thereby, MiaA clamps the anticodon stem loop of tRNA substrate between the catalytic and swinging domains, where the two conserved elongated residues from the swinging domain pinch the two flanking A36 and A38 together to squeeze out A37 into the reaction tunnel. The site-specific isopentenylation of RNA is thus ensured by a characteristic pinch-and-flip mechanism and by a reaction tunnel to confine the substrate selection. Furthermore, combining information from soaking experiments with structural comparisons, we propose a mechanism for the ordered substrate-binding of MiaA. PMID:19435325

  15. Permuted tRNA genes of Cyanidioschyzon merolae, the origin of the tRNA molecule and the root of the Eukarya domain.

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    Di Giulio, Massimo

    2008-08-07

    An evolutionary analysis is conducted on the permuted tRNA genes of Cyanidioschyzon merolae, in which the 5' half of the tRNA molecule is codified at the 3' end of the gene and its 3' half is codified at the 5' end. This analysis has shown that permuted genes cannot be considered as derived traits but seem to possess characteristics that suggest they are ancestral traits, i.e. they originated when tRNA molecule genes originated for the first time. In particular, if the hypothesis that permuted genes are a derived trait were true, then we should not have been able to observe that the most frequent class of permuted genes is that of the anticodon loop type, for the simple reason that this class would derive by random permutation from a class of non-permuted tRNA genes, which instead is the rarest. This would not explain the high frequency with which permuted tRNA genes with perfectly separate 5' and 3' halves were observed. Clearly the mechanism that produced this class of permuted genes would envisage the existence, in an advanced stage of evolution, of minigenes codifying for the 5' and 3' halves of tRNAs which were assembled in a permuted way at the origin of the tRNA molecule, thus producing a high frequency of permuted genes of the class here referred. Therefore, this evidence supports the hypothesis that the genes of the tRNA molecule were assembled by minigenes codifying for hairpin-like RNA molecules, as suggested by one model for the origin of tRNA [Di Giulio, M., 1992. On the origin of the transfer RNA molecule. J. Theor. Biol. 159, 199-214; Di Giulio, M., 1999. The non-monophyletic origin of tRNA molecule. J. Theor. Biol. 197, 403-414]. Moreover, the late assembly of the permuted genes of C. merolae, as well as their ancestrality, strengthens the hypothesis of the polyphyletic origins of these genes. Finally, on the basis of the uniqueness and the ancestrality of these permuted genes, I suggest that the root of the Eukarya domain is in the super

  16. Studying the evolutionary relationships and phylogenetic trees of 21 groups of tRNA sequences based on complex networks.

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    Wei, Fangping; Chen, Bowen

    2012-03-01

    To find out the evolutionary relationships among different tRNA sequences of 21 amino acids, 22 networks are constructed. One is constructed from whole tRNAs, and the other 21 networks are constructed from the tRNAs which carry the same amino acids. A new method is proposed such that the alignment scores of any two amino acids groups are determined by the average degree and the average clustering coefficient of their networks. The anticodon feature of isolated tRNA and the phylogenetic trees of 21 group networks are discussed. We find that some isolated tRNA sequences in 21 networks still connect with other tRNAs outside their group, which reflects the fact that those tRNAs might evolve by intercrossing among these 21 groups. We also find that most anticodons among the same cluster are only one base different in the same sites when S ≥ 70, and they stay in the same rank in the ladder of evolutionary relationships. Those observations seem to agree on that some tRNAs might mutate from the same ancestor sequences based on point mutation mechanisms.

  17. 19F NMR studies of 5-fluorouracil-substituted Escherichia coli transfer RNAs: solution structure and codon-anticodon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollnick, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    19 F NMR was used to study E. coli tRNA 1 /sup Val/, tRNA/sub f//sup Met/, and tRNA/sub m//Met/, in which 5-fluorouracil (FUra) has replaced uracil and uracil-derived minor bases. 19 F NMR spectra of these tRNAs resolve resonances from nearly all the incorporated FUra residues. Each of the three tRNAs can be resolved into two isoaccepting species, termed forms A and B, whose 19 F spectra differ in the shift of one 19 F peak from ca. 4.5 ppm in form B, upfield to -15 ppm in form A. Because the two isoacceptors of each tRNA differ only at one position, the peaks at 4.5 ppm in the spectra of (FUra)tRNA 1 /sup Val/ and (FUra)tRNA/sub m//sup Met/; are assigned to FUra 17 and Fura 20 respectively. Bisulfate modification and pH dependence indicate that 19 F signals in the central region of the spectrum of (FUra)tRNA 1 /sup Val/ correspond to fluorouracils in non-base-paired regions. Photoreaction with psoralen indicates upfield 19 F signals arise from residues in helical environments. Removal of magnesium or addition of NaCl produces major, reversible changes in the 19 F spectrum of fluorinated tRNAs. Studies of manganese and spermine binding to (FUra)tRNA 1 /sup Val/ allow localization of several resonances in the 18 F spectrum to regions near putative binding sites for these ions. Binding of the codon G/sub p/U/sub p/A causes an upfield shift of a 19 F resonance at 3.9 ppm in the spectrum of (FUra)tRNA 1 /sup Val/. G/sub p/U/sub p/A/sub p/A, which is complementary to the anticodon and 5'-adjacent FUra 33, shifts an additional 19 F peak at 4.5 ppm. 1 H NMR and RNase H digestion studies show that the oligonucleotides bind to the anticodon

  18. The crystal structure of tRNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    of yeast alanine tRNA by Robert Holley's group at Cornell. University ... decode nonsense codons) with John Smith and Brenner. However, my ... tRNA from 10 g of unfractionated tRNA. ... tRNA crystals were, in fact, protein (Hendrikson et al.

  19. Defective i6A37 modification of mitochondrial and cytosolic tRNAs results from pathogenic mutations in TRIT1 and its substrate tRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Yarham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the genetic basis for mitochondrial diseases is technically challenging given the size of the mitochondrial proteome and the heterogeneity of disease presentations. Using next-generation exome sequencing, we identified in a patient with severe combined mitochondrial respiratory chain defects and corresponding perturbation in mitochondrial protein synthesis, a homozygous p.Arg323Gln mutation in TRIT1. This gene encodes human tRNA isopentenyltransferase, which is responsible for i6A37 modification of the anticodon loops of a small subset of cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs. Deficiency of i6A37 was previously shown in yeast to decrease translational efficiency and fidelity in a codon-specific manner. Modelling of the p.Arg323Gln mutation on the co-crystal structure of the homologous yeast isopentenyltransferase bound to a substrate tRNA, indicates that it is one of a series of adjacent basic side chains that interact with the tRNA backbone of the anticodon stem, somewhat removed from the catalytic center. We show that patient cells bearing the p.Arg323Gln TRIT1 mutation are severely deficient in i6A37 in both cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs. Complete complementation of the i6A37 deficiency of both cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs was achieved by transduction of patient fibroblasts with wild-type TRIT1. Moreover, we show that a previously-reported pathogenic m.7480A>G mt-tRNASer(UCN mutation in the anticodon loop sequence A36A37A38 recognised by TRIT1 causes a loss of i6A37 modification. These data demonstrate that deficiencies of i6A37 tRNA modification should be considered a potential mechanism of human disease caused by both nuclear gene and mitochondrial DNA mutations while providing insight into the structure and function of TRIT1 in the modification of cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs.

  20. Plasticity and diversity of tRNA anticodon determinants of substrate recognition by eukaryotic A37 isopentenyltransferases

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Tek N.; Blewett, Nathan H.; Maraia, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer RNAs are subject to a wide variety of modifications. Once such modification is N6-(isopentenyl)adenosine. This paper examines the substrate specificity of modifying enzymes from budding and fission yeast. Complex patterns of substrate determinants are uncovered. These determinants differ between the budding and fission yeast in enzymes. This study demonstrates previously unappreciated molecular plasticity and biological diversity of the tRNA-isopentenyltransferase system in eukaryotes.

  1. Alternative Mode of E-Site tRNA Binding in the Presence of a Downstream mRNA Stem Loop at the Entrance Channel.

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    Zhang, Yan; Hong, Samuel; Ruangprasert, Ajchareeya; Skiniotis, Georgios; Dunham, Christine M

    2018-03-06

    Structured mRNAs positioned downstream of the ribosomal decoding center alter gene expression by slowing protein synthesis. Here, we solved the cryo-EM structure of the bacterial ribosome bound to an mRNA containing a 3' stem loop that regulates translation. Unexpectedly, the E-site tRNA adopts two distinct orientations. In the first structure, normal interactions with the 50S and 30S E site are observed. However, in the second structure, although the E-site tRNA makes normal interactions with the 50S E site, its anticodon stem loop moves ∼54 Å away from the 30S E site to interact with the 30S head domain and 50S uL5. This position of the E-site tRNA causes the uL1 stalk to adopt a more open conformation that likely represents an intermediate state during E-site tRNA dissociation. These results suggest that structured mRNAs at the entrance channel restrict 30S subunit movement required during translation to slow E-site tRNA dissociation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 2'-O-methylation in mRNA disrupts tRNA decoding during translation elongation.

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    Choi, Junhong; Indrisiunaite, Gabriele; DeMirci, Hasan; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Wang, Jinfan; Petrov, Alexey; Prabhakar, Arjun; Rechavi, Gideon; Dominissini, Dan; He, Chuan; Ehrenberg, Måns; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2018-03-01

    Chemical modifications of mRNA may regulate many aspects of mRNA processing and protein synthesis. Recently, 2'-O-methylation of nucleotides was identified as a frequent modification in translated regions of human mRNA, showing enrichment in codons for certain amino acids. Here, using single-molecule, bulk kinetics and structural methods, we show that 2'-O-methylation within coding regions of mRNA disrupts key steps in codon reading during cognate tRNA selection. Our results suggest that 2'-O-methylation sterically perturbs interactions of ribosomal-monitoring bases (G530, A1492 and A1493) with cognate codon-anticodon helices, thereby inhibiting downstream GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and A-site tRNA accommodation, leading to excessive rejection of cognate aminoacylated tRNAs in initial selection and proofreading. Our current and prior findings highlight how chemical modifications of mRNA tune the dynamics of protein synthesis at different steps of translation elongation.

  3. Affinity labelling in situ of the bL12 protein on E. coli 70S ribosomes by means of a tRNA dialdehyde derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hountondji, Codjo; Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Le Caër, Jean-Pierre; Lancelot, Véronique; Cognet, Jean A H; Baouz, Soria

    2017-12-01

    In this report, we have used periodate-oxidized tRNA (tRNAox) as an affinity laleling reagent to demonstrate that: (i) the bL12 protein contacts the CCA-arm of P-site bound tRNA on the Escherichia coli 70S ribosomes; (ii) the stoichiometry of labelling is one molecule of tRNAox bound to one polypeptide chain of endogenous bL12; (iii) cross-linking in situ of bL12 with tRNAox on the ribosomes provokes the loss of activity; (iv) intact tRNA protects bL12 in the 70S ribosomes against cross-linking with tRNAox; (v) both tRNAox and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) compete for the same or for proximal cross-linking site(s) on bL12 inside the ribosome; (vi) the stoichiometry of cross-linking of PLP to the recombinant E. coli bL12 protein is one molecule of PLP covalently bound per polypeptide chain; (vii) the amino acid residue of recombinant bL12 cross-linked with PLP is Lys-65; (viii) Lys-65 of E. coli bL12 corresponds to Lys-53 of eL42 which was previously shown to cross-link with P-site bound tRNAox on human 80S ribosomes in situ; (ix) finally, E. coli bL12 and human eL42 proteins display significant primary structure similarities, which argues for evolutionary conservation of these two proteins located at the tRNA-CCA binding site on eubacterial and eukaryal ribosomes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  4. A nutrient-driven tRNA modification alters translational fidelity and genome-wide protein coding across an animal genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborske, John M; DuMont, Vanessa L Bauer; Wallace, Edward W J; Pan, Tao; Aquadro, Charles F; Drummond, D Allan

    2014-12-01

    Natural selection favors efficient expression of encoded proteins, but the causes, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of evolved coding changes remain an area of aggressive inquiry. We report a large-scale reversal in the relative translational accuracy of codons across 12 fly species in the Drosophila/Sophophora genus. Because the reversal involves pairs of codons that are read by the same genomically encoded tRNAs, we hypothesize, and show by direct measurement, that a tRNA anticodon modification from guanosine to queuosine has coevolved with these genomic changes. Queuosine modification is present in most organisms but its function remains unclear. Modification levels vary across developmental stages in D. melanogaster, and, consistent with a causal effect, genes maximally expressed at each stage display selection for codons that are most accurate given stage-specific queuosine modification levels. In a kinetic model, the known increased affinity of queuosine-modified tRNA for ribosomes increases the accuracy of cognate codons while reducing the accuracy of near-cognate codons. Levels of queuosine modification in D. melanogaster reflect bioavailability of the precursor queuine, which eukaryotes scavenge from the tRNAs of bacteria and absorb in the gut. These results reveal a strikingly direct mechanism by which recoding of entire genomes results from changes in utilization of a nutrient.

  5. Genomic characteristics comparisons of 12 food-related filamentous fungi in tRNA gene set, codon usage and amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-04-10

    Filamentous fungi are widely exploited in food industry due to their abilities to secrete large amounts of enzymes and metabolites. The recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided an opportunity to explore the genomic characteristics of these food-related filamentous fungi. In this paper, we selected 12 representative filamentous fungi in the areas of food processing and safety, which were Aspergillus clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, Monascus ruber, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei, and did the comparative studies of their genomic characteristics of tRNA gene distribution, codon usage pattern and amino acid composition. The results showed that the copy numbers greatly differed among isoaccepting tRNA genes and the distribution seemed to be related with translation process. The results also revealed that genome compositional variation probably constrained the base choice at the third codon, and affected the overall amino acid composition but seemed to have little effect on the integrated physicochemical characteristics of overall amino acids. The further analysis suggested that the wobble pairing and base modification were the important mechanisms in codon-anticodon interaction. In the scope of authors' knowledge, it is the first report about the genomic characteristics analysis of food-related filamentous fungi, which would be informative for the analysis of filamentous fungal genome evolution and their practical application in food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A nutrient-driven tRNA modification alters translational fidelity and genome-wide protein coding across an animal genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Zaborske

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favors efficient expression of encoded proteins, but the causes, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of evolved coding changes remain an area of aggressive inquiry. We report a large-scale reversal in the relative translational accuracy of codons across 12 fly species in the Drosophila/Sophophora genus. Because the reversal involves pairs of codons that are read by the same genomically encoded tRNAs, we hypothesize, and show by direct measurement, that a tRNA anticodon modification from guanosine to queuosine has coevolved with these genomic changes. Queuosine modification is present in most organisms but its function remains unclear. Modification levels vary across developmental stages in D. melanogaster, and, consistent with a causal effect, genes maximally expressed at each stage display selection for codons that are most accurate given stage-specific queuosine modification levels. In a kinetic model, the known increased affinity of queuosine-modified tRNA for ribosomes increases the accuracy of cognate codons while reducing the accuracy of near-cognate codons. Levels of queuosine modification in D. melanogaster reflect bioavailability of the precursor queuine, which eukaryotes scavenge from the tRNAs of bacteria and absorb in the gut. These results reveal a strikingly direct mechanism by which recoding of entire genomes results from changes in utilization of a nutrient.

  7. Structure–function relations in the NTPase domain of the antiviral tRNA ribotoxin Escherichia coli PrrC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meineke, Birthe; Shuman, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Breakage of tRNA by Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC (EcoPrrC) underlies a host antiviral response to phage T4 infection. Expression of EcoPrrC is cytocidal in yeast, signifying that PrrC ribotoxicity crosses phylogenetic domain boundaries. EcoPrrC consists of an N-terminal NTPase module that resembles ABC transporters and a C-terminal nuclease module that is sui generis. PrrC homologs are prevalent in many other bacteria. Here we report that Haemophilus influenzae PrrC is toxic in E. coli and yeast. To illuminate structure–activity relations, we conducted a new round of mutational analysis of EcoPrrC guided by primary structure conservation among toxic PrrC homologs. We indentify 17 candidate active site residues in the NTPase module that are essential for toxicity in yeast when EcoPrrC is expressed at high gene dosage. Their functions could be educed by integrating mutational data with the atomic structure of the transition-state complex of a homologous ABC protein.

  8. Structure-function relations in the NTPase domain of the antiviral tRNA ribotoxin Escherichia coli PrrC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meineke, Birthe; Shuman, Stewart, E-mail: s-shuman@ski.mskcc.org

    2012-06-05

    Breakage of tRNA by Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC (EcoPrrC) underlies a host antiviral response to phage T4 infection. Expression of EcoPrrC is cytocidal in yeast, signifying that PrrC ribotoxicity crosses phylogenetic domain boundaries. EcoPrrC consists of an N-terminal NTPase module that resembles ABC transporters and a C-terminal nuclease module that is sui generis. PrrC homologs are prevalent in many other bacteria. Here we report that Haemophilus influenzae PrrC is toxic in E. coli and yeast. To illuminate structure-activity relations, we conducted a new round of mutational analysis of EcoPrrC guided by primary structure conservation among toxic PrrC homologs. We indentify 17 candidate active site residues in the NTPase module that are essential for toxicity in yeast when EcoPrrC is expressed at high gene dosage. Their functions could be educed by integrating mutational data with the atomic structure of the transition-state complex of a homologous ABC protein.

  9. Origins and Early Evolution of the tRNA Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Tamura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern transfer RNAs (tRNAs are composed of ~76 nucleotides and play an important role as “adaptor” molecules that mediate the translation of information from messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Many studies suggest that the contemporary full-length tRNA was formed by the ligation of half-sized hairpin-like RNAs. A minihelix (a coaxial stack of the acceptor stem on the T-stem of tRNA can function both in aminoacylation by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and in peptide bond formation on the ribosome, indicating that it may be a vestige of the ancestral tRNA. The universal CCA-3′ terminus of tRNA is also a typical characteristic of the molecule. “Why CCA?” is the fundamental unanswered question, but several findings give a comprehensive picture of its origin. Here, the origins and early evolution of tRNA are discussed in terms of various perspectives, including nucleotide ligation, chiral selectivity of amino acids, genetic code evolution, and the organization of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center (PTC. The proto-tRNA molecules may have evolved not only as adaptors but also as contributors to the composition of the ribosome.

  10. The Valine Anticodon and Valylatability of Peanut Clump Virus RNAs Are Not Essential but Provide a Modest Competitive Advantage in Plants†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dunoyer, Patrice; Hemmer, Odile; Fritsch, Christiane; Dreher, Theo W.

    2000-01-01

    The role of valine aminoacylation of the two genomic RNAs of Peanut clump virus (PCV) was studied by comparing the amplification in vivo of RNAs with GAC, GΔC, or CCA anticodons in the tRNA-like structure (TLS) present at the 3′ end of each viral RNA. The PCV RNA1 TLS of isolate PCV2 possesses a GAC anticodon and is capable of highly efficient valylation, whereas the RNA2 TLS has a GΔC anticodon that does not support valylation. The presence in RNA1 of GΔC or CCA anticodons that conferred nonvalylatability resulted in about 2- to 4-fold and a 14- to 24-fold reduction, respectively, in RNA accumulations in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts inoculated with the RNA1 variants together with wild-type RNA2(GΔC). No differences in RNA levels were observed among protoplasts inoculated with the three variant RNA2s in the presence of wild-type RNA1(GAC). All combinations of valylatable and nonvalylatable RNAs 1 and 2 were similarly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and viral RNAs accumulated to similar levels; all input TLS sequences were present unchanged in apical leaves. In direct competition experiments in N. benthamiana plants, however, both RNA1 and RNA2 with GAC valylatable anticodons outcompeted the nonvalylatable variants. We conclude that valylation provides a small but significant replicational advantage to both PCV RNAs. Sequence analysis of the TLS from RNA2 of a second PCV isolate, PO2A, revealed the presence of an intact GAC valine anticodon, suggesting that the differential valylation of the genomic RNAs of isolate PCV2 is not a general characteristic of PCV. PMID:10954573

  11. Mitochondrial tRNA gene translocations in highly eusocial bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silvestre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial gene rearrangement events, especially involving tRNA genes, have been described more frequently as more complete mitochondrial genome sequences are becoming available. In the present work, we analyzed mitochondrial tRNA gene rearrangements between two bee species belonging to the tribes Apini and Meliponini within the "corbiculate Apidae". Eleven tRNA genes are in different genome positions or strands. The molecular events responsible for each translocation are explained. Considering the high number of rearrangements observed, the data presented here contradict the general rule of high gene order conservation among closely related organisms, and also represent a powerful molecular tool to help solve questions about phylogeny and evolution in bees.

  12. Analysis of the complement and molecular evolution of tRNA genes in cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barris Wesley C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed information regarding the number and organization of transfer RNA (tRNA genes at the genome level is becoming readily available with the increase of DNA sequencing of whole genomes. However the identification of functional tRNA genes is challenging for species that have large numbers of repetitive elements containing tRNA derived sequences, such as Bos taurus. Reliable identification and annotation of entire sets of tRNA genes allows the evolution of tRNA genes to be understood on a genomic scale. Results In this study, we explored the B. taurus genome using bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches to catalogue and analyze cow tRNA genes. The initial analysis of the cow genome using tRNAscan-SE identified 31,868 putative tRNA genes and 189,183 pseudogenes, where 28,830 of the 31,868 predicted tRNA genes were classified as repetitive elements by the RepeatMasker program. We then used comparative genomics to further discriminate between functional tRNA genes and tRNA-derived sequences for the remaining set of 3,038 putative tRNA genes. For our analysis, we used the human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, horse, dog, chicken and fugu genomes to predict that the number of active tRNA genes in cow lies in the vicinity of 439. Of this set, 150 tRNA genes were 100% identical in their sequences across all nine vertebrate genomes studied. Using clustering analyses, we identified a new tRNA-GlyCCC subfamily present in all analyzed mammalian genomes. We suggest that this subfamily originated from an ancestral tRNA-GlyGCC gene via a point mutation prior to the radiation of the mammalian lineages. Lastly, in a separate analysis we created phylogenetic profiles for each putative cow tRNA gene using a representative set of genomes to gain an overview of common evolutionary histories of tRNA genes. Conclusion The use of a combination of bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches has allowed the confident identification of a

  13. Correction of the consequences of mitochondrial 3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene causing the MELAS syndrome by tRNA import into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karicheva, Olga Z; Kolesnikova, Olga A; Schirtz, Tom; Vysokikh, Mikhail Y; Mager-Heckel, Anne-Marie; Lombès, Anne; Boucheham, Abdeldjalil; Krasheninnikov, Igor A; Martin, Robert P; Entelis, Nina; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-10-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial DNA are often associated with incurable human neuromuscular diseases. Among these mutations, an important number have been identified in tRNA genes, including 29 in the gene MT-TL1 coding for the tRNA(Leu(UUR)). The m.3243A>G mutation was described as the major cause of the MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes). This mutation was reported to reduce tRNA(Leu(UUR)) aminoacylation and modification of its anti-codon wobble position, which results in a defective mitochondrial protein synthesis and reduced activities of respiratory chain complexes. In the present study, we have tested whether the mitochondrial targeting of recombinant tRNAs bearing the identity elements for human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase can rescue the phenotype caused by MELAS mutation in human transmitochondrial cybrid cells. We demonstrate that nuclear expression and mitochondrial targeting of specifically designed transgenic tRNAs results in an improvement of mitochondrial translation, increased levels of mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes subunits, and significant rescue of respiration. These findings prove the possibility to direct tRNAs with changed aminoacylation specificities into mitochondria, thus extending the potential therapeutic strategy of allotopic expression to address mitochondrial disorders.

  14. Structure and function of initiator methionine tRNA from the mitochondria of Neurospora crassa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, J.E.; Hecker, L.I.; Schwartzbach, S.D.; Barnett, W.E.; Baumstark, B.; RajBhandary, U.L.

    1978-01-01

    Initiator methionine tRNA from the mitochondria of Neurospora crassa has been purified and sequenced. This mitochondrial tRNA can be aminoacylated and formylated by E. coli enzymes, and is capable of initiating protein synthesis in E. coli extracts. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial initiator tRNA (the first mitochondrial tRNA subjected to sequence analysis) is very rich in A + U, like that reported for total mitochondrial tRNA. In two of the unique features which differentiate procaryotic from eucaryotic cytoplasmic initiator tRNAs, the mitochondrial tRNA appears to resemble the eucaryotic initiator tRNAs. Thus unlike procaryotic initiator tRNAs in which the 5' terminal nucleotide cannot form a Watson-Crick base pair to the fifth nucleotide from 3' end, the mitochondrial tRNA can form such a base pair; and like the eucaryotic cytoplasmic initiator tRNAs, the mitochondrial initiator tRNA lacks the sequence - T psiCG(or A) in loop IV. The corresponding sequence in the mitochondrial tRNA, however, is -UGCA- and not -AU(or psi)CG- as found in all eucaryotic cytoplasmic initiator tRNAs. In spite of some similarity of the mitochondrial initiator tRNA to both eucaryotic and procaryotic initiator tRNAs, the mitochondrial initiator tRNA is basically different from both these tRNAs. Between these two classes of initiator tRNAs, however, it is more homologous in sequence to procaryotic (56 to 60%) than to eucaryotic cytoplasmic initiator tRNAs

  15. Viral tRNA Mimicry from a Biocommunicative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Ariza-Mateos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA viruses have very small genomes which limits the functions they can encode. One of the strategies employed by these viruses is to mimic key factors of the host cell so they can take advantage of the interactions and activities these factors typically participate in. The viral RNA genome itself was first observed to mimic cellular tRNA over 40 years ago. Since then researchers have confirmed that distinct families of RNA viruses are accessible to a battery of cellular factors involved in tRNA-related activities. Recently, potential tRNA-like structures have been detected within the sequences of a 100 mRNAs taken from human cells, one of these being the host defense interferon-alpha mRNA; these are then additional to the examples found in bacterial and yeast mRNAs. The mimetic relationship between tRNA, cellular mRNA, and viral RNA is the central focus of two considerations described below. These are subsequently used as a preface for a final hypothesis drawing on concepts relating to mimicry from the social sciences and humanities, such as power relations and creativity. Firstly, the presence of tRNA-like structures in mRNAs indicates that the viral tRNA-like signal could be mimicking tRNA-like elements that are contextualized by the specific carrier mRNAs, rather than, or in addition to, the tRNA itself, which would significantly increase the number of potential semiotic relations mediated by the viral signals. Secondly, and in particular, mimicking a host defense mRNA could be considered a potential new viral strategy for survival. Finally, we propose that mRNA’s mimicry of tRNA could be indicative of an ancestral intracellular conflict in which species of mRNAs invaded the cell, but from within. As the meaning of the mimetic signal depends on the context, in this case, the conflict that arises when the viral signal enters the cell can change the meaning of the mRNAs’ internal tRNA-like signals, from their current significance to that

  16. tRNA - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rmg/LATEST/rmg_trna.zip File size: 1 KB Simple search URL http:...ption Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us tRNA - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Antibiotic inhibition of the movement of tRNA substrates through a peptidyl transferase cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, B T; Rodriguez-Fonseca, C; Leviev, I

    1996-01-01

    The present review attempts to deal with movement of tRNA substrates through the peptidyl transferase centre on the large ribosomal subunit and to explain how this movement is interrupted by antibiotics. It builds on the concept of hybrid tRNA states forming on ribosomes and on the observed movem...

  18. The early history of tRNA recognition by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... Discovery of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and importance ... The pioneering work of Fritz Lipmann on the high-energy ... the peculiar structural and functional relationships tRNAs ... a bulk of only 20 families of tRNA molecules in contrast ...... balance of tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase; Science 242.

  19. tRNA gene diversity in the three domains of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eFujishima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNA (tRNA is widely known for its key role in decoding mRNA into protein. Despite their necessity and relatively short nucleotide sequences, a large diversity of gene structures and RNA secondary structures of pre-tRNAs and mature tRNAs have recently been discovered in the three domains of life. Growing evidences of disrupted tRNA genes in the genomes of Archaea reveals unique gene structures such as, intron-containing tRNA, split tRNA, and permuted tRNA. Coding sequence for these tRNAs are either separated with introns, fragmented, or permuted at the genome level. Although evolutionary scenario behind the tRNA gene disruption is still unclear, diversity of tRNA structure seems to be co-evolved with their processing enzyme, so-called RNA splicing endonuclease. Metazoan mitochondrial tRNAs (mtRNAs are known for their unique lack of either one or two arms from the typical tRNA cloverleaf structure, while still maintaining functionality. Recently identified nematode-specific V-arm containing tRNAs (nev-tRNAs possess long variable arms that are specific to eukaryotic class II tRNASer and tRNALeu but also decode class I tRNA codons. Moreover, many tRNA-like sequences have been found in the genomes of different organisms and viruses. Thus this review is aimed to cover the latest knowledge on tRNA gene diversity and further recapitulate the evolutionary and biological aspects that caused such uniqueness.

  20. Interaction of tRNA with Eukaryotic Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Graifer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of currently available data concerning interactions of tRNAs with the eukaryotic ribosome at various stages of translation. These data include the results obtained by means of cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography applied to various model ribosomal complexes, site-directed cross-linking with the use of tRNA derivatives bearing chemically or photochemically reactive groups in the CCA-terminal fragment and chemical probing of 28S rRNA in the region of the peptidyl transferase center. Similarities and differences in the interactions of tRNAs with prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes are discussed with concomitant consideration of the extent of resemblance between molecular mechanisms of translation in eukaryotes and bacteria.

  1. tRNA conjugation with chitosan nanoparticles: An AFM imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, D; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-04-01

    The conjugation of tRNA with chitosan nanoparticles of different sizes 15,100 and 200 kDa was investigated in aqueous solution using multiple spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Structural analysis showed that chitosan binds tRNA via G-C and A-U base pairs as well as backbone PO2 group, through electrostatic, hydrophilic and H-bonding contacts with overall binding constants of KCh-15-tRNA=4.1 (±0.60)×10(3)M(-1), KCh-100-tRNA=5.7 (±0.8)×10(3)M(-1) and KCh-200-tRNA=1.2 (±0.3)×10(4)M(-1). As chitosan size increases more stable polymer-tRNA conjugate is formed. AFM images showed major tRNA aggregation and particle formation occurred as chitosan concentration increased. Even though chitosan induced major biopolymer structural changes, tRNA remains in A-family structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of PEG and mPEG-anthracene on tRNA aggregation and particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, E; Mandeville, J S; Arnold, D; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2012-01-09

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and its derivatives are synthetic polymers with major applications in gene and drug delivery systems. Synthetic polymers are also used to transport miRNA and siRNA in vitro. We studied the interaction of tRNA with several PEGs of different compositions, such as PEG 3350, PEG 6000, and mPEG-anthracene under physiological conditions. FTIR, UV-visible, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the PEG binding mode, the binding constant, and the effects of polymer complexation on tRNA stability, aggregation, and particle formation. Structural analysis showed that PEG-tRNA interaction occurs via RNA bases and the backbone phosphate group with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts. The overall binding constants of K(PEG 3350-tRNA)= 1.9 (±0.5) × 10(4) M(-1), K(PEG 6000-tRNA) = 8.9 (±1) × 10(4) M(-1), and K(mPEG-anthracene)= 1.2 (±0.40) × 10(3) M(-1) show stronger polymer-RNA complexation by PEG 6000 and by PEG 3350 than the mPEG-anthracene. AFM imaging showed that PEG complexes contain on average one tRNA with PEG 3350, five tRNA with PEG 6000, and ten tRNA molecules with mPEG-anthracene. tRNA aggregation and particle formation occurred at high polymer concentrations, whereas it remains in A-family structure.

  3. Essential nontranslational functions of tRNA synthetases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Schimmel, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nontranslational functions of vertebrate aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), which catalyze the production of aminoacyl-tRNAs for protein synthesis, have recently been discovered. Although these new functions were thought to be 'moonlighting activities', many are as critical for cellular homeostasis as their activity in translation. New roles have been associated with their cytoplasmic forms as well as with nuclear and secreted extracellular forms that affect pathways for cardiovascular development and the immune response and mTOR, IFN-γ and p53 signaling. The associations of aaRSs with autoimmune disorders, cancers and neurological disorders further highlight nontranslational functions of these proteins. New architecture elaborations of the aaRSs accompany their functional expansion in higher organisms and have been associated with the nontranslational functions for several aaRSs. Although a general understanding of how these functions developed is limited, the expropriation of aaRSs for essential nontranslational functions may have been initiated by co-opting the amino acid-binding site for another purpose.

  4. Essential Non-Translational Functions of tRNA Synthetases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Schimmel, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nontranslational functions of vertebrate aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), which catalyze the production of aminoacyl-tRNAs for protein synthesis, have recently been discovered. While these new functions were thought to be ‘moonlighting activities’, many are as critical for cellular homeostasis as the activity in translation. New roles have been associated with cytoplasmic forms as well as with nuclear and secreted extracellular forms that impact pathways for cardiovascular development, the immune response, and mTOR, IFN-γ and p53 signaling. The associations of aaRSs with autoimmune disorders, cancers and neurological disorders further highlight nontranslational functions of these proteins. Novel architecture elaborations of the aaRSs accompany their functional expansion in higher organisms and have been associated with the nontranslational functions for several aaRSs. While a general understanding of how these functions developed is limited, the expropriation of aaRSs for essential nontranslational functions may have been initiated by co-opting the amino acid binding site for another purpose. PMID:23416400

  5. Crystal structure analysis reveals functional flexibility in the selenocysteine-specific tRNA from mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg M Ganichkin

    Full Text Available Selenocysteine tRNAs (tRNA(Sec exhibit a number of unique identity elements that are recognized specifically by proteins of the selenocysteine biosynthetic pathways and decoding machineries. Presently, these identity elements and the mechanisms by which they are interpreted by tRNA(Sec-interacting factors are incompletely understood.We applied rational mutagenesis to obtain well diffracting crystals of murine tRNA(Sec. tRNA(Sec lacking the single-stranded 3'-acceptor end ((ΔGCCARNA(Sec yielded a crystal structure at 2.0 Å resolution. The global structure of (ΔGCCARNA(Sec resembles the structure of human tRNA(Sec determined at 3.1 Å resolution. Structural comparisons revealed flexible regions in tRNA(Sec used for induced fit binding to selenophosphate synthetase. Water molecules located in the present structure were involved in the stabilization of two alternative conformations of the anticodon stem-loop. Modeling of a 2'-O-methylated ribose at position U34 of the anticodon loop as found in a sub-population of tRNA(Secin vivo showed how this modification favors an anticodon loop conformation that is functional during decoding on the ribosome. Soaking of crystals in Mn(2+-containing buffer revealed eight potential divalent metal ion binding sites but the located metal ions did not significantly stabilize specific structural features of tRNA(Sec.We provide the most highly resolved structure of a tRNA(Sec molecule to date and assessed the influence of water molecules and metal ions on the molecule's conformation and dynamics. Our results suggest how conformational changes of tRNA(Sec support its interaction with proteins.

  6. Temperature Dependence of Logarithmic-like Relaxational Dynamics of Hydrated tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiang-Qiang; Mamontov, Eugene; O'Neill, Hugh; Zhang, Qiu

    2013-03-21

    The dynamics of RNA within the β-relaxation region of 10 ps to 1 ns is crucial to its biological function. Because of its simpler chemical building blocks and the lack of the side methyl groups, faster relaxational dynamics of RNA compared to proteins can be expected. However, the situation is actually opposite. In this work, the relaxational dynamics of tRNA is measured by quasielastic neutron scattering and analyzed using the mode coupling theory, originally developed for glass-forming liquids. Our results reveal that the dynamics of tRNA follows a log-decay within the β-relaxation region, which is an important trait demonstrated by the dynamics of proteins. The dynamics of hydrated tRNA and lysozyme compared in the time domain further demonstrate that the slower dynamics of tRNA relative to proteins originates from the difference in the folded states of tRNA and proteins, as well as the influence of their hydration water.

  7. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhai, Suodi [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Hua, E-mail: huali88@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: yemin@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Quan, E-mail: quan.du@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  8. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei; Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan; Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He; Zhai, Suodi; Li, Hua; Ye, Min; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  9. A voltage-gated pore for translocation of tRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koley, Sandip; Adhya, Samit, E-mail: nilugrandson@gmail.com

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •A tRNA translocating complex was assembled from purified proteins. •The complex translocates tRNA at a membrane potential of ∼60 mV. •Translocation requires Cys and His residues in the Fe–S center of RIC6 subunit. -- Abstract: Very little is known about how nucleic acids are translocated across membranes. The multi-subunit RNA Import Complex (RIC) from mitochondria of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania tropica induces translocation of tRNAs across artificial or natural membranes, but the nature of the translocation pore remains unknown. We show that subunits RIC6 and RIC9 assemble on the membrane in presence of subunit RIC4A to form complex R3. Atomic Force Microscopy of R3 revealed particles with an asymmetric surface groove of ∼20 nm rim diameter and ∼1 nm depth. R3 induced translocation of tRNA into liposomes when the pH of the medium was lowered to ∼6 in the absence of ATP. R3-mediated tRNA translocation could also be induced at neutral pH by a K{sup +} diffusion potential with an optimum of 60–70 mV. Point mutations in the Cys{sub 2}–His{sub 2} Fe-binding motif of RIC6, which is homologous to the respiratory Complex III Fe–S protein, abrogated import induced by low pH but not by K{sup +} diffusion potential. These results indicate that the R3 complex forms a pore that is gated by a proton-generated membrane potential and that the Fe–S binding region of RIC6 has a role in proton translocation. The tRNA import complex of L. tropica thus contains a novel macromolecular channel distinct from the mitochondrial protein import pore that is apparently involved in tRNA import in some species.

  10. Catalytic mechanism and inhibition of tRNA (Uracil-5-)methyltransferase: evidence for covalent catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, D.V.; Hardy, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    tRNA (Ura-5-) methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to the 5-carbon of a specific Urd residue in tRNA. This results in stoichiometric release of tritium from [5- 3 H] Urd-labeled substrate tRNA isolated from methyltransferase-deficient Escherichia coli. The enzyme also catalyzes an AdoMet-independent exchange reaction between [5- 3 H]-Urd-labeled substrate tRNA and protons of water at a rate that is about 1% that of the normal methylation reaction, but with identical stoichiometry. S-Adenosylhomocysteine inhibits the rate of the exchange reaction by 2-3-fold, whereas an analog having the sulfur of AdoMet replaced by nitrogen accelerates the exchange reaction 9-fold. In the presence (but not absence) of AdoMet, 5-fluorouracil-substituted tRNA (FUra-tRNA) leads to the first-order inactivation of the enzyme. This is accompanied by the formation of a stable covalent complex containing the enzyme, FUra-tRNA, and the methyl group AdoMet. A mechanism for catalysis is proposed that explains both the 5-H exchange reaction and the inhibition by FUra-tRNA: the enzyme forms a covalent Michael adduct with substrate or inhibitor tRNA by attack of a nucleophilic group of the enzyme at carbon 6 of the pyrimidine residue to be modified. As a result, an anion equivalent is generated at carbon 5 that is sufficiently reactive to be methylated by AdoMet. Preliminary experiments and precedents suggest that the nucleophilic catalyst of the enzyme is a thiol group of cysteine. The potent irreversible inhibition by FUra-tRNA suggest that a mechanism for the RNA effects of FUra may also involve irreversible inhibition of RNA-modifying enzymes

  11. Crosslinking of tRNA containing a long extra arm to elongation factor Tu by trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nils-Jørgen; Wikman, Friedrik; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1990-01-01

    A tRNA containing a long extra arm, namely E. coli tRNA1Leu has been crosslinked to elongation factor Tu, with the crosslinking reagent trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). The nucleotide involved in the crosslinking was identified to be a guanosine in the variable region at position 47F or 47G....

  12. Unexpected expansion of tRNA substrate recognition by the yeast m1G9 methyltransferase Trm10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, William E; Henderson, Jeremy C; Jackman, Jane E

    2013-08-01

    N-1 Methylation of the nearly invariant purine residue found at position 9 of tRNA is a nucleotide modification found in multiple tRNA species throughout Eukarya and Archaea. First discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the tRNA methyltransferase Trm10 is a highly conserved protein both necessary and sufficient to catalyze all known instances of m1G9 modification in yeast. Although there are 19 unique tRNA species that contain a G at position 9 in yeast, and whose fully modified sequence is known, only 9 of these tRNA species are modified with m1G9 in wild-type cells. The elements that allow Trm10 to distinguish between structurally similar tRNA species are not known, and sequences that are shared between all substrate or all nonsubstrate tRNAs have not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the in vitro methylation activity of yeast Trm10 is not sufficient to explain the observed pattern of modification in vivo, as additional tRNA species are substrates for Trm10 m1G9 methyltransferase activity. Similarly, overexpression of Trm10 in yeast yields m1G9 containing tRNA species that are ordinarily unmodified in vivo. Thus, yeast Trm10 has a significantly broader tRNA substrate specificity than is suggested by the observed pattern of modification in wild-type yeast. These results may shed light onto the suggested involvement of Trm10 in other pathways in other organisms, particularly in higher eukaryotes that contain up to three different genes with sequence similarity to the single TRM10 gene in yeast, and where these other enzymes have been implicated in pathways beyond tRNA processing.

  13. Structural requirements for the binding of tRNA Lys3 to reverse transcriptase of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, B. B.; Das, A. T.; Berkhout, B.

    1995-01-01

    Reverse transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome is primed by the cellular tRNA Lys3 molecule. Packaging of this tRNA primer during virion assembly is thought to be mediated by specific interactions with the reverse transcriptase (RT) protein. Portions of the tRNA

  14. Selection of tRNA charging quality control mechanisms that increase mistranslation of the genetic code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadavalli, Srujana S; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mistranslation can follow two events during protein synthesis: production of non-cognate amino acid:transfer RNA (tRNA) pairs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and inaccurate selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs by the ribosome. Many aaRSs actively edit non-cognate amino acids, but editing mechanisms...

  15. The effect of tRNA levels on decoding times of mRNA codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Alexandra; Tuller, Tamir

    2014-08-01

    The possible effect of transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) concentrations on codons decoding time is a fundamental biomedical research question; however, due to a large number of variables affecting this process and the non-direct relation between them, a conclusive answer to this question has eluded so far researchers in the field. In this study, we perform a novel analysis of the ribosome profiling data of four organisms which enables ranking the decoding times of different codons while filtering translational phenomena such as experimental biases, extreme ribosomal pauses and ribosome traffic jams. Based on this filtering, we show for the first time that there is a significant correlation between tRNA concentrations and the codons estimated decoding time both in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes in natural conditions (-0.38 to -0.66, all P values decoding times are not correlated with aminoacyl-tRNA levels. The reported results support the conjecture that translation efficiency is directly influenced by the tRNA levels in the cell. Thus, they should help to understand the evolution of synonymous aspects of coding sequences via the adaptation of their codons to the tRNA pool. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Ribosome dynamics and tRNA movement by time-resolved electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Niels; Konevega, Andrey L; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V; Stark, Holger

    2010-07-15

    The translocation step of protein synthesis entails large-scale rearrangements of the ribosome-transfer RNA (tRNA) complex. Here we have followed tRNA movement through the ribosome during translocation by time-resolved single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Unbiased computational sorting of cryo-EM images yielded 50 distinct three-dimensional reconstructions, showing the tRNAs in classical, hybrid and various novel intermediate states that provide trajectories and kinetic information about tRNA movement through the ribosome. The structures indicate how tRNA movement is coupled with global and local conformational changes of the ribosome, in particular of the head and body of the small ribosomal subunit, and show that dynamic interactions between tRNAs and ribosomal residues confine the path of the tRNAs through the ribosome. The temperature dependence of ribosome dynamics reveals a surprisingly flat energy landscape of conformational variations at physiological temperature. The ribosome functions as a Brownian machine that couples spontaneous conformational changes driven by thermal energy to directed movement.

  17. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. ► tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. ► tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA Met (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA Met was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  18. Machine News and Volatility: The Dow Jones Industrial Average and the TRNA Sentiment Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper features an analysis of the relationship between the volatility of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) Index and a sentiment news series using daily data obtained from the Thomson Reuters News Analytics (TRNA) provided by SIRCA (The Securities Industry

  19. Early days of tRNA research: Discovery, function, purification and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... function in protein synthesis and methods for its purification ... intermediate carrier of the amino acid in protein synthesis. (table 1). .... 14C-leucine were incubated with GTP, PEP, and pyruvate kinase as indicated (adapted from: Hoagland et al 1958). .... Purification of N. crassa mitochondrial initiator tRNA.

  20. Structural similarities and functional differences clarify evolutionary relationships between tRNA healing enzymes and the myelin enzyme CNPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, Gopinath; Raasakka, Arne; Myllykoski, Matti; Kursula, Inari; Kursula, Petri

    2017-05-16

    Eukaryotic tRNA splicing is an essential process in the transformation of a primary tRNA transcript into a mature functional tRNA molecule. 5'-phosphate ligation involves two steps: a healing reaction catalyzed by polynucleotide kinase (PNK) in association with cyclic phosphodiesterase (CPDase), and a sealing reaction catalyzed by an RNA ligase. The enzymes that catalyze tRNA healing in yeast and higher eukaryotes are homologous to the members of the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily, in particular to the vertebrate myelin enzyme 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). We employed different biophysical and biochemical methods to elucidate the overall structural and functional features of the tRNA healing enzymes yeast Trl1 PNK/CPDase and lancelet PNK/CPDase and compared them with vertebrate CNPase. The yeast and the lancelet enzymes have cyclic phosphodiesterase and polynucleotide kinase activity, while vertebrate CNPase lacks PNK activity. In addition, we also show that the healing enzymes are structurally similar to the vertebrate CNPase by applying synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. We provide a structural analysis of the tRNA healing enzyme PNK and CPDase domains together. Our results support evolution of vertebrate CNPase from tRNA healing enzymes with a loss of function at its N-terminal PNK-like domain.

  1. Mitochondrial tRNA cleavage by tRNA-targeting ribonuclease causes mitochondrial dysfunction observed in mitochondrial disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: atetsu@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shimizu, Ayano; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Hidaka, Makoto; Masaki, Haruhiko, E-mail: amasaki@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • MTS-tagged ribonuclease was translocated successfully to the mitochondrial matrix. • MTS-tagged ribonuclease cleaved mt tRNA and reduced COX activity. • Easy and reproducible method of inducing mt tRNA dysfunction. - Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a genome possessed by mitochondria. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during aerobic respiration in mitochondria, mtDNA is commonly exposed to the risk of DNA damage. Mitochondrial disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and mutations or deletions on mitochondrial tRNA (mt tRNA) genes are often observed in mtDNA of patients with the disease. Hence, the correlation between mt tRNA activity and mitochondrial dysfunction has been assessed. Then, cybrid cells, which are constructed by the fusion of an enucleated cell harboring altered mtDNA with a ρ{sup 0} cell, have long been used for the analysis due to difficulty in mtDNA manipulation. Here, we propose a new method that involves mt tRNA cleavage by a bacterial tRNA-specific ribonuclease. The ribonuclease tagged with a mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS) was successfully translocated to the mitochondrial matrix. Additionally, mt tRNA cleavage, which resulted in the decrease of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, was observed.

  2. The fractionation of t-RNA on N,N′-bis(3-aminopropyl)-piperazine substituted-Sepharose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberman, Reuben; Giovanelli, Ruth; Acosta, Zenobio

    1974-01-01

    An anion exchange agarose has been prepared by modifying sepharose 6B with N,N′-bis (-3-aminopropyl) piperazine. This material (BAPP-Sepharose) has been used for the fractionation of t-RNA from E.coli by column chromatography. The results obtained with gram quantities of crude t-RNA at pH 4.6 and pH 8.0 as measured by the elution patterns of alanyl, arginyl, aspartyl, leucyl, lysyl, methionyl, phenylalanyl, prolyl, seryl, tyrosyl, and valyl t-RNA are described. PMID:10793731

  3. Enhanced Dynamics of Hydrated tRNA on Nanodiamond Surfaces: A Combined Neutron Scattering and MD Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Gurpreet K; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Goswami, Monojoy; O'Neill, Hugh; Mamontov, Eugene; Sumpter, Bobby G; Hong, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Chu, Xiang-Qiang

    2016-09-14

    Nontoxic, biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND) have recently been implemented in rational, systematic design of optimal therapeutic use in nanomedicines. However, hydrophilicity of the ND surface strongly influences structure and dynamics of biomolecules that restrict in situ applications of ND. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the impact of hydrophilic ND surface on biomolecules at the molecular level is essential. For tRNA, we observe an enhancement of dynamical behavior in the presence of ND contrary to generally observed slow motion at strongly interacting interfaces. We took advantage of neutron scattering experiments and computer simulations to demonstrate this atypical faster dynamics of tRNA on ND surface. The strong attractive interactions between ND, tRNA, and water give rise to unlike dynamical behavior and structural changes of tRNA in front of ND compared to without ND. Our new findings may provide new design principles for safer, improved drug delivery platforms.

  4. Sharing the load: Mex67-Mtr2 cofunctions with Los1 in primary tRNA nuclear export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kunal; Majumder, Shubhra; Wan, Yao; Shah, Vijay; Wu, Jingyan; Huang, Hsiao-Yun; Hopper, Anita K

    2017-11-01

    Eukaryotic transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are exported from the nucleus, their site of synthesis, to the cytoplasm, their site of function for protein synthesis. The evolutionarily conserved β-importin family member Los1 (Exportin-t) has been the only exporter known to execute nuclear export of newly transcribed intron-containing pre-tRNAs. Interestingly, LOS1 is unessential in all tested organisms. As tRNA nuclear export is essential, we previously interrogated the budding yeast proteome to identify candidates that function in tRNA nuclear export. Here, we provide molecular, genetic, cytological, and biochemical evidence that the Mex67-Mtr2 (TAP-p15) heterodimer, best characterized for its essential role in mRNA nuclear export, cofunctions with Los1 in tRNA nuclear export. Inactivation of Mex67 or Mtr2 leads to rapid accumulation of end-matured unspliced tRNAs in the nucleus. Remarkably, merely fivefold overexpression of Mex67-Mtr2 can substitute for Los1 in los1 Δ cells. Moreover, in vivo coimmunoprecipitation assays with tagged Mex67 document that the Mex67 binds tRNAs. Our data also show that tRNA exporters surprisingly exhibit differential tRNA substrate preferences. The existence of multiple tRNA exporters, each with different tRNA preferences, may indicate that the proteome can be regulated by tRNA nuclear export. Thus, our data show that Mex67-Mtr2 functions in primary nuclear export for a subset of yeast tRNAs. © 2017 Chatterjee et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. tRNA modifying enzymes, NSUN2 and METTL1, determine sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Okamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonessential tRNA modifications by methyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved and have been reported to stabilize mature tRNA molecules and prevent rapid tRNA decay (RTD. The tRNA modifying enzymes, NSUN2 and METTL1, are mammalian orthologs of yeast Trm4 and Trm8, which are required for protecting tRNA against RTD. A simultaneous overexpression of NSUN2 and METTL1 is widely observed among human cancers suggesting that targeting of both proteins provides a novel powerful strategy for cancer chemotherapy. Here, we show that combined knockdown of NSUN2 and METTL1 in HeLa cells drastically potentiate sensitivity of cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU whereas heat stress of cells revealed no effects. Since NSUN2 and METTL1 are phosphorylated by Aurora-B and Akt, respectively, and their tRNA modifying activities are suppressed by phosphorylation, overexpression of constitutively dephosphorylated forms of both methyltransferases is able to suppress 5-FU sensitivity. Thus, NSUN2 and METTL1 are implicated in 5-FU sensitivity in HeLa cells. Interfering with methylation of tRNAs might provide a promising rationale to improve 5-FU chemotherapy of cancer.

  6. RNA Polymerase III Output Is Functionally Linked to tRNA Dimethyl-G26 Modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeshkumar G Arimbasseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of the differential abundance or activity of tRNAs can be important determinants of gene regulation. RNA polymerase (RNAP III synthesizes all tRNAs in eukaryotes and it derepression is associated with cancer. Maf1 is a conserved general repressor of RNAP III under the control of the target of rapamycin (TOR that acts to integrate transcriptional output and protein synthetic demand toward metabolic economy. Studies in budding yeast have indicated that the global tRNA gene activation that occurs with derepression of RNAP III via maf1-deletion is accompanied by a paradoxical loss of tRNA-mediated nonsense suppressor activity, manifested as an antisuppression phenotype, by an unknown mechanism. We show that maf1-antisuppression also occurs in the fission yeast S. pombe amidst general activation of RNAP III. We used tRNA-HydroSeq to document that little changes occurred in the relative levels of different tRNAs in maf1Δ cells. By contrast, the efficiency of N2,N2-dimethyl G26 (m(22G26 modification on certain tRNAs was decreased in response to maf1-deletion and associated with antisuppression, and was validated by other methods. Over-expression of Trm1, which produces m(22G26, reversed maf1-antisuppression. A model that emerges is that competition by increased tRNA levels in maf1Δ cells leads to m(22G26 hypomodification due to limiting Trm1, reducing the activity of suppressor-tRNASerUCA and accounting for antisuppression. Consistent with this, we show that RNAP III mutations associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy decrease tRNA transcription, increase m(22G26 efficiency and reverse antisuppression. Extending this more broadly, we show that a decrease in tRNA synthesis by treatment with rapamycin leads to increased m(22G26 modification and that this response is conserved among highly divergent yeasts and human cells.

  7. Mitochondrial tRNA import in Trypanosoma brucei is independent of thiolation and the Rieske protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paris, Zdeněk; RUBIO, M. A. T.; Lukeš, Julius; Alfonzo, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2009), s. 1398-1406 ISSN 1355-8382 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/06/1558; GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : T. brucei * tRNA import * 2-thiolation * RIC * Rieske * Fe-S cluster Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.198, year: 2009

  8. Direct application of radioiodinated aminoacyl tRNA for radiolabeling nascent proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherberg, N.H.; Barokas, K.; Murata, Y.; Refetoff, S.

    1985-01-01

    A two-step procedure to incorporate 125 I-iodotyrosine into protein synthesized in a reticulocyte lysate is described. In the first step, the iodination of tyrosyl tRNA was catalyzed by a solid-state glycouril compound. More than one-third of 200 microCi of radioiodine became bound to 70 micrograms of aminoacyl tRNA after 15 min at 0 degrees C. The isotope was distributed in a three-to-one ratio of monoiodotyrosine to di-iodotyrosine. In the second step, the soluble product of the radioiodination was transferred directly into a nuclease-treated reticulocyte lysate coded with RNA isolated from the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. Fractional recovery of radioiodine in nascent protein was maximally 7.6%. Reaction of the product of translation with antibody against alpha-antitrypsin separated an 125 I-containing protein having a molecular weight estimated as 47,000. The synthesis of unprocessed alpha-antitrypsin was confirmed by cleavage of the labeled protein with leader peptidase and by its displacement from immunocomplex formation with purified alpha-antitrypsin. The amount of 125 I incorporated into alpha-antitrypsin was proportionate to iodinated tRNA additions up to a concentration of 70 micrograms/ml. The synthesis of alpha-antitrypsin as detected in radioautograms after gel electrophoresis was more than twice as sensitive using radioiodinated aminoacyl tRNA as compared with [ 35 S]methionine. Iodine labeling of thyroxine-binding globulin was also demonstrated in the translation product of Hep G2 RNA. Since the specific activity of the radioiodine is high and the means for detection of the isotope efficient, the method described can facilitate the demonstration of quantitatively minor translation products

  9. RNase MRP cleaves pre-tRNASer-Met in the tRNA maturation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuichiro; Takeda, Jun; Adachi, Kousuke; Nobe, Yuko; Kobayashi, Junya; Hirota, Kouji; Oliveira, Douglas V; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP) is a multifunctional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that is involved in the maturation of various types of RNA including ribosomal RNA. RNase MRP consists of a potential catalytic RNA and several protein components, all of which are required for cell viability. We show here that the temperature-sensitive mutant of rmp1, the gene for a unique protein component of RNase MRP, accumulates the dimeric tRNA precursor, pre-tRNA(Ser-Met). To examine whether RNase MRP mediates tRNA maturation, we purified the RNase MRP holoenzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found that the enzyme directly and selectively cleaves pre-tRNA(Ser-Met), suggesting that RNase MRP participates in the maturation of specific tRNA in vivo. In addition, mass spectrometry-based ribonucleoproteomic analysis demonstrated that this RNase MRP consists of one RNA molecule and 11 protein components, including a previously unknown component Rpl701. Notably, limited nucleolysis of RNase MRP generated an active catalytic core consisting of partial mrp1 RNA fragments, which constitute "Domain 1" in the secondary structure of RNase MRP, and 8 proteins. Thus, the present study provides new insight into the structure and function of RNase MRP.

  10. Spontaneous reverse movement of mRNA-bound tRNA through the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevega, Andrey L; Fischer, Niels; Semenkov, Yuri P; Stark, Holger; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2007-04-01

    During the translocation step of protein synthesis, a complex of two transfer RNAs bound to messenger RNA (tRNA-mRNA) moves through the ribosome. The reaction is promoted by an elongation factor, called EF-G in bacteria, which, powered by GTP hydrolysis, induces an open, unlocked conformation of the ribosome that allows for spontaneous tRNA-mRNA movement. Here we show that, in the absence of EF-G, there is spontaneous backward movement, or retrotranslocation, of two tRNAs bound to mRNA. Retrotranslocation is driven by the gain in affinity when a cognate E-site tRNA moves into the P site, which compensates the affinity loss accompanying the movement of peptidyl-tRNA from the P to the A site. These results lend support to the diffusion model of tRNA movement during translocation. In the cell, tRNA movement is biased in the forward direction by EF-G, which acts as a Brownian ratchet and prevents backward movement.

  11. Identification of Aquifex aeolicus tRNA (m2(2G26) methyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Hori, Hiroyuki; Endo, Yaeta

    2002-01-01

    The modifications of N2,N2-dimethylguanine (m2(2)G) are found in tRNAs and rRNAs from eukarya and archaea. In tRNAs, modification at position G26 is generated by tRNA (m2(2)G26) methyltransferase, which is encoded by the corresponding gene, trm1. This enzyme catalyzes the methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the semi-conserved residue, G26, via the intermediate modified base, m2G26. Recent genome sequencing project has been reported that the putative trm1 is encoded in the genome of Aquifex aeolicus, a hyper-thermophilic eubacterium as only one exception among eubacteria. In order to confirm whether this bacterial trm1 gene product is a real tRNA (m2(2)G26) methyltransferase or not, we expressed this protein by wheat germ in vitro cell-free translation system. Our biochemical analysis clearly showed that this gene product possessed tRNA (m2(2)G26) methyltransferase activity.

  12. Growth-Rate Dependent Regulation of tRNA Level and Charging in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Iolanda; Liebeton, Klaus; Ignatova, Zoya

    2017-10-13

    Cellular growth crucially depends on protein synthesis and the abundance of translational components. Among them, aminoacyl-tRNAs play a central role in biosynthesis and shape the kinetics of mRNA translation, thus influencing protein production. Here, we used microarray-based approaches to determine the charging levels and tRNA abundance of Bacillus licheniformis. We observed an interesting cross-talk among tRNA expression, charging pattern, and growth rate. For a large subset of tRNAs, we found a co-regulated and augmented expression at high growth rate. Their tRNA aminoacylation level is kept relatively constant through riboswitch-regulated expression of the cognate aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (AARS). We show that AARSs with putative riboswitch-controlled expression are those charging tRNAs with amino acids which disfavor cell growth when individually added to the nutrient medium. Our results suggest that the riboswitch-regulated AARS expression in B. licheniformis is a powerful mechanism not only to maintain a constant ratio of aminoacyl-tRNA independent of the growth rate but concomitantly to control the intracellular level of free amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Heterologous tRNA Modifications on the Production of Proteins Containing Noncanonical Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Crnković

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of proteins with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs enables the creation of protein-based biomaterials with diverse new chemical properties that may be attractive for material science. Current methods for large-scale production of ncAA-containing proteins, frequently carried out in Escherichia coli, involve the use of orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (o-aaRSs and tRNAs (o-tRNAs. Although o-tRNAs are designed to be orthogonal to endogenous aaRSs, their orthogonality to the components of the E. coli metabolism remains largely unexplored. We systematically investigated how the E. coli tRNA modification machinery affects the efficiency and orthogonality of o-tRNASep used for production of proteins with the ncAA O-phosphoserine (Sep. The incorporation of Sep into a green fluorescent protein (GFP in 42 E. coli strains carrying deletions of single tRNA modification genes identified several genes that affect the o-tRNA activity. Deletion of cysteine desulfurase (iscS increased the yield of Sep-containing GFP more than eightfold, while overexpression of dimethylallyltransferase MiaA and pseudouridine synthase TruB improved the specificity of Sep incorporation. These results highlight the importance of tRNA modifications for the biosynthesis of proteins containing ncAAs, and provide a novel framework for optimization of o-tRNAs.

  14. MMB-GUI: a fast morphing method demonstrates a possible ribosomal tRNA translocation trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tek, Alex; Korostelev, Andrei A; Flores, Samuel Coulbourn

    2016-01-08

    Easy-to-use macromolecular viewers, such as UCSF Chimera, are a standard tool in structural biology. They allow rendering and performing geometric operations on large complexes, such as viruses and ribosomes. Dynamical simulation codes enable modeling of conformational changes, but may require considerable time and many CPUs. There is an unmet demand from structural and molecular biologists for software in the middle ground, which would allow visualization combined with quick and interactive modeling of conformational changes, even of large complexes. This motivates MMB-GUI. MMB uses an internal-coordinate, multiscale approach, yielding as much as a 2000-fold speedup over conventional simulation methods. We use Chimera as an interactive graphical interface to control MMB. We show how this can be used for morphing of macromolecules that can be heterogeneous in biopolymer type, sequence, and chain count, accurately recapitulating structural intermediates. We use MMB-GUI to create a possible trajectory of EF-G mediated gate-passing translocation in the ribosome, with all-atom structures. This shows that the GUI makes modeling of large macromolecules accessible to a wide audience. The morph highlights similarities in tRNA conformational changes as tRNA translocates from A to P and from P to E sites and suggests that tRNA flexibility is critical for translocation completion. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. DNA methyltransferase homologue TRDMT1 in Plasmodium falciparum specifically methylates endogenous aspartic acid tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Gayathri; Jabeena, C A; Sethumadhavan, Devadathan Valiyamangalath; Rajaram, Nivethika; Rajavelu, Arumugam

    2017-10-01

    In eukaryotes, cytosine methylation regulates diverse biological processes such as gene expression, development and maintenance of genomic integrity. However, cytosine methylation and its functions in pathogenic apicomplexan protozoans remain enigmatic. To address this, here we investigated the presence of cytosine methylation in the nucleic acids of the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. Interestingly, P. falciparum has TRDMT1, a conserved homologue of DNA methyltransferase DNMT2. However, we found that TRDMT1 did not methylate DNA, in vitro. We demonstrate that TRDMT1 methylates cytosine in the endogenous aspartic acid tRNA of P. falciparum. Through RNA bisulfite sequencing, we mapped the position of 5-methyl cytosine in aspartic acid tRNA and found methylation only at C38 position. P. falciparum proteome has significantly higher aspartic acid content and a higher proportion of proteins with poly aspartic acid repeats than other apicomplexan pathogenic protozoans. Proteins with such repeats are functionally important, with significant roles in host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, TRDMT1 mediated C38 methylation of aspartic acid tRNA might play a critical role by translational regulation of important proteins and modulate the pathogenicity of the malarial parasite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Idiosyncratic recognition of UUG/UUA codons by modified nucleoside 5-taurinomethyluridine, τm5U present at 'wobble' position in anticodon loop of tRNALeu: A molecular modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita S Kamble

    Full Text Available Lack of naturally occurring modified nucleoside 5-taurinomethyluridine (τm5U at the 'wobble' 34th position in tRNALeu causes mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS. The τm5U34 specifically recognizes UUG and UUA codons. Structural consequences of τm5U34 to read cognate codons have not been studied so far in detail at the atomic level. Hence, 50ns multiple molecular dynamics (MD simulations of various anticodon stem loop (ASL models of tRNALeu in presence and absence of τm5U34 along with UUG and UUA codons were performed to explore the dynamic behaviour of τm5U34 during codon recognition process. The MD simulation results revealed that τm5U34 recognizes G/A ending codons by 'wobble' as well as a novel 'single' hydrogen bonding interactions. RMSD and RMSF values indicate the comparative stability of the ASL models containing τm5U34 modification over the other models, lacking τm5U34. Another MD simulation study of 55S mammalian mitochondrial rRNA with tRNALeu showed crucial interactions between the A-site residues, A918, A919, G256 and codon-anticodon bases. Thus, these results could improve our understanding about the decoding efficiency of human mt tRNALeu with τm5U34 to recognize UUG and UUA codons.

  17. Conformation and functioning of tRNAs: cross-linked tRNAs as substrate for tRNA nucleotidyl-transferase and aminoacyl synthetases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, D.S.; Thomas, G.; Favre, A.

    1974-01-01

    The behavior of mixed E. coli tRNAs ''cross-linked'' by irradiation with near ultraviolet light (310-400 nm) has been compared to that of the intact molecules in two enzymatic processes. No change in the rate and extent of the repair of the pCpCpA 3' terminus of tRNA by purified E. coli tRNA nucleotidyltransferase can be detected. In contrast, complex data were obtained in the acylation reaction. They can be understood using other tRNA specific modifications as well as our present knowledge of E. coli tRNA sequences and rare base content [fr

  18. Structural-conformational aspects of tRNA complexation with chloroethyl nitrosourea derivatives: A molecular modeling and spectroscopic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shweta; Tyagi, Gunjan; Chadha, Deepti; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2017-01-01

    Chloroethyl nitrosourea derivatives (CENUs) represent an important family of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, which are used in the treatment of different types of cancer such as brain tumors, resistant or relapsed Hodgkin's disease, small cell lung cancer and malignant melanoma. This work focuses towards understanding the interaction of chloroethyl nitrosourea derivatives; lomustine, nimustine and semustine with tRNA using spectroscopic approach in order to elucidate their auxiliary anticancer action mechanism inside the cell. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to investigate the binding parameters of tRNA-CENUs complexation. Results of present study demonstrate that all CENUs, studied here, interact with tRNA through guanine nitrogenous base residues and possibly further crosslink cytosine residues in paired region of tRNA. Moreover, spectral data collected for nimustine-tRNA and semustine-tRNA complex formation indicates towards the groove-directed-alkylation as their anti-malignant action, which involves the participation of uracil moiety located in major groove of tRNA. Besides this, tRNA-CENUs adduct formation did not alter the native conformation of biopolymer and tRNA remains in A-form after its interaction with all three nitrosourea derivatives studied. The binding constants (K a ) estimated for tRNA complexation with lomustine, nimustine and semustine are 2.55×10 2 M -1 , 4.923×10 2 M -1 and 4.223×10 2 M -1 respectively, which specify weak type of CENU's binding with tRNA. Moreover, molecular modeling simulations were also performed to predict preferential binding orientation of CENUs with tRNA that corroborates well with spectral outcomes. The findings, presented here, recognize tRNA binding properties of CENUs that can further help in rational designing of more specific and

  19. Limited diagnostic value of enzyme analysis in patients with mitochondrial tRNA mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibrand, Flemming; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Frederiksen, Anja L

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic value of respiratory chain (RC) enzyme analysis of muscle in adult patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM). RC enzyme activity was measured in muscle biopsies from 39 patients who carry either the 3243A>G mutation, other tRNA point mutations, or single, large......, respectively, in these three groups. The results indicate that RC enzyme analysis in muscle is not a sensitive test for MM in adults. In these patients, abnormal muscle histochemistry appears to be a better predictor ofMM....

  20. Orthogonal use of a human tRNA synthetase active site to achieve multi-functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quansheng; Kapoor, Mili; Guo, Min; Belani, Rajesh; Xu, Xiaoling; Kiosses, William B.; Hanan, Melanie; Park, Chulho; Armour, Eva; Do, Minh-Ha; Nangle, Leslie A.; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Protein multi-functionality is an emerging explanation for the complexity of higher organisms. In this regard, while aminoacyl tRNA synthetases catalyze amino acid activation for protein synthesis, some also act in pathways for inflammation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. How multiple functions evolved and their relationship to the active site is not clear. Here structural modeling analysis, mutagenesis, and cell-based functional studies show that the potent angiostatic, natural fragment of human TrpRS associates via Trp side chains that protrude from the cognate cellular receptor VE-cadherin. Modeling indicates that (I prefer the way it was because the conclusion was reached not only by modeling, but more so by experimental studies.)VE-cadherin Trp side chains fit into the Trp-specific active site of the synthetase. Thus, specific side chains of the receptor mimic (?) amino acid substrates and expand the functionality of the active site of the synthetase. We propose that orthogonal use of the same active site may be a general way to develop multi-functionality of human tRNA synthetases and other proteins. PMID:20010843

  1. Immunopurification of the suppressor tRNA dependent rabbit β-globin readthrough protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, D.; Thorgeirsson, S.S.; Copeland, T.D.; Oroszlan, S.; Bustin, M.

    1988-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the rabbit β-globin readthrough protein is the only known example of a naturally occurring readthrough protein which does not involve a viral system. To provide an efficient means for its isolation, detection, and study, the authors elicited specific antibodies against this unique protein. The 22 amino acid peptide corresponding to the readthrough portion of this protein was synthesized, coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and injected into sheep. Specific antibodies to the peptide were produced as demonstrated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and by immunoblotting. The antibodies did not react with globin. The rabbit β-globin readthrough protein was separated from globin and other reticulocyte proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining or by labeling with [ 35 S] methionine. Incorporation of [ 35 S] methionine into the readthrough protein was significantly enhanced upon addition of an opal suppressor tRNA to reticulocyte lysates. Immunoblotting revealed that the readthrough protein also occurs in lysates without added suppressor tRNA. The antibodies were purified on an affi-gel column which had been coupled with the peptide antigen. The readthrough protein was then purified from reticulocytes by immunoaffinity chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results provide conclusive evidence that the β-globin readthrough protein is naturally occurring in rabbit reticulocytes

  2. Orthogonal use of a human tRNA synthetase active site to achieve multifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quansheng; Kapoor, Mili; Guo, Min; Belani, Rajesh; Xu, Xiaoling; Kiosses, William B; Hanan, Melanie; Park, Chulho; Armour, Eva; Do, Minh-Ha; Nangle, Leslie A; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2010-01-01

    Protein multifunctionality is an emerging explanation for the complexity of higher organisms. In this regard, aminoacyl tRNA synthetases catalyze amino acid activation for protein synthesis, but some also act in pathways for inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. It is unclear how these multiple functions evolved and how they relate to the active site. Here structural modeling analysis, mutagenesis and cell-based functional studies show that the potent angiostatic, natural fragment of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) associates via tryptophan side chains that protrude from its cognate cellular receptor vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin). VE-cadherin's tryptophan side chains fit into the tryptophan-specific active site of the synthetase. Thus, specific side chains of the receptor mimic amino acid substrates and expand the functionality of the active site of the synthetase. We propose that orthogonal use of the same active site may be a general way to develop multifunctionality of human tRNA synthetases and other proteins.

  3. Cross-Talk between Dnmt2-Dependent tRNA Methylation and Queuosine Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. Ehrenhofer-Murray

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the Dnmt2 family of methyltransferases have yielded a number of unexpected discoveries. The first surprise came more than ten years ago when it was realized that, rather than being DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 enzymes actually are transfer RNA (tRNA methyltransferases for cytosine-5 methylation, foremost C38 (m5C38 of tRNAAsp. The second unanticipated finding was our recent discovery of a nutritional regulation of Dnmt2 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Significantly, the presence of the nucleotide queuosine in tRNAAsp strongly stimulates Dnmt2 activity both in vivo and in vitro in S. pombe. Queuine, the respective base, is a hypermodified guanine analog that is synthesized from guanosine-5’-triphosphate (GTP by bacteria. Interestingly, most eukaryotes have queuosine in their tRNA. However, they cannot synthesize it themselves, but rather salvage it from food or from gut microbes. The queuine obtained from these sources comes from the breakdown of tRNAs, where the queuine ultimately was synthesized by bacteria. Queuine thus has been termed a micronutrient. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Dnmt2 methylation and queuosine modification with respect to translation as well as the organismal consequences of the absence of these modifications. Models for the functional cooperation between these modifications and its wider implications are discussed.

  4. Structural Basis for Specific Inhibition of tRNA Synthetase by an ATP Competitive Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Pengfei; Han, Hongyan; Wang, Jing; Chen, Kaige; Chen, Xin; Guo, Min

    2015-06-18

    Pharmaceutical inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases demand high species and family specificity. The antimalarial ATP-mimetic cladosporin selectively inhibits Plasmodium falciparum LysRS (PfLysRS). How the binding to a universal ATP site achieves the specificity is unknown. Here we report three crystal structures of cladosporin with human LysRS, PfLysRS, and a Pf-like human LysRS mutant. In all three structures, cladosporin occupies the class defining ATP-binding pocket, replacing the adenosine portion of ATP. Three residues holding the methyltetrahydropyran moiety of cladosporin are critical for the specificity of cladosporin against LysRS over other class II tRNA synthetase families. The species-exclusive inhibition of PfLysRS is linked to a structural divergence beyond the active site that mounts a lysine-specific stabilizing response to binding cladosporin. These analyses reveal that inherent divergence of tRNA synthetase structural assembly may allow for highly specific inhibition even through the otherwise universal substrate binding pocket and highlight the potential for structure-driven drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. T box riboswitches in Actinobacteria: Translational regulation via novel tRNA interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Anna V.; Grundy, Frank J.; Henkin, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    The T box riboswitch regulates many amino acid-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria. T box riboswitch-mediated gene regulation was shown previously to occur at the level of transcription attenuation via structural rearrangements in the 5′ untranslated (leader) region of the mRNA in response to binding of a specific uncharged tRNA. In this study, a novel group of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase gene (ileS) T box leader sequences found in organisms of the phylum Actinobacteria was investigated. The Stem I domains of these RNAs lack several highly conserved elements that are essential for interaction with the tRNA ligand in other T box RNAs. Many of these RNAs were predicted to regulate gene expression at the level of translation initiation through tRNA-dependent stabilization of a helix that sequesters a sequence complementary to the Shine–Dalgarno (SD) sequence, thus freeing the SD sequence for ribosome binding and translation initiation. We demonstrated specific binding to the cognate tRNAIle and tRNAIle-dependent structural rearrangements consistent with regulation at the level of translation initiation, providing the first biochemical demonstration, to our knowledge, of translational regulation in a T box riboswitch. PMID:25583497

  6. The Pai-associated leuX specific tRNA5(Leu) affects type 1fimbriation in pathogenic Escherichia coli by control of FimB recombinase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, A.; Gally, D.; Olsen, Peter Bjarke

    1997-01-01

    The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536 (06:K15:H31) carries two large chromosomalpathogenicity islands (Pais). Both Pais are flanked by tRNA genes. Spontaneous deletion of Pai IIresults in truncation of the leuX tRNA5Leu gene. This tRNA is required for the expression of type 1fimbriae (Fim...

  7. Evidence that the mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthetase (LARS2) gene represents a novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. 't Hart (Leen); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T. Hansen (Torben); I. Rietveld (Ingrid); J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline); J.A. Maassen (Johannes); M.G.A.A.M. Nijpels (Giel); G.M.C. Janssen (George); P.P. Arp (Pascal); R.J. Heine (Robert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T. Jorgensen (Torben); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Borch-Johnsen; O. Pedersen (Oluf)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPreviously, we have shown that a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA-encoded tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene is associated with type 2 diabetes. One of the consequences of this mutation is a reduced aminoacylation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)). In this study, we have examined whether variants in the leucyl tRNA

  8. Direct Regulation of tRNA and 5S rRNA Gene Transcription by Polo-like Kinase 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairley, Jennifer A.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Berg, Tracy; Kenneth, Niall S.; von Schubert, Conrad; Sillje, Herman H. W.; Medema, Rene H.; Nigg, Erich A.; White, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Polo-like kinase Plk1 controls numerous aspects of cell-cycle progression. We show that it associates with tRNA and 5S rRNA genes and regulates their transcription by RNA polymerase Ill (pol Ill) through direct binding and phosphorylation of transcription factor Brit During interphase, Plk1 promotes

  9. An entropy based analysis of the relationship between the DOW JONES Index and the TRNA Sentiment series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper features an analysis of the relationship between the DOW JONES Industrial Average Index (DJIA) and a sentiment news series using daily data obtained from the Thomson Reuters News Analytics (TRNA)1 provided by SIRCA (The Securities Industry Research Centre of the Asia Pacic).

  10. Natural aminoacyl tRNA synthetase fragment enhances cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E McCormick

    Full Text Available A naturally-occurring fragment of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS has been shown in higher eukaryotes to 'moonlight' as a pro-angiogenic cytokine in addition to its primary role in protein translation. Pro-angiogenic cytokines have previously been proposed to be promising therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Here, we show that systemic delivery of the natural fragment of TyRS, mini-TyrRS, improves heart function in mice after myocardial infarction. This improvement is associated with reduced formation of scar tissue, increased angiogenesis of cardiac capillaries, recruitment of c-kitpos cells and proliferation of myocardial fibroblasts. This work demonstrates that mini-TyrRS has beneficial effects on cardiac repair and regeneration and offers support for the notion that elucidation of the ever expanding repertoire of noncanonical functions of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases offers unique opportunities for development of novel therapeutics.

  11. Hydrogen bond indices and tertiary structure of yeast tRNA sup(Phe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.; Esquivel, D.M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The rigidity and stability of the tertiary structure of yeast tRNA sup(Phe) is related to a bond index employed in an IEHT calculation. The index permits a quantitative estimate of the electronic cloud along the hydrogen bond, having thus an appealing physical meaning. The results indicate that Hoogsteen-type bonds have, as expected, greater electronic population than Watson-Crick type ones. Other non-Watson-Crick pairings, the wobble pair and G 15 -C 48 , exhibit high values of the index for the NH...O bond. In the triples, the electronic density of the hydrogen bridges does not weaken, comparing it with the one of the pairs involved. Contour density maps are shown and dipolar moments of pairs and triples are qualitatively discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Protozoan ALKBH8 Oxygenases Display both DNA Repair and tRNA Modification Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zdżalik, Daria; Vågbø, Cathrine B; Kirpekar, Finn

    2014-01-01

    The ALKBH family of Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases comprises enzymes that display sequence homology to AlkB from E. coli, a DNA repair enzyme that uses an oxidative mechanism to dealkylate methyl and etheno adducts on the nucleobases. Humans have nine different ALKBH proteins, ALKBH......1-8 and FTO. Mammalian and plant ALKBH8 are tRNA hydroxylases targeting 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-modified uridine (mcm5U) at the wobble position of tRNAGly(UCC). In contrast, the genomes of some bacteria encode a protein with strong sequence homology to ALKBH8, and robust DNA repair activity...... was previously demonstrated for one such protein. To further explore this apparent functional duality of the ALKBH8 proteins, we have here enzymatically characterized a panel of such proteins, originating from bacteria, protozoa and mimivirus. All the enzymes showed DNA repair activity in vitro, but...

  13. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Ryu [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Mizuno, Rie [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazunori, E-mail: watanabe@ric.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ijiri, Kenichi [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  14. Simulating movement of tRNA through the ribosome during hybrid-state formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Paul C; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2013-09-28

    Biomolecular simulations provide a means for exploring the relationship between flexibility, energetics, structure, and function. With the availability of atomic models from X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), and rapid increases in computing capacity, it is now possible to apply molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to large biomolecular machines, and systematically partition the factors that contribute to function. A large biomolecular complex for which atomic models are available is the ribosome. In the cell, the ribosome reads messenger RNA (mRNA) in order to synthesize proteins. During this essential process, the ribosome undergoes a wide range of conformational rearrangements. One of the most poorly understood transitions is translocation: the process by which transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules move between binding sites inside of the ribosome. The first step of translocation is the adoption of a "hybrid" configuration by the tRNAs, which is accompanied by large-scale rotations in the ribosomal subunits. To illuminate the relationship between these rearrangements, we apply MD simulations using a multi-basin structure-based (SMOG) model, together with targeted molecular dynamics protocols. From 120 simulated transitions, we demonstrate the viability of a particular route during P/E hybrid-state formation, where there is asynchronous movement along rotation and tRNA coordinates. These simulations not only suggest an ordering of events, but they highlight atomic interactions that may influence the kinetics of hybrid-state formation. From these simulations, we also identify steric features (H74 and surrounding residues) encountered during the hybrid transition, and observe that flexibility of the single-stranded 3'-CCA tail is essential for it to reach the endpoint. Together, these simulations provide a set of structural and energetic signatures that suggest strategies for modulating the physical-chemical properties of protein synthesis by the

  15. tRNA sequence data, annotation data and curation data - tRNADB-CE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us tRNAD... tRNA sequence data, annotation data and curation data - tRNADB-CE | LSDB Archive ...

  16. The structure of the hypothetical protein smu.1377c from Streptococcus mutans suggests a role in tRNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from S. mutans, shows a similar fold to Sua5-YciO-YrdC-family proteins and indicates its functional role in tRNA modification. Members of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC protein family are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and possess a conserved α/β twisted open-sheet fold. The Escherichia coli protein YrdC has been shown to be involved in modification of tRNA. The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans, has been determined to 2.25 Å resolution. From structure analysis and comparison, it is shown that smu.1377c is a member of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC family and that it may play the same role as E. coli YrdC

  17. Chloroplast DNA codon use: evidence for selection at the psb A locus based on tRNA availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B R

    1993-09-01

    Codon use in the three sequenced chloroplast genomes (Marchantia, Oryza, and Nicotiana) is examined. The chloroplast has a bias in that codons NNA and NNT are favored over synonymous NNC and NNG codons. This appears to be a consequence of an overall high A + T content of the genome. This pattern of codon use is not followed by the psb A gene of all three genomes and other psb A sequences examined. In this gene, the codon use favors NNC over NNT for twofold degenerate amino acids. In each case the only tRNA coded by the genome is complementary to the NNC codon. This codon use is similar to the codon use by chloroplast genes examined from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Since psb A is the major translation product of the chloroplast, this suggests that selection is acting on the codon use of this gene to adapt codons to tRNA availability, as previously suggested for unicellular organisms.

  18. tRNA Is the Source of Low-Level trans-Zeatin Production in Methylobacterium spp.†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Robbin L.; Morris, Roy O.; Polacco, Joe C.

    2002-01-01

    Pink-pigmented facultatively methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs), classified as Methylobacterium spp., are persistent colonizers of plant leaf surfaces. Reports of PPFM-plant dialogue led us to examine cytokinin production by PPFMs. Using immunoaffinity and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, we obtained 22 to 111 ng of trans-zeatin per liter from culture filtrates of four PPFM leaf isolates (from Arabidopsis, barley, maize, and soybean) and of a Methylobacterium extorquens type culture originally recovered as a soil isolate. We identified the zeatin isolated as the trans isomer by HPLC and by a radioimmunoassay in which monoclonal antibodies specific for trans-hydroxylated cytokinins were used. Smaller and variable amounts of trans-zeatin riboside were also recovered. trans-Zeatin was recovered from tRNA hydrolysates in addition to the culture filtrates, suggesting that secreted trans-zeatin resulted from tRNA turnover rather than from de novo synthesis. The product of the miaA gene is responsible for isopentenylation of a specific adenine in some tRNAs. To confirm that the secreted zeatin originated from tRNA, we mutated the miaA gene of M. extorquens by single exchange of an internal miaA fragment into the chromosomal gene. Mutant exconjugants, confirmed by PCR, did not contain zeatin in their tRNAs and did not secrete zeatin into the medium, findings which are consistent with the hypothesis that all zeatin is tRNA derived rather than synthesized de novo. In germination studies performed with heat-treated soybean seeds, cytokinin-null (miaA) mutants stimulated germination as well as wild-type bacteria. While cytokinin production may play a role in the plant-PPFM interaction, it is not responsible for stimulation of germination by PPFMs. PMID:11889088

  19. Shared Sulfur Mobilization Routes for tRNA Thiolation and Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthesis in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Leimkühler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of transfer RNA (tRNA have been shown to play critical roles in the biogenesis, metabolism, structural stability and function of RNA molecules, and the specific modifications of nucleobases with sulfur atoms in tRNA are present in pro- and eukaryotes. Here, especially the thiomodifications xm5s2U at the wobble position 34 in tRNAs for Lys, Gln and Glu, were suggested to have an important role during the translation process by ensuring accurate deciphering of the genetic code and by stabilization of the tRNA structure. The trafficking and delivery of sulfur nucleosides is a complex process carried out by sulfur relay systems involving numerous proteins, which not only deliver sulfur to the specific tRNAs but also to other sulfur-containing molecules including iron–sulfur clusters, thiamin, biotin, lipoic acid and molybdopterin (MPT. Among the biosynthesis of these sulfur-containing molecules, the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco and the synthesis of thio-modified tRNAs in particular show a surprising link by sharing protein components for sulfur mobilization in pro- and eukaryotes.

  20. Sequence organization and control of transcription in the bacteriophage T4 tRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Abelson, J

    1985-10-05

    Bacteriophage T4 contains genes for eight transfer RNAs and two stable RNAs of unknown function. These are found in two clusters at 70 X 10(3) base-pairs on the T4 genetic map. To understand the control of transcription in this region we have completed the sequencing of 5000 base-pairs in this region. The sequence contains a part of gene 3, gene 1, gene 57, internal protein I, the tRNA genes and five open reading frames which most likely code for heretofore unidentified proteins. We have used subclones of the region to investigate the kinetics of transcription in vivo. The results show that transcription in this region consists of overlapping early, middle and late transcripts. Transcription is directed from two early promoters, one or two middle promoters and perhaps two late promoters. This region contains all of the features that are seen in T4 transcription and as such is a good place to study the phenomenon in more detail.

  1. Connecting the kinetics and energy landscape of tRNA translocation on the ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Whitford

    Full Text Available Functional rearrangements in biomolecular assemblies result from diffusion across an underlying energy landscape. While bulk kinetic measurements rely on discrete state-like approximations to the energy landscape, single-molecule methods can project the free energy onto specific coordinates. With measures of the diffusion, one may establish a quantitative bridge between state-like kinetic measurements and the continuous energy landscape. We used an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of the 70S ribosome (2.1 million atoms; 1.3 microseconds to provide this bridge for specific conformational events associated with the process of tRNA translocation. Starting from a pre-translocation configuration, we identified sets of residues that collectively undergo rotary rearrangements implicated in ribosome function. Estimates of the diffusion coefficients along these collective coordinates for translocation were then used to interconvert between experimental rates and measures of the energy landscape. This analysis, in conjunction with previously reported experimental rates of translocation, provides an upper-bound estimate of the free-energy barriers associated with translocation. While this analysis was performed for a particular kinetic scheme of translocation, the quantitative framework is general and may be applied to energetic and kinetic descriptions that include any number of intermediates and transition states.

  2. Backbone Brackets and Arginine Tweezers delineate Class I and Class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, V. Joachim; Schroeder, Michael; Labudde, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    The origin of the machinery that realizes protein biosynthesis in all organisms is still unclear. One key component of this machinery are aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS), which ligate tRNAs to amino acids while consuming ATP. Sequence analyses revealed that these enzymes can be divided into two complementary classes. Both classes differ significantly on a sequence and structural level, feature different reaction mechanisms, and occur in diverse oligomerization states. The one unifying aspect of both classes is their function of binding ATP. We identified Backbone Brackets and Arginine Tweezers as most compact ATP binding motifs characteristic for each Class. Geometric analysis shows a structural rearrangement of the Backbone Brackets upon ATP binding, indicating a general mechanism of all Class I structures. Regarding the origin of aaRS, the Rodin-Ohno hypothesis states that the peculiar nature of the two aaRS classes is the result of their primordial forms, called Protozymes, being encoded on opposite strands of the same gene. Backbone Brackets and Arginine Tweezers were traced back to the proposed Protozymes and their more efficient successors, the Urzymes. Both structural motifs can be observed as pairs of residues in contemporary structures and it seems that the time of their addition, indicated by their placement in the ancient aaRS, coincides with the evolutionary trace of Proto- and Urzymes. PMID:29659563

  3. Deletion analysis of the expression of rRNA genes and associated tRNA genes carried by a lambda transducing bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, E.A.; Nomura, M.

    1979-01-01

    Transducing phage lambda ilv5 carries genes for rRNA's, spacer tRNA's (tRNA 1 /sup Ile/ and tRNA/sub 1B//sup Ala/), and two other tRNA's (tRNA 1 /sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/). We have isolated a mutant of lambda ilv5, lambda ilv5su7, which carries an amber suppressor mutation in the tRNA/sup Trp/ gene. A series of deletion mutants were isolated from the lambda ilv5su7 phage. Genetic and biochemical analyses of these deletion mutants have confirmed our previous conclusion that the genes for tRNA 1 /sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/ located at the distal end of the rRNA operon (rrnC) are cotranscribed with other rRNA genes in that operon. In addition, these deletions were used to define roughly the physical location of the promoter(s) of the rRNA operon carried by the lambda ilv5su7 transducing phage

  4. Affinity labeling of Escherichia coli phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase at the binding site for tRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hountondji, C.; Schmitter, J.M.; Beauvallet, C.; Blanquet, S.

    1987-01-01

    Periodate-oxidized tRNA/sup Phe/ (tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/) behaves as a specific affinity label of tetrameric Escherichia coli phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS). Reaction of the α 2 β 2 enzyme with tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/ results in the loss of tRNA/sup Phe/ aminoacylation activity with covalent attachment of 2 mol of tRNA dialdehyde/mol of enzyme, in agreement with the stoichiometry of tRNA binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the PheRS-[ 14 C]tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/ covalent complex indicates that the large (α, M/sub r/ 87K) subunit of the enzyme interacts with the 3'-adenosine of tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/. The [ 14 C]tRNA-labeled chymotryptic peptides of PheRS were purified by both gel filtration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The radioactivity was almost equally distributed among three peptides: Met-Lys[Ado]-Phe, Ala-Asp-Lys[Ado]-Leu, and Lys-Ile-Lys[Ado]-Ala. These sequences correspond to residues 1-3, 59-62, and 104-107, respectively, in the N-terminal region of the 795 amino acid sequence of the α subunit. It is noticeable that the labeled peptide Ala-Asp-Lys-Leu is adjacent to residues 63-66 (Arg-Val-Thr-Lys). The latter sequence was just predicted to resemble the proposed consensus tRNA CCA binding region Lys-Met-Ser-Lys-Ser, as deduced from previous affinity labeling studies on E. coli methionyl- and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases

  5. Forced selection of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant that uses a non-self tRNA primer for reverse transcription: Involvement of viral RNA sequences and the reverse transcriptase enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Truus E. M.; Beerens, Nancy; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 uses the tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule as a selective primer for reverse transcription. This primer specificity is imposed by sequence complementarity between the tRNA primer and two motifs in the viral RNA genome: the primer-binding site (PBS) and the primer activation

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of tRNA (m{sup 7}G46) methyltransferase from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Gao, Yang; Yang, Weili; Zhou, Huihao; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhang, Xiao; Teng, Maikun, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn; Niu, Liwen, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2008-08-01

    tRNA (m{sup 7}G46) methyltransferase from E. coli was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.04 Å resolution. Transfer RNA (tRNA) (m{sup 7}G46) methyltransferase (TrmB) belongs to the Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM) family and uses S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as the methyl-group donor to catalyze the formation of N{sup 7}-methylguanosine (m{sup 7}G) at position 46 in the variable loop of tRNAs. After attempts to crystallize full-length Escherichia coli TrmB (EcTrmB) failed, a truncated protein lacking the first 32 residues of the N-terminus but with an additional His{sub 6} tag at the C-terminus was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) as precipitant at 283 K. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected using a single flash-cooled crystal that belonged to space group P2{sub 1}.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Gao, Yang; Yang, Weili; Zhou, Huihao; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhang, Xiao; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2008-01-01

    tRNA (m 7 G46) methyltransferase from E. coli was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.04 Å resolution. Transfer RNA (tRNA) (m 7 G46) methyltransferase (TrmB) belongs to the Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM) family and uses S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as the methyl-group donor to catalyze the formation of N 7 -methylguanosine (m 7 G) at position 46 in the variable loop of tRNAs. After attempts to crystallize full-length Escherichia coli TrmB (EcTrmB) failed, a truncated protein lacking the first 32 residues of the N-terminus but with an additional His 6 tag at the C-terminus was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) as precipitant at 283 K. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected using a single flash-cooled crystal that belonged to space group P2 1

  8. Fluctuations between multiple EF-G-induced chimeric tRNA states during translocation on the ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adio, Sarah; Senyushkina, Tamara; Peske, Frank; Fischer, Niels; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V.

    2015-06-01

    The coupled translocation of transfer RNA and messenger RNA through the ribosome entails large-scale structural rearrangements, including step-wise movements of the tRNAs. Recent structural work has visualized intermediates of translocation induced by elongation factor G (EF-G) with tRNAs trapped in chimeric states with respect to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. The functional role of the chimeric states is not known. Here we follow the formation of translocation intermediates by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Using EF-G mutants, a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, and fusidic acid, we interfere with either translocation or EF-G release from the ribosome and identify several rapidly interconverting chimeric tRNA states on the reaction pathway. EF-G engagement prevents backward transitions early in translocation and increases the fraction of ribosomes that rapidly fluctuate between hybrid, chimeric and posttranslocation states. Thus, the engagement of EF-G alters the energetics of translocation towards a flat energy landscape, thereby promoting forward tRNA movement.

  9. Mutations in Cytosine-5 tRNA Methyltransferases Impact Mobile Element Expression and Genome Stability at Specific DNA Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Genenncher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of eukaryotic genome stability is ensured by the interplay of transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional mechanisms that control recombination of repeat regions and the expression and mobility of transposable elements. We report here that mutations in two (cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 and NSun2, impact the accumulation of mobile element-derived sequences and DNA repeat integrity in Drosophila. Loss of Dnmt2 function caused moderate effects under standard conditions, while heat shock exacerbated these effects. In contrast, NSun2 function affected mobile element expression and genome integrity in a heat shock-independent fashion. Reduced tRNA stability in both RCMT mutants indicated that tRNA-dependent processes affected mobile element expression and DNA repeat stability. Importantly, further experiments indicated that complex formation with RNA could also contribute to the impact of RCMT function on gene expression control. These results thus uncover a link between tRNA modification enzymes, the expression of repeat DNA, and genomic integrity.

  10. Engineering and Validation of a Vector for Concomitant Expression of Rare Transfer RNA (tRNA and HIV-1 nef Genes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Mualif

    Full Text Available Relative ease in handling and manipulation of Escherichia coli strains make them primary candidate to express proteins heterologously. Overexpression of heterologous genes that contain codons infrequently used by E. coli is related with difficulties such as mRNA instability, early termination of transcription and/or translation, deletions and/or misincorporation, and cell growth inhibition. These codon bias -associated problems are addressed by co-expressing ColE1-compatible, rare tRNA expressing helper plasmids. However, this approach has inadequacies, which we have addressed by engineering an expression vector that concomitantly expresses the heterologous protein of interest, and rare tRNA genes in E. coli. The expression vector contains three (argU, ileY, leuW rare tRNA genes and a useful multiple cloning site for easy in-frame cloning. To maintain the overall size of the parental plasmid vector, the rare tRNA genes replaced the non-essential DNA segments in the vector. The cloned gene is expressed under the control of T7 promoter and resulting recombinant protein has a C-terminal 6His tag for IMAC-mediated purification. We have evaluated the usefulness of this expression vector by expressing three HIV-1 genes namely HIV-1 p27 (nef, HIV-1 p24 (ca, and HIV-1 vif in NiCo21(DE3 E.coli and demonstrated the advantages of using expression vector that concomitantly expresses rare tRNA and heterologous genes.

  11. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshab Rijal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC; they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease.

  12. Global translational impacts of the loss of the tRNA modification t6A in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Thiaville

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The universal tRNA modification t6A is found at position 37 of nearly all tRNAs decoding ANN codons. The absence of t6A37 leads to severe growth defects in baker’s yeast, phenotypes similar to those caused by defects in mcm5s2U34 synthesis. Mutants in mcm5s2U34 can be suppressed by overexpression of tRNALysUUU, but we show t6A phenotypes could not be suppressed by expressing any individual ANN decoding tRNA, and t6A and mcm5s2U are not determinants for each other’s formation. Our results suggest that t6A deficiency, like mcm5s2U deficiency, leads to protein folding defects, and show that the absence of t6A led to stress sensitivities (heat, ethanol, salt and sensitivity to TOR pathway inhibitors. Additionally, L-homoserine suppressed the slow growth phenotype seen in t6A-deficient strains, and proteins aggregates and Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs were increased in the mutants. The global consequences on translation caused by t6A absence were examined by ribosome profiling. Interestingly, the absence of t6A did not lead to global translation defects, but did increase translation initiation at upstream non-AUG codons and increased frame-shifting in specific genes. Analysis of codon occupancy rates suggests that one of the major roles of t6A is to homogenize the process of elongation by slowing the elongation rate at codons decoded by high abundance tRNAs and I34:C3 pairs while increasing the elongation rate of rare tRNAs and G34:U3 pairs. This work reveals that the consequences of t6A absence are complex and multilayered and has set the stage to elucidate the molecular basis of the observed phenotypes.

  13. In vivo induction of 4-thiouridine-cytidine adducts in tRNA of E. coli B/r by near-ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramabhadran, T.V.; Fossum, T.; Jagger, J.

    1976-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet (near-UV; 320 to 405 nm) irradiation of Escherichia coli B/r induced the formation in vivo of 4 Srd-Cyd adducts in transfer RNA, as evidenced by (1) fluorescence spectrum changes of tRNA extracted from irradiated cells and reduced with NaBH 4 , (2) thin-layer chromatography on cellulose of hydrolysates of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable extracts of irradiated cells, and (3) comparison of these findings with adduct formation induced by near-UV irradiation of purified mixed tRNA from E.coli. The kinetics of induction of the 4 Srd-Cyd adduct in vivo, and the near-UV fluences required, provided strong support for our earlier hypothesis that formation of these adducts was responsible for near-UV-induced growth delay in E.coli. (author)

  14. In vivo induction of 4-thiouridine-cytidine adducts in tRNA of E. coli B/r by near-ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramabhadran, T V; Fossum, T; Jagger, J [Texas Univ., Dallas (USA)

    1976-05-01

    Near-ultraviolet (near-UV; 320 to 405 nm) irradiation of Escherichia coli B/r induced the formation in vivo of /sup 4/Srd-Cyd adducts in transfer RNA, as evidenced by (1) fluorescence spectrum changes of tRNA extracted from irradiated cells and reduced with NaBH/sub 4/, (2) thin-layer chromatography on cellulose of hydrolysates of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable extracts of irradiated cells, and (3) comparison of these findings with adduct formation induced by near-UV irradiation of purified mixed tRNA from E.coli. The kinetics of induction of the /sup 4/Srd-Cyd adduct in vivo, and the near-UV fluences required, provided strong support for our earlier hypothesis that formation of these adducts was responsible for near-UV-induced growth delay in E.coli.

  15. Phage T4 SegB protein is a homing endonuclease required for the preferred inheritance of T4 tRNA gene region occurring in co-infection with a related phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brok-Volchanskaya, Vera S; Kadyrov, Farid A; Sivogrivov, Dmitry E; Kolosov, Peter M; Sokolov, Andrey S; Shlyapnikov, Michael G; Kryukov, Valentine M; Granovsky, Igor E

    2008-04-01

    Homing endonucleases initiate nonreciprocal transfer of DNA segments containing their own genes and the flanking sequences by cleaving the recipient DNA. Bacteriophage T4 segB gene, which is located in a cluster of tRNA genes, encodes a protein of unknown function, homologous to homing endonucleases of the GIY-YIG family. We demonstrate that SegB protein is a site-specific endonuclease, which produces mostly 3' 2-nt protruding ends at its DNA cleavage site. Analysis of SegB cleavage sites suggests that SegB recognizes a 27-bp sequence. It contains 11-bp conserved sequence, which corresponds to a conserved motif of tRNA TpsiC stem-loop, whereas the remainder of the recognition site is rather degenerate. T4-related phages T2L, RB1 and RB3 contain tRNA gene regions that are homologous to that of phage T4 but lack segB gene and several tRNA genes. In co-infections of phages T4 and T2L, segB gene is inherited with nearly 100% of efficiency. The preferred inheritance depends absolutely on the segB gene integrity and is accompanied by the loss of the T2L tRNA gene region markers. We suggest that SegB is a homing endonuclease that functions to ensure spreading of its own gene and the surrounding tRNA genes among T4-related phages.

  16. Secondary structure and feature of mitochondrial tRNA genes of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Bae Yoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.

  17. Mutation in WDR4 impairs tRNA m(7)G46 methylation and causes a distinct form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Guy, Michael P; Alomar, Rana; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Afifi, Hanan H; Ismail, Samira I; Emam, Bayoumi A; Phizicky, Eric M; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2015-09-28

    Primordial dwarfism is a state of extreme prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, and is characterized by marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Two presumably unrelated consanguineous families presented with an apparently novel form of primordial dwarfism in which severe growth deficiency is accompanied by distinct facial dysmorphism, brain malformation (microcephaly, agenesis of corpus callosum, and simplified gyration), and severe encephalopathy with seizures. Combined autozygome/exome analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in WDR4 as the likely causal variant. WDR4 is the human ortholog of the yeast Trm82, an essential component of the Trm8/Trm82 holoenzyme that effects a highly conserved and specific (m(7)G46) methylation of tRNA. The human mutation and the corresponding yeast mutation result in a significant reduction of m(7)G46 methylation of specific tRNA species, which provides a potential mechanism for primordial dwarfism associated with this lesion, since reduced m(7)G46 modification causes a growth deficiency phenotype in yeast. Our study expands the number of biological pathways underlying primordial dwarfism and adds to a growing list of human diseases linked to abnormal tRNA modification.

  18. Evidence that the mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthetase (LARS2) gene represents a novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hart, Leen M; Hansen, Torben; Rietveld, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA-encoded tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene is associated with type 2 diabetes. One of the consequences of this mutation is a reduced aminoacylation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)). In this study, we have examined whether variants in the leucyl tRNA synthetase...... gene (LARS2), involved in aminoacylation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)), associate with type 2 diabetes. Direct sequencing of LARS2 cDNA from 25 type 2 diabetic subjects revealed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms. Two of the variants were examined in 7,836 subjects from four independent populations...... in the Netherlands and Denmark. A -109 g/a variant was not associated with type 2 diabetes. Allele frequencies for the other variant, H324Q, were 3.5% in type 2 diabetic and 2.7% in control subjects, respectively. The common odds ratio across all four studies was 1.40 (95% CI 1.12-1.76), P = 0.004. There were...

  19. Evolutionary Limitation and Opportunities for Developing tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors with 5-Binding-Mode Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Fang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs as building blocks for translation. Each of the aaRS families plays a pivotal role in protein biosynthesis and is indispensable for cell growth and survival. In addition, aaRSs in higher species have evolved important non-translational functions. These translational and non-translational functions of aaRS are attractive for developing antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents and for treating other human diseases. The interplay between amino acids, tRNA, ATP, EF-Tu and non-canonical binding partners, had shaped each family with distinct pattern of key sites for regulation, with characters varying among species across the path of evolution. These sporadic variations in the aaRSs offer great opportunity to target these essential enzymes for therapy. Up to this day, growing numbers of aaRS inhibitors have been discovered and developed. Here, we summarize the latest developments and structural studies of aaRS inhibitors, and classify them with distinct binding modes into five categories.

  20. Polycistronic tRNA and CRISPR guide-RNA enables highly efficient multiplexed genome engineering in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengping; Xie, Kabin; Chen, Yueying; Yang, Yinong; Mao, Yingwei

    2017-01-22

    CRISPR/Cas9 has been widely used for genomic editing in many organisms. Many human diseases are caused by multiple mutations. The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a potential tool to introduce multiple mutations in a genome. To mimic complicated genomic variants in human diseases, such as multiple gene deletions or mutations, two or more small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) need to be introduced all together. This can be achieved by separate Pol III promoters in a construct. However, limited enzyme sites and increased insertion size lower the efficiency to make a construct. Here, we report a strategy to quickly assembly multiple sgRNAs in one construct using a polycistronic-tRNA-gRNA (PTG) strategy. Taking advantage of the endogenous tRNA processing system in mammalian cells, we efficiently express multiple sgRNAs driven using only one Pol III promoter. Using an all-in-one construct carrying PTG, we disrupt the deacetylase domain in multiple histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human cells simultaneously. We demonstrate that multiple HDAC deletions significantly affect the activation of the Wnt-signaling pathway. Thus, this method enables to efficiently target multiple genes and provide a useful tool to establish mutated cells mimicking human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel base-pairing interactions at the tRNA wobble position crucial for accurate reading of the genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Alexey; Demeshkina, Natalia; Khusainov, Iskander; Westhof, Eric; Yusupov, Marat; Yusupova, Gulnara

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications at the wobble position of transfer RNAs play a substantial role in deciphering the degenerate genetic code on the ribosome. The number and variety of modifications suggest different mechanisms of action during messenger RNA decoding, of which only a few were described so far. Here, on the basis of several 70S ribosome complex X-ray structures, we demonstrate how Escherichia coli tRNALysUUU with hypermodified 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5s2U) at the wobble position discriminates between cognate codons AAA and AAG, and near-cognate stop codon UAA or isoleucine codon AUA, with which it forms pyrimidine-pyrimidine mismatches. We show that mnm5s2U forms an unusual pair with guanosine at the wobble position that expands general knowledge on the degeneracy of the genetic code and specifies a powerful role of tRNA modifications in translation. Our models consolidate the translational fidelity mechanism proposed previously where the steric complementarity and shape acceptance dominate the decoding mechanism.

  2. Binding interactions between yeast tRNA ligase and a precursor transfer ribonucleic acid containing two photoreactive uridine analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, N.K.; Hanna, M.M.; Abelson, J.

    1988-01-01

    Yeast tRNA ligase, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is one of the protein components that is involved in the splicing reaction of intron-containing yeast precursor tRNAs. It is an unusual protein because it has three distinct catalytic activities. It functions as a polynucleotide kinase, as a cyclic phosphodiesterase, and as an RNA ligase. We have studied the binding interactions between ligase and precursor tRNAs containing two photoreactive uridine analogues, 4-thiouridine and 5-bromouridine. When irradiated with long ultraviolet light, RNA containing these analogues can form specific covalent bonds with associated proteins. In this paper, we show that 4-thiouridine triphosphate and 5-bromouridine triphosphate were readily incorporated into a precursor tRNA(Phe) that was synthesized, in vitro, with bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The analogue-containing precursor tRNAs were authentic substrates for the two splicing enzymes that were tested (endonuclease and ligase), and they formed specific covalent bonds with ligase when they were irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. We have determined the position of three major cross-links and one minor cross-link on precursor tRNA(Phe) that were located within the intron and near the 3' splice site. On the basis of these data, we present a model for the in vivo splicing reaction of yeast precursor tRNAs

  3. An artificial intelligence approach fit for tRNA gene studies in the era of big sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yuki; Abe, Takashi; Wada, Kennosuke; Wada, Yoshiko; Ikemura, Toshimichi

    2017-09-12

    Unsupervised data mining capable of extracting a wide range of knowledge from big data without prior knowledge or particular models is a timely application in the era of big sequence data accumulation in genome research. By handling oligonucleotide compositions as high-dimensional data, we have previously modified the conventional self-organizing map (SOM) for genome informatics and established BLSOM, which can analyze more than ten million sequences simultaneously. Here, we develop BLSOM specialized for tRNA genes (tDNAs) that can cluster (self-organize) more than one million microbial tDNAs according to their cognate amino acid solely depending on tetra- and pentanucleotide compositions. This unsupervised clustering can reveal combinatorial oligonucleotide motifs that are responsible for the amino acid-dependent clustering, as well as other functionally and structurally important consensus motifs, which have been evolutionarily conserved. BLSOM is also useful for identifying tDNAs as phylogenetic markers for special phylotypes. When we constructed BLSOM with 'species-unknown' tDNAs from metagenomic sequences plus 'species-known' microbial tDNAs, a large portion of metagenomic tDNAs self-organized with species-known tDNAs, yielding information on microbial communities in environmental samples. BLSOM can also enhance accuracy in the tDNA database obtained from big sequence data. This unsupervised data mining should become important for studying numerous functionally unclear RNAs obtained from a wide range of organisms.

  4. Cardiac abnormalities in diabetic patients with mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR)Gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Shiotani, Hideyuki

    1999-01-01

    An A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the mitochondrial DNA is known to be a pathogenic factor for mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), diabetes and cardiomyopathy. This mutation causes dysfunction of the central nervous system in MELAS. Because the heart, as well as the brain and nervous system, is highly dependent on the energy produced by mitochondrial oxidation, these tissues are more vulnerable to mitochondrial defects. Cardiac abnormalities were assessed in 10 diabetic patients associated with this mutation using echocardiography and 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, and compared with 19 diabetic patients without the mutation. Duration of diabetes, therapy, control of blood glucose and diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, were not different between the 2 groups. Diabetic patients with the mutation had a significantly thicker interventricular septum (16.8±3.7 vs 11.0±1.6 mm, p 0.05). In conclusion, left ventricular hypertrophy with or without abnormal wall motion and severely reduced MIBG uptake may be characteristic in diabetic patients with a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR) gene. (author)

  5. Towards an Integrative Understanding of tRNA Aminoacylation-Diet-Host-Gut Microbiome Interactions in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Elena L; Perry, George

    2018-03-26

    Transgenic mice used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) preclinical experiments do not recapitulate the human disease. In our models, the dietary tryptophan metabolite tryptamine produced by human gut microbiome induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) deficiency with consequent neurodegeneration in cells and mice. Dietary supplements, antibiotics and certain drugs increase tryptamine content in vivo. TrpRS catalyzes tryptophan attachment to tRNA trp at initial step of protein biosynthesis. Tryptamine that easily crosses the blood-brain barrier induces vasculopathies, neurodegeneration and cell death via TrpRS competitive inhibition. TrpRS inhibitor tryptophanol produced by gut microbiome also induces neurodegeneration. TrpRS inhibition by tryptamine and its metabolites preventing tryptophan incorporation into proteins lead to protein biosynthesis impairment. Tryptophan, a least amino acid in food and proteins that cannot be synthesized by humans competes with frequent amino acids for the transport from blood to brain. Tryptophan is a vulnerable amino acid, which can be easily lost to protein biosynthesis. Some proteins marking neurodegenerative pathology, such as tau lack tryptophan. TrpRS exists in cytoplasmic (WARS) and mitochondrial (WARS2) forms. Pathogenic gene variants of both forms cause TrpRS deficiency with consequent intellectual and motor disabilities in humans. The diminished tryptophan-dependent protein biosynthesis in AD patients is a proof of our model-based disease concept.

  6. Introduction of a leucine half-zipper engenders multiple high-quality crystals of a recalcitrant tRNA synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Min; Shapiro, Ryan; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2010-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase is recalcitrant to crystallization. A group of leucine substitutions has transformed the protein. Although Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase was among the first tRNA synthetases to be sequenced and extensively studied by functional analysis, it has proved to be recalcitrant to crystallization. This challenge remained even for crystallization of the catalytic fragment. By mutationally introducing three stacked leucines onto the solvent-exposed side of an α-helix, an engineered catalytic fragment of the synthetase was obtained that yielded multiple high-quality crystals and cocrystals with different ligands. The engineered α-helix did not form a leucine zipper that interlocked with the same α-helix from another molecule. Instead, using the created hydrophobic spine, it interacted with other surfaces of the protein as a leucine half-zipper (LHZ) to enhance the crystal lattice interactions. The LHZ made crystal lattice contacts in all crystals of different space groups. These results illustrate the power of introducing an LHZ into helices to facilitate crystallization. The authors propose that the method can be unified with surface-entropy reduction and can be broadly used for protein-surface optimization in crystallization

  7. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Takada

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon, within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons

  8. Identification of the yeast gene encoding the tRNA m1G methyltransferase responsible for modification at position 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Jane E; Montange, Rebecca K; Malik, Harmit S; Phizicky, Eric M

    2003-05-01

    Methylation of tRNA at the N-1 position of guanosine to form m(1)G occurs widely in nature. It occurs at position 37 in tRNAs from all three kingdoms, and the methyltransferase that catalyzes this reaction is known from previous work of others to be critically important for cell growth in Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. m(1)G is also widely found at position 9 in eukaryotic tRNAs, but the corresponding methyltransferase was unknown. We have used a biochemical genomics approach with a collection of purified yeast GST-ORF fusion proteins to show that m(1)G(9) formation of yeast tRNA(Gly) is associated with ORF YOL093w, named TRM10. Extracts lacking Trm10p have undetectable levels of m(1)G(9) methyltransferase activity but retain normal m(1)G(37) methyltransferase activity. Yeast Trm10p purified from E. coli quantitatively modifies the G(9) position of tRNA(Gly) in an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent fashion. Trm10p is responsible in vivo for most if not all m(1)G(9) modification of tRNAs, based on two results: tRNA(Gly) purified from a trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta strain is lacking detectable m(1)G; and a primer extension block occurring at m(1)G(9) is removed in trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta-derived tRNAs for all 9 m(1)G(9)-containing species that were testable by this method. There is no obvious growth defect of trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta strains. Trm10p bears no detectable resemblance to the yeast m(1)G(37) methyltransferase, Trm5p, or its orthologs. Trm10p homologs are found widely in eukaryotes and many archaea, with multiple homologs in several metazoans, including at least three in humans.

  9. Cardiac abnormalities in diabetic patients with mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA {sup Leu(UUR)}Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hiroshi [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan); Shiotani, Hideyuki

    1999-11-01

    An A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the mitochondrial DNA is known to be a pathogenic factor for mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), diabetes and cardiomyopathy. This mutation causes dysfunction of the central nervous system in MELAS. Because the heart, as well as the brain and nervous system, is highly dependent on the energy produced by mitochondrial oxidation, these tissues are more vulnerable to mitochondrial defects. Cardiac abnormalities were assessed in 10 diabetic patients associated with this mutation using echocardiography and {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, and compared with 19 diabetic patients without the mutation. Duration of diabetes, therapy, control of blood glucose and diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, were not different between the 2 groups. Diabetic patients with the mutation had a significantly thicker interventricular septum (16.8{+-}3.7 vs 11.0{+-}1.6 mm, p<0.001) than those without the mutation. Fractional shortening was lower in diabetic patients with the mutation than those without it (30.7{+-}7.0 vs 42.5{+-}6.6, p<0.001). MIBG uptake on the delayed MIBG image was significantly lower in diabetic patients with the mutation than in those without the mutation (mean value of the heart to mediastinum ratio: 1.6{+-}0.2 vs 2.0{+-}0.4, p>0.05). In conclusion, left ventricular hypertrophy with or without abnormal wall motion and severely reduced MIBG uptake may be characteristic in diabetic patients with a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA {sup Leu(UUR)} gene. (author)

  10. Charging Levels of Four tRNA Species in Escherichia coli Rel+ and REL- Strains during Amino Acid Starvation: A Simple Model for the Effect of ppGpp on Translational Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains mutated in the relA gene lack the ability to produce ppGpp during amino acid starvation. One consequence of this deficiency is a tenfold increase in misincorporation at starved codons compared to the wild-type. Previous work had shown that the charging levels of tRNAs were...... the same in Rel+ and Rel- strains and reduced, at most, two- to fivefold in both strains during starvation. The present reinvestigation of the charging levels of tRNA2Arg, tRNA1Thr, tRNA1Leu and tRNAHis during starvation of isogenic Rel+ and Rel- strains showed that starvation reduced charging levels...... tenfold to 40-fold. This reduction corresponds much better with the decreased rate of protein synthesis during starvation than that reported earlier. The determination of the charging levels of tRNA2Arg and tRNA1Thr during starvation were accurate enough to demonstrate that charging levels were at least...

  11. Determination of the number of copies of genes coding for 5s-rRNA and tRNA in the genomes of 43 species of wheat and Aegilops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhitov, V.A.; Gimalov, F.R.; Nikonorov, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The number of 5s-rRNA and tRNA genes has been studied in 43 species of wheat and Aegilops differing in ploidy level, genomic composition and origin. It has been demonstrated that the repeatability of the 5s-rRNA and tRNA genes increases in wheat with increasing ploidy level, but not in proportion to the genome size. In Aegilops, in distinction from wheat, the relative as well as absolute number of 5s-RNA genes increases with increasing ploidy level. The proportion of the sequences coding for tRNA in the dipoloid and polyploid Aegilops species is practically similar, while the number of tRNA genes increases almost 2-3 times with increasing ploidy level. Large variability has been recorded between the species with similar genomic composition and ploidy level in respect of the number of the 5s-rRNA and tRNA genes. It has been demonstrated that integration of the initial genomes of the amphidiploids is accompanied by elimination of a particular part of these genomes. It has been concluded that the mechanisms of establishment and evolution of genomes in the intra- and intergeneric allopolyploids are not identical

  12. MD SIMULATION STUDIES TO INVESTIGATE ISO-ENERGETIC CONFORMATIONAL BEHAVIOUR OF MODIFIED NUCLEOSIDES M2G AND M22G PRESENT IN tRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit S Bavi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified nucleic acid bases are most commonly found in tRNA. These may contain modifications from simple methylation to addition of bulky groups. Methylation of the four canonical nucleotide bases at a wide variety of positions is particularly prominent among the known modification. Methylation of N2 group of guanine is a relatively common modification in tRNA and rRNA. N2-methylguanosine (m2G is the second most often encountered nucleoside in E. coli tRNAs. N2, N2-dimethylguanosine (m22G is found in the majority of eukaryotic tRNAs and involved in forming base pair interactions with adjacent bases. Hence, in order to understand the structural significance of these methylated nucleic acid bases we have carried out molecular dynamics simulation to see the salvation effect. The results obtained shows iso-energetic conformational behaviors for m2G and m22G. The simulation trajectory of m2G shows regular periodical fluctuations suggesting that m2G is equally stable as either s-cis or s-trans rotamers. The two rotamers of m2G may interact canonically or non-canonically with opposite base as s-trans m2G26:C/A/U44 and s-cis m2G26:A/U44. The free rotations around the C-N bond could be the possible reason for these iso-energetic conformations. Dimethylation of G has almost no influence on base pairing with either A or U. Thus, these results reveal that modified nucleosides m2G and m22G may play an important role to prevent tRNA from adopting the unusual mitochondrial like conformation.

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: sequence, gene organization and a unique tRNA translocation event conserved across the tribe Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silvestre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a complete mtDNA sequence has been reported for only two hymenopterans, the Old World honey bee, Apis mellifera and the sawfly Perga condei. Among the bee group, the tribe Meliponini (stingless bees has some distinction due to its Pantropical distribution, great number of species and large importance as main pollinators in several ecosystems, including the Brazilian rain forest. However few molecular studies have been conducted on this group of bees and few sequence data from mitochondrial genomes have been described. In this project, we PCR amplified and sequenced 78% of the mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini. The sequenced region contains all of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 18 of 22 tRNA genes, and both rRNA genes (one of them was partially sequenced. We also report the genome organization (gene content and order, gene translation, genetic code, and other molecular features, such as base frequencies, codon usage, gene initiation and termination. We compare these characteristics of M. bicolor to those of the mitochondrial genome of A. mellifera and other insects. A highly biased A+T content is a typical characteristic of the A. mellifera mitochondrial genome and it was even more extreme in that of M. bicolor. Length and compositional differences between M. bicolor and A. mellifera genes were detected and the gene order was compared. Eleven tRNA gene translocations were observed between these two species. This latter finding was surprising, considering the taxonomic proximity of these two bee tribes. The tRNA Lys gene translocation was investigated within Meliponini and showed high conservation across the Pantropical range of the tribe.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic characterization of TrmFO, a folate-dependent tRNA methyltransferase from Thermotoga maritima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicmil, Nenad

    2008-01-01

    T. maritima TrmFO was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. A diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.6 Å. TrmFO, previously classified as GID, is a methyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of 5-methyluridine or ribothymidine (T) at position 54 in tRNA in some Gram-positive bacteria. To date, TrmFO is the only characterized tRNA methyltransferase that does not use S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl-group donor. Instead, the donor of the methyl group is N 5 ,N 10 -methylenetetrahydrofolate. The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of TrmFO are reported here. The recombinant protein, cloned from Thermotoga maritima genomic DNA, was overproduced in Esherichia coli and crystallized in 25%(v/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM NaCl and sodium citrate buffer pH 5.0 at 291 K using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The plate-shaped crystals diffracted to 2.6 Å and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 79.94, b = 92.46, c = 127.20 Å

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic characterization of TrmFO, a folate-dependent tRNA methyltransferase from Thermotoga maritima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicmil, Nenad, E-mail: cicmil@uiuc.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-03-01

    T. maritima TrmFO was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. A diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.6 Å. TrmFO, previously classified as GID, is a methyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of 5-methyluridine or ribothymidine (T) at position 54 in tRNA in some Gram-positive bacteria. To date, TrmFO is the only characterized tRNA methyltransferase that does not use S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl-group donor. Instead, the donor of the methyl group is N{sup 5},N{sup 10}-methylenetetrahydrofolate. The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of TrmFO are reported here. The recombinant protein, cloned from Thermotoga maritima genomic DNA, was overproduced in Esherichia coli and crystallized in 25%(v/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM NaCl and sodium citrate buffer pH 5.0 at 291 K using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The plate-shaped crystals diffracted to 2.6 Å and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.94, b = 92.46, c = 127.20 Å.

  16. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation study of archaeal leucyl-tRNA synthetase in complex with different mischarged tRNA in editing conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayevsky, A V; Sharifi, M; Tukalo, M A

    2017-09-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play important roles in maintaining the accuracy of protein synthesis. Some aaRSs accomplish this via editing mechanisms, among which leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) edits non-cognate amino acid norvaline mainly by post-transfer editing. However, the molecular basis for this pathway for eukaryotic and archaeal LeuRS remain unclear. In this study, a complex of archaeal P. horikoshii LeuRS (PhLeuRS) with misacylated tRNA Leu was modeled wherever tRNA's acceptor stem was oriented directly into the editing site. To understand the distinctive features of organization we reconstructed a complex of PhLeuRS with tRNA and visualize post-transfer editing interactions mode by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. To study molecular basis for substrate selectivity by PhLeuRS's editing site we utilized MD simulation of the entire LeuRS complexes using a diverse charged form of tRNAs, namely norvalyl-tRNA Leu and isoleucyl-tRNA Leu . In general, the editing site organization of LeuRS from P.horikoshii has much in common with bacterial LeuRS. The MD simulation results revealed that the post-transfer editing substrate norvalyl-A76, binds more strongly than isoleucyl-A76. Moreover, the branched side chain of isoleucine prevents water molecules from being closer and hence the hydrolysis reaction slows significantly. To investigate a possible mechanism of the post-transfer editing reaction, by PhLeuRS we have determined that two water molecules (the attacking and assisting water molecules) are localized near the carbonyl group of the amino acid to be cleaved off. These water molecules approach the substrate from the opposite side to that observed for Thermus thermophilus LeuRS (TtLeuRS). Based on the results obtained, it was suggested that the post-transfer editing mechanism of PhLeuRS differs from that of prokaryotic TtLeuRS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Small finger protein of avian and murine retroviruses has nucleic acid annealing activity and positions the replication primer tRNA onto genomic RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, A C; Sarih, L; Gabus, C; Litvak, S; Keith, G; Darlix, J L

    1988-06-01

    Retrovirus virions carry a diploid genome associated with a large number of small viral finger protein molecules which are required for encapsidation. Our present results show that finger protein p12 of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and p10 of murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) positions replication primer tRNA on the replication initiation site (PBS) at the 5' end of the RNA genome. An RSV mutant with a Val-Pro insertion in the finger motif of p12 is able to partially encapsidate genomic RNA but is not infectious because mutated p12 is incapable of positioning the replication primer, tRNATrp. Since all known replication competent retroviruses, and the plant virus CaMV, code for finger proteins analogous to RSV p12 or MuLV p10, the initial stage of reverse transcription in avian, mammalian and human retroviruses and in CaMV is probably controlled in an analogous way.

  18. Free-Energy Landscape of Reverse tRNA Translocation through the Ribosome Analyzed by Electron Microscopy Density Maps and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of reverse tRNA translocation in the ribosome, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the ribosome-tRNAs-mRNA-EFG complex were performed. The complex at the post-translocational state was directed towards the translocational and pre-translocational states by fitting the complex into cryo-EM density maps. Between a series of the fitting simulations, umbrella sampling simulations were performed to obtain the free-energy landscape. Multistep structural changes, such as a ratchet-like motion and rotation of the head of the small subunit were observed. The free-energy landscape showed that there were two main free-energy barriers: one between the post-translocational and intermediate states, and the other between the pre-translocational and intermediate states. The former corresponded to a clockwise rotation, which was coupled to the movement of P-tRNA over the P/E-gate made of G1338, A1339 and A790 in the small subunit. The latter corresponded to an anticlockwise rotation of the head, which was coupled to the location of the two tRNAs in the hybrid state. This indicates that the coupled motion of the head rotation and tRNA translocation plays an important role in opening and closing of the P/E-gate during the ratchet-like movement in the ribosome. Conformational change of EF-G was interpreted to be the result of the combination of the external motion by L12 around an axis passing near the sarcin-ricin loop, and internal hinge-bending motion. These motions contributed to the movement of domain IV of EF-G to maintain its interaction with A/P-tRNA. PMID:24999999

  19. Free-energy landscape of reverse tRNA translocation through the ribosome analyzed by electron microscopy density maps and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Ishida

    Full Text Available To understand the mechanism of reverse tRNA translocation in the ribosome, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the ribosome-tRNAs-mRNA-EFG complex were performed. The complex at the post-translocational state was directed towards the translocational and pre-translocational states by fitting the complex into cryo-EM density maps. Between a series of the fitting simulations, umbrella sampling simulations were performed to obtain the free-energy landscape. Multistep structural changes, such as a ratchet-like motion and rotation of the head of the small subunit were observed. The free-energy landscape showed that there were two main free-energy barriers: one between the post-translocational and intermediate states, and the other between the pre-translocational and intermediate states. The former corresponded to a clockwise rotation, which was coupled to the movement of P-tRNA over the P/E-gate made of G1338, A1339 and A790 in the small subunit. The latter corresponded to an anticlockwise rotation of the head, which was coupled to the location of the two tRNAs in the hybrid state. This indicates that the coupled motion of the head rotation and tRNA translocation plays an important role in opening and closing of the P/E-gate during the ratchet-like movement in the ribosome. Conformational change of EF-G was interpreted to be the result of the combination of the external motion by L12 around an axis passing near the sarcin-ricin loop, and internal hinge-bending motion. These motions contributed to the movement of domain IV of EF-G to maintain its interaction with A/P-tRNA.

  20. New pleiotropic effects of eliminating a rare tRNA from Streptomyces coelicolor, revealed by combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of liquid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotchkiss Graham

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Streptomyces coelicolor, bldA encodes the only tRNA for a rare leucine codon, UUA. This tRNA is unnecessary for growth, but is required for some aspects of secondary metabolism and morphological development. We describe a transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the effects of deleting bldA on cellular processes during submerged culture: conditions relevant to the industrial production of antibiotics. Results At the end of rapid growth, a co-ordinated transient up-regulation of about 100 genes, including many for ribosomal proteins, was seen in the parent strain but not the ΔbldA mutant. Increased basal levels of the signal molecule ppGpp in the mutant strain may be responsible for this difference. Transcripts or proteins from a further 147 genes classified as bldA-influenced were mostly expressed late in culture in the wild-type, though others were significantly transcribed during exponential growth. Some were involved in the biosynthesis of seven secondary metabolites; and some have probable roles in reorganising metabolism after rapid growth. Many of the 147 genes were "function unknown", and may represent unknown aspects of Streptomyces biology. Only two of the 147 genes contain a TTA codon, but some effects of bldA could be traced to TTA codons in regulatory genes or polycistronic operons. Several proteins were affected post-translationally by the bldA deletion. There was a statistically significant but weak positive global correlation between transcript and corresponding protein levels. Different technical limitations of the two approaches were a major cause of discrepancies in the results obtained with them. Conclusion Although deletion of bldA has very conspicuous effects on the gross phenotype, the bldA molecular phenotype revealed by the "dualomic" approach has shown that only about 2% of the genome is affected; but this includes many previously unknown effects at a variety of different levels, including post

  1. The yeast rapid tRNA decay pathway competes with elongation factor 1A for substrate tRNAs and acts on tRNAs lacking one or more of several modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewe, Joshua M; Whipple, Joseph M; Chernyakov, Irina; Jaramillo, Laura N; Phizicky, Eric M

    2012-10-01

    The structural and functional integrity of tRNA is crucial for translation. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, certain aberrant pre-tRNA species are subject to nuclear surveillance, leading to 3' exonucleolytic degradation, and certain mature tRNA species are subject to rapid tRNA decay (RTD) if they are appropriately hypomodified or bear specific destabilizing mutations, leading to 5'-3' exonucleolytic degradation by Rat1 and Xrn1. Thus, trm8-Δ trm4-Δ strains are temperature sensitive due to lack of m(7)G(46) and m(5)C and the consequent RTD of tRNA(Val(AAC)), and tan1-Δ trm44-Δ strains are temperature sensitive due to lack of ac(4)C(12) and Um(44) and the consequent RTD of tRNA(Ser(CGA)) and tRNA(Ser(UGA)). It is unknown how the RTD pathway interacts with translation and other cellular processes, and how generally this pathway acts on hypomodified tRNAs. We provide evidence here that elongation factor 1A (EF-1A) competes with the RTD pathway for substrate tRNAs, since its overexpression suppresses the tRNA degradation and the growth defect of strains subject to RTD, whereas reduced levels of EF-1A have the opposite effect. We also provide evidence that RTD acts on a variety of tRNAs lacking one or more different modifications, since trm1-Δ trm4-Δ mutants are subject to RTD of tRNA(Ser(CGA)) and tRNA(Ser(UGA)) due to lack of m(2,2)G(26) and m(5)C, and since trm8-Δ, tan1-Δ, and trm1-Δ single mutants are each subject to RTD. These results demonstrate that RTD interacts with the translation machinery and acts widely on hypomodified tRNAs.

  2. The archaeal COG1901/DUF358 SPOUT-methyltransferase members, together with pseudouridine synthase Pus10, catalyze the formation of 1-methylpseudouridine at position 54 of tRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kunal; Blaby, Ian K.; Thiaville, Patrick C.; Majumder, Mrinmoyee; Grosjean, Henri; Yuan, Y. Adam; Gupta, Ramesh; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    The methylation of pseudouridine (Ψ) at position 54 of tRNA, producing m1Ψ, is a hallmark of many archaeal species, but the specific methylase involved in the formation of this modification had yet to be characterized. A comparative genomics analysis had previously identified COG1901 (DUF358), part of the SPOUT superfamily, as a candidate for this missing methylase family. To test this prediction, the COG1901 encoding gene, HVO_1989, was deleted from the Haloferax volcanii genome. Analyses of modified base contents indicated that while m1Ψ was present in tRNA extracted from the wild-type strain, it was absent from tRNA extracted from the mutant strain. Expression of the gene encoding COG1901 from Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, VNG1980C, complemented the m1Ψ minus phenotype of the ΔHVO_1989 strain. This in vivo validation was extended with in vitro tests. Using the COG1901 recombinant enzyme from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mj1640), purified enzyme Pus10 from M. jannaschii and full-size tRNA transcripts or TΨ-arm (17-mer) fragments as substrates, the sequential pathway of m1Ψ54 formation in Archaea was reconstituted. The methylation reaction is AdoMet dependent. The efficiency of the methylase reaction depended on the identity of the residue at position 55 of the TΨ-loop. The presence of Ψ55 allowed the efficient conversion of Ψ54 to m1Ψ54, whereas in the presence of C55, the reaction was rather inefficient and no methylation reaction occurred if a purine was present at this position. These results led to renaming the Archaeal COG1901 members as TrmY proteins. PMID:22274953

  3. Genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, biosynthetic, and tRNA methylation genes involved in life span regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chronological life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which measures the survival of populations of non-dividing yeast, has resulted in the identification of homologous genes and pathways that promote aging in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Using a competitive genome-wide approach, we performed a screen of a complete set of approximately 4,800 viable deletion mutants to identify genes that either increase or decrease chronological life span. Half of the putative short-/long-lived mutants retested from the primary screen were confirmed, demonstrating the utility of our approach. Deletion of genes involved in vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, and mitochondrial function shortened life span, confirming that respiration and degradation processes are essential for long-term survival. Among the genes whose deletion significantly extended life span are ACB1, CKA2, and TRM9, implicated in fatty acid transport and biosynthesis, cell signaling, and tRNA methylation, respectively. Deletion of these genes conferred heat-shock resistance, supporting the link between life span extension and cellular protection observed in several model organisms. The high degree of conservation of these novel yeast longevity determinants in other species raises the possibility that their role in senescence might be conserved.

  4. Genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, biosynthetic, and tRNA methylation genes involved in life span regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Paola; Hoon, Shawn; Shamalnasab, Mehrnaz; Galbani, Abdulaye; Wei, Min; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Longo, Valter D

    2010-07-15

    The study of the chronological life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which measures the survival of populations of non-dividing yeast, has resulted in the identification of homologous genes and pathways that promote aging in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Using a competitive genome-wide approach, we performed a screen of a complete set of approximately 4,800 viable deletion mutants to identify genes that either increase or decrease chronological life span. Half of the putative short-/long-lived mutants retested from the primary screen were confirmed, demonstrating the utility of our approach. Deletion of genes involved in vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, and mitochondrial function shortened life span, confirming that respiration and degradation processes are essential for long-term survival. Among the genes whose deletion significantly extended life span are ACB1, CKA2, and TRM9, implicated in fatty acid transport and biosynthesis, cell signaling, and tRNA methylation, respectively. Deletion of these genes conferred heat-shock resistance, supporting the link between life span extension and cellular protection observed in several model organisms. The high degree of conservation of these novel yeast longevity determinants in other species raises the possibility that their role in senescence might be conserved.

  5. Roles of Trm9- and ALKBH8-like proteins in the formation of modified wobble uridines in Arabidopsis tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leihne, Vibeke; Kirpekar, Finn; Vågbø, Cathrine B

    2011-01-01

    Uridine at the wobble position of tRNA is usually modified, and modification is required for accurate and efficient protein translation. In eukaryotes, wobble uridines are modified into 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine (mcm(5)U), 5-carbamoylmethyluridine (ncm(5)U) or derivatives thereof. Here, we...... demonstrate, both by in vitro and in vivo studies, that the Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase AT1G31600, denoted by us AtTRM9, is responsible for the final step in mcm(5)U formation, thus representing a functional homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trm9 protein. We also show that the enzymatic...... activity of AtTRM9 depends on either one of two closely related proteins, AtTRM112a and AtTRM112b. Moreover, we demonstrate that AT1G36310, denoted AtALKBH8, is required for hydroxylation of mcm(5)U to (S)-mchm(5)U in tRNA(Gly)(UCC), and has a function similar to the mammalian dioxygenase ALKBH8...

  6. Near-UV stress in salmonella typhimurium: 4-thiouridine in tRNA, ppGpp, and ApppGpp as components of an adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.F.; Baker, J.C.; Ames, B.N.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the role of 4-thiouridine in the responses of Salmonella typhimurium to near-UV irradiation. Mutants lacking 4-thiouridine (nuv) and mutants defective in the synthesis of ppGpp (guanosine 5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate) (relA) were found to be sensitive to killing by near-UV. Near-UV induced the synthesis of a set of proteins that were not induced in the nuv mutant. Some of these proteins were identified as oxidative defense proteins, and others were identified as ppGpp-inducible proteins. Over 100-fold increases in ApppGpp (adenoisine 5', 5'''-triphosphoguanosine-3'''-diphosphate, the adenylylated form of ppGpp) were observed in wild-type cells after near-UV irradiation but not in the 4-thiouridine-deficient mutant. These data support a model in which ppGpp and ApppGpp, a dinucleotide proposed to be synthesized by tRNA-aminoacyl synthetases as a response to the cross-linking of 4-thiouridine in tRNA by near-UV, induce the synthesis of proteins necessary for resistance to near-UV irradiation

  7. The role of Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS) in proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H-D; Zhang, W-G; Sun, M-N; Duan, Q-F; Li, F-L; Li, H

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS), which plays an essential role in the synthesis of selenoprotein, affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells. Human trophoblast JEG-3 cells were divided into four groups: control group, SEPSECS silenced-expression group, empty vector group and SEPSECS over-expression group. Over-expression and silenced-expression were achieved by transfection with plasmid DNA or RNA oligonucleotide, respectively. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony formation assays were performed to investigate cell proliferation, while apoptosis was tested by annexin V-FITC, PI double staining and caspases-3 activation assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the level of progesterone (PG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). SEPSECS silenced-expression clearly inhibited proliferation of JEG-3 cells (p < 0.05), significantly induced cell apoptosis (p < 0.01) and reduced the production of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). On the contrary, SEPSECS over-expression significantly promoted both cell proliferation (p < 0.01) and secretion of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). SEPSECS significantly affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells, suggesting that a potential relationship exists among SEPSECS, cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone production of human placental trophoblast cells. Furthermore, this may provide a clue to uncover the relationship between selenium and human placental in association with an emphasis on the importance of selenium adequacy during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural comparison of tRNA m1A58 methyltransferases revealed different molecular strategies to maintain their oligomeric architecture under extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guelorget Amandine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background tRNA m1A58 methyltransferases (TrmI catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to nitrogen 1 of adenine 58 in the T-loop of tRNAs from all three domains of life. The m1A58 modification has been shown to be essential for cell growth in yeast and for adaptation to high temperatures in thermophilic organisms. These enzymes were shown to be active as tetramers. The crystal structures of five TrmIs from hyperthermophilic archaea and thermophilic or mesophilic bacteria have previously been determined, the optimal growth temperature of these organisms ranging from 37°C to 100°C. All TrmIs are assembled as tetramers formed by dimers of tightly assembled dimers. Results In this study, we present a comparative structural analysis of these TrmIs, which highlights factors that allow them to function over a large range of temperature. The monomers of the five enzymes are structurally highly similar, but the inter-monomer contacts differ strongly. Our analysis shows that bacterial enzymes from thermophilic organisms display additional intermolecular ionic interactions across the dimer interfaces, whereas hyperthermophilic enzymes present additional hydrophobic contacts. Moreover, as an alternative to two bidentate ionic interactions that stabilize the tetrameric interface in all other TrmI proteins, the tetramer of the archaeal P. abyssi enzyme is strengthened by four intersubunit disulfide bridges. Conclusions The availability of crystal structures of TrmIs from mesophilic, thermophilic or hyperthermophilic organisms allows a detailed analysis of the architecture of this protein family. Our structural comparisons provide insight into the different molecular strategies used to achieve the tetrameric organization in order to maintain the enzyme activity under extreme conditions.

  9. Celebrating wobble decoding: Half a century and still much is new.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agris, Paul F; Eruysal, Emily R; Narendran, Amithi; Väre, Ville Y P; Vangaveti, Sweta; Ranganathan, Srivathsan V

    2017-08-16

    A simple post-transcriptional modification of tRNA, deamination of adenosine to inosine at the first, or wobble, position of the anticodon, inspired Francis Crick's Wobble Hypothesis 50 years ago. Many more naturally-occurring modifications have been elucidated and continue to be discovered. The post-transcriptional modifications of tRNA's anticodon domain are the most diverse and chemically complex of any RNA modifications. Their contribution with regards to chemistry, structure and dynamics reveal individual and combined effects on tRNA function in recognition of cognate and wobble codons. As forecast by the Modified Wobble Hypothesis 25 years ago, some individual modifications at tRNA's wobble position have evolved to restrict codon recognition whereas others expand the tRNA's ability to read as many as four synonymous codons. Here, we review tRNA wobble codon recognition using specific examples of simple and complex modification chemistries that alter tRNA function. Understanding natural modifications has inspired evolutionary insights and possible innovation in protein synthesis.

  10. In human pseudouridine synthase 1 (hPus1), a C-terminal helical insert blocks tRNA from binding in the same orientation as in the Pus1 bacterial homologue TruA, consistent with their different target selectivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czudnochowski, Nadine; Wang, Amy Liya; Finer-Moore, Janet; Stroud, Robert M

    2013-10-23

    Human pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase Pus1 (hPus1) modifies specific uridine residues in several non-coding RNAs: tRNA, U2 spliceosomal RNA, and steroid receptor activator RNA. We report three structures of the catalytic core domain of hPus1 from two crystal forms, at 1.8Å resolution. The structures are the first of a mammalian Ψ synthase from the set of five Ψ synthase families common to all kingdoms of life. hPus1 adopts a fold similar to bacterial Ψ synthases, with a central antiparallel β-sheet flanked by helices and loops. A flexible hinge at the base of the sheet allows the enzyme to open and close around an electropositive active-site cleft. In one crystal form, a molecule of Mes [2-(N-morpholino)ethane sulfonic acid] mimics the target uridine of an RNA substrate. A positively charged electrostatic surface extends from the active site towards the N-terminus of the catalytic domain, suggesting an extensive binding site specific for target RNAs. Two α-helices C-terminal to the core domain, but unique to hPus1, extend along the back and top of the central β-sheet and form the walls of the RNA binding surface. Docking of tRNA to hPus1 in a productive orientation requires only minor conformational changes to enzyme and tRNA. The docked tRNA is bound by the electropositive surface of the protein employing a completely different binding mode than that seen for the tRNA complex of the Escherichia coli homologue TruA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A double base change in alternate base pairs induced by ultraviolet irradiation in a glycine transfer RNA gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.D.; Dunst, R.W.; Hill, C.W.; Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey

    1980-01-01

    The glyUsusub(AGA) mutation affects Escherichia coli tRNAsup(Gly)sub(GGG), changing it to an AGA missense suppressor tRNA. Sequence studies have shown that the mutation involves a double base substitution at the first and third positions of the tRNA anticodon, the result being a change in the anticodon from CCC to UCU. A system has been developed to facilitate the detection of this novel mutation, and we have shown that ultraviolet irradiation and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) are effective in causing the double base change. A single observation of the mutation occuring spontaneously has been made also. The frequency of MNNG-induced glyUsusub(AGA) mutations is compatible with their being caused by two separate mutagenic events. The frequency of UV-induced glyUsusub(AGA) mutations, however, strongly suggests that the occurence of one base substitution strongly enhances the chance of finding the second substitution at the alternate position. In addition to the double change in the anticodon, the glyUsusub(AGA) tRNA differs from tRNAsup(gly)sub(GGG) in that it bears a modification of the A adjacent to the 3' position of the anticodon. Most likely, this modified base is N-[9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-purin-6-ylcarbamoyl] threonine. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 BRE [de

  12. Escherichia coli tRNAArg acceptor-stem isoacceptors: comparative crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichert, André; Schreiber, Angela; Fürste, Jens P.; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.; Förster, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Various E. coli tRNA Arg acceptor-stem microhelix isoacceptors have been crystallized and investigated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. The aminoacylation of tRNA is a crucial step in cellular protein biosynthesis. Recognition of the cognate tRNA by the correct aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is ensured by tRNA identity elements. In tRNA Arg , the identity elements consist of the anticodon, parts of the D-loop and the discriminator base. The minor groove of the aminoacyl stem interacts with the arginyl-tRNA synthetase. As a consequence of the redundancy of the genetic code, six tRNA Arg isoacceptors exist. In the present work, three different Escherichia coli tRNA Arg acceptor-stem helices were crystallized. Two of them, the tRNA Arg microhelices RR-1660 and RR-1662, were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis and diffracted to 1.7 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively. The tRNA Arg RR-1660 helix crystallized in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.28, b = 28.92, c = 29.00 Å, α = 105.74, β = 99.01, γ = 97.44°, whereas the tRNA Arg RR-1662 helix crystallized in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 33.18, b = 46.16, c = 26.04 Å, β = 101.50°

  13. Characterization of the human laminin beta2 chain locus (LAMB2): linkage to a gene containing a nonprocessed, transcribed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L) and to the gene encoding glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QARS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Jäger, A C; Khurana, T S

    1999-01-01

    The laminin beta2 chain is an important constituent of certain kidney and muscle basement membranes. We have generated a detailed physical map of a 110-kb genomic DNA segment surrounding the human laminin beta2 chain gene (LAMB2) on chromosome 3p21.3-->p21.2, a region paralogous with the chromosome...... 7q22-->q31 region that contains the laminin beta1 chain gene locus (LAMB1). Several CpG islands and a novel polymorphic microsatellite marker (D3S4594) were identified. The 3' end of LAMB2 lies 16 kb from the 5' end of the glutaminyl tRNA synthetase gene (QARS). About 20 kb upstream of LAMB2 we...... found a gene encoding a transcribed, non-processed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L). The sequence of 1.75 kb of genomic DNA at the 3' end of LAMB2L was similar to exons 8-12 of the laminin beta2 chain gene. The LAMB2L-LAMB2-QARS cluster lies telomeric to the gene encoding the laminin-binding protein...

  14. [Investigation into the relationship between mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene, tRNA gene and cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene variations and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, J; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Li, Y H; Zhang, H L; Yang, Q Y; Xu, X R; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; He, L H; Zheng, Y X; Yu, S F

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To explore the relationship between mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene variation, tRNA gene variation and cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene point mutations and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Methods: A nested case-control study was performed that followed a cohort of 7 445 noise-exposed workers in a steel factory in Henan province, China, from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. Subjects whose average hearing threshold was more than 40 dB(A) in high frequency were defined as the case group, and subjects whose average hearing threshold was less than 35 dB(A) in high frequency and less than 25 dB (A) in speech frequency were defined as the control group. Subjects was recruited into the case group ( n =286) and the control group ( n= 286) according to gender, age, job category and time of exposure to noise, and a 1∶1 case-control study was carried out. We genotyped eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene, the mitochondrial tRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene using SNPscan high-throughput genotyping technology from the recruited subjects. The relationship between polymorphic sites and NIHL, adjusted for covariates, was analyzed using conditional logistic regression analysis, as were the subgroup data. Results: The average age of the recruited subjects was (40.3±8.1) years and the length of service exposure to noise was (18.6±8.9) years. The range of noise exposed levels and cumulative noise exposure (CNE) was 80.1- 93.4 dB (A) and 86.8- 107.9 dB (A) · year, respectively. For workers exposed to noise at a CNE level<98 dB (A) · year, smokers showed an increased risk of NIHL of 1.88 (1.16-3.05) compared with non-smokers; for workers exposed to noise at a CNE level ≥98 dB(A) · year, smokers showed an increased risk of NIHL of 2.53 (1.49- 4.30) compared with non-smokers. For workers exposed to noise at a CNE level<98 dB (A) · year, the results of univariate analysis and multifactor analysis

  15. The α-Amino Group of the Threonine Substrate As The General Base During tRNA Aminoacylation: A New Version of Substrate Assisted Catalysis Predicted by Hybrid DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, WenJuan; Bushnell, Eric A. C.; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Gauld, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory-based methods in combination with large chemical models have been used to investigate the mechanism of the second half-reaction catalyzed by Thr-tRNA synthetase; aminoacyl transfer from Thr-AMP onto the A763'OH of the cognate tRNA. In particular, we have examined pathways in which an active site His309 residue is either protonated or neutral (i.e., potentially able to act as a base). In the protonated His309-assisted mechanism, the rate-limiting step is formation of the tetrahedral intermediate. The barrier for this step is 155.0 kJ mol−1 and thus, such a pathway is concluded to not be enzymatically feasible. For the neutral His309-assisted mechanism two models were used with the difference being whether Lys465 was included. For either model the barrier of the rate-limiting step is below the upper-thermodynamic enzymatic limit of ∼125 kJ mol−1. Specifically, without Lys465 the rate-limiting barrier is 122.1 kJ mol−1 and corresponds to a rotation about the tetrahedral intermediates Ccarb—OH bond. For the model with Lys465 the rate-limiting barrier is slightly lower and corresponds to the formation of the tetrahedral intermediate. Importantly, for both neutral His309’ models the neutral amino group of the threonyl substrate directly acts as the proton accepter; in the formation of the tetrahedral intermediate the A763'OH proton is directly transferred onto the Thr-NH2. Therefore, the overall mechanism follows a general substrate assisted catalytic mechanism. PMID:21942566

  16. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray analysis of CsdL/TcdA reveal a new tRNA binding motif in the MoeB/E1 superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López-Estepa

    Full Text Available Cyclic N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine ('cyclic t6A', ct(6A is a non-thiolated hypermodification found in transfer RNAs (tRNAs in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants. In bacteria and yeast cells ct(6A has been shown to enhance translation fidelity and efficiency of ANN codons by improving the faithful discrimination of aminoacylated tRNAs by the ribosome. To further the understanding of ct(6A biology we have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of CsdL/TcdA in complex with AMP and ATP, an E1-like activating enzyme from Escherichia coli, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent dehydration of t6A to form ct(6A. CsdL/TcdA is a dimer whose structural integrity and dimer interface depend critically on strongly bound K+ and Na+ cations. By using biochemical assays and small-angle X-ray scattering we show that CsdL/TcdA can associate with tRNA with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with the proper position and orientation for the cyclization of t6A. Furthermore, we show by nuclear magnetic resonance that CsdL/TcdA engages in transient interactions with CsdA and CsdE, which, in the latter case, involve catalytically important residues. These short-lived interactions may underpin the precise channeling of sulfur atoms from cysteine to CsdL/TcdA as previously characterized. In summary, the combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical methods applied to CsdL/TcdA has afforded a more thorough understanding of how the structure of this E1-like enzyme has been fine tuned to accomplish ct(6A synthesis on tRNAs while providing support for the notion that CsdA and CsdE are able to functionally interact with CsdL/TcdA.

  17. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered “killer” transfer RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dong-hui; Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey; Geslain, Renaud; Rosner, Marsha; Pan, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► tRNA with anti-cancer effects. ► tRNA induced protein misfolding. ► tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA Ser (AAU) is an engineered human tRNA Ser with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA Ser (AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA Ser (AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA Ser (AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA Ser (AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA Ser (AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA Ser (AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA Ser (AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  18. The UGG Isoacceptor of tRNAPro Is Naturally Prone to Frameshifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard B. Gamper

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Native tRNAs often contain post-transcriptional modifications to the wobble position to expand the capacity of reading the genetic code. Some of these modifications, due to the ability to confer imperfect codon-anticodon pairing at the wobble position, can induce a high propensity for tRNA to shift into alternative reading frames. An example is the native UGG isoacceptor of E. coli tRNAPro whose wobble nucleotide U34 is post-transcriptionally modified to cmo5U34 to read all four proline codons (5ʹ-CCA, 5ʹ-CCC, 5ʹ-CCG, and 5ʹ-CCU. Because the pairing of the modified anticodon to CCC codon is particularly weak relative to CCA and CCG codons, this tRNA can readily shift into both the +1 and +2-frame on the slippery mRNA sequence CCC-CG. We show that the shift to the +2-frame is more dominant, driven by the higher stability of the codon-anticodon pairing at the wobble position. Kinetic analysis suggests that both types of shifts can occur during stalling of the tRNA in a post-translocation complex or during translocation from the A to the P-site. Importantly, while the +1-frame post complex is active for peptidyl transfer, the +2-frame complex is a poor peptidyl donor. Together with our recent work, we draw a mechanistic distinction between +1 and +2-frameshifts, showing that while the +1-shifts are suppressed by the additional post-transcriptionally modified m1G37 nucleotide in the anticodon loop, the +2-shifts are suppressed by the ribosome, supporting a role of the ribosome in the overall quality control of reading-frame maintenance.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus: conserved genome rearrangement in Delphacidae and discovery of new characteristics of atp8 and tRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Jun; Zhu, Wen-Chao; Rong, Xia; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Ding, Xiu-Lei; Liu, Jing; Chen, Da-Song; Du, Yu; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-06-22

    corresponding responsible for the control of replication and transcription of mitochondria contained a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) block in different natural individuals of these two planthoppers. Comparison with a previously sequenced individual of SBPH revealed that the mitochondrial genetic variation within a species exists not only in the sequence and secondary structure of genes, but also in the gene order (the different location of trnH gene). The mitochondrial genome arrangement pattern found in planthoppers was involved in rearrangements of both tRNA genes and protein-coding genes (PCGs). Different species from different genera of Delphacidae possessing the same mitochondrial gene rearrangement suggests that gene rearrangements of mitochondrial genome probably occurred before the differentiation of this family. After comparatively analyzing the gene order of different species of Hemiptera, we propose that except for some specific taxonomical group (e.g. the whiteflies) the gene order might have diversified in family level of this order. The VNTRs detected in the control region might provide additional genetic markers for studying population genetics, individual difference and phylogeographics of planthoppers.

  20. Unassigned Codons, Nonsense Suppression, and Anticodon Modifications in the Evolution of the Genetic Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T.S. van der Gulik (Peter); W.D. Hoff (Wouter)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe origin of the genetic code is a central open problem regarding the early evolution of life. Here, we consider two undeveloped but important aspects of possible scenarios for the evolutionary pathway of the translation machinery: the role of unassigned codons in early stages

  1. Crystallization of leucyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with tRNALeu from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Ryuya; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2004-01-01

    The leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) from P. horikoshii has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and cocrystallizations with each of the tRNA Leu isoacceptors have been attempted. Cocrystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, but only when the tRNA Leu isoacceptor with the anticodon CAA was used. All five tRNA Leu isoacceptors from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii have been transcribed in vitro and purified. The leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) from P. horikoshii was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and cocrystallizations with each of the tRNA Leu isoacceptors were attempted. Cocrystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, but only when the tRNA Leu isoacceptor with the anticodon CAA was used. Electrophoretic analyses revealed that the crystals contain both LeuRS and tRNA Leu , suggesting that they are LeuRS–tRNA Leu complex crystals. A data set diffracting to 3.3 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.18, b = 120.55, c = 231.13 Å. The asymmetric unit is expected to contain two complexes of LeuRS–tRNA Leu , with a corresponding crystal volume per protein weight of 2.9 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 57.3%

  2. Recognition of Escherichia coli valine transfer RNA by its cognate synthetase: A fluorine-19 NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Wenchy; Horowitz, J.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions of 5-fluorouracil-substituted Escherichia coli tRNA Val with its cognate synthetase have been investigated by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance. Valyl-tRNA synthetase (VRS) (EC 6.1.1.9), purified to homogeneity from an overproducing strain of E. coli, differs somewhat from VRS previously isolated from E. coli K12. Its amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence agree well with results derived from the sequence of the VRS gene. Apparent K M and V max values of the purified VRS are the same for both normal and 5-fluorouracil (FUra)-substituted tRNA Val . Binding of VRS to (FUra)tRNA Val induces structural perturbations that are reflected in selective changes in the 19 F NMR spectrum of the tRNA. Addition of increasing amounts of VRS results in a gradual loss of intensity at resonances corresponding to FU34, FU7, and FU67, with FU34, at the wobble position of the anticodon, being affected most. At higher VRS/tRNA ratios, a broadening and shifting of FU12 and of FU4 and/or FU8 occur. These results indicate that VRS interacts with tRNA Val along the entire inside of the L-shape molecule, from the acceptor stem to the anticodon. Valyl-tRNA synthetase also causes a splitting of resonances FU55 and FU64 in the T-loop and stem of tRNA Val , suggesting conformational changes in this part of the molecule. No 19 F NMR evidence was found for formation of the Michael adduct between VRS and FU8 of 5-fluorouracil-substituted tRNA Val that has been proposed as a common intermediate in the aminoacylation reaction

  3. rRNA fragmentation induced by a yeast killer toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Alene; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2014-02-01

    Virus like dsDNA elements (VLE) in yeast were previously shown to encode the killer toxins PaT and zymocin, which target distinct tRNA species via specific anticodon nuclease (ACNase) activities. Here, we characterize a third member of the VLE-encoded toxins, PiT from Pichia inositovora, and identify PiOrf4 as the cytotoxic subunit by conditional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the tRNA targeting toxins, however, neither a change of the wobble uridine modification status by introduction of elp3 or trm9 mutations nor tRNA overexpression rescued from PiOrf4 toxicity. Consistent with a distinct RNA target, expression of PiOrf4 causes specific fragmentation of the 25S and 18S rRNA. A stable cleavage product comprising the first ∼ 130 nucleotides of the 18S rRNA was purified and characterized by linker ligation and subsequent reverse transcription; 3'-termini were mapped to nucleotide 131 and 132 of the 18S rRNA sequence, a region showing some similarity to the anticodon loop of tRNA(Glu)(UUC), the zymocin target. PiOrf4 residues Glu9 and His214, corresponding to catalytic sites Glu9 and His209 in the ACNase subunit of zymocin are essential for in vivo toxicity and rRNA fragmentation, raising the possibility of functionally conserved RNase modules in both proteins. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evidence for the horizontal transfer of an integrase gene from a fusellovirus to a pRN-like plasmid within a single strain of Sulfolobus and the implications for plasmid survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu

    2008-01-01

    of the integrase gene occurs in the viral attachment site (attP), which corresponds to the anticodon region of the targeted tRNA gene in the host chromosome. This point mutation confers on pXZ1 the ability to integrate into the tRNA(Glu)[CUC] gene, which differs from the integration site of SSV4, t......RNA(Glu)[UUC]. SSV4 and pXZ1 were also shown experimentally to integrate into separate sites on the host chromosome. This is believed to be the first report of a pRN plasmid sharing its natural host with a fusellovirus and carrying a highly similar integrase gene....

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an archaeal tRNA-modification enzyme, TiaS, complexed with tRNAIle2 and ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Takuo; Inanaga, Hideko; Kimura, Satoshi; Terasaka, Naohiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Numata, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    A. fulgidus TiaS was cocrystallized with tRNA Ile2 and ATP and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The cytidine at the first anticodon position of archaeal tRNA Ile2 , which decodes the isoleucine AUA codon, is modified to 2-agmatinylcytidine (agm 2 C) to guarantee the fidelity of protein biosynthesis. This post-transcriptional modification is catalyzed by tRNA Ile -agm 2 C synthetase (TiaS) using ATP and agmatine as substrates. Archaeoglobus fulgidus TiaS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified. tRNA Ile2 was prepared by in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. TiaS was cocrystallized with both tRNA Ile2 and ATP by the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of the TiaS–tRNA Ile2 –ATP complex diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory. The crystals belonged to the primitive hexagonal space group P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 131.1, c = 86.6 Å. The asymmetric unit is expected to contain one TiaS–tRNA Ile2 –ATP complex, with a Matthews coefficient of 2.8 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 61%

  6. Roles of tRNA in cell wall biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Kiley; Ibba, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research into various aspects of bacterial metabolism such as cell wall and antibiotic synthesis, degradation pathways, cellular stress, and amino acid biosynthesis has elucidated roles of aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (aa-tRNA) outside of translation. Although the two enzyme families...... responsible for cell wall modifications, aminoacyl-phosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) and Fem, were discovered some time ago, they have recently become of intense interest for their roles in the antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. The addition of positively charged amino acids...... and play a role in resistance to antibiotics that target the cell wall. Additionally, the formation of truncated peptides results in shorter peptide bridges and loss of branched linkages which makes bacteria more susceptible to antimicrobials. A greater understanding of the structure and substrate...

  7. Preferences of AAA/AAG codon recognition by modified nucleosides, τm5s2U34 and t6A37 present in tRNALys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Kailas D; Kamble, Asmita S; Fandilolu, Prayagraj M

    2017-12-27

    Deficiency of 5-taurinomethyl-2-thiouridine, τm 5 s 2 U at the 34th 'wobble' position in tRNA Lys causes MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers), a neuromuscular disease. This modified nucleoside of mt tRNA Lys , recognizes AAA/AAG codons during protein biosynthesis process. Its preference to identify cognate codons has not been studied at the atomic level. Hence, multiple MD simulations of various molecular models of anticodon stem loop (ASL) of mt tRNA Lys in presence and absence of τm 5 s 2 U 34 and N 6 -threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t 6 A 37 ) along with AAA and AAG codons have been accomplished. Additional four MD simulations of multiple ASL mt tRNA Lys models in the context of ribosomal A-site residues have also been performed to investigate the role of A-site in recognition of AAA/AAG codons. MD simulation results show that, ASL models in presence of τm 5 s 2 U 34 and t 6 A 37 with codons AAA/AAG are more stable than the ASL lacking these modified bases. MD trajectories suggest that τm 5 s 2 U recognizes the codons initially by 'wobble' hydrogen bonding interactions, and then tRNA Lys might leave the explicit codon by a novel 'single' hydrogen bonding interaction in order to run the protein biosynthesis process smoothly. We propose this model as the 'Foot-Step Model' for codon recognition, in which the single hydrogen bond plays a crucial role. MD simulation results suggest that, tRNA Lys with τm 5 s 2 U and t 6 A recognizes AAA codon more preferably than AAG. Thus, these results reveal the consequences of τm 5 s 2 U and t 6 A in recognition of AAA/AAG codons in mitochondrial disease, MERRF.

  8. A novel nuclear genetic code alteration in yeasts and the evolution of codon reassignment in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhausen, Stefanie; Findeisen, Peggy; Plessmann, Uwe; Urlaub, Henning; Kollmar, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The genetic code is the cellular translation table for the conversion of nucleotide sequences into amino acid sequences. Changes to the meaning of sense codons would introduce errors into almost every translated message and are expected to be highly detrimental. However, reassignment of single or multiple codons in mitochondria and nuclear genomes, although extremely rare, demonstrates that the code can evolve. Several models for the mechanism of alteration of nuclear genetic codes have been proposed (including "codon capture," "genome streamlining," and "ambiguous intermediate" theories), but with little resolution. Here, we report a novel sense codon reassignment in Pachysolen tannophilus, a yeast related to the Pichiaceae. By generating proteomics data and using tRNA sequence comparisons, we show that Pachysolen translates CUG codons as alanine and not as the more usual leucine. The Pachysolen tRNACAG is an anticodon-mutated tRNA(Ala) containing all major alanine tRNA recognition sites. The polyphyly of the CUG-decoding tRNAs in yeasts is best explained by a tRNA loss driven codon reassignment mechanism. Loss of the CUG-tRNA in the ancient yeast is followed by gradual decrease of respective codons and subsequent codon capture by tRNAs whose anticodon is not part of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase recognition region. Our hypothesis applies to all nuclear genetic code alterations and provides several testable predictions. We anticipate more codon reassignments to be uncovered in existing and upcoming genome projects. © 2016 Mühlhausen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. The ribosome as a molecular machine: the mechanism of tRNA-mRNA movement in translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnina, Marina V; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    Translocation of tRNA and mRNA through the ribosome is one of the most dynamic events during protein synthesis. In the cell, translocation is catalysed by EF-G (elongation factor G) and driven by GTP hydrolysis. Major unresolved questions are: how the movement is induced and what the moving parts of the ribosome are. Recent progress in time-resolved cryoelectron microscopy revealed trajectories of tRNA movement through the ribosome. Driven by thermal fluctuations, the ribosome spontaneously samples a large number of conformational states. The spontaneous movement of tRNAs through the ribosome is loosely coupled to the motions within the ribosome. EF-G stabilizes conformational states prone to translocation and promotes a conformational rearrangement of the ribosome (unlocking) that accelerates the rate-limiting step of translocation: the movement of the tRNA anticodons on the small ribosomal subunit. EF-G acts as a Brownian ratchet providing directional bias for movement at the cost of GTP hydrolysis.

  10. The "periodic table" of the genetic code: A new way to look at the code and the decoding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Anton A

    2016-01-01

    Henri Grosjean and Eric Westhof recently presented an information-rich, alternative view of the genetic code, which takes into account current knowledge of the decoding process, including the complex nature of interactions between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA that take place during protein synthesis on the ribosome, and it also better reflects the evolution of the code. The new asymmetrical circular genetic code has a number of advantages over the traditional codon table and the previous circular diagrams (with a symmetrical/clockwise arrangement of the U, C, A, G bases). Most importantly, all sequence co-variances can be visualized and explained based on the internal logic of the thermodynamics of codon-anticodon interactions.

  11. Assembling Fe/S-clusters and modifying tRNAs: ancient co-factors meet ancient adaptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Juan D; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-06-01

    Trypanosoma brucei undergoes two clearly distinct develomental stages: in the insect vector (procyclic stage) the cells generate the bulk of their energy through respiration, whereas in the bloodstream of the mammalian host (bloodstream stage) they grow mostly glycolytically. Several mitochondrial respiratory proteins require iron-sulfur clusters for activity, and their activation coincides with developmental changes. Likewise some tRNA modification enzymes either require iron-sulfur clusters or use components of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly pathway for activity. These enzymes affect the anticodon loop of various tRNAs and can impact protein synthesis. Herein, the possibility of these pathways being integrated and exploited by T. brucei to carefully coordinate energy demands to translational rates in response to enviromental changes is examined.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Epiperipatus biolleyi reveals a unique transfer RNA set and provides further support for the ecdysozoa hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlowski, Lars; Braband, Anke; Mayer, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Onychophora (velvet worms) play a crucial role in current discussions on position of arthropods. The ongoing Articulata/Ecdysozoa debate is in need of additional ground pattern characters for Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Tardigrada, and Onychophora). Hence, Onychophora is an important outgroup taxon in resolving the relationships among arthropods, irrespective of whether morphological or molecular data are used. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from onychophorans. Here, we present the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an onychophoran, Epiperipatus biolleyi (Peripatidae), which shows several characteristic features. Specifically, the gene order is considerably different from that in other arthropods and other bilaterians. In addition, there is a lack of 9 tRNA genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. All these missing tRNAs have anticodon sequences corresponding to 4-fold degenerate codons, whereas the persisting 13 tRNAs all have anticodons pairing with 2-fold degenerate codons. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes provides a robust support for a clade consisting of Onychophora, Priapulida, and Arthropoda, which confirms the Ecdysozoa hypothesis. However, resolution of the internal ecdysozoan relationships suffers from a cluster of long-branching taxa (including Nematoda and Platyhelminthes) and a lack of data from Tardigrada and further nemathelminth taxa in addition to nematodes and priapulids.

  13. Distribution of ADAT-Dependent Codons in the Human Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àlbert Rafels-Ybern

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide modifications in the anticodons of transfer RNAs (tRNA play a central role in translation efficiency, fidelity, and regulation of translation, but, for most of these modifications, the details of their function remain unknown. The heterodimeric adenosine deaminases acting on tRNAs (ADAT2-ADAT3, or ADAT are enzymes present in eukaryotes that convert adenine (A to inosine (I in the first anticodon base (position 34 by hydrolytic deamination. To explore the influence of ADAT activity on mammalian translation, we have characterized the human transcriptome and proteome in terms of frequency and distribution of ADAT-related codons. Eight different tRNAs can be modified by ADAT and, once modified, these tRNAs will recognize NNC, NNU and NNA codons, but not NNG codons. We find that transcripts coding for proteins highly enriched in these eight amino acids (ADAT-aa are specifically enriched in NNC, NNU and NNA codons. We also show that the proteins most enriched in ADAT-aa are composed preferentially of threonine, alanine, proline, and serine (TAPS. We propose that the enrichment in ADAT-codons in these proteins is due to the similarities in the codons that correspond to TAPS.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the gall-forming fly, Fergusonina taylori Nelson and Yeates (Diptera: Fergusoninidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Cameron, Stephen L; Yeates, David K

    2011-10-01

    The monogeneric family Fergusoninidae consists of gall-forming flies that, together with Fergusobia (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae) nematodes, form the only known mutualistic association between insects and nematodes. In this study, the entire 16,000 bp mitochondrial genome of Fergusonina taylori Nelson and Yeates was sequenced. The circular genome contains one encoding region including 27 genes and one non-coding A+T-rich region. The arrangement of the protein-coding, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) genes was the same as that found in the ancestral insect. Nucleotide composition is highly A+T biased. All of the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for nad1 which begins with TTT. All 22 tRNA anticodons of F. taylori match those observed in Drosophila yakuba, and all form the typical cloverleaf structure except for tRNA-Ser((AGN)) which lacks a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. Secondary structural features of the rRNA genes of Fergusonina are similar to those proposed for other insects, with minor modifications. The mitochondrial genome of Fergusonina presented here may prove valuable for resolving the sister group to the Fergusoninidae, and expands the available mtDNA data sources for acalyptrates overall.

  15. Nearly complete mitogenome of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Brullé, 1832) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): rearrangements in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özgül; Korkmaz, E Mahir

    2017-10-01

    The Cimbicidae is a small family of the primitive and relatively less diverse suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Here, nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) was sequenced using next generation sequencing and comparatively analysed with the mitogenome of Trichiosoma anthracinum. The sequenced length of C. lateralis mitogenome was 14,899 bp with an A+T content of 80.60%. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons and all are terminated with TAR or T- stop codon. All tRNA genes preferred usual anticodons. Compared with the inferred insect ancestral mitogenome, two tRNA rearrangements were observed in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters, representing a new event not previously reported in Symphyta. An illicit priming of replication and/or intra/inter-mitochondrial recombination and TDRL seem to be responsible mechanisms for the rearrangement events in these gene clusters. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the position of Corynis within Cimbicidae and recovered a relationship of Tenthredinoidea + (Cephoidea + Orussoidea) in Symphyta.

  16. A whole mitochondrial genome screening in a MELAS patient: A novel mitochondrial tRNAVal mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezghani, Najla; Mnif, Mouna; Kacem, Maha; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Hadj Salem, Ikhlass; Kallel, Nozha; Charfi, Nadia; Abid, Mohamed; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We report a young Tunisian patient with clinical features of MELAS syndrome. → Reported mitochondrial mutations were absent after a mutational screening of the whole mtDNA. → We described a novel m.1640A>G mutation in the tRNA Val gene which was absent in 150 controls. → Mitochondrial deletions and POLG1 gene mutations were absent. → The m.1640A>G mutation could be associated to MELAS syndrome. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by a wide variety of clinical presentations and a multisystemic organ involvement. In this study, we report a Tunisian girl with clinical features of MELAS syndrome who was negative for the common m.3243A>G mutation, but also for the reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and deletions. Screening of the entire mtDNA genome showed several known mitochondrial variants besides to a novel transition m.1640A>G affecting a wobble adenine in the anticodon stem region of the tRNA Val . This nucleotide was conserved and it was absent in 150 controls suggesting its pathogenicity. In addition, no mutations were found in the nuclear polymerase gamma-1 gene (POLG1). These results suggest further investigation nuclear genes encoding proteins responsible for stability and structural components of the mtDNA or to the oxidative phosphorylation machinery to explain the phenotypic variability in the studied family.

  17. tmRNA-mediated trans-translation as the major ribosome rescue system in a bacterial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyouta eHimeno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available tmRNA (transfer messenger RNA; also known as 10Sa RNA or SsrA RNA is a small RNA molecule that is conserved among bacteria. It has structural and functional similarities to tRNA: it has an upper half of the tRNA-like structure, its 5’ end is processed by RNase P, it has typical tRNA-specific base modifications, it is aminoacylated with alanine, it binds to EF-Tu after aminoacylation and it enters the ribosome with EF-Tu and GTP. However, tmRNA lacks an anticodon, and instead it has a coding sequence for a short peptide called tag-peptide. An elaborate interplay of actions of tmRNA as both tRNA and mRNA with the help of a tmRNA-binding protein, SmpB, facilitates trans-translation, which produces a single polypeptide from two mRNA molecules. Initially alanyl-tmRNA in complex with EF-Tu and SmpB enters the vacant A-site of the stalled ribosome like aminoacyl-tRNA but without a codon-anticodon interaction, and subsequently truncated mRNA is replaced with the tag-encoding region of tmRNA. During these processes, not only tmRNA but also SmpB structurally and functionally mimics both tRNA and mRNA. Thus trans-translation rescues the stalled ribosome, thereby allowing recycling of the ribosome. Since the tag-peptide serves as a target of AAA+ proteases, the trans-translation products are preferentially degraded so that they do not accumulate in the cell. Although alternative rescue systems have recently been revealed, trans-translation is the only system that universally exists in bacteria. Furthermore, it is unique in that it employs a small RNA and that it prevents accumulation of nonfunctional proteins from truncated mRNA in the cell. It might play the major role in rescuing the stalled translation in the bacterial cell.

  18. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered 'killer' transfer RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey [Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Geslain, Renaud, E-mail: rgeslain@depaul.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Department of Biology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614 (United States); Rosner, Marsha, E-mail: m-rosner@uchicago.edu [Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pan, Tao, E-mail: taopan@uchicago.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA with anti-cancer effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA induced protein misfolding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) is an engineered human tRNA{sup Ser} with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  19. Synonymous codon ordering: a subtle but prevalent strategy of bacteria to improve translational efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Qing Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In yeast coding sequences, once a particular codon has been used, subsequent occurrence of the same amino acid tends to use codons sharing the same tRNA. Such a phenomenon of co-tRNA codons pairing bias (CTCPB is also found in some other eukaryotes but it is not known whether it occurs in prokaryotes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we focused on a total of 773 bacterial genomes to investigate their synonymous codon pairing preferences. After calculating the actual frequencies of synonymous codon pairs and comparing them with their expected values, we detected an obvious pairing bias towards identical codon pairs. This seems consistent with the previously reported CTCPB phenomenon, since identical codons are certainly read by the same tRNA. However, among co-tRNA but non-identical codon pairs, only 22 were often found overrepresented, suggesting that many co-tRNA codons actually do not preferentially pair together in prokaryotes. Therefore, the previously reported co-tRNA codons pairing rule needs to be more rigorously defined. The affinity differences between a tRNA anticodon and its readable codons should be taken into account. Moreover, both within-gene-shuffling tests and phylogenetic analyses support the idea that translational selection played an important role in shaping the observed synonymous codon pairing pattern in prokaryotes. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, a high level of synonymous codon pairing bias was detected in 73% investigated bacterial species, suggesting the synonymous codon ordering strategy has been prevalently adopted by prokaryotes to improve their translational efficiencies. The findings in this study also provide important clues to better understand the complex dynamics of translational process.

  20. Chemical Carcinogen-Induced Changes in tRNA Metabolism in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    the resolution and quantitation of modified ucleosides in the urine of cancer patients would not be particularly useful for the cell culture studies...Comparison of nucleic acid catabolism by normal human fibroblasts and fibroblasts transformed with methylazoxymethyl alcohol ( MAMA ),an activated...catabolite in long-term, pulse-chase experiments. However, the kinetics of catabolism differed, in that only the MAMA -transformed cells had generated

  1. The search for mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR) A3243G mutation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to compare the incidence of the pathogenic point mutation A3243G in the gene tRNALeu(UUR) indicating sub-type 2 diabetes mellitus conducted within the Nigerian population with that reported in other populations. 112 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus according to the World Health ...

  2. Site-Specific Covalent Conjugation of Modified mRNA by tRNA Guanine Transglycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Fabian; Zhou, Cun Yu; Alexander, Seth C; Zhang, Dongyang; Devaraj, Neal K

    2018-03-05

    Modified mRNA (mod-mRNA) has recently been widely studied as the form of RNA useful for therapeutic applications due to its high stability and lowered immune response. Herein, we extend the scope of the recently established RNA-TAG (transglycosylation at guanosine) methodology, a novel approach for genetically encoded site-specific labeling of large mRNA transcripts, by employing mod-mRNA as substrate. As a proof of concept, we covalently attached a fluorescent probe to mCherry encoding mod-mRNA transcripts bearing 5-methylcytidine and/or pseudouridine substitutions with high labeling efficiencies. To provide a versatile labeling methodology with a wide range of possible applications, we employed a two-step strategy for functionalization of the mod-mRNA to highlight the therapeutic potential of this new methodology. We envision that this novel and facile labeling methodology of mod-RNA will have great potential in decorating both coding and noncoding therapeutic RNAs with a variety of diagnostic and functional moieties.

  3. Chemical Carcinogen-Induced Changes in tRNA Metabolism in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-30

    quiescent culture. Acetone alone (0.01%) was dded to cgntrol cultures. To measure DNA synthesis, [H Hthymidine (OH-TdR) ( Sp . act. 5 Ci/mmole) was added... Penicillium citrinum nuclease P1 and E. coli alkaline phosphatase as described by Gehrke et al. (11), and was analyzed for radiolabelled nucleoside content by

  4. Structural Basis for Specific Inhibition of tRNA Synthetase by an ATP Competitive Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Pengfei; Han, Hongyan; Wang, Jing; Chen, Kaige; Chen, Xin; Guo, Min

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases demand high species and family specificity. The antimalarial ATP-mimetic cladosporin selectively inhibits P. falciparum LysRS (PfLysRS). How the binding to a universal ATP site achieves the specificity is unknown. Here we report 3 crystal structures of cladosporin with human LysRS, PfLysRS, and a Pf-like human LysRS mutant. In all 3 structures, cladosporin occupies the class defining ATP-binding pocket, replacing the adenosine portion of...

  5. The search for mitochondrial tRNA A3243G mutation among type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... A3243G mutation among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in the .... molecular grade water was incubated at 37°C for 1 to 2 h for the digestion to occur. ... visualized using Quantity One software (CHEMIDOC, Bio-Rad,. USA).

  6. m/sup 7/Guanosine in tRNA of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L; Chastain, B

    1979-01-01

    The nucleoside content of six different individual tRNAs was re-investigated. Particular emphasis was placed on obtaining an accurate, quantitative estimation of the amount of the minor nucleoside m/sup 7/guanosine which was found to occur at less than one full residue in tRNA/sup Phe/(E.coli) and tRNA/sup Arg/(E. coli) but not in the other species of tRNAs examined. Several hypotheses to explain this observation are discussed.

  7. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Su, Ying-Juan; Wang, Ting

    2011-04-13

    The rpoB-psbZ (BZ) region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes) has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i) a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii) the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS) of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii) the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv) ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS.

  8. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ying-Juan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rpoB-psbZ (BZ region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. Results A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Conclusions Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS.

  9. Descripción del ARN de transferencia mitocondrial para Serina (UCN de Lutzomyia columbiana (Diptera, Psychodidae Description of the mitochondrial serine transfer RNA (UCN of Lutzomyia columbiana (Diptera, Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alveiro Pérez-Doria

    2008-01-01

    putative secondary structure of the mitochondrial serine transfer RNA that recognizes the codon UCN of Lu. columbiana (tRNA Ser. DNA was extracted, amplified and sequenced from six individuals collected in human biting activity. The secondary structure of the tRNA Ser was inferred using the program tRNAscan-SE 1.21. The tRNA Ser gene length was 67 pair of bases (pb, and a single haplotype was detected among the six specimens sequenced. In the inferred secondary structure of the tRNA Ser of Lu. columbiana, the acceptor arm consisted of 7 bp, the dihydrouridine (DHU arm of 3 pb, the anticodon arm of 5 pb, and the ribothymidine-pseudouridine-cytosine (TøC arm of 5 pb. Similarity, the estimated size of the loops was 5 nucleotides in the DHU, 7 in the anticodon, 4 in the variable, and 7 in the TøC. Lu. columbiana differs from other Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus species sequenced to date by the presence of guanine in the nucleotide position 64, which induce a non-canonical base pair conformation type uracil-guanine in the acceptor arm. More studies are necessary to confirm the usefulness of the tRNA Ser as a suitable molecular tool for sand fly species identification.

  10. Comparison of the redox chemistry of sulfur- and selenium-containing analogs of uracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, N Connor; Geissler, Andrew; Button, Aileen; Sasuclark, Alexandru R; Schroll, Alayne L; Ruggles, Erik L; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hondal, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    Selenium is present in proteins in the form of selenocysteine, where this amino acid serves catalytic oxidoreductase functions. The use of selenocysteine in nature is strongly associated with redox catalysis. However, selenium is also found in a 2-selenouridine moiety at the wobble position of tRNA Glu , tRNA Gln and tRNA Lys . It is thought that the modifications of the wobble position of the tRNA improves the selectivity of the codon-anticodon pair as a result of the physico-chemical changes that result from substitution of sulfur and selenium for oxygen. Both selenocysteine and 2-selenouridine have widespread analogs, cysteine and thiouridine, where sulfur is used instead. To examine the role of selenium in 2-selenouridine, we comparatively analyzed the oxidation reactions of sulfur-containing 2-thiouracil-5-carboxylic acid (s 2 c 5 Ura) and its selenium analog 2-selenouracil-5-carboxylic acid (se 2 c 5 Ura) using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy, 77 Se-NMR spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment of s 2 c 5 Ura with hydrogen peroxide led to oxidized intermediates, followed by irreversible desulfurization to form uracil-5-carboxylic acid (c 5 Ura). In contrast, se 2 c 5 Ura oxidation resulted in a diselenide intermediate, followed by conversion to the seleninic acid, both of which could be readily reduced by ascorbate and glutathione. Glutathione and ascorbate only minimally prevented desulfurization of s 2 c 5 Ura, whereas very little deselenization of se 2 c 5 Ura occurred in the presence of the same antioxidants. In addition, se 2 c 5 Ura but not s 2 c 5 Ura showed glutathione peroxidase activity, further suggesting that oxidation of se 2 c 5 Ura is readily reversible, while oxidation of s 2 c 5 Ura is not. The results of the study of these model nucleobases suggest that the use of 2-selenouridine is related to resistance to oxidative inactivation that otherwise characterizes 2-thiouridine. As the use of selenocysteine in proteins also confers

  11. Predicting the minimal translation apparatus: lessons from the reductive evolution of mollicutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Grosjean

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mollicutes is a class of parasitic bacteria that have evolved from a common Firmicutes ancestor mostly by massive genome reduction. With genomes under 1 Mbp in size, most Mollicutes species retain the capacity to replicate and grow autonomously. The major goal of this work was to identify the minimal set of proteins that can sustain ribosome biogenesis and translation of the genetic code in these bacteria. Using the experimentally validated genes from the model bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis as input, genes encoding proteins of the core translation machinery were predicted in 39 distinct Mollicutes species, 33 of which are culturable. The set of 260 input genes encodes proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis, tRNA maturation and aminoacylation, as well as proteins cofactors required for mRNA translation and RNA decay. A core set of 104 of these proteins is found in all species analyzed. Genes encoding proteins involved in post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins and translation cofactors, post-transcriptional modifications of t+rRNA, in ribosome assembly and RNA degradation are the most frequently lost. As expected, genes coding for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomal proteins and initiation, elongation and termination factors are the most persistent (i.e. conserved in a majority of genomes. Enzymes introducing nucleotides modifications in the anticodon loop of tRNA, in helix 44 of 16S rRNA and in helices 69 and 80 of 23S rRNA, all essential for decoding and facilitating peptidyl transfer, are maintained in all species. Reconstruction of genome evolution in Mollicutes revealed that, beside many gene losses, occasional gains by horizontal gene transfer also occurred. This analysis not only showed that slightly different solutions for preserving a functional, albeit minimal, protein synthetizing machinery have emerged in these successive rounds of reductive evolution but also has broad implications in guiding the

  12. Mistranslation: from adaptations to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kyle S; O'Donoghue, Patrick; Brandl, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    The conservation of the genetic code indicates that there was a single origin, but like all genetic material, the cell's interpretation of the code is subject to evolutionary pressure. Single nucleotide variations in tRNA sequences can modulate codon assignments by altering codon-anticodon pairing or tRNA charging. Either can increase translation errors and even change the code. The frozen accident hypothesis argued that changes to the code would destabilize the proteome and reduce fitness. In studies of model organisms, mistranslation often acts as an adaptive response. These studies reveal evolutionary conserved mechanisms to maintain proteostasis even during high rates of mistranslation. This review discusses the evolutionary basis of altered genetic codes, how mistranslation is identified, and how deviations to the genetic code are exploited. We revisit early discoveries of genetic code deviations and provide examples of adaptive mistranslation events in nature. Lastly, we highlight innovations in synthetic biology to expand the genetic code. The genetic code is still evolving. Mistranslation increases proteomic diversity that enables cells to survive stress conditions or suppress a deleterious allele. Genetic code variants have been identified by genome and metagenome sequence analyses, suppressor genetics, and biochemical characterization. Understanding the mechanisms of translation and genetic code deviations enables the design of new codes to produce novel proteins. Engineering the translation machinery and expanding the genetic code to incorporate non-canonical amino acids are valuable tools in synthetic biology that are impacting biomedical research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Queuine Micronutrient: Charting a Course from Microbe to Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fergus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients from the diet and gut microbiota are essential to human health and wellbeing. Arguably, among the most intriguing and enigmatic of these micronutrients is queuine, an elaborate 7-deazaguanine derivative made exclusively by eubacteria and salvaged by animal, plant and fungal species. In eubacteria and eukaryotes, queuine is found as the sugar nucleotide queuosine within the anticodon loop of transfer RNA isoacceptors for the amino acids tyrosine, asparagine, aspartic acid and histidine. The physiological requirement for the ancient queuine molecule and queuosine modified transfer RNA has been the subject of varied scientific interrogations for over four decades, establishing relationships to development, proliferation, metabolism, cancer, and tyrosine biosynthesis in eukaryotes and to invasion and proliferation in pathogenic bacteria, in addition to ribosomal frameshifting in viruses. These varied effects may be rationalized by an important, if ill-defined, contribution to protein translation or may manifest from other presently unidentified mechanisms. This article will examine the current understanding of queuine uptake, tRNA incorporation and salvage by eukaryotic organisms and consider some of the physiological consequence arising from deficiency in this elusive and lesser-recognized micronutrient.

  14. Role of the ribosomal P-site elements of m²G966, m⁵C967, and the S9 C-terminal tail in maintenance of the reading frame during translational elongation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Smriti; Bhamidimarri, Satya Prathyusha; Weber, Michael H W; Varshney, Umesh

    2013-08-01

    The ribosomal P-site hosts the peptidyl-tRNAs during translation elongation. Which P-site elements support these tRNA species to maintain codon-anticodon interactions has remained unclear. We investigated the effects of P-site features of methylations of G966, C967, and the conserved C-terminal tail sequence of Ser, Lys, and Arg (SKR) of the S9 ribosomal protein in maintenance of the translational reading frame of an mRNA. We generated Escherichia coli strains deleted for the SKR sequence in S9 ribosomal protein, RsmB (which methylates C967), and RsmD (which methylates G966) and used them to translate LacZ from its +1 and -1 out-of-frame constructs. We show that the S9 SKR tail prevents both the +1 and -1 frameshifts and plays a general role in holding the P-site tRNA/peptidyl-tRNA in place. In contrast, the G966 and C967 methylations did not make a direct contribution to the maintenance of the translational frame of an mRNA. However, deletion of rsmB in the S9Δ3 background caused significantly increased -1 frameshifting at 37°C. Interestingly, the effects of the deficiency of C967 methylation were annulled when the E. coli strain was grown at 30°C, supporting its context-dependent role.

  15. A genetic code alteration is a phenotype diversity generator in the human pathogen Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The discovery of genetic code alterations and expansions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes abolished the hypothesis of a frozen and universal genetic code and exposed unanticipated flexibility in codon and amino acid assignments. It is now clear that codon identity alterations involve sense and non-sense codons and can occur in organisms with complex genomes and proteomes. However, the biological functions, the molecular mechanisms of evolution and the diversity of genetic code alterations remain largely unknown. In various species of the genus Candida, the leucine CUG codon is decoded as serine by a unique serine tRNA that contains a leucine 5'-CAG-3'anticodon (tRNA(CAG(Ser. We are using this codon identity redefinition as a model system to elucidate the evolution of genetic code alterations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have reconstructed the early stages of the Candida genetic code alteration by engineering tRNAs that partially reverted the identity of serine CUG codons back to their standard leucine meaning. Such genetic code manipulation had profound cellular consequences as it exposed important morphological variation, altered gene expression, re-arranged the karyotype, increased cell-cell adhesion and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first experimental evidence for an important role of genetic code alterations as generators of phenotypic diversity of high selective potential and supports the hypothesis that they speed up evolution of new phenotypes.

  16. RNA-ID, a highly sensitive and robust method to identify cis-regulatory sequences using superfolder GFP and a fluorescence-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kimberly M; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a robust and sensitive method, called RNA-ID, to screen for cis-regulatory sequences in RNA using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of yeast cells bearing a reporter in which expression of both superfolder green fluorescent protein (GFP) and yeast codon-optimized mCherry red fluorescent protein (RFP) is driven by the bidirectional GAL1,10 promoter. This method recapitulates previously reported progressive inhibition of translation mediated by increasing numbers of CGA codon pairs, and restoration of expression by introduction of a tRNA with an anticodon that base pairs exactly with the CGA codon. This method also reproduces effects of paromomycin and context on stop codon read-through. Five key features of this method contribute to its effectiveness as a selection for regulatory sequences: The system exhibits greater than a 250-fold dynamic range, a quantitative and dose-dependent response to known inhibitory sequences, exquisite resolution that allows nearly complete physical separation of distinct populations, and a reproducible signal between different cells transformed with the identical reporter, all of which are coupled with simple methods involving ligation-independent cloning, to create large libraries. Moreover, we provide evidence that there are sequences within a 9-nt library that cause reduced GFP fluorescence, suggesting that there are novel cis-regulatory sequences to be found even in this short sequence space. This method is widely applicable to the study of both RNA-mediated and codon-mediated effects on expression.

  17. The tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor-P with (R)-ß-lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Hervé; Zou, S Betty; Bullwinkle, Tammy J

    2011-01-01

    The lysyl-tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor P (EF-P) with a-lysine at low efficiency. Cell-free extracts containing non-a-lysine substrates of PoxA modified EF-P with a change in mass consistent with addition of ß-lysine, a substrate also predicted by genomic analyses. EF......-P was efficiently functionally modified with (R)-ß-lysine but not (S)-ß-lysine or genetically encoded a-amino acids, indicating that PoxA has evolved an activity orthogonal to that of the canonical aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases....

  18. Towards an Integrative Understanding of tRNA Aminoacylation–Diet–Host–Gut Microbiome Interactions in Neurodegeneration

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    Elena L. Paley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic mice used for Alzheimer’s disease (AD preclinical experiments do not recapitulate the human disease. In our models, the dietary tryptophan metabolite tryptamine produced by human gut microbiome induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS deficiency with consequent neurodegeneration in cells and mice. Dietary supplements, antibiotics and certain drugs increase tryptamine content in vivo. TrpRS catalyzes tryptophan attachment to tRNAtrp at initial step of protein biosynthesis. Tryptamine that easily crosses the blood–brain barrier induces vasculopathies, neurodegeneration and cell death via TrpRS competitive inhibition. TrpRS inhibitor tryptophanol produced by gut microbiome also induces neurodegeneration. TrpRS inhibition by tryptamine and its metabolites preventing tryptophan incorporation into proteins lead to protein biosynthesis impairment. Tryptophan, a least amino acid in food and proteins that cannot be synthesized by humans competes with frequent amino acids for the transport from blood to brain. Tryptophan is a vulnerable amino acid, which can be easily lost to protein biosynthesis. Some proteins marking neurodegenerative pathology, such as tau lack tryptophan. TrpRS exists in cytoplasmic (WARS and mitochondrial (WARS2 forms. Pathogenic gene variants of both forms cause TrpRS deficiency with consequent intellectual and motor disabilities in humans. The diminished tryptophan-dependent protein biosynthesis in AD patients is a proof of our model-based disease concept.

  19. Archease from Pyrococcus abyssi improves substrate specificity and solubility of a tRNA m5C methyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auxilien, Sylvie; El Khadali, Fatima; Rasmussen, Anette

    2007-01-01

    Members of the archease superfamily of proteins are represented in all three domains of life. Archease genes are generally located adjacent to genes encoding proteins involved in DNA or RNA processing. Archease have therefore been predicted to play a modulator or chaperone role in selected steps...

  20. ALKBH8-mediated formation of a novel diastereomeric pair of wobble nucleosides in mammalian tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Born, E.; Vagbo, C. B.; Songe-Moller, L.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have nine different homologues (ALKBH1-9) of the Escherichia coli DNA repair demethylase AlkB. ALKBH2 is a genuine DNA repair enzyme, but the in vivo function of the other ALKBH proteins has remained elusive. It was recently shown that ALKBH8 contains an additional transfer RNA ( t...

  1. The Fe/S Cluster Assembly Protein Isd11 Is Essential for tRNA Thiolation in Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paris, Zdeněk; Changmai, Piya; RUBIO, M. A. T.; Zíková, Alena; Stuart, K. D.; Alfonzo, J. D.; Lukeš, Julius

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 29 (2010), s. 22394-22402 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : IRON-SULFUR PROTEINS * SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE * CYSTEINE DESULFURASE * THIO- MODIFICATION * FRATAXIN Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.328, year: 2010

  2. A common tRNA modification at an unusual location: the discovery of wyosine biosynthesis in mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sample, P.J.; Kořený, Luděk; Paris, Z.; Gaston, K.W.; Rubio, M.A.T.; Fleming, I.M.C.; Hinger, S.; Horáková, Eva; Limbach, P.A.; Lukeš, Julius; Alfonzo, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2015), s. 4262-4273 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12104; GA ČR GAP305/12/2261 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma brucei * Escherichia coli * kinetoplastid mitochondria Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.202, year: 2015

  3. Association of tRNA methyltransferase NSUN2/IGF-II molecular signature with ovarian cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Cheng; Risch, Eric; Zhang, Meiqin; Huang, Chan; Huang, Huatian; Lu, Lingeng

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the association between NSUN2/IGF-II signature and ovarian cancer survival. Using a publicly accessible dataset of RNA sequencing and clinical follow-up data, we performed Classification and Regression Tree and survival analyses. Patients with NSUN2 high IGF-II low had significantly superior overall and disease progression-free survival, followed by NSUN2 low IGF-II low , NSUN2 high IGF-II high and NSUN2 low IGF-II high (p IGF-II signature with the risks of death and relapse remained significant in multivariate Cox regression models. Random-effects meta-analyses show the upregulated NSUN2 and IGF-II expression in ovarian cancer versus normal tissues. The NSUN2/IGF-II signature associates with heterogeneous outcome and may have clinical implications in managing ovarian cancer.

  4. tRNA separation by high-performance liquid chromatography using an aggregate of ODS-Hypersil and trioctylmethylammonium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Graeser, E.; Mclaughlin, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography on a reversed-phase support treated with a tetraalkylammonium salt was used to separate tRNAs from baker's yeast. While resolution by this column appears to result from both anion-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography, it is the hydrophobic interactions

  5. A genomically modified Escherichia coli strain carrying an orthogonal E. coli histidyl-tRNA synthetase•tRNAHis pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Markus; Vargas-Rodriguez, Oscar; Reynolds, Noah M; Wang, Yane-Shih; Söll, Dieter; Umehara, Takuya

    2017-11-01

    Development of new aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS)•tRNA pairs is central for incorporation of novel non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins via genetic code expansion (GCE). The Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus histidyl-tRNA synthetases (HisRS) evolved divergent mechanisms of tRNA His recognition that prevent their cross-reactivity. Although the E. coli HisRS•tRNA His pair is a good candidate for GCE, its use in C. crescentus is limited by the lack of established genetic selection methods and by the low transformation efficiency of C. crescentus. E. coli was genetically engineered to use a C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA His pair. Super-folder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were used as reporters for read-through assays. A library of 313 ncAAs coupled with the sfGFP reporter system was employed to investigate the specificity of E. coli HisRS in vivo. A genomically modified E. coli strain (named MEOV1) was created. MEVO1 requires an active C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA His pair for growth, and displays a similar doubling time as the parental E. coli strain. sfGFP- and CAT-based assays showed that the E. coli HisRS•tRNA His pair is orthogonal in MEOV1 cells. A mutation in the anticodon loop of E. coli tRNA His CUA elevated its suppression efficiency by 2-fold. The C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA His pair functionally complements an E. coli ΔhisS strain. The E. coli HisRS•tRNA His is orthogonal in MEOV1 cells. E. coli tRNA His CUA is an efficient amber suppressor in MEOV1. We developed a platform that allows protein engineering of E. coli HisRS that should facilitate GCE in E. coli. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) C3275T, tRNAGln T4363C and tRNALys A8343G mutations may be associated with PCOS and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Xia, Bo-Hou; Zhang, Cai-Juan; Zhuo, Guang-Chao

    2018-02-05

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very prevalent endocrine disease affecting reproductive women. Clinically, patients with this disorder are more vulnerable to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular events, as well as metabolic syndrome (MetS). To date, the molecular mechanism underlying PCOS remains largely unknown. Previously, we showed that mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation was an important cause for PCOS. In the current study, we described the clinical and biochemical features of a three-generation pedigree with maternally transmitted MetS, combined with PCOS. A total of three matrilineal relatives exhibited MetS including obesity, high triglyceride (TG) and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and hypertension. Whereas one patient from the third generation manifestated PCOS. Mutational analysis of the whole mitochondrial genes from the affected individuals identified a set of genetic variations belonging to East Asia haplogroup B4b1c. Among these variants, the homoplasmic C3275T mutation disrupted a highly evolutionary conserved base-pairing (28A-46C) on the variable region of tRNA Leu(UUR) , whereas the T4363C mutation created a new base-pairing (31T-37A) in the anticodon stem of tRNA Gln , furthermore, the A8343G mutation occurred at the very conserved position of tRNA Lys and may result the failure in mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) metabolism. Biochemical analysis revealed the deficiency in mitochondrial functions including lower levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP production and mtDNA copy number, while a significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in polymononuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from the individuals carrying these mt-tRNA mutations, suggesting that these mutations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction that was responsible for the clinical phenotypes. Taken together, our data indicated that mt-tRNA mutations were associated with MetS and PCOS in this

  7. The role of upstream sequences in selecting the reading frame on tmRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewey Jonathan D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background tmRNA acts first as a tRNA and then as an mRNA to rescue stalled ribosomes in eubacteria. Two unanswered questions about tmRNA function remain: how does tmRNA, lacking an anticodon, bypass the decoding machinery and enter the ribosome? Secondly, how does the ribosome choose the proper codon to resume translation on tmRNA? According to the -1 triplet hypothesis, the answer to both questions lies in the unique properties of the three nucleotides upstream of the first tmRNA codon. These nucleotides assume an A-form conformation that mimics the codon-anticodon interaction, leading to recognition by the decoding center and choice of the reading frame. The -1 triplet hypothesis is important because it is the most credible model in which direct binding and recognition by the ribosome sets the reading frame on tmRNA. Results Conformational analysis predicts that 18 triplets cannot form the correct structure to function as the -1 triplet of tmRNA. We tested the tmRNA activity of all possible -1 triplet mutants using a genetic assay in Escherichia coli. While many mutants displayed reduced activity, our findings do not match the predictions of this model. Additional mutagenesis identified sequences further upstream that are required for tmRNA function. An immunoblot assay for translation of the tmRNA tag revealed that certain mutations in U85, A86, and the -1 triplet sequence result in improper selection of the first codon and translation in the wrong frame (-1 or +1 in vivo. Conclusion Our findings disprove the -1 triplet hypothesis. The -1 triplet is not required for accommodation of tmRNA into the ribosome, although it plays a minor role in frame selection. Our results strongly disfavor direct ribosomal recognition of the upstream sequence, instead supporting a model in which the binding of a separate ligand to A86 is primarily responsible for frame selection.

  8. Stringent Nucleotide Recognition by the Ribosome at the Middle Codon Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate translation of the genetic code depends on mRNA:tRNA codon:anticodon base pairing. Here we exploit an emissive, isosteric adenosine surrogate that allows direct measurement of the kinetics of codon:anticodon University of California base formation during protein synthesis. Our results suggest that codon:anticodon base pairing is subject to tighter constraints at the middle position than at the 5′- and 3′-positions, and further suggest a sequential mechanism of formation of the three base pairs in the codon:anticodon helix.

  9. Stringent Nucleotide Recognition by the Ribosome at the Middle Codon Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Shin, Dongwon; Ng, Martin; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Tor, Yitzhak; Cooperman, Barry S

    2017-08-29

    Accurate translation of the genetic code depends on mRNA:tRNA codon:anticodon base pairing. Here we exploit an emissive, isosteric adenosine surrogate that allows direct measurement of the kinetics of codon:anticodon University of California base formation during protein synthesis. Our results suggest that codon:anticodon base pairing is subject to tighter constraints at the middle position than at the 5'- and 3'-positions, and further suggest a sequential mechanism of formation of the three base pairs in the codon:anticodon helix.

  10. Simultaneous Binding of Multiple EF-Tu Copies to Translating Ribosomes in Live Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Mainak; Weisshaar, James C

    2018-01-16

    In bacteria, elongation factor Tu is a translational cofactor that forms ternary complexes with aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) and GTP. Binding of a ternary complex to one of four flexible L7/L12 units on the ribosome tethers a charged tRNA in close proximity to the ribosomal A site. Two sequential tests for a match between the aa-tRNA anticodon and the current mRNA codon then follow. Because one elongation cycle can occur in as little as 50 ms and the vast majority of aa-tRNA copies are not cognate with the current mRNA codon, this testing must occur rapidly. We present a single-molecule localization and tracking study of fluorescently labeled EF-Tu in live Escherichia coli Imaging at 2 ms/frame distinguishes 60% slowly diffusing EF-Tu copies (assigned as transiently bound to translating ribosome) from 40% rapidly diffusing copies (assigned as a mixture of free ternary complexes and free EF-Tu). Combining these percentages with copy number estimates, we infer that the four L7/L12 sites are essentially saturated with ternary complexes in vivo. The results corroborate an earlier inference that all four sites can simultaneously tether ternary complexes near the A site, creating a high local concentration that may greatly enhance the rate of testing of aa-tRNAs. Our data and a combinatorial argument both suggest that the initial recognition test for a codon-anticodon match occurs in less than 1 to 2 ms per aa-tRNA copy. The results refute a recent study (A. Plochowietz, I. Farrell, Z. Smilansky, B. S. Cooperman, and A. N. Kapanidis, Nucleic Acids Res 45:926-937, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw787) of tRNA diffusion in E. coli that inferred that aa-tRNAs arrive at the ribosomal A site as bare monomers, not as ternary complexes. IMPORTANCE Ribosomes catalyze translation of the mRNA codon sequence into the corresponding sequence of amino acids within the nascent polypeptide chain. Polypeptide elongation can be as fast as 50 ms per added amino acid. Each amino acid

  11. NMR-based Structural Analysis of Threonylcarbamoyl-AMP Synthase and Its Substrate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kimberly A; Bobay, Benjamin G; Sarachan, Kathryn L; Sims, Alexis F; Bilbille, Yann; Deutsch, Christopher; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Agris, Paul F

    2015-08-14

    The hypermodified nucleoside N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A37) is present in many distinct tRNA species and has been found in organisms in all domains of life. This post-transcriptional modification enhances translation fidelity by stabilizing the anticodon/codon interaction in the ribosomal decoding site. The biosynthetic pathway of t(6)A37 is complex and not well understood. In bacteria, the following four proteins have been discovered to be both required and sufficient for t(6)A37 modification: TsaC, TsaD, TsaB, and TsaE. Of these, TsaC and TsaD are members of universally conserved protein families. Although TsaC has been shown to catalyze the formation of L-threonylcarbamoyl-AMP, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of t(6)A37, the details of the enzymatic mechanism remain unsolved. Therefore, the solution structure of Escherichia coli TsaC was characterized by NMR to further study the interactions with ATP and L-threonine, both substrates of TsaC in the biosynthesis of L-threonylcarbamoyl-AMP. Several conserved amino acids were identified that create a hydrophobic binding pocket for the adenine of ATP. Additionally, two residues were found to interact with L-threonine. Both binding sites are located in a deep cavity at the center of the protein. Models derived from the NMR data and molecular modeling reveal several sites with considerable conformational flexibility in TsaC that may be important for L-threonine recognition, ATP activation, and/or protein/protein interactions. These observations further the understanding of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by TsaC, a threonylcarbamoyl-AMP synthase, and provide structure-based insight into the mechanism of t(6)A37 biosynthesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Translational selection is ubiquitous in prokaryotes.

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    Fran Supek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Codon usage bias in prokaryotic genomes is largely a consequence of background substitution patterns in DNA, but highly expressed genes may show a preference towards codons that enable more efficient and/or accurate translation. We introduce a novel approach based on supervised machine learning that detects effects of translational selection on genes, while controlling for local variation in nucleotide substitution patterns represented as sequence composition of intergenic DNA. A cornerstone of our method is a Random Forest classifier that outperformed previous distance measure-based approaches, such as the codon adaptation index, in the task of discerning the (highly expressed ribosomal protein genes by their codon frequencies. Unlike previous reports, we show evidence that translational selection in prokaryotes is practically universal: in 460 of 461 examined microbial genomes, we find that a subset of genes shows a higher codon usage similarity to the ribosomal proteins than would be expected from the local sequence composition. These genes constitute a substantial part of the genome--between 5% and 33%, depending on genome size--while also exhibiting higher experimentally measured mRNA abundances and tending toward codons that match tRNA anticodons by canonical base pairing. Certain gene functional categories are generally enriched with, or depleted of codon-optimized genes, the trends of enrichment/depletion being conserved between Archaea and Bacteria. Prominent exceptions from these trends might indicate genes with alternative physiological roles; we speculate on specific examples related to detoxication of oxygen radicals and ammonia and to possible misannotations of asparaginyl-tRNA synthetases. Since the presence of codon optimizations on genes is a valid proxy for expression levels in fully sequenced genomes, we provide an example of an "adaptome" by highlighting gene functions with expression levels elevated specifically in

  13. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Sevigny

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra, two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa. In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda

  14. Plant plasma membrane-bound staphylococcal-like DNases as a novel class of eukaryotic nucleases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśniewicz Krzysztof

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activity of degradative nucleases responsible for genomic DNA digestion has been observed in all kingdoms of life. It is believed that the main function of DNA degradation occurring during plant programmed cell death is redistribution of nucleic acid derived products such as nitrogen, phosphorus and nucleotide bases. Plant degradative nucleases that have been studied so far belong mainly to the S1-type family and were identified in cellular compartments containing nucleic acids or in the organelles where they are stored before final application. However, the explanation of how degraded DNA components are exported from the dying cells for further reutilization remains open. Results Bioinformatic and experimental data presented in this paper indicate that two Arabidopsis staphylococcal-like nucleases, named CAN1 and CAN2, are anchored to the cell membrane via N-terminal myristoylation and palmitoylation modifications. Both proteins possess a unique hybrid structure in their catalytic domain consisting of staphylococcal nuclease-like and tRNA synthetase anticodon binding-like motifs. They are neutral, Ca2+-dependent nucleaces showing a different specificity toward the ssDNA, dsDNA and RNA substrates. A study of microarray experiments and endogenous nuclease activity revealed that expression of CAN1 gene correlates with different forms of programmed cell death, while the CAN2 gene is constitutively expressed. Conclusions In this paper we present evidence showing that two plant staphylococcal-like nucleases belong to a new, as yet unidentified class of eukaryotic nucleases, characterized by unique plasma membrane localization. The identification of this class of nucleases indicates that plant cells possess additional, so far uncharacterized, mechanisms responsible for DNA and RNA degradation. The potential functions of these nucleases in relation to their unique intracellular location are discussed.

  15. The Escherichia coli COG1738 Member YhhQ Is Involved in 7-Cyanodeazaguanine (preQ0 Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Zallot

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Queuosine (Q is a complex modification of the wobble base in tRNAs with GUN anticodons. The full Q biosynthesis pathway has been elucidated in Escherichia coli. FolE, QueD, QueE and QueC are involved in the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP to 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine (preQ0, an intermediate of increasing interest for its central role in tRNA and DNA modification and secondary metabolism. QueF then reduces preQ0 to 7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine (preQ1. PreQ1 is inserted into tRNAs by tRNA guanine(34 transglycosylase (TGT. The inserted base preQ1 is finally matured to Q by two additional steps involving QueA and QueG or QueH. Most Eubacteria harbor the full set of Q synthesis genes and are predicted to synthesize Q de novo. However, some bacteria only encode enzymes involved in the second half of the pathway downstream of preQ0 synthesis, including the signature enzyme TGT. Different patterns of distribution of the queF, tgt, queA and queG or queH genes are observed, suggesting preQ0, preQ1 or even the queuine base being salvaged in specific organisms. Such salvage pathways require the existence of specific 7-deazapurine transporters that have yet to be identified. The COG1738 family was identified as a candidate for a missing preQ0/preQ1 transporter in prokaryotes, by comparative genomics analyses. The existence of Q precursor salvage was confirmed for the first time in bacteria, in vivo, through an indirect assay. The involvement of the COG1738 in salvage of a Q precursor was experimentally validated in Escherichia coli, where it was shown that the COG1738 family member YhhQ is essential for preQ0 transport.

  16. RIP-seq of BmAgo2-associated small RNAs reveal various types of small non-coding RNAs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. Previously, only microRNAs (miRNAs) and piRNAs have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Furthermore, only ncRNAs (50-500nt) of intermediate size have been systematically identified in the silkworm. Results Here, we performed a systematic identification and analysis of small RNAs (18-50nt) associated with the Bombyx mori argonaute2 (BmAgo2) protein. Using RIP-seq, we identified various types of small ncRNAs associated with BmAGO2. These ncRNAs showed a multimodal length distribution, with three peaks at ~20nt, ~27nt and ~33nt, which included tRNA-, transposable element (TE)-, rRNA-, snoRNA- and snRNA-derived small RNAs as well as miRNAs and piRNAs. The tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) were found at an extremely high abundance and accounted for 69.90% of the BmAgo2-associated small RNAs. Northern blotting confirmed that many tRFs were expressed or up-regulated only in the BmNPV-infected cells, implying that the tRFs play a prominent role by binding to BmAgo2 during BmNPV infection. Additional evidence suggested that there are potential cleavage sites on the D, anti-codon and TψC loops of the tRNAs. TE-derived small RNAs and piRNAs also accounted for a significant proportion of the BmAgo2-associated small RNAs, suggesting that BmAgo2 could be involved in the maintenance of genome stability by suppressing the activities of transposons guided by these small RNAs. Finally, Northern blotting was also used to confirm the Bombyx 5.8 s rRNA-derived small RNAs, demonstrating that various novel small RNAs exist in the silkworm. Conclusions Using an RIP-seq method in combination with Northern blotting, we identified various types of small RNAs associated with the BmAgo2 protein, including tRNA-, TE-, rRNA-, snoRNA- and snRNA-derived small RNAs as well as miRNAs and piRNAs. Our findings provide new clues for future functional studies of the role of small RNAs in insect

  17. Inhibition of protein translation as a mechanism of acidotic pH protection against ischaemic injury through inhibition of CREB mediated tRNA synthetase expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crean, Daniel; Felice, Luca; Pierre, Philippe; Jennings, Paul; Leonard, Martin O

    2013-01-01

    Ischaemia associated reduction in local tissue pH is well documented but the mechanisms through which it influences cell survival remain poorly understood. Using renal epithelial HK-2 cells we demonstrate acidotic pH6.4 protects against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) induced cell death. Initial

  18. Sequential Folding of Transfer RNA. A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Successively Longer tRNA Fragments with a Common 5’ End

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyle, John; Robillard, George T.; Kim, Sung-Hou

    1980-01-01

    Most folding studies on proteins and nucleic acids have been addressed to the transition between the folded and unfolded states of an intact molecule, where an entire residue sequence is present during the folding event. However, since these polymers are synthesized sequentially from one terminus to

  19. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of human genes required for mitochondrial tRNA modification cause similar electron transport chain defects but different nuclear responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, Carmen; Moukadiri, Ismaïl; Villarroya, Magda; López-Pascual, Ernesto; Tuck, Simon; Armengod, M-Eugenia

    2017-07-01

    Several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) diseases are caused by defects in the post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs). Mutations in MTO1 or GTPBP3 impair the modification of the wobble uridine at position 5 of the pyrimidine ring and cause heart failure. Mutations in TRMU affect modification at position 2 and cause liver disease. Presently, the molecular basis of the diseases and why mutations in the different genes lead to such different clinical symptoms is poorly understood. Here we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to investigate how defects in the TRMU, GTPBP3 and MTO1 orthologues (designated as mttu-1, mtcu-1, and mtcu-2, respectively) exert their effects. We found that whereas the inactivation of each C. elegans gene is associated with a mild OXPHOS dysfunction, mutations in mtcu-1 or mtcu-2 cause changes in the expression of metabolic and mitochondrial stress response genes that are quite different from those caused by mttu-1 mutations. Our data suggest that retrograde signaling promotes defect-specific metabolic reprogramming, which is able to rescue the OXPHOS dysfunction in the single mutants by stimulating the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle flux through complex II. This adaptive response, however, appears to be associated with a biological cost since the single mutant worms exhibit thermosensitivity and decreased fertility and, in the case of mttu-1, longer reproductive cycle. Notably, mttu-1 worms also exhibit increased lifespan. We further show that mtcu-1; mttu-1 and mtcu-2; mttu-1 double mutants display severe growth defects and sterility. The animal models presented here support the idea that the pathological states in humans may initially develop not as a direct consequence of a bioenergetic defect, but from the cell's maladaptive response to the hypomodification status of mt-tRNAs. Our work highlights the important association of the defect-specific metabolic rewiring with the pathological phenotype, which must be taken into consideration in exploring specific therapeutic interventions.

  20. VapC from the leptospiral VapBC toxin-antitoxin module displays ribonuclease activity on the initiator tRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P Y Lopes

    Full Text Available The prokaryotic ubiquitous Toxin-Antitoxin (TA operons encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin. The most accepted hypothesis of the physiological function of the TA system is the reversible cessation of cellular growth under stress conditions. The major TA family, VapBC is present in the spirochaete Leptospira interrogans. VapBC modules are classified based on the presence of a predicted ribonucleasic PIN domain in the VapC toxin. The expression of the leptospiral VapC in E. coli promotes a strong bacterial growth arrestment, making it difficult to express the recombinant protein. Nevertheless, we showed that long term induction of expression in E. coli enabled the recovery of VapC in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein was successfully refolded by high hydrostatic pressure, providing a new method to obtain the toxin in a soluble and active form. The structural integrity of the recombinant VapB and VapC proteins was assessed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Physical interaction between the VapC toxin and the VapB antitoxin was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro by pull down and ligand affinity blotting assays, respectively, thereby indicating the ultimate mechanism by which the activity of the toxin is regulated in bacteria. The predicted model of the leptospiral VapC structure closely matches the Shigella's VapC X-ray structure. In agreement, the ribonuclease activity of the leptospiral VapC was similar to the activity described for Shigella's VapC, as demonstrated by the cleavage of tRNAfMet and by the absence of unspecific activity towards E. coli rRNA. This finding suggests that the cleavage of the initiator transfer RNA may represent a common mechanism to a larger group of bacteria and potentially configures a mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation leading to the inhibition of global translation.

  1. The Trypanosoma brucei La protein is a candidate poly(U) shield that impacts spliced leader RNA maturation and tRNA intron removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trantírková, Silvie; Paris, Zdeněk; Sturm, N. R.; Campbell, D. A.; Lukeš, Julius

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2005), s. 359-366 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5022302 Grant - others:NIH(US) AI34536; NIH(US) AI056034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : splicing * Trypanosoma * RNA interference Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.346, year: 2005

  2. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MnmE, a GTPase involved in tRNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Ho; Suh, Se Won

    2010-01-01

    MnmE from P. aeruginosa was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.69 Å resolution. MnmE, an evolutionarily conserved GTPase, is involved in modification of the uridine base (U34) at the wobble position of certain tRNAs. Previous crystal structures of MnmE suggest that it is a dimer with considerable conformational flexibility. To facilitate structural comparisons among MnmE proteins, structural analysis of MnmE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encoded by the PA5567 gene was initiated. It was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 297 K using a reservoir solution consisting of 100 mM sodium ADA pH 6.5, 12%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000, 100 mM lithium sulfate, 2%(v/v) 2-propanol and 2.5 mM dithiothreitol. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.69 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 96.74, b = 204.66, c = 120.90 Å. Two monomers were present in the asymmetric unit, resulting in a crystal volume per protein mass (V M ) of 2.99 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 58.8%

  3. Structural organization of the transfer RNA operon I of Vibrio cholerae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nine major transfer RNA (tRNA) gene clusters were analysed in various Vibrio cholerae strains. Of these, only the tRNA operon I was found to differ significantly in V. cholerae classical (sixth pandemic) and El Tor (seventh pandemic) strains. Amongst the sixteen tRNA genes contained in this operon, genes for tRNA Gln3 ...

  4. Systems Biology for Mapping Genotype-Phenotype Relations in Yeast

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    . Besides its wide industrial use, S. cerevisiae serves as an eukaryal model organism, and many systems biology tools have therefore been developed for this organism. Among these genome-scale metabolic models have shown to be most successful as they easy

  5. Protein Glycosylation in Archaea: A Post-Translational Modification to Enhance Extremophilic Protein Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Analysis of the chemical composition of the Asn-linked polysaccharides decorating many archaeal proteins has revealed the use of a wider variety of sugar...reminiscent of the eukaryal glycan-charged lipid, linked to a variety of monosaccharides , including glucose, mannose, and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc

  6. Comparison of the redox chemistry of sulfur- and selenium-containing analogs of uracil✰

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, N. Connor; Geissler, Andrew; Button, Aileen; Sasuclark, Alexandru R.; Schroll, Alayne L.; Ruggles, Erik L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hondal, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Selenium is present in proteins in the form of selenocysteine, where this amino acid serves catalytic oxidoreductase functions. The use of selenocysteine in nature is strongly associated with redox catalysis. However, selenium is also found in a 2-selenouridine moiety at the wobble position of tRNAGlu, tRNAGln and tRNALys. It is thought that the modifications of the wobble position of the tRNA improves the selectivity of the codon-anticodon pair as a result of the physico-chemical changes that result from substitution of sulfur and selenium for oxygen. Both selenocysteine and 2-selenouridine have widespread analogs, cysteine and thiouridine, where sulfur is used instead. To examine the role of selenium in 2-selenouridine, we comparatively analyzed the oxidation reactions of sulfur-containing 2-thiouracil-5-carboxylic acid (s2c5Ura) and its selenium analog 2-selenouracil-5-carboxylic acid (se2c5Ura) using 1H-NMR spectroscopy, 77Se-NMR spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment of s2c5Ura with hydrogen peroxide led to oxidized intermediates, followed by irreversible desulfurization to form uracil-5-carboxylic acid (c5Ura). In contrast, se2c5Ura oxidation resulted in a diselenide intermediate, followed by conversion to the seleninic acid, both of which could be readily reduced by ascorbate and glutathione. Glutathione and ascorbate only minimally prevented desulfurization of s2c5Ura, whereas very little deselenization of se2c5Ura occurred in the presence of the same antioxidants. In addition, se2c5Ura but not s2c5Ura showed glutathione peroxidase activity, further suggesting that oxidation of se2c5Ura is readily reversible, while oxidation of s2c5Ura is not. The results of the study of these model nucleobases suggest that the use of 2-selenouridine is related to resistance to oxidative inactivation that otherwise characterizes 2-thiouridine. As the use of selenocysteine in proteins also confers resistance to oxidation, our findings suggest a

  7. Yeast tRNAPhe expressed in human cells can be selected by HIV-1 for use as a reverse transcription primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Nathan J.; Morrow, Casey D.

    2003-01-01

    All naturally occurring human immune deficiency viruses (HIV-1) select and use tRNA Lys,3 as the primer for reverse transcription. Studies to elucidate the mechanism of tRNA selection from the intracellular milieu have been hampered due to the difficulties in manipulating the endogenous levels of tRNA Lys,3 . We have previously described a mutant HIV-1 with a primer binding site (PBS) complementary to yeast tRNA Phe (psHIV-Phe) that relies on transfection of yeast tRNA Phe for infectivity. To more accurately recapitulate the selection process, a cDNA was designed for the intracellular expression of the yeast tRNA Phe . Increasing amounts of the plasmid encoding tRNA Phe resulted in a corresponding increase in levels of yeast tRNA Phe in the cell. The yeast tRNA Phe isolated from cells transfected with the cDNA for yeast tRNA Phe , or in the cell lines expressing yeast tRNA Phe , were aminoacylated, indicating that the expressed yeast tRNA Phe was incorporated into tRNA biogenesis pathways and translation. Increasing the cytoplasmic levels of tRNA Phe resulted in increased encapsidation of tRNA Phe in viruses with a PBS complementary to tRNA Phe (psHIV-Phe) or tRNA Lys,3 (wild-type HIV-1). Production of infectious psHIV-Phe was dependent on the amount of cotransfected tRNA Phe cDNA. Increasing amounts of plasmids encoding yeast tRNA Phe produced an increase of infectious psHIV-Phe that plateaued at a level lower than that from the transfection of the wild-type genome, which uses tRNA Lys,3 as the primer for reverse transcription. Cell lines were generated that expressed yeast tRNA Phe at levels approximately 0.1% of that for tRNA Lys,3 . Even with this reduced level of yeast tRNA Phe , the cell lines complemented psHIV-Phe over background levels. The results of these studies demonstrate that intracellular levels of primer tRNA can have a direct effect on HIV-1 infectivity and further support the role for PBS-tRNA complementarity in the primer selection process

  8. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >SRA1016655 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalysis of diversity of coastal microbial mats using 454 technology (SRP001219) + His GTG ... ...Environmental sample (ENV) from Sequence Read Archive >SRA1016655 SRR027369.51809 A

  9. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >SRA1016640 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalysis of diversity of coastal microbial mats using 454 technology (SRP001219) + His GTG ... ...Environmental sample (ENV) from Sequence Read Archive >SRA1016640 SRR027369.45981 A

  10. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >SRA1016619 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalysis of diversity of coastal microbial mats using 454 technology (SRP001219) + His GTG ... ...Environmental sample (ENV) from Sequence Read Archive >SRA1016619 SRR027367.19135 A

  11. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >SRA1016658 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalysis of diversity of coastal microbial mats using 454 technology (SRP001219) + His GTG ... ...Environmental sample (ENV) from Sequence Read Archive >SRA1016658 SRR027369.52527 A

  12. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >SRA1016647 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalysis of diversity of coastal microbial mats using 454 technology (SRP001219) + His GTG ... ...Environmental sample (ENV) from Sequence Read Archive >SRA1016647 SRR027369.49042 A

  13. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >SRA1016634 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalysis of diversity of coastal microbial mats using 454 technology (SRP001219) - Leu TAA ... ...Environmental sample (ENV) from Sequence Read Archive >SRA1016634 SRR027369.39125 A

  14. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >SRA1016660 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalysis of diversity of coastal microbial mats using 454 technology (SRP001219) + His GTG ... ...Environmental sample (ENV) from Sequence Read Archive >SRA1016660 SRR027369.54189 A

  15. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >SRA1016603 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalysis of diversity of coastal microbial mats using 454 technology (SRP001219) + His GTG ... ...Environmental sample (ENV) from Sequence Read Archive >SRA1016603 SRR027367.10410 A

  16. Bacterial Growth Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Mette

    level of tRNA that the tRNA level was seemingly reduced much faster than observed before, after the induction of amino acid starvation. Therefore, we developed a method for testing this observation. It turned out that tRNA degrades to ~75% of the initial level within 40 minutes after induction of amino...

  17. Exceptionally diverse morphotypes and genomes of crenarchaeal hyperthermophilic viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D; Garrett, R A

    2004-01-01

    and Rudiviridae. They all have double-stranded DNA genomes and infect hyperthermophilic crenarchaea of the orders Sulfolobales and Thermoproteales. Representatives of the different viral families share a few homologous ORFs (open reading frames). However, about 90% of all ORFs in the seven sequenced genomes show...... no significant matches to sequences in public databases. This suggests that these hyperthermophilic viruses have exceptional biochemical solutions for biological functions. Specific features of genome organization, as well as strategies for DNA replication, suggest that phylogenetic relationships exist between...... crenarchaeal rudiviruses and the large eukaryal DNA viruses: poxviruses, the African swine fever virus and Chlorella viruses. Sequence patterns at the ends of the linear genome of the lipothrixvirus AFV1 are reminiscent of the telomeric ends of linear eukaryal chromosomes and suggest that a primitive telomeric...

  18. Genome of the Acidianus bottle-shaped virus and insights into the replication and packaging mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Basta, Tamara; Häring, Monika

    2007-01-01

    of the bacteriophage varphi29 and the human adenovirus. The region contains the genes for a putative protein-primed DNA polymerase, and a small putative RNA with a predicted secondary structure closely similar to that of the prohead RNA of bacteriophage varphi29. The apparent similarities in the putative mechanisms...... of DNA replication and packaging of ABV to those of bacterial and eukaryal viruses are most consistent with the concept of a primordial gene pool as a source of viral genes....

  19. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eShi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a tRNASer acceptor-stem microhelix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, Charlotte; Krauss, Norbert; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Szkaradkiewicz, Karol; Brode, Svenja; Hennig, Klaus; Fürste, Jens P.; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate tRNA identity elements, an elongator tRNA Ser acceptor-stem helix was crystallized and a data set was collected to 1.8 Å resolution aiming at a comparison with the corresponding region in suppressor tRNA Sec . In order to understand elongator tRNA Ser and suppressor tRNA Sec identity elements, the respective acceptor-stem helices have been synthesized and crystallized in order to analyse and compare their structures in detail at high resolution. The synthesis, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction results for a seven-base-pair tRNA Ser acceptor-stem helix are presented here. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å, applying synchrotron radiation and cryogenic cooling. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 36.14, b = 38.96, c = 30.81 Å, β = 110.69°

  1. The role of Glu259 in Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu in ternary complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup Pedersen, Gitte; Rattenborg, Thomas; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the crystal structure of the ternary complex formed between elongation factor Tu:GTP and aminoacylated tRNA revealed three regions of interaction between elongation factor Tu and tRNA. The structure indicates that the conserved glutamic acid at position 271 in Thermus aquaticus EF-Tu...... could be involved in the binding of the 3' CCA-Phe end of the aminoacylated tRNA. Therefore, the corresponding residue, Glu259, of Escherichia coli EF-Tu was mutated into alanine, aspartic acid, glutamine and tyrosine, in order to substantiate the crystallographic structural evidence and to obtain...... of interaction with tRNA, while mutation to tyrosine abolished completely the interaction with tRNA. Finally, mutation to glutamine resulted in an elongation factor Tu variant behaving like the wild type. In conclusion, the environment around the site binding the CCA-Phe end of the tRNA is very restricted...

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the mitogenome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of E. autonoe was .... skew” was calculated for the PCGs between two strands and the ..... codon stem and 7 bp in the anticodon loop, but also con- tained a ...

  3. Transfer RNA and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A Abbott

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological mutations in tRNA genes and tRNA processing enzymes are numerous and result in very complicated clinical phenotypes. Mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA genes are hotspots for pathological mutations and over 200 mt-tRNA mutations have been linked to various disease states. Often these mutations prevent tRNA aminoacylation. Disrupting this primary function affects protein synthesis and the expression, folding, and function of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. Mitochondrial tRNA mutations manifest in a wide panoply of diseases related to cellular energetics, including COX deficiency (cytochrome C oxidase, mitochondrial myopathy, MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers, and MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Diseases caused by mt-tRNA mutations can also affect very specific tissue types, as in the case of neurosensory non-syndromic hearing loss and pigmentary retinopathy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, mitochondrial heteroplasmy plays a role in disease severity and age of onset as well. Not surprisingly, mutations in enzymes that modify cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs are also linked to a diverse range of clinical phenotypes. In addition to compromised aminoacylation of the tRNAs, mutated modifying enzymes can also impact tRNA expression and abundance, tRNA modifications, tRNA folding, and even tRNA maturation (e.g., splicing. Some of these pathological mutations in tRNAs and processing enzymes are likely to affect non-canonical tRNA functions, and contribute to the diseases without significantly impacting on translation. This chapter will review recent literature on the relation of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNA, and enzymes that process tRNAs, to human disease. We explore the mechanisms involved in the clinical presentation of these various diseases with an emphasis on neurological disease.

  4. Transfer RNA and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jamie A; Francklyn, Christopher S; Robey-Bond, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Pathological mutations in tRNA genes and tRNA processing enzymes are numerous and result in very complicated clinical phenotypes. Mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) genes are "hotspots" for pathological mutations and over 200 mt-tRNA mutations have been linked to various disease states. Often these mutations prevent tRNA aminoacylation. Disrupting this primary function affects protein synthesis and the expression, folding, and function of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. Mitochondrial tRNA mutations manifest in a wide panoply of diseases related to cellular energetics, including COX deficiency (cytochrome C oxidase), mitochondrial myopathy, MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers), and MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes). Diseases caused by mt-tRNA mutations can also affect very specific tissue types, as in the case of neurosensory non-syndromic hearing loss and pigmentary retinopathy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, mitochondrial heteroplasmy plays a role in disease severity and age of onset as well. Not surprisingly, mutations in enzymes that modify cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs are also linked to a diverse range of clinical phenotypes. In addition to compromised aminoacylation of the tRNAs, mutated modifying enzymes can also impact tRNA expression and abundance, tRNA modifications, tRNA folding, and even tRNA maturation (e.g., splicing). Some of these pathological mutations in tRNAs and processing enzymes are likely to affect non-canonical tRNA functions, and contribute to the diseases without significantly impacting on translation. This chapter will review recent literature on the relation of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNA, and enzymes that process tRNAs, to human disease. We explore the mechanisms involved in the clinical presentation of these various diseases with an emphasis on neurological disease.

  5. Specificity and function of Archaeal DNA replication initiator proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Rachel Y.; Xu, Yanqun; Gadelha, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomes with multiple DNA replication origins are a hallmark of Eukaryotes and some Archaea. All eukaryal nuclear replication origins are defined by the origin recognition complex (ORC) that recruits the replicative helicase MCM(2-7) via Cdc6 and Cdt1. We find that the three origins...... to investigate the role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in initiator function in vivo and in vitro. We find that the ATP-bound form of Orc1-1 is proficient for replication and implicates hydrolysis of ATP in downregulation of origin activity. Finally, we reveal that ATP and DNA binding by Orc1-1 remodels...

  6. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    % for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control...... motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles...

  7. The genetic code – Thawing the 'frozen accident'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... The components foremost involved in this process are the. tRNA molecules whose ... that tRNA species with dual identity (capable of being charged by two ... However, the theory has good support, as the CUG codon in ...

  8. The essential function of the Trypanosoma brucei Trl1 homolog in procyclic cells is maturation of the intron-containing tRNATyr

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lopes, R.R.S.; Silveira, G. de O.; Eitler, R.; Vidal, R.S.; Kessler, A.; Hinger, S.; Paris, Zdeněk; Alfonzo, J. D.; Polycarpo, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 8 (2016), s. 1190-1199 ISSN 1355-8382 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21450Y Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma * tRNA * tRNA editing * splicing * intron Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.605, year: 2016

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus uses tRNA(Lys,3) as primer for reverse transcription in HeLa-CD4+ cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, A. T.; Koken, S. E.; Essink, B. B.; van Wamel, J. L.; Berkhout, B.

    1994-01-01

    Significant amounts of different tRNA molecules are present in retroviral particles, but one specific tRNA species functions as primer in reverse transcription. It is generally believed that the HIV-1 virus uses the tRNA(Lys,3) molecule as primer. This is based on sequence complementarity between

  10. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... subtlis RNase on the cell-free protein synthesizing system and found that E. coli tRNA ..... methylated guanosine in its place rather than being simply undermodified ... 31(4), October 2006 analysed to date, taking the C3'-endo-anti form which may .... only marginally affected tRNA function or cellular viability.

  11. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Chemical synthesis of genes for yeast alanine tRNA and E. coli supressor tRNA; Khorana's philosophy on science. Author Affiliations. Marvin H Caruthers1. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.

  12. Calcium regulates the expression of a Dictyostelium discoideum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a screen for calcium-regulated gene expression during growth and development of Dictyostelium discoideum we have identified an asparaginyl tRNA synthetase (ddAsnRS) gene, the second tRNA synthetase gene identified in this organism. The ddAsnRS gene shows many unique features. One, it is repressed by ...

  13. The T. brucei TRM5 methyltransferase plays an essential role in mitochondrial protein synthesis and function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paris, Z.; Horáková, Eva; Rubio, M.A.T.; Sample, P.; Fleming, I.M.C.; Armocida, S.; Lukeš, Julius; Alfonzo, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2013), s. 649-658 ISSN 1355-8382 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2179; GA MŠk LH12104 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma * tRNA * methylation * tRNA import * mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.622, year: 2013

  14. Transfer RNA methylases in rat placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagtiani, S.K.; Narurkar, L.M.; Narurkar, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Presence of tRNA methylases (5-adenosylmethionine : tRNA methyltransferases) was demonstrated at various stages of gestation in rat placenta, the enzyme being 50-100% higher than that of adult rat liver during early gestation. Placental tRNA methylases were shown to differ from those of liver in the extent of methylation. Glycine methyltransferase (S-adenosylmethionine : glycine methyltransferase), a regulatory enzyme in adult rat liver, was absent in placenta throughout gestation. The placental tRNA methylases could be inhibited in vitro by semipurified glycine methyltransferase from adult rat liver. The high placental tRNA methylase activity was comparable with the inhibitor-free enzyme activity of the adult rat liver. S-adenosyl-[Me- 14 C]-methionine was used in the investigation. (author)

  15. X-ray diffraction analysis of a human tRNAGly acceptor-stem microhelix isoacceptor at 1.18 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichert, André; Perbandt, Markus; Schreiber, Angela; Fürste, Jens P.; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.; Förster, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    The tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix isoacceptor from human cytoplasm was crystallized and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed diffraction to 1.18 Å resolution. The sequence of the microhelix was derived from the gene sequence with tRNA Database ID DG9990. Interest has been focused on comparative X-ray structure analyses of different tRNA Gly acceptor-stem helices. tRNA Gly /glycyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the so-called class II system, in which the tRNA identity elements consist of simple and unique determinants that are located in the tRNA acceptor stem and the discriminator base. Comparative structure investigations of tRNA Gly microhelices provide insight into the role of tRNA identity elements. Predominant differences in the structures of glycyl-tRNA synthetases and in the tRNA identity elements between prokaryotes and eukaryotes point to divergence during the evolutionary process. Here, the crystallization and high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis of a human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix with sequence 5′-G 1 C 2 A 3 U 4 U 5 G 6 G 7 -3′, 5′-C 66 C 67 A 68 A 69 U 70 G 71 C 72 -3′ is reported. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.32, b = 37.61, c = 30.47 Å, β = 112.60° and one molecule per asymmetric unit. A data set was collected using synchrotron radiation and data were processed within the resolution range 50.0–1.18 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement

  16. Structure of a filament of stacked octamers of human DMC1 recombinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Liqin; Luo, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Octameric rings of DMC1 stacked into filaments in the crystal. Similar DMC1–DNA filaments have been observed previously using electron microscopy. Eukaryal DMC1 proteins play a central role in homologous recombination in meiosis by assembling at the sites of programmed DNA double-strand breaks and carrying out a search for allelic DNA sequences located on homologous chromatids. They are close homologs of eukaryal Rad51 and archaeal RadA proteins and are remote homologs of bacterial RecA proteins. These recombinases (also called DNA strand-exchange proteins) promote a pivotal strand-exchange reaction between homologous single-stranded and double-stranded DNA substrates. An octameric form of a truncated human DMC1 devoid of its small N-terminal domain (residues 1–83) has been crystallized. The structure of the truncated DMC1 octamer is similar to that of the previously reported full-length DMC1 octamer, which has disordered N-terminal domains. In each protomer, only the ATP cap regions (Asp317–Glu323) show a noticeable conformational difference. The truncated DMC1 octamers further stack with alternate polarity into a filament. Similar filamentous assemblies of DMC1 have been observed to form on DNA by electron microscopy

  17. Effects of Disinfection on Legionella spp., Eukarya, and Biofilms in a Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletta-Denat, Marina; Frère, Jacques; Onillon, Séverine; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile; Robine, Enric

    2012-01-01

    Legionella species are frequently detected in hot water systems, attached to the surface as a biofilm. In this work, the dynamics of Legionella spp. and diverse bacteria and eukarya associated together in the biofilm, coming from a pilot scale 1 system simulating a real hot water system, were investigated throughout 6 months after two successive heat shock treatments followed by three successive chemical treatments. Community structure was assessed by a fingerprint technique, single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). In addition, the diversity and dynamics of Legionella and eukarya were investigated by small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal cloning and sequencing. Our results showed that pathogenic Legionella species remained after the heat shock and chemical treatments (Legionella pneumophila and Legionella anisa, respectively). The biofilm was not removed, and the bacterial community structure was transitorily affected by the treatments. Moreover, several amoebae had been detected in the biofilm before treatments (Thecamoebae sp., Vannella sp., and Hartmanella vermiformis) and after the first heat shock treatment, but only H. vermiformis remained. However, another protozoan affiliated with Alveolata, which is known as a host cell for Legionella, dominated the eukaryal species after the second heat shock and chemical treatment tests. Therefore, effective Legionella disinfection may be dependent on the elimination of these important microbial components. We suggest that eradicating Legionella in hot water networks requires better study of bacterial and eukaryal species associated with Legionella in biofilms. PMID:22820326

  18. A Phylogenomic Census of Molecular Functions Identifies Modern Thermophilic Archaea as the Most Ancient Form of Cellular Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshan Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.

  19. A phylogenomic census of molecular functions identifies modern thermophilic archaea as the most ancient form of cellular life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO) definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.

  20. Specificity and Function of Archaeal DNA Replication Initiator Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Y. Samson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomes with multiple DNA replication origins are a hallmark of Eukaryotes and some Archaea. All eukaryal nuclear replication origins are defined by the origin recognition complex (ORC that recruits the replicative helicase MCM(2-7 via Cdc6 and Cdt1. We find that the three origins in the single chromosome of the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus are specified by distinct initiation factors. While two origins are dependent on archaeal homologs of eukaryal Orc1 and Cdc6, the third origin is instead reliant on an archaeal Cdt1 homolog. We exploit the nonessential nature of the orc1-1 gene to investigate the role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in initiator function in vivo and in vitro. We find that the ATP-bound form of Orc1-1 is proficient for replication and implicates hydrolysis of ATP in downregulation of origin activity. Finally, we reveal that ATP and DNA binding by Orc1-1 remodels the protein’s structure rather than that of the DNA template.

  1. Physiological and biochemical studies on the function of 5-methyluridine in the transfer ribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, G R; Neidhardt, F C

    1975-10-01

    Matched pairs of transductant strains differing by the presence of absence of 5-methyluridine (ribothymidine) (m5U) in their transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) were used to study the function of this modified nucleoside in Escherichia coli. Ordinary measurements of growth rate in different media revealed no effect of the loss of m5U in tRNA. A gene located close to trmA (the structural cistron for the methyltransferase that produces m5U in tRNA), however, was found to reduce the growth rates significantly, depending on the medium and the temperature of cultivation. Measurement of codon recognition, macromolecular composition, tRNA binding to the ribosome, and the rate of protein chain elongation in vivo indicated no disadvantage caused by the lack of m5U. The regulation of ilv and his operons seemed also to be unaffected by the absence of m5U in the tRNA. In a mixed population experiment, however, cells possessing m5U in their tRNA seemed to have a distinct advantage over cells lacking this modified nucleoside. This experiment provides the first indication of the overall value of m5U in tRNA.

  2. SIMS of transfer ribonucleic acid molecules encapsulated between free-standing graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoturov, Dmitriy S; Geng, Sheng; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Kim, Hansoo; Schweikert, Emile A

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the authors used cluster-secondary ion mass spectrometry method to investigate the preserved transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) encapsulated between two free-standing graphene sheets. Single impacts of 50 keV C60 (2+) projectiles generated the emission of tRNA fragment ions in the transmission direction for mass selection and detection in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is extremely unstable and prone to rapid enzymatic degradation by ribonucleases. Employing graphene to isolate RNA from the environment, the authors prevent the aforementioned process. Encapsulation was achieved by drop casting a solution of tRNA, prepared using deuterated water, onto one graphene sheet and covering it with another. The event-by-event bombardment/detection mode allowed us to use colocalization analysis method to characterize the tRNA and its immediate environment. The authors found that upon drying, tRNA agglomerated into nanostructures ∼60 nm in diameter via formation and subsequent drying of aqua cells. The tRNA nanoagglomerates had a density of ∼42 structures per μm(2) with coverage of ∼12% of the surface area. In addition, trace amounts of water remained mostly around the tRNA nanoagglomerates, probably in the form of hydration.

  3. Data Mining of Small RNA-Seq Suggests an Association Between Prostate Cancer and Altered Abundance of 5′ Transfer RNA Halves in Seminal Fluid and Prostatic Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Dhahbi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular RNAs are gaining clinical interest as biofluid-based noninvasive markers for diseases, especially cancer. In particular, derivatives of transfer RNA (tRNA are emerging as a new class of small-noncoding RNAs with high biomarker potential. We and others previously reported alterations in serum levels of specific tRNA halves in disease states including cancer. Here, we explored seminal fluid for tRNA halves as potential markers of prostate cancer. We found that 5′ tRNA halves are abundant in seminal fluid and are elevated in prostate cancer relative to noncancer patients. Importantly, most of these tRNA halves are also detectable in prostatic tissues, and a subset were increased in malignant relative to adjacent normal tissue. These findings emphasize the potential of 5′ tRNA halves as noninvasive markers for prostate cancer screening and diagnosis and provide leads for future work to elucidate a putative role of the 5′ tRNA halves in carcinogenesis.

  4. Editing and methylation at a single site by functionally interdependent activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubio, M.A.T.; Gaston, K.W.; McKenney, K. M.; Fleming, I.M.C.; Paris, Zdeněk; Limbach, P.A.; Alfonzo, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 542, č. 7642 (2017), s. 494-497 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21450Y Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : encoded transfer-rnas * Leishmania tarentolae * Trypanosoma brucei * DNA deamination * anticodon loop * mitochondria * marsupials * discovery Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  5. Assembling Fe/S-clusters and modifying tRNAs: ancient co-factors meet ancient adaptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alfonzo, J. D.; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2011), 234-237 ISSN 1471-4922 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129; GA ČR GA204/09/1667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : IRON-SULFUR CLUSTERS * TRYPANOSOMA-BRUCEI * MITOCHONDRIAL * PROTEIN * FRATAXIN * BIOSYNTHESIS * SYNTHETASES * BIOGENESIS * THIOLATION * ANTICODON Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.144, year: 2011

  6. Structure of Escherichia coli Arginyl-tRNA Synthetase in Complex with tRNAArg: Pivotal Role of the D-loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Preyesh; Ye, Sheng; Zhou, Ming; Song, Jian; Zhang, Rongguang; Wang, En-Duo; Giegé, Richard; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2018-05-25

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are essential components in protein biosynthesis. Arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) belongs to the small group of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases requiring cognate tRNA for amino acid activation. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli (Eco) ArgRS has been solved in complex with tRNA Arg at 3.0-Å resolution. With this first bacterial tRNA complex, we are attempting to bridge the gap existing in structure-function understanding in prokaryotic tRNA Arg recognition. The structure shows a tight binding of tRNA on the synthetase through the identity determinant A20 from the D-loop, a tRNA recognition snapshot never elucidated structurally. This interaction of A20 involves 5 amino acids from the synthetase. Additional contacts via U20a and U16 from the D-loop reinforce the interaction. The importance of D-loop recognition in EcoArgRS functioning is supported by a mutagenesis analysis of critical amino acids that anchor tRNA Arg on the synthetase; in particular, mutations at amino acids interacting with A20 affect binding affinity to the tRNA and specificity of arginylation. Altogether the structural and functional data indicate that the unprecedented ArgRS crystal structure represents a snapshot during functioning and suggest that the recognition of the D-loop by ArgRS is an important trigger that anchors tRNA Arg on the synthetase. In this process, A20 plays a major role, together with prominent conformational changes in several ArgRS domains that may eventually lead to the mature ArgRS:tRNA complex and the arginine activation. Functional implications that could be idiosyncratic to the arginine identity of bacterial ArgRSs are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physicochemical basis for the origin of the genetic code - Lecture 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnamperuma, C.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the association of homocodonic amino acids and selected heterocodonic amino acids with selected nucleotides in aqueous solution was undertaken to examine a possible physical basis for the origin of codon assignments. These interactions were studied using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Association constants for the various interactions were determined by fitting the changes in the chemical shifts of the anomeric and ring protons of the nucleoside moieties as a function of amino acid concentration to an isotherm which described the binding interaction. The strongest association of all homocodonic amino acids were with their respective anticodonic nucleotide sequences. The strength of association was seen to increase with increase in the chain length of the anticodonic nucleotide. The association of these amino acids with different phosphate esters of nucleotides suggests that a definite isomeric structure is required for association with a specified amino acid; the 5'-mononucleotides and (3'-5')-linked dinucleotides are the favored geometries for strong associations. Use of heterocodonic amino acids and nonprotein amino acids supports these findings. We conclude that there is at least a physicochemical, anticodonic contribution to the origin of the genetic code. (author)

  8. Frozen Accident Pushing 50: Stereochemistry, Expansion, and Chance in the Evolution of the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-05-23

    Nearly 50 years ago, Francis Crick propounded the frozen accident scenario for the evolution of the genetic code along with the hypothesis that the early translation system consisted primarily of RNA. Under the frozen accident perspective, the code is universal among modern life forms because any change in codon assignment would be highly deleterious. The frozen accident can be considered the default theory of code evolution because it does not imply any specific interactions between amino acids and the cognate codons or anticodons, or any particular properties of the code. The subsequent 49 years of code studies have elucidated notable features of the standard code, such as high robustness to errors, but failed to develop a compelling explanation for codon assignments. In particular, stereochemical affinity between amino acids and the cognate codons or anticodons does not seem to account for the origin and evolution of the code. Here, I expand Crick's hypothesis on RNA-only translation system by presenting evidence that this early translation already attained high fidelity that allowed protein evolution. I outline an experimentally testable scenario for the evolution of the code that combines a distinct version of the stereochemical hypothesis, in which amino acids are recognized via unique sites in the tertiary structure of proto-tRNAs, rather than by anticodons, expansion of the code via proto-tRNA duplication, and the frozen accident.

  9. Recognition of tRNAs with a long variable arm by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukalo M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In prokaryotic cells three tRNA species, tRNASer, tRNALeu and tRNATyr, possess a long variable arm of 11–20 nucleotides (type 2 tRNA rather than usual 4 or 5 nucleotides (type 1 tRNA. In this review we have summarized the results of our research on the structural basis for recognition and discrimination of type 2 tRNAs by Thermus thermophilus seryl-, tyrosyl- and leucyl-tRNA synthetases (SerRS, TyrRS and LeuRS obtained by X-ray crystallography and chemical probing tRNA in solution. Crystal structures are now known of all three aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases complexed with type 2 tRNAs and the different modes of tRNA recognition represented by these structures will be discussed. In particular, emphasis will be given to the results on recognition of characteristic shape of type 2 tRNAs by cognate synthetases. In tRNASer, tRNATyr and tRNALeu the orientation of the long variable arm with respect to the body of the tRNA is different and is controlled by different packing of the core. In the case of SerRS the N-terminal domain and in the case of TyrRS, the C-terminal domain, bind to the characteristic long variable arm of the cognate RNA, thus recognizing the unique shape of the tRNA. The core of T. thermophilus tRNALeu has several layers of unusual base-pairs, which are revealed by the crystal structure of tRNALeu complexed with T. thermophilus LeuRS and by probing a ligand-free tRNA by specific chemical reagents in solution. In the crystal structure of the LeuRS-tRNALeu complex the unique D-stem structure is recognized by the C-terminal domain of LeuRS and these data are in good agreement with those obtained in solution. LeuRS has canonical class I mode of tRNA recognition, approaching the tRNA acceptor stem from the D-stem and minor groove of the acceptor stem side. SerRS also has canonical class II mode of tRNA recognition and approaches tRNASer from opposite, variable stem and major groove of acceptor stem site. And finally, TyrRS in strong

  10. On infrared spectroscopic analysis of transfer RNA secondary structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, M A; Starikov, E B

    1987-07-14

    Various techniques of IR spectroscopy in the 1550-1750 cm/sup -1/ region employed to analyse the tRNA secondary structure are discussed and a novel improved method is proposed. The main novel features of this method are the approximation of tRNA helical region spectra by catalogue carbonyl absorption bands and approximation of tRNA nonhelical region spectra by those of homopolyribonucleotides. The IR spectra of tRNA/sub yeast//sup phe/ and tRNA/sub E.coli//sup fmet/ in the carbonyl vibration region are explained on the basis of calculated transition moment coupling.

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence and gene rearrangement of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China ... of these rearrangements involve tRNA genes, ND5 gene and ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/Sequin/download/seq_win_download.

  12. InterProScan Result: FS925326 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine/other tRNA-ribosyltransferase Biological Process: tRNA modification (GO:0006400)|Molecular Function: que...uine tRNA-ribosyltransferase activity (GO:0008479)|Biological Process: queuosine biosynthetic process (GO:0008616) ...

  13. Identification and annotation of promoter regions in microbial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    2007-06-15

    Jun 15, 2007 ... It remains important, not only to detect rarely expressed genes but also for ... well as in identifying genes associated with rRNA, tRNA and ... DNA stability; free energy calculation; promoter; upstream and downstream region.

  14. Transfer of primer binding site-mutated simian immunodeficiency virus vectors by genetically engineered artificial and hybrid tRNA-like primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A C; Grunwald, T; Lund, Anders Henrik

    2001-01-01

    could be obtained by cotransfection of a gene for an engineered tRNA(Pro)-tRNA hybrid with a match to PBS-Pro. The importance of tRNA backbone identity was further analyzed by complementing the PBS-X2 vector with a gene for a matching x2 primer with a tRNA backbone, which led to three- to fourfold...

  15. Increasing the fidelity of noncanonical amino acid incorporation in cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qinglei; Fan, Chenguang

    2017-11-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis provides a robust platform for co-translational incorporation of noncanonical amino acid (ncAA) into proteins to facilitate biological studies and biotechnological applications. Recently, eliminating the activity of release factor 1 has been shown to increase ncAA incorporation in response to amber codons. However, this approach could promote mis-incorporation of canonical amino acids by near cognate suppression. We performed a facile protocol to remove near cognate tRNA isoacceptors of the amber codon from total tRNAs, and used the phosphoserine (Sep) incorporation system as validation. By manipulating codon usage of target genes and tRNA species introduced into the cell-free protein synthesis system, we increased the fidelity of Sep incorporation at a specific position. By removing three near cognate tRNA isoacceptors of the amber stop codon [tRNA Lys , tRNA Tyr , and tRNA Gln (CUG)] from the total tRNA, the near cognate suppression decreased by 5-fold without impairing normal protein synthesis in the cell-free protein synthesis system. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the fidelity of ncAA incorporation was improved. Removal of near cognate tRNA isoacceptors of the amber codon could increase ncAA incorporation fidelity towards the amber stop codon in release factor deficiency systems. We provide a general strategy to improve fidelity of ncAA incorporation towards stop, quadruplet and sense codons in cell-free protein synthesis systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an Escherichia coli tRNAGly acceptor-stem microhelix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, Charlotte; Perbandt, Markus; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Brode, Svenja; Fürste, Jens P.; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the identity elements of the E. coli tRNA Gly /GlyRS class II system, a tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix was crystallized and a data set was collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The tRNA Gly and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) system is an evolutionary special case within the class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases because two divergent types of GlyRS exist: an archaebacterial/human type and an eubacterial type. The tRNA identity elements which determine the correct aminoacylation process are located in the aminoacyl domain of tRNA Gly . To obtain further insight concerning structural investigation of the identity elements, the Escherichia coli seven-base-pair tRNA Gly acceptor-stem helix was crystallized. Data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Crystals belong to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 35.35, c = 130.82 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit

  17. 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5,6-Dihydrouridine is one of two novel post-transcriptional modifications in tRNALys(UUU) from Trypanosoma brucei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Español, Yaiza; Giessing, Anders M B

    2011-01-01

    tRNA is the most heavily modified of all RNA types, with typically 10-20% of the residues being post-transcriptionally altered. Unravelling the modification pattern of a tRNA is a challenging task; there are 92 currently known tRNA modifications [1], many of which are chemically similar. Furtherm......tRNA is the most heavily modified of all RNA types, with typically 10-20% of the residues being post-transcriptionally altered. Unravelling the modification pattern of a tRNA is a challenging task; there are 92 currently known tRNA modifications [1], many of which are chemically similar...... of the unmodified tRNA revealed the modified residues. The modifications were further characterized at the nucleoside level by chromatographic retention time and fragmentation pattern upon higher-order tandem MS. Phylogenetic comparison with modifications in tRNA(Lys) from other organisms was used through......: a minor fraction with the previously described 2-methylthio-N(6) -threonylcarbamoyl-modification, and a major fraction with A37 being modified by a 294.0-Da moiety. The latter product is the largest adenosine modification reported so far, and we discuss its nature and origin....

  18. CRISPR/Cas and Cmr modules, mobility and evolution of adaptive immune systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Shiraz Ali; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr immune machineries of archaea and bacteria provide an adaptive and effective defence mechanism directed specifically against viruses and plasmids. Present data suggest that both CRISPR/Cas and Cmr modules can behave like integral genetic elements. They tend to be located...... in the more variable regions of chromosomes and are displaced by genome shuffling mechanisms including transposition. CRISPR loci may be broken up and dispersed in chromosomes by transposons with the potential for creating genetic novelty. Both CRISPR/Cas and Cmr modules appear to exchange readily between...... the significant barriers imposed by their differing conjugative, transcriptional and translational mechanisms. There are parallels between the CRISPR crRNAs and eukaryal siRNAs, most notably to germ cell piRNAs which are directed, with the help of effector proteins, to silence or destroy transposons...

  19. Human protein secretory pathway genes are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern to match processing demands of the secretome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Gatto, Francesco; Uhlén, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Protein secretory pathway in eukaryal cells is responsible for delivering functional secretory proteins. The dysfunction of this pathway causes a range of important human diseases from congenital disorders to cancer. Despite the piled-up knowledge on the molecular biology and biochemistry level...... in specific gene families of the secretory pathway. We also inspected the potential functional link between detected extreme genes and the corresponding tissues enriched secretome. As a result, the detected extreme genes showed correlation with the enrichment of the nature and number of specific post......-translational modifications in each tissue's secretome. Our findings conciliate both the housekeeping and tissue-specific nature of the protein secretory pathway, which we attribute to a fine-tuned regulation of defined gene families to support the diversity of secreted proteins and their modifications....

  20. Complete genomic and transcriptional landscape analysis using third-generation sequencing: a case study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenjaroenpun, Piroon; Wongsurawat, Thidathip; Pereira, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Completion of eukaryal genomes can be difficult task with the highly repetitive sequences along the chromosomes and short read lengths of secondgeneration sequencing. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN. PK113-7D, widely used as a model organism and a cell factory, was selected for this study...... to demonstrate the superior capability of very long sequence reads for de novo genome assembly. We generated long reads using two common third-generation sequencing technologies (Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio)) and used short reads obtained using Illumina sequencing for error...... correction. Assembly of the reads derived from all three technologies resulted in complete sequences for all 16 yeast chromosomes, as well as themitochondrial chromosome, in one step. Further, we identified three types of DNA methylation (5mC, 4mC and 6mA). Comparison between the reference strain S288C...

  1. TRE5-A retrotransposition profiling reveals putative RNA polymerase III transcription complex binding sites on the Dictyostelium extrachromosomal rDNA element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Spaller

    Full Text Available The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a haploid genome in which two thirds of the DNA encodes proteins. Consequently, the space available for selfish mobile elements to expand without excess damage to the host genome is limited. The non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon TRE5-A maintains an active population in the D. discoideum genome and apparently adapted to this gene-dense environment by targeting positions ~47 bp upstream of tRNA genes that are devoid of protein-coding regions. Because only ~24% of tRNA genes are associated with a TRE5-A element in the reference genome, we evaluated whether TRE5-A retrotransposition is limited to this subset of tRNA genes. We determined that a tagged TRE5-A element (TRE5-Absr integrated at 384 of 405 tRNA genes, suggesting that expansion of the current natural TRE5-A population is not limited by the availability of targets. We further observed that TRE5-Absr targets the ribosomal 5S gene on the multicopy extrachromosomal DNA element that carries the ribosomal RNA genes, indicating that TRE5-A integration may extend to the entire RNA polymerase III (Pol III transcriptome. We determined that both natural TRE5-A and cloned TRE5-Absr retrotranspose to locations on the extrachromosomal rDNA element that contain tRNA gene-typical A/B box promoter motifs without displaying any other tRNA gene context. Based on previous data suggesting that TRE5-A targets tRNA genes by locating Pol III transcription complexes, we propose that A/B box loci reflect Pol III transcription complex assembly sites that possess a function in the biology of the extrachromosomal rDNA element.

  2. Association of Circulating Transfer RNA fragments with antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2018-03-13

    High throughput sequencing allows identification of small non-coding RNAs. Transfer RNA Fragments are a class of small non-coding RNAs, and have been identified as being involved in inhibition of gene expression. Given their role, it is possible they may be involved in mediating the infection-induced defense response in the host. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify 5' transfer RNA fragments (tRF5s) associated with a serum antibody response to M. bovis in beef cattle. The tRF5s encoding alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, proline, selenocysteine, threonine, and valine were associated (P < 0.05) with antibody response against M. bovis. tRF5s encoding alanine, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, lysine, proline, selenocysteine, threonine, and valine were associated (P < 0.05) with season, which could be attributed to calf growth. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between antibody response to M. bovis and season for tRF5 encoding selenocysteine (anticodon UGA), proline (anticodon CGG), and glutamine (anticodon TTG). Selenocysteine is a rarely used amino acid that is incorporated into proteins by the opal stop codon (UGA), and its function is not well understood. Differential expression of tRF5s was identified between ELISA-positive and negative animals. Production of tRF5s may be associated with a host defense mechanism triggered by bacterial infection, or it may provide some advantage to a pathogen during infection of a host. Further studies are needed to establish if tRF5s could be used as a diagnostic marker of chronic exposure.

  3. Ribosome•RelA structures reveal the mechanism of stringent response activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Anna B; Bah, Eugene; Madireddy, Rohini; Zhang, Ying; Brilot, Axel F; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Korostelev, Andrei A

    2016-01-01

    Stringent response is a conserved bacterial stress response underlying virulence and antibiotic resistance. RelA/SpoT-homolog proteins synthesize transcriptional modulators (p)ppGpp, allowing bacteria to adapt to stress. RelA is activated during amino-acid starvation, when cognate deacyl-tRNA binds to the ribosomal A (aminoacyl-tRNA) site. We report four cryo-EM structures of E. coli RelA bound to the 70S ribosome, in the absence and presence of deacyl-tRNA accommodating in the 30S A site. The boomerang-shaped RelA with a wingspan of more than 100 Å wraps around the A/R (30S A-site/RelA-bound) tRNA. The CCA end of the A/R tRNA pins the central TGS domain against the 30S subunit, presenting the (p)ppGpp-synthetase domain near the 30S spur. The ribosome and A/R tRNA are captured in three conformations, revealing hitherto elusive states of tRNA engagement with the ribosomal decoding center. Decoding-center rearrangements are coupled with the step-wise 30S-subunit 'closure', providing insights into the dynamics of high-fidelity tRNA decoding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17029.001 PMID:27434674

  4. Studies of interactions of porphyrins with transfer RNA by high-resolution NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, W.J.; Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA; Anderson, W.R. Jr; Foster, N.

    1989-01-01

    The interactions of tetra-4N-methulpyridyl porphyrin and its zinc (II), copper (II) and manganese (III) complexes with brewer's yeast type V phenylalanine specific tRNA have been evaluated by high-resolution NMR. Differences in chemical shifts have been noted for thre proton resonances in response to the presence of small quantities of the fre base and the zinc and copper complexes. The protons giving rise to these signals are located on bases T54 and psi55, both of which are involved in the primary intraloop and interloop hydroen bonds that hold the D and TpsiC loops together in the tertiary structure. In addition, broadening of specific resonances due to hydrogen bonding protons in the D stem at low ratios of porphyrin to tRNA indicates that the association of porphyrins increases the rate of imino proton exchange. The titration of the tRNA with the manganese (III) complex did not eveal shifts or spcific broadening comparable to the other porpyrins at low ratios. The changes induced in the NMR spectrum of tNA by porphyrins define their site of interaction with the polynucleotide. This site, at the outside of the elbow-bend in the tRNA 'L', is different from the locus of binding in tRNA for other classical DNA intercalators. Furthermore, a new mode of binding may be involved that is neither intercalative nor simply electrostatic. (author). 36 refs.; 4 figs

  5. Human tRNAGly acceptor-stem microhelix: crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis at 1.2 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, Charlotte; Szkaradkiewicz, Karol; Perbandt, Markus; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Borowski, Tordis; Fürste, Jens P.; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2007-01-01

    The human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix was crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis revealed diffraction to a resolution of up to 1.2 Å. The major dissimilarities between the eukaryotic/archaebacterial-type and eubacterial-type glycyl-tRNA synthetase systems (GlyRS; class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases) represent an intriguing example of evolutionarily divergent solutions to similar biological functions. The differences in the identity elements of the respective tRNA Gly systems are located within the acceptor stem and include the discriminator base U73. In the present work, the human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix was crystallized in an attempt to analyze the structural features that govern the correct recognition of tRNA Gly by the eukaryotic/archaebacterial-type glycyl-tRNA synthetase. The crystals of the human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem helix belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.12, b = 37.49, c = 30.38 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 113.02°, and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. A high-resolution data set was acquired using synchrotron radiation and the data were processed to 1.2 Å resolution

  6. Eukaryotic tRNAs fingerprint invertebrates vis-à-vis vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sanga; Das, Pijush; Samadder, Arpa; Das, Smarajit; Betai, Rupal; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas

    2015-01-01

    During translation, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases recognize the identities of the tRNAs to charge them with their respective amino acids. The conserved identities of 58,244 eukaryotic tRNAs of 24 invertebrates and 45 vertebrates in genomic tRNA database were analyzed and their novel features extracted. The internal promoter sequences, namely, A-Box and B-Box, were investigated and evidence gathered that the intervention of optional nucleotides at 17a and 17b correlated with the optimal length of the A-Box. The presence of canonical transcription terminator sequences at the immediate vicinity of tRNA genes was ventured. Even though non-canonical introns had been reported in red alga, green alga, and nucleomorph so far, fairly motivating evidence of their existence emerged in tRNA genes of other eukaryotes. Non-canonical introns were seen to interfere with the internal promoters in two cases, questioning their transcription fidelity. In a first of its kind, phylogenetic constructs based on tRNA molecules delineated and built the trees of the vast and diverse invertebrates and vertebrates. Finally, two tRNA models representing the invertebrates and the vertebrates were drawn, by isolating the dominant consensus in the positional fluctuations of nucleotide compositions.

  7. A Specific Hepatic Transfer RNA for Phosphoserine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Pekka H.; Bernfield, Merton R.

    1970-01-01

    Radioactive O-phosphoryl-L-serine was detected after alkaline deacylation of rat and rooster liver [3H]seryl-tRNA acylated in vitro with homologous synthetases. Ribonuclease treatment of this tRNA yielded a compound with the properties of phosphoseryl-adenosine. Benzoylated DEAE-cellulose chromatography of seryl-tRNA yielded four distinct peaks, only one of which contained phosphoserine. A unique fraction for phosphoserine was also found on chromatography of nonacylated tRNA. In ribosome binding studies, this fraction responded very slightly with poly(U,C), but not with any of the known serine trinucleotide codons. Substantial incorporation of [3H]-serine into protein from this tRNA species was observed in an aminoacyl-tRNA dependent polysomal system derived from chick oviducts. No phosphoserine was found in Escherichia coli or yeast seryl-tRNA acylated with homologous enzymes, nor in E. coli seryl-tRNA acylated with liver synthetase. In the absence of tRNA, free phosphoserine was not formed in reaction mixtures, which suggests that phosphoseryl-tRNA arises by phosphorylation of the unique seryl-tRNA species. These results demonstrate a discrete tRNASer species in rat and rooster liver containing phosphoserine and suggest that this tRNA is involved in ribosomal polypeptide synthesis. PMID:4943179

  8. Biochemical characterization of the deafness-associated mitochondrial tRNASer(UCN) A7445G mutation in osteosarcoma cell cybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming; Zhang, Linda S.; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Guan Minxin

    2005-01-01

    The deafness-associated A7445G mutation in the precursor of mitochondrial tRNA Ser(UCN) has been identified in several pedigrees from different ethnic backgrounds. To determine the role of nuclear background in the biochemical manifestation associated with the A7445G mutation, we performed a biochemical characterization of this mutation using cybrids constructed by transferring mitochondria from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from a New Zealand family into human osteosarcoma mtDNA-less (ρ 0 ) cells. Compared with three control cybrids, three cybrids derived from an affected matrilineal relative carrying the homoplasmic A7445G mutation exhibited ∼38-57% decrease in the steady-state level of tRNA Ser(UCN) , which is less reduced levels than in lymphoblastoid cells in the previous study. Furthermore, ∼22% reduction in the level of aminoacylation of tRNA Ser(UCN) was observed in the mutant cybrid cells. Interestingly, ∼60-63% decrease of steady-state level of ND6 gene, which belongs to the same precursor as that of tRNA Ser(UCN) , in cybrid cell lines carrying the A7445G mutation, is more than that observed in lymphoblastoid cells. These observations strongly point out a mechanistic link between the processing defect of the tRNA Ser(UCN) precursor and decreased stability of ND6 mRNA precursor. These results also imply the influence of nuclear background on the biochemical phenotype associated with the A7445G mutation

  9. tRNA--the golden standard in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology.

  10. Superposition of two tRNASer acceptor stem crystal structures: Comparison of structure, ligands and hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichert, Andre; Fuerste, Jens P.; Ulrich, Alexander; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.; Foerster, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    We solved the X-ray structures of two Escherichia coli tRNA Ser acceptor stem microhelices. As both tRNAs are aminoacylated by the same seryl-tRNA-synthetase, we performed a comparative structure analysis of both duplexes to investigate the helical conformation, the hydration patterns and magnesium binding sites. It is well accepted, that the hydration of RNA plays an important role in RNA-protein interactions and that the extensive solvent content of the minor groove has a special function in RNA. The detailed comparison of both tRNA Ser microhelices provides insights into the structural arrangement of the isoacceptor tRNA aminoacyl stems with respect to the surrounding water molecules and may eventually help us to understand their biological function at atomic resolution.

  11. RNA quality control in yeast - what is good and what is bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov

    positions in the tRNA molecules [2]. We believe that in such cases, the tRNAs are recognized by a common structural alteration that causes part of the molecule to unfold and thereby mark the tRNA as defect. We therefore want to isolate and crystallize the RNA binding proteins Air1p or Air2p in complex...... with aberrant tRNA analogous to gain knowledge of how the cell determines which RNAs are good and bad and use this as a model system for how the cell in general recognizes aberrant RNAs. So far, Air1p and Air2p have been cloned from different yeast organisms and the first expression tests of the proteins have...

  12. tRNAs: cellular barcodes for amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Rajat; Chen, Shawn; Dare, Kiley

    2010-01-01

    The role of tRNA in translating the genetic code has received considerable attention over the last 50 years, and we now know in great detail how particular amino acids are specifically selected and brought to the ribosome in response to the corresponding mRNA codon. Over the same period, it has...... also become increasingly clear that the ribosome is not the only destination to which tRNAs deliver amino acids, with processes ranging from lipid modification to antibiotic biosynthesis all using aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates. Here we review examples of alternative functions for tRNA beyond...... translation, which together suggest that the role of tRNA is to deliver amino acids for a variety of processes that includes, but is not limited to, protein synthesis....

  13. Adrenal insufficiency in a child with MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroze, Bushra; Amjad, Nida; Ibrahim, Shahnaz H; Humayun, Khadija Nuzhat; Yakob, Yusnita

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) are established subgroups of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. m.3243A>G a common point mutation is detected in tRNA in majority of patients with MELAS phenotype whereas m.8344A>G point mutation in tRNA is observed, in MERRF phenotype. Adrenal insufficiency has not been reported in mitochondrial disease, except in Kearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS), which is a mitochondrial deletion syndrome. We report an unusual presentation in a five year old boy who presented with clinical phenotype of MELAS and was found to have m.8344A>G mutation in tRNA. Addison disease was identified due to hyperpigmentation of lips and gums present from early childhood. This is the first report describing adrenal insufficiency in a child with MELAS phenotype. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Genomic Pattern of tDNA Operon Expression in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In fast-growing microorganisms, a tRNA concentration profile enriched in major isoacceptors selects for the biased usage of cognate codons. This optimizes translational rate for the least mass invested in the translational apparatus. Such translational streamlining is thought to be growth-regulated, but its genetic basis is poorly understood. First, we found in reanalysis of the E. coli tRNA profile that the degree to which it is translationally streamlined is nearly invariant with growth rate. Then, using least squares multiple regression, we partitioned tRNA isoacceptor pools to predicted tDNA operons from the E. coli K12 genome. Co-expression of tDNAs in operons explains the tRNA profile significantly better than tDNA gene dosage alone. Also, operon expression increases significantly with proximity to the origin of replication, oriC, at all growth rates. Genome location explains about 15% of expression variation in a form, at a given growth rate, that is consistent with replication-dependent gene concentration effects. Yet the change in the tRNA profile with growth rate is less than would be expected from such effects. We estimated per-copy expression rates for all tDNA operons that were consistent with independent estimates for rDNA operons. We also found that tDNA operon location, and the location dependence of expression, were significantly different in the leading and lagging strands. The operonic organization and genomic location of tDNA operons are significant factors influencing their expression. Nonrandom patterns of location and strandedness shown by tDNA operons in E. coli suggest that their genomic architecture may be under selection to satisfy physiological demand for tRNA expression at high growth rates.

  15. Plant, animal, and fungal micronutrient queuosine is salvaged by members of the DUF2419 protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallot, Rémi; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gaston, Kirk W; Forouhar, Farhad; Limbach, Patrick A; Hunt, John F; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2014-08-15

    Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNA(Asp) with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity.

  16. Prediction of the secondary structure of the mitochondrial tRNASer (UCN) of Lutzomyia hartmanni (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Doria, Alveiro; Bejarano, Eduar E

    2011-01-01

    Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni is a sand fly that has been implicated in the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) colombiensis, an etiologic agent of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia. The objective of this work was to explore the potential usefulness of the mitochondrial serine transfer RNA (UCN) (tRNASer) in the taxonomic determination of L. hartmanni. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted, amplified and sequenced from entomological material collected in Envigado, Antioquia, Colombia. The tRNASer gene length was 68 nucleotide pairs, with an average adenine-thymine content of 80.9%. The studied tRNASer differs from other sand fly tRNASer known to date, on the basis of its primary and secondary structure. The observed number of intrachain base pairing was 7 in the acceptor arm, 3 in the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm, 5 in the anticodon arm, and 5 in the ribothymidine-pseudouridine-cytosine (TC) arm. The size of the DHU, anticodon, variable and TC loops was estimated to be 5, 7, 4, and 8 nucleotides, respectively. The notorious absence of non-Watson-Crick base pairs in the four arms of the tRNASer distinguishes that of L. hartmanni from others Lutzomyia spp.

  17. Early steps in protein synthesis and their regulation: a background study related to the biological effects of radiation. Progress report, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The proposed program is an interwoven effort to study the details of the mechanism of protein synthesis in normal living systems and their alterations in the presence of oncogenic RNA viruses using the avian myeloblastosis virus as a model. Emphasis will be placed on determining the role of the primary structure of the viral RNA and of other factors required for the production of viral proteins in a cell-free system. Continued studies of the initial steps of protein synthesis where much specificity is determined by the tRNA: tRNA synthetase interactions will be carried out using biochemical and genetic techniques. (U.S.)

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) and an alternative pattern of mitogenomic evolution in vertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping

    2007-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes, and a no......The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes...

  19. AUG is the only initiation codon in eukaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, F; McKnight, G; Stewart, J W

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicates that AUG is the sole codon capable of initiating translation of iso-1-cytochrome c. This result with yeast and the sequence results of numerous eukaryotic genes indicate that AUG is the only initiation codon in eukaryotes; in contrast, results with Escherichia colia and bacteriophages indicate that both AUG and GUG are initiation codons in prokaryotes. The difference can be explained by the lack of the t/sup 6/ A hypermodified nucleoside (N-(9-(..beta..-D-ribofuranosyl)purin-6-ylcarbamoyl)threonine) in prokaryotic initiator tRNA and its presence in eukaryotic initiator tRNA.

  20. Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence signals by colloidal silver nanoparticles in studies of protein translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharill, Shashank; Chen, Chunlai; Stevens, Benjamin; Kaur, Jaskiran; Smilansky, Zeev; Mandecki, Wlodek; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Cooperman, Barry S; Goldman, Yale E

    2011-01-25

    Metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) increased total photon emission of Cy3- and Cy5-labeled ribosomal initiation complexes near 50 nm silver particles 4- and 5.5-fold, respectively. Fluorescence intensity fluctuations above shot noise, at 0.1-5 Hz, were greater on silver particles. Overall signal-to-noise ratio was similar or slightly improved near the particles. Proximity to silver particles did not compromise ribosome function, as measured by codon-dependent binding of fluorescent tRNA, dynamics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between adjacent tRNAs in the ribosome, and tRNA translocation induced by elongation factor G.

  1. Enhancement of Single Molecule Fluorescence Signals by Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles in Studies of Protein Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharill, Shashank; Chen, Chunlai; Stevens, Benjamin; Kaur, Jaskiran; Smilansky, Zeev; Mandecki, Wlodek; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Cooperman, Barry S.; Goldman, Yale E.

    2011-01-01

    Metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) increased total photon emission of Cy3- and Cy5-labeled ribosomal initiation complexes near 50 nm silver particles 4- and 5.5-fold respectively. Fluorescence intensity fluctuations above shot noise, at 0.1 – 5 Hz, were greater on silver particles. Overall signal to noise ratio was similar or slightly improved near the particles. Proximity to silver particles did not compromise ribosome function, as measured by codon-dependent binding of fluorescent tRNA, dynamics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between adjacent tRNAs in the ribosome, and tRNA translocation induced by elongation factor G. PMID:21158483

  2. Lost in Translation: Defects in Transfer RNA Modifications and Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bednářová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are key molecules participating in protein synthesis. To augment their functionality they undergo extensive post-transcriptional modifications and, as such, are subject to regulation at multiple levels including transcription, transcript processing, localization and ribonucleoside base modification. Post-transcriptional enzyme-catalyzed modification of tRNA occurs at a number of base and sugar positions and influences specific anticodon–codon interactions and regulates translation, its efficiency and fidelity. This phenomenon of nucleoside modification is most remarkable and results in a rich structural diversity of tRNA of which over 100 modified nucleosides have been characterized. Most often these hypermodified nucleosides are found in the wobble position of tRNAs, where they play a direct role in codon recognition as well as in maintaining translational efficiency and fidelity, etc. Several recent studies have pointed to a link between defects in tRNA modifications and human diseases including neurological disorders. Therefore, defects in tRNA modifications in humans need intensive characterization at the enzymatic and mechanistic level in order to pave the way to understand how lack of such modifications are associated with neurological disorders with the ultimate goal of gaining insights into therapeutic interventions.

  3. The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany); Nierhaus, K.H. [Max-Planch-Institut fuer Molekulare Genetik, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome.

  4. Current trends in chloroplast genome research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... essential genes for its maintenance and operation. Several components .... rapid, straightforward and inexpensive method has been used recently for .... and 5S rRNA, tRNA and group-I and group-II introns. It is also used for ...

  5. Selective incorporation of 5-hydroxytryptophan into proteins in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-02-25

    This invention provides methods and compositions for incorporation of an unnatural amino acid into a peptide using an orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair. In particular, an orthogonal pair is provided to incorporate 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan in a position encoded by an opal mutation.

  6. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Determination of Transfer RNA Tertiary Base Pairs in Solution. 2. Species Containing a Large Variable Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HURD, RE; ROBILLARD, GT; REID, BR

    1977-01-01

    The number of base pairs in the solution structure of several class III D3VN tRNA species from E. coli has been determined by analyzing the number of low-field (-15 to -11 ppm) proton resonances in their nuclear magnetic resonance spectra at 360 MHz. Contrary to previous reports indicating the

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete circular mitochondrial genome of D. reticulatum is 14,048 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes (GenBank accession number: KY765589). The overall base composition was 31.0 % A, 12.2 % C, 17.7 % G and 39...

  8. Evolution of the RNase P RNA structural domain in Leptospira spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravishankar, Vigneshwaran; Ahmed, Ahmed; Sivagnanam, Ulaganathan; Muthuraman, Krishnaraja; Karthikaichamy, Anbarasu; Wilson, Herald A.; Devendran, Ajay; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Raj, Stephen M. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have employed the RNase P RNA (RPR) gene, which is present as single copy in chromosome I of Leptospira spp. to investigate the phylogeny of structural domains present in the RNA subunit of the tRNA processing enzyme, RNase P. RPR gene sequences of 150 strains derived from NCBI database along

  9. Sequence Classification: 889834 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ritance; deletion reveals defects in precursor tRNA splicing, sporulation and cell separation; Ptc1p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6320198 ... ...C protein phosphatase (PP2C); inactivates the osmosensing MAPK cascade by dephosphorylating Hog1p; mutation delays mitochondrial inhe

  10. HIV-1 reverse transcription initiation: a potential target for novel antivirals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Truus E. M.; Berkhout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Reverse transcription is an essential step in the retroviral life cycle, as it converts the genomic RNA into DNA. In this review, we describe recent developments concerning the initiation step of this complex, multi-step reaction. During initiation of reverse transcription, a cellular tRNA primer is

  11. Direct crosslinking of the antitumor antibiotic sparsomycin, and its derivatives, to A2602 in the peptidyl transferase center of 23S-like rRNA within ribosome-tRNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, B T; Kirillov, S V; Awayez, M J

    1999-01-01

    of action was investigated by inducing a crosslink between sparsomycin and bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic ribosomes complexed with P-site-bound tRNA, on irradiating with low energy ultraviolet light (at 365 nm). The crosslink was localized exclusively to the universally conserved nucleotide A2602...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of an Obligately Methylotrophic Methanogen, Methanococcoides methylutens, Isolated from Marine Sediment

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Yue; Ngugi, David; Blom, J.; Ali, Shahjahan; Ferry, J. G.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Methanococcoides methylutens, the type species of the genus Methanococcoides, is a slightly halophilic methanogenic archaeon with a methylotrophic metabolism. Here, we present the annotated draft genome sequence of M. methylutens, which comprises 2,508,511 bp with 2,482 coding sequences, 51 tRNA genes, and a G+C content of 42.5%.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of an Obligately Methylotrophic Methanogen, Methanococcoides methylutens, Isolated from Marine Sediment

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Yue

    2014-11-20

    Methanococcoides methylutens, the type species of the genus Methanococcoides, is a slightly halophilic methanogenic archaeon with a methylotrophic metabolism. Here, we present the annotated draft genome sequence of M. methylutens, which comprises 2,508,511 bp with 2,482 coding sequences, 51 tRNA genes, and a G+C content of 42.5%.

  14. Problem-Based Test: Functional Analysis of Mutant 16S rRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: ribosome, ribosomal subunits, antibiotics, point mutation, 16S, 5S, and 23S rRNA, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, mRNA, tRNA, palindrome, hairpin, restriction endonuclease, fMet-tRNA, peptidyl transferase, initiation, elongation, termination of translation, expression plasmid, transformation,…

  15. Full Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Sugar Beet Wireworm Limonius californicus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), a Common Agricultural Pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Alida T; New, Daniel D; Robison, Barrie D; Rashed, Arash; Hohenlohe, Paul; Forney, Larry; Rashidi, Mahnaz; Wilson, Cathy M; Settles, Matthew L

    2016-01-21

    We report here the full mitochondrial genome sequence of Limonius californicus, a species of click beetle that is an agricultural pest in its larval form. The circular genome is 16.5 kb and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. Copyright © 2016 Gerritsen et al.

  16. Functional studies of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli : Site-directed mutagenesis and antibiotic action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krab, Ivo Maarten

    2001-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes several studies into the structure and function of Escherichia coli Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu). EF-Tu plays a central role in the bacterial protein synthesis machinery as the carrier of "coded building blocks" for protein synthesis, aminoacylated tRNA (aa-tRNA). Without

  17. Missense variants in AIMP1 gene are implicated in autosomal recessive intellectual disability without neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Z.; Puttmann, L.; Musante, L.; Razzaq, A.; Zahoor, M.Y.; Hu, H; Wienker, T.F.; Garshasbi, M.; Fattahi, Z.; Gilissen, C.; Vissers, L.E.; Brouwer, A.P. de; Veltman, J.A.; Pfundt, R.P.; Najmabadi, H.; Ropers, H.H.; Riazuddin, S.; Kahrizi, K.; Bokhoven, H. van

    2016-01-01

    AIMP1/p43 is a multifunctional non-catalytic component of the multisynthetase complex. The complex consists of nine catalytic and three non-catalytic proteins, which catalyze the ligation of amino acids to their cognate tRNA isoacceptors for use in protein translation. To date, two allelic variants

  18. Mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase mutations underlie fatal infantile Alpers encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elo, Jenni M; Yadavalli, Srujana S; Euro, Liliya

    2012-01-01

    was impaired. Our results imply that the three FARS2 mutations directly impair aminoacylation function and stability of mtPheRS, leading to a decrease in overall tRNA charging capacity. This study establishes a new genetic cause of infantile mitochondrial Alpers encephalopathy and reports a new mitochondrial...

  19. The role of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plant growth regulation and mediating responses to environmental interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schäfer, M.; Brütting, C.; Meza-Canales, I.D.; Großkinsky, D.K.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Baldwin, I.T.; Meldau, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 16 (2015), s. 4873-4884 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/2062 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abiotic stress * cis-zeatin * c-io(6)A37-tRNA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  20. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-24

    Mar 24, 2016 ... Onset of polymyositis with autoantibodies to threonyl. tRNA synthetase during pregnancy. J Rheumatol. 1994 Aug;. 21(8):1564-6.PubMed | Google Scholar. 9. Huong DLT, Wechsler B. Maladies systémiques pendant la grossesse. Revue du Rhumatisme. 2005 ;72 (8): 744-. 749. PubMed | Google Scholar.

  1. Comparison of Escherichia coli tRNAPhe in the free state, in the ternary complex and in the ribosomal A and P sites by chemical probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Garrett, R A; Wagner, R

    1983-01-01

    tRNAPheE.coli was modified at accessible guanosine, cytidine, and adenosine residues using the chemical modification method described by Peattie and Gilbert [Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 77, 4679-4689 (1980)]. Modification characteristics of the tRNA in the free state, in the ternary complex...

  2. Gene content and organization of a 281-kbp contig from the genome of the extremely thermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlebois, R.; Confalonieri, F.; Curtis, B.; Doolittle, W.F.; Duguet, M.; Erauso, G.; Faguy, D.; Gaasterland, T.; Garrett, R.A.; Gordon, P.; Kozera, C.; Medina, N.; Oost, van der J.; Peng, X.; Ragan, M.; She, Q.; Singh, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The sequence of a 281-kbp contig from the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was determined and analysed. Notable features in this region include 29 ribosomal protein genes, 12 tRNA genes (four of which contain archaeal-type introns), operons encoding enzymes of histidine biosynthesis,

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of a rhodolith, Sporolithon durum (Sporolithales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Mi; Yang, Eun Chan; Kim, Jeong Ha; Nelson, Wendy A; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2015-02-01

    We present the first mitochondrial genome of the nongeniculate coralline red alga, Sporolithon durum (Sporolithales). The genome consists of 45 genes, including 24 protein-coding, 2 rRNA and 19 tRNA genes in a circular molecule of 26,202 bp with overall 28.4% GC content.

  4. Futile import of tRNAs and proteins into the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei evansi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paris, Zdeněk; Hashimi, Hassan; Lun, Sijia; Alfonzo, J. D.; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 2 (2011), 116-120 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667; GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trypanosoma * tRNA * Protein import * Mitochondrion * Kinetoplast Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2011

  5. Mutational analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNASer(UCN) genes in Tunisian patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Tlili, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Saber; Louhichi, Nacim; Charfeddine, Ilhem; Amor, Mohamed Ben; Lahmar, Imed; Driss, Nabil; Drira, Mohamed; Ayadi, Hammadi; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2006-01-01

    We explored the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA Ser(UCN) genes in 100 Tunisian families affected with NSHL and in 100 control individuals. We identified the mitochondrial A1555G mutation in one out of these 100 families and not in the 100 control individuals. Members of this family harbouring the A1555G mutation showed phenotypic heterogeneity which could be explained by an eventual nuclear-mitochondrial interaction. So, we have screened three nuclear genes: GJB2, GJB3, and GJB6 but we have not found correlation between the phenotypic heterogeneity and variants detected in these genes. We explored also the entire mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA Ser(UCN) genes. We detected five novel polymorphisms: T742C, T794A, A813G, C868T, and C954T, and 12 known polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. None of the 100 families or the 100 controls were found to carry mutations in the tRNA Ser(UCN) gene. We report here First mutational screening of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA Ser(UCN) genes in the Tunisian population which describes the second family harbouring the A1555G mutation in Africa and reveals novel polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_002937 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GTPase TrmE [Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. ... vulgaris str. Hildenborough] gb|AAS95559.1| tRNA ... ... ... modification GTPase TrmE [Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. ... vulgaris str. Hildenborough] ... ...SRDLVAQADLVL 300 ... Query: 365 ESLVTAIRAAVXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXNMRQAAALDKAATILDELAGDIRAHVPYDLCGV 424 ... ESL...VTAIRAAV ... NMRQAAALDKAATILDELAGDIRAHVPYDLCGV Sbjct: 361 ESLVTAIRAAVLAATGAGEPEAGELAPNMRQAAALDKAATILDELAGDIRAHVPYDLCGV 420 ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdel-Meguid, IE. Vol 10, No 2 (2009) - Articles Caveolin 3 gene and mitochondrial tRNA methionin gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 1 (2013) - Articles Markers of neural degeneration and regeneration in Down syndrome patients. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1110-8630. AJOL African Journals ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Korraa, SS. Vol 10, No 2 (2009) - Articles Caveolin 3 gene and mitochondrial tRNA methionin gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1110-8630. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  9. Exploiting tRNAs to Boost Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suki Albers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are powerful small RNA entities that are used to translate nucleotide language of genes into the amino acid language of proteins. Their near-uniform length and tertiary structure as well as their high nucleotide similarity and post-transcriptional modifications have made it difficult to characterize individual species quantitatively. However, due to the central role of the tRNA pool in protein biosynthesis as well as newly emerging roles played by tRNAs, their quantitative assessment yields important information, particularly relevant for virus research. Viruses which depend on the host protein expression machinery have evolved various strategies to optimize tRNA usage—either by adapting to the host codon usage or encoding their own tRNAs. Additionally, several viruses bear tRNA-like elements (TLE in the 5′- and 3′-UTR of their mRNAs. There are different hypotheses concerning the manner in which such structures boost viral protein expression. Furthermore, retroviruses use special tRNAs for packaging and initiating reverse transcription of their genetic material. Since there is a strong specificity of different viruses towards certain tRNAs, different strategies for recruitment are employed. Interestingly, modifications on tRNAs strongly impact their functionality in viruses. Here, we review those intersection points between virus and tRNA research and describe methods for assessing the tRNA pool in terms of concentration, aminoacylation and modification.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  11. Metabolism of tRNAs in growing cells of Escherichia coli illuminated with near-ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnsdorf, E.; Favre, A.

    1986-01-01

    The tRNA metabolism which accompanies illumination of growing E. coli cells has been examined in conditions that led to growth delay. The in vivo formation of the 8-13 link was followed by a fluorimetric procedure and revealed pseudo-first order kinetics very close to those obtained in vitro under the same illumination conditions. Comparison of these kinetics with published radiochromatographic data suggests the transient formation during illumination of a new RNase-T 2 -resistant dinucleotide in tRNA distinct from the 8-13 link. Under illumination some tRNA molecules lack one or more bases in a specific position in the sequence. During the growth lag, uracil incorporation into nucleic acids occurs at between 4-8% of the rate normally observed during exponential growth. However, the pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphate pools are strongly perturbed after illumination. Comparison of exogenous [ 3 H]uracil incorporation into two strains proficient or deficient in uracil biosynthesis suggests a derepression of the endogenous path after light treatment. In addition, the UTP-to-CTP conversion is inhibited. In spite of preferential incorporation of exogenously labelled uracil in tRNA after illumination, a possible pyrimidine base turnover cannot be proved. (author)

  12. The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhrmann, H.B.; Nierhaus, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome

  13. The CCA-end of P-tRNA Contacts Both the Human RPL36AL and the A-site Bound Translation Termination Factor eRF1 at the Peptidyl Transferase Center of the Human 80S Ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hountondji, Codjo; Bulygin, Konstantin; Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Woisard, Anne; Tuffery, Pierre; Nakayama, Jun-Ichi; Frolova, Ludmila; Nierhaus, Knud H; Karpova, Galina; Baouz, Soria

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that the E-site specific protein RPL36AL present in human ribosomes can be crosslinked with the CCA-end of a P-tRNA in situ. Here we report the following: (i) We modeled RPL36AL into the structure of the archaeal ortholog RPL44E extracted from the known X-ray structure of the 50S subunit of Haloarcula marismortui. Superimposing the obtained RPL36AL structure with that of P/E tRNA observed in eukaryotic 80S ribosomes suggested that RPL36AL might in addition to its CCA neighbourhood interact with the inner site of the tRNA elbow similar to an interaction pattern known from tRNA•synthetase pairs. (ii) Accordingly, we detected that the isolated recombinant protein RPL36AL can form a tight binary complex with deacylated tRNA, and even tRNA fragments truncated at their CCA end showed a high affinity in the nanomolar range supporting a strong interaction outside the CCA end. (iii) We constructed programmed 80S complexes containing the termination factor eRF1 (stop codon UAA at the A-site) and a 2',3'-dialdehyde tRNA (tRNAox) analog at the P-site. Surprisingly, we observed a crosslinked ternary complex containing the tRNA, eRF1 and RPL36AL crosslinked both to the aldehyde groups of tRNAox at the 2'- and 3'-positions of the ultimate A. We also demonstrated that, upon binding to the ribosomal A-site, eRF1 induces an alternative conformation of the ribosome and/or the tRNA, leading to a novel crosslink of tRNAox to another large-subunit ribosomal protein (namely L37) rather than to RPL36AL, both ribosomal proteins being labeled in a mutually exclusive fashion. Since the human 80S ribosome in complex with P-site bound tRNAox and A-site bound eRF1 corresponds to the post-termination state of the ribosome, the results represent the first biochemical evidence for the positioning of the CCA-arm of the P-tRNA in close proximity to both RPL36AL and eRF1 at the end of the translation process.

  14. A network of hydrophobic residues impeding helix alphaC rotation maintains latency of kinase Gcn2, which phosphorylates the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gárriz, Andrés; Qiu, Hongfang; Dey, Madhusudan; Seo, Eun-Joo; Dever, Thomas E; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2009-03-01

    Kinase Gcn2 is activated by amino acid starvation and downregulates translation initiation by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). The Gcn2 kinase domain (KD) is inert and must be activated by tRNA binding to the adjacent regulatory domain. Previous work indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gcn2 latency results from inflexibility of the hinge connecting the N and C lobes and a partially obstructed ATP-binding site in the KD. Here, we provide strong evidence that a network of hydrophobic interactions centered on Leu-856 also promotes latency by constraining helix alphaC rotation in the KD in a manner relieved during amino acid starvation by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation of Thr-882 in the activation loop. Thus, we show that mutationally disrupting the hydrophobic network in various ways constitutively activates eIF2alpha phosphorylation in vivo and bypasses the requirement for a key tRNA binding motif (m2) and Thr-882 in Gcn2. In particular, replacing Leu-856 with any nonhydrophobic residue activates Gcn2, while substitutions with various hydrophobic residues maintain kinase latency. We further provide strong evidence that parallel, back-to-back dimerization of the KD is a step on the Gcn2 activation pathway promoted by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation. Remarkably, mutations that disrupt the L856 hydrophobic network or enhance hinge flexibility eliminate the need for the conserved salt bridge at the parallel dimer interface, implying that KD dimerization facilitates the reorientation of alphaC and remodeling of the active site for enhanced ATP binding and catalysis. We propose that hinge remodeling, parallel dimerization, and reorientation of alphaC are mutually reinforcing conformational transitions stimulated by tRNA binding and secured by the ensuing autophosphorylation of T882 for stable kinase activation.

  15. Comparison of alignment tensors generated for native tRNAVal using magnetic fields and liquid crystalline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, Michael P.; Hanson, Paul; Brown, Darin J.; Pardi, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) complement standard NOE distance and J-coupling torsion angle data to improve the local and global structure of biomolecules in solution. One powerful application of RDCs is for domain orientation studies, which are especially valuable for structural studies of nucleic acids, where the local structure of a double helix is readily modeled and the orientations of the helical domains can then be determined from RDC data. However, RDCs obtained from only one alignment media generally result in degenerate solutions for the orientation of multiple domains. In protein systems, different alignment media are typically used to eliminate this orientational degeneracy, where the combination of RDCs from two (or more) independent alignment tensors can be used to overcome this degeneracy. It is demonstrated here for native E. coli tRNA Val that many of the commonly used liquid crystalline alignment media result in very similar alignment tensors, which do not eliminate the 4-fold degeneracy for orienting the two helical domains in tRNA. The intrinsic magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (MSA) of the nucleobases in tRNA Val was also used to obtain RDCs for magnetic alignment at 800 and 900 MHz. While these RDCs yield a different alignment tensor, the specific orientation of this tensor combined with the high rhombicity for the tensors in the liquid crystalline media only eliminates two of the four degenerate orientations for tRNA Val . Simulations are used to show that, in optimal cases, the combination of RDCs obtained from liquid crystalline medium and MSA-induced alignment can be used to obtain a unique orientation for the two helical domains in tRNA Val

  16. Hili Inhibits HIV Replication in Activated T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlin, B Matija; Liu, Pingyang; Wang, Xiaoyun; Cary, Daniele; Shao, Wei; Leoz, Marie; Hong, Tian; Pan, Tao; Fujinaga, Koh

    2017-06-01

    P-element-induced wimpy-like (Piwil) proteins restrict the replication of mobile genetic elements in the germ line. They are also expressed in many transformed cell lines. In this study, we discovered that the human Piwil 2 (Hili) protein can also inhibit HIV replication, especially in activated CD4 + T cells that are the preferred target cells for this virus in the infected host. Although resting cells did not express Hili, its expression was rapidly induced following T cell activation. In these cells and transformed cell lines, depletion of Hili increased levels of viral proteins and new viral particles. Further studies revealed that Hili binds to tRNA. Some of the tRNAs represent rare tRNA species, whose codons are overrepresented in the viral genome. Targeting tRNA Arg (UCU) with an antisense oligonucleotide replicated effects of Hili and also inhibited HIV replication. Finally, Hili also inhibited the retrotransposition of the endogenous intracysternal A particle (IAP) by a similar mechanism. Thus, Hili joins a list of host proteins that inhibit the replication of HIV and other mobile genetic elements. IMPORTANCE Piwil proteins inhibit the movement of mobile genetic elements in the germ line. In their absence, sperm does not form and male mice are sterile. This inhibition is thought to occur via small Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). However, in some species and in human somatic cells, Piwil proteins bind primarily to tRNA. In this report, we demonstrate that human Piwil proteins, especially Hili, not only bind to select tRNA species, including rare tRNAs, but also inhibit HIV replication. Importantly, T cell activation induces the expression of Hili in CD4 + T cells. Since Hili also inhibited the movement of an endogenous retrovirus (IAP), our finding shed new light on this intracellular resistance to exogenous and endogenous retroviruses as well as other mobile genetic elements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. The structure of an E. coli tRNAfMet A1-U72 variant shows an unusual conformation of the A1-U72 base pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monestier, Auriane; Aleksandrov, Alexey; Coureux, Pierre-Damien; Panvert, Michel; Mechulam, Yves; Schmitt, Emmanuelle

    2017-05-01

    Translation initiation in eukaryotes and archaea involves a methionylated initiator tRNA delivered to the ribosome in a ternary complex with e/aIF2 and GTP. Eukaryotic and archaeal initiator tRNAs contain a highly conserved A 1 -U 72 base pair at the top of the acceptor stem. The importance of this base pair to discriminate initiator tRNAs from elongator tRNAs has been established previously using genetics and biochemistry. However, no structural data illustrating how the A 1 -U 72 base pair participates in the accurate selection of the initiator tRNAs by the translation initiation systems are available. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a mutant E. coli initiator tRNA f Met A 1 -U 72 , aminoacylated with methionine, in which the C 1 :A 72 mismatch at the end of the tRNA acceptor stem has been changed to an A 1 -U 72 base pair. Sequence alignments show that the mutant E. coli tRNA is a good mimic of archaeal initiator tRNAs. The crystal structure, determined at 2.8 Å resolution, shows that the A 1 -U 72 pair adopts an unusual arrangement. A 1 is in a syn conformation and forms a single H-bond interaction with U 72 This interaction requires protonation of the N1 atom of A 1 Moreover, the 5' phosphoryl group folds back into the major groove of the acceptor stem and interacts with the N7 atom of G 2 A possible role of this unusual geometry of the A 1 -U 72 pair in the recognition of the initiator tRNA by its partners during eukaryotic and archaeal translation initiation is discussed. © 2017 Monestier et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  18. Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vladar Harold P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can

  19. Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vladar, Harold P

    2012-02-10

    There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments

  20. Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments

  1. Systems Biology for Mapping Genotype-Phenotype Relations in Yeast

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-25

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials. Through metabolic engineering of this yeast a number of novel new industrial processes have been developed over the last 10 years. Besides its wide industrial use, S. cerevisiae serves as an eukaryal model organism, and many systems biology tools have therefore been developed for this organism. Among these genome-scale metabolic models have shown to be most successful as they easy integrate with omics data and at the same time have been shown to have excellent predictive power. Despite our extensive knowledge of yeast metabolism and its regulation we are still facing challenges when we want to engineer complex traits, such as improved tolerance to toxic metabolites like butanol and elevated temperatures or when we want to engineer the highly complex protein secretory pathway. In this presentation it will be demonstrated how we can combine directed evolution with systems biology analysis to identify novel targets for rational design-build-test of yeast strains that have improved phenotypic properties. In this lecture an overview of systems biology of yeast will be presented together with examples of how genome-scale metabolic modeling can be used for prediction of cellular growth at different conditions. Examples will also be given on how adaptive laboratory evolution can be used for identifying targets for improving tolerance towards butanol, increased temperature and low pH and for improving secretion of heterologous proteins.

  2. Solution structure of an archaeal DNA binding protein with an eukaryotic zinc finger fold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Guillière

    Full Text Available While the basal transcription machinery in archaea is eukaryal-like, transcription factors in archaea and their viruses are usually related to bacterial transcription factors. Nevertheless, some of these organisms show predicted classical zinc fingers motifs of the C2H2 type, which are almost exclusively found in proteins of eukaryotes and most often associated with transcription regulators. In this work, we focused on the protein AFV1p06 from the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus AFV1. The sequence of the protein consists of the classical eukaryotic C2H2 motif with the fourth histidine coordinating zinc missing, as well as of N- and C-terminal extensions. We showed that the protein AFV1p06 binds zinc and solved its solution structure by NMR. AFV1p06 displays a zinc finger fold with a novel structure extension and disordered N- and C-termini. Structure calculations show that a glutamic acid residue that coordinates zinc replaces the fourth histidine of the C2H2 motif. Electromobility gel shift assays indicate that the protein binds to DNA with different affinities depending on the DNA sequence. AFV1p06 is the first experimentally characterised archaeal zinc finger protein with a DNA binding activity. The AFV1p06 protein family has homologues in diverse viruses of hyperthermophilic archaea. A phylogenetic analysis points out a common origin of archaeal and eukaryotic C2H2 zinc fingers.

  3. Decoding the biosynthesis and function of diphthamide, an enigmatic modification of translation elongation factor 2 (EF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffael Schaffrath

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diphthamide is a highly conserved modification of archaeal and eukaryal translation elongation factor 2 (EF2 and yet why cells need EF2 to contain diphthamide is unclear. In yeast, the first steps of diphthamide synthesis and the genes (DPH1-DPH5 required to form the intermediate diphthine are well-documented. However, the last step, amidadation of diphthine to diphthamide, had largely been ill-defined. Remarkably, through mining genome-wide synthetic gene array (SGA and chemical genomics databases, recent studies by Uthman et al. [PLoS Genetics (2013 9, e1003334] and Su et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2012 109, 19983-19987] have identified two more diphthamide players, DPH6 and DPH7. Consistent with roles in the amidation step, dph6 and dph7 deletion strains fail to complete diphthamide synthesis and accumulate diphthine-modified EF2. In contrast to Dph6, the catalytically relevant amidase, Dph7 appears to be regulatory. As shown by Uthman et al., it promotes dissociation of diphthine synthase (Dph5 from EF2, allowing diphthine amidation by Dph6 to occur and thereby coupling diphthine synthesis to the terminal step in the pathway. Remarkably, the study by Uthman et al. suggests that Dph5 has a novel role as an EF2 inhibitor that affects cell growth when diphthamide synthesis is blocked or incomplete and, importantly, shows that diphthamide promotes the accuracy of EF2 performance during translation.

  4. Molecular biology of hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Oost, J; Ciaramella, M; Moracci, M; Pisani, F M; Rossi, M; de Vos, W M

    1998-01-01

    The sequences of a number of archaeal genomes have recently been completed, and many more are expected shortly. Consequently, the research of Archaea in general and hyperthermophiles in particular has entered a new phase, with many exciting discoveries to be expected. The wealth of sequence information has already led, and will continue to lead to the identification of many enzymes with unique properties, some of which have potential for industrial applications. Subsequent functional genomics will help reveal fundamental matters such as details concerning the genetic, biochemical and physiological adaptation of extremophiles, and hence give insight into their genomic evolution, polypeptide structure-function relations, and metabolic regulation. In order to optimally exploit many unique features that are now emerging, the development of genetic systems for hyperthermophilic Archaea is an absolute requirement. Such systems would allow the application of this class of Archaea as so-called "cell factories": (i) expression of certain archaeal enzymes for which no suitable conventional (mesophilic bacterial or eukaryal) systems are available, (ii) selection for thermostable variants of potentially interesting enzymes from mesophilic origin, and (iii) the development of in vivo production systems by metabolic engineering. An overview is given of recent insight in the molecular biology of hyperthermophilic Archaea, as well as of a number of promising developments that should result in the generation of suitable genetic systems in the near future.

  5. Structure of a hexameric form of RadA recombinase from Methanococcus voltae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Liqin; Luo, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Hexameric rings of RadA recombinase from M. voltae have been crystallized. Structural comparisons suggest that homologues of RadA tend to form double-ringed assemblies. Archaeal RadA proteins are close homologues of eukaryal Rad51 and DMC1 proteins and are remote homologues of bacterial RecA proteins. For the repair of double-stranded breaks in DNA, these recombinases promote a pivotal strand-exchange reaction between homologous single-stranded and double-stranded DNA substrates. This DNA-repair function also plays a key role in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and in the resistance of bacterial cells to antibiotics. A hexameric form of a truncated Methanococcus voltae RadA protein devoid of its small N-terminal domain has been crystallized. The RadA hexamers further assemble into two-ringed assemblies. Similar assemblies can be observed in the crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus RadA and Homo sapiens DMC1. In all of these two-ringed assemblies the DNA-interacting L1 region of each protomer points inward towards the centre, creating a highly positively charged locus. The electrostatic characteristics of the central channels can be utilized in the design of novel recombinase inhibitors

  6. AFV1, a novel virus infecting hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus acidianus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettstetter, Marcus; Peng Xu; Garrett, Roger A.; Prangishvili, David

    2003-01-01

    We describe a novel virus, AFV1, of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus. Filamentous virions are covered with a lipid envelope and contain at least five different proteins with molecular masses in the range of 23-130 kDa and a 20.8-kb-long linear double-stranded DNA. The virus has been assigned to the family Lipothrixviridae on the basis of morphotypic characteristics. Host range is confined to several strains of Acidianus and the virus persists in its hosts in a stable carrier state. The latent period of virus infection is about 4 h. Viral DNA was sequenced and sequence similarities were found to the lipothrixvirus SIFV, the rudiviruses SIRV1 and SIRV2, as well as to conjugative plasmids and chromosomes of the genus Sulfolobus. Exceptionally for the linear genomes of archaeal viruses, many short direct repeats, with the sequence TTGTT or close variants thereof, are closely clustered over 300 bp at each end of the genome. They are reminiscent of the telomeric ends of linear eukaryal chromosomes

  7. Redox stress proteins are involved in adaptation response of the hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus to nickel challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaloni Andrea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to nickel (Ni and its chemical derivatives has been associated with severe health effects in human. On the contrary, poor knowledge has been acquired on target physiological processes or molecular mechanisms of this metal in model organisms, including Bacteria and Archaea. In this study, we describe an analysis focused at identifying proteins involved in the recovery of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus strain MT4 from Ni-induced stress. Results To this purpose, Sulfolobus solfataricus was grown in the presence of the highest nickel sulphate concentration still allowing cells to survive; crude extracts from treated and untreated cells were compared at the proteome level by using a bi-dimensional chromatography approach. We identified several proteins specifically repressed or induced as result of Ni treatment. Observed up-regulated proteins were largely endowed with the ability to trigger recovery from oxidative and osmotic stress in other biological systems. It is noteworthy that most of the proteins induced following Ni treatment perform similar functions and a few have eukaryal homologue counterparts. Conclusion These findings suggest a series of preferential gene expression pathways activated in adaptation response to metal challenge.

  8. Characterization of a mimivirus RNA cap guanine-N2 methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroch, Delphine; Qiu, Zhicheng R; Schwer, Beate; Shuman, Stewart

    2009-04-01

    A 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap is a signature feature of eukaryal snRNAs, telomerase RNAs, and trans-spliced nematode mRNAs. TMG and 2,7-dimethylguanosine (DMG) caps are also present on mRNAs of two species of alphaviruses (positive strand RNA viruses of the Togaviridae family). It is presently not known how viral mRNAs might acquire a hypermethylated cap. Mimivirus, a giant DNA virus that infects amoeba, encodes many putative enzymes and proteins implicated in RNA transactions, including the synthesis and capping of viral mRNAs and the promotion of cap-dependent translation. Here we report the identification, purification, and characterization of a mimivirus cap-specific guanine-N2 methyltransferase (MimiTgs), a monomeric enzyme that catalyzes a single round of methyl transfer from AdoMet to an m(7)G cap substrate to form a DMG cap product. MimiTgs, is apparently unable to convert a DMG cap to a TMG cap, and is thereby distinguished from the structurally homologous yeast and human Tgs1 enzymes. Nonetheless, we show genetically that MimiTgs is a true ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tgs1. Our results hint that DMG caps can satisfy many of the functions of TMG caps in vivo. We speculate that DMG capping of mimivirus mRNAs might favor viral protein synthesis in the infected host.

  9. New concepts in anaerobic digestion processes: recent advances and biological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-Hinojosa, Antonio; Armato, Caterina; Pozo, Clementina; González-Martínez, Alejandro; González-López, Jesús

    2018-06-01

    Waste treatment and the simultaneous production of energy have gained great interest in the world. In the last decades, scientific efforts have focused largely on improving and developing sustainable bioprocess solutions for energy recovery from challenging waste. Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been developed as a low-cost organic waste treatment technology with a simple setup and relatively limited investment and operating costs. Different technologies such as one-stage and two-stage AD have been developed. The viability and performance of these technologies have been extensively reported, showing the supremacy of two-stage AD in terms of overall energy recovery from biomass under different substrates, temperatures, and pH conditions. However, a comprehensive review of the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies is still lacking. Since microbial ecology is critical to developing successful AD, many studies have shown the structure and dynamics of archaeal and bacterial communities in this type of system. However, the role of Eukarya groups remains largely unknown to date. In this review, we provide a comprehensive review of the role, abundance, dynamics, and structure of archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryal communities during the AD process. The information provided could help researchers to select the adequate operational parameters to obtain the best performance and biogas production results.

  10. Human tRNALys3UUU Is Pre-Structured by Natural Modifications for Cognate and Wobble Codon Binding through Keto-Enol Tautomerism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendeix, Franck A.P.; Murphy, IV, Frank V.; Cantara, William A.; Leszczy,; #324; ska, Gra; #380; yna,; Gustilo, Estella M.; Sproat, Brian; Malkiewicz, Andrzej; Agris, Paul F. [Cornell; (NCSU); (Poland); (Integrated DNA); (SUNYA)

    2013-09-27

    Human tRNALys3UUU (htRNALys3UUU) decodes the lysine codons AAA and AAG during translation and also plays a crucial role as the primer for HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) reverse transcription. The posttranscriptional modifications 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U34), 2-methylthio-N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ms2t6A37), and pseudouridine (Ψ39) in the tRNA's anticodon domain are critical for ribosomal binding and HIV-1 reverse transcription. To understand the importance of modified nucleoside contributions, we determined the structure and function of this tRNA's anticodon stem and loop (ASL) domain with these modifications at positions 34, 37, and 39, respectively (hASLLys3UUU-mcm5s2U34;ms2t6A3739). Ribosome binding assays in vitro revealed that the hASLLys3UUU-mcm5s2U34;ms2t6A3739 bound AAA and AAG codons, whereas binding of the unmodified ASLLys3UUU was barely detectable. The UV hyperchromicity, the circular dichroism, and the structural analyses indicated that Ψ39 enhanced the thermodynamic stability of the ASL through base stacking while ms2t6A37 restrained the anticodon to adopt an open loop conformation that is required for ribosomal binding. The NMR-restrained molecular-dynamics-derived solution structure revealed that the modifications provided an open, ordered loop for codon binding. The crystal structures of the hASLLys3UUU-mcm5s2U34;ms2t6A3739 bound to the 30S ribosomal subunit with each codon in the A site showed that the

  11. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases database Y2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, M; Barciszewski, J

    2000-01-01

    The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) are a diverse group of enzymes that ensure the fidelity of transfer of genetic information from DNA into protein. They catalyse the attachment of amino acids to transfer RNAs and thereby establish the rules of the genetic code by virtue of matching the nucleotide triplet of the anticodon with its cognate amino acid. Currently, 818 AARS primary structures have been reported from archaebacteria, eubacteria, mitochondria, chloro-plasts and eukaryotic cells. The database is a compilation of the amino acid sequences of all AARSs, known to date, which are available as separate entries or alignments of related proteins via the WWW at http://rose.man.poznan.pl/aars/index.html

  12. The mitochondrial genome of the deep-sea glass sponge Lophophysema eversa (Porifera, Hexacinellida, Hyalonematidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Sun, Jin; Li, Xinzheng; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We reported a nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) from the glass sponge Lophophysema eversa, the second mitogenome in the order Amphidiscosida and the ninth in the class Hexactinellida. It is 20,651 base pairs in length and contains 39 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA subunit genes and 24 tRNA genes. The gene content and order of L. eversa are identical to those of Tabachnickia sp., the other species with a sequenced mitogenome in Amphidiscosida, except with two additional tRNAs and three tRNA translocations. The cob gene has a +1 translational frameshift. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny of glass sponges.

  13. A Tyrosine-Dependent Riboswitch Controls the Expression of a Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bustamante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is regulated by a variety of mechanisms at the level of transcription or translation. A T-box dependent transcription termination / antitermination riboswitch system that responds to charged / uncharged tRNA regulates expression of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase genes in Gram-positive bacteria. TyrZ, the gene encoding tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, a Gram-negative acidophilic bacterium that participates in bioleaching of minerals, resembles the gene from Bacillus subtilis including the 5´-untranslated region encoding the riboswitch. Transcription of A. ferrooxidans tyrZ is induced by the presence of tyrosine by a mechanism involving antitermination of transcription. This mechanism is probably adapted to the low supply of amino acids of acidic environments of autotrophic bioleaching microorganisms. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the redeye mullet Liza haematocheila (Teleostei, Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Li, Yinglei; Chen, Haigang; Yan, Binlun; Meng, Xueping

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial sequence of the redeye mullet Liza haematocheila has been determined. The circle genome is 16,822 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of L. haematocheila was similar to that of most other teleosts. The base composition of H-strand is 26.42% (A), 26.38% (T), 16.72% (G) and 30.47% (C), with an AT content of 52.8%. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of L. haematocheila presented will be in favor of resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Scatophagidae and the Mugiliformes.

  15. 5S rRNA-derived and tRNA-derived SINEs in fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2009-05-01

    Most short retroposons (SINEs) descend from cellular tRNA of 7SL RNA. Here, four new SINEs were found in megabats (Megachiroptera) but neither in microbats nor in other mammals. Two of them, MEG-RS and MEG-RL, descend from another cellular RNA, 5S rRNA; one (MEG-T2) is a tRNA-derived SINE; and MEG-TR is a hybrid tRNA/5S rRNA SINE. Insertion locus analysis suggests that these SINEs were active in the recent fruit bat evolution. Analysis of MEG-RS and MEG-RL in comparison with other few 5S rRNA-derived SINEs demonstrates that the internal RNA polymerase III promoter is their most invariant region, while the secondary structure is more variable. The mechanisms underlying the modular structure of these and other SINEs as well as their variation are discussed. The scenario of evolution of MEG SINEs is proposed.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae): a novel location of putative control regions (CR) in the mitogenome within Pulmonate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhang-Ping; Dai, Xia-Bin; Zhang, Shuai; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The whole sequence (15,057 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica (order Stylommatophora) was determined. The mitogenome, as the typical metazoan mtDNA, contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA). The tRNA genes include two trnS without standard secondary structure. Interestingly, among the known mitogenomes of Pulmonata species, we firstly characterized an unassigned lengthy sequence (551 bp) between the cox1 and the trnV which may be the CR for the sake of its AT bases usage bias (65.70%) and potential hairpin structure.

  17. Mapping Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu residues involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Ove; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1996-01-01

    Two residues of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA were identified and subjected to mutational analysis. Lys-89 and Asn-90 were each replaced by either Ala or Glu. The four single mutants were denoted K89A, K89E, N90A, and N90E, respectively. The mutants...... were characterized with respect to thermal and chemical stability, GTPase activity, tRNA affinity, and activity in an in vitro translation assay. Most conspicuously tRNA affinities were reduced for all mutants. The results verify our structural analysis of elongation factor Tu in complex with aminoacyl....... Their functional roles are discussed in relation to the structure of elongation factor Tu in complex with aminoacyl-tRNA. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Aug-23...

  18. A new mitochondrial point mutation in the transfer RNA(Lys) gene associated with progressive external ophthalmoplegia with impaired respiratory regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joachim; Obermaier-Kusser, Bert; Jacobs, Martina; Milles, Cornelia; Mörl, Mario; von Pein, Harald D; Grau, Armin J; Bauer, Matthias F

    2012-05-15

    We report a novel heteroplasmic point mutation G8299A in the gene for mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) in a patient with progressive external ophthalmoplegia complicated by recurrent respiratory insufficiency. Biochemical analysis of respiratory chain complexes in muscle homogenate showed a combined complex I and IV deficiency. The transition does not represent a known neutral polymorphism and affects a position in the tRNA acceptor stem which is conserved in primates, leading to a destabilization of this functionally important domain. In vitro analysis of an essential maturation step of the tRNA transcript indicates the probable pathogenicity of this mutation. We hypothesize that there is a causal relationship between the novel G8299A transition and progressive external ophthalmoplegia with recurrent respiratory failure due to a depressed respiratory drive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome protein in translation machinery and cell chemotaxis: a comparative genomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasieva O

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Olga VasievaInstitute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Fellowship for the Interpretation of Genomes, Burr Ridge, IL, USAAbstract: Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS is linked to a mutation in a single gene. The SBDS proinvolved in RNA metabolism and ribosome-associated functions, but SBDS mutation is primarily linked to a defect in polymorphonuclear leukocytes unable to orient correctly in a spatial gradient of chemoattractants. Results of data mining and comparative genomic approaches undertaken in this study suggest that SBDS protein is also linked to tRNA metabolism and translation initiation. Analysis of crosstalk between translation machinery and cytoskeletal dynamics provides new insights into the cellular chemotactic defects caused by SBDS protein malfunction. The proposed functional interactions provide a new approach to exploit potential targets in the treatment and monitoring of this disease.Keywords: Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome, wybutosine, tRNA, chemotaxis, translation, genomics, gene proximity

  20. Recoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for synthetic biology by rational protein-RNA engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadd, Andrew; Perona, John J

    2014-12-19

    We have taken a rational approach to redesigning the amino acid binding and aminoacyl-tRNA pairing specificities of bacterial glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. The four-stage engineering incorporates generalizable design principles and improves the pairing efficiency of noncognate glutamate with tRNA(Gln) by over 10(5)-fold compared to the wild-type enzyme. Better optimized designs of the protein-RNA complex include substantial reengineering of the globular core region of the tRNA, demonstrating a role for specific tRNA nucleotides in specifying the identity of the genetically encoded amino acid. Principles emerging from this engineering effort open new prospects for combining rational and genetic selection approaches to design novel aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that ligate noncanonical amino acids onto tRNAs. This will facilitate reconstruction of the cellular translation apparatus for applications in synthetic biology.

  1. Over Expression of a tRNALeu Isoacceptor Changes Charging Pattern of Leucine tRNAs and Reveals New Codon Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Elf, J.; Bouakaz, E.

    2005-01-01

    During mRNA translation, synonymous codons for one amino acid are often read by different isoaccepting tRNAs. The theory of selective tRNA charging predicts greatly varying percentages of aminoacylation among isoacceptors in cells starved for their common amino acid. It also predicts major changes...... in tRNA charging patterns upon concentration changes of single isoacceptors, which suggests a novel type of translational control of gene expression. We therefore tested the theory by measuring with Northern blots the charging of Leu-tRNAs in Escherichia coli under Leu limitation in response to over...... postulated a previously unknown common codon for tRNALeu GAG and tRNALeu UAG. Subsequently, we demonstrated that the tRNALeu GAG codon CUU is, in fact, read also by tRNALeu UAG, due to a uridine-5-oxyacetic acid modification....

  2. Synthesis and biological incorporatin of icons into macromolecules for NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.M.

    1976-02-01

    Work has proceeded successfully to synthesize novel 13 C-labeled materials for incorporation into macromolecules. Gram quantities of C-4 labeled uracil have been synthesized and incorporated, by means of a mutant bacterial strain into t-RNA. The t-RNA has been isolated, purified, and carbon-13 T 1 studies have begun. A modern, well equipped biochemistry laboratory has become functional during the present contract period. Good progress has been made on nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with selected amino actions. This effort has successfully elucidated many reaction intermediates and products. In addition, 13 C containing haptens have been synthesized and screening tests have now begun on rabbits to verify the specificity of antibodies for two haptens

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of a wild Siberian tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Zhaohui; Guan, Weijun; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male wild tiger. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,996 bp. The genome structure of this tiger is in accordance with other Siberian tigers and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2011-08-01

    The total length of the mitogenome of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai is 16,839 bp with a total base composition of 31.8% A, 25.4% T, 28.7% C, and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Honghai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the unique species in Chrysocyon, was sequenced and reported for the first time using blood samples obtained from a female individual in Shanghai Zoo, China. Sequence analysis showed that the genome structure was in accordance with other Canidae species and it contained 12 S rRNA gene, 16 S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region.

  6. Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

  7. Advances in RNA Structure Determination | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent years have witnessed a revolution in the field of RNA structure and function. Until recently the main contribution of RNA in cellular and disease functions was considered to be a role defined by the central dogma, namely DNA codes for mRNAs, which in turn encode for proteins, a notion facilitated by non-coding ribosomal RNA and tRNA. It was also assumed at the time

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Melipona scutellaris, a Brazilian stingless bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ulisses de Padua; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Santos, Anderson Rodrigues Dos; Oliveira, Guilherme Correa de; Cuadros-Orellana, Sara; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Melipona scutellaris is a Brazilian stingless bee species and a highly important native pollinator besides its use in rational rearing for honey production. In this study, we present the whole mitochondrial DNA sequence of M. scutellaris from a haploid male. The mitogenome has a size of 14,862 bp and harbors 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes and 21 tRNA genes.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the agarophyte red alga Gelidium vagum (Gelidiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Chan; Kim, Kyeong Mi; Boo, Ga Hun; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Boo, Sung Min; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2014-08-01

    We describe the first complete mitochondrial genome of Gelidium vagum (Gelidiales) (24,901 bp, 30.4% GC content), an agar-producing red alga. The circular mitochondrial genome contains 43 genes, including 23 protein-coding, 18 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes. All the protein-coding genes have a typical ATG start codon. No introns were found. Two genes, secY and rps12, were overlapped by 41 bp.

  10. Light influences cytokinin biosynthesis and sensing in Nostoc (cyanobacteria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frébortová, J.; Plíhal, O.; Florová, P.; Kokáš, F.; Kubiasová, K.; Greplová, M.; Šimura, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Frébort, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2017), s. 703-714 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : cytokinin * expression profiling * miaA * Nostoc * RNA-seq * sensor kinase * tRNA IPT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  11. The mitochondrial genome of Phallusia mammillata and Phallusia fumigata (Tunicata, Ascidiacea: high genome plasticity at intra-genus level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesole Graziano

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within Chordata, the subphyla Vertebrata and Cephalochordata (lancelets are characterized by a remarkable stability of the mitochondrial (mt genome, with constancy of gene content and almost invariant gene order, whereas the limited mitochondrial data on the subphylum Tunicata suggest frequent and extensive gene rearrangements, observed also within ascidians of the same genus. Results To confirm this evolutionary trend and to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome in Tunicata Ascidiacea, we have sequenced and characterized the complete mt genome of two congeneric ascidian species, Phallusia mammillata and Phallusia fumigata (Phlebobranchiata, Ascidiidae. The two mtDNAs are surprisingly rearranged, both with respect to one another and relative to those of other tunicates and chordates, with gene rearrangements affecting both protein-coding and tRNA genes. The new data highlight the extraordinary variability of ascidian mt genome in base composition, tRNA secondary structure, tRNA gene content, and non-coding regions (number, size, sequence and location. Indeed, both Phallusia genomes lack the trnD gene, show loss/acquisition of DHU-arm in two tRNAs, and have a G+C content two-fold higher than other ascidians. Moreover, the mt genome of P. fumigata presents two identical copies of trnI, an extra tRNA gene with uncertain amino acid specificity, and four almost identical sequence regions. In addition, a truncated cytochrome b, lacking a C-terminal tail that commonly protrudes into the mt matrix, has been identified as a new mt feature probably shared by all tunicates. Conclusion The frequent occurrence of major gene order rearrangements in ascidians both at high taxonomic level and within the same genus makes this taxon an excellent model to study the mechanisms of gene rearrangement, and renders the mt genome an invaluable phylogenetic marker to investigate molecular biodiversity and speciation

  12. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Eastern keelback mullet Liza affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoling; Zhu, Wenjia; Bao, Baolong

    2016-05-01

    Eastern keelback mullet (Liza affinis) inhabits inlet waters and estuaries of rivers. In this paper, we initially determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Liza affinis. The entire mtDNA sequence is 16,831 bp in length, including 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. Its order and numbers of genes are similar to most bony fishes.

  13. Decoding options and accuracy of translation of developmentally regulated UUA codon in Streptomyces: bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokytskyy, Ihor; Koshla, Oksana; Fedorenko, Victor; Ostash, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    The gene bldA for leucyl [Formula: see text] is known for almost 30 years as a key regulator of morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in genus Streptomyces. Codon UUA is the rarest one in Streptomyces genomes and is present exclusively in genes with auxiliary functions. Delayed accumulation of translation-competent [Formula: see text] is believed to confine the expression of UUA-containing transcripts to stationary phase. Implicit to the regulatory function of UUA codon is the assumption about high accuracy of its translation, e.g. the latter should not occur in the absence of cognate [Formula: see text]. However, a growing body of facts points to the possibility of mistranslation of UUA-containing transcripts in the bldA-deficient mutants. It is not known what type of near-cognate tRNA(s) may decode UUA in the absence of cognate tRNA in Streptomyces, and whether UUA possesses certain inherent properties (such as increased/decreased accuracy of decoding) that would favor its use for regulatory purposes. Here we took bioinformatic approach to address these questions. We catalogued the entire complement of tRNA genes from several relevant Streptomyces and identified genes for posttranscriptional modifications of tRNA that might be involved in UUA decoding by cognate and near-cognate tRNAs. Based on tRNA gene content in Streptomyces genomes, we propose possible scenarios of UUA codon mistranslation. UUA is not associated with an increased rate of missense errors as compared to other leucyl codons, contrasting general belief that low-abundant codons are more error-prone than the high-abundant ones.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered spotback skate, Atlantoraja castelnaui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Drew J L; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-05-01

    Chondrichthyes are a highly threatened class of organisms, largely due to overfishing and other human activities. The present study describes the complete mitochondrial genome (16,750 bp) of the endangered spotback skate, Atlantoraja castelnaui. The mitogenome is arranged in a typical vertebrate fashion, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region.

  15. Missense variants in AIMP1 gene are implicated in autosomal recessive intellectual disability without neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Zafar; P?ttmann, Lucia; Musante, Luciana; Razzaq, Attia; Zahoor, Muhammad Yasir; Hu, Hao; Wienker, Thomas F; Garshasbi, Masoud; Fattahi, Zohreh; Gilissen, Christian; Vissers, Lisenka ELM; de Brouwer, Arjan PM; Veltman, Joris A; Pfundt, Rolph; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    AIMP1/p43 is a multifunctional non-catalytic component of the multisynthetase complex. The complex consists of nine catalytic and three non-catalytic proteins, which catalyze the ligation of amino acids to their cognate tRNA isoacceptors for use in protein translation. To date, two allelic variants in the AIMP1 gene have been reported as the underlying cause of autosomal recessive primary neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we present two consanguineous families from Pakistan and Iran, presenti...

  16. Microbial Response to Spaceflight Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, R.

    2017-01-01

    Space radiation, including Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE), represents a major hazard for biological systems beyond Earth. Spores of Bacillus subtilis have been shown to be suitable dosimeters for probing extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial environmental conditions in astrobiological and environmental studies. During dormancy spores are metabolically inactive; thus substantial DNA, protein, tRNA and ribosome damage can accumulate while the spo...

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Eustigmatophyte Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, T.; Klimeš, V.; Zbránková, V.; Strnad, Hynek; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Eliáš, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), s. 705-722 ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-33039S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1208; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0100 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Eustigmatophyceae * evolution * phylogenomics * split genes * Stramenopiles * suppressor tRNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.979, year: 2016

  18. Effect of intramolecular photochemical cross-linking and of alkylation of 4-thiouridine in E. coli tRNAsub(l)sup(Val). On the heterologous misccharging by yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S A; Krauskopf, M; Ofengand, J [Roche Inst. of Molecular Biology, Nutley, N.J. (USA)

    1973-08-01

    The ability of yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase to carry out the heterologous mischarging of nine E. coli tRNAs with phenylalanine, and the presence of a common sequence in these tRNAs in the double stranded region adjacent to the dihydrouridine loop, have led to the proposal (by Dudock) that this region of the tRNA is involved in recognition by the yeast enzyme. The validity of this hypothesis has now been examined by chemical modification of the region in question using as a test tRNA, E. coli tRNA/sub 1/sup( val). Photochemical cross-linking of /sup 4/S(8) and C(13) by irradiation at 335 nm led to a complete loss of the ability of yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase to functionally recognize tRNA/sub 1/sup( val) and the rate of cross-linking was correlated with the rate of loss of activity when appropriate assay conditions were used. Cross-linking had no effect on the recognition by the homologous E. coli valyl-tRNA synthetase (EC 6.1.1.9). Similarly, S-alkylation of the /sup 4/S(8) residue with iodoacetamide at pH 9 yielded the uridine-4-thio(2-acetamide) derivative of tRNA with no loss of homologous recognition but with complete loss of heterologous charging activity. These results provide evidence that at least part of the yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase recognition site is located in the region of the tRNA proposed by Dudock, and, as a corollary, show that the E. coli valyl-tRNA synthetase recognition site(s) must be elsewhere in the molecule.

  19. A neutron scattering study of the ternary complex EF-Tu.GTP-valyl-tRNAVal1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, R.; Elias, P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    The complex formation between elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), GTP, and valyl-tRNAVal1A has been investigated in a hepes buffer of "pH" 7.4 and 0.2 M ionic strength using the small-angle neutron scattering method at concentrations of D2O where EF-Tu (42% D2O) and tRNA (71% D2O) are successively...

  20. Genome Sequences of Subcluster K5 Mycobacteriophages AlleyCat, Edugator, and Guillsminger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rodney A; Slowan-Pomeroy, Tina M; Thomas, Jodi E; Ahmed, Tithe; Alexander, Katie L; Biddle, James M; Daniels, Makenzie K; Rowlett, Jenna R; Senay, Taylor E; Rinehart, Claire A; Staples, Amanda K; Rowland, Naomi S; Gaffney, Bobby L; Emmons, Christine B; Hauk, Maya D; Nguyen, Rebecca L; Naegele, Leonard; Strickland, Summer S; Briggs, Laura A; Rush, Alexander N; Saha, Sanghamitra; Sadana, Rachna; Cresawn, Steven G; Russell, Daniel A; Garlena, Rebecca A; Pope, Welkin H; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2017-11-09

    Bacteriophages AlleyCat, Edugator, and Guillsminger were isolated on Mycobacterium smegmatis mc 2 155 from enriched soil samples. All are members of mycobacteriophage subcluster K5, with genomes of 62,112 to 63,344 bp. Each genome contains 92 to 99 predicted protein-coding genes and one tRNA. Guillsminger is the first mycobacteriophage to carry an IS 1380 family transposon. Copyright © 2017 King et al.

  1. tRNAs as Biomarkers and Regulators for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Biol., 158, 573–597. 28. Kanaya,S., Yamada,Y., Kudo,Y. and Ikemura,T. (1999) Studies of codon usage and tRNA genes of 18 unicellular organisms and...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637 REPORT DATE...6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Tao Pan * 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  2. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: チロシン‐tRNAリガーゼ [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term チロシン‐tRNAリガーゼ 名詞 一般 * * * * チロシン‐...tRNAリガーゼ ... MeSH D014448 200906001332402130 C LS38 UNKNOWN_2 チロシン ‐ tRNA リガーゼ

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the blacknose shark Carcharhinus acronotus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Matthes-Rosana, Kerri A; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the blacknose shark Carcharhinus acronotus has been determined in this work. It has a length of 16,719 bp and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. The gene composition and genome organization was similar to other vertebrates. This study represents part of an ongoing effort to obtain mitochondrial genome sequences for chondrichthyan species in order to better estimate their phylogenetic relationships.

  4. The mitochondrial genomes of Atlas Geckos (Quedenfeldtia): mitogenome assembly from transcriptomes and anchored hybrid enrichment datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Lyra, Mariana L.; Joger, Ulrich; Schulte, Ulrich; Slimani, Tahar; El Mouden, El Hassan; Bouazza, Abdellah; Künzel, Sven; Lemmon, Alan R.; Moriarty Lemmon, Emily; Vences, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The nearly complete mitogenomes of the two species of North African Atlas geckos, Quedenfeldtia moerens and Q. trachyblepharus were assembled from anchored hybrid enrichment data and RNAseq data. Congruent assemblies were obtained for four samples included in both datasets. We recovered the 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes for both species, including partial control region. The order of genes agrees with that of other geckos.

  5. Localization of tRNAsup(asp)2 genes from Drosophila melanogaster by 'in situ' hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Egg, A.H.; Kubli, E.

    1978-01-01

    Transfer RNAsup(asp) 2 delta was isolated from Drosophila melanogaster by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose. The tRNA was iodinated 'in vitro' with Na[ 125 I] and hybridized 'in situ' to salivary gland chromosomes from Drosophila. Subsequent autoradiography allowed the localization of the genes for tRNAsup(asp) 2 delta to the left arm of the second chromosome in the regions 29 D and E. (orig.) [de

  6. Reversible infantile mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczonadi, Veronika; Bansagi, Boglarka; Horvath, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are usually severe and progressive conditions; however, there are rare forms that show remarkable spontaneous recoveries. Two homoplasmic mitochondrial tRNA mutations (m.14674T>C/G in mt-tRNA(Glu)) have been reported to cause severe infantile mitochondrial myopathy in the first months of life. If these patients survive the first year of life by extensive life-sustaining measures they usually recover and develop normally. Another mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of the 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) causes severe liver failure in infancy, but similar to the reversible mitochondrial myopathy, within the first year of life these infants may also recover completely. Partial recovery has been noted in some other rare forms of mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of mitochondrial tRNA synthetases and mitochondrial tRNA modifying enzymes. Here we summarize the clinical presentation of these unique reversible mitochondrial diseases and discuss potential molecular mechanisms behind the reversibility. Understanding these mechanisms may provide the key to treatments of potential broader relevance in mitochondrial disease, where for the majority of the patients no effective treatment is currently available.

  7. The bipartite mitochondrial genome of Ruizia karukerae (Rhigonematomorpha, Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Kern, Elizabeth; Park, Chungoo; Nadler, Steven A; Bae, Yeon Jae; Park, Joong-Ki

    2018-05-10

    Mitochondrial genes and whole mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers in studying population genetics and resolving both deep and shallow nodes in phylogenetics. In animals the mitochondrial genome is generally composed of a single chromosome, but mystifying exceptions sometimes occur. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the millipede-parasitic nematode Ruizia karukerae and found its mitochondrial genome consists of two circular chromosomes, which is highly unusual in bilateral animals. Chromosome I is 7,659 bp and includes six protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and nine tRNA genes. Chromosome II comprises 7,647 bp, with seven protein-coding genes and 16 tRNA genes. Interestingly, both chromosomes share a 1,010 bp sequence containing duplicate copies of cox2 and three tRNA genes (trnD, trnG and trnH), and the nucleotide sequences between the duplicated homologous gene copies are nearly identical, suggesting a possible recent genesis for this bipartite mitochondrial genome. Given that little is known about the formation, maintenance or evolution of abnormal mitochondrial genome structures, R. karukerae mtDNA may provide an important early glimpse into this process.

  8. Hidden layers of human small RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Nakamura, Mari; Takahashi, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    small RNA have focused on miRNA and/or siRNA rather than on the exploration of additional classes of RNAs. RESULTS: Here, we explored human small RNAs by unbiased sequencing of RNAs with sizes of 19-40 nt. We provide substantial evidences for the existence of independent classes of small RNAs. Our data......BACKGROUND: Small RNA attracts increasing interest based on the discovery of RNA silencing and the rapid progress of our understanding of these phenomena. Although recent studies suggest the possible existence of yet undiscovered types of small RNAs in higher organisms, many studies to profile...... shows that well-characterized non-coding RNA, such as tRNA, snoRNA, and snRNA are cleaved at sites specific to the class of ncRNA. In particular, tRNA cleavage is regulated depending on tRNA type and tissue expression. We also found small RNAs mapped to genomic regions that are transcribed in both...

  9. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant silkworm moth, Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shao-Tong; Hong, Gui-Yun; Yu, Miao; Li, Na; Yang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2009-05-22

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT skewness for the E. pyretorum mitogenome is slightly negative (-0.031), indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As. The nucleotide composition of the E. pyretorum mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (80.82%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2 (cox1 and cox2). Two of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) and trnS2(UCN). Phylogenetic analysis among the available lepidopteran species supports the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Geometroidea, Notodontidea, Papilionoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic. As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina), Sphingoidae (Manduca sexta) and Saturniidae (Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, E. pyretorum and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a group.

  10. Parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of 123I-IMP in the brain SPECT associated with maternal inheritance of diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Atsumi, Yoshihito; Hosokawa, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Akira; Asahina, Takayuki; Matsuoka, Kempei; Hata, Takashi; Taniyama, Matsuo.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the latent effect of diabetes inheritance on central nervous system, thirty diabetic patients were examined (14 male, 16 female). Seventeen patients had a mother with diabetes, and the other thirteen had non-diabetic mothers. They were previously determined to not have the 3243 mitochondrial tRNA mutation in peripheral leukocytes. Patients were tested for parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of 123 I-IMP of brain SPECT, a characteristic neurofinding of mitochondrial diabetes mellitus due to the 3243 tRNA mutation. Seven (41.2%) out of 17 subjects with material inheritance had the parieto-occipital abnormality, whereas one (7.7%) out of 13 subjects with non-maternal inheritance had the abnormality. Seventeen (94.4%) out of 18 patients diabetes due to mitochondrial tRNA mutation at position 3243 showed the abnormality. Our results suggest that the material inheritance of diabetes is associated with the hypoaccumulation of 123 I-IMP of brain SPECT. We speculate that, because the patients with maternal inheritance might have subclinical mitochondrial dysfunction due to unknown mitochondrial DNA abnormalities, the mitochondrial DNA abnormality might cause their subclinical brain damage in the parieto-occipital area. (author)

  11. Loss of the RNA polymerase III repressor MAF1 confers obesity resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhoure, Nicolas; Byrnes, Ashlee; Moir, Robyn D; Hodroj, Wassim; Preitner, Frédéric; Praz, Viviane; Marcelin, Genevieve; Chua, Streamson C; Martinez-Lopez, Nuria; Singh, Rajat; Moullan, Norman; Auwerx, Johan; Willemin, Gilles; Shah, Hardik; Hartil, Kirsten; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Kurland, Irwin; Hernandez, Nouria; Willis, Ian M

    2015-05-01

    MAF1 is a global repressor of RNA polymerase III transcription that regulates the expression of highly abundant noncoding RNAs in response to nutrient availability and cellular stress. Thus, MAF1 function is thought to be important for metabolic economy. Here we show that a whole-body knockout of Maf1 in mice confers resistance to diet-induced obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing food intake and increasing metabolic inefficiency. Energy expenditure in Maf1(-/-) mice is increased by several mechanisms. Precursor tRNA synthesis was increased in multiple tissues without significant effects on mature tRNA levels, implying increased turnover in a futile tRNA cycle. Elevated futile cycling of hepatic lipids was also observed. Metabolite profiling of the liver and skeletal muscle revealed elevated levels of many amino acids and spermidine, which links the induction of autophagy in Maf1(-/-) mice with their extended life span. The increase in spermidine was accompanied by reduced levels of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, which promotes polyamine synthesis, enables nicotinamide salvage to regenerate NAD(+), and is associated with obesity resistance. Consistent with this, NAD(+) levels were increased in muscle. The importance of MAF1 for metabolic economy reveals the potential for MAF1 modulators to protect against obesity and its harmful consequences. © 2015 Bonhoure et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Skylark, Alauda arvensis (Aves: Passeriformes): the first representative of the family Alaudidae with two extensive heteroplasmic control regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaoju; Wang, Yuanxiu; Guo, Zhichun; Yang, Jianke; Kan, Xianzhao

    2013-06-01

    The circular mitochondrial genome of Alauda arvensis is 17,018 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 2 extensive heteroplasmic control regions. All of the genes encoded on the H-strand, with the exceptions of one PCG (nad6) and eight tRNA genes (tRNA(Gln), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Ser(UCN)), tRNA(Pro), and tRNA(Glu)), as found in other birds' mitochondrial genomes. All of these PCGs are initiated with ATG, while stopped by six types of stop codons. All tRNA genes have the potential to fold into typical clover-leaf structure. Two extensive heteroplasmic control regions were found, and more interestingly, a minisatellite of 37 nucleotides (5'-TCAATCCCATTGATTTCATTATATTAGTATAAAGAAA-3') with 6 tandem repeats was detected at the end of CR2.

  13. Parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP in the brain SPECT associated with maternal inheritance of diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Atsumi, Yoshihito; Hosokawa, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Akira; Asahina, Takayuki; Matsuoka, Kempei [Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hata, Takashi; Taniyama, Matsuo

    1997-07-01

    To determine the latent effect of diabetes inheritance on central nervous system, thirty diabetic patients were examined (14 male, 16 female). Seventeen patients had a mother with diabetes, and the other thirteen had non-diabetic mothers. They were previously determined to not have the 3243 mitochondrial tRNA mutation in peripheral leukocytes. Patients were tested for parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP of brain SPECT, a characteristic neurofinding of mitochondrial diabetes mellitus due to the 3243 tRNA mutation. Seven (41.2%) out of 17 subjects with material inheritance had the parieto-occipital abnormality, whereas one (7.7%) out of 13 subjects with non-maternal inheritance had the abnormality. Seventeen (94.4%) out of 18 patients diabetes due to mitochondrial tRNA mutation at position 3243 showed the abnormality. Our results suggest that the material inheritance of diabetes is associated with the hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP of brain SPECT. We speculate that, because the patients with maternal inheritance might have subclinical mitochondrial dysfunction due to unknown mitochondrial DNA abnormalities, the mitochondrial DNA abnormality might cause their subclinical brain damage in the parieto-occipital area. (author)

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sesarmops sinensis reveals gene rearrangements and phylogenetic relationships in Brachyura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bo-Ping; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Zhang, Hua-Bin; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Liu, Qiu-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is very important to understand molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Herein, in this study, the complete mitogenome of Sesarmops sinensis was reported. The mitogenome was 15,905 bp in size, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew and the GC skew are both negative in the mitogenomes of S. sinensis. The nucleotide composition of the S. sinensis mitogenome was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (75.7%). All tRNA genes displayed a typical mitochondrial tRNA cloverleaf structure, except for the trnS1 gene, which lacked a dihydroxyuridine arm. S. sinensis exhibits a novel rearrangement compared with the Pancrustacean ground pattern and other Brachyura species. Based on the 13 PCGs, the phylogenetic analysis showed that S. sinensis and Sesarma neglectum were clustered on one branch with high nodal support values, indicating that S. sinensis and S. neglectum have a sister group relationship. The group (S. sinensis + S. neglectum) was sister to (Parasesarmops tripectinis + Metopaulias depressus), suggesting that S. sinensis belongs to Grapsoidea, Sesarmidae. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid sequences and nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs using BI and ML respectively indicate that section Eubrachyura consists of four groups clearly. The resulting phylogeny supports the establishment of a separate subsection Potamoida. These four groups correspond to four subsections of Raninoida, Heterotremata, Potamoida, and Thoracotremata.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Aquifex aeolicus SelA, a bacterial selenocysteine synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial selenocysteine synthase SelA from Aquifex aeolicus was crystallized and the diffraction resolution was improved by lysine-residue methylation, truncation of N-terminal region (ΔN), and Lys-to-Ala point mutations. Phases were determined by using a selenomethionine-substituted crystal of the ΔN mutant. Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, is synthesized on its specific tRNA (tRNA Sec ) via a multi-step process. In bacteria, tRNA Sec is ligated first with serine by seryl-tRNA synthetase, which is followed by Ser-to-Sec conversion by Sec synthase (SelA). To elucidate its structure and catalytic mechanism, Aquifex aeolicus SelA was crystallized. Although wild-type SelA crystals diffracted X-rays poorly (to up to 8 Å resolution), the resolution was improved by introducing a quadruple point mutation targeting the loop regions and by methylating the lysine residues, which yielded 3.9 Å resolution diffraction data from a full-length SelA crystal. Truncation of the N-terminal region (ΔN) also improved the resolution. A 3.3 Å resolution data set for phase determination was obtained from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted Lys-methylated SelA-ΔN

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mottled skate: Raja pulchra (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dageum; Kim, Sung; Kim, Choong-Gon; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-05-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA of a mottled skate, Raja pulchra was sequenced as being circular molecules of 16,907 bp including 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and an AT-rich control region. The organization of the PCGs is the same as those found in other Rajidae species. The nucleotide of L-strand is composed of 29.8% A, 28.0% C, 27.9% T, and 14.3% G with a bias toward A + T slightly. Twelve of 13 PCGs are initiated by the ATG codon while COX1 starts with GTG. Only ND4 harbors the incomplete termination codon, TA. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA with the exception of [Formula: see text] which has a reduced DHU arm. This mitogenome will provide essential information for better phylogenetic resolution and precision of the family Rajidae and the genus Raja as well as for establishment of a fish stock recovery plan of the species.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Kwangtung skate: Dipturus kwangtungensis (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dageum; Kim, Sung; Kim, Choong-Gon; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA of a Kwangtung skate, Dipturus kwangtungensis, was determined as being circular molecules of 16,912 bp including 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, 13 protein coding genes (PCGs) and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in other Rajidae species. The nucleotide of L-strand which encodes most of the proteins is composed of 30.2% A, 27.4% C, 28.2% T and 14.2% G with a bias toward A+T slightly. Twelve of 13 PCGs are initiated by the ATG codon while COX1 starts with GTG. Only ND4 harbors the incomplete termination codon, TA. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA with the exception of tRNA(Ser)AGY, which has a reduced DHU arm. This mitogenome is the first report for a species of the genus Dipturus, which will become an important source of information on the phylogenetic relationship and the evolution of the genus Dipturus within the family Rajidae.

  18. The rearranged mitochondrial genome of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, a parasitoid wasp of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The partial mitochondrial genome sequence of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae was characterized. Illumina sequencing was used yielding 35,999,679 reads, from which 102,482 were utilized in the assembly. The length of the sequenced region of this partial mitochondrial genome is 15,417 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 21tRNA genes (the trnaM failed to be sequenced and a partial A+T-rich region. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven protein-coding genes presented TAA stop codons, whereas ND6 and COII that presented TA, and T nucleotides, respectively. The gene pattern revealed extensive rearrangements compared to the typical pattern generally observed in insects. These rearrangements involve two protein-coding and two ribosomal genes, along with the 16 tRNA genes. This gene order is different from the pattern described for Ibalia leucospoides (Ibaliidae, Cynipoidea, suggesting that this particular gene order can be variable among Cynipoidea superfamily members. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Apocrita was performed using amino acid sequence of 13 protein-coding genes, showing monophyly for the Cynipoidea superfamily within the Hymenoptera phylogeny.

  19. Structure of a class II TrmH tRNA-modifying enzyme from Aquifex aeolicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleshe, Elizabeth; Truesdell, John; Batey, Robert T.

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus TrmH, a member of the a/b-knot superfamily responsible for O methylation of G18 of tRNAs, was determined to 1.85 Å resolution using the molecular-replacement method. Biological RNAs contain a variety of post-transcriptional modifications that facilitate their efficient function in the cellular environment. One of the two most common forms of modification is methylation of the 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose sugar, which is performed by a number of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) dependent methyltransferases. In bacteria, many of these modifications in tRNA and rRNA are carried out by the α/β-knot superfamily of enzymes, whose SAM-binding pocket is created by a characteristic deep trefoil knot. TrmH, an enzyme found throughout all three kingdoms of life, modifies the universally conserved guanosine 18 position of tRNA. The crystal structure of TrmH from the thermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus has been determined at 1.85 Å resolution using data collected from a synchrotron-radiation source. The protein reveals a fold typical of members of the SpoU clan of proteins, a subfamily of the α/β-knot superfamily, with α-helical extensions at the N- and C-termini that are likely to be involved in tRNA binding

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transfer RNA Induces IL-12p70 via Synergistic Activation of Pattern Recognition Receptors within a Cell Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Caroline; Krutzik, Stephan; Schenk, Mirjam; Scumpia, Philip O; Lu, Jing; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; Russell, Brandon S; Lim, Kok Seong; Shell, Scarlet; Prestwich, Erin; Su, Dan; Elashoff, David; Hershberg, Robert M; Bloom, Barry R; Belisle, John T; Fortune, Sarah; Dedon, Peter C; Pellegrini, Matteo; Modlin, Robert L

    2018-05-01

    Upon recognition of a microbial pathogen, the innate and adaptive immune systems are linked to generate a cell-mediated immune response against the foreign invader. The culture filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains ligands, such as M. tuberculosis tRNA, that activate the innate immune response and secreted Ags recognized by T cells to drive adaptive immune responses. In this study, bioinformatics analysis of gene-expression profiles derived from human PBMCs treated with distinct microbial ligands identified a mycobacterial tRNA-induced innate immune network resulting in the robust production of IL-12p70, a cytokine required to instruct an adaptive Th1 response for host defense against intracellular bacteria. As validated by functional studies, this pathway contained a feed-forward loop, whereby the early production of IL-18, type I IFNs, and IL-12p70 primed NK cells to respond to IL-18 and produce IFN-γ, enhancing further production of IL-12p70. Mechanistically, tRNA activates TLR3 and TLR8, and this synergistic induction of IL-12p70 was recapitulated by the addition of a specific TLR8 agonist with a TLR3 ligand to PBMCs. These data indicate that M. tuberculosis tRNA activates a gene network involving the integration of multiple innate signals, including types I and II IFNs, as well as distinct cell types to induce IL-12p70. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Transfer RNA species in human lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens and in leukemic cells. [/sup 3/H, /sup 14/C, /sup 32/P tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, G.D.; Yang, W.K.; Novelli, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) profiles in human lymphocytes stimulated by various mitogens have been compared with profiles from nonstimulated cells and from leukemic cells using reversed-phase chromatography. Comparisons of (/sup 3/H)- or (/sup 11/C)uridine- or (/sup 32/P)phosphate-labeled tRNAs showed that the greatest changes in tRNA composition upon phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation occurred in the first 8 h after mitogen addition. Stimulation of lymphocytes by pokeweed mitogen, anti-human immunoglobulin, or bacterial lipopolysaccharide resulted in tRNA species which showed distinct differences from each other and also from the tRNAs produced by phytohemagglutinin stimulation. Leukemic lymphocyte tRNAs showed the most extensive differences in profile when compared with chromatograms from non-neoplastic cells stimulated by a variety of mitogens. Specific isoaccepting species of tyrosyl-, aspartyl-, and phenylalanyl-tRNAs were also compared in PHA-stimulated and resting lymphocytes and no differences were found. When these same species were studied in leukemic cells, tyrosyl-tRNA profiles were shifted to elute at a lower salt concentration, while the aspartyl-tRNA profile showed a new peak not present in noncancerous cells.

  2. The flavoprotein Mcap0476 (RlmFO) catalyzes m5U1939 modification in Mycoplasma capricolum 23S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartigue, Carole; Lebaudy, Anne; Blanchard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Efficient protein synthesis in all organisms requires the post-transcriptional methylation of specific ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) nucleotides. The methylation reactions are almost invariably catalyzed by enzymes that use S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as the methyl g...... specifically modifies m5U1939 in 23S rRNA, a conserved methylation catalyzed by AdoMet-dependent enzymes in all other characterized bacteria. The Mcap0476 methyltransferase (renamed RlmFO) represents the first folate-dependent flavoprotein seen to modify ribosomal RNA.......Efficient protein synthesis in all organisms requires the post-transcriptional methylation of specific ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) nucleotides. The methylation reactions are almost invariably catalyzed by enzymes that use S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as the methyl...... group donor. One noteworthy exception is seen in some bacteria, where the conserved tRNA methylation at m5U54 is added by the enzyme TrmFO using flavin adenine dinucleotide together with N5,N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as the one-carbon donor. The minimalist bacterium Mycoplasma capricolum possesses...

  3. A single Danio rerio hars gene encodes both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial histidyl-tRNA synthetases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L Waldron

    Full Text Available Histidyl tRNA Synthetase (HARS is a member of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (ARS family of enzymes. This family of 20 enzymes is responsible for attaching specific amino acids to their cognate tRNA molecules, a critical step in protein synthesis. However, recent work highlighting a growing number of associations between ARS genes and diverse human diseases raises the possibility of new and unexpected functions in this ancient enzyme family. For example, mutations in HARS have been linked to two different neurological disorders, Usher Syndrome Type IIIB and Charcot Marie Tooth peripheral neuropathy. These connections raise the possibility of previously undiscovered roles for HARS in metazoan development, with alterations in these functions leading to complex diseases. In an attempt to establish Danio rerio as a model for studying HARS functions in human disease, we characterized the Danio rerio hars gene and compared it to that of human HARS. Using a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, and cellular approaches, we found that while the human genome encodes separate genes for cytoplasmic and mitochondrial HARS protein, the Danio rerio genome encodes a single hars gene which undergoes alternative splicing to produce the respective cytoplasmic and mitochondrial versions of Hars. Nevertheless, while the HARS genes of humans and Danio differ significantly at the genomic level, we found that they are still highly conserved at the amino acid level, underscoring the potential utility of Danio rerio as a model organism for investigating HARS function and its link to human diseases in vivo.

  4. Extensive gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of two egg parasitoids, Trichogramma japonicum and Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Chen, Peng-Yan; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hua, Hai-Qing; Li, Yuan-Xi; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2018-05-04

    Animal mitochondrial genomes usually exhibit conserved gene arrangement across major lineages, while those in the Hymenoptera are known to possess frequent rearrangements, as are those of several other orders of insects. Here, we sequenced two complete mitochondrial genomes of Trichogramma japonicum and Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae). In total, 37 mitochondrial genes were identified in both species. The same gene arrangement pattern was found in the two species, with extensive gene rearrangement compared with the ancestral insect mitochondrial genome. Most tRNA genes and all protein-coding genes were encoded on the minority strand. In total, 15 tRNA genes and seven protein-coding genes were rearranged. The rearrangements of cox1 and nad2 as well as most tRNA genes were novel. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes and on gene arrangement patterns produced identical topologies that support the relationship of (Agaonidae + Pteromalidae) + Trichogrammatidae in Chalcidoidea. CREx analysis revealed eight rearrangement operations occurred from presumed ancestral gene order of Chalcidoidea to form the derived gene order of Trichogramma. Our study shows that gene rearrangement information in Chalcidoidea can potentially contribute to the phylogeny of Chalcidoidea when more mitochondrial genome sequences are available.

  5. Gene arrangement and sequence of mitochondrial genomes yield insights into the phylogeny and evolution of bees and sphecid wasps (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo-Ying; Cao, Li-Jun; Tang, Pu; van Achterberg, Kees; Hoffmann, Ary A; Chen, Hua-Yan; Chen, Xue-Xin; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2018-07-01

    The Apoidea represent a large and common superfamily of the Hymenoptera including the bees and sphecid wasps. A robust phylogenetic tree is essential to understanding the diversity, taxonomy and evolution of the Apoidea. In this study, features of apoid mitochondrial genomes were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. Twelve apoid mitochondrial genomes were newly sequenced, representing six families and nine subfamilies. Gene rearrangement events have occurred in all apoid mitochondrial genomes sequenced to date. Sphecid wasps have both tRNA and protein-coding gene rearrangements in 5 of 8 species. In bees, the only rearranged genes are tRNAs; long-tongued bees (Apidae + Megachilidae) are characterized by movement of trnA to the trnI-trnQ-trnM tRNA cluster. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial gene sequences support the known paraphyly of sphecid wasps, with bees nested within this clade. The Ampulicidae is sister to the remaining Apoidea. Crabronidae is paraphyletic, split into Crabronidae s.s. and Philanthidae, with the latter group a sister clade to bees. The monophyletic bees are either classified into two clades, long-tongued bees (Apidae + Megachilidae) and short-tongued bees (Andrenidae + Halictidae + Colletidae + Melitidae), or three groups with the Melitidae sister to the other bees. Our study showed that both gene sequences and arrangements provide information on the phylogeny of apoid families. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional role of bacteriophage transfer RNAs: codon usage analysis of genomic sequences stored in the GENBANK/EMBL/DDBJ databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Kunisawa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete genomic sequence data are stored in the public GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases so that any investigator can make use of the data. This report describes a comparative analysis of codon usage that is impossible without such a public and open data system. A limited number of bacteriophages harbor their own transfer RNAs. Based on a comparison between T4 phage-encoded tRNA species and the relative cellular amounts of host Escherichia coli tRNAs, it is hypothesized that T4 tRNAs could serve to supplement host isoacceptor tRNA species that are present in minor amounts and thus enhance the translational efficiency of phage proteins. When compared to their respective host bacteria, the codon usage data of bacteriophages D3, φC31, HP1, D29 and 933W all show an increased frequency of synonymous codons or amino acids that correspond to phage tRNA species, suggesting their supplemental role in the efficient production of phage proteins. The data-analysis presents an example in which the availability of an open and fully accessible database system would allow one to obtain comprehensive insights into a fundamental problem in molecular biology.

  7. Multiple RNA processing defects and impaired chloroplast function in plants deficient in the organellar protein-only RNase P enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Zhou

    Full Text Available Transfer RNA (tRNA precursors undergo endoribonucleolytic processing of their 5' and 3' ends. 5' cleavage of the precursor transcript is performed by ribonuclease P (RNase P. While in most organisms RNase P is a ribonucleoprotein that harbors a catalytically active RNA component, human mitochondria and the chloroplasts (plastids and mitochondria of seed plants possess protein-only RNase P enzymes (PRORPs. The plant organellar PRORP (PRORP1 has been characterized to some extent in vitro and by transient gene silencing, but the molecular, phenotypic and physiological consequences of its down-regulation in stable transgenic plants have not been assessed. Here we have addressed the function of the dually targeted organellar PRORP enzyme in vivo by generating stably transformed Arabidopsis plants in which expression of the PRORP1 gene was suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi. PRORP1 knock-down lines show defects in photosynthesis, while mitochondrial respiration is not appreciably affected. In both plastids and mitochondria, the effects of PRORP1 knock-down on the processing of individual tRNA species are highly variable. The drastic reduction in the levels of mature plastid tRNA-Phe(GAA and tRNA-Arg(ACG suggests that these two tRNA species limit plastid gene expression in the PRORP1 mutants and, hence, are causally responsible for the mutant phenotype.

  8. Cooperative RNP assembly: Complementary rescue of structural defects by protein and RNA subunits of archaeal RNase P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yi; Xu, Yiren; Cho, I-Ming; Oruganti, Sri Vidya; Foster, Mark P.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2011-01-01

    RNase P is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that utilizes a Mg2+-dependent RNA catalyst to cleave the 5′-leader of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs) and generate mature tRNAs. The bacterial RNase P protein (RPP) aids RNase P RNA (RPR) catalysis by promoting substrate binding, Mg2+ coordination, and product release. Archaeal RNase P comprises an RPR and at least four RPPs, which have eukaryal homologs and function as two binary complexes (POP5•RPP30 and RPP21•RPP29). In this study, we employed a previously characterized substrate-enzyme conjugate [pre-tRNATyr-Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mja) RPR] to investigate the functional role of a universally conserved uridine in a bulge-helix structure in archaeal RPRs. Deletion of this bulged uridine resulted in an 80-fold decrease in the self-cleavage rate of pre-tRNATyr-MjaΔU RPR compared to the wildtype, and this defect was partially ameliorated upon addition of either RPP pair. The catalytic defect in the archaeal mutant RPR mirrors that reported in a bacterial RPR and highlights a parallel in their active sites. Furthermore, an N-terminal deletion mutant of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) RPP29 that is defective in assembling with its binary partner RPP21, as assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy, is functional when reconstituted with the cognate Pfu RPR. Collectively, these results indicate that archaeal RPPs are able to compensate for structural defects in their cognate RPR and vice-versa, and provide striking examples of the cooperative subunit interactions critical for driving archaeal RNase P towards its functional conformation. (236 words) PMID:21683084

  9. Structure-function analysis of the OB and latch domains of chlorella virus DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samai, Poulami; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-06-24

    Chlorella virus DNA ligase (ChVLig) is a minimized eukaryal ATP-dependent DNA sealing enzyme with an intrinsic nick-sensing function. ChVLig consists of three structural domains, nucleotidyltransferase (NTase), OB-fold, and latch, that envelop the nicked DNA as a C-shaped protein clamp. The OB domain engages the DNA minor groove on the face of the duplex behind the nick, and it makes contacts to amino acids in the NTase domain surrounding the ligase active site. The latch module occupies the DNA major groove flanking the nick. Residues at the tip of the latch contact the NTase domain to close the ligase clamp. Here we performed a structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB and latch domains. Alanine scanning defined seven individual amino acids as essential in vivo (Lys-274, Arg-285, Phe-286, and Val-288 in the OB domain; Asn-214, Phe-215, and Tyr-217 in the latch), after which structure-activity relations were clarified by conservative substitutions. Biochemical tests of the composite nick sealing reaction and of each of the three chemical steps of the ligation pathway highlighted the importance of Arg-285 and Phe-286 in the catalysis of the DNA adenylylation and phosphodiester synthesis reactions. Phe-286 interacts with the nick 5'-phosphate nucleotide and the 3'-OH base pair and distorts the DNA helical conformation at the nick. Arg-285 is a key component of the OB-NTase interface, where it forms a salt bridge to the essential Asp-29 side chain, which is imputed to coordinate divalent metal catalysts during the nick sealing steps.

  10. Structure-Function Analysis of the OB and Latch Domains of Chlorella Virus DNA Ligase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samai, Poulami; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Chlorella virus DNA ligase (ChVLig) is a minimized eukaryal ATP-dependent DNA sealing enzyme with an intrinsic nick-sensing function. ChVLig consists of three structural domains, nucleotidyltransferase (NTase), OB-fold, and latch, that envelop the nicked DNA as a C-shaped protein clamp. The OB domain engages the DNA minor groove on the face of the duplex behind the nick, and it makes contacts to amino acids in the NTase domain surrounding the ligase active site. The latch module occupies the DNA major groove flanking the nick. Residues at the tip of the latch contact the NTase domain to close the ligase clamp. Here we performed a structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB and latch domains. Alanine scanning defined seven individual amino acids as essential in vivo (Lys-274, Arg-285, Phe-286, and Val-288 in the OB domain; Asn-214, Phe-215, and Tyr-217 in the latch), after which structure-activity relations were clarified by conservative substitutions. Biochemical tests of the composite nick sealing reaction and of each of the three chemical steps of the ligation pathway highlighted the importance of Arg-285 and Phe-286 in the catalysis of the DNA adenylylation and phosphodiester synthesis reactions. Phe-286 interacts with the nick 5′-phosphate nucleotide and the 3′-OH base pair and distorts the DNA helical conformation at the nick. Arg-285 is a key component of the OB-NTase interface, where it forms a salt bridge to the essential Asp-29 side chain, which is imputed to coordinate divalent metal catalysts during the nick sealing steps. PMID:21527793

  11. Phototrophy in Mildly Acidic Hot Spring Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial light-driven reduction of carbon in continental hydrothermal ecosystems is restricted to environments at temperatures less than 73 °C. In circumneutral and alkaline systems bacterial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophs) are suggested to be principally responsible for this activity whereas algal (i.e., eukaryotic) phototrophs are thought to be responsible for this activity in acidic systems. In Yellowstone National Park numerous examples of phototrophic microbial communities exist at high and low pH, while hot springs with intermediate pH (values 3-5) are rare and commonly dilute. It is thought that the transition from algal photosynthesis to bacterial photosynthesis occurs within this pH range. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced bacterial and eukaryal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, analyzed pigments, and performed comprehensive geochemical measurements from 12 hot springs within this pH realm. At all sites, the largest phototrophic population was either comprised of Cyanobacteria or affiliated with the algal order Cyanidiales, which are ubiquitous in acidic springs, yet abundant sequences of both lineages were present in 8 of the 12 sites. Nevertheless, some of these samples exceeded the known temperature limit of the algae (56 °C), suggesting that these populations are dead or inactive. Indeed, one site yielded evidence for a large Cyanidiales population as the only phototrophs present, yet an experiment at the time of sampling failed to demonstrate light-driven carbon fixation, and analysis of extracted pigments showed a large amount of the chlorophyll degradation product pheophorbide a and very little intact chlorophyll, indicating photosynthesis occurred at this site when conditions were different. Our observations illustrate the dynamic nature of these systems that may be transiently conducive to photosynthesis, which may open niches for phototrophs of both domains and likely played a role in the evolution of photosynthesis.

  12. Box H/ACA snoRNAs are preferred substrates for the trimethylguanosine synthase in the divergent unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto; Chakrabarti, Kausik; Pearson, Michael; Benarroch, Delphine; Shuman, Stewart; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    The 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine caps of eukaryal snRNAs and snoRNA are formed by the enzyme Tgs1, which catalyzes sequential guanine-N2 methylations of m7G caps. Atypically, in the divergent unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis, spliceosomal snRNAs lack a guanosine cap and the recombinant T. vaginalis trimethylguanosine synthase (TvTgs) produces only m2,7G in vitro. Here, we show by direct metabolic labeling that endogenous T. vaginalis RNAs contain m7G, m2,7G, and m2,2,7G caps. Immunodepletion of TvTgs from cell extracts and TvTgs add-back experiments demonstrate that TvTgs produces m2,7G and m2,2,7G caps. Expression of TvTgs in yeast tgs1Δ cells leads to the formation of m2,7G and m2,2,7G caps and complementation of the lethality of a tgs1Δ mud2Δ strain. Whereas TvTgs is present in the nucleus and cytosol of T. vaginalis cells, TMG-containing RNAs are localized primarily in the nucleolus. Molecular cloning of anti-TMG affinity-purified T. vaginalis RNAs identified 16 box H/ACA snoRNAs, which are implicated in guiding RNA pseudouridylation. The ensemble of new T. vaginalis H/ACA snoRNAs allowed us to predict and partially validate an extensive map of pseudouridines in T. vaginalis rRNA. PMID:22847815

  13. Structural studies of a bacterial tRNA(HIS guanylyltransferase (Thg1-like protein, with nucleotide in the activation and nucleotidyl transfer sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Hyde

    Full Text Available All nucleotide polymerases and transferases catalyze nucleotide addition in a 5' to 3' direction. In contrast, tRNA(His guanylyltransferase (Thg1 enzymes catalyze the unusual reverse addition (3' to 5' of nucleotides to polynucleotide substrates. In eukaryotes, Thg1 enzymes use the 3'-5' addition activity to add G-1 to the 5'-end of tRNA(His, a modification required for efficient aminoacylation of the tRNA by the histidyl-tRNA synthetase. Thg1-like proteins (TLPs are found in Archaea, Bacteria, and mitochondria and are biochemically distinct from their eukaryotic Thg1 counterparts TLPs catalyze 5'-end repair of truncated tRNAs and act on a broad range of tRNA substrates instead of exhibiting strict specificity for tRNA(His. Taken together, these data suggest that TLPs function in distinct biological pathways from the tRNA(His maturation pathway, perhaps in tRNA quality control. Here we present the first crystal structure of a TLP, from the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (BtTLP. The enzyme is a tetramer like human THG1, with which it shares substantial structural similarity. Catalysis of the 3'-5' reaction with 5'-monophosphorylated tRNA necessitates first an activation step, generating a 5'-adenylylated intermediate prior to a second nucleotidyl transfer step, in which a nucleotide is transferred to the tRNA 5'-end. Consistent with earlier characterization of human THG1, we observed distinct binding sites for the nucleotides involved in these two steps of activation and nucleotidyl transfer. A BtTLP complex with GTP reveals new interactions with the GTP nucleotide in the activation site that were not evident from the previously solved structure. Moreover, the BtTLP-ATP structure allows direct observation of ATP in the activation site for the first time. The BtTLP structural data, combined with kinetic analysis of selected variants, provide new insight into the role of key residues in the activation step.

  14. Enzymatic synthesis of tRNA-peptide conjugates and spectroscopic studies of fluorine-modified RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, D.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis concerns the enzymatic synthesis of artificially modified tRNA, in particular the preparation of non-hydrolysable tRNA-peptide conjugates. Another focus is on NMR-spectroscopic investigations of fluorine-modified RNA. In both projects, chemical methods were developed to address specific RNA-biological research questions. In the first part of this thesis the preparation of tRNA-peptide conjugates with a non-hydrolysable 3'-amide linkage is presented. These molecules are of high relevance for the characterization of ribosomal processes that occur in the peptidyl transferase center (such as peptide bond formation, peptide release, or translocation) using X-ray crystallography and biochemical methods. First, a novel concept to prepare chemically modified ('labeled') tRNA was elaborated based on the combination of solid-phase synthesis and enzymatic ligation. Thereby, a variety of differently labeled tRNAs was achieved. Moreover, the most successful high-yield ligation sites were identified to be situated within the TΨ C-loop. Optimization of the synthesis and the corresponding HPLC-purification of the conjugates were initially conducted with puromycin derivatized tRNA. In the course of this project, also two tRNAs with a ribose 3'-amino group at the terminal adenosine A76 were synthesized. For that purpose a protection group pattern had to be developed to obtain a functionalized solid-support bound to 3'-amino-3'-deoxyadenosine which was appropriate for RNA solid-phase synthesis. The successful preparation of tRNA-peptide conjugates was accomplished in cooperation with Holger Moroder and Jessica Steger (Micura group) who contributed short synthetic RNA-peptide conjugates. These fragments represented the tRNA 3'-termini that were required for exploring the new ligation strategies for non-hydrolisable tRNA - a main aim of this thesis. If the 5'-fragments are synthesized by solid-phase synthesis or in vitro transcription they do not

  15. Hfq stimulates the activity of the CCA-adding enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betat Heike

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial Sm-like protein Hfq is known as an important regulator involved in many reactions of RNA metabolism. A prominent function of Hfq is the stimulation of RNA polyadenylation catalyzed by E. coli poly(A polymerase I (PAP. As a member of the nucleotidyltransferase superfamily, this enzyme shares a high sequence similarity with an other representative of this family, the tRNA nucleotidyltransferase that synthesizes the 3'-terminal sequence C-C-A to all tRNAs (CCA-adding enzyme. Therefore, it was assumed that Hfq might not only influence the poly(A polymerase in its specific activity, but also other, similar enzymes like the CCA-adding enzyme. Results Based on the close evolutionary relation of these two nucleotidyltransferases, it was tested whether Hfq is a specific modulator acting exclusively on PAP or whether it also influences the activity of the CCA-adding enzyme. The obtained data indicate that the reaction catalyzed by this enzyme is substantially accelerated in the presence of Hfq. Furthermore, Hfq binds specifically to tRNA transcripts, which seems to be the prerequisite for the observed effect on CCA-addition. Conclusion The increase of the CCA-addition in the presence of Hfq suggests that this protein acts as a stimulating factor not only for PAP, but also for the CCA-adding enzyme. In both cases, Hfq interacts with RNA substrates, while a direct binding to the corresponding enzymes was not demonstrated up to now (although experimental data indicate a possible interaction of PAP and Hfq. So far, the basic principle of these stimulatory effects is not clear yet. In case of the CCA-adding enzyme, however, the presented data indicate that the complex between Hfq and tRNA substrate might enhance the product release from the enzyme.

  16. An automated analysis workflow for optimization of force-field parameters using neutron scattering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Vickie E.; Borreguero, Jose M. [Neutron Data Analysis & Visualization Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Bhowmik, Debsindhu [Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Sumpter, Bobby G. [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Proffen, Thomas E. [Neutron Data Analysis & Visualization Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Goswami, Monojoy, E-mail: goswamim@ornl.gov [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An automated workflow to optimize force-field parameters. • Used the workflow to optimize force-field parameter for a system containing nanodiamond and tRNA. • The mechanism relies on molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering experimental data. • The workflow can be generalized to any other experimental and simulation techniques. - Abstract: Large-scale simulations and data analysis are often required to explain neutron scattering experiments to establish a connection between the fundamental physics at the nanoscale and data probed by neutrons. However, to perform simulations at experimental conditions it is critical to use correct force-field (FF) parameters which are unfortunately not available for most complex experimental systems. In this work, we have developed a workflow optimization technique to provide optimized FF parameters by comparing molecular dynamics (MD) to neutron scattering data. We describe the workflow in detail by using an example system consisting of tRNA and hydrophilic nanodiamonds in a deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) environment. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) data show a faster motion of the tRNA in the presence of nanodiamond than without the ND. To compare the QENS and MD results quantitatively, a proper choice of FF parameters is necessary. We use an efficient workflow to optimize the FF parameters between the hydrophilic nanodiamond and water by comparing to the QENS data. Our results show that we can obtain accurate FF parameters by using this technique. The workflow can be generalized to other types of neutron data for FF optimization, such as vibrational spectroscopy and spin echo.

  17. The Accuracy of Seryl-tRNA Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Gruic-Sovulj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The high level of translational fidelity is ensured by various types of quality control mechanisms, which are adapted to prevent or correct naturally occurring mistakes. Accurate aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis is mostly dependent on the specificity of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS, i.e. their ability to choose among competing structurally similar substrates. Our studies have revealed that accurate seryl-tRNA synthesis in yeast and plants is accomplished via tRNA-assisted optimization of amino acid binding to the active site of seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS. Based on our recent kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed by which transient protein : RNA complex activates the cognate amino acid more efficiently and more specifically than the apoenzyme alone. This may proceed via a tRNA induced conformational change in the enzyme’s active site. The influence of tRNASer, on the activation of serine by SerRS variants mutated in the active site, is much less pronounced. Although SerRS misactivates structurally similar threonine in vitro, the formation of such erroneous threonyl-adenylate is reduced in the presence of nonchargeable tRNASer analog. Thus, the sequence-specific tRNA : SerRS interactions enhance the accuracy of amino acid recognition. Another type of quality control mechanism in tRNA serylation is assumed to be based on the complex formation between SerRS and a nonsynthetase protein. Using in vivo interaction screen, yeast peroxin Pex21p was identified as SerRS interacting protein. This was confirmed by an in vitro binding assay. Kinetic experiments performed in the presence of Pex21p revealed that this peroxin acts as an activator of seryl-tRNA synthetase in the aminoacylation reaction.

  18. Coexistence of mitochondrial 12S rRNA C1494T and CO1/tRNASer(UCN) G7444A mutations in two Han Chinese pedigrees with aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Huijun; Chen Jing; Liu Xin; Cheng Jing; Wang Xinjian; Yang Li; Yang Shuzhi; Cao Juyang; Kang Dongyang; Dai Pu; Zha, Suoqiang; Han Dongyi; Young Wieyen; Guan Minxin

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA are one of the important causes of hearing loss. We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of two Han Chinese pedigrees with maternally transmitted aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic bilateral hearing loss. Clinical evaluation revealed the wide range of severity, age-at-onset, and audiometric configuration of hearing impairment in matrilineal relatives in these families. The penetrances of hearing loss in these pedigrees were 20% and 18%, when aminoglycoside-induced deafness was included. When the effect of aminoglycosides was excluded, the penetrances of hearing loss in these seven pedigrees were 10% and 15%. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the presence of the deafness-associated 12S rRNA C1494T and CO1/tRNA Ser(UCN) G7444A mutations. Their distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphism belonged to Eastern Asian haplogroup C4a1, while other previously identified six Chinese mitochondrial genomes harboring the C1494T mutation belong to haplogroups D5a2, D, R, and F1, respectively. This suggested that the C1494T or G7444A mutation occurred sporadically and multiplied through evolution of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The absence of functionally significant mutations in tRNA and rRNAs or secondary LHON mutations in their mtDNA suggest that these mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants may not play an important role in the phenotypic expression of the 12S rRNA C1494T and CO1/tRNA Ser(UCN) G7444A mutations in those Chinese families. However, aminoglycosides and other nuclear modifier genes play a modifying role in the phenotypic manifestation of the C1494T mutation in these Chinese families

  19. Mapping the Plasticity of the E. coli Genetic Code with Orthogonal Pair Directed Sense Codon Reassignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Margaret A; Biddle, Wil; Fisk, John Domenic

    2018-04-18

    The relative quantitative importance of the factors that determine the fidelity of translation is largely unknown, which makes predicting the extent to which the degeneracy of the genetic code can be broken challenging. Our strategy of using orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs to precisely direct the incorporation of a single amino acid in response to individual sense and nonsense codons provides a suite of related data with which to examine the plasticity of the code. Each directed sense codon reassignment measurement is an in vivo competition experiment between the introduced orthogonal translation machinery and the natural machinery in E. coli. This report discusses 20 new, related genetic codes, in which a targeted E. coli wobble codon is reassigned to tyrosine utilizing the orthogonal tyrosine tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pair from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. One at a time, reassignment of each targeted sense codon to tyrosine is quantified in cells by measuring the fluorescence of GFP variants in which the essential tyrosine residue is encoded by a non-tyrosine codon. Significantly, every wobble codon analyzed may be partially reassigned with efficiencies ranging from 0.8% to 41%. The accumulation of the suite of data enables a qualitative dissection of the relative importance of the factors affecting the fidelity of translation. While some correlation was observed between sense codon reassignment and either competing endogenous tRNA abundance or changes in aminoacylation efficiency of the altered orthogonal system, no single factor appears to predominately drive translational fidelity. Evaluation of relative cellular fitness in each of the 20 quantitatively-characterized proteome-wide tyrosine substitution systems suggests that at a systems level, E. coli is robust to missense mutations.

  20. Functional Complementation Studies Reveal Different Interaction Partners of Escherichia coli IscS and Human NFS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühning, Martin; Friemel, Martin; Leimkühler, Silke

    2017-08-29

    The trafficking and delivery of sulfur to cofactors and nucleosides is a highly regulated and conserved process among all organisms. All sulfur transfer pathways generally have an l-cysteine desulfurase as an initial sulfur-mobilizing enzyme in common, which serves as a sulfur donor for the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing biomolecules like iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, thiamine, biotin, lipoic acid, the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), and thiolated nucleosides in tRNA. The human l-cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and the Escherichia coli homologue IscS share a level of amino acid sequence identity of ∼60%. While E. coli IscS has a versatile role in the cell and was shown to have numerous interaction partners, NFS1 is mainly localized in mitochondria with a crucial role in the biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters. Additionally, NFS1 is also located in smaller amounts in the cytosol with a role in Moco biosynthesis and mcm 5 s 2 U34 thio modifications of nucleosides in tRNA. NFS1 and IscS were conclusively shown to have different interaction partners in their respective organisms. Here, we used functional complementation studies of an E. coli iscS deletion strain with human NFS1 to dissect their conserved roles in the transfer of sulfur to a specific target protein. Our results show that human NFS1 and E. coli IscS share conserved binding sites for proteins involved in Fe-S cluster assembly like IscU, but not with proteins for tRNA thio modifications or Moco biosynthesis. In addition, we show that human NFS1 was almost fully able to complement the role of IscS in Moco biosynthesis when its specific interaction partner protein MOCS3 from humans was also present.

  1. Comparison of Boolean analysis and standard phylogenetic methods using artificially evolved and natural mt-tRNA sequences from great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Eszter; Ittzés, Péter; Podani, János; Thi, Quynh Chi Le; Jakó, Eena

    2012-04-01

    Boolean analysis (or BOOL-AN; Jakó et al., 2009. BOOL-AN: A method for comparative sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 52, 887-97.), a recently developed method for sequence comparison uses the Iterative Canonical Form of Boolean functions. It considers sequence information in a way entirely different from standard phylogenetic methods (i.e. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood, Neighbor-Joining, and Bayesian analysis). The performance and reliability of Boolean analysis were tested and compared with the standard phylogenetic methods, using artificially evolved - simulated - nucleotide sequences and the 22 mitochondrial tRNA genes of the great apes. At the outset, we assumed that the phylogeny of Hominidae is generally well established, and the guide tree of artificial sequence evolution can also be used as a benchmark. These offer a possibility to compare and test the performance of different phylogenetic methods. Trees were reconstructed by each method from 2500 simulated sequences and 22 mitochondrial tRNA sequences. We also introduced a special re-sampling method for Boolean analysis on permuted sequence sites, the P-BOOL-AN procedure. Considering the reliability values (branch support values of consensus trees and Robinson-Foulds distances) we used for simulated sequence trees produced by different phylogenetic methods, BOOL-AN appeared as the most reliable method. Although the mitochondrial tRNA sequences of great apes are relatively short (59-75 bases long) and the ratio of their constant characters is about 75%, BOOL-AN, P-BOOL-AN and the Bayesian approach produced the same tree-topology as the established phylogeny, while the outcomes of Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood and Neighbor-Joining methods were equivocal. We conclude that Boolean analysis is a promising alternative to existing methods of sequence comparison for phylogenetic reconstruction and congruence analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Severe epilepsy as the major symptom of new mutations in the mitochondrial tRNA(Phe) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsurka, G; Hampel, K G; Nelson, I; Jardel, C; Mirandola, S R; Sassen, R; Kornblum, C; Marcorelles, P; Lavoué, S; Lombès, A; Kunz, W S

    2010-02-09

    To present 2 families with maternally inherited severe epilepsy as the main symptom of mitochondrial disease due to point mutations at position 616 in the mitochondrial tRNA(Phe) (MT-TF) gene. Histologic stainings were performed on skeletal muscle slices from the 2 index patients. Oxidative phosphorylation activity was measured by oxygraphic and spectrophotometric methods. The patients' complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the relevant mtDNA region in maternal relatives were sequenced. Muscle histology showed only decreased overall COX staining, while a combined respiratory chain defect, most severely affecting complex IV, was noted in both patients' skeletal muscle. Sequencing of the mtDNA revealed in both patients a mutation at position 616 in the MT-TF gene (T>C or T>G). These mutations disrupt a base pair in the anticodon stem at a highly conserved position. They were apparently homoplasmic in both patients, and had different heteroplasmy levels in the investigated maternal relatives. Deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial tRNA(Phe) may solely manifest with epilepsy when segregating to homoplasmy. They may be overlooked in the absence of lactate accumulation and typical mosaic mitochondrial defects in muscle.

  3. The SmpB C-terminal tail helps tmRNA to recognize and enter stalled ribosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey R. Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria, transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA and SmpB comprise the most common and effective system for rescuing stalled ribosomes. Ribosomes stall on mRNA transcripts lacking stop codons and are rescued as the defective mRNA is swapped for the tmRNA template in a process known as trans-translation. The tmRNA–SmpB complex is recruited to the ribosome independent of a codon–anticodon interaction. Given that the ribosome uses robust discriminatory mechanisms to select against non-cognate tRNAs during canonical decoding, it has been hard to explain how this can happen. Recent structural and biochemical studies show that SmpB licenses tmRNA entry through its interactions with the decoding center and mRNA channel. In particular, the C-terminal tail of SmpB promotes both EFTu activation and accommodation of tmRNA, the former through interactions with 16S rRNA nucleotide G530 and the latter through interactions with the mRNA channel downstream of the A site. Here we present a detailed model of the earliest steps in trans-translation, and in light of these mechanistic considerations, revisit the question of how tmRNA preferentially reacts with stalled, non-translating ribosomes.

  4. The Chern-Simons Current in Systems of DNA-RNA Transcriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Pincak, Richard; Kanjamapornkul, Kabin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2018-04-01

    A Chern-Simons current, coming from ghost and anti-ghost fields of supersymmetry theory, can be used to define a spectrum of gene expression in new time series data where a spinor field, as alternative representation of a gene, is adopted instead of using the standard alphabet sequence of bases $A, T, C, G, U$. After a general discussion on the use of supersymmetry in biological systems, we give examples of the use of supersymmetry for living organism, discuss the codon and anti-codon ghost fields and develop an algebraic construction for the trash DNA, the DNA area which does not seem active in biological systems. As a general result, all hidden states of codon can be computed by Chern-Simons 3 forms. Finally, we plot a time series of genetic variations of viral glycoprotein gene and host T-cell receptor gene by using a gene tensor correlation network related to the Chern-Simons current. An empirical analysis of genetic shift, in host cell receptor genes with separated cluster of gene and genetic drift in viral gene, is obtained by using a tensor correlation plot over time series data derived as the empirical mode decomposition of Chern-Simons current.

  5. Mammalian translation elongation factor eEF1A2: X-ray structure and new features of GDP/GTP exchange mechanism in higher eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepin, Thibaut; Shalak, Vyacheslav F; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Vlasenko, Dmytro O; McCarthy, Andrew; Negrutskii, Boris S; Tukalo, Michail A; El'skaya, Anna V

    2014-11-10

    Eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A transits between the GTP- and GDP-bound conformations during the ribosomal polypeptide chain elongation. eEF1A*GTP establishes a complex with the aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site of the 80S ribosome. Correct codon-anticodon recognition triggers GTP hydrolysis, with subsequent dissociation of eEF1A*GDP from the ribosome. The structures of both the 'GTP'- and 'GDP'-bound conformations of eEF1A are unknown. Thus, the eEF1A-related ribosomal mechanisms were anticipated only by analogy with the bacterial homolog EF-Tu. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the mammalian eEF1A2*GDP complex which indicates major differences in the organization of the nucleotide-binding domain and intramolecular movements of eEF1A compared to EF-Tu. Our results explain the nucleotide exchange mechanism in the mammalian eEF1A and suggest that the first step of eEF1A*GDP dissociation from the 80S ribosome is the rotation of the nucleotide-binding domain observed after GTP hydrolysis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. A specific scenario for the origin of life and the genetic code based on peptide/oligonucleotide interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Among various scenarios that attempt to explain how life arose, the RNA world is currently the most widely accepted scientific hypothesis among biologists. However, the RNA world is logistically implausible and doesn't explain how translation arose and DNA became incorporated into living systems. Here I propose an alternative hypothesis for life's origin based on cooperation between simple nucleic acids, peptides and lipids. Organic matter that accumulated on the prebiotic Earth segregated into phases in the ocean based on density and solubility. Synthesis of complex organic monomers and polymerization reactions occurred within a surface hydrophilic layer and at its aqueous and atmospheric interfaces. Replication of nucleic acids and translation of peptides began at the emulsified interface between hydrophobic and aqueous layers. At the core of the protobiont was a family of short nucleic acids bearing arginine's codon and anticodon that added this amino acid to pre-formed peptides. In turn, the survival and replication of nucleic acid was aided by the peptides. The arginine-enriched peptides served to sequester and transfer phosphate bond energy and acted as cohesive agents, aggregating nucleic acids and keeping them at the interface.

  7. A whole mitochondrial genome screening in a MELAS patient: A novel mitochondrial tRNA{sup Val} mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezghani, Najla [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Mnif, Mouna [Service d' endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Kacem, Maha [Service de Medecine interne, C.H.U. Fattouma Bourguiba de Monastir (Tunisia); Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna, E-mail: emna_mkaouar@mail2world.com [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Hadj Salem, Ikhlass [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Kallel, Nozha; Charfi, Nadia; Abid, Mohamed [Service d' endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Faiza [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} We report a young Tunisian patient with clinical features of MELAS syndrome. {yields} Reported mitochondrial mutations were absent after a mutational screening of the whole mtDNA. {yields} We described a novel m.1640A>G mutation in the tRNA{sup Val} gene which was absent in 150 controls. {yields} Mitochondrial deletions and POLG1 gene mutations were absent. {yields} The m.1640A>G mutation could be associated to MELAS syndrome. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by a wide variety of clinical presentations and a multisystemic organ involvement. In this study, we report a Tunisian girl with clinical features of MELAS syndrome who was negative for the common m.3243A>G mutation, but also for the reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and deletions. Screening of the entire mtDNA genome showed several known mitochondrial variants besides to a novel transition m.1640A>G affecting a wobble adenine in the anticodon stem region of the tRNA{sup Val}. This nucleotide was conserved and it was absent in 150 controls suggesting its pathogenicity. In addition, no mutations were found in the nuclear polymerase gamma-1 gene (POLG1). These results suggest further investigation nuclear genes encoding proteins responsible for stability and structural components of the mtDNA or to the oxidative phosphorylation machinery to explain the phenotypic variability in the studied family.

  8. Autoselection of cytoplasmic yeast virus like elements encoding toxin/antitoxin systems involves a nuclear barrier for immunity gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Alene; Voges, Raphael; Schroth, Michael; Schaffrath, Raffael; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-05-01

    Cytoplasmic virus like elements (VLEs) from Kluyveromyces lactis (Kl), Pichia acaciae (Pa) and Debaryomyces robertsiae (Dr) are extremely A/T-rich (>75%) and encode toxic anticodon nucleases (ACNases) along with specific immunity proteins. Here we show that nuclear, not cytoplasmic expression of either immunity gene (PaORF4, KlORF3 or DrORF5) results in transcript fragmentation and is insufficient to establish immunity to the cognate ACNase. Since rapid amplification of 3' ends (RACE) as well as linker ligation of immunity transcripts expressed in the nucleus revealed polyadenylation to occur along with fragmentation, ORF-internal poly(A) site cleavage due to the high A/T content is likely to prevent functional expression of the immunity genes. Consistently, lowering the A/T content of PaORF4 to 55% and KlORF3 to 46% by gene synthesis entirely prevented transcript cleavage and permitted functional nuclear expression leading to full immunity against the respective ACNase toxin. Consistent with a specific adaptation of the immunity proteins to the cognate ACNases, cross-immunity to non-cognate ACNases is neither conferred by PaOrf4 nor KlOrf3. Thus, the high A/T content of cytoplasmic VLEs minimizes the potential of functional nuclear recruitment of VLE encoded genes, in particular those involved in autoselection of the VLEs via a toxin/antitoxin principle.

  9. Autoselection of cytoplasmic yeast virus like elements encoding toxin/antitoxin systems involves a nuclear barrier for immunity gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alene Kast

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic virus like elements (VLEs from Kluyveromyces lactis (Kl, Pichia acaciae (Pa and Debaryomyces robertsiae (Dr are extremely A/T-rich (>75% and encode toxic anticodon nucleases (ACNases along with specific immunity proteins. Here we show that nuclear, not cytoplasmic expression of either immunity gene (PaORF4, KlORF3 or DrORF5 results in transcript fragmentation and is insufficient to establish immunity to the cognate ACNase. Since rapid amplification of 3' ends (RACE as well as linker ligation of immunity transcripts expressed in the nucleus revealed polyadenylation to occur along with fragmentation, ORF-internal poly(A site cleavage due to the high A/T content is likely to prevent functional expression of the immunity genes. Consistently, lowering the A/T content of PaORF4 to 55% and KlORF3 to 46% by gene synthesis entirely prevented transcript cleavage and permitted functional nuclear expression leading to full immunity against the respective ACNase toxin. Consistent with a specific adaptation of the immunity proteins to the cognate ACNases, cross-immunity to non-cognate ACNases is neither conferred by PaOrf4 nor KlOrf3. Thus, the high A/T content of cytoplasmic VLEs minimizes the potential of functional nuclear recruitment of VLE encoded genes, in particular those involved in autoselection of the VLEs via a toxin/antitoxin principle.

  10. Miscoding-induced stalling of substrate translocation on the bacterial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Jose L; Blanchard, Scott C

    2017-10-10

    Directional transit of the ribosome along the messenger RNA (mRNA) template is a key determinant of the rate and processivity of protein synthesis. Imaging of the multistep translocation mechanism using single-molecule FRET has led to the hypothesis that substrate movements relative to the ribosome resolve through relatively long-lived late intermediates wherein peptidyl-tRNA enters the P site of the small ribosomal subunit via reversible, swivel-like motions of the small subunit head domain within the elongation factor G (GDP)-bound ribosome complex. Consistent with translocation being rate-limited by recognition and productive engagement of peptidyl-tRNA within the P site, we now show that base-pairing mismatches between the peptidyl-tRNA anticodon and the mRNA codon dramatically delay this rate-limiting, intramolecular process. This unexpected relationship between aminoacyl-tRNA decoding and translocation suggests that miscoding antibiotics may impact protein synthesis by impairing the recognition of peptidyl-tRNA in the small subunit P site during EF-G-catalyzed translocation. Strikingly, we show that elongation factor P (EF-P), traditionally known to alleviate ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs, can efficiently rescue translocation defects arising from miscoding. These findings help reveal the nature and origin of the rate-limiting steps in substrate translocation on the bacterial ribosome and indicate that EF-P can aid in resuming translation elongation stalled by miscoding errors.

  11. The phylogenomic position of the grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) inferred from the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Deborah L; Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Bennett, Michael B; Bustamante, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus is described from 25 963 828 sequences obtained using Illumina NGS technology. Total length of the mitogenome is 16 715 bp, consisting of 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding regions, 22 tRNA and 2 non-coding regions thus updating the previously published mitogenome for this species. The phylogenomic reconstruction inferred from the mitogenome of 15 species of Lamniform and Carcharhiniform sharks supports the inclusion of C. taurus in a clade with the Lamnidae and Cetorhinidae. This complete mitogenome contributes to ongoing investigation into the monophyly of the Family Odontaspididae.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of freshwater shark Wallago attu (Bloch & Schneider) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Lashari, Punhal; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Xin, Baoping; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water giant catfish, Wallago attu, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome. The complete mitogenome was 15,639 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.17% A, 28.15% C, 15.55% G and 25.12% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, W. attu, provides the fundamental tools for genetic breeding.

  13. Ssb1 chaperone is a [PSI+] prion-curing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacinska, A; Szczesniak, B; Kochneva-Pervukhova, N V; Kushnirov, V V; Ter-Avanesyan, M D; Boguta, M

    2001-04-01

    Yeast SUP7' or SUP11 nonsense suppressors have no phenotypic expression in strains deficient in the isopentenylation of A37 in tRNA. Here we show that such strains spontaneously produce cells with a nonsense suppressor phenotype which is related to the cytoplasmically inherited determinant and manifests all the key features of the [PSI+] prion. A screen of a multicopy yeast genomic library for genes that inactivate the [PSI+]-related suppressor phenotype resulted in the isolation of the SSB1 gene. Moreover, we demonstrate that multicopy plasmid encoding the Ssb1 chaperone cures cells of the [PSI+] prion.

  14. An archaeal tRNA-synthetase complex that enhances aminoacylation under extreme conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Jaric, Jelena; Hausmann, Corinne D

    2011-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play an integral role in protein synthesis, functioning to attach the correct amino acid with its cognate tRNA molecule. AaRSs are known to associate into higher-order multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes (MSC) involved in archaeal and eukaryotic translatio...... of a complex between MtSerRS and MtArgRS provides a means by which methanogenic archaea can optimize an early step in translation under a wide range of extreme environmental conditions....

  15. Follow-up of the ovarial carcinoma from the point of view of the gynecologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahrson, H.

    1983-01-01

    A co-operation between the different institutions and doctors and the tumor centre is indispensable for an adequate follow-up of the ovarial carcinoma. Besides diagnosis and therapy of side effects of the treatment as well as early diagnosis of recurrences, a psychical and social care is particularly necessary. The follow-up treatment aims at a full social rehabilitation of probably cured patients and, in case of incurable patients, at a relief of pain until death. The determination of t-RNA as a reliable tumor marker and the examinations necessary for routine controls (minimal and maximal programme) are indicated. (orig.) [de

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes vulpes montana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Honghai; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes Vulpes montana) was sequenced for the first time using blood samples obtained from a wild female red fox captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai--Tibet Plateau is the highest plateau in the world with an average elevation above 3500 m. Sequence analysis showed it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (CR). The variable tandem repeats in CR is the main reason of the length variability of mitochondrial genome among canide animals.

  17. tRNAGlu increases the affinity of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase for its inhibitor glutamyl-sulfamoyl-adenosine, an analogue of the aminoacylation reaction intermediate glutamyl-AMP: mechanistic and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Sébastien P; Kornblatt, Jack A; Barbeau, Xavier; Bonnaure, Guillaume; Lagüe, Patrick; Chênevert, Robert; Lapointe, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    For tRNA-dependent protein biosynthesis, amino acids are first activated by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) yielding the reaction intermediates aminoacyl-AMP (aa-AMP). Stable analogues of aa-AMP, such as aminoacyl-sulfamoyl-adenosines, inhibit their cognate aaRSs. Glutamyl-sulfamoyl-adenosine (Glu-AMS) is the best known inhibitor of Escherichia coli glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS). Thermodynamic parameters of the interactions between Glu-AMS and E. coli GluRS were measured in the presence and in the absence of tRNA by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. A significant entropic contribution for the interactions between Glu-AMS and GluRS in the absence of tRNA or in the presence of the cognate tRNAGlu or of the non-cognate tRNAPhe is indicated by the negative values of -TΔSb, and by the negative value of ΔCp. On the other hand, the large negative enthalpy is the dominant contribution to ΔGb in the absence of tRNA. The affinity of GluRS for Glu-AMS is not altered in the presence of the non-cognate tRNAPhe, but the dissociation constant Kd is decreased 50-fold in the presence of tRNAGlu; this result is consistent with molecular dynamics results indicating the presence of an H-bond between Glu-AMS and the 3'-OH oxygen of the 3'-terminal ribose of tRNAGlu in the Glu-AMS•GluRS•tRNAGlu complex. Glu-AMS being a very close structural analogue of Glu-AMP, its weak binding to free GluRS suggests that the unstable Glu-AMP reaction intermediate binds weakly to GluRS; these results could explain why all the known GluRSs evolved to activate glutamate only in the presence of tRNAGlu, the coupling of glutamate activation to its transfer to tRNA preventing unproductive cleavage of ATP.

  18. Mitochondrial genome of the African lion Panthera leo leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue-ping; Wang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the African lion P. leo leo was reported. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,054 bp. It contained the typical mitochondrial structure, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region; 21 of the tRNA genes folded into typical cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNASe. The overall composition of the mitogenome was A (32.0%), G (14.5%), C (26.5%) and T (27.0%). The new sequence will provide molecular genetic information for conservation genetics study of this important large carnivore.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Porites harrisoni (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) obtained using next-generation sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta

    2018-02-24

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Porites harrisoni using ezRAD and Illumina technology. Genome length consisted of 18,630 bp, with a base composition of 25.92% A, 13.28% T, 23.06% G, and 37.73% C. Consistent with other hard corals, P. harrisoni mitogenome was arranged in 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA, and 2 tRNA genes. nad5 and cox1 contained embedded Group I Introns of 11,133 bp and 965 bp, respectively.

  20. Speed Controls in Translating Secretory Proteins in Eukaryotes - an Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlab, Shelly; Linial, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Protein translation is the most expensive operation in dividing cells from bacteria to humans. Therefore, managing the speed and allocation of resources is subject to tight control. From bacteria to humans, clusters of relatively rare tRNA codons at the N′-terminal of mRNAs have been implicated in attenuating the process of ribosome allocation, and consequently the translation rate in a broad range of organisms. The current interpretation of “slow” tRNA codons does not distinguish between protein translations mediated by free- or endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes. We demonstrate that proteins translated by free- or ER-bound ribosomes exhibit different overall properties in terms of their translation efficiency and speed in yeast, fly, plant, worm, bovine and human. We note that only secreted or membranous proteins with a Signal peptide (SP) are specified by segments of “slow” tRNA at the N′-terminal, followed by abundant codons that are considered “fast.” Such profiles apply to 3100 proteins of the human proteome that are composed of secreted and signal peptide (SP)-assisted membranous proteins. Remarkably, the bulks of the proteins (12,000), or membranous proteins lacking SP (3400), do not have such a pattern. Alternation of “fast” and “slow” codons was found also in proteins that translocate to mitochondria through transit peptides (TP). The differential clusters of tRNA adapted codons is not restricted to the N′-terminal of transcripts. Specifically, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are unified by clusters of low adapted tRNAs codons at the C′-termini. Furthermore, selection of amino acids types and specific codons was shown as the driving force which establishes the translation demands for the secretory proteome. We postulate that “hard-coded” signals within the secretory proteome assist the steps of protein maturation and folding. Specifically, “speed control” signals for delaying the translation

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Curcuma flaviflora (Curcuma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Deng, Jiabin; Li, Yangyi; Gao, Gang; Ding, Chunbang; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Yonghong; Yang, Ruiwu

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Curcuma flaviflora, a medicinal plant in Southeast Asia, was sequenced. The genome size was 160 478 bp in length, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26 946 bp were separated by a large single copy (LSC) of 88 008 bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 18 578 bp, respectively. The cp genome contained 132 annotated genes, including 79 protein coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. And 19 of these genes were duplicated in inverted repeat regions.

  2. The nucleotide sequence and organization of nuclear 5S rRNA genes in yellow lupine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuc, K.; Nuc, P.; Pawelkiewicz, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a genomic clone containing 'Lupinus luteus' 5S ribosomal RNA genes by screening with 5S rDNA probe clones that were hybridized previously with the initiator methionine tRNA preparation (contaminated) with traces of rRNA or its degradation products). The clone isolated contains ten repeat units of 342 bp with 119 bp fragment showing 100% homology to the 5S rRNA from yellow lupine. Sequence analysis indicates only point heterogeneities among the flanking regions of the genes. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  3. Evaluation of the suitability of free-energy minimization using nearest-neighbor energy parameters for RNA secondary structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobaugh Christian W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed understanding of an RNA's correct secondary and tertiary structure is crucial to understanding its function and mechanism in the cell. Free energy minimization with energy parameters based on the nearest-neighbor model and comparative analysis are the primary methods for predicting an RNA's secondary structure from its sequence. Version 3.1 of Mfold has been available since 1999. This version contains an expanded sequence dependence of energy parameters and the ability to incorporate coaxial stacking into free energy calculations. We test Mfold 3.1 by performing the largest and most phylogenetically diverse comparison of rRNA and tRNA structures predicted by comparative analysis and Mfold, and we use the results of our tests on 16S and 23S rRNA sequences to assess the improvement between Mfold 2.3 and Mfold 3.1. Results The average prediction accuracy for a 16S or 23S rRNA sequence with Mfold 3.1 is 41%, while the prediction accuracies for the majority of 16S and 23S rRNA structures tested are between 20% and 60%, with some having less than 20% prediction accuracy. The average prediction accuracy was 71% for 5S rRNA and 69% for tRNA. The majority of the 5S rRNA and tRNA sequences have prediction accuracies greater than 60%. The prediction accuracy of 16S rRNA base-pairs decreases exponentially as the number of nucleotides intervening between the 5' and 3' halves of the base-pair increases. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the current set of nearest-neighbor energy parameters in conjunction with the Mfold folding algorithm are unable to consistently and reliably predict an RNA's correct secondary structure. For 16S or 23S rRNA structure prediction, Mfold 3.1 offers little improvement over Mfold 2.3. However, the nearest-neighbor energy parameters do work well for shorter RNA sequences such as tRNA or 5S rRNA, or for larger rRNAs when the contact distance between the base-pairs is less than 100 nucleotides.

  4. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei; Zhou, Hong; Qian, Jun; Xu, Haibin; Shao, Qingsong; Li, Yonghua; Yao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The complete chloroplast sequence of Dendrobium officinale, an endangered and economically important traditional Chinese medicine, was reported and characterized. The genome size is 152,018 bp, with 37.5% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,284 bp are separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 84,944 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 14,506 bp). The complete cp DNA contains 83 protein-coding genes, 39 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Fourteen genes contained one or two introns.

  5. Seryl-tRNA Synthetases in Translation and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Močibob

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For a long time seryl-tRNA synthetases (SerRSs stood as an archetypal, canonical aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS, exhibiting only basic tRNA aminoacylation activity and with no moonlighting functions beyond protein biosynthesis. The picture has changed substantially in recent years after the discovery that SerRSs play an important role in antibiotic production and resistance and act as a regulatory factor in vascular development, as well as after the discovery of mitochondrial morphogenesis factor homologous to SerRS in insects. In this review we summarize the recent research results from our laboratory, which advance the understanding of seryl-tRNA synthetases and further paint the dynamic picture of unexpected SerRS activities. SerRS from archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was shown to interact with the large ribosomal subunit and it was postulated to contribute to a more efficient translation by the"tRNA channeling" hypothesis. Discovery of the atypical SerRS in a small number of methanogenic archaea led to the discovery of a new family of enzymes in numerous bacteria - amino acid:[carrier protein] ligases (aa:CP ligases. These SerRS homologues resigned tRNA aminoacylation activity, and instead adopted carrier proteins as the acceptors of activated amino acids. The crystal structure of the aa:CP ligase complex with the carrier protein revealed that the interactions between two macromolecules are incomparable to tRNA binding by the aaRS and consequently represent a true evolutionary invention. Kinetic investigations of SerRSs and the accuracy of amino acid selection revealed that SerRSs possess pre-transfer proofreading activity, challenging the widely accepted presumption that hydrolytic proofreading activity must reside in an additional, separate editing domain, not present in SerRSs. Finally, the plant tRNA serylation system is discussed, which is particularly interesting due to the fact that protein biosynthesis takes place

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Porites harrisoni (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) obtained using next-generation sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta; Arrigoni, Roberto; Benzoni, Francesca; Forsman, Zac H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Porites harrisoni using ezRAD and Illumina technology. Genome length consisted of 18,630 bp, with a base composition of 25.92% A, 13.28% T, 23.06% G, and 37.73% C. Consistent with other hard corals, P. harrisoni mitogenome was arranged in 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA, and 2 tRNA genes. nad5 and cox1 contained embedded Group I Introns of 11,133 bp and 965 bp, respectively.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Barbour's seahorse Hippocampus barbouri Jordan & Richardson, 1908 (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Huixian; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Barbour's seahorse Hippocampus barbouri was first determined in this paper. The total length of H. barbouri mitogenome is 16,526 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The features of the H. barbouri mitochondrial genome were similar to the typical vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. barbouri is 32.68% A, 29.75% T, 22.91% C and 14.66% G, with an AT content of 62.43%.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Huixian; Lin, Qiang; Huang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus was first determined in this article. The total length of H. erectus mitogenome is 16,529 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The features of the H. erectus mitochondrial genome were similar to the typical vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. erectus is 31.8% A, 28.6% T, 24.3% C and 15.3% G, with a slight A + T rich feature (60.4%).

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pacific seahorse Hippocampus ingens Girard, 1858 (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Zhang, Yanhong; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the pacific seahorse Hippocampus ingens was determined using long polymerase chain reactions. The total length of H. ingens mitogenome is 16,526 bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of H. ingens were similar to those of most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. ingens is 32.6% A, 29.3% T, 23.5% G and 14.6% C, with a slight A+T rich feature (61.9%).

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933; Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Huixian; Meng, Tan; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi was fisrt determined in this article. The total length of H. reidi mitogenome is 16,529 bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The gene order and composition of H. reidi were similar to those of most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. reidi is 32.47% A, 29.41% T, 14.75% G and 23.37% C, with a slight A + T rich feature (61.88%).

  11. Database Description - tRNADB-CE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us tRNAD...B-CE Database Description General information of database Database name tRNADB-CE Alter...CC BY-SA Detail Background and funding Name: MEXT Integrated Database Project Reference(s) Article title: tRNAD... 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D163-8. External Links: Article title: tRNADB-CE 2011: tRNA gene database curat...n Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - tRNADB-CE | LSDB Archive ...

  12. Long-PCR based next generation sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome of the peacock skate Pavoraja nitida (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence (16,760 bp) of the peacock skate Pavoraja nitida using a long-PCR based next generation sequencing method. It has 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region in the typical vertebrate arrangement. Primers, protocols, and procedures used to obtain this mitogenome are provided. We anticipate that this approach will facilitate rapid collection of mitogenome sequences for studies on phylogenetic relationships, population genetics, and conservation of cartilaginous fishes.

  13. 4-thiouridine and photoprotection in Escherichia coli K12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Gilles; Favre, Alain

    1977-01-01

    A high level of protection is observed in the Escherichia coli K 12 strain AB 1157 rec A 1 nuv + whose transfer RNA contains 4-thiouridine. In contrast, the photoprotection level is low and observed at higher doses in a strain which differs from the former by a single mutation nuv - , (lack of 4-thiouridine). This nucleoside is therefore an important chromophore leading to photoprotection. This conclusion is corroborated by the similarity of the action spectra for 8-13 link formation in tRNA and for photoprotection [fr

  14. Kinetics of the interactions between yeast elongation factors 1A and 1Balpha, guanine nucleotides, and aminoacyl-tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromadski, Kirill B; Schümmer, Tobias; Strømgaard, Anne

    2007-01-01

    of guanine nucleotides. At the concentrations of nucleotides and factors prevailing in the cell, the overall exchange rate is expected to be in the range of 6 s(-1), which is compatible with the rate of protein synthesis in the cell. eEF1A.GTP binds Phe-tRNA(Phe) with a K(d) of 3 nm, whereas eEF1A.GDP shows...... no significant binding, indicating that eEF1A has similar tRNA binding properties as its prokaryotic homolog, EF-Tu. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-7...

  15. Amino acid codes in mitochondria as possible clues to primitive codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    Differences between mitochondrial codes and the universal code indicate that an evolutionary simplification has taken place, rather than a return to a more primitive code. However, these differences make it evident that the universal code is not the only code possible, and therefore earlier codes may have differed markedly from the previous code. The present universal code is probably a 'frozen accident.' The change in CUN codons from leucine to threonine (Neurospora vs. yeast mitochondria) indicates that neutral or near-neutral changes occurred in the corresponding proteins when this code change took place, caused presumably by a mutation in a tRNA gene.

  16. In vitro base modification of Escherichia coli glutamate 2 transfer-RNA and phenylalanine transfer-RNA gene transcripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahan, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmids were constructed that contain an E. Coli tRNA 2 Glu or tRNA Phe gene in a system transcribable by T7 or SP6 RNA polymerase. Selectively 32 P-labeled transcripts of these plasmids were used to study tRNA base modification in vitro in crude extracts by nearest neighbor analysis. The synthesis of 5-methyl-aminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm 5 s 2 U) was studied. Complete synthesis of mnm 5 s 2 2U is not observed. Instead, 2-thiouridine (s 2 U) is synthesized. Synthesis requires ATP, cysteine, Mg + , and monovalent cation concentrations below 50 mM. The reaction has a pH optimum above 7.0. Sulfide ion will substitute for cysteine in the reaction but sulfate, sulfite, methionine, homocysteine, and β-mercaptopyruvate will not. Extracts from E. coli strains carrying either the asuE or asuF mutations have reduced s 2 U synthetic activity which supports in vivo evidence that the wild type genes are involved in 2-thiolation of uridine. The enzyme is shown to be unstable both upon storage at -80 degree C and during the modification reaction. A method was developed to study the synthesis of any one of four pseudouridines ψ found at different positions of the tRNA cloverleaf. Synthesis of ψ is observed at three of the four positions-positions 32, 39, and 55. The asuC mutation is shown to affect ψ synthesis only at position 39 confirming that it is an allele of hisT and that the hisT mutations do not affect ψ synthesis at position 32 in E. coli. Synthesis of ψ32, ψ39, and ψ55 does not require any prior modification. Synthesis of dihydrouridine, 7-methylguanosine, and 3(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)uridine is also observed. Synthesis of 2-methyladenosine and ψ 13 is not seen. Removal of part of the aminoacyl stem reduces synthesis of all modifications examined by 3' fold or more

  17. Immunochemical determination of cellular content of translation release factor RF4 in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Manuel Palacios Moreno, Juan; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1999-01-01

    of the stop codons, and RF3 is known to accelerate the overall termination process. Release factor RF4 is a protein involved in the release of the mRNA and tRNA from the ribosomal complex. Furthermore, RF4 is involved in the proofreading in the elongation step of protein biosynthesis. The cellular contents...... of RF1, RF2, and RF3 were determined earlier. Here we report the cellular content of RF4 in Escherichia coli to be approximately 16,500 molecules per cell. The cells were grown in a rich medium and harvested in the beginning of the exponential growth phase. The quantifications were performed by using...

  18. Site specific incorporation of heavy atom-containing unnatural amino acids into proteins for structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianming [San Diego, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Wu, Ning [Boston, MA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2008-07-15

    Translation systems and other compositions including orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases that preferentially charge an orthogonal tRNA with an iodinated or brominated amino acid are provided. Nucleic acids encoding such synthetases are also described, as are methods and kits for producing proteins including heavy atom-containing amino acids, e.g., brominated or iodinated amino acids. Methods of determining the structure of a protein, e.g., a protein into which a heavy atom has been site-specifically incorporated through use of an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase pair, are also described.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Freshwater Catfish Rita rita (Siluriformes, Bagridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Catfish, Rita rita, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red Listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,449 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 33.40% A, 27.43% C, 14.26% G and 24.89% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Rita rita provides the basis for genetic breeding and conservation studies.

  20. Transcription of repetitive DNA in Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K; Chaudhuri, R K

    1975-01-01

    Repeated DNA sequences of Neurospora crassa were isolated and characterized. Approximately 10 to 12 percent of N. crassa DNA sequence were repeated, of which 7.3 percent were found to be transcribed in mid-log phase of mycelial growth as measured by DNA:RNA hybridization. It is suggested that part of repetitive DNA transcripts in N. crassa were mitochondrial and part were nuclear DNA. Most of the nuclear repeated DNAs, however, code for rRNA and tRNA in N. crassa. (auth)

  1. Evolutionary rate variation and RNA secondary structure prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, B.; Andersen, E.S.; Damgaard, C.

    2004-01-01

    Predicting RNA secondary structure using evolutionary history can be carried out by using an alignment of related RNA sequences with conserved structure. Accurately determining evolutionary substitution rates for base pairs and single stranded nucleotides is a concern for methods based on this type...... by applying rates derived from tRNA and rRNA to the prediction of the much more rapidly evolving 5'-region of HIV-1. We find that the HIV-1 prediction is in agreement with experimental data, even though the relative evolutionary rate between A and G is significantly increased, both in stem and loop regions...

  2. Elp3 and RlmN: A tale of two mitochondrial tail-anchored radical SAM enzymes in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Leah R; Lentini, Jenna M; Holmes, Michael J; Stilger, Krista L; Fu, Dragony; Sullivan, William J

    2018-01-01

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (rSAM) enzymes use a 5'-deoxyadensyl 5'-radical to methylate a wide array of diverse substrates including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. One such enzyme, Elongator protein-3 (TgElp3), is an essential protein in Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite that can cause life-threatening opportunistic disease. Unlike Elp3 homologues which are present in all domains of life, TgElp3 localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) via a tail-anchored trafficking mechanism in Toxoplasma. Intriguingly, we identified a second tail-anchored rSAM domain containing protein (TgRlmN) that also localizes to the OMM. The transmembrane domain (TMD) on Toxoplasma Elp3 and RlmN homologues is required for OMM localization and has not been seen beyond the chromalveolates. Both TgElp3 and TgRlmN contain the canonical rSAM amino acid sequence motif (CxxxCxxC) necessary to form the 4Fe-4S cluster required for tRNA modifications. In E. coli, RlmN is responsible for the 2-methlyadenosine (m2A) synthesis at purine 37 in tRNA while in S. cerevisiae, Elp3 is necessary for the formation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U) at the wobble tRNA position. To investigate why these two rSAM enzymes localize to the mitochondrion in Toxoplasma, and whether or not TgRlmN and TgElp3 possess tRNA methyltransferase activity, a series of mutational and biochemical studies were performed. Overexpression of either TgElp3 or TgRlmN resulted in a significant parasite replication defect, but overexpression was tolerated if either the TMD or rSAM domain was mutated. Furthermore, we show the first evidence that Toxoplasma tRNAGlu contains the mcm5s2U modification, which is the putative downstream product generated by TgElp3 activity.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the pirarucu (Arapaima gigas, Arapaimidae, Osteoglossiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbek,Tomas; Farias,Izeni Pires

    2008-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, the largest fish of the Amazon basin, and economically one of the most important species of the region. The total length of the Arapaima gigas mitochondrial genome is 16,433 bp. The mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes. Twelve of the thirteen protein-coding genes are coded on the heavy strand, while nad6 is coded on the light strand. The Arapaima gene order and co...

  4. Redox status affects the catalytic activity of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Assaf; Banerjee, Rajat; de Armas, Merly

    2010-01-01

    Glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GluRS) provide Glu-tRNA for different processes including protein synthesis, glutamine transamidation and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Many organisms contain multiple GluRSs, but whether these duplications solely broaden tRNA specificity or also play additional roles in t...... inactivation by hemin plus hydrogen peroxide. The sensitivity to oxidation of A. ferrooxidans GluRS1 might provide a means to regulate tetrapyrrole and protein biosynthesis in response to extreme changes in both the redox and heme status of the cell via a single enzyme....

  5. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus and other LAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    that of the others, with the two Streptococcus species having the shortest genomes. The widest distribution in genome content was observed for Lactobacillus. The number of tRNA and rRNA gene copies varied considerably, with exceptional high numbers observed for Lb. delbrueckii, while these numbers were relatively......The genomes of 66 LABs, belonging to five different genera, were compared for genome size and gene content. The analyzed genomes included 37 Lactobacillus genomes of 17 species, six Lactococcus lactis genomes, four Leuconostoc genomes of three species, six Streptococcus genomes of two species...

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwen; Dai, Xiaojie; Xu, Qianghua; Wu, Feng; Gao, Chunxia; Zhang, Yanbo

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Carcharhinus longimanus was determined and analyzed. The complete mtDNA genome sequence of C. longimanus was 16,706 bp in length. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 2 non-conding regions: control region (D-loop) and origin of light-strand replication (OL). The complete mitogenome sequence information of C. longimanus can provide a useful data for further studies on molecular systematics, stock evaluation, taxonomic status and conservation genetics.

  7. Sequencing and characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Japanese Swellshark (Cephalloscyllium umbratile)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ke-Cheng; Liang, Yin-Yin; Wu, Na; Guo, Hua-Yang; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Dian-Chang

    2017-01-01

    To further comprehend the genome features of Cephalloscyllium umbratile (Carcharhiniformes), an endangered species, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was firstly sequenced and annotated. The full-length mtDNA of C. umbratile was 16,697 bp and contained ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 23 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a major non-coding control region. Each PCG was initiated by an authoritative ATN codon, except for COX1 initiated by a GTG codon. Seven of 13 PC...

  8. Complete mitogenome of the Graceful Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutry, Pierre; Pillans, Richard D; Kyne, Peter M; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript we describe the first complete mitochondrial sequence for the Near Threatened Graceful Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides. It is 16,705 bp in length, consists of two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and one control region with the typical gene arrangement pattern and translate orientation in vertebrates. The overall base composition is 31.4% A, 25.1% C, 13.2% G and 30.3% T. The shortest tRNA-Ser2 cannot fold into a clover-leaf secondary structure due to the lack of the dihydrouridine arm.

  9. Profiling of modified nucleosides from ribonucleic acid digestion by supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Guérineau, Vincent; Auxilien, Sylvie; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Touboul, David

    2018-02-16

    A method based on supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for the profiling of canonical and modified nucleosides was optimized, and compared to classical reverse-phase liquid chromatography in terms of separation, number of detected modified nucleosides and sensitivity. Limits of detection and quantification were measured using statistical method and quantifications of twelve nucleosides of a tRNA digest from E. coli are in good agreement with previously reported data. Results highlight the complementarity of both separation techniques to cover the largest view of nucleoside modifications for forthcoming epigenetic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Serratia plymuthica strain AS12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    2012-01-01

    A plant associated member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Serratia plymuthica strain AS12 was isolated from rapeseed roots. It is of scientific interest due to its plant growth promoting and plant pathogen inhibiting ability. The genome of S. plymuthica AS12 comprises a 5,443,009 bp long circular chromosome, which consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome was sequenced within the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010) as part of the project entitled 'Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens'.

  11. Complete genome sequence of the plant-associated Serratia plymuthica strain AS13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica AS13 is a plant-associated Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from rapeseed roots. It is of special interest because of its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The complete genome of S. plymuthica AS13 consists of a 5,442,549 bp circular chromosome. The chromosome contains 4,951 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome was sequenced as part of the project enti- tled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens within the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  12. Overexpression and rapid purification of the orfE/rph gene product, RNase PH of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Andersen, J T; Poulsen, Peter

    1992-01-01

    acid residue protein which was recently identified as the phosphorolytic ribonuclease, RNase PH, that removes nucleotides from the 3' ends of tRNA precursors. In this paper we report the construction of a plasmid, which overexpresses the orfE and pyrE gene products substantially, as well....../min/mg, as characteristic for RNase PH. OrfE/RNase PH contains helix-turn-helix motifs resembling those in DNA-binding proteins, and it binds nonspecifically to DNA. On SDS gels, OrfE/RNase PH migrates as two distinct protein bands. This heterogeneity might be caused by post-translational modification other than...

  13. Expression of antisense small RNAs in response to stress in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise

    2014-01-01

    Background: RNA sequencing technologies reveal that bacteria express RNA molecules other than mRNA, rRNA or tRNA. During the last years genome-wide bacterial transcriptomes have been shown to comprise intergenic RNA, antisense RNA, and untranslated regions, all capable of performing diverse...... that the extent of overlap between the studies is very limited. Conclusions: RNA-seq experiments are revealing hundreds of novel transcripts in all bacterial genomes investigated. The comparison between independent studies that used RNA-seq to detect novel asRNAs in P. aeruginosa shows that the overlap between...

  14. Mycobacterium smegmatis HelY Is an RNA-Activated ATPase/dATPase and 3'-to-5' Helicase That Unwinds 3'-Tailed RNA Duplexes and RNA:DNA Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uson, Maria Loressa; Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacteria have a large and distinctive ensemble of DNA helicases that function in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Little is known about the roster of RNA helicases in mycobacteria or their roles in RNA transactions. The 912-amino-acid Mycobacterium smegmatis HelY (MSMEG_3885) protein is a bacterial homolog of the Mtr4 and Ski2 helicases that regulate RNA 3' processing and turnover by the eukaryal exosome. Here we characterize HelY as an RNA-stimulated ATPase/dATPase and an ATP/dATP-dependent 3'-to-5' helicase. HelY requires a 3' single-strand RNA tail (a loading RNA strand) to displace the complementary strand of a tailed RNA:RNA or RNA:DNA duplex. The findings that HelY ATPase is unresponsive to a DNA polynucleotide cofactor and that HelY is unable to unwind a 3'-tailed duplex in which the loading strand is DNA distinguish HelY from other mycobacterial nucleoside triphosphatases/helicases characterized previously. The biochemical properties of HelY, which resemble those of Mtr4/Ski2, hint at a role for HelY in mycobacterial RNA catabolism. RNA helicases play crucial roles in transcription, RNA processing, and translation by virtue of their ability to alter RNA secondary structure or remodel RNA-protein interactions. In eukarya, the RNA helicases Mtr4 and Ski2 regulate RNA 3' resection by the exosome. Mycobacterium smegmatis HelY, a bacterial homolog of Mtr4/Ski2, is characterized here as a unidirectional helicase, powered by RNA-dependent ATP/dATP hydrolysis, that tracks 3' to 5' along a loading RNA strand to displace the complementary strand of a tailed RNA:RNA or RNA:DNA duplex. The biochemical properties of HelY suggest a role in bacterial RNA transactions. HelY homologs are present in pathogenic mycobacteria (e.g., M. tuberculosis and M. leprae) and are widely prevalent in Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria but occur sporadically elsewhere in the bacterial domain. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Leucine Biosynthesis Is Involved in Regulating High Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Kim, Young-Mo; Wei, Siwei; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jens; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-06-20

    involving regulators that are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Given that lipid metabolism is involved in many diseases but is also vital to the development of microbial cell factories that can provide us with sustainable fuels and oleochemicals, we envision that our report introduces foundational work to further unravel the regulation of lipid accumulation in eukaryal cells.

  16. Asymmetry in the burial of hydrophobic residues along the histone chains of Eukarya, Archaea and a transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman B David

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone fold is a common structural motif of proteins involved in the chromatin packaging of DNA and in transcription regulation. This single chain fold is stabilized by either homo- or hetero-dimer formation in archaea and eukarya. X-ray structures at atomic resolution have shown the eukaryotic nucleosome core particle to consist of a central tetramer of two bound H3-H4 dimers flanked by two H2A-H2B dimers. The c-terminal region of the H3 histone fold involved in coupling the two eukaryotic dimers of the tetramer, through a four-fold helical bundle, had previously been shown to be a region of reduced burial of hydrophobic residues within the dimers, and thereby provide a rationale for the observed reduced stability of the H3-H4 dimer compared with that of the H2A-H2B dimer. Furthermore, comparison between eukaryal and archaeal histones had suggested that this asymmetry in the distribution of hydrophobic residues along the H3 histone chains could be due to selective evolution that enhanced the coupling between the eukaryotic dimers of the tetramer. Results and discussion The present work describes calculations utilizing the X-ray structures at atomic resolution of a hyperthermophile from Methanopyrus kandleri (HMk and a eukaryotic transcription factor from Drosophila melanogaster (DRm, that are structurally homologous to the eukaryotic (H3-H42 tetramer. The results for several other related structures are also described. Reduced burial of hydrophobic residues, at the homologous H3 c-terminal regions of these structures, is found to parallel the burial at the c-terminal regions of the H3 histones and is, thereby, expected to affect dimer stability and the processes involving histone structural rearrangement. Significantly different sequence homology between the two histones of the HMk doublet with other archaeal sequences is observed, and how this might have occurred during selection to enhance tetramer stability is

  17. GAMETOPHYTE DEFECTIVE 1, a putative subunit of RNases P/MRP, is essential for female gametogenesis and male competence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Qi; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Long, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2012-01-01

    RNA biogenesis, including biosynthesis and maturation of rRNA, tRNA and mRNA, is a fundamental process that is critical for cell growth, division and differentiation. Previous studies showed that mutations in components involved in RNA biogenesis resulted in abnormalities in gametophyte and leaf development in Arabidopsis. In eukaryotes, RNases P/MRP (RNase mitochondrial RNA processing) are important ribonucleases that are responsible for processing of tRNA, and transcription of small non-coding RNAs. Here we report that Gametophyte Defective 1 (GAF1), a gene encoding a predicted protein subunit of RNases P/MRP, AtRPP30, plays a role in female gametophyte development and male competence. Embryo sacs were arrested at stages ranging from FG1 to FG7 in gaf1 mutant, suggesting that the progression of the gametophytic division during female gametogenesis was impaired in gaf1 mutant. In contrast, pollen development was not affected in gaf1. However, the fitness of the mutant pollen tube was weaker than that of the wild-type, leading to reduced transmission through the male gametes. GAF1 is featured as a typical RPP30 domain protein and interacts physically with AtPOP5, a homologue of RNases P/MRP subunit POP5 of yeast. Together, our data suggest that components of the RNases P/MRP family, such as RPP30, play important roles in gametophyte development and function in plants.

  18. First description of a novel mitochondrial mutation in the MT-TI gene associated with multiple mitochondrial DNA deletion and depletion in family with severe dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alila-Fersi, Olfa; Tabebi, Mouna; Maalej, Marwa; Belguith, Neila; Keskes, Leila; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2018-03-18

    Mitochondria are essential for early cardiac development and impaired mitochondrial function was described associated with heart diseases such as hypertrophic or dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. In this study, we report a family including two individuals with severe dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. The whole mitochondrial genome screening showed the presence of several variations and a novel homoplasmic mutation m.4318-4322delC in the MT-TI gene shared by the two patients and their mother and leading to a disruption of the tRNA Ile secondary structure. In addition, a mitochondrial depletion was present in blood leucocyte of the two affected brother whereas a de novo heteroplasmic multiple deletion in the major arc of mtDNA was present in blood leucocyte and mucosa of only one of them. These deletions in the major arc of the mtDNA resulted to the loss of several protein-encoding genes and also some tRNA genes. The mtDNA deletion and depletion could result to an impairment of the oxidative phosphorylation and energy metabolism in the respiratory chain in the studied patients. Our report is the first description of a family with severe lethal dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy and presenting several mtDNA abnormalities including punctual mutation, deletion and depletion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrical detection of cellular penetration during microinjection with carbon nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sean E.; Bau, Haim H.

    2014-06-01

    The carbon nanopipette (CNP) is comprised of a pulled-glass pipette terminating with a nanoscale (tens to hundreds of nm) diameter carbon pipe. The entire inner glass surface of the CNP is coated with a carbon film, providing an electrically conductive path from the carbon tip to the distal, macroscopic end of the pipette. The CNP can double as a nanoelectrode, enabling electrical measurements through its carbon lining, and as a nanoinjector, facilitating reagent injection through its hollow bore. With the aid of a lock-in amplifier, we measured, in real time and with millisecond resolution, variations in impedance and interfacial capacitance as the CNP penetrated into the cytoplasm and nucleus of adherent human osteosarcoma (U20S) cells during microinjection. The capacitance change associated with nucleus penetration was, on average, 1.5 times greater than the one associated with cell membrane penetration. The experimental data was compared and favorably agreed with theoretical predictions based on a simple electrical network model. As a proof of concept, the cytoplasm and nucleus were transfected with fluorescent tRNA, enabling real-time monitoring of tRNA trafficking across the nuclear membrane. The CNP provides a robust and reliable means to detect cell and nucleus penetration, and trigger injection, thereby enabling the automation of cell injection.

  20. Electrical detection of cellular penetration during microinjection with carbon nanopipettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Sean E; Bau, Haim H

    2014-01-01

    The carbon nanopipette (CNP) is comprised of a pulled-glass pipette terminating with a nanoscale (tens to hundreds of nm) diameter carbon pipe. The entire inner glass surface of the CNP is coated with a carbon film, providing an electrically conductive path from the carbon tip to the distal, macroscopic end of the pipette. The CNP can double as a nanoelectrode, enabling electrical measurements through its carbon lining, and as a nanoinjector, facilitating reagent injection through its hollow bore. With the aid of a lock-in amplifier, we measured, in real time and with millisecond resolution, variations in impedance and interfacial capacitance as the CNP penetrated into the cytoplasm and nucleus of adherent human osteosarcoma (U20S) cells during microinjection. The capacitance change associated with nucleus penetration was, on average, 1.5 times greater than the one associated with cell membrane penetration. The experimental data was compared and favorably agreed with theoretical predictions based on a simple electrical network model. As a proof of concept, the cytoplasm and nucleus were transfected with fluorescent tRNA, enabling real-time monitoring of tRNA trafficking across the nuclear membrane. The CNP provides a robust and reliable means to detect cell and nucleus penetration, and trigger injection, thereby enabling the automation of cell injection. (papers)

  1. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-12-17

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary.

  2. Genotypes and clinical phenotypes in children with cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, N; Moslemi, A-R; Lebon, S; Rustin, P; Holme, E; Oldfors, A; Tulinius, M

    2003-12-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency has been associated with a wide spectrum of clinical features and may be caused by mutations in different genes of both the mitochondrial and the nuclear DNA. In an attempt to correlate the clinical phenotype with the genotype in 16 childhood cases, mtDNA was analysed for deletion, depletion, and mutations in the three genes encoding COX subunits and the 22 tRNA genes. Furthermore, nuclear DNA was analysed for mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, and COX17 genes and cases with mtDNA depletion were analysed for mutations in the TK2 gene. SURF1-mutations were identified in three out of four cases with Leigh syndrome while a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA (trp) gene was identified in the fourth. One case with mtDNA depletion had mutations in the TK2 gene. In two cases with leukoencephalopathy, one case with encephalopathy, five cases with fatal infantile myopathy and cardiomyopathy, two cases with benign infantile myopathy, and one case with mtDNA depletion, no mutations were identified. We conclude that COX deficiency in childhood should be suspected in a wide range of clinical settings and although an increasing number of genetic defects have been identified, the underlying mutations remain unclear in the majority of the cases.

  3. GAMETOPHYTE DEFECTIVE 1, a putative subunit of RNases P/MRP, is essential for female gametogenesis and male competence in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Qi Wang

    Full Text Available RNA biogenesis, including biosynthesis and maturation of rRNA, tRNA and mRNA, is a fundamental process that is critical for cell growth, division and differentiation. Previous studies showed that mutations in components involved in RNA biogenesis resulted in abnormalities in gametophyte and leaf development in Arabidopsis. In eukaryotes, RNases P/MRP (RNase mitochondrial RNA processing are important ribonucleases that are responsible for processing of tRNA, and transcription of small non-coding RNAs. Here we report that Gametophyte Defective 1 (GAF1, a gene encoding a predicted protein subunit of RNases P/MRP, AtRPP30, plays a role in female gametophyte development and male competence. Embryo sacs were arrested at stages ranging from FG1 to FG7 in gaf1 mutant, suggesting that the progression of the gametophytic division during female gametogenesis was impaired in gaf1 mutant. In contrast, pollen development was not affected in gaf1. However, the fitness of the mutant pollen tube was weaker than that of the wild-type, leading to reduced transmission through the male gametes. GAF1 is featured as a typical RPP30 domain protein and interacts physically with AtPOP5, a homologue of RNases P/MRP subunit POP5 of yeast. Together, our data suggest that components of the RNases P/MRP family, such as RPP30, play important roles in gametophyte development and function in plants.

  4. In-silico Leishmania Target Selectivity of Antiparasitic Terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifedayo Victor Ogungbe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs, like leishmaniasis, are major causes of mortality in resource-limited countries. The mortality associated with these diseases is largely due to fragile healthcare systems, lack of access to medicines, and resistance by the parasites to the few available drugs. Many antiparasitic plant-derived isoprenoids have been reported, and many of them have good in vitro activity against various forms of Leishmania spp. In this work, potential Leishmania biochemical targets of antiparasitic isoprenoids were studied in silico. Antiparasitic monoterpenoids selectively docked to L. infantum nicotinamidase, L. major uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase and methionyl t-RNA synthetase. The two protein targets selectively targeted by germacranolide sesquiterpenoids were L. major methionyl t-RNA synthetase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Diterpenoids generally favored docking to L. mexicana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Limonoids also showed some selectivity for L. mexicana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and L. major dihydroorotate dehydrogenase while withanolides docked more selectively with L. major uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase. The selectivity of the different classes of antiparasitic compounds for the protein targets considered in this work can be explored in fragment- and/or structure-based drug design towards the development of leads for new antileishmanial drugs.

  5. Coumarin structure as a lead scaffold for antibacterial agents - molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović, J.B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins owe their class name to “Coumarou”, the vernacular name of the tonka bean (Dipteryx odorata Willd, Fabaceae, from which coumarin was isolated in 1820. Many molecules based on the coumarin structure have been synthesized utilizing innovative synthetic techniques. Various synthetic routes have led to interesting derivatives including the furanocoumarins, pyranocoumarins and coumarinsulfamates which have been found to be useful in photochemotherapy, antitumor and anti-HIV therapy, as stimulants for central nervous system, antiinflammatory therapy, as anti-coagulants, etc. One of important pharmacological activity of coumarin molecules is their potential as antibacterial agents since they show inhibitory activity toward isoleucyl-transfer RNA (tRNA synthetase. In the presented research molecular docking studies of selected coumarin compounds inside isoleucyltransfer RNA (tRNA synthetase active site were performed. Molecular docking scores of all studied compounds were obtained through score functions. Presented results indicate that from all studied coumarin compounds the strongest interactions with studied enzyme has 7,8-dihydroxy-4-phenyl coumarin followed by 5,7-dihydroxy-4-phenyl coumarin. Presented results are in accordance with in vitro obtained results for their antibacterial activity. Presented findings suggest that 4-phenyl hydroxycoumarins may be considered as good molecular templates for potential antibacterial agents and can be used for further chemical modifications for improving their antibacterial activity.

  6. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Wild Rice (Oryza minuta) and Its Comparison with Other Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Shahzad, Raheem; Seo, Chang-Woo; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Oryza minuta (Poaceae family) is a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice with a BBCC genome. O. minuta has the potential to resist against various pathogenic diseases such as bacterial blight (BB), white backed planthopper (WBPH) and brown plant hopper (BPH). Here, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. minuta. The mtDNA genome is 515,022 bp, containing 60 protein coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome organization and the gene content at the nucleotide level are highly similar (89%) to that of O. rufipogon. Comparison with other related species revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved among the Poaceae members. Similarly, O. minuta mt genome shared 24 protein-coding genes, 15 tRNA genes and 1 ribosomal RNA gene with other rice species (indica and japonica). The evolutionary relationship and phylogenetic analysis revealed that O. minuta is more closely related to O. rufipogon than to any other related species. Such studies are essential to understand the evolutionary divergence among species and analyze common gene pools to combat risks in the current scenario of a changing environment.

  7. Spatial organization of the budding yeast genome in the cell nucleus and identification of specific chromatin interactions from multi-chromosome constrained chromatin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Gamze; Xu, Yun; Liang, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear landmarks and biochemical factors play important roles in the organization of the yeast genome. The interaction pattern of budding yeast as measured from genome-wide 3C studies are largely recapitulated by model polymer genomes subject to landmark constraints. However, the origin of inter-chromosomal interactions, specific roles of individual landmarks, and the roles of biochemical factors in yeast genome organization remain unclear. Here we describe a multi-chromosome constrained self-avoiding chromatin model (mC-SAC) to gain understanding of the budding yeast genome organization. With significantly improved sampling of genome structures, both intra- and inter-chromosomal interaction patterns from genome-wide 3C studies are accurately captured in our model at higher resolution than previous studies. We show that nuclear confinement is a key determinant of the intra-chromosomal interactions, and centromere tethering is responsible for the inter-chromosomal interactions. In addition, important genomic elements such as fragile sites and tRNA genes are found to be clustered spatially, largely due to centromere tethering. We uncovered previously unknown interactions that were not captured by genome-wide 3C studies, which are found to be enriched with tRNA genes, RNAPIII and TFIIS binding. Moreover, we identified specific high-frequency genome-wide 3C interactions that are unaccounted for by polymer effects under landmark constraints. These interactions are enriched with important genes and likely play biological roles.

  8. Evolutionary patterns in the sequence and structure of transfer RNA: early origins of archaea and viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Jie Sun

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are ancient molecules that are central to translation. Since they probably carry evolutionary signatures that were left behind when the living world diversified, we reconstructed phylogenies directly from the sequence and structure of tRNA using well-established phylogenetic methods. The trees placed tRNAs with long variable arms charging Sec, Tyr, Ser, and Leu consistently at the base of the rooted phylogenies, but failed to reveal groupings that would indicate clear evolutionary links to organismal origin or molecular functions. In order to uncover evolutionary patterns in the trees, we forced tRNAs into monophyletic groups using constraint analyses to generate timelines of organismal diversification and test competing evolutionary hypotheses. Remarkably, organismal timelines showed Archaea was the most ancestral superkingdom, followed by viruses, then superkingdoms Eukarya and Bacteria, in that order, supporting conclusions from recent phylogenomic studies of protein architecture. Strikingly, constraint analyses showed that the origin of viruses was not only ancient, but was linked to Archaea. Our findings have important implications. They support the notion that the archaeal lineage was very ancient, resulted in the first organismal divide, and predated diversification of tRNA function and specificity. Results are also consistent with the concept that viruses contributed to the development of the DNA replication machinery during the early diversification of the living world.

  9. Comparison of the complete mitochondrial genome of the stonefly Sweltsa longistyla (Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae) with mitogenomes of three other stoneflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the stonefly, Sweltsa longistyla Wu (Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae), was sequenced in this study. The mitogenome of S. longistyla is 16,151bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. S. longistyla, Pteronarcys princeps Banks, Kamimuria wangi Du and Cryptoperla stilifera Sivec belong to the Plecoptera, and the gene order and orientation of their mitogenomes were similar. The overall AT content for the four stoneflies was below 72%, and the AT content of tRNA genes was above 69%. The four genomes were compact and contained only 65-127bp of non-coding intergenic DNAs. Overlapping nucleotides existed in all four genomes and ranged from 24 (P. princeps) to 178bp (K. wangi). There was a 7-bp motif ('ATGATAA') of overlapping DNA and an 8-bp motif (AAGCCTTA) conserved in three stonefly species (P. princeps, K. wangi and C. stilifera). The control regions of four stoneflies contained a stem-loop structure. Four conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) were present in the A+T-rich regions of all four stoneflies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. First Mitochondrial Genome from Nemouridae (Plecoptera) Reveals Novel Features of the Elongated Control Region and Phylogenetic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2017-05-05

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Nemoura nankinensis (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) was sequenced as the first reported mitogenome from the family Nemouridae. The N. nankinensis mitogenome was the longest (16,602 bp) among reported plecopteran mitogenomes, and it contains 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Most PCGs used standard ATN as start codons, and TAN as termination codons. All tRNA genes of N. nankinensis could fold into the cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnSer ( AGN ), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm was reduced to a small loop. There was also a large non-coding region (control region, CR) in the N. nankinensis mitogenome. The 1751 bp CR was the longest and had the highest A+T content (81.8%) among stoneflies. A large tandem repeat region, five potential stem-loop (SL) structures, four tRNA-like structures and four conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) were detected in the elongated CR. The presence of these tRNA-like structures in the CR has never been reported in other plecopteran mitogenomes. These novel features of the elongated CR in N. nankinensis may have functions associated with the process of replication and transcription. Finally, phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that Nemouridae was the sister-group of Capniidae.

  11. Genetic coding and gene expression - new Quadruplet genetic coding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar Singh, Rama

    2012-07-01

    Successful demonstration of human genome project has opened the door not only for developing personalized medicine and cure for genetic diseases, but it may also answer the complex and difficult question of the origin of life. It may lead to making 21st century, a century of Biological Sciences as well. Based on the central dogma of Biology, genetic codons in conjunction with tRNA play a key role in translating the RNA bases forming sequence of amino acids leading to a synthesized protein. This is the most critical step in synthesizing the right protein needed for personalized medicine and curing genetic diseases. So far, only triplet codons involving three bases of RNA, transcribed from DNA bases, have been used. Since this approach has several inconsistencies and limitations, even the promise of personalized medicine has not been realized. The new Quadruplet genetic coding model proposed and developed here involves all four RNA bases which in conjunction with tRNA will synthesize the right protein. The transcription and translation process used will be the same, but the Quadruplet codons will help overcome most of the inconsistencies and limitations of the triplet codes. Details of this new Quadruplet genetic coding model and its subsequent potential applications including relevance to the origin of life will be presented.

  12. Evolution of the RNase P RNA structural domain in Leptospira spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Vigneshwaran; Ahmed, Ahmed; Sivagnanam, Ulaganathan; Muthuraman, Krishnaraja; Karthikaichamy, Anbarasu; Wilson, Herald A; Devendran, Ajay; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Raj, Stephen M L

    2014-12-01

    We have employed the RNase P RNA (RPR) gene, which is present as single copy in chromosome I of Leptospira spp. to investigate the phylogeny of structural domains present in the RNA subunit of the tRNA processing enzyme, RNase P. RPR gene sequences of 150 strains derived from NCBI database along with sequences determined from 8 reference strains were examined to fathom strain specific structural differences present in leptospiral RPR. Sequence variations in the RPR gene impacted on the configuration of loops, stems and bulges found in the RPR highlighting species and strain specific structural motifs. In vitro transcribed leptospiral RPR ribozymes are demonstrated to process pre-tRNA into mature tRNA in consonance with the positioning of Leptospira in the taxonomic domain of bacteria. RPR sequence datasets used to construct a phylogenetic tree exemplified the segregation of strains into their respective lineages with a (re)speciation of strain SH 9 to Leptospira borgpetersenii, strains Fiocruz LV 3954 and Fiocruz LV 4135 to Leptospira santarosai, strain CBC 613 to Leptospira kirschneri and strain HAI 1536 to Leptospira noguchii. Furthermore, it allowed characterization of an isolate P2653, presumptively characterized as either serovar Hebdomadis, Kremastos or Longnan to Leptospira weilii, serovar Longnan. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. BRF1 mutations alter RNA polymerase III–dependent transcription and cause neurodevelopmental anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hög, Friederike; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Tan, Perciliz L.; Sowada, Nadine; Medeira, Ana; Gueneau, Lucie; Thiele, Holger; Kousi, Maria; Lepri, Francesca; Wenzeck, Larissa; Blumenthal, Ian; Radicioni, Antonio; Schwarzenberg, Tito Livio; Mandriani, Barbara; Fischetto, Rita; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J.; Altmüller, Janine; Reymond, Alexandre; Nürnberg, Peter; Merla, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Katsanis, Nicholas; Cramer, Patrick; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes tRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs to regulate protein synthesis. Dysregulation of Pol III transcription has been linked to cancer, and germline mutations in genes encoding Pol III subunits or tRNA processing factors cause neurogenetic disorders in humans, such as hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Here we describe an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia and intellectual disability, as well as facial dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, and dental anomalies. Whole-exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense alterations of BRF1 in three families. In support of the pathogenic potential of the discovered alleles, suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletion of brf1 in zebrafish embryos recapitulated key neurodevelopmental phenotypes; in vivo complementation showed all four candidate mutations to be pathogenic in an apparent isoform-specific context. BRF1 associates with BDP1 and TBP to form the transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB), which recruits Pol III to target genes. We show that disease-causing mutations reduce Brf1 occupancy at tRNA target genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and impair cell growth. Moreover, BRF1 mutations reduce Pol III–related transcription activity in vitro. Taken together, our data show that BRF1 mutations that reduce protein activity cause neurodevelopmental anomalies, suggesting that BRF1-mediated Pol III transcription is required for normal cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:25561519

  14. Dealing with an Unconventional Genetic Code in  Mitochondria: The Biogenesis and Pathogenic  Defects of the 5‐Formylcytosine Modification in  Mitochondrial tRNAMet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Van Haute

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human mitochondria contain their own genome, which uses an unconventional genetic code. In addition to the standard AUG methionine codon, the single mitochondrial tRNA Methionine (mt‐tRNAMet also recognises AUA during translation initiation and elongation. Post‐transcriptional modifications of tRNAs are important for structure, stability, correct folding and aminoacylation as well as decoding. The unique 5‐formylcytosine (f5C modification of position 34 in mt‐tRNAMet has been long postulated to be crucial for decoding of unconventional methionine codons and efficient mitochondrial translation. However, the enzymes responsible for the formation of mitochondrial f5C have been identified only recently. The first step of the f5C pathway consists of methylation of cytosine by NSUN3. This is followed by further oxidation by ABH1. Here, we review the role of f5C, the latest breakthroughs in our understanding of the biogenesis of this unique mitochondrial tRNA modification and its involvement in human disease.

  15. Exportin-5 mediates nuclear export of SRP RNA in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeiwa, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ichiro; Ohno, Mutsuhito

    2015-04-01

    The signal recognition particle is a ribonucleoprotein complex that is essential for the translocation of nascent proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum. It has been shown that the RNA component (SRP RNA) is exported from the nucleus by CRM1 in the budding yeast. However, how SRP RNA is exported in higher species has been elusive. Here, we show that SRP RNA does not use the CRM1 pathway in Xenopus oocytes. Instead, SRP RNA uses the same export pathway as pre-miRNA and tRNA as showed by cross-competition experiments. Consistently, the recombinant Exportin-5 protein specifically stimulated export of SRP RNA as well as of pre-miRNA and tRNA, whereas an antibody raised against Exportin-5 specifically inhibited export of the same RNA species. Moreover, biotinylated SRP RNA can pull down Exportin-5 but not CRM1 from HeLa cell nuclear extracts in a RanGTP-dependent manner. These results, taken together, strongly suggest that the principal export receptor for SRP RNA in vertebrates is Exportin-5 unlike in the budding yeast. © 2015 The Authors. Genes to Cells published by Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Absence of Non-histone Protein Complexes at Natural Chromosomal Pause Sites Results in Reduced Replication Pausing in Aging Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny Cabral

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that genomic instability increases during aging. Replication pausing (and stalling at difficult-to-replicate chromosomal sites may induce genomic instability. Interestingly, in aging yeast cells, we observed reduced replication pausing at various natural replication pause sites (RPSs in ribosomal DNA (rDNA and non-rDNA locations (e.g., silent replication origins and tRNA genes. The reduced pausing occurs independent of the DNA helicase Rrm3p, which facilitates replication past these non-histone protein-complex-bound RPSs, and is independent of the deacetylase Sir2p. Conditions of caloric restriction (CR, which extend life span, also cause reduced replication pausing at the 5S rDNA and at tRNA genes. In aged and CR cells, the RPSs are less occupied by their specific non-histone protein complexes (e.g., the preinitiation complex TFIIIC, likely because members of these complexes have primarily cytosolic localization. These conditions may lead to reduced replication pausing and may lower replication stress at these sites during aging.

  17. Time of action of 4.5 S RNA in Escherichia coli translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S

    1989-01-01

    A new class of suppressor mutants helps to define the role of 4.5 S RNA in translation. The suppressors reduce the requirement for 4.5 S RNA by increasing the intracellular concentration of uncharged tRNA. Suppression probably occurs by prolonging the period in which translating ribosomes have...... translocated but not yet released the uncharged tRNA, indicating that this is the point at which 4.5 S RNA enters translation. The release of 4.5 S RNA from polysomes is affected by antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis. The antibiotic-sensitivity of this release indicates that 4.5 S RNA exits...... the ribosome following translocation and prior to release of protein synthesis elongation factor G. These results indicate that 4.5 S RNA acts immediately after ribosomal translocation. A model is proposed in which 4.5 S RNA stabilizes the post-translocation state by replacing 23 S ribosomal RNA as a binding...

  18. Changes in Translational Efficiency is a Dominant Regulatory Mechanism in the Environmental Response of Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Ronald C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Serres, Margrethe H.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Hill, Eric A.; Romine, Margaret F.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wiley, H. S.

    2013-09-23

    To understand how cell physiological state affects mRNA translation, we used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 grown under steady state conditions at either aerobic or suboxic conditions. Using a combination of quantitative proteomics and RNA-Seq, we generated high-confidence data on >1000 mRNA and protein pairs. By using a steady state model, we found that differences in protein-mRNA ratios were primarily caused by differences in the translational efficiency of specific genes. When oxygen levels were lowered, 28% of the proteins showed at least a 2-fold change in expression. Altered transcription levels appeared responsible for 26% of the protein changes, altered translational efficiency appeared responsible for 46% and a combination of both were responsible for the remaining 28%. Changes in translational efficiency were significantly correlated with the codon usage pattern of the genes and measurable tRNA pools changed in response to altered O2 levels. Our results suggest that changes in the translational efficiency of proteins, in part caused by altered tRNA pools, is a major determinant of regulated protein expression in bacteria.

  19. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates from intramammary infections of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, L A; Baele, M; Vaneechoutte, M; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F

    2002-06-20

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is a highly prevalent species in subclinical mastitis with a well-established impact on somatic cell count. Few data are available on its antimicrobial susceptibility. The objective of this study was three-fold: (1) to evaluate simple identification tests by comparing them with a genomic method; (2) to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of different antibiotics; (3) to search for the presence of important resistance mechanisms and resistance-determining genes.Seventy-three staphylococcal strains, all collected on different dairy farms, were tentatively identified as S. chromogenes based on their lack of hemolysis and their characteristic intermediate DNase activity. The identification of 70 strains was confirmed as S. chromogenes by tRNA intergenic spacer PCR (tRNA PCR). Three strains were identified as S. sciuri, a species that is naturally cloxacillin- and lincomycin-resistant. All 70 S. chromogenes strains were found to be normally susceptible to neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, enrofloxacin, and to penicillinase-stable penicillins and cephalosporins, represented in this study by cloxacillin. The latter result was confirmed by the absence of the mecA gene in each of 13 strains in which this gene was searched for. Twenty-seven (38%) strains were penicillinase producers. Three lincomycin-resistant S. chromogenes strains were found to carry the linA gene. It was concluded that S. chromogenes can be identified reliably in routine mastitis bacteriology, and that the only resistance of importance is against penicillinase-susceptible penicillins.

  20. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenosvesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore,Jeffrey L.; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward As and Ts, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the 16S rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects.