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Sample records for eugregarinidae protozoa ii

  1. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  2. Ciliate protozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehority, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Gruby and Delafond discovered the rumen protozoa in 1843 and suggested that their digestive activity was the primary means by which ruminants could survive on an all-plant diet. However, subsequent studies have clearly shown that bacteria actually play a prominent role in the fermentation of plant materials, and fungi are also involved. The rumen ciliates range in size from 18 to 500 μm and can be enumerated and identified microscopically at relatively low magnifications. On the basis of cell morphology, they have been classified into at least five families containing 24 different genera. Although new species are still being reported yearly, the last summary was compiled in 1992 by Williams and Coleman and listed 257 separate species. Ciliate protozoa belonging to different families are found in most other herbivorous mammals. This includes those animals in which fermentation occurs in the hindgut, such as the horse, elephant, rhinoceros and capybara, as well as in the non-ruminant foregut fomenters, i.e. camelids, hippopotamus and kangaroo. These ciliates can be enumerated and identified using the methods and techniques presented in this chapter, presuming appropriate procedures are used for obtaining representative samples from the animal

  3. Symbiosis and Rumen Protozoa

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    Dillon, Raymond D.

    1970-01-01

    Protozoa inhabiting the rumen of large grazing animals can be used to illustrate symbiotic animal associations. Gives a key to the ciliates most commonly found, several drawings, and a chart relating rumen fauna to the phylogenetic tree of the hosts. (EB)

  4. Protozoa manipulation by ultrasound

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    Yancy Milena Porras Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganism manipulation, considered as controlled motion and positioning, is one of the most important activities in microbiology and medicine. To achieve this goal there are some techniques such as those which and optical forces, among others. These techniques are usually sophisticated, and some of them can induce irreversible alterations on the microorganisms which prevents their use in another tests. Thus, there is justified the study of technological alternatives to manipulate microorganisms in an easy and cost-effective way. This work shows the interaction between protozoa and air microbubbles when they are under the influence of an ultrasonic field of 5.8 mW. At the microbubbles resonant frequencies, microorganisms were attracted toward the bubbles' frontier remaining there while the ultrasonic field was applied. Once the ultrasound disappears, protozoa recover their freedom of movement. The observed effects could be used as the actuation principle of devices capable to trap, hold and release microorganisms of high mobility without any apparent damage. Microbubbles are generated by electrolysis which take place on the surface of an electrode array, while the ultrasound is originated by means of a piezoelectric transducer. As microorganisms there were employed those present in stagnated water, and were observed through an stereomicroscope. Key words: manipulator; protozoa; ultrasonic; transducer; piezoelectric.

  5. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. II. Protozoa population and diversity of bacterial communities.

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    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Saro, C; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of dietary characteristics on microbial populations and bacterial diversity. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the differences between diets found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained forage to concentrate (F:C) ratios of 70:30 (high forage; HF) or 30:70 (high concentrate; HC) with either alfalfa hay (A) or grass hay (G) as the forage. Total bacterial numbers were greater in the rumen of sheep fed HF diets compared with those fed HC diets, whereas the opposite was found in fermenters. The numbers of cellulolytic bacteria were not affected by F:C ratio in any fermentation system, but cellulolytic numbers were 2.7 and 1.8 times greater in sheep than in fermenters for HF and HC diets, respectively. Neither total bacterial nor cellulolytic numbers were affected by the type of forage in sheep or fermenters. Decreasing F:C ratio increased total protozoa and Entodiniae numbers in sheep by about 29 and 25%, respectively, but it had no effect in fermenters. Isotrichidae and Ophryoscolecinae numbers in sheep were not affected by changing F:C ratio, but both disappeared completely from fermenters fed HC diets. Total protozoa and Entodiniae numbers were greater in sheep fed A diets than in those fed G diets, whereas the opposite was found in fermenters. Results indicate that under the conditions of the present study, protozoa population in Rusitec fermenters was not representative of that in the rumen of sheep fed the same diets. In addition, protozoa numbers in fermenters were 121 and 226 times lower than those in the sheep rumen for HF and HC diets, respectively. The automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used to analyze the diversity of liquid- and solid-associated bacteria in both systems. A total of 170 peaks were detected in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis

  6. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

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    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. A new view on the morphology and phylogeny of eugregarines suggested by the evidence from the gregarine Ancora sagittata (Leuckart, 1860 Labbé, 1899 (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida

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    Timur G. Simdyanov

    2017-05-01

    . Comparative morphological analyses of gregarine teguments and attachment organelles lead us to revise their terminology. The terms “longitudinal folds” and “mucron” are restricted to archigregarines, whereas the terms “epicystic crests” and “epimerite” are proposed to describe the candidate synapomorphies of eugregarines, which, consequently, are considered as a monophyletic group. Abolishing the suborders Aseptata and Septata, incorporating neogregarines into the Eugregarinida, and treating the major molecular phylogenetic lineages of eugregarines as superfamilies appear as the best way of reconciling recent morphological and molecular evidence. Accordingly, the diagnosis of the order Eugregarinida Léger, 1900 is updated.

  8. The Protozoa, A Kingdom By Default?

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    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the concepts of kingdoms of organisms are substantial and Protozoa is loosely characterized. Presents a case explaining how Protozoa interface with other kingdoms of organisms now recognized. (Contains 55 references.) (ASK)

  9. Explore the World Using Protozoa.

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    Anderson, O. Roger, Ed.; Druger, Marvin, Ed.

    This book is a joint publication of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the Society of Protozoologists and is the result of efforts to find a way in which protozoa research can be used to teach biology. This program puts cutting edge science into the hands of science teachers and enables students to experience a variety of…

  10. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-20

    Classification) " ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF INTRACELLULAR PROTOZOA 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Aikawa, Masamichi 13a. TYPE OF REPORT I13b. TIME COVERED 114...authors suggest that anti-CS protein antibody is important in reducing the prevalence of malaria with increasing age among persons in such areas and... Hygine 33, 220-226. 0Giudice, G.D., Engers, H.D., Tougne, C., Biro, S.S., Weiss, N., Verdini, A.S., Pessi, A., Degremont, A.A., Freyvogel, T.A., Lambert

  11. Putative bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.

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    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.

  12. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

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    Consuelo Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  13. Regulation of gene expression in protozoa parasites.

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    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  14. Cell fractionation of parasitic protozoa: a review

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    Souza Wanderley de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell fractionation, a methodological strategy for obtaining purified organelle preparations, has been applied successfully to parasitic protozoa by a number of investigators. Here we present and discuss the work of several groups that have obtained highly purified subcellular fractions from trypanosomatids, Apicomplexa and trichomonads, and whose work have added substantially to our knowledge of the cell biology of these parasites.

  15. Newer diagnostic approaches to intestinal protozoa.

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    van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J

    2010-10-01

    To update the reader on the latest developments in the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal protozoa. Correct identification of a diarrhoea causing pathogens is essential for the choice of treatment in an individual patient as well as to map the aetiology of diarrhoea in a variety of patient populations. Classical diagnosis of diarrhoea causing protozoa by microscopic examination of a stool sample lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Alternative diagnostic platforms are discussed. Recent literature on the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa has focused mainly on nucleic acid-based assays, in particular the specific detection of parasite DNA in stool samples using real-time PCR. In addition, the trend has been moving from single pathogen detection to a multiplex approach, allowing simultaneous identification of multiple parasites. Different combinations of targets can be used within a routine diagnostic setting, depending on the patient population, such as children, immunocompromised individuals and those who have been travelling to tropical regions. Large-scale monitoring and evaluation of control strategies become feasible due to automation and high-throughput facilities. Improved technology also has become available for differentiating protozoa subspecies, which facilitates outbreak investigations and extensive research in molecular epidemiology.

  16. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

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    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  17. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

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    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  18. Issues of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters

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    Hawrylik, Eliza

    2018-02-01

    Parasitic protozoa are very numerous organisms in the environment that play an important role in the spread of water-borne diseases. Water-borne epidemics caused by parasitic protozoa are noted throughout the world. Within these organisms, intestinal protozoa of the genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are ones of the most serious health hazards for humans. This paper focuses on the problem of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters. Characteristics of the most frequently recognized pathogens responsible for water-borne outbreaks were described, as well as sources of contamination and surface waters contamination due to protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium and Giardia were presented. The methods of destroying the cysts and oocysts of parasitic protozoa used nowadays in the world were also presented in a review.

  19. Issues of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters

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    Hawrylik Eliza

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters. Characteristics of the most frequently recognized pathogens responsible for water-borne outbreaks were described, as well as sources of contamination and surface waters contamination due to protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium and Giardia were presented. The methods of destroying the cysts and oocysts of parasitic protozoa used nowadays in the world were also presented in a review.

  20. [Contamination of protozoa by enteroviruses in fresh water and sewages].

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    Skachkov, M V; Al'misheva, A Sh; Plotnikov, A O; Nemtseva, N V; Skvortsov, V O

    2009-01-01

    To determine rate of infection of protozoa by enteroviruses to assess the potential role of protozoa as a natural reservoir of enteroviruses. The samples were collected from flowing and stagnant water reservoirs in Orenburg region in summer and autumn. The samples of sewages were taken in all stages of their treatment. Cultures of protozoa were isolated with micromanipulator equipped with micropipette, incubated on Pratt's medium at 25 degrees C and fed with Pseudomonas fluorescens culture. RNA of enteroviruses was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Seventy-two protozoan species were found in Ural river, whereas 15 and 38 species were found in lakes and sewages respectively. Enteroviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 61.8% cultures of protozoa belonging to 23 species of flagellates, amoebae and ciliates isolated from natural water bodies undergoing anthropogenic impact as well as from sewages in all stages of their treatment. Predominant localization of enteroviruses in dominant taxons of protozoa (Paraphysomonas sp., Spumella sp., Petalomonas poosilla, Amoeba sp.) was noted. Obtained data confirm presence of enteroviruses in protozoa living both in flowing and stagnant recreation natural water bodies as well as in sewages and confirm the hypothesis of persistence of enteroviruses in protozoa and the reservoir role of the latter. Contingency of life cycles of viruses and protozoa allows to explain the seasonality of aseptic meningitis incidence caused by enteroviruses, which peaks in summer and autumn when protozoa massively multiply in water bodies.

  1. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

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    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  2. Detection of intestinal protozoa in the clinical laboratory.

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    McHardy, Ian H; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Humphries, Romney M

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa.

  3. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

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    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  4. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide.

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    Speich, Benjamin; Marti, Hanspeter; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Bogoch, Isaac I; Utzinger, Jürg; Albonico, Marco; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-01-04

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg-400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects.

  5. Protozoa and digestive tract parameters of the impala.

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    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-10-12

    Intestinal contents were collected from eight impala at three different localities during the winter hunting season (2005-2009), as well as from another 24 animals from a one-year trial at a game farm called Ditholo (2003-2004). Gas production, protozoa counts and several other physiological parameters were measured from both rumen and caecum or colon contents. Only higher ophryoscolecid and Isotrichidae species of protozoa were counted and identified. Ostracodinium gracile was present in all 32 impala. Eudiplodinium maggii was present in 31 animals and Eudiplodinium impalae and Epidinium (either ecaudatum or caudatum) in 30 animals. Dasytricha ruminantium was present in only 11 of the impala. Concentrations of protozoa were correlated with the season of sample collection and highly correlated with the animals living on the game farm. Gas production (mL/g of wet rumen ingesta) was weakly correlated with protozoa concentration but not with the season of collection.

  6. Environmental requirements of selected estuarine ciliated Protozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borror, A.C.

    1975-05-01

    This report addresses species composition and microdistribution of ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) of a tidal marsh at Adams Pt., Great Bay, New Hampshire (1970, 1971) in relationship to temperature, salinity, pH, concentration of oxygen, H 2 S, and bacteria, and occurrence of micrometazoa. Accurate counting and precise identification allowed measurement of tidal effects on ciliate abundance and diversity, and the relationship of ciliates to micrometazoa and bacteria. During 1970, we identified 79 species in 175 collections; during 1971, 83 species in 102 collections. Although in general ciliate distribution was not correlated with temperature, salinity, pH, or oxygen concentration, some species were tolerant of anoxic environments. Ciliates differed in distribution between the upper (Spartina patens) and the lower (S. alterniflora) marsh. We measured responses of bacteria and ciliates to the physical and biological changes in a patens-panne pond caused by tidal flushing, and to the flushing of a channel in the lower marsh by several different tidal cycles. (U.S.)

  7. Rickettsiae, protozoa, and opisthokonta/metazoa.

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    Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobiales (formerly named Rickettsiales) cause in rare instances meningitis and meningovasculitis, respectively. In case of history of exposure, infection by Rhizobiales needs to be considered since both diagnosis and therapy may be extremely difficult and pathogen-specific. The same applies to protozoa; in this chapter, Babesia species, free-living amoebae and Entamoeba histolytica infection, including severe meningitis and brain abscess, infection by Trypanosoma species (South American and African trypanosomiasis) are discussed with respect to history, epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as differential diagnosis and therapy. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms, potentially able to invade the central nervous system, trematodes (flukes), cestodes (in particular, Cysticercus cellulosae), but also nematodes (in particular, Strongyloides spp. in the immunocompromised) are of worldwide importance. In contrast, filarial worms, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Gnathostoma and Angiostrongylus spp. are seen only in certain geographically confined areas. Even more regionally confined are infestations of the central nervous system by metazoa, in particular, tongue worms (=arthropods) or larvae of flies (=maggots). The aim of this chapter is (1) to alert the neurologist to these infections, and (2) to enable the attending emergency neurologist to take a knowledgeable history, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as therapeutic management possibilities. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemotaxis toward carbohydrates and peptides by mixed ruminal protozoa when fed, fasted, or incubated with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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    Diaz, H L; Karnati, S K R; Lyons, M A; Dehority, B A; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well-characterized chemotaxis and migratory behavior between the dorsal and ventral locations of the rumen by isotrichids, we hypothesized that chemotaxis toward soluble nutrients maintains entodiniomorphid protozoa in the particulate fraction. The objectives of these experiments were to compare the dose-responsive chemotaxis (1) toward different glucose concentrations when ruminal samples were harvested from fed versus fasted cows; (2) toward increasing concentrations of glucose compared with xylose when protozoa were harvested from a fed cow; (3) toward peptides of bacterial, protozoal, and soy origin; and (4) toward glucose when mixed ruminal protozoa were previously incubated for 0, 3, or 6h in the presence of emulsified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; Liposyn II, Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). In experiment 1, isotrichid protozoa decreased chemotaxis toward increasing glucose concentration when cows were fasted. Entodiniomorphids exhibited chemotaxis to similar concentrations of glucose as did isotrichids, but to a lesser magnitude of response. In experiment 2, xylose was chemotactic to both groups. Xylose might draw fibrolytic entodiniomorphid protozoa toward newly ingested feed. In contrast, even though isotrichids should not use xylose as an energy source, they were highly chemoattracted to xylose. In experiment 3, entodiniomorphids were not selectively chemoattracted toward bacterial or protozoal peptides compared with soy peptides. In experiment 4, despite isotrichid populations decreasing in abundance with increasing time of incubation in PUFA, chemotaxis to glucose remained unchanged. In contrast, entodiniomorphids recovered chemotaxis to glucose with increased time of PUFA incubation. Current results support isotrichid chemotaxis to sugars but also our hypothesis that a more moderate chemotaxis toward glucose and peptides explains how they swim in the fluid but pass from the rumen with the potentially digestible fraction of

  9. Water-borne protozoa parasites: The Latin American perspective.

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    Rosado-García, Félix Manuel; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena; Karanis, Gabriele; Hinojosa, María Del Carmen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Health systems, sanitation and water access have certain limitations in nations of Latin America (LA): typical matters of developing countries. Water is often contaminated and therefore unhealthy for the consumers and users. Information on prevalence and detection of waterborne parasitic protozoa are limited or not available in LA. Only few reports have documented in this field during the last forty years and Brazil leads the list, including countries in South America and Mexico within Central America region and Caribbean islands. From 1979 to 2015, 16 outbreaks of waterborne-protozoa, were reported in Latin American countries. T. gondii and C. cayetanensis were the protozoa, which caused more outbreaks and Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most frequently found protozoa in water samples. On the other hand, Latin America countries have not got a coherent methodology for detection of protozoa in water samples despite whole LA is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events related to waterborne-infections; although Brazil and Colombia have some implemented laws in their surveillance systems. It would be important to coordinate all surveillance systems in between all countries for early detection and measures against waterborne-protozoan and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis tools according to the country's economic strength and particular needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Ibtissem; Aziz, Aurore; Hoffart, Louis; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-10-29

    The repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions is poorly known despite the fact that such protozoa may act as direct pathogens and may harbor intra-cellular pathogens. Between 2009 and 2014, the contact lens solutions collected from patients presenting at our Ophthalmology Department for clinically suspected keratitis, were cultured on non-nutrient agar examined by microscope for the presence of free-living protozoa. All protozoa were identified by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 20 of 233 (8.6 %) contact lens solution specimens collected from 16 patients were cultured. Acanthamoeba amoeba in 16 solutions (80 %) collected from 12 patients and Colpoda steini, Cercozoa sp., Protostelium sp. and a eukaryotic more closely related to Vermamoeba sp., were each isolated in one solution. Cercozoa sp., Colpoda sp., Protostelium sp. and Vermamoeba sp. are reported for the first time as contaminating contact lens solutions. The repertoire of protozoa in contact lens solutions is larger than previously known.

  11. Gut Protozoa: Friends or Foes of the Human Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Magali; Lokmer, Ana; Ségurel, Laure

    2017-12-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota for human health has sparked a strong interest in the study of the factors that shape its composition and diversity. Despite the growing evidence suggesting that helminths and protozoa significantly interact with gut bacteria, gut microbiome studies remain mostly focused on prokaryotes and on populations living in industrialized countries that typically have a low parasite burden. We argue that protozoa, like helminths, represent an important factor to take into account when studying the gut microbiome, and that their presence - especially considering their long coevolutionary history with humans - may be beneficial. From this perspective, we examine the relationship between the protozoa and their hosts, as well as their relevance for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacteria and protozoa in soil microhabitats as affected by earthworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rønn, Regin; Hendriksen, Niels B.

    1997-01-01

    , were compared. The total, viable, and culturable number of bacteria, the metabolic potentials of bacterial populations, and the number of protozoa and nematodes were determined in soil size fractions. Significant differences between soil fractions were shown by all assays. The highest number......-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolim chloride (CTC)-reducing bacteria explained a major part of the variation in the number of protozoa. High protozoan activity and predation thus coincided with high bacterial activity. In soil with elm leaves, fungal growth is assumed to inhibit bacterial and protozoan...... activity. In soil with elm leaves and earthworms, earthworm activity led to increased culturability of bacteria, activity of protozoa, number of nematodes, changed metabolic potentials of the bacteria, and decreased differences in metabolic potentials between bacterial populations in the soil fractions...

  13. Amino acid composition of rumen bacteria and protozoa in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, M; Ouellet, D R; Firkins, J L; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2017-07-01

    Because microbial crude protein (MCP) constitutes more than 50% of the protein digested in cattle, its AA composition is needed to adequately estimate AA supply. Our objective was to update the AA contributions of the rumen microbial AA flowing to the duodenum using only studies from cattle, differentiating between fluid-associated bacteria (FAB), particle-associated bacteria (PAB), and protozoa, based on published literature (53, 16, and 18 treatment means were used for each type of microorganism, respectively). In addition, Cys and Met reported concentrations were retained only when an adequate protection of the sulfur groups was performed before the acid hydrolysis. The total AA (or true protein) fraction represented 82.4% of CP in bacteria. For 10 AA, including 4 essential AA, the AA composition differed between protozoa and bacteria. The most noticeable differences were a 45% lower Lys concentration and 40% higher Ala concentration in bacteria than in protozoa. Differences between FAB and PAB were less pronounced than differences between bacteria and protozoa. Assuming 33% FAB, 50% PAB, and 17% of protozoa in MCP duodenal flow, the updated concentrations of AA would decrease supply estimates of Met, Thr, and Val originating from MCP and increase those of Lys and Phe by 5 to 10% compared with those calculated using the FAB composition reported previously. Therefore, inclusion of the contribution of PAB and protozoa to the duodenal MCP flow is needed to adequately estimate AA supply from microbial origin when a factorial method is used to estimate duodenal AA flow. Furthermore, acknowledging the fact that hydrolysis of 1 kg of true microbial protein yields 1.16 kg of free AA substantially increases the estimates of AA supply from MCP. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protozoa and their bacterial prey colonize sterile soil fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2010-01-01

    We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them to the at......We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them...

  15. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  16. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few

  17. Alternative mounting media for preservation of some protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2014-10-01

    Protozoa resistant stages are disintegrated when mounted in toluene-based media. To overcome such problem, three toluene-free mountants were tested on preserve Acanthamoeba spp and gregarines. Two commercial glues based on cyanoacrylate or trimethoxysilane were suitable for preserving both cysts and trophozoites. Hoyer's medium showed good results for mounting gregarine oocysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic-based investigation of three prevalent waterborne protozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... 2014. Genetic –based investigations of three prevalent waterborne protozoa parasites in drinking water sources in Daloa, Cote d'Ivoire. 6536 step method, used for the detection of species belonging to Enterococcus genus. These membrane filtration (MF) based techniques do not require any additional.

  19. Protozoa inhibition by different salts: Osmotic stress or ionic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhao; Li, Jingya; Lan, Christopher Q; Liao, Dankui

    2017-09-01

    Cell density and morphology changes were tested to examine the effects of salts including NaHCO 3 , NaCl, KHCO 3 , and KCl at 160 mM on protozoa. It was demonstrated that ionic stress rather than osmotic stress led to protozoa cell death and NaHCO 3 was shown to be the most effective inhibitor. Deformation of cells and cell shrinkage were observed when protozoan cells were exposed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) or any of the salts. However, while PEG treated cells could fully recover in both number and size, only a small portion of the salt-treated cells survive and cell size was 36-58% smaller than the regular. The disappearance of salt-treated protozoa cells was hypothetically attributed to disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane of these cells. It is further hypothesized that the PEG-treated protozoan cells carried out regulatory volume increase (RVI) after the osmotic shock but the RVI of salt-treated protozoa was hurdled to varied extents. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1418-1424, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Gastrointestinal protozoa and digestive tract parameters of wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) is a grazer and hindgut fermenter with an apparent unique population of protozoa; however, only a limited number of specimens have been studied to date. In addition to having a very low number of protozoal species, little is known about temporal (seasonal) variation and ...

  1. The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and other intestinal protozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and other intestinal protozoa infections amongst HIV patients seen at Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, was studied between March 2006 and April 2007. Stool samples were collected in sterile screw cap bottles from 1,202 male and female respondents aged 1 to 50 years.

  2. Intestinal protozoa of the African elephant Loxodonta africana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestive tract of 15 elephants from South Africa and two from Zaïre were sampled in order to determine the identity, density and population composition of the intestinal protozoa. The following orders were represented: Gymnostomatida, Trichostomatida and Entodiniomorphida. Altogether 17 species were identified, ...

  3. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  4. Enteric Protozoa in the Developed World: a Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Several enteric protozoa cause severe morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals worldwide. In developed settings, enteric protozoa are often ignored as a cause of diarrheal illness due to better hygiene conditions, and as such, very little effort is used toward laboratory diagnosis. Although these protozoa contribute to the high burden of infectious diseases, estimates of their true prevalence are sometimes affected by the lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques to detect them in clinical and environmental specimens. Despite recent advances in the epidemiology, molecular biology, and treatment of protozoan illnesses, gaps in knowledge still exist, requiring further research. There is evidence that climate-related changes will contribute to their burden due to displacement of ecosystems and human and animal populations, increases in atmospheric temperature, flooding and other environmental conditions suitable for transmission, and the need for the reuse of alternative water sources to meet growing population needs. This review discusses the common enteric protozoa from a public health perspective, highlighting their epidemiology, modes of transmission, prevention, and control. It also discusses the potential impact of climate changes on their epidemiology and the issues surrounding waterborne transmission and suggests a multidisciplinary approach to their prevention and control. PMID:22763633

  5. Detection of Protozoa in Surface and Finished Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans are known to be the host to approximately 1500 infectious agents, out of which 66 are protozoa and 287 are helminths. Therefore, from a global perspective helminths and protozoan parasites account for approximately one fourth of the total infectious diseases of humans. A s...

  6. Animals of the Sea: Coelenterates, Protozoa, and Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    These three units are designed for use with standard science curricula. These publications, relating to animals of the sea, are: Protozoa, Sponges, and Coelenterates. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. Objectives to be attained from the unit on…

  7. Genetic-based investigation of three prevalent waterborne protozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic-based investigation of three prevalent waterborne protozoa parasites in drinking water sources in Daloa district in Côte d'Ivoire. ... Low-income households should be aware of the risk of drinking water from wells and the need to boil or treated drinking water to avoid diarrheal diseases related thereto. Conclusion ...

  8. Protozoa as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsbers, Carolien F M; Schweizer, Joachim J; Büller, Hans A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether protozoa can be identified as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and whether protozoan infections can be recognized by a specific clinical presentation. For 2 years, all patients (ages 4-16 years) fulfilling the Apley criteria of RAP referred to secondary care were prospectively evaluated for protozoa (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis) and treated if positive. Re-examination followed at least 10 days after treatment. Disappearance of pain with eradication and a pain-free follow-up of at least 6 months were considered to be indicative of a causal relation with RAP. The predictive value of the characteristics of the pain for protozoan infections was calculated. Of 220 included patients (92 boys, mean age 8.8 years), 215 brought a stool sample; 73 (34%) carried parasites, 10 of whom had 2 parasites, 2 had 3 parasites. Sixty-five patients were treated. Twenty-five (11%) were pain-free after eradication (21 had D fragilis, 8 B hominis, 4 G lamblia), of whom 11 had another infection (2) or constipation (9) as second diagnosis for the pain. Five had recurrence of infection with D fragilis and were again pain-free with eradication. Patients with protozoa as cause of their pain did not show differences with respect to their presentation when compared with patients with an asymptomatic infection and patients without protozoa. Protozoa were found as the cause of pain in 6% to 11% of children with RAP. These patients did not show a characteristic presentation when compared with patients with other causes of abdominal pain.

  9. Technical note: Protozoa-specific antibodies raised in sheep plasma bind to their target protozoa in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Rea, S M; Popovski, S; Skillman, L C; Wright, A-D G

    2014-12-01

    Binding of IgG antibodies to Entodinium spp. in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries) was investigated by adding IgG, purified from plasma, directly into the rumen. Plasma IgG was sourced from sheep that had or had not been immunized with a vaccine containing whole fixed Entodinium spp. cells. Ruminal fluid was sampled approximately 2 h after each antibody dosing. Binding of protozoa by a specific antibody was detected using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. An antibody titer in the ruminal fluid was determined by ELISA, and the concentration of ruminal fluid ammonia-N and ruminal pH were also determined. Entodinium spp. and total protozoa from IgG-infused sheep were enumerated by microscopic counts. Two-hourly additions of IgG maintained a low antibody titer in the rumen for 12 h and the binding of the antibody to the rumen protozoa was demonstrated. Increased ammonia-N concentrations and altered ruminal fluid pH patterns indicated that additional fermentation of protein was occurring in the rumen after addition of IgG. No reduction in numbers of Entodinium spp. was observed (P>0.05). Although binding of antibodies to protozoa has been demonstrated in the rumen, it is unclear how much cell death occurred. On the balance of probability, it would appear that the antibody was degraded or partially degraded, and the impact of this on protozoal populations and the measurement of a specific titer is also unclear.

  10. The role of protozoa-driven selection in shaping human genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Uberto; Fumagalli, Matteo; Cagliani, Rachele; Comi, Giacomo P; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2010-03-01

    Protozoa exert a strong selective pressure in humans. The selection signatures left by these pathogens can be exploited to identify genetic modulators of infection susceptibility. We show that protozoa diversity in different geographic locations is a good measure of protozoa-driven selective pressure; protozoa diversity captured selection signatures at known malaria resistance loci and identified several selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune and hemolytic anemia genes. A genome-wide search enabled us to identify 5180 variants mapping to 1145 genes that are subjected to protozoa-driven selective pressure. We provide a genome-wide estimate of protozoa-driven selective pressure and identify candidate susceptibility genes for protozoa-borne diseases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An in vitro assay for compounds toxic to rumen protozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.J.; Cumming, G.J.; Graham, C.A.; Leng, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The viability of protozoa in whole rumen fluid was assessed by measuring the incorporation of Me- 14 C-choline in vitro. The use of the technique as an assay for testing antiprotozoal agents was evaluated with a variety of surfactant detergents which have previously been shown to have antiprotozoal activity in vivo. A good correlation was obtained between the potency of these compounds in vitro and in vivo. (auth)

  12. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging...

  13. Association between protozoa in sputum and asthma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerden, Hugo C; Ratier-Cruz, Adriana; Aleshinloye, Olabode B; Martinez-Giron, Rafael; Gregory, Clive; Matthews, Ian P

    2011-06-01

    Atypical infectious agents have been proposed as potential contributors to asthma. A novel set of morphological and staining criteria permit the identification of flagellated protozoa in sputum. This case-control study was designed to use this novel method and to assess: (1) are protozoa more common in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics; (2) is the presence of protozoa associated with the use of steroid inhalers; and (3) is the presence of protozoa associated with living in damp housing? Induced sputum samples were collected from asthma patients and local non-atopic, non-smoking controls. Questionnaires assessed asthma severity and housing conditions. Sputum was examined for flagellated protozoa using a previously described staining technique. 96 participants were recruited for this study; 54 asthma patients and 42 controls, age range 21-62 years, 70% female participants. Limiting results to those who were clearly positive or negative for flagellated protozoa, 66.7% (20/30) of asthmatics and 30.8% (4/13) of controls had protozoa (p = 0.046). Among the asthma patients, prevalence of protozoa was not significantly different between those who had (10/18), and those who had not (10/12), used steroid inhaler in the preceding two weeks (p = 0.11). Similarly, the prevalence of protozoa was not significantly different between those who did (6/11) and those who did not (18/32), live in damp homes (p = 0.92). This case-control study demonstrates an association between flagellated protozoa in sputum and asthma. It is now necessary to confirm and characterise the protozoa using genetic techniques based on 18S ribosomal RNA. Once tis is established it would be worthwhile to determine if asthma symptoms improve when treated by anti-protozoal agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular comparison of cultivable protozoa from a pristine and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polluted site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lara, E; Berney, C; Ekelund, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    We compared the abundance and diversity of cultivable protozoa (flagellates and amoebae) in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soil and an unpolluted control, by isolating and cultivating clonal strains. The number of cultivable protozoa was higher in the polluted soil; however...

  15. Coproscopy and molecular screening for detection of intestinal protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan; Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy M; Sharma, Aarti; Ismail, Ahmed

    2017-09-06

    Intestinal parasitosis is one of several health concerns about immigrants who travel from endemic to non-endemic regions. Reliable rapid sensitive diagnostic tools, for use in non-endemic regions, are urgently required to enable frequent assessment of immigrant workers in jobs where risk of local transmission is a particular concern (e.g. food-handlers). We assessed the burden of intestinal protozoa in newly arrived immigrants and those applying for renewal of work permits in Qatar (n = 735), by both microscopic examination of stool samples and by Real Time PCR methodology. Prevalence was considerably higher using RT-PCR compared with coproscopy (Blastocystis hominis: 65.2 vs 7.6%; Giardia duodenalis: 14.3 vs 2.9%; Entamoeba histolytica: 1.6 vs 1.2%). Dientamoeba fragilis was sought only by RT-PCR (prevalence of 25.4%). Prevalence of G. duodenalis was significantly higher in male subjects, associated with blue collar workers and declined over time. Prevalence of B. hominis varied significantly with region of origin of subjects with highest values recorded among African immigrants. Prevalence of D. fragilis also varied with region of origin of subjects, and was lower in young female subjects and in renewal applicants compared with first-time applicants for work permits. We strongly recommend that, henceforth, intestinal protozoa should be screened by RT-PCR, with a particular focus on frequent assessment of immigrant food-handlers.

  16. Prevalensi Infeksi Protozoa Saluran Pencernaan Pada Kucing Lokal (Felis catus Di Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Titin Evi Sucitrayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cat is one of the pets which many people love to looking after.  A lot of people looking after cat but so many of them don’t pay much attention to cats wealth, this makes them become stray cat. The most common gastrointestinal protozoa in cat is Giardia felis, Cryptosporadium felis, Sarcocystis spp, Hammondia hamondi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Isospora spp. The purpose of this research is to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoa infection in local home cat and stray cat in Denpasar. This research used 80 samples of cat feces, 40 home cat feces and 40 stray cat feces. Samples examined using float concentration method, with saturated sodium chloride. From 80 examined samples, 25 samples (31,3 % infected with gastrointestinal protozoa. For home cat, from 40 examined samples 9 samples  (22,5%  infected with gastrointestinal protozoa, meanwhile from stray cat, 16 samples (40 %  infected from gastrointestinal protozoa.

  17. Rumen protozoa and methanogenesis: not a simple cause-effect relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, Diego P; Martin, Cécile; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Ranilla, Maria José

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interactions between hydrogen producers and consumers in the rumen ecosystem is important for ruminant production and methane mitigation. The present study explored the relationships between rumen protozoa, methanogens and fermentation characteristics. A total of six donor sheep harbouring (F, faunated) or not (D, defaunated) protozoa in their rumens (D animals were kept without protozoa for a period of a few months (D - ) or for more than 2 years (D+)) were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro the absence of protozoa decreased NH3 and butyrate production and had no effect on methane. In contrast, the liquid-associated bacterial and methanogens fraction of D+ inocula produced more methane than D -  and F inoculum (P protozoa may affect differently the methanogen community and methane emissions in wethers.

  18. Three-dimensional structures in the design of therapeutics targeting parasitic protozoa: reflections on the past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Wim G J

    2015-05-01

    Parasitic protozoa cause a range of diseases which threaten billions of human beings. They are responsible for tremendous mortality and morbidity in the least-developed areas of the world. Presented here is an overview of the evolution over the last three to four decades of structure-guided design of inhibitors, leads and drug candidates aiming at targets from parasitic protozoa. Target selection is a crucial and multi-faceted aspect of structure-guided drug design. The major impact of advances in molecular biology, genome sequencing and high-throughput screening is touched upon. The most advanced crystallographic techniques, including XFEL, have already been applied to structure determinations of drug targets from parasitic protozoa. Even cryo-electron microscopy is contributing to our understanding of the mode of binding of inhibitors to parasite ribosomes. A number of projects have been selected to illustrate how structural information has assisted in arriving at promising compounds that are currently being evaluated by pharmacological, pharmacodynamic and safety tests to assess their suitability as pharmaceutical agents. Structure-guided approaches are also applied to incorporate properties into compounds such that they are less likely to become the victim of resistance mechanisms. A great increase in the number of novel antiparasitic compounds will be needed in the future. These should then be combined into various multi-compound therapeutics to circumvent the diverse resistance mechanisms that render single-compound, or even multi-compound, drugs ineffective. The future should also see (i) an increase in the number of projects with a tight integration of structural biology, medicinal chemistry, parasitology and pharmaceutical sciences; (ii) the education of more `medicinal structural biologists' who are familiar with the properties that compounds need to have for a high probability of success in the later steps of the drug-development process; and (iii) the

  19. Testing protozoacidal activity of ligand-lytic peptides against termite gut protozoa in vitro (protozoa culture) and in vivo (microinjection into termite hindgut).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Sethi, Amit; Foil, Lane; Delatte, Jennifer

    2010-12-29

    We are developing a novel approach to subterranean termite control that would lead to reduced reliance on the use of chemical pesticides. Subterranean termites are dependent on protozoa in the hindguts of workers to efficiently digest wood. Lytic peptides have been shown to kill a variety of protozoan parasites (Mutwiri et al. 2000) and also protozoa in the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Husseneder and Collier 2009). Lytic peptides are part of the nonspecific immune system of eukaryotes, and destroy the membranes of microorganisms (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). Most lytic peptides are not likely to harm higher eukaryotes, because they do not affect the electrically neutral cholesterol-containing cell membranes of higher eukaryotes (Javadpour et al. 1996). Lytic peptide action can be targeted to specific cell types by the addition of a ligand. For example, Hansel et al. (2007) reported that lytic peptides conjugated with cancer cell membrane receptor ligands could be used to destroy breast cancer cells, while lytic peptides alone or conjugated with non-specific peptides were not effective. Lytic peptides also have been conjugated to human hormones that bind to receptors on tumor cells for targeted destruction of prostate and testicular cancer cells (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). In this article we present techniques used to demonstrate the protozoacidal activity of a lytic peptide (Hecate) coupled to a heptapeptide ligand that binds to the surface membrane of protozoa from the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite. These techniques include extirpation of the gut from termite workers, anaerobic culture of gut protozoa (Pseudotrichonympha grassii, Holomastigotoides hartmanni,Spirotrichonympha leidyi), microscopic confirmation that the ligand marked with a fluorescent dye binds to the termite gut protozoa and other free-living protozoa but not to bacteria or gut tissue. We also demonstrate that the same ligand coupled to a lytic

  20. Virus, protozoa and organic compounds decay in depurated oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Piazza, Rômi Sharon; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; do Nascimento, Mariana de Almeida; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Schmidt, Éder der Carlos; Cargin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; de Araujo, Rafael Alves; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2013-11-01

    (1) Evaluate the dynamic of the depuration process of Crassostrea gigas oysters using different ultraviolet doses with different amounts of contaminants (virus, protozoa and organic contaminants) and (2) investigate the morphological changes in the oysters' tissues produced by the depuration procedures. The oysters were allocated in sites with different degrees of contamination and analyzed after 14 days. Some animals were used as positive controls by artificial bioaccumulation with HAdV2 and MNV1 and subjected to depuration assays using UV lamps (18 or 36 W) for 168 h. The following pollutants were researched in the naturally contaminated oysters, oysters after 14 days in sites and oysters during the depuration processes: virus (HAdV, HAV, HuNoV GI/GII and JCPyV), by (RT) qPCR; protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia species), by immunomagnetic separation and immunofluorescence; and organic compounds (AHs, PAHs, LABs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides-OCs), by chromatography. Changes in the oysters' tissues produced by the depuration processes were also evaluated using histochemical analysis by light microscopy. In the artificially bioaccumulated oysters, only HAdV2 and MNV1 were investigated by (RT) qPCR before the depuration procedures and after 96 and 168 h of these procedures. At 14 days post-allocation, HAdV was found in all the sites (6.2 × 105 to 4.4 × 107 GC g(-1)), and Giardia species in only one site. Levels of PCBs and OCs in the oyster's tissues were below the detection limit for all samples. AHs (3.5 to 4.4 μg g(-1)), PAHs (11 to 191 ng g(-1)) and LABs (57 to 751 ng g(-1)) were detected in the samples from 3 sites. During the depuration assays, we found HAdV, Giardia and Cryptosporidium species until 168 h, independent of UV treatment. AHs, PAHs and LABs were found also after 168 h of depuration (36 W and without UV lamp). The depuration procedures did not produce changes in the oysters' tissues. In the artificially contaminated and depurated

  1. Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently

  2. Characteristics of Factors of Protozoa Blastocystis hominis Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potaturkina-Nesterova, N I; Il'ina, N A; Bugero, N V; Nesterov, A S

    2016-10-01

    Persistence activity manifested in the expression of anti-lysozyme, anti-lactoferrin, and antihistone factors promoting inactivation of natural anti-infection resistance factors in the body was revealed in Blastocystis hominis protozoa. Activities of these factors were ranged. The frequency of these factors in clinical isolates of blastocyst decreased in the following order: anti-lactoferrin activity (84.5±3.7%)→anti-lysozyme activity (64.8±5.7%)→anti-histone activity (48.1±2.3%). In healthy humans, the corresponding parameters were 7.3±1.3, 5.3±0.9, and 3.3±0.4%, respectively (pprotozoa.

  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran

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    Pegah BAHMANI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method.Results: Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3% and Entamoeba coli (4.5%. Overall, 143 (35.9% had single infections and 26 (6.4% were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9% had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5% had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area. 

  4. Effects of altered temperature and precipitation on desert protozoa associated with biological soil crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Brian J; Housman, David C; Zaki, Amr M; Shamout, Yassein; Adl, Sina M; Belnap, Jayne; Neher, Deborah A

    2006-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are diverse assemblages of bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, lichens, and mosses that cover much of arid land soils. The objective of this study was to quantify protozoa associated with biological soil crusts and test the response of protozoa to increased temperature and precipitation as is predicted by some global climate models. Protozoa were more abundant when associated with cyanobacteria/lichen crusts than with cyanobacteria crusts alone. Amoebae, flagellates, and ciliates originating from the Colorado Plateau desert (cool desert, primarily winter precipitation) declined 50-, 10-, and 100-fold, respectively, when moved in field mesocosms to the Chihuahuan Desert (hot desert, primarily summer rain). However, this was not observed in protozoa collected from the Chihuahuan Desert and moved to the Sonoran desert (hot desert, also summer rain, but warmer than Chihuahuan Desert). Protozoa in culture began to encyst at 37 degrees C. Cysts survived the upper end of daily temperatures (37-55 degrees C), and could be stimulated to excyst if temperatures were reduced to 15 degrees C or lower. Results from this study suggest that cool desert protozoa are influenced negatively by increased summer precipitation during excessive summer temperatures, and that desert protozoa may be adapted to a specific desert's temperature and precipitation regime.

  5. Prevalence of protozoa species in drinking and environmental water sources in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanan, Salah; Abd, Hadi; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani) in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8%) amoebae, 17 (25.7%) Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9%) ciliates, and 5 (7.6%) flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables ( P protozoa infections in the study area.

  7. Prevalence of Protozoa Species in Drinking and Environmental Water Sources in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8% amoebae, 17 (25.7% Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9% ciliates, and 5 (7.6% flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  8. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Clinical and immunological characteristics associated with the presence of protozoa in sputum smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between protozoa in spontaneously expectorated sputum samples and a range of clinical and immunological variables. Clinical details including age, gender, smoking status, and use of oral or inhaled steroids were recorded for a cohort of 199 patients whose spontaneously expectorated sputum samples were submitted to a Cytology Laboratory in Spain between January 2005 and December 2006. Slides were scanned for protozoa under light microscopy and scanned for monocytes/small macrophages highlighted by immunocytochemistry (CD68 monoclonal antibody). One hundred ninety-one patients provided adequate sputum samples, of whom 70 had protozoa in their sputum. There was a strong relationship between the presence of protozoa and monocytes/small macrophages identified under light microscopy (P protozoa and both smoking status and steroid use. The diagnoses in those with protozoa included infection (including tuberculosis), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung fibrosis, asthma, chronic liver disease, immunosuppression, cancer, pancreatic or renal disease, heart failure, and AIDS. The identified association between protozoa and monocytes/small macrophages in sputum suggests an immune response and warrants further investigation to clarify whether or not these organisms have any pathological significance in this wide range of conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Further studies on the role of protozoa in landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlay, B.J.; Clarke, K.J.; Cranwell, P.A.; Embley, T.M.; Hindle, R.M.; Simon, B.M.

    1993-11-01

    The specific objectives of this study were: to determine the growth requirements of methanogen-bearing protozoa living in landfill; to measure the rate of methane generation by these `protozoan consortia`; to quantify the role of protozoan grazing in stimulating overall microbial activity; to determine the identity of both symbiotic methanogens and host ciliates in different landfill sites. The results showed that the landfill ciliated protozoon, Metopus palaeformis, showed net growth in the temperature range 7-35{sup o}C, if the landfill material contained at least 40% water by weight. The methanogens living inside one cell of M.palaeformis produced, on average, 0.37 x 10{sup -12}mol CH{sub 4}/hour. In laboratory studies, the initial rate of methane generation from landfill material was twice as great when ciliates were present. There was no experimental evidence that this was due to ciliate grazing activity stimulating the re-cycling of essential nutrients to free-living bacteria. It is theoretically possible that acetate excreted by ciliates was converted to methane by free-living methanogens and that this was the source of ciliate-enhanced methane production. It was shown that the methanogenic bacteria living symbiotically within the ciliates are quite distinct from free-living methanogens previously described from landfill refuse. It is unlikely that the ciliates act as vectors for the transmission of methanogens between landfill sites. In conclusion, protozoon may be an important component of the landfill microbial community because they stimulate the rate of anaerobic decomposition and hence the rate of methane production. But protozoa are important only when the landfill material is wet (> 40% water) and when the temperature of the landfill does not exceed 30{sup o}C. (author)

  11. Influence of rumen protozoa on methane emission in ruminants: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Nozière, P; Morgavi, D P; Doreau, M; Martin, C

    2014-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of protozoa concentration on methane emission from ruminants. A database was built from 59 publications reporting data from 76 in vivo experiments. The experiments included in the database recorded methane production and rumen protozoa concentration measured on the same groups of animals. Quantitative data such as diet chemical composition, rumen fermentation and microbial parameters, and qualitative information such as methane mitigation strategies were also collected. In the database, 31% of the experiments reported a concomitant reduction of both protozoa concentration and methane emission (g/kg dry matter intake). Nearly all of these experiments tested lipids as methane mitigation strategies. By contrast, 21% of the experiments reported a variation in methane emission without changes in protozoa numbers, indicating that methanogenesis is also regulated by other mechanisms not involving protozoa. Experiments that used chemical compounds as an antimethanogenic treatment belonged to this group. The relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration was studied with a variance-covariance model, with experiment as a fixed effect. The experiments included in the analysis had a within-experiment variation of protozoa concentration higher than 5.3 log10 cells/ml corresponding to the average s.e.m. of the database for this variable. To detect potential interfering factors for the relationship, the influence of several qualitative and quantitative secondary factors was tested. This meta-analysis showed a significant linear relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration: methane (g/kg dry matter intake)=-30.7+8.14×protozoa (log10 cells/ml) with 28 experiments (91 treatments), residual mean square error=1.94 and adjusted R 2=0.90. The proportion of butyrate in the rumen positively influenced the least square means of this relationship.

  12. Relative diversity and community structure analysis of rumen protozoa according to T-RFLP and microscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymensen, Lisa; Barkley, Cindy; McAllister, Tim A

    2012-01-01

    Protozoa are common inhabitants of the rumen where they play roles in host nutrition and methanogenesis. Knowledge of how changes in the composition of protozoa communities affect these processes is limited in part due to a lack of efficient methods for protozoa community analysis. In this study, a terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was developed for comparative analysis of rumen protozoa communities. Comparison of diversity and structure of protozoa communities from hay-fed versus silage/grain-fed cattle via T-RFLP analysis yielded similar overall results to microscopy analysis. According to both methods, Entodinium spp. were more abundant in the silage/grain-fed cattle and protozoa diversity (as calculated using the Shannon index) was higher for the hay-fed cattle due to greater species evenness. Type B protozoa were more prevalent in the hay-fed cattle, whereas Type A protozoa were more prevalent in the silage/grain-fed cattle. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated that the protozoa communities from hay-fed and silage/grain-fed cattle were different, and multivariate analysis indicated that pen mates (i.e., cattle fed the same diet and housed together) tended to have similar protozoa communities types. In summary, we present a T-RFLP method for analyzing rumen protozoa communities which complements traditional microscopy approaches but has the advantage of being amenable to high-throughput. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  14. Impact of transition from microscopy to molecular screening for detection of intestinal protozoa in Dutch patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svraka-Latifovic, S; Bouter, S; Naus, H; Bakker, L J; Timmerman, C P; Dorigo-Zetsma, J W

    2014-11-01

    Detection of intestinal protozoa by PCR methods has been described as being sensitive and specific, and as improving the diagnostic yield. Here we present the outcome of the transition from microscopy to molecular screening for detection of a select group of intestinal protozoa in faeces in our laboratory. Introduction of molecular screening for intestinal protozoa resulted in higher sensitivity, reduced hands-on-time, reduced time-to-results, leading to improved diagnostic efficiency. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  15. Evaluation of enzyme immunoassay techniques for diagnosis of the most common intestinal protozoa in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the antigen capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) Triage parasite panel and TechLab Entamoeba histolytica II in detecting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp, and Entamoeba histolytica in fecal samples in comparison to microscopy, and in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica from Entamoeba dispar. The Triage EIA was evaluated using 100 stool specimens that were tested by standard ova and parasite examination, including staining with both trichrome and modified acid-fast stains. Differentiation between E. histolytica and E. dispar was performed using TechLab. Microscopic examination revealed that 19% of the samples were positive for Giardia, 4% for Cryptosporidium, and 1% for E. histolytica/E. dispar, and other parasites were found in 5%. By Triage, 23% of the samples were infected with Giardia, 5% with Cryptosporidium, and 2% with E. histolytica/E. dispar. Triage showed a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 91.5%. The TechLab assay was negative for both samples diagnosed as E. histolytica/E. dispar by Triage, which suggested that they were E. dispar. Both tests showed no cross-reactivity with other intestinal protozoa. These results indicate that antigen detection by EIA has the potential to become a valuable tool, capable of making stool diagnostics more effective. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiplex PCR detection of waterborne intestinal protozoa: microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Joung, Migyo; Yoon, Sejoung; Choi, Kyoungjin; Park, Woo-Yoon; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2010-12-01

    Recently, emerging waterborne protozoa, such as microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium, have become a challenge to human health worldwide. Rapid, simple, and economical detection methods for these major waterborne protozoa in environmental and clinical samples are necessary to control infection and improve public health. In the present study, we developed a multiplex PCR test that is able to detect all these 3 major waterborne protozoa at the same time. Detection limits of the multiplex PCR method ranged from 10(1) to 10(2) oocysts or spores. The primers for microsporidia or Cryptosporidium used in this study can detect both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, or both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, respectively. Restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products with BsaBI or BsiEI makes it possible to distinguish the 2 species of microsporidia or Cryptosporidium, respectively. This simple, rapid, and cost-effective multiplex PCR method will be useful for detecting outbreaks or sporadic cases of waterborne protozoa infections.

  17. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix M Denoncourt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  18. Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfredo Bonilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large sample volumes are traditionally required for the analysis of waterborne pathogens. The need for large volumes greatly limits the number of samples that can be processed. The aims of this study were to compare extraction and detection procedures for quantifying protozoan parasites and viruses from small volumes of marine water. The intent was to evaluate a logistically simpler method of sample collection and processing that would facilitate direct pathogen measures as part of routine monitoring programs. Samples were collected simultaneously using a bilayer device with protozoa capture by size (top filter and viruses capture by charge (bottom filter. Protozoan detection technologies utilized for recovery of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were qPCR and the more traditional immunomagnetic separation—IFA-microscopy, while virus (poliovirus detection was based upon qPCR versus plaque assay. Filters were eluted using reagents consistent with the downstream detection technologies. Results showed higher mean recoveries using traditional detection methods over qPCR for Cryptosporidium (91% vs. 45% and poliovirus (67% vs. 55% whereas for Giardia the qPCR-based methods were characterized by higher mean recoveries (41% vs. 28%. Overall mean recoveries are considered high for all detection technologies. Results suggest that simultaneous filtration may be suitable for isolating different classes of pathogens from small marine water volumes. More research is needed to evaluate the suitability of this method for detecting pathogens at low ambient concentration levels.

  19. Protozoa Drive the Dynamics of Culturable Biocontrol Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maren Stella; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin (PRN) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks), as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.

  20. Protozoa Drive the Dynamics of Culturable Biocontrol Bacterial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Stella Müller

    Full Text Available Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG, pyrrolnitrin (PRN and hydrogen cyanide (HCN in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks, as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.

  1. Protozoa lectins and their role in host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Walia, Amandeep Kaur; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that agglutinate red blood cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, etc., and bind reversibly to carbohydrates present on the apposing cells. They have at least two carbohydrate binding sites and their binding can be inhibited by one or more carbohydrates. Owing to carbohydrate binding specificity of lectins, they mediate cell-cell interactions and play role in protozoan adhesion and host cell cytotoxicity, thus are central to the pathogenic property of the parasite. Several parasitic protozoa possess lectins which mediate parasite adherence to host cells based on their carbohydrate specificities. These interactions could be exploited for development of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence and thus helpful in eradicating wide spread of protozoan diseases. The current review highlights the present state knowledge with regard to protozoal lectins with an emphasis on their haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity, characteristics and also their role in pathogenesis notably as adhesion molecules, thereby aiding the pathogen in disease establishment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of protozoa in dairy lagoon wastewater that consume Escherichia coli O157:H7 preferentially.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao V Ravva

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157, an agent of life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome, resides in ruminants and is released in feces at numbers as high as 10 million cells/gram. EcO157 could survive in manure for as long as 21 months, but we observed a 90% decrease in cells of an outbreak strain of EcO157 within half a day in wastewater from dairy lagoons. Although chemical, environmental and biological factors may be responsible for this decrease, we observed an 11-fold increase in native protozoa when wastewater was re-inoculated with 2×10(7 cells of EcO157/mL. These protozoa engulfed the green fluorescent protein labeled EcO157 within 2 hours after inoculation, but expelled vacuoles filled with live EcO157 cells within 3 days into surrounding wastewater, whereas other protozoa retained the EcO157-filled vacuoles for 7 days. EcO157 was not detected by confocal microscopy either inside or outside protozoa after 7 days. Mixed cultures of protozoa enriched from wastewater consumed EcO157 preferentially as compared to native aerobic bacteria, but failed to eliminate them when EcO157 cells declined to 10(4/mL. We isolated three protozoa from mixed cultures and typed them by 18S sequencing as Vorticella microstoma, Platyophyra sp. and Colpoda aspera. While all three protozoa internalized EcO157, only Platyophyra and Colpoda acted as predators. Similar to mixed cultures, these protozoa failed to eliminate EcO157 from PBS containing no other supplemental nutrients or prey. However, spiking PBS with cereal grass medium as nutrients induced predation of EcO157 by Platyophyra sp. after 3 days or enhanced predation by Colpoda after 5 days. Therefore, attempts to enrich protozoa to decrease EcO157 from dairy lagoons, may correspond to an increase in protozoa similar to Vorticella and possibly facilitate transport of bacterial pathogens to food crops grown in proximity.

  3. Free-living protozoa in drinking water supplies: community composition and role as hosts for Legionella pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Valster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Free-living protozoa in drinking water supplies: community composition and role as hosts for Legionella pneumophila Free-living protozoa, which feed on bacteria, play an important role in the communities of microorganisms and invertebrates in drinking water supplies and in (warm) tap water installations. Several bacteria, including opportunistic human pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila, are able to survive and replicate within protozoan hosts, and certain free-living protozoa are opp...

  4. Contribution of Ruminal Fungi, Archaea, Protozoa, and Bacteria to the Methane Suppression Caused by Oilseed Supplemented Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaopu; Giller, Katrin; Kreuzer, Michael; Ulbrich, Susanne E.; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Dietary lipids can suppress methane emission from ruminants, but effects are variable. Especially the role of bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa in mediating the lipid effects is unclear. In the present in vitro study, archaea, fungi and protozoa were selectively inhibited by specific agents. This was fully or almost fully successful for fungi and protozoa as well as archaeal activity as determined by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit gene. Five different microbial treatments w...

  5. Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Michael T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698, which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25°C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25°C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1–1.5 log10 increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 μg/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log10 reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log10 reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p Conclusion This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters.

  6. GAMBARAN INFEKSI PROTOZOA INTESTINAL PADA ANAK BINAAN RUMAH SINGGAH AMANAH KOTA PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi protozoa intestinal masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di negara tropis dan negara berkembang. Yang termasuk ke dalam protozoa intestinal patogen di antaranya adalah G. lamblia dan E. histolitika.Telah dilakukan penelitian terhadap anak binaan Rumah Singgah “Amanah”, Kelurahan Rimbo Kaluang, Kecamatan Padang Barat, Kota Padang. Pemeriksaan tinja dilakukan terhadap 66 anak dengan metode langsung menggunakan eosin dan lugol. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran infeksi protozoa intestinal pada anak binaan rumah singgah Amanah.Telah dilakukan penelitian di Rumah Singgah “Amanah”, Kelurahan Rimbo Kaluang, Kecamatan Padang Barat, Kota Padang, terhadap anak biaHasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa anak-anak yang terinfeksi protozoa intestinal sebesar 40,91%. Berdasarkan jenis spesies, distribusi frekuensi terbanyak yang menginfeksi anak adalah G. lamblia yaitu 37,88%, sedangkan infeksi oleh E. histolitika adalah 3,03%. Frekuensi infeksi G. Lamblia lebih tinggi pada umur < 10 tahun yaitu 27,27%, tetapi pada infeksi E. histolitika terlihat tidak ada perbedaan. Distribusi infeksi berdasarkan jenis kelamin hampir sama pada G. lamblia maupun E. histolitika. Berdasarkan pekerjaan, lebih separuh anak binaan yang terinfeksi protozoa intestinal bekerja sebagai penjaja makanan.Kata kunci: Protozoa intestinal, G. lamblia, E. histolitikaAbstractPrevalence of intestinal protozoan infection in Rumah Singgah Amanah, Kota Padang. Intestinal protozoan infection is still a public health problem in tropical countries and developing countries. The intestinal protozoan pathogen of which is G. lamblia and E.histolitika.This research is descriptif study and it was conducted in Rumah Singgah Amanah, Kelurahan Rimbo Kaluang, Kecamatan Padang Barat, Kota Padang. Stool examination has been carried out to 66 children by direct fecal examination method using eosin and Lugol. The purpose of this research is to know the

  7. Perubahan Populasi Protozoa dan Alga Dominan pada Air Genangan Tanah Padi Sawah yang Diberi Bokashi Berkelanjutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainin Niswati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa and alga play important roles in biogeochemical nutrient cycles in freshwater environment, especially in the paddy fields. The changes from the conventional technologies to organic technologies will change the communities structures of organisms lived in the paddy fields environment. The fields experiment was conducted to study the population dynamic of protozoa and algae dominant inhabited in the floodwater of the paddy fields subjected by continues ‘bokashi’ application. The results showed that protozoa and algae inhabited in the paddy fields in present study were dominated by Euglena, Pleodorina, Volvox, and Diatom. The continued application of bokashi for 4 years significantly increased the total population of protozoa and algae, however, the significantly effect was obtained in the population of Volvox only. The population of protozoa and algae were affected by the time of flooding of paddy fields where it increases exponentially at the 20 and 30 days after flooding and stable after that, ecxept for Euglena where it increases sligthly by flooding time.

  8. Nutritional quality of fish faeces is enhanced by highly unsaturated fatty acid-producing heterotrophic protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibayashi, Megumu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Hashido, Shun; Takasawa, Aya; Nishimura, Osamu

    2018-05-01

    Highly unsaturated fatty acids such as 20:5n3 (EPA) are both hormone precursors and cell membrane components, making them important nutrients for aquatic animals. Many animals must obtain EPA from their diets because they cannot synthesize enough EPA to meet their requirements, and algae are the main source of EPA in aquatic ecosystems. In a previous study, we detected EPA in the faeces of Danio rerio, a freshwater fish, even though the fish consumed a green algae diet that did not contain EPA. The objective of this study was to determine why EPA was detected in fish faeces. A significant positive relationship was detected between the number of heterotrophic protozoa and the concentration of EPA in the faeces, which suggests that this EPA was of protozoan origin. In addition, another experiment showed that protozoa adhered to faeces far more than the green algal diet remnants, which indicates that protozoa preferred to swarm on faeces. Furthermore, we cultured protozoa in an EPA-free medium and fed them a bacterial diet also lacking EPA, and found that Cyclidium sp. synthesized EPA de novo. The results demonstrate that protozoa produce essential fatty acids and enhance the nutritional quality of animal faeces in detritus-based food webs in freshwater ecosystems.

  9. The growth of protozoa in buffalo rumen liquid with addition of tannin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; I-Yunianto

    2006-01-01

    Tannin is anti nutrient compound which can be used to increased by pass protein in ruminant. The source of tannin was used from acacia leaf powder (Acacia mangium). The concentration of tannin was determined by precipitated of 125 I-BSA method. The experiments were carried out by in vitro method in buffalo rumen liquid. The treatments were A(1.25%); B (2.5%), C (5%) and Kontrol (0%). The result showed that tannin supplementation was decreased the number of protozoa and the lowest growth occurred on A (1.25%). The composition of protozoa was decreased and the viability of protozoa population showed that nine isolates has high viability, i.e. Dasytricha rumination, Entodinium ecaudatum f. caudatum, Ostracodinium mammosum, Elytroplastron bubali, Entodinium nanellum, Charonin ventriculi, Entodinium rostratum, Ostracodinium bubali dan Metadinium medium. (author)

  10. The impact of the fungicide fenpropimorph (Corbel) on bacterivorous and fungivorous protozoa in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    1. The ability of indigenous soil protozoa to survive and multiply when exposed to various concentrations of the fungicide fenpropimorph was investigated. The number of protozoan taxa in relation to biocide concentration was examined in enrichment cultures. The population dynamics of bacterivorous...... and fungivorous protozoa, hyphal forming units, and respiration activity were followed in soil microcosms amended with glucose and various concentrations of fenpropimorph. 2. The average number of flagellate taxa detected in 50-mg portions of air-dried soil declined from 12 to zero with fenpropimorph...... as in systems with glucose only; however, soil respiration was significantly impeded in microcosm systems with a low pesticide content and stimulated in systems with a high pesticide content. 4. Bacterivorous protozoa (naked amoebae and heterotrophic flagellates) were affected at all tested concentrations (074...

  11. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  12. Free-living protozoa in drinking water supplies: community composition and role as hosts for Legionella pneumophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Free-living protozoa in drinking water supplies: community composition and role as hosts for Legionella pneumophila


    Free-living protozoa, which feed on bacteria, play an important role in the communities of microorganisms and invertebrates in drinking water supplies and in (warm)

  13. Comparisons of Salmonella conjugation and virulence gene hyperexpression mediated by rumen protozoa from domestic and exotic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Dier, Jeffery D; Anderson, Kristi L; Rasmussen, Mark A; Franklin, Sharon K; Carlson, Steve A

    2011-08-05

    Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen protozoa from cattle and goats. The present study examined virulence gene hyperexpression for Salmonella exposed to rumen protozoa obtained from cattle, sheep, goats, or two African ruminants (giraffe and bongo). Conjugal transfer was also assessed in these protozoa using Salmonella as the recipient. Virulence gene hyperexpression was only observed following exposure to the rumen protozoa from cattle and sheep while elevated virulence was also observed in these animals. Conjugal transfer events were, however, observed in all protozoa evaluated. It therefore appears that the protozoa-based hypervirulence is not universal to all ruminants while conjugal transfer is more ubiquitous. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surveillance Systems for Waterborne Protozoa Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    OVERVIEW I. Brief introduction to waterborne Cryptosporidium Historical perspective on detecting Cryptosporidium Current detection methodologies II. US EPA’s waterborne protozoan research program Detecting, typing, and tracking sources of Cryptosporidium contami...

  15. A Study on Rumen Cilliate Protozoa Population, pH and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on rumen ciliate protozoa population, pH and some metabolites (total volatile fatty acids, rumen ammonia Nitrogen) was conducted on two fistulated WAD rams fed forage and concentrate diets. The 12-week study focused on the sequence of production of these parameters under each dietary regime.

  16. Infections with helminths and/or protozoa in cats in animal shelters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.R.; Nobel, le W.E.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. The association between potential risk factors and the

  17. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Is Associated With a Reduced Risk of Infection with Intestinal Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheele, Johnathan M

    2017-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can kill some human protozoan parasites in cell culture better than the drug metronidazole. Clinical data showing an antiprotozoal effect for PPIs are lacking. The objective of the study is to determine if PPI use is associated with a reduced risk of having intestinal parasites. We obtained electronic medical record data for all persons who received a stool ova and parasite (O & P) examination at our tertiary care academic medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, between January 2000 and September 2014. We obtained the person's age, whether they were taking a PPI at the time of the O & P examination, and whether the pathology report indicated the presence of any parasites. χ 2 with Yates correction was used to determine if PPI use was associated with stool protozoa. Three intestinal protozoa were identified in 1199 patients taking a PPI (0.3%), and 551 intestinal parasites were identified in the 14,287 patients not taking a PPI (3.9%). There was a statistically significant lower likelihood of finding protozoa in the stool of a person taking a PPI compared with those not taking a PPI (P protozoa reported on stool O & P examination compared with those not taking a PPI. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags

  19. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  20. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  1. DISTRIBUSI PARASIT USUS PROTOZOA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI UTARA KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital Anorital

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal infection disease caused by protozoa: amoeba is one of the public health problem with high incidence in the community. From the research activity conducted in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency in the year 2002, to obtain of prevalence of protozoa infection from stool examination from resident in 6 villages at 3 subdistrict in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency. The research has conducted to be carry out survey parasite to the community. Sample size will be examination are 230 persons per village, so that to 6 villages will be examed as 1.600 persons. The examination directly by using lugol 2% and checked on the microscope with magnification 10x10 and 10x40. For resident which its sample stool is positive the protozoa to be given a treatment by metronidazol. From stool examination result obtained prevalence resident which are positive the amoeba intestine protozoa is Entamoeba coli 19,8%, Endolimax nana 15,8%, and Entamoeba histolityca 15,4%. While prevalence resident which are positive the intestine flagellata/B. hominis is Blastocystis hominis 25,5% and Giardia lamblia 11,6%. From 5 micro-organism on the intestine. Entamoeba histolityca, Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia are cause diarrhoea because having the pathogenic. From survey ot socio-cultural, known also the resident percentage which drinking no safe water 43,3%, source of drinking water obtained from river or swamp is 67,7%, human waste disposal in river and swamp is 79,5%, and take a bath and brush the teeth with water of river and swamp is 78,6%; showing bad condition of environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, and life behavior. Good personal hygiene and environmental sanitation practices are the major factors of this disease prevention. The main principle to prevent the spreading of protozoa infection is to cut off the link of infection sources to human beings. Personal hygiene is focused on the management of individual behaviour, meanwhile environmental sanitation

  2. Can fungal zoospores be the source of energy for the rumen protozoa Eudiplodinium maggii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltko, Renata; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Kowalik, Barbara; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-01

    Results of our earlier studies showed the ability of ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii to digest and metabolize commercial chitin. The natural source of this polysaccharide in the rumen are fungi. The objectives of present research were to determine the effect of fungal zoospores on the survival and population density of E. maggii to quantify the concentration of chitin in the cells of protozoa and to examine the ability of E. maggii, to ferment chitin of fungal zoospores. The cultivation experiment showed that the survival of protozoa was shorter than 4 days when the culture medium was composed of buffer solution and lyophilized fungal spores. An enrichment of this medium with wheat gluten prolonged the survival of ciliates up to 8 days. The supplementation of the last medium with meadow hay enabled the protozoa to survive for 28 days but a positive effect was observed only during the last 8 days of experiment. The chitin content was 0.27 ng and 0.21-0.35 ng per single zoospore and ciliate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was found when protozoa were incubated with zoospores. The production rate of VFA was 46.3 pM/protozoan per h whereas the endogenous production did not exceed 31 pM/protozoan per h. The molar proportion of acetic acid was 77.7% and these of butyric and propionic acids-12.2 and 11.0%, respectively. The obtained results make it evident that carbohydrates present in fungal zoospores were utilized by protozoa in energy yielding processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of periphytic protozoa related to environment in the Niyang River, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Ye, Shaowen; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Chuanbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Fan, Liqing; Zhang, Liangsong; Sovan, Lek; Li, Zhongjie

    2017-05-01

    The Niyang River, a main tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River, is an important and typical plateau river ecosystem in Tibet, China. At present, few studies have focused on its aquatic living resources and river ecology. In this study, the composition, abundance, and diversity of periphytic protozoa were investigated across four seasons from 2008 to 2009 to better understand their spatio-temporal patterns and relationship to the environment. Our investigation shows that periphytic protozoa in the Niyang River contained 15 genera, belonged to Tubulinea, Alveolata, Discosea and Rhizaria, Alveolata possessed most genera, up to nine, with highest share in abundance, exceeding 50%, Difflugia and Glaucoma were dominant genera. Moreover, four diversity indices of periphytic protozoa, including species richness, total abundance, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index, displayed a significant descending trend as the seasons continued, in the order of winter, spring, summer and autumn; with a significant difference existing between winter and summer (or autumn) for Shannon-Wiener diversity index and species richness ( P0.05). In addition, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) shows that the densities of Difflugia, Glaucomais, Enchelydium, Cyphoderia, and Enchelys correlate with water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, pH, and dissolved oxygen, respectively. Lastly, the relationship between periphytic protozoa diversity and the environmental factors of the Niyang River can be predicted using classification and regression trees (CART) annalysis, which suggests that the total abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index would be higher when the elevation is above 3 308 m. On the other hand, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index would be lower when pH and ammoniacal nitrogen have lower or higher values. Finally yet importantly, close attention should be paid to periphytic protozoa and its environment to ensure sustainable development

  4. The valid name for the genus Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta, Hymenoptera: Braconidae), preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foissner, W.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta: Braconidae) is preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora). The name previously used for Loxocephalus Foerster, Myiocephalus Marshall, 1897, becomes the valid name for the genus.

  5. Protozoacidal Trojan-Horse: use of a ligand-lytic peptide for selective destruction of symbiotic protozoa within termite guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Foil, Lane; Husseneder, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For novel biotechnology-based termite control, we developed a cellulose bait containing freeze-dried genetically engineered yeast which expresses a protozoacidal lytic peptide attached to a protozoa-recognizing ligand. The yeast acts as a 'Trojan-Horse' that kills the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, which leads to the death of termites, presumably due to inefficient cellulose digestion. The ligand targets the lytic peptide specifically to protozoa, thereby increasing its protozoacidal efficiency while protecting non-target organisms. After ingestion of the bait, the yeast propagates in the termite's gut and is spread throughout the termite colony via social interactions. This novel paratransgenesis-based strategy could be a good supplement for current termite control using fortified biological control agents in addition to chemical insecticides. Moreover, this ligand-lytic peptide system could be used for drug development to selectively target disease-causing protozoa in humans or other vertebrates.

  6. Amoebae and other protozoa in material samples from moisture-damaged buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yli-Pirilae, T.; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Haatainen, Susanna; Haenninen, Marja; Jalava, Pasi; Reiman, Marjut; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Nevalainen, Aino

    2004-01-01

    Mold growth in buildings has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects. The fungal and bacterial growth on moistened building materials has been studied, but little attention has been paid to the other organisms spawning in the damaged materials. We examined moist building materials for protozoa, concentrating on amoebae. Material samples (n=124) from moisture-damaged buildings were analyzed for amoebae, fungi, and bacteria. Amoebae were detected in 22% of the samples, and they were found to favor cooccurrence with bacteria and the fungi Acremonium spp., Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium spp., and Trichoderma spp. In addition, 11 seriously damaged samples were screened for other protozoa. Ciliates and flagellates were found in almost every sample analyzed. Amoebae are known to host pathogenic bacteria, such as chlamydiae, legionellae, and mycobacteria and they may have a role in the complex of exposure that contributes to the health effects associated with moisture damage in buildings

  7. Passage of selected heavy metals from Sphaerotilus (bacteria: Chlamydobacteriales) to Paramecium caudatum (protozoa: Ciliata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri-Aliabadi, M.; Sharp, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Sphaerotilus, a bacterium occurring in polluted waters, was found to take up Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn. Metal-containing cultures of this bacterium were employed to feed the protozoan Paramecium caudatum, and analytical results revealed the accumulation of Zn, Pb and Ni. Since Sphaerotilus wa the only food source for paramecia during this study, the results indicate that trace amounts of metal were passed from bacteria to protozoa in a predator-prey relationship.

  8. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated wi...

  9. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal protozoa infections among patients with ulcerative colitis: prevalence and impact on clinical disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Torijano-Carrera, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical initiation and relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. To explore the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its impact on clinical disease course. A total of 215 patients with definitive diagnosis of UC were studied. Fresh feces samples taken from all UC patients were examined immediately using trichrome-staining methods. A total of 103 female and 112 male UC patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 30.5 +/- 10.8 years. The prevalence of overall parasitic infections was 24% and distributed as follows: Blastocystis hominis in 22 patients (10%), Endolimax nana in 19 cases (9%), and Entamoebahistolytica in 11 cases (5%). A significantly increased frequency of protozoa infection was found in those patients with persistent activity and intermittent activity as compared to active than inactive group (p = 1 x 10(-7), OR 13.05, 95% CI 4.28-42.56, and p = 0.003, OR 1.42-14.47, respectively). Interestingly, this association remained significant when we compared the persistent activity group versus intermittent activity group (p = 0.003, OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.35-6.59). Subgroup analysis showed no association between protozoa infection (E. histolytica, B. hominis, and E. nana) and other clinical variables such as gender, extent of disease, extraintestinal complications, medical treatment and grade of disease activity. The prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections in Mexican UC patients was 24% and these microorganisms could be a contributing cause of persistent activity despite medical treatment in our population. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction.

  12. The effect of acid drinking water on rumen protozoa in the blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyse, D G; Dehority, B A; Myburgh, J G

    2015-12-07

    Rumen contents were collected from ten adult female blesbok, five from a mine area with only acid drinking water available and five from a control group consuming normal, non-polluted drinking water. The mean concentration of total protozoa in the normal water group was almost double that in the acid drinking water group, 24.9 x 10(3) versus 14.7 x 10(3). Percent of Entodinium was higher and Diplodinium lower in those animals drinking the acid water. The number of different protozoa species present in animals from both locations was fairly similar. Diplodinium bubalidis, Ostracodinium gracile and Diplodinium consors were present in the highest percentage in the normal water group, 18.8, 18.4 and 17.7 %, respectively. The same three species, plus Entodinium dubardi, were also highest in the acid water group, O. gracile, 21.3 %; D. consors, 12.6 %; E. dubardi, 11.4 % and D. bubalidis, 10.3 %. Seventeen species of protozoa found in this study were a new host record for the blesbok, bringing the total number of species reported from the blesbok to 29.

  13. Molecular identification of protozoa causing AIDS-associated cholangiopathy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nétor Velásquez, Jorge; Marta, Edgardo; Alicia di Risio, Cecilia; Etchart, Cristina; Gancedo, Elisa; Victor Chertcoff, Agustín; Bruno Malandrini, Jorge; Germán Astudillo, Osvaldo; Carnevale, Silvana

    2012-12-01

    Several species of microsporidia and coccidia are protozoa parasites responsible for cholan-giopathy disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The goals of this work were to identift opportunistic protozoa by molecular methods and describe the clinical manifestations at the gastrointestinal tract and the biliary system in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy from Buenos Aires, Argentina. This study included 11 adult HIV-infected individuals with diagnosis ofAIDS- associated cholangiopathy. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy specimen collection and a stool analysis for parasites were performed on each patient. The ultrasound analysis revealed bile ducts compromise. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and a magnetic resonance cholangiography were carried out. The identification to the species level was performed on biopsy specimens by molecular methods. Microorganisms were identified in 10 cases. The diagnosis in patients with sclerosing cholangitis was cryptosporidiosis in 3 cases, cystoisosporosis in 1 and microsporidiosis in 1. In patients with sclerosing cholangitis and papillary stenosis the diagnosis was microsporidiosis in 2 cases, cryptosporidiosis in 2 and cryptosporidiosis associated with microsporidiosis in 1. In 3 cases with cryptosporidiosis the species was Cryptosporidium hominis, 1 of them was associated with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and the other 2 were coinfected with Cryptosporidium parvum. In the 4 cases with microsporidiosis the species was Enterocytozoon bieneusi. These results suggest that molecular methods may be useful tools to identify emerging protozoa in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy.

  14. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigations of the influence of the content of crude plant protein in the ration on the utilisation of urea in dairy cattle. 3. Incorporation of /sup 15/N from urea into ruminal bacteria and protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarakanow, B.W. (Allunionsinstitut fuer Physiologie, Biochemie und Ernaehrung landwirtschaftlicher Tiere, Borowsk (USSR)); Sommer, A. (Inst. fuer Tierproduktion, Nitra (Czechoslovakia)); Voigt, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Dummerstorf-Rostock. Forschungszentrum fuer Tierproduktion)

    The rations contained 10.7 (I), 13.7 (II) and 17.1 (III)% plant crude protein and, after the supplementation of 150 g urea per animal and day, a total of 13.8 (I), 16.7 (II) and 20.2 (III)% crude protein in the dry matter. The starch content and the dry matter was 25.6, 19.6 and 13.4% from I to III. The urea was intraruminally infused during the feeding in the morning and the evening. Samples were taken from the rumen up to 72 h after intake. 4, 8 and 12 hours after /sup 15/N intake 100 ml rumen fluid contained 2.5, 3.3 and 3.0 (I), 3.1, 3.0 and 2.8 (II) and 4.1, 4.4 and 4.2 (III) g dry matter of the bacteria and 7.9, 9.0 and 5.9 (I), 3.8, 3.2 and 3.1 (II) and 2.1, 3.1 and 1.7 (III) g dry matter of the protozoa. In comparison to I the concentration of microbes in III decreased to 60-67%. The N level of the ration did not influence the N and carbohydrate content of the microbes as well as the amino acid composition of the microbial protein. Level and dynamics of /sup 15/N incorporation differed between protozoa and bacteria. From I to III the maximum labelling degrees were 3.27, 3.09 and 1.98 for bacteria and 0.93, 0.82 and 0.80 atom-% /sup 15/N excess. The apparent half life of /sup 15/N on 10...12 h in the bacteria N and of 34...59 h in the protozoa N showed that /sup 15/N metabolism in protozoa is distinctly slower. The /sup 15/N frequency in the amino acids (AA) of the microbial protein revealed that urea N was included in the synthesis of all the 16 AA investigated, with big differences in the relative /sup 15/N frequency in the AA both within the microbes and between the species of microbes. One can conclude that the decreasing utilization of /sup 15/N from urea in comparison with that of the total N is caused by the reduction of the concentration of microbes in the rumen fluid and the relatively lower quota of the incorporation of urea N into bacteria N.

  16. Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Molyko and Bomaka, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsoh, Fuh Anold; Wung, Buh Amos; Atashili, Julius; Benjamin, Pokam Thumamo; Marvlyn, Eba; Ivo, Keumami Katte; Nguedia, Assob Jules Clément

    2016-11-08

    Access to potable water remains a major challenge particularly in resource-limited settings. Although the potential contaminants of water are varied, enteric pathogenic protozoa are known to cause waterborne diseases greatly. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Buea, Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 155 water samples collected from various drinking sources (boreholes, springs, taps and wells). Each sample was subjected to physicochemical examinations (pH, turbidity, odour and sliminess) and parasitological analysis (wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) to determine the presence of enteric pathogenic protozoa. A data collection tool was used to note characteristics of collected samples and the data was analysed using EPI-INFO Version 3.5.3. The overall prevalence of enteric pathogenic protozoa in water sources was 62.6 %. Eight species of enteric protozoa were observed with Cryptosporidium parvum being the most predominant (45.8 %). Spring water was the most contaminated source with enteric protozoa (85.7 %) while pipe borne water had all eight species of protozoa identified. A pH of 6 was the only significant factor associated with the prevalence of these pathogens in water sources. The prevalence of enteric protozoa in water sources in Molyko and Bomaka is high, spring water is the most contaminated water source and Cryptosporidium parvum is the most common protozoa contaminating water. A water pH of 6 is associated to the prevalence of protozoa. Community members need to be educated to treat water before drinking to avoid infection by enteric protozoa in water and further studies with larger samples of water need to be conducted to find other correlates of the presence of protozoa in water.

  17. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  18. The effect of rumen content transfer on rate of bacteria and protozoa growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono; M Winugroho; Y Widiati; S Marijati

    1998-01-01

    The aims the experiment wants to know the benefit of rate of microbial protein in rumen content and to complete the information that isolates is useful for ruminant animals feed. The result indicated that buffaloes from East Nusa Tenggara is the best when they are used as donor rumen transfer making isolate. When rumen of ongole cattle generation was mixed in rumen content of buffaloes from East Nusa Tenggara and incubated 48 h, the rate of bacteria cell growth is better than rate of protozoa cell growth comparing to the other animals. The values are 30.99 mg/h/100 ml and 24.92 mg.h/100 ml respectively. The results of isolate selection in 48 h incubation indicated that treatment F is the best. The results rates of bacteria cell growth and rate of protozoa's cell growth are 26.96 mg/h/100 ml and 2.53 mg/h/100 respectively. The result of in vitro study indicated that pH and ammonia concentration support the rate of bacteria cell growth and do not cause the toxicity of microbes and animal . The rate of bacteria cell growth on D treatment is significant to A,B, and C treatments. The values are 21.44 mg/h/100 ml. 7.99; 13.13; and 13.38 mg/h/100 ml respectively. The result rates of protozoa's cell growth tends lower than rates of bacteria cell. The overall conclusion is a lower or a higher rate of microorganism cell growth depends on the environment condition. (author)

  19. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy dodecane (Empicol. After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0. On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3 was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining

  20. Uptake, localization and clearance of quantum dots in ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Slaveykova, Vera I.

    2014-01-01

    Protozoa as phagocytizing cells have been shown to integrate engineered nanoparticles (NPs), while the mechanism, dynamics and extent of such uptake are unclear. Here our fluorescence microscopy data showed that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with primary size of 12 nm were readily phagocytized into the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena thermophila in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Twenty hours after the exposure to QDs in sublethal concentration the clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete suggesting that phagocytosis of QDs into food vacuoles was not the only pathway of uptake by T. thermophila. This was further proven by the results that the inhibition of phagocytosis did not block the internalization of QDs into protozoans. This study provides a new insight into uptake and cellular trafficking of subtoxic concentrations of nanoparticles that may, due to prolonged retention times in the cells, pose risks by potentially becoming available to higher trophic levels. - Highlights: • Tetrahymena thermophila internalized QDs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. • The egested QDs were not significantly biodegraded in the food vacuoles. • In addition to phagocytosis QDs entered protozoa by alternative uptake pathways. • The clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete after 20 h in fresh medium. • The prolonged retention time of nontoxic NPs in protozoa could increase their transfer in food chain. - In addition to phagocytosis, quantum dots (QDs) entered protozoans by alternative pathways which did not lead to complete clearance of the QDs from the cells

  1. Digestibility, rumen protozoa, and ruminal fermentation in goats receiving dietary palm oil by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Abubakr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen goats fitted with a rumen cannula were used in completely randomized block design to test the effects of dietary crude palm oil (PO, palm kernel cake (PKC and decanter cake (DC on rumen total protozoa counts, rumen fermentation, and digestibility. Goats received once daily (1.5% of BW one of four concentrate diets: reference diet (RD, DC diet (DCD, PKC diet (PKCD and RD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD. The RD was based on corn grain and soybean meal and was fed to all goats for 28 days before the start of a 30-day experiment. Organic matter (OM digestibility was reduced (P < 0.05 by feeding DCD, whereas digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF was higher (P < 0.0001 in the goats fed PKCD. The digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF was higher (P < 0001 in goats fed PKCD followed by those fed DCD, CPOD and CD. Ammonia–N concentration was lower (P < 0.001 for treatments DCD, PKCD and CPOD than for treatment RD. Volatile fatty acid (VFA concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 for treatments PKCD and CPOD than for treatments RD and DCD. Total protozoa counts were higher (P < 0.001 for treatment CD than for other treatments. It was concluded that the dietary DC, and PKC could be included in the diet of goats up to 80% without any adverse effects on dry matter intake; however, rumen fermentation parameters and total protozoa counts were changed.

  2. Eukaryotic inhibitors or activators elicit responses to chemosensory compounds by ruminal isotrichid and entodiniomorphid protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, H L; Barr, K N; Godden, K R; Plank, J E; Zapata, I; Schappacher, A N; Wick, M P; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate potential signaling pathways regulating rumen protozoal chemotaxis using eukaryotic inhibitors potentially coordinated with phagocytosis as assessed by fluorescent bead uptake kinetics. Wortmannin (inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase), insulin, genistein (purported inhibitor of a receptor tyrosine kinase), U73122 (inhibitor of phospholipase C), and sodium nitroprusside (Snp, nitric oxide generator, activating protein kinase G) were preincubated with mixed ruminal protozoa for 3h before assessing uptake of fluorescent beads and chemosensory behavior to glucose, peptides, and their combination; peptides were also combined with guanosine triphosphate (GTP; a chemorepellent). Entodiniomorphids were chemoattracted to both glucose and peptides, but chemoattraction to glucose was increased by Snp and wortmannin without effect on chemoattraction to peptides. Rate of fluorescent bead uptake by an Entodinium caudatum culture decreased when beads were added simultaneously with feeding and incubated with wortmannin (statistical interaction). Wortmannin also decreased the proportion of mixed entodiniomorphids consuming beads. Isotrichid protozoa exhibited greater chemotaxis to glucose but, compared with entodiniomorphids, were chemorepelled to peptides. Wortmannin increased chemotaxis by entodiniomorphids but decreased chemotaxis to glucose by isotrichids. Motility assays documented that Snp and wortmannin decreased net swimming speed (distance among 2 points per second) but not total swimming speed (including turns) by entodiniomorphids. Wortmannin decreased both net and total swimming behavior in isotrichids. Results mechanistically explain the isotrichid migratory ecology to rapidly take up newly ingested sugars and subsequent sedimentation back to the ventral reticulorumen. In contrast, entodiniomorphids apparently integrate cellular motility with feeding behavior to consume small particulates and thereby stay associated and pass with the

  3. Ruminal bacteria and protozoa composition, digestibility, and amino acid profile determined by multiple hydrolysis times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessenden, S W; Hackmann, T J; Ross, D A; Foskolos, A; Van Amburgh, M E

    2017-09-01

    Microbial samples from 4 independent experiments in lactating dairy cattle were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, AA digestibility, and AA profile after multiple hydrolysis times ranging from 2 to 168 h. Similar bacterial and protozoal isolation techniques were used for all isolations. Omasal bacteria and protozoa samples were analyzed for AA digestibility using a new in vitro technique. Multiple time point hydrolysis and least squares nonlinear regression were used to determine the AA content of omasal bacteria and protozoa, and equivalency comparisons were made against single time point hydrolysis. Formalin was used in 1 experiment, which negatively affected AA digestibility and likely limited the complete release of AA during acid hydrolysis. The mean AA digestibility was 87.8 and 81.6% for non-formalin-treated bacteria and protozoa, respectively. Preservation of microbe samples in formalin likely decreased recovery of several individual AA. Results from the multiple time point hydrolysis indicated that Ile, Val, and Met hydrolyzed at a slower rate compared with other essential AA. Singe time point hydrolysis was found to be nonequivalent to multiple time point hydrolysis when considering biologically important changes in estimated microbial AA profiles. Several AA, including Met, Ile, and Val, were underpredicted using AA determination after a single 24-h hydrolysis. Models for predicting postruminal supply of AA might need to consider potential bias present in postruminal AA flow literature when AA determinations are performed after single time point hydrolysis and when using formalin as a preservative for microbial samples. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term Spatial Distribution Patterns of Protozoa in Connected Microhabitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghon, G. L.; Tuorto, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Studies of microbial ecosystems usually assume habitat homogeneity. Recent research, however, indicates that habitat structure varies at millimeter scales and that this patchiness affects abundance and behavior of microbes. In this study, two species of ciliated protozoa were maintained, together, for multiple generations in microfluidic devices consisting of arrays of interconnected microhabitats with differing resource availability. The species differed in their population dynamics and tendency to disperse among microhabitats. Both species coexisted for over 45 days, and their coexistence likely resulted from habitat selection at millimeter scales. We demonstrate that it is not only possible, but imperative, that detailed ecological phenomena of microbial systems be studied at the relevant spatial and temporal scales.

  5. Body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Xu, Guangjian; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Henglong

    2016-10-01

    Community-based assessment of protozoa is usually performed at a taxon-dependent resolution. As an inherent 'taxon-free' trait, however, body-size spectrum has proved to be a highly informative indicator to summarize the functional structure of a community in both community research and monitoring programs in aquatic ecosystems. To demonstrate the relationships between the taxon-free resolution of protozoan communities and water conditions, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift and environmental drivers were explored based on an annual dataset collected monthly from coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Body sizes were calculated in equivalent spherical diameter (ESD). Among a total of 8 body-size ranks, S2 (19-27μm), S3 (28-36μm), S4 (37-50μm) and S5 (53-71μm) were the top four levels in frequency of occurrence, while rank S1 (13-17μm), S2 and S4 were the dominant levels in abundance. These dominants showed a clear seasonal succession: S2/S4 (spring)→S2/S4 (summer)→S4 (autumn)→S2 (winter) in frequency of occurrence; S1 (spring)→S4 (summer)→S2 (autumn)→S1 (winter) in abundance. Bootstrapped average analysis showed a clear seasonal shift in body-size spectra of the protozoa during a 1-year cycle, and the best-matching analysis demonstrated that the temporal variations in frequency of occurrence and abundance were significantly correlated with water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), alone or in combination with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients. Thus, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa were seasonally shaped and might be used as a time and cost efficient bioindicator of water quality in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Response of free-living soil protozoa and microorganisms to elevated atmospheric CO2 and presence of mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, R.; Gavito, M.; Larsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    with or without the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus caledonium. It was hypothesised that (1) the populations of free-living soil protozoa would increase as a response to elevated CO2, (2) the effect of elevated CO2 on protozoa would be moderated by the presence of mycorrhiza and (3......) the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza would affect soil protozoan numbers regardless of atmospheric CO2. After 3 weeks growth there was no difference in bacterial numbers (direct counts) in soil, but the number of free-living bacterial-feeding protozoa was significantly higher under elevated CO2...... elevated CO2 suggest increased bacterial production, whereas the lower populations in response to presence of mycorrhiza suggest a depressing effect on bacterial production by AM colonisation. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Study of the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and microbial protein contribution to the chyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, A; Abecia, L; Holtrop, G; Guada, J A; Castrillo, C; de la Fuente, G; Balcells, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis under different diets. Of 20 twin paired lambs, 1 lamb of each pair was isolated from the ewe within 24 h after birth and reared in a protozoa-free environment (n = 10), whereas their respective twin-siblings remained with the ewe (faunated, n = 10). When lambs reached 6 mo of age, 5 animals of each group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 experimental diets consisting of either alfalfa hay as the sole diet, or 50:50 mixed with ground barley grain according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. After 15 d of adaptation to the diet, the animals were euthanized and total rumen and abomasal contents were sampled to estimate rumen microbial synthesis using C(31) alkane as flow marker. Different ((15)N and purine bases) and a novel (recombinant DNA sequences) microbial markers, combined with several microbial reference extracts (rumen protozoa, liquid and solid associated bacteria) were evaluated. Absence of rumen protozoa modified the rumen fermentation pattern and decreased total tract OM and NDF digestibility in 2.0 and 5.1 percentage points, respectively. The effect of defaunation on microbial N flow was weak, however, and was dependent on the microbial marker and microbial reference extract considered. Faunated lambs fed with mixed diet showed the greatest rumen protozoal concentration and the least efficient microbial protein synthesis (29% less than the other treatments), whereas protozoa-free lambs fed with mixed diet presented the smallest ammonia concentration and 34% greater efficiency of N utilization than the other treatments. Although (15)N gave the most precise estimates of microbial synthesis, the use of recombinant DNA sequences represents an alternative that allows separate quantification of the bacteria and protozoa contributions. This marker showed that presence of protozoa decrease the

  8. The Prevalence of Canine Oral Protozoa and Their Association with Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niran; Colyer, Alison; Harris, Steve; Holcombe, Lucy; Andrew, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most important health concerns for companion animals. Research into canine forms of periodontitis has focused on the identification and characterization of the bacterial communities present. However, other microorganisms are known to inhabit the oral cavity and could also influence the disease process. A novel, broad spectrum 18S PCR was developed and used, in conjunction with next-generation sequencing analyses to target the identification of protists. Trichomonas sp. and Entamoeba sp. were identified from 92 samples of canine plaque. The overall prevalence of trichomonads was 56.52% (52/92) and entamoebae was 4.34% (4/92). Next-generation sequencing of pooled healthy, gingivitis, early-stage periodontitis, and severe periodontitis samples revealed the proportion of trichomonad sequences to be 3.51% (health), 2.84% (gingivitis), 6.07% (early periodontitis), and 35.04% (severe periodontitis), respectively, and entamoebae to be 0.01% (health), 0.01% (gingivitis), 0.80% (early-stage periodontitis), and 7.91% (severe periodontitis) respectively. Both genera of protists were statistically associated with plaque from dogs with periodontal disease. These findings provide the first conclusive evidence for the presence of oral protozoa in dog plaque and suggest a possible role for protozoa in the periodontal disease process. © 2016 The Author(s) The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Monitoring for the Presence of Parasitic Protozoa and Free-living Amoebae in Drinking Water Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Saad Amer.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms represents a major human health hazard in many parts of the world. The main objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. A number of processes; namely water treatment, disinfection and changes influence the quality of drinking water delivered to the customer’s tap during transport of treated water via the distribution system. At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have reported. In this study, drinking water from treatment plants evaluated for the presence of parasitic protozoa. Water samples collected from two main points: (a outlet of the water treatment plants (b distribution system at different distances from the water treatment plants. Protozoa were concentrated from each water sample by adsorption and accumulation on the nitrocellulose membrane filters (0.45 μm pore size and detected by conventional staining methods.

  10. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MOHEBALI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius.Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117, M. musculus (n=63 and C. migratorius (n=24 were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively.Results: About 121(59.3% of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%, Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%, Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%, Giardia muris 19(9.3%, Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%, Isospora spp. 4(2% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5% were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31% out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method.Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans.

  11. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae) in Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabiholah; Khanaliha, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MOTAVALLI-HAGHI, Afsaneh; DAVOODI, Jaber; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; TARIGHI, Fathemeh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius. Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117), M. musculus (n=63) and C. migratorius (n=24) were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively. Results: About 121(59.3%) of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%), Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%), Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%), Giardia muris 19(9.3%), Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%), Isospora spp. 4(2%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5%) were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31%) out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method. Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans. PMID:28979348

  12. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests.

  13. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate in cattle fed on diet containing protected protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate using 14 C-choline as marker were studied on 9 adult male crossbred (Tharparker x Brown Swiss) rumen fistulated animals divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). All the animals were fed concentrate mixture and wheatstraw. However, groundnut cake (GNC) in concentrate mixture was untreated in group A, 50 per cent formaldehyde treated in group B and 100 per cent formaldehyde treated in group C. Although, DM intake was similar in these groups but water intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group. Total-N, ammonia-N and blood urea were significantly lower in group B and C as compared to group A. Apparent CP digestibility was not affected by addition of formaldehyde treated GNC at 50 and 100 per cent levels. However, N balances increased significantly (P<0.05) due to addition of protected protein in diet. Protozoal pool as well as production rate were significantly (P<0.01) decreased due to formaldehyde treatment of GNC protein. Thus addition of formaldehyde treated GNC in diets decreased ammonia and protozoa production but increased N retention in groups B and C. (author). 27 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Technical note: A method for isolating glycogen granules from ruminal protozoa for further characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of physical, chemical, and enzymatic hydrolysis characteristics of protozoal glycogen is best performed on a pure substrate to avoid interference from other cell components. A method for isolating protozoal glycogen granules without use of detergents or other potentially contaminating chemicals was developed. Rumen inoculum was incubated anerobically in vitro with glucose. Glycogen-laden protozoa produced in the fermentation, primarily isotrichids, were allowed to sediment in a separatory funnel and were dispensed. The protozoa were processed through repeated centrifugations and sonication to isolate glycogen granules largely free of feed and cellular debris. The final water-insoluble lyophilized product analyzed as 98.3% α-glucan with very rare starch granules and 1.9% protein. Observed losses of glycogen granules during the clean-up process indicate that this procedure should not be used for quantitative assessment of protozoal glycogen from fermentations. Further optimization of this procedure to enhance the amount of glycogen obtained per fermentation may be possible. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diseases due to intestinale protozoa diagnosed at Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal, from 2011 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Ndiaye, M; Seck, M C; Diallo, M A; Ndiaye, Y D; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, D

    2017-11-01

    To identify the protozoa responsible for intestinal parasitosis diagnosed at Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. The retrospective study included 2578 patients for whom stool samples were analyzed from 2011 to 2015. The sex ratio was 1.1. Patients' mean age was 28.5 years, with a range of 11 days to 91 years. Direct examination and the Ritchie technique were performed to search for parasites. In total, 317 patients had intestinal protozoa, for a prevalence of 12.3 %. Infections involved one (91%) or two parasites (9%). The most common species found alone were Entamoeba coli (51.5%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (17 %), and Giardia intestinalis (10.5%). The most common associations were E. coli with G. intestinalis (3.6 %) and with E. histolytica (2.4%). These infections affected significantly more outpatients than inpatients (65 %, p = 0.0049) and slightly more women (51.1%, p = 0.22) than men. Adults accounted for 67% of the confirmed intestinal protozoa: 39% aged 31-60 years, 28% aged 15-30, and only 7% older than 60 (p = 0.5). Most of the protozoa isolated were non-pathogenic. However, health education should be promoted in addition to the mass treatment program already begun to limit and even halt the spread of these neglected diseases.

  17. Protozoa manipulation by ultrasound Bionota: Manipulación de protozoos por ultrasonido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Julio Enrique

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Microorganism manipulation, considered as controlled motion and positioning, is one of the most important activities in microbiology and medicine. To achieve this goal there are some techniques such as those which and optical forces, among others. These techniques are usually sophisticated, and some of them can induce irreversible alterations on the microorganisms which prevents their use in another tests. Thus, there is justified the study of technological alternatives to manipulate microorganisms in an easy and cost-effective way. This work shows the interaction between protozoa and air microbubbles when they are under the influence of an ultrasonic field of 5.8 mW. At the microbubbles resonant frequencies, microorganisms were attracted toward the bubbles' frontier remaining there while the ultrasonic field was applied. Once the ultrasound disappears, protozoa recover their freedom of movement. The observed effects could be used as the actuation principle of devices capable to trap, hold and release microorganisms of high mobility without any apparent damage. Microbubbles are generated by electrolysis which take place on the surface of an electrode array, while the ultrasound is originated by means of a piezoelectric transducer. As microorganisms there were employed those present in stagnated water, and were observed through an stereomicroscope. Key words: manipulator; protozoa; ultrasonic; transducer; piezoelectric.La manipulación de microorganismos, entendida como su posicionamiento y su movimiento controlado, es una de las principales preocupaciones en áreas como la microbiología y la medicina. Con este fin se han desarrollado diferentes técnicas que van desde la utilización de sustancias químicas, hasta el empleo de campos eléctricos, campos magnéticos, fuerzas ópticas y gravitatorias, entre otras. Aparte de ser técnicas sofisticadas, muchas de ellas causan alteraciones irreversibles en los microorganismos, lo cual impide su

  18. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal...... helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used...... to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia...

  19. The protozoa dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina contains selenoproteins and the relevant translation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Takashi; Beika, Asa; Hattori, Asuka; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kato, Koichi H.; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2003-01-01

    In the phylogenetic tree, selenoproteins and the corresponding translation machinery are found in Archaea, Eubacteria, and animals, but not in fungi and higher plants. As very little is known about Protozoa, we searched for the presence of selenoproteins in the primitive dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, belonging to the Protoctista kingdom. Four selenoproteins could be obtained from O. marina cells cultured in the presence of 75 Se. Using O. marina or bovine liver cytosolic extracts, we could serylate and selenylate in vitro total O. marina tRNAs. Moreover, the existence of a tRNA Sec could be deduced from in vivo experiments. Lastly, an anti-serum against the specialized mammalian translation elongation factor mSelB reacted with a protein of 48-kDa molecular mass. Altogether, our data showed that O. marina contains selenoproteins and suggests that the corresponding translation machinery is related to that found in animals

  20. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Use of multiple functional traits of protozoa for bioassessment of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Guangjian; Xu, Henglong

    2017-06-30

    Ecological parameters based on multiply functional traits have many advantages for monitoring programs by reducing "signal to noise" ratios of observed species data. To identify potential indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution in function space, the functional patterns of protozoan communities and relationships with environmental changes were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea during a 1-year period. The results showed that: (1) the spatial variability in functional trait distributions of the protozoa was significantly associated with changes in environmental variables, especially chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients on spatial scale; (2) the functional traits, especially food resources and feeding type, were significantly correlated with COD and nutrients; and (3) the functional diversity indices were generally related to nutrients or COD. Based on the results, we suggest that the functional traits and diversity indices of protozoan communities may be used as more effective indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protozoa enhance foraging efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for mineral nitrogen from organic matter in soil to the benefit of host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Robert; Rodriguez, Alia; Robin, Christophe; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Dead organic matter (OM) is a major source of nitrogen (N) for plants. The majority of plants support N uptake by symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mineralization of N is regulated by microfauna, in particular, protozoa grazing on bacteria. We hypothesized that AM fungi and protozoa interactively facilitate plant N nutrition from OM. In soil systems consisting of an OM patch and a root compartment, plant N uptake and consequences for plant carbon (C) allocation were investigated using stable isotopes. Protozoa mobilized N by consuming bacteria, and the mobilized N was translocated via AM fungi to the host plant. The presence of protozoa in both the OM and root compartment stimulated photosynthesis and the translocation of C from the host plant via AM fungi into the OM patch. This stimulated microbial activity in the OM patch, plant N uptake from OM and doubled plant growth. The results indicate that protozoa increase plant growth by both mobilization of N from OM and by protozoa-root interactions, resulting in increased C allocation to roots and into the rhizosphere, thereby increasing plant nutrient exploitation. Hence, mycorrhizal plants need to interact with protozoa to fully exploit N resources from OM. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Effect of irradiation on protozoa and helminths in animal originated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabay, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiations have a deleterious effect on protozoa and helminths. Some of the variables affecting radiosensitivity are the stage of development of the organism, the temperature at which irradiation carried out and variation in the susceptibility of individuals of a species. The introduction of meat inspection and chemotherapy, general education of the public as to sanitation and proper food preparation and certain food pretreatments such as salting and freezing have done much to control or alleviate the spread of parasitic infections. Nevertheless, parasitism of humans and livestock persists in some degree in all parts of the world. There is need to develop other methods of controlling parasites. One such alternative is the use of ionizing radiation to treat foods so as to render any parasites they contain noninfectious or nonpathogenic. This paper concentrates on the general effects of radiation on protozoa and helminths and covers the literature on food irradiation applications including the research carried out on the inhibition of viability and infectivity of Cysticercus bovis by irradiation of meat. Viability of Taenia saginata cysticerci was studied in vitro by exposing them to gamma radiation. It was round that a minimum of 3.7 kGy is required to devitalize C. bovis cysts. However, for complete de-vitalization, 6 kGy of irradiation was needed. Inhibition of infectivity of C. bovis by irradiation of meat was also investigated. It was concluded that 0.3 kGy could be accepted as the minimal effective dose to inhibit the development of C. bovis larvae into adult tapeworm

  5. Legionella-protozoa-nematode interactions in aquatic biofilms and influence of Mip on Caenorhabditis elegans colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Janine; Krüger, Stefanie; Fontvieille, Dominique; Ünal, Can M; Michel, Rolf; Labrosse, Aurélie; Steinert, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaireś disease, is naturally found in aquatic habitats. The intracellular life cycle within protozoa pre-adapted the "accidental" human pathogen to also infect human professional phagocytes like alveolar macrophages. Previous studies employing the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that also nematodes might serve as a natural host for L. pneumophila. Here, we report for the first time from a natural co-habitation of L. pneumophila and environmental nematode species within biofilms of a warm water spring. In addition, we identified the protozoan species Oxytricha bifaria, Stylonychia mytilus, Ciliophrya sp. which have never been described as potential interaction partners of L. pneumophila before. Modeling and dissection of the Legionella-protozoa-nematode interaction revealed that C. elegans ruptures Legionella-infected amoebal cells and by this means incorporate the pathogen. Further infection studies revealed that the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein of L. pneumophila, which is known to bind collagen IV during human lung infection, promotes the colonization of the intestinal tract of L4 larvae of C. elegans and negatively influences the life span of the worms. The Mip-negative L. pneumophila mutant exhibited a 32-fold reduced colonization rate of the nematodes after 48h when compared to the wild-type strain. Taken together, these studies suggest that nematodes may serve as natural hosts for L. pneumophila, promote their persistence and dissemination in the environment, and co-evolutionarily pre-adapt the pathogen for interactions with extracellular constituents of human lung tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Lora, Fabiana; Zuluaga, Juan David; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the presence of DNA of Giardia, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium by PCR, and of Giardia and Cryptosporidium genera by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), in water samples, before, during, and after plant treatment for drinkable water. We applied this method in 38 samples of 10 l of water taken from each of the water treatment steps and in 8 samples taken at home (only for Toxoplasma PCR) in Quindio region in Colombia. There were 8 positive samples for Cryptosporidium parvum (21 %), 4 for Cryptosporidium hominis (10.5 %), 27 for Toxoplasma gondii (58.6 %), 2 for Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (5.2 %), and 5 for G. duodenalis assemblage B (13.1 %). By IFAT, 23 % were positive for Giardia and 21 % for Cryptosporidium. An almost perfect agreement was found between IFAT and combined results of PCR, by Kappa composite proportion analysis. PCR positive samples were significantly more frequent in untreated raw water for C. parvum (p = 0.02). High mean of fecal coliforms, high pH values, and low mean of chlorine residuals were strongly correlated with PCR positivity for G. duodenalis assemblage B. High pH value was correlated with PCR positivity for C. parvum. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences was possible, showing water and human clinical sequences for Toxoplasma within the same phylogenetic group for B1 repeated sequence. PCR assay is complementary to IFAT assay for monitoring of protozoa in raw and drinkable water, enabling species identification and to look for phylogenetic analysis in protozoa from human and environmental sources.

  7. Contribution of Ruminal Fungi, Archaea, Protozoa, and Bacteria to the Methane Suppression Caused by Oilseed Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary lipids can suppress methane emission from ruminants, but effects are variable. Especially the role of bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa in mediating the lipid effects is unclear. In the present in vitro study, archaea, fungi and protozoa were selectively inhibited by specific agents. This was fully or almost fully successful for fungi and protozoa as well as archaeal activity as determined by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit gene. Five different microbial treatments were generated: rumen fluid being intact (I, without archaea (–A, without fungi (–F, without protozoa (–P and with bacteria only (–AFP. A forage-concentrate diet given alone or supplemented with crushed full-fat oilseeds of either safflower (Carthamus tinctorius or poppy (Papaver somniferum or camelina (Camelina sativa at 70 g oil kg−1 diet dry matter was incubated. This added up to 20 treatments with six incubation runs per treatment. All oilseeds suppressed methane emission compared to the non-supplemented control. Compared to the non-supplemented control, –F decreased organic matter (OM degradation, and short-chain fatty acid concentration was greater with camelina and safflower seeds. Methane suppression per OM digested in –F was greater with camelina seeds (−12 vs.−7% with I, P = 0.06, but smaller with poppy seeds (−4 vs. −8% with I, P = 0.03, and not affected with safflower seeds. With –P, camelina seeds decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio and enhanced the methane suppression per gram dry matter (18 vs. 10% with I, P = 0.08. Hydrogen recovery was improved with –P in any oilseeds compared to non-supplemented control. No methane emission was detected with the –A and –AFP treatments. In conclusion, concerning methanogenesis, camelina seeds seem to exert effects only on archaea and bacteria. By contrast, with safflower and poppy seeds methane was obviously reduced mainly through the interaction with protozoa or archaea

  8. Contribution of Ruminal Fungi, Archaea, Protozoa, and Bacteria to the Methane Suppression Caused by Oilseed Supplemented Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Giller, Katrin; Kreuzer, Michael; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Dietary lipids can suppress methane emission from ruminants, but effects are variable. Especially the role of bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa in mediating the lipid effects is unclear. In the present in vitro study, archaea, fungi and protozoa were selectively inhibited by specific agents. This was fully or almost fully successful for fungi and protozoa as well as archaeal activity as determined by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit gene. Five different microbial treatments were generated: rumen fluid being intact (I), without archaea (-A), without fungi (-F), without protozoa (-P) and with bacteria only (-AFP). A forage-concentrate diet given alone or supplemented with crushed full-fat oilseeds of either safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius ) or poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) or camelina ( Camelina sativa ) at 70 g oil kg -1 diet dry matter was incubated. This added up to 20 treatments with six incubation runs per treatment. All oilseeds suppressed methane emission compared to the non-supplemented control. Compared to the non-supplemented control, -F decreased organic matter (OM) degradation, and short-chain fatty acid concentration was greater with camelina and safflower seeds. Methane suppression per OM digested in -F was greater with camelina seeds (-12 vs.-7% with I, P = 0.06), but smaller with poppy seeds (-4 vs. -8% with I, P = 0.03), and not affected with safflower seeds. With -P, camelina seeds decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio and enhanced the methane suppression per gram dry matter (18 vs. 10% with I, P = 0.08). Hydrogen recovery was improved with -P in any oilseeds compared to non-supplemented control. No methane emission was detected with the -A and -AFP treatments. In conclusion, concerning methanogenesis, camelina seeds seem to exert effects only on archaea and bacteria. By contrast, with safflower and poppy seeds methane was obviously reduced mainly through the interaction with protozoa or archaea associated with protozoa. This

  9. Comparison of microscopic and immunoassay examination in the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa of humans in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elswaifi, Shaadi F; Palmieri, James R; El-Tantawy, Nora; El-Hussiny, Mona; Besheer, Tarek; Abohashem, Ekbal

    2016-09-01

    Protozoal diseases are prevalent globally and especially in developing countries that have relatively lower socioeconomic populations such as Egypt. Direct microscopic examination (DME) is used for the detection and identification of protozoa but lacks sufficient reliability, and thus may be detrimental in obtaining accurate diagnostic or epidemiological data. In this study, we determine the prevalence of infections by Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica in humans in Egypt. Furthermore, we determine the reliability of DME in determining infections caused by these protozoa and compare the results to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our results indicate that the prevalence of giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and entamoebiasis is 38, 22, and 16 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DME for detection of G. intestinalis is 45 and 99 %, for Cryptosporidium 66 and 99 %, and for Entamoeba 45 and 100 %, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that ELISA is more reliable for diagnostic and epidemiologic study purposes.

  10. Development of a novel method for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Eiji; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Asami, Mari; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-06-01

    A novel method, electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method, was developed for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. Viruses and protozoa in a water sample were mixed with a cation solution and adsorbed on an electronegative membrane. Concentrated virus and protozoa samples were obtained as supernatant and pellet fractions, respectively, by vigorous vortex mixing of the membrane and centrifugation of the eluted material. The highest recovery efficiencies of model microbes from river water and tap water by this EMV method were obtained using a mixed cellulose ester membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μm (Millipore) as the electronegative membrane and MgCl(2) as the cation solution. The recovery was 27.7-86.5% for poliovirus, 25.7-68.3% for coliphage Qβ, 28.0-60.0% for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 35.0-53.0% for Giardia cysts. The EMV method detected successfully indigenous viruses and protozoa in wastewater and river water samples from the Kofu basin, Japan, showing an overall positive rate of 100% (43/43) for human adenovirus, 79% (34/43) for norovirus GI, 65% (28/43) for norovirus GII, 23% (10/43) for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 60% (26/43) for Giardia cysts. By direct DNA sequencing, a total of four genotypes (AI, AII, B, and G) of Giardia intestinalis were identified in the water samples, indicating that the river water was contaminated with feces from various mammals, including humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Our data will serve as a benchmark to monitor the

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of free-living protozoa in aquatic environments of a Brazilian semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Quinino de Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Free-living protozoa organisms are distributed in aquatic environments and vary widely in both qualitative and quantitative terms. The unique ecological functions they exhibit in their habitats help to maintain the dynamic balance of these environments. Despite their wide range and abundance, studies on geographical distribution and ecology, when compared to other groups, are still scarce. This study aimed to identify and record the occurrence of free-living protozoa at three points in Piancó-Piranhas-Açu basin, in a semi-arid area of Rio Grande do Norte (RN state, and to relate the occurrence of taxa with variations in chlorophyll a, pH and temperature in the environments. Samples were collected in the Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Dam, from two lentic environments upstream and a lotic ecosystem downstream. Sixty-five taxa of free-living protozoa were found. The Student's t-test showed significant inter-variable differences (p <0.05. Similar protozoan species were recorded under different degrees of trophic status according to chlorophyll a concentrations, suggesting the organisms identified are not ideal for indicating trophic level. We hypothesize that food availability, the influence of lentic and lotic systems and the presence of aquatic macrophytes influenced protozoan dynamics during the study period.

  13. The prevalence of protozoa in the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) with special reference to Lophomonas blattarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Cristina; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2017-11-01

    The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica. German cockroaches were anesthetised and dissected and gut contents are used to produce wet slides for microscopy. Both, Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains were used to confirm correct identification of Lophomonas blattarum. Representatives of four genera of protozoa were identified in 110 cockroaches: Nyctoterus sp. was observed in 91.8% of cases, Gregarina sp. in 64.5%, Amoeba sp. in 25.4% and Lophomonas blattarum in 13.6%. Nyctoterus and Gregarina were statistically significantly more likely to be found in diseased cockroaches compared to Amoeba or Lophomonas. The prevalence of Lophomonas blattarum was similar to that in published studies of a different species of cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Further work is needed to assess the interplay between protozoa, cockroaches and broncho-pulmonary diseases.

  14. Towards enhanced automated elution systems for waterborne protozoa using megasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B; Katzer, F; Desmulliez, M P Y; Bridle, H L

    2018-02-01

    Continuous and reliable monitoring of water sources for human consumption is imperative for public health. For protozoa, which cannot be multiplied efficiently in laboratory settings, concentration and recovery steps are key to a successful detection procedure. Recently, the use of megasonic energy was demonstrated to recover Cryptosporidium from commonly used water industry filtration procedures, forming thereby a basis for a simplified and cost effective method of elution of pathogens. In this article, we report the benefits of incorporating megasonic sonication into the current methodologies of Giardia duodenalis elution from an internationally approved filtration and elution system used within the water industry, the Filta-Max®. Megasonic energy assisted elution has many benefits over current methods since a smaller final volume of eluent allows removal of time-consuming centrifugation steps and reduces manual involvement resulting in a potentially more consistent and more cost-effective method. We also show that megasonic sonication of G. duodenalis cysts provides the option of a less damaging elution method compared to the standard Filta-Max® operation, although the elution from filter matrices is not currently fully optimised. A notable decrease in recovery of damaged cysts was observed in megasonic processed samples, potentially increasing the abilities of further genetic identification options upon isolation of the parasite from a filter sample. This work paves the way for the development of a fully automated and more cost-effective elution method of Giardia from water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PENGGUNAAN PROTOZOA SARCOCYSTIS SINGAPORENSIS (APICOMPLEXA: SARCOCYSTIDAE UNTUK PENGENDALIAN TIKUS SAWAH RATTUS ARGENTIVENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryani Cyccu Tobing, Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar, Lisnawita, dan Meirani.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of protozoan Sarcocystis singaporensis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae for control rice field rat Rattus argentiventer.  Rats are still a number-one-pest in field rice of various areas in Indonesia. Biological control using microparasite                         Sarcocystis singaporensis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae is a highly host-specific protozoan for controlling the rats. The objective of this research was to study the use of protozoa parasite S. singaporensis against rodent pest Rattus argentiventer. The design of experiment was Factorial Randomized Complete Design with ten treatments and four replications.  The first factor was sporocyt doses of S. singaporensis (control; 1 x 105; 2 x 105; 3 x 105; 4 x 105, while the second factor was rats sexual category (male and female. The results showed that dose of sporocysts S. singaporensis was significantly different but rats’ sexual category has no effect on the treatments. The highest mortalities was on dose  4 x 105 (100% at 12.08 days, food consumption decreased two to four days before rats died, weight of rats decreased because of the infection of S. singaporensis.

  16. "Omic" investigations of protozoa and worms for a deeper understanding of the human gut "parasitome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Valeria; Mancinelli, Livia; Bracaglia, Giorgia; Del Chierico, Federica; Vernocchi, Pamela; Di Girolamo, Francesco; Garrone, Stefano; Tchidjou Kuekou, Hyppolite; D'Argenio, Patrizia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Urbani, Andrea; Putignani, Lorenza

    2017-11-01

    The human gut has been continuously exposed to a broad spectrum of intestinal organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites (protozoa and worms), over millions of years of coevolution, and plays a central role in human health. The modern lifestyles of Western countries, such as the adoption of highly hygienic habits, the extensive use of antimicrobial drugs, and increasing globalisation, have dramatically altered the composition of the gut milieu, especially in terms of its eukaryotic "citizens." In the past few decades, numerous studies have highlighted the composition and role of human intestinal bacteria in physiological and pathological conditions, while few investigations exist on gut parasites and particularly on their coexistence and interaction with the intestinal microbiota. Studies of the gut "parasitome" through "omic" technologies, such as (meta)genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, are herein reviewed to better understand their role in the relationships between intestinal parasites, host, and resident prokaryotes, whether pathogens or commensals. Systems biology-based profiles of the gut "parasitome" under physiological and severe disease conditions can indeed contribute to the control of infectious diseases and offer a new perspective of omics-assisted tropical medicine.

  17. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert G; Wiemer, Dorothea F; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8-12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls.

  18. Detection of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, L; Dorigo-Zetsma, J W; de Groot, C J; Bouter, S; Plötz, F B; van Ewijk, B E

    2014-06-01

    The performance of a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Blastocystis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba species in faecal samples was evaluated in an observational prospective study. Paediatric patients (0-18 years) presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and suspected of having enteroparasitic disease were included. A questionnaire on gastrointestinal symptoms and the chosen treatment was completed at the start of the study and after 6 weeks. Of 163 paediatric patients (mean age, 7.8 years), 114 (70%) had a PCR-positive faecal sample. D. fragilis was detected most frequently, in 101 patients, followed by Blastocystis in 49. In faecal samples of 47 patients, more than one protozoan was detected, mainly the combination of D. fragilis and Blastocystis. Reported gastrointestinal symptoms were abdominal pain (78%), nausea (30%), and altered bowel habits (28%). Eighty-nine of the PCR-positive patients were treated with antibiotics. A significant reduction in abdominal pain was observed both in treated and in untreated patients. This study demonstrated that multiplex real-time PCR detects a high percentage of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. However, interpretation and determination of the clinical relevance of a positive PCR result in this population are still difficult. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  19. Comparing the responses of rumen ciliate protozoa and bacteria to excess carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, César R V; Lana, Rogério de Paula; Tao, Junyi; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2017-06-01

    When given excess carbohydrate, certain microbial species respond by storing energy (synthesizing reserve carbohydrate), but other species respond by dissipating the energy as heat (spilling energy). To determine the importance of these responses in the rumen microbial community, this study quantified the responses of mixed ciliate protozoa vs bacteria to glucose. We hypothesized that ciliates would direct more glucose to synthesis of reserve carbohydrate (and less to energy spilling) than would bacteria. Ciliates and bacteria were isolated from rumen fluid using filtration and centrifugation, resuspended in nitrogen-free buffer to limit growth, and dosed with 5 mM glucose. Compared with bacteria, ciliates consumed glucose >3-fold faster and synthesized reserve carbohydrate 4-fold faster. They incorporated 53% of glucose carbon into reserve carbohydrate-nearly double the value (27%) for bacteria. Energy spilling was not detected for ciliates, as all heat production (104%) was accounted by synthesis of reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism. For bacteria, reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism accounted for only 68% of heat production, and spilling was detected within 11 min of dosing glucose. These results suggest that ciliates alter the course of ruminal carbohydrate metabolism by outcompeting bacteria for excess carbohydrate, maximizing reserve carbohydrate synthesis, and minimizing energy spilling. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The common mouse protozoa Tritrichomonas muris alters mucosal T cell homeostasis and colitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Nichole K; Lemire, Paul; Cruz Tleugabulova, Mayra; Prescott, David; Mortha, Arthur; Streutker, Catherine J; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-12-12

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility. We identified the protozoan Tritrichomonas muris as the disease-exacerbating element. Furthermore, experimental colonization with T. muris induced an elevated Th1 response in the cecum of naive wild-type mice and accelerated colitis in Rag1 -/- mice after T cell transfer. Overall, we describe a novel cross-kingdom interaction within the murine gut that alters immune cell homeostasis and disease susceptibility. This example of unpredicted microbial priming of the immune response highlights the importance of studying trans-kingdom interactions and serves as a stark reminder of the importance of using littermate controls in all mouse research. © 2016 Escalante et al.

  1. Ciliated protozoa in the impact zone of the Uzhgorod treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliashechnyk, Volodimir; Danko, Yaroslav; Łagód, Grzegorz; Drewnowski, Jakub; Kuzmina, Tatiana; Babko, Roman

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the Uzh River (Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast) near the effluent point of a sewage treatment plant in Uzhgorod. The samples were taken at various sites of the treatment plant along the stages of purification process, as well as in the river, at a number of different points above and below the wastewater discharge. At each of these objects, the temperature and O2 were measured. The structure of ciliate assemblage was analyzed along the stages of the treatment process in the WWTP and in the river before and after the sewage discharge. A total of 26 ciliate taxa were observed and included in the analysis. All the studied stations were considered as a continuum in which populations of protozoa spread freely according to their ecological preferences. The majority of ciliate species were encountered in each of the examined stations, but their quantitative development differed significantly, reflecting their response to the environmental conditions at the stations. The analysis of the qualitative and quantitative distribution of ciliate populations by the stations enabled to group them in respect to the peculiarities of the local conditions. The study showed that the majority of the ciliate species, typical of bioreactors, are equally common at the stations of the Uzh River below wastewater discharges. The ciliate assemblage in the oxygen gradient demonstrated a wide spectrum of ecological tolerance at the species level. These findings confirm that ciliates are very good indicators of the environmental quality, provided that detailed information about their environmental priorities is available.

  2. Induction of cell-mediated immunity during early stages of infection with intracellular protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzinelli R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi are intracellular parasites which, as part of their life cycle, induce a potent cell-mediated immunity (CMI maintained by Th1 lymphocytes and IFN-g. In both cases, induction of a strong CMI is thought to protect the host against rapid parasite multiplication and consequent pathology and lethality during the acute phase of infection. However, the parasitic infection is not eliminated by the immune system and the vertebrate host serves as a parasite reservoir. In contrast, Leishmania sp, which is a slow growing parasite, appears to evade induction of CMI during early stages of infection as a strategy for surviving in a hostile environment (i.e., inside the macrophages which are their obligatory niche in the vertebrate host. Recent reports show that the initiation of IL-12 synthesis by macrophages during these parasitic infections is a key event in regulating CMI and disease outcome. The studies reviewed here indicate that activation/inhibition of distinct signaling pathways and certain macrophage functions by intracellular protozoa are important events in inducing/modulating the immune response of their vertebrate hosts, allowing parasite and host survival and therefore maintaining parasite life cycles.

  3. Molecular Analysis of the Enteric Protozoa Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy M; Al-Ansari, Khalid; Sharma, Aarti; Abu-Alainin, Wafa; Al-Thani, Asma; Abu-Madi, Marawan A

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric diarrhea is a common cause of death among children under 5 years of age. In the current study, we investigated the frequency of intestinal parasites among 580 pediatric patients with chronic diarrhea. Parasitic protozoa (all species combined) were detected by molecular tools in 22.9% of the children and the most common parasite was Cryptosporidium spp. (15.1%). Blastocystis hominis was detected in 4.7%, Dientamoeba fragilis in 4%, Giardia duodenalis in 1.7%, and Entamoeba histolytica in 0.17%. Protozoan infections were observed among all regional groups, but prevalence was highest among Qatari subjects and during the winter season. Typing of Cryptosporidium spp. revealed a predominance of Cryptosporidium parvum in 92% of cases with mostly the IIdA20G1 subtype. Subtypes IIdA19G2, IIdA18G2, IIdA18G1, IIdA17G1, IIdA16G1, and IIdA14G1 were also detected. For Cryptosporidium hominis , IbA10G2 and IbA9G3 subtypes were identified. This study provides supplementary information for implementing prevention and control strategies to reduce the burden of these pediatric protozoan infections. Further analyses are required to better understand the local epidemiology and transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in Qatar.

  4. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep Insight into the Phosphatomes of Parasitic Protozoa and a Web Resource ProtozPhosDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Tamanna; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation dynamically regulates the function of proteins by maintaining a balance between protein kinase and phosphatase activity. A comprehensive understanding of the role phosphatases in cellular signaling is lacking in case of protozoans of medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The drugs used to treat protozoal diseases have many undesired effects and the development of resistance, highlights the need for new effective and safer antiprotozoal agents. In the present study we have analyzed phosphatomes of 15 protozoans of medical significance. We identified ~2000 phosphatases, out of which 21% are uncharacterized proteins. A significant positive correlation between phosphatome and proteome size was observed except for E. histolytica, having highest density of phosphatases irrespective of its proteome size. A difference in the number of phosphatases among different genera shows the variation in the signaling pathways they are involved in. The phosphatome of parasites is dominated by ser/thr phosphatases contrary to the vertebrate host dominated by tyrosine phosphatases. Phosphatases were widely distributed throughout the cell suggesting physiological adaptation of the parasite to regulate its host. 20% to 45% phosphatome of different protozoa consists of ectophosphatases, i.e. crucial for the survival of parasites. A database and a webserver "ProtozPhosDB" can be used to explore the phosphatomes of protozoans of medical significance.

  6. Litter quality as driving factor for plant nutrition via grazing of protozoa on soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Robert; Robin, Christophe; Bonkowski, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Plant residues provide a major source of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Litter N mineralization varies with litter carbon-to-nitrogen (C-to-N) ratio and presence of bacterial-feeding fauna. We assessed the effect of amoebae, major bacterial feeders in soil, on mineralization of litter of low (high quality) and high C-to-N ratio (low quality) and evaluated consequences for plant growth. We used stable isotopes to determine plant N uptake from litter and plant C partitioning. Stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids was used to follow incorporation of plant C into microorganisms. Amoebae increased plant N uptake independent of litter quality and thereby the biomass of shoots and roots by 33% and 66%, respectively. Plant allocation of total (13)C to roots in low (42%) exceeded that of high-quality litter treatments (26%). Amoebae increased plant allocation of (13)C to roots by 37%. Microbial community structure and incorporation of (13)C into PLFAs varied significantly with litter quality and in the low-quality litter treatment also with the presence of amoebae. Overall, the results suggest that in particular at low nutrient conditions, root-derived C fosters the mobilization of bacterial N by protozoa, thereby increasing plant growth when microorganisms and plants compete for nutrients. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of sanitation and water treatment on intestinal protozoa infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Benjamin; Croll, David; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are responsible for substantial mortality and morbidity, particularly in settings where people lack improved sanitation and safe drinking water. We assessed the relation between access to, and use of, sanitation facilities and water treatment and infection with intestinal protozoa. We did a systematic review and searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase from inception to June 30, 2014, without restrictions on language. All publications were examined by two independent reviewers and were included if they presented data at the individual level about access or use of sanitation facilities or water treatment, in combination with individual-level data on human intestinal protozoa infections. Meta-analyses using random effects models were used to calculate overall estimates. 54 studies were included and odds ratios (ORs) extracted or calculated from 2 × 2 contingency tables. The availability or use of sanitation facilities was associated with significantly lower odds of infection with Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar (OR 0·56, 95% CI 0·42-0·74) and Giardia intestinalis (0·64, 0·51-0·81), but not for Blastocystis hominis (1·03, 0·87-1·23), and Cryptosporidium spp (0·68, 0·17-2·68). Water treatment was associated with significantly lower odds of B hominis (0·52, 0·34-0·78), E histolytica or E dispar (0·61, 0·38-0·99), G intestinalis (0·63, 0·50-0·80), and Cryptosporidium spp infections (0·83, 0·70-0·98). Availability and use of sanitation facilities and water treatment is associated with lower odds of intestinal protozoa infections. Interventions that focus on water and sanitation, coupled with hygiene behaviour, should be emphasised to sustain the control of intestinal protozoa infections. Swiss National Science Foundation (project numbers PBBSP3-146869 and P300P3-154634), Medicor Foundation, European Research Council (614739-A_HERO). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Translational Rodent Models for Research on Parasitic Protozoa-A Review of Confounders and Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Totta; Torelli, Francesca; Klotz, Christian; Pedersen, Amy B; Seeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Rodents, in particular Mus musculus , have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents) that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.

  9. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  10. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  11. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Qi [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Shan, E-mail: huangs@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Su, Wei [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li, Peiyuan [College of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: prof.liuyi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF{sub 5} using a TAM air microcalorimeter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF{sub 5}. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF{sub 5} (T. thermophila BF{sub 5}) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd{sup 2+}, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5 Prime -monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  12. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  13. Parasitic Infections (Helminth and Protozoa in Cases Referring to Yazd Central Laboratory, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Dehghani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites have world wide prevalence and are considered to be as one of the leading hygienic and economic problems in the world. It can be said that there is nowhere in the world without parasitic infestations. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients referring to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2000-2002. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, analytic and descriptive study including 13388 stool specimens examined by two methods; Formalin-Ethyl Acetate and direct Method for intestinal parasites and Scotch tape method for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 13388 samples examined included 6913 women and 6475 men. Parasites were observed in 1151 cases (8.6% including 618 (53.7% men and 533 (46.3% women, respectively. Of these, 98.6% were infected with protozoa and 1.4% with helminths. Giardia lambdia (41.05%, E.coli (27.45% and Blastocystis hominis (15.51% were the most common infecting organisms. Helminth infections were few, but the highest frequency was related to Hymenolepis nana and Enterobious vermicularis. Maximum frequency was reported in summer. There was a significant association between stool consistency and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.002. There was a significant relationship with sex, too (P=0.001 Conclusion: In the present study, the most common parasites were Giardia, E.coli and Blastocystis hominis (higher than five, but the prevalence was less as compared to previous similar studies in other regions, which could be because of the hot and dry weather, better personal hygiene and improved sewage system of Yazd.

  14. Inhibitory Activity of Marine Sponge-Derived Natural Products against Parasitic Protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tasdemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thirteen sponge-derived terpenoids, including five linear furanoterpenes: furospinulosin-1 (1, furospinulosin-2 (2, furospongin-1 (3, furospongin-4 (4, and demethylfurospongin-4 (5; four linear meroterpenes: 2-(hexaprenylmethyl-2-methylchromenol (6, 4-hydroxy-3-octaprenylbenzoic acid (7, 4-hydroxy-3-tetraprenyl-phenylacetic acid (8, and heptaprenyl-p-quinol (9; a linear triterpene, squalene (10; two spongian-type diterpenes dorisenone D (11 and 11β-acetoxyspongi-12-en-16-one (12; a scalarane-type sesterterpene; 12-epi-deoxoscalarin (13, as well as an indole alkaloid, tryptophol (14 were screened for their in vitro activity against four parasitic protozoa; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic potential of the compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed. All compounds were active against T. brucei rhodesiense, with compound 8 being the most potent (IC50 0.60 μg/mL, whereas 9 and 12 were the most active compounds against T. cruzi, with IC50 values around 4 μg/mL. Compound 12 showed the strongest leishmanicidal activity (IC50 0.75 µg/mL, which was comparable to that of miltefosine (IC50 0.20 µg/mL. The best antiplasmodial effect was exerted by compound 11 (IC50 0.43 µg/mL, followed by compounds 7, 10, and 12 with IC50 values around 1 µg/mL. Compounds 9, 11 and 12 exhibited, besides their antiprotozoal activity, also some cytotoxicity, whereas all other compounds had low or no cytotoxicity towards the mammalian cell line. This is the first report of antiprotozoal activity of marine metabolites 1–14, and points out the potential of marine sponges in discovery of new antiprotozoal lead compounds.

  15. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A. Girard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA. Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near

  16. Ciliated protozoa in the impact zone of the Uzhgorod treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliashechnyk Volodimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on the Uzh River (Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast near the effluent point of a sewage treatment plant in Uzhgorod. The samples were taken at various sites of the treatment plant along the stages of purification process, as well as in the river, at a number of different points above and below the wastewater discharge. At each of these objects, the temperature and O2 were measured. The structure of ciliate assemblage was analyzed along the stages of the treatment process in the WWTP and in the river before and after the sewage discharge. A total of 26 ciliate taxa were observed and included in the analysis. All the studied stations were considered as a continuum in which populations of protozoa spread freely according to their ecological preferences. The majority of ciliate species were encountered in each of the examined stations, but their quantitative development differed significantly, reflecting their response to the environmental conditions at the stations. The analysis of the qualitative and quantitative distribution of ciliate populations by the stations enabled to group them in respect to the peculiarities of the local conditions. The study showed that the majority of the ciliate species, typical of bioreactors, are equally common at the stations of the Uzh River below wastewater discharges. The ciliate assemblage in the oxygen gradient demonstrated a wide spectrum of ecological tolerance at the species level. These findings confirm that ciliates are very good indicators of the environmental quality, provided that detailed information about their environmental priorities is available.

  17. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Qi; Huang, Shan; Su, Wei; Li, Peiyuan; Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang; Liu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF 5 using a TAM air microcalorimeter. ► QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF 5 growth in a dose-dependent manner. ► The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF 5 was investigated. ► QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF 5 . - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF 5 (T. thermophila BF 5 ) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF 5 growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd 2+ , which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF 5 was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF 5 growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  18. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  19. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-03-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. © Federation of European Microbiological Society 2014.

  20. Genetically Engineered Yeast Expressing a Lytic Peptide from Bee Venom (Melittin) Kills Symbiotic Protozoa in the Gut of Formosan Subterranean Termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is a costly invasive urban pest in warm and humid regions around the world. Feeding workers of the Formosan subterranean termite genetically engineered yeast strains that express synthetic protozoacidal lytic peptides has been shown to kill the cellulose digesting termite gut protozoa, which results in death of the termite colony. In this study, we tested if Melittin, a natural lytic peptide from bee venom, could be delivered into the termite gut via genetically engineered yeast and if the expressed Melittin killed termites via lysis of symbiotic protozoa in the gut of termite workers and/or destruction of the gut tissue itself. Melittin expressing yeast did kill protozoa in the termite gut within 56 days of exposure. The expressed Melittin weakened the gut but did not add a synergistic effect to the protozoacidal action by gut necrosis. While Melittin could be applied for termite control via killing the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, it is unlikely to be useful as a standalone product to control insects that do not rely on symbiotic protozoa for survival.

  1. Clinical and pathological observations on natural infections of cryptosporidiosis and flagellate protozoa in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A; Geach, M R; Cooley, W A

    1999-12-11

    A group of adult leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) which had been losing weight for several months were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium species. Histological and electron microscopical investigations on the intestines of five of the lizards revealed the presence of large numbers of the developmental stages of Cryptosporidium species attached to the mucosal surface of the lower intestine, and large numbers of flagellate protozoa, suspected to be predominantly Trichomonas species, in the gut lumen. The clinical signs were attributed to the presence of one or both types of parasites.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Bobieva, Mohion; Karimova, Gulzira; Mengliboeva, Zulfira; Jean-Richard, Vreni; Hoimnazarova, Malika; Kurbonova, Matluba; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2011-10-07

    Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water reduced the risk of infection

  3. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmidlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. METHODOLOGY: In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo

  4. Molecular detection of the carriage rate of four intestinal protozoa with real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efunshile, Michael A; Ngwu, Bethrand A F; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the second largest killer of children worldwide, and Nigeria ranks number two on the list of global deaths attributable to diarrhea. Meanwhile, prevalence studies on potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers using molecular detection methods remain scarce in sub......-Saharan countries. To overcome sensitivity issues related to microscopic detection and identification of cysts in stool concentrates, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze genomic DNAs extracted from stool samples from 199 healthy school children for Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, Giardia...

  5. Nanomaterials' Influences on the Emergence of Life and Their Toxic Effects on Bacteria and Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Randall Edward

    This research investigates the unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) with highly catalytic surfaces that make them ideal for the production of organic molecules but also confer toxic properties of some NMs. Iron-sulphide NMs were used in a hydrothermal reactor that released hydrogen sulphide and other metal ions in the effluent, as analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), iron sulphide NM surfaces indicate severe weathering as a result of environmental conditions including high pressure (100 bar H2) and moderate temperatures (130°C). The effluent's chemical properties from the reactor experiment generated chimney structures from newly formed iron-sulphide NMs in a ferrous rich 'Hadean Ocean' solution. Using ESEM, we show that structural changes occur under different pHs, temperatures, and silicate concentrations. The presence of 5-mer peptides also shows distinct structural differences during the formation of iron-sulphide NM chimneys. Nano-titanium dioxide NMs (nTiO2) were used to show the toxicity of nTiO2 encrusted Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) fed to Tetrahymena thermophila (TT) protozoa under aerobic conditions. The control TT showed limited toxicity when grown in the presence of nTiO2, and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed the initial accumulation of nTiO2 in food vacuoles (FVs) of control TT cells that were not observed in the TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA. After 22 h, very little nTiO2 is observed in the control TT FVs as compared with the TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA FVs which had about 30% of the FV filled with nTiO2. Toxicity to nTiO2 was observed as reduced growth yields for both the control and the PA fed TT, but also as a reduction in growth rate for TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA. To understand biological weathering of NMs, the use of STEM energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was enhanced to analyze single nano-sized particles

  6. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  7. Infection Status of Hospitalized Diarrheal Patients with Gastrointestinal Protozoa, Bacteria, and Viruses in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lim, Yi-Young; Jeon, Ji-Hye; Yu, Jae-Ran; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Won-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak; Lee, Deog-Yong; Park, Mi-Seon; Jeong, Hye-Sook; Chen, Doo-Sung; Ji, Yeong-Mi; Kwon, Mi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    To understand protozoan, viral, and bacterial infections in diarrheal patients, we analyzed positivity and mixed-infection status with 3 protozoans, 4 viruses, and 10 bacteria in hospitalized diarrheal patients during 2004-2006 in the Republic of Korea. A total of 76,652 stool samples were collected from 96 hospitals across the nation. The positivity for protozoa, viruses, and bacteria was 129, 1,759, and 1,797 per 10,000 persons, respectively. Especially, Cryptosporidium parvum was highly mixed-infected with rotavirus among pediatric diarrheal patients (29.5 per 100 C. parvum positive cases), and Entamoeba histolytica was mixed-infected with Clostridium perfringens (10.3 per 100 E. histolytica positive cases) in protozoan-diarrheal patients. Those infected with rotavirus and C. perfringens constituted relatively high proportions among mixed infection cases from January to April. The positivity for rotavirus among viral infection for those aged ≤ 5 years was significantly higher, while C. perfringens among bacterial infection was higher for ≥ 50 years. The information for association of viral and bacterial infections with enteropathogenic protozoa in diarrheal patients may contribute to improvement of care for diarrhea as well as development of control strategies for diarrheal diseases in Korea. PMID:20585526

  8. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  9. Effect of Supplementation of Branched Chain Fatty Acid on Colony of Ruminal Bacteria and Cell of Protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Suryapratama

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of branched-chain volatile fatty acids (isobutyric, α-methylbutyric and β-methylbutiric that supplemented into the diet on the colony of ruminal bacteria and the cell of protozoa population. Five progeny Friesian Holstein males with initial weight 348±29 kg were used in a 5x5 Latin square design (30-d periods. The basal diet composed of 55% forage and 45% concentrate containing 10.5 MJ ME/kg and 15% crude protein (CP. There were five dietary treatments where A: basal diet, B: A+139 mg urea/kg W0.75, C: B+28 mg CaSO4/kg W0.75, D: C+0.05 mM isobutyric acid+0.05 mM β-methylbutyric acid, and E: D+0.05 mM α-methylbutyric acid. Rearing period was 30 days, consists of feed adaptation period 20 days, then growth observation was done within the last 10 days. Collection of ruminal fluid was done within the last day of observation period, and took 3-4 h after the feeding. The results showed that supplementation branched chain volatile fatty acids did not significant affect on the number of colonies of bacteria and protozoa population, but the significant effect (P<0.05 on the concentration of branched chain volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid. The supplementation of α-methylbutyric (P <0.05 decreased of concentration of isobutyric and isovaleric in rumen fluid than the other treatments. It is concluded that supplementation of branched chain volatile fatty acids not used by rumen bacteria for their growth but for the elongation of fatty acid synthesis. The supplementation of branched chain volatile fatty acids was 0.05 mM not enough strong influence on the growth of colony of rumen bacteria. (Animal Production 11(2: 129-134 (2009 Key Words: rumen fermentation, branched-chain fatty acid, ruminal bacteria, protozoa

  10. Comparison of the production rates of protozoa in the rumen estimated by using labelled live and formaldehyde treated mixed protozoal cells as marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    14 C-labelled mixed protozoal cells of rumen origin, treated with formaldehyde to protect their metabolism in the rumen, were used to estimate protozoa production in the rumen, and comparison was made of the growth obtained by injecting live labelled mixed rumen protozoal cells used earlier. (auth.)

  11. Free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated drinking water supplies identified by phylogenic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valster, R.M.; Wullings, B.A.; Bakker, G.; Smidt, H.; Kooij, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    Free-living protozoan communities in water supplies may include hosts for Legionella pneumophila and other undesired bacteria and also pathogens. This study aimed at identifying free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated groundwater supplies using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. For

  12. Phylogenetic placement of two previously described intranuclear bacteria from the ciliate Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora): 'Holospora acuminata' and 'Holospora curviuscula'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautian, Maria S; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D

    2013-05-01

    'Holospora acuminata' infects micronuclei of Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora), whereas 'Holospora curviuscula' infects the macronucleus in other clones of the same host species. Because these micro-organisms have not been cultivated, their description has been based only on some morphological properties and host and nuclear specificities. One16S rRNA gene sequence of 'H. curviuscula' is present in databases. The systematic position of the representative strain of 'H. curviuscula', strain MC-3, was determined in this study. Moreover, for the first time, two strains of 'H. acuminata', KBN10-1 and AC61-10, were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all three strains belonged to the genus Holospora, family Holosporaceae, order Rickettsiales within the Alphaproteobacteria.

  13. First molecular characterization of enteric protozoa and the human pathogenic microsporidian, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in captive snakes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md Robiul; Yu, Fuchang; Li, Jian; Li, Junqiang; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Rume, Farzana Islam; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Ning, Changshen

    2014-08-01

    Enteric protozoa are frequently found in snakes. Nevertheless, few studies regarding genetic characterization of these parasites have been carried out. We describe here the first molecular survey of protozoan pathogens from snakes in China and the first report on Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotyping in snakes in the world. Here, 240 fecal specimens were collected from two species of captive snakes, Naja naja (Indian cobra) and Ptyas mucosus (Oriental rat snake), in Guangxi Province, China, and examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit-ribosomal RNA of enteric protozoa and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal RNA of E. bieneusi. Cryptosporidium serpentis was identified in three specimens (2.1%) of Oriental rat snakes. Caryospora was found in 5.4% specimens, including eight from cobras (8.1%) and five from rat snakes (3.6%), and represented six new species-Caryospora sp. SKC-2014a to Caryospora sp. SKC-2014 f. Three new Eimeria species, Eimeria sp. SKE-2014a to Eimeria sp. SKE-2014c, were detected in three specimens (2.1%) from rat snakes. Additionally, Sarcocystis sp. SKS-2014 was detected in one specimen from a cobra. The infection rates of E. bieneusi were 3.0% in cobras and 5.7% in rat snakes. Sequence analysis of 11 PCR products revealed the presence of six E. bieneusi genotypes-two known genotypes (type IV and Henan V) and four new genotypes (CRep-1 to CRep-4). All six E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group (group 1). This result raised the possibility that E. bieneusi could be present in animals consumed by snakes. This should be taken into consideration to better understand the diversity of the parasite, its transmission through the predator-prey relationship, and public health implications.

  14. Screening of bat faeces for arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa: Babesia canis and Besnoitia besnoiti-like sequences from Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Estók, Péter; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Takács, Nóra; Szőke, Krisztina; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Kontschán, Jenő; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Fedák, András; Farkas, Róbert; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Sprong, Hein

    2015-08-28

    Bats are among the most eco-epidemiologically important mammals, owing to their presence in human settlements and animal keeping facilities. Roosting of bats in buildings may bring pathogens of veterinary-medical importance into the environment of domestic animals and humans. In this context bats have long been studied as carriers of various pathogen groups. However, despite their close association with arthropods (both in their food and as their ectoparasites), only a few molecular surveys have been published on their role as carriers of vector-borne protozoa. The aim of the present study was to compensate for this scarcity of information. Altogether 221 (mostly individual) bat faecal samples were collected in Hungary and the Netherlands. The DNA was extracted, and analysed with PCR and sequencing for the presence of arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa. Babesia canis canis (with 99-100% homology) was identified in five samples, all from Hungary. Because it was excluded with an Ixodidae-specific PCR that the relevant bats consumed ticks, these sequences derive either from insect carriers of Ba. canis, or from the infection of bats. In one bat faecal sample from the Netherlands a sequence having the highest (99%) homology to Besnoitia besnoiti was amplified. These findings suggest that some aspects of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis are underestimated or unknown, i.e. the potential role of insect-borne mechanical transmission and/or the susceptibility of bats to Ba. canis. In addition, bats need to be added to future studies in the quest for the final host of Be. besnoiti.

  15. Effects of total replacement of soybean meal and corn on ruminal fermentation, volatile fatty acids, protozoa concentration, and gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of total replacement of soybean meal and corn with triticale and faba bean or field pea on rumen fermentation, protozoa counts, and gas production of lactating ewes. A total of 30 Sicilo-Sarde ewes were randomly allocated into three groups and were fed 1.8 kg drymatter of oat hay plus 500 g of one of three concentrates: the first concentrate (CS was mainly composed of soybean meal, corn, and barley; the second (TFB was formed by triticale and faba bean; and the third (TFP was composed of triticale and field pea. The type of concentrate did not affect ruminal pH or ammonia nitrogen concentration (P  >  0.05. The individual concentrations of volatile fatty acids showed a significant interaction between the type of concentrate and sampling time (P  <  0.05, except for Butyric and Isobutyric acids. Within a post-feeding time, the pattern of evolution of total volatile fatty, acetic, and propionic acids differed significantly at 2 h post feeding (P  <  0.05, while butyric and valeric acid changed at 0 and 4 h post feeding. The type of concentrate affected the total number of ciliate protozoa and the Isotricha species (P  <  0.05, whereas Entodinium, Ophryoscolex, and Polyplastron were similar among concentrates (P  >  0.05. The cumulative gas production from the in vitro fermentation, the time of incubation, and their interaction was affected by concentrate (P  <  0.001. The substitution of soybean meal and corn in the concentrate with faba bean or field peas and triticale might maintain rumen parameters of dairy ewes.

  16. Feeding on protists and particulates by the leptocephali of the worm eels Myrophis spp. (Teleostei: Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae, and the potential energy contribution of large aloricate protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jeffrey Govoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The food sources of the leptocephali of the teleostean superorder Elopomorpha have been controversial, yet observations on the leptocephali of the worm eels, Myrophis spp. (family Ophichthidae collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico indicate active, not passive, feeding. Leptocephali had protists in their alimentary canals. Estimates of the physiological energetics of worm eels indicate that large aloricate protozoa including ciliates could provide substantial energy to these leptocephali toward the end of the premetamorphic and metamorphic stages, given the low energy requirements of metamorphosing leptocephali. Global ocean warming will likely force a shift in oceanic food webs; a shift away from large protozoa toward smaller protists is possible. Such a disruption of the oceanic food webs could further compromise the survival of leptocephali.

  17. Ultrastructural analysis of volutin-acidocalciumosomes formation in some species of bacteria, spirochetes, yeast and protozoa during morphogenesis and under environment different factors action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovnanyan, K.O.; Hovnanyan, M.K.; Navasardyan, L.A.; Trchounian, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrastructure organization of volutin granules in some species of bacteria, spirochetes, yeast and protozoa cellular architecture was studied during morphogenesis and under environment different factors action leading to pathological changes. As the result of complex electron microscopic studies of morphogenesis in some species of prokaryotes and eukaryotic organisms the formation of new structures of volutin-acidocal-ciumosomes has been established within cell cytoplasm. In addition, under the ionizing roentgen and irradiation as well as some antibiotics action morphometric changes and changes in optical properties were also shown. Electron microscopic identification of volutin granules changes in structural organization in bacteria, spirochetes, yeast and protozoa might serve as appropriate express-method for visual evaluation of damage and reparation processes during environment

  18. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoa in two poor communities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Érica Boarato; Guimarães, Semíramis; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Goulart de Oliveira-Sequeira, Teresa Cristina; Nogueira Bittencourt, Gabriela; Moraes Nardi, Ana Rita; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo; Bueno Franco, Regina Maura; Branco, Nilson; Tosini, Fabio; Bella, Antonino; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

    2015-02-15

    Several species of protozoa cause acute or chronic gastroenteritis in humans, worldwide. The burden of disease is particularly high among children living in developing areas of the world, where transmission is favored by lower hygienic standards and scarce availability of safe water. However, asymptomatic infection and polyparasitism are also commonly observed in poor settings. Here, we investigated the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in two small fishing villages, Porto Said (PS) and Santa Maria da Serra (SM), situated along the river Tietê in the State of São Paolo, Brazil. The villages lack basic public infrastructure and services, such as roads, public water supply, electricity and public health services. Multiple fecal samples were collected from 88 individuals in PS and from 38 individuals in SM, who were asymptomatic at the time of sampling and had no recent history of diarrheal disease. To gain insights into potential transmission routes, 49 dog fecal samples (38 from PS and 11 from SM) and 28 river water samples were also collected. All samples were tested by microscopy and PCR was used to genotype Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis sp., Dientamoeba fragilis and Cryptosporidium spp. By molecular methods, the most common human parasite was Blastocystis sp. (prevalence, 45% in PS and 71% in SM), followed by D. fragilis (13.6% in PS, and 18.4% in SM) and G. duodenalis (18.2% in PS and 7.9% in SM); Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected. Sequence analysis revealed large genetic variation among Blastocystis samples, with subtypes (STs) 1 and 3 being predominant, and with the notable absence of ST4. Among G. duodenalis samples, assemblages A and B were detected in humans, whereas assemblages A, C and D were found in dogs. Finally, all D. fragilis samples from humans were genotype 1. A single dog was found infected with Cryptosporidium canis. River water samples were negative for the investigated parasites. This study showed a high carriage of intestinal

  19. Free-living protozoa in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of pigs: Exploration of an unknown world and towards a protocol for the recovery of free-living protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-07-30

    Associations with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in food-related environments. To date however no information is available on the presence of FLP in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pigs, which represents an important reservoir for zoonotic foodborne bacteria and hence a potential location for associations with FLP. This is at least partly due to the lack of adequate protocols to recover FLP from intestinal content and feces. In the present study different protocols to recover FLP from the porcine GIT and feces were tested. The most effective protocols were then applied to explore the presence of live FLP in the pig GIT and feces. A filtration based protocol was identified as the most suitable method to recover viable FLP from the porcine GIT and feces. Cultivable FLP were recovered from different parts of the GIT, suggesting at least a transient presence of FLP in this habitat. Free-living amoebae species (Acanthamoeba spp., Hyperamoeba sp., Vannella sp., Vermamoeba vermiformis, hartmannellids and vahlkampfiids) but also ciliates (Colpoda sp. and Tetrahymena/Glaucoma lookalike) and flagellates (cercomonads, bodonids and glissomonads) were recovered and cultured from pig intestinal content. Acanthamoeba hatchetti and Filamoeba sinensis were isolated for the first time from pig intestinal content. Despite high gastric acidity, non-cyst forming amoeba species were also detected which suggests survival of their trophozoites in the animal GIT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationships between Free-Living Protozoa, Cultivable Legionella spp., and Water Quality Characteristics in Three Drinking Water Supplies in the Caribbean▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Valster, Rinske M.; Wullings, Bart A.; van den Berg, Riemsdijk; van der Kooij, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The study whose results are presented here aimed at identifying free-living protozoa (FLP) and conditions favoring the growth of these organisms and cultivable Legionella spp. in drinking water supplies in a tropical region. Treated and distributed water (±30°C) of the water supplies of three Caribbean islands were sampled and investigated with molecular techniques, based on the 18S rRNA gene. The protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis and cultivable Legionella pneumophila were observed in a...

  1. Effect of diet and absence of protozoa on the rumen microbial community and on the representativeness of bacterial fractions used in the determination of microbial protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, A; de la Fuente, G; Pinloche, E; Newbold, C J; Balcells, J

    2012-11-01

    Accurate estimates of microbial synthesis in the rumen are vital to optimize ruminant nutrition. Liquid- (LAB) and solid-associated bacterial fractions (SAB) harvested from the rumen are generally considered as microbial references when microbial yield is calculated; however, factors that determine their composition are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet and absence or presence of rumen protozoa on the rumen microbial community. It was hypothesized that these treatments could modify the composition and representativeness of LAB and SAB. Twenty twin lambs (Ovis aries) were used; one-half of the twins were kept protozoa-free, and each respective twin sibling was faunated. At 6 mo of age, 5 animals from each group were randomly allocated to the experimental diets consisting of either alfalfa hay as the sole diet, or 50:50 mixed with ground barley grain. After 15 d of adaptation to the diet, animals were euthanized, rumen and abomasum contents were sampled, and LAB and SAB isolated. The presence of protozoa buffered the effect of diet on the rumen bacterial population. Faunated animals fed alfalfa hay had a greater abundance of F. succinogenes, anaerobic fungi and methanogens, as well as an enhanced rumen bacterial diversity. Cellulolytic bacteria were more abundant in SAB, whereas the abomasal abundance of most of the microorganisms studied was closer to those values observed in LAB. Rumen and abomasal samples showed similar bacterial DNA concentrations, but the fungal and protozoal DNA concentration in the abomasum was only 69% and 13% of that observed in the rumen, respectively, suggesting fungal and protozoal sequestration in the rumen or possible preferential degradation of fungal and protozoal DNA in the abomasum, or both. In conclusion, absence of protozoa and type of diet extensively modified the chemical composition of LAB and SAB as a consequence of changes in the microbial composition of these fractions.

  2. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Botero-Kleiven, S; Castelli, F; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H; Köhler, N; Gulletta, M; Lebbad, M; Manser, M; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tannich, E; Vounatsou, P; Marti, H

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different European reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-preserved faecal samples. In total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Five SAF-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the participating reference laboratories, processed and examined under a microscope adhering to a standard operating procedure (SOP). Schistosoma mansoni (cumulative prevalence: 51.0%) and hookworm (cumulative prevalence: 39.2%) were the predominant helminths. There was excellent agreement (kappa > 0.8; p protozoa were Entamoeba coli (median prevalence: 67.6%), Blastocystis hominis (median prevalence: 55.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (median prevalence: 47.1%). Substantial agreement among reference laboratories was found for E. coli (kappa = 0.69), but only fair or moderate agreement was found for other Entamoeba species, Giardia intestinalis and Chilomastix mesnili. There was only poor agreement for B. hominis, Isospora belli and Trichomonas intestinalis. In conclusion, although common helminths were reliably diagnosed by European reference laboratories, there was only moderate agreement between centres for pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis.

  3. Effect of Morinda citrifolia leaf as saponin sources on fermentation characteristic, protozoa defaunated, gas and methane production of ruminal fluid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Herdian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported that the Morinda citrifolia (pace plant was a useful material for human health. However the exploration of this plant on rumen fermentation is still needed. Therefore, a research was done to study the effect of M. citrifolia leaf on fermentation characteristics of rumen fluid consisted of protozoa defaunated process, VFA composition, NH3 content, rumen microbial protein content, gas and methane production using in vitro techniques. Rumen fluid obtained from two fistulated Ongole crossbreed cattle fed with forage and concentrate feed ration (70 : 30. The fluid was incubated at 39ºC for 48 hours. The treatment on the rumen fluid consisted of control treatment: 100% (200 mg DM kolonjono forage substrate (Penisetum purpureum and M. citrifolia treatments: kolonjono forage plus M. citrifolia (equivalent saponin 3; 6; 9; and 12 mg DM, respectively. The treatment of M. citrifolia leaf addition showed declined patterns in the number of protozoa population (P 0.05. Microbial protein content in rumen fluid increased (P 0.05 compared to control, while M. citrifolia treatments reduced the methane gas production of (P < 0.05 compared to control. It was concluded that M. citrifolia leaf has potential as a limiting agent of protozoa population and methane gas production in rumen.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal protozoa infection in elderly residents at Long Term Residency Institutions in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katymilla Guimarães Girotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in Long Term Residency Institutions for the Elderly (ILPI in elders, nurses and food handlers, identifying the risk factors associated with the infections. Stool samples taken from the elderly (n = 293, nurses (63 and food handlers (19 were studied. Questionnaires were used with questions related to sociodemographic variables, health, behavior and health characteristics. Stool samples were examined using the techniques of Faust and Ziehl Neelsen, and the prevalence of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar in the elderly was 4.0%, 1.0% and 0.3% respectively. Nurses and food handlers showed 4.8% and 5.2% positivity only for G. duodenalis, respectively. The origin of the individuals and contact with domestic animals has been associated with infection by G. duodenalis in the elderly, and contact with domestic animals was considered a risk factor for infection. The last stool examinations were related to Cryptosporidium spp.. None of the variables were associated with E. histolytica/dispar. The frequency of hand washing was significantly associated with G. duodenalis among nurses. The frequency of positive samples of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar showed that ILPIs environments are conducive to this occurring due to contact between the elderly, nurses and food handlers, which are often poorly trained in hygiene procedures and food handling.

  5. “Omic” investigations of protozoa and worms for a deeper understanding of the human gut “parasitome”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Valeria; Mancinelli, Livia; Bracaglia, Giorgia; Del Chierico, Federica; Vernocchi, Pamela; Di Girolamo, Francesco; Garrone, Stefano; Tchidjou Kuekou, Hyppolite; D’Argenio, Patrizia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Urbani, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The human gut has been continuously exposed to a broad spectrum of intestinal organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites (protozoa and worms), over millions of years of coevolution, and plays a central role in human health. The modern lifestyles of Western countries, such as the adoption of highly hygienic habits, the extensive use of antimicrobial drugs, and increasing globalisation, have dramatically altered the composition of the gut milieu, especially in terms of its eukaryotic “citizens.” In the past few decades, numerous studies have highlighted the composition and role of human intestinal bacteria in physiological and pathological conditions, while few investigations exist on gut parasites and particularly on their coexistence and interaction with the intestinal microbiota. Studies of the gut “parasitome” through “omic” technologies, such as (meta)genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, are herein reviewed to better understand their role in the relationships between intestinal parasites, host, and resident prokaryotes, whether pathogens or commensals. Systems biology–based profiles of the gut “parasitome” under physiological and severe disease conditions can indeed contribute to the control of infectious diseases and offer a new perspective of omics-assisted tropical medicine. PMID:29095820

  6. The Comparison of Ruminal Protozoa Morphology and Population of Holstein Cow and Khuzestan Water Buffalo under the Same Feeding Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jabbari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to compare the population and morphology of ruminal protozoa of Holstein and Khuzestan water buffalo steers fed with the same diet. Rumen fluid collected from cow and buffaloes (12 head that were fed with the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. The collected samples were fixed by formaldehyde 18.5%, and ciliates were counted and their genus and species were determined. The results of this experiment showed, total rumen protozoal number of khuzestani water buffalo was higher than the cattle (3.68×105 vs. 2.18×105/ mL of rumen content, respectively. The genus of Diplodinium, Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Holotriches of cow and water buffalo was 37.63, 48.77, 0, 3.75, 9.83 and 44.47, 42.35, 5.31, 0.68, 7.18 %, respectively. There was no species from Epidinium genus (Epidinium ecaudatum and Epidinium cudatum and Diplodinium cristagalli species in the rumen of cattle, but they found in the rumen of khuzestani water Buffalo. Also it was identified that there was Ophryoscolex purkynei in both rumen cattle and water buffalo, but in the rumen of cattle was higher in comparison to the buffalos. Therefore, it appears under the same diet, there is a significant difference in total rumen protozoal number and species of Holstein cow and Khuzestani water buffalo.

  7. Microbial Indicators, Opportunistic Bacteria, and Pathogenic Protozoa for Monitoring Urban Wastewater Reused for Irrigation in the Proximity of a Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Salazar, María Alejandra; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos; Castañón-Martínez, María Teresa; Tapia-Palacios, Marco Antonio; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, with a population of approximately 580 million inhabitants, less than 20 % of wastewater is treated. Megacities in this region face common challenges and problems related with water quality and sanitation, which require urgent actions, such as changes in the sustainable use of water resources. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world, with over 20 million inhabitants, and is no exception to the challenges of sustainable water management. For more than 100 years, wastewater from Mexico City has been transported north to the Mezquital Valley, which is ranked as the largest wastewater-irrigated area in the world. In this study, bacteria and pathogenic protozoa were analyzed to determine the association between the presence of such microorganisms and water types (WTs) across sampling sites and seasons in Mexico City and the Mezquital Valley. Our results show a difference in microbiological water quality between sampling sites and WTs. There is no significant interaction between sampling sites and seasons in terms of bacterial concentration, demonstrating that water quality remains constant at each site regardless of whether it is the dry or the rainy season. The results illustrate the quantity of these microorganisms in wastewater, provide a current diagnosis of water quality across the area which could affect the health of residents in both Mexico City and the Mezquital Valley, and demonstrate the need to transition in the short term to treat wastewater from a local to a regional scale.

  8. Protozoa in a stressed area of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast of Damietta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moussa Dorgham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Damietta coast is part of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta and has recently been polluted as a result of intensive human activities.The environmental parameters and protozoan community in the area were studied biweekly from January to December 2007. The results of the environmentalparameters indicated low salinity, oxic and anoxic conditions, high nutrient levels and intensive phytoplankton growth. A total of 69 protozoan specieswere identified, belonging to Amoebozoa (8 species, Foraminifera (12 species, non-tintinnid ciliates (22 species and tintinnids (27 species. The numerical density of protozoans was high over the whole area, with annual averages between 8.2 × 103 cells m-3 and 51.4 × 103 cells m-3.Spring was the most productive season for protozoans, but several distinct peaks were observed during the year at the sampling sites. The protozoangroups showed clearly different spatial patterns in both composition and abundance: whereas amoebozoans and non-tintinnid ciliates were dominant in themore polluted areas (sites IV and V, tintinnids dominated in the less polluted areas (sites, I, II and III. Several pollution indicators wererecorded: amoebozoans - Centropyxis aculeata, Centropyxis sp., Cochliopodium sp.,Difflugia sp.; non-tintinnids - Bursaridium sp., Frontonia atra,Holophrya sp., Paramecium sp., Paramecium bursaria,Vasicola ciliata, Vorticella sp., Strombidium sp.; tintinnids- Favella ehrenbergii, Helicostomella subulata, Leprotintinnus nordgvisti,Tintinnopsis beroidea, Stenosemella ventricosa, Tintinnopsis campanula,T. cylindrica, T. lobiancoi, Eutintinnus lusus-undae.

  9. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  10. Sporozoan Protozoa and Enteroparasites in the Gastroenteritic Patients Referring to the Healthcare Centers of Seven Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nahrevanian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sporozoan protozoa and enteroparasites cause gastroenteritis. Sporozoa are the major cause of self-limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent patients, however they cause serious diseased in patients with immunosuppression. Objectives: The current study aimed to identify the prevalence of sporozoa and enteroparasites among patients with gastroenteritis referred to the healthcare centers in seven provinces of Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 4200 stool samples were randomly collected from patients with gastroenteritis in the selected hospitals of Gilan, East Azerbaijan, Qazvin, Kurdistan, Mazandaran, Tehran and Khorasan-e-Razavi provinces. Primarily samples were examined directly for enteroparasites. The samples were then filtered and concentrated using Paraseb kit. The pellets were fixed, stained by different assays including acid fast staining, Auramin Phenol Fluorescence, Giemsa and light microscopy. Results: The results revealed the overall rate of infection, 3.86% (163 cases, as an indicator of parasitic enteropathogens in Iran. Among the provinces, Khorasan-e-Razavi and Mazandaran with 8.83% (53 cases and 0.34% (2 cases showed the highest and lowest rates of infection, respectively. The frequencies of sporozoa including Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, Isospora and Cyclospora spp. were 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.07% and 0.02% respectively. Among the parasites, Giardia lambelia, Taenia saginata and Hookworms with 1.78% and 0.02% had the highest and lowest rates of infection, respectively. Regarding the age groups, the highest and the lowest rates of infection were in 0 - 10 (48% and 41 years old and above (6.7% groups, respectively. Conclusions: Despite relatively low prevalence of sporozoa, giardiosis is the most prevalent agent for gastroenteritis amongst 3.86% of parasitic infections in Iran. The current study confirmed the abundance of infection in warm and wet seasons, and more frequency of infections among children

  11. PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal protozoa infections with variable test band intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sören L; Müller, Ivan; Mertens, Pascal; Herrmann, Mathias; Zondie, Leyli; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; du Randt, Rosa; Pühse, Uwe; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9-10 months in cohort 1 and 2-3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of the efficiency and uncertainty of skimmed milk flocculation for the simultaneous concentration and quantification of water-borne viruses, bacteria and protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Cárdenas-Youngs, Yexenia; Calvo, Miquel; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Rosell, Rosa; Ganges, Llilianne; Araujo, Rosa; Girones, Rosina

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E. coli), 30% (H. pylori) and 21% (Acanthamoeba castellanii). When testing the infectivity, the mean recoveries were 59% (HAdV 35), 12% (MS2), 26% (RoV SA-11) and 0.7% (BVDV). The protozoa Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were studied by immunofluorescence with recoveries of 18% and 13%, respectively. Although q(RT)PCR consistently showed higher quantification values (as expected), q(RT)PCR and the infectivity assays showed similar recoveries for HAdV 35 and RoV SA-11. Additionally, we investigated modelling the variability and uncertainty of the recovery with this method to extrapolate the quantification obtained by q(RT)PCR and estimate the real concentration. The 95% prediction intervals of the real concentration of the microorganisms inoculated were calculated using a general non-parametric bootstrap procedure adapted in our context to estimate the technical error of the measurements. SMF shows recoveries with a low variability that permits the use of a mathematical approximation to predict the concentration of the pathogen and indicator with acceptable low intervals. The values of uncertainty may be used for a quantitative microbial risk analysis or diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  14. Alteration of Rumen Bacteria and Protozoa Through Grazing Regime as a Tool to Enhance the Bioactive Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Saldinger, Laurel K; Barlow, John W; Alvez, Juan P; Roman, Joe; Kraft, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are the origin of many bioactive fatty acids (FA) found in ruminant-derived food products. Differences in plant leaf anatomy and chemical composition between cool- and warm-season pastures may alter rumen microorganisms, potentially enhancing the quantity/profile of bioactive FA available for incorporation into milk. The objective of this study was to identify rumen bacteria and protozoa and their cellular FA when cows grazed a warm-season annual, pearl millet (PM), in comparison to a diverse cool-season pasture (CSP). Individual rumen digesta samples were obtained from five Holstein cows in a repeated measures design with 28-day periods. The treatment sequence was PM, CSP, then PM. Microbial DNA was extracted from rumen digesta and sequence reads were produced with Illumina MiSeq. Fatty acids (FA) were identified in rumen bacteria and protozoa using gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Microbial communities shifted in response to grazing regime. Bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes were more abundant during PM than CSP ( P rumenic acid, and α-linolenic acid in milk. In conclusion, grazing regime can potentially be used to alter microbial communities shifting the FA profile of microbial cells, and subsequently, alter the milk FA profile.

  15. [Prevalence of infection by intestinal helminths and protozoa in school children from a coastal locality in the province of Valdivia, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, N; Torres, P

    1994-01-01

    During July-August 1989, 219 coprological samples from primary school children from Niebla and Los Molinos localities (39 degrees 52'S, 73 degrees 26'W) in the coast of province of Valdivia, Chile, were analysed. Prevalence % (in parentheses) of infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths were the followings: Entamoeba histolytica: (18.0), Entamoeba coli (34.0), Endolimax nana (34.4), Iodamoeba buetschlii (7.4), Blastocystis hominis (64.3), Giardia intestinalis (27.9) Chilomastix mesnili (0.8), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.7), Trichuris trichiura (32.0), Trichostronqylidea gen. sp. (0.8), Enterobius vermicularis (1.6), Hymenolepis nana (0.4) Diphyllobothrium sp. (0.4). No sanitary conditions, water, faeces and garbage disposal were detected in the 55.5%, 86.4% and 52.7% of 110 houses from the sector, respectively. The high prevalence of protozoa and helminths intestinal infections in the sector are related to no sanitary conditions of houses and fecal contamination of the estuary of the Valdivia river.

  16. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments.

  17. Food handlers as a link in the chain of transmission of Giardia duodenalis and other protozoa in public schools in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Cristiane Maria; Bezagio, Renata Coltro; Nishi, Letícia; Ferreira, Érika Cristina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2015-09-01

    Food handlers (FHs) may facilitate transmission and dissemination of pathogens. The importance of FHs as a link in the epidemiological chain of transmission of Giardia duodenalis and other intestinal protozoa was assessed. Fecal and subungual material from 27 FHs were analyzed using parasitological methods. G. duodenalis was identified by direct immunofluorescence and genotyped by PCR-RFLP for the bg and gdh genes, and gdh was sequenced. At least one protozoan was detected in 30% (8/27) of the FHs and G. duodenalis (19%; 5/27) was the most common species. The AII and BIV genotypes were found in 20% (1/5) and 60% (3/5) of FHs infected with G. duodenalis, respectively. FHs can be involved in the chain of transmission of G. duodenalis and other protozoa. KJ741310 - KJ741313. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Molecular Detection of the Carriage Rate of Four Intestinal Protozoa with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Possible Overdiagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efunshile, Michael A; Ngwu, Bethrand A F; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Sahar, Sumrin; König, Brigitte; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-08-01

    Diarrhea remains the second largest killer of children worldwide, and Nigeria ranks number two on the list of global deaths attributable to diarrhea. Meanwhile, prevalence studies on potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers using molecular detection methods remain scarce in sub-Saharan countries. To overcome sensitivity issues related to microscopic detection and identification of cysts in stool concentrates, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze genomic DNAs extracted from stool samples from 199 healthy school children for Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, and Cryptosporidium. Questionnaires were administered for epidemiological data collection. E. histolytica was not detected in any of the samples, whereas Giardia (37.2%), E. dispar (18.6%), and Cryptosporidium (1%) were found. Most of the children sourced their drinking water from community wells (91%), while the majority disposed of feces in the bush (81.9%). Our study is the first to use real-time PCR to evaluate the epidemiology of E. histolytica, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium in Nigeria where previous studies using traditional diagnostic techniques have suggested higher and lower carriage rates of E. histolytica and Giardia, respectively. It is also the first study to accurately identify the prevalence of common potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers in sub-Saharan Africa. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Introduction to Pathogenic Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    hematoxylin suf- fers when the modified fixative, in which zinc or copper is substituted for mercury, is used. Specimens should be first grossly examined...specimens to detect light infections. The two most common procedures are zinc sulfate flotation and formalin-ethyl acetate sedi- mentation. Wet mount

  20. Coccidia and other Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are important to the economy of the US. Control of infectious diseases is necessary for the success of swine industry. In the present book chapter the authors review current information on protozoan infections of pigs. The coccidium Cystoisospora suis causes diarrhea in newborn pigs. Public hea...

  1. An Integrated Approach to Control Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, Schistosomiasis, Intestinal Protozoa Infection, and Diarrhea: Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Giovanna; Essé, Clémence; Dongo, Kouassi; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Hürlimann, Eveline; Koffi, Veronique A; Coulibaly, Gaoussou; Mahan, Virginie; Yapi, Richard B; Koné, Siaka; Coulibaly, Jean Tenena; Meïté, Aboulaye; Guéhi-Kabran, Marie-Claire; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer Kouakou; Utzinger, Jürg

    2018-06-12

    The global strategy to control helminthiases (schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis) emphasizes preventive chemotherapy. However, in the absence of access to clean water, improved sanitation, and adequate hygiene, reinfection after treatment can occur rapidly. Integrated approaches might be necessary to sustain the benefits of preventive chemotherapy and make progress toward interruption of helminthiases transmission. The aim of this study was to assess and quantify the effect of an integrated control package that consists of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation, and health education on soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infection, and diarrhea in rural Côte d'Ivoire. In a first step, a community health education program was developed that includes an animated cartoon to promote improved hygiene and health targeting school-aged children, coupled with a health education theater for the entire community. In a second step, a cluster randomized trial was implemented in 56 communities of south-central Côte d'Ivoire with 4 intervention arms: (1) preventive chemotherapy; (2) preventive chemotherapy plus community-led total sanitation; (3) preventive chemotherapy plus health education; and (4) all 3 interventions combined. Before implementation of the aforementioned interventions, a baseline parasitologic, anthropometric, and hygiene-related knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs survey was conducted. These surveys were repeated 18 and 39 months after the baseline cross-sectional survey to determine the effect of different interventions on helminth and intestinal protozoa infection, nutritional indicators, and knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs. Monitoring of diarrhea was done over a 24-month period at 2-week intervals, starting right after the baseline survey. Key results from this cluster randomized trial will shed light on the effect of integrated approaches consisting of preventive

  2. Impact of high-concentrate feeding and low ruminal pH on methanogens and protozoa in the rumen of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sarah E; Steele, Michael A; Northwood, Korinne S; Wright, André-Denis G; McBride, Brian W

    2011-07-01

    Non-lactating dairy cattle were transitioned to a high-concentrate diet to investigate the effect of ruminal pH suppression, commonly found in dairy cattle, on the density, diversity, and community structure of rumen methanogens, as well as the density of rumen protozoa. Four ruminally cannulated cows were fed a hay diet and transitioned to a 65% grain and 35% hay diet. The cattle were maintained on an high-concentrate diet for 3 weeks before the transition back to an hay diet, which was fed for an additional 3 weeks. Rumen fluid and solids and fecal samples were obtained prior to feeding during weeks 0 (hay), 1, and 3 (high-concentrate), and 4 and 6 (hay). Subacute ruminal acidosis was induced during week 1. During week 3 of the experiment, there was a significant increase in the number of protozoa present in the rumen fluid (P=0.049) and rumen solids (P=0.004), and a significant reduction in protozoa in the rumen fluid in week 6 (P=0.003). No significant effect of diet on density of rumen methanogens was found in any samples, as determined by real-time PCR. Clone libraries were constructed for weeks 0, 3, and 6, and the methanogen diversity of week 3 was found to differ from week 6. Week 3 was also found to have a significantly altered methanogen community structure, compared to the other weeks. Twenty-two unique 16S rRNA phylotypes were identified, three of which were found only during high-concentrate feeding, three were found during both phases of hay feeding, and seven were found in all three clone libraries. The genus Methanobrevibacter comprised 99% of the clones present. The rumen fluid at weeks 0, 3, and 6 of all the animals was found to contain a type A protozoal population. Ultimately, high-concentrate feeding did not significantly affect the density of rumen methanogens, but did alter methanogen diversity and community structure, as well as protozoal density within the rumen of nonlactating dairy cattle. Therefore, it may be necessary to monitor the

  3. Methane mitigation potential of phyto-sources from Northeast India and their effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Baruah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the anti-methanogenic potential of phyto-sources from Northeast region of the country and assess the effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa for their likely inclusion in animal diet to reduce methane emission. Materials and Methods: Twenty phyto-sources were collected from Northeast state, Assam, during March to April 2014. Phyto-sources were analyzed for their tannin content followed by screening for methane mitigation potential using in vitro system. The effect of tannin on methane production and other fermentation parameters was confirmed by attenuating the effect of tannin with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 addition. About 200 mg dried phyto-source samples were incubated for 24 h in vitro, and volume of gas produced was recorded. The gas sample was analyzed on gas chromatograph for the proportion of methane in the sample. The effect of phyto-sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoal population was determined using standard methodologies. Results: Results from studies demonstrated that Litchi chinensis, Melastoma malabathricum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Terminalia chebula, and Syzygium cumini produced comparatively less methane, while Christella parasitica, Leucas linifolia, Citrus grandis, and Aquilaria malaccensis produced relatively more methane during in vitro incubation. An increase (p<0.05 in gas and methane production from the phyto-sources was observed when incubated with PEG-6000. Entodinimorphs were prominent ciliates irrespective of the phyto-sources, while holotrichs represented only small fraction of protozoa. An increase (p<0.05 in total protozoa, entodinimorphs, and holotrichs was noted when PEG-6000 added to the basal substrate. Our study confirmed variable impact of phyto-sources on total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N. Conclusion: It may be concluded that L. chinensis, M. malabathricum, L. speciosa, S. cumini, and T. chebula are having

  4. A legacy of low-impact logging does not elevate prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa in free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: logging and parasitism in African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Thomas R; Morgan, David; Deutsch, J Charlie; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Salzer, Johanna S; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Trish; Sanz, Crickette

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates. Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored. Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations. In addition, environmental pollution with human fecal material may present a risk for wildlife infections with zoonotic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. To better understand this interplay, we compared patterns of infection with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the undisturbed Goualougo Triangle of Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent previously logged Kabo Concession in northern Republic of Congo. No Cryptosporidium infections were detected in any of the apes examined and prevalence of infection with Giardia was low (3.73% overall) and did not differ between logged and undisturbed forest for chimpanzees or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes and suggest that low-intensity logging may not result in long-term elevated prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa.

  5. Aggregata (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) infection in the common octopus Octopus vulgaris from the West Mediterranean Sea: The infection rates and possible effect of faunistic, environmental and ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Hernández, E.; Barcala, E.; Berriatua, E.; García-Ayala, A.; Muñoz, P.

    2013-10-01

    Prevalence and distribution of the coccidian parasite Aggregata octopiana (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) in the Mediterranean Spanish coasts were studied. A total of 114 octopuses were sampled from 30 geographic sectors by trawl fleet, and whitish macroscopic oocysts typical of A. octopiana infection were recorded in 96% of octopuses in the digestive tract and mainly in intestine and spiral caecum. The univariate analysis showed that lesion extension varied according to specific octopus, environmental and faunistic variables. A subsequent multivariable analysis indicated that the risk of macroscopic lesions in the caecum was greater in males compared to females, in octopuses living in deeper compared to shallower waters and in hauls where the crustacean Pagurus excavatus was present. The study provides further evidence of the abundance of A. octopiana in octopus ecosystems urging for further studies to evaluate its health impact. The combined abundance of infected octopuses and P. excavatus merits attention.

  6. First record of Microsporeans and Myxosporeans (Protozoa) infecting some Arabian Gulf fishes off the coasts of the Emirates and Qatar with a description of Myxobolus Arabicus n. sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.; El-Tantawy, S.

    2002-01-01

    During a comprehensive survey carried out on helminth parasites of Arabian Gulf fishes mainly from the coasts of Emirates and Qatar, two microsporeans and three myxosporeans Protozoa were reported and described for the first time. The microsporeans included Nosema sauridae and Glugea stephani. Nosema sauridae was very common among lizard fish Saurida undosquamis which were caught from the Emirati coasts (56%) and also Qatari coasts (28%). Glugea stephani infected Psettodes erumei at the Emirati coasts with a prevalence of 10%. The myxosporideans comprised Myxobolus arabicus n. sp. from the body cavity of Plectorhynchus schotaf (Emirati coasts, 11%), Kudoa sp. from the musculature of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Emirati coasts, 8%) and also the heart wall of Caranx malabricus (Qatari coasts, 11%) and Henneguya sp. from the gills and mouth skin of Epinephelus tauvina (Emirati coasts, 7%). Fresh cysts and spores were described and photographed in situ. (author)

  7. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  8. Prevalence of pathogenic free-living amoeba and other protozoa in natural and communal piped tap water from Queen Elizabeth protected area, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sente, Celsus; Erume, Joseph; Naigaga, Irene; Mulindwa, Julius; Ochwo, Sylvester; Magambo, Phillip Kimuda; Namara, Benigna Gabriela; Kato, Charles Drago; Sebyatika, George; Muwonge, Kevin; Ocaido, Michael

    2016-08-03

    Pathogenic water dwelling protozoa such as Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmannella spp., Naegleria spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are often responsible for devastating illnesses especially in children and immunocompromised individuals, yet their presence and prevalence in certain environment in sub-Saharan Africa is still unknown to most researchers, public health officials and medical practitioners. The objective of this study was to establish the presence and prevalence of pathogenic free-living amoeba (FLA), Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Queen Elizabeth Protected Area (QEPA). Samples were collected from communal taps and natural water sites in QEPA. Physical water parameters were measured in situ. The samples were processed to detect the presence of FLA trophozoites by xenic cultivation, Cryptosporidium oocysts by Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Giardia cysts by Zinc Sulphate floatation technique. Parasites were observed microscopically, identified, counted and recorded. For FLA, genomic DNA was extracted for amplification and sequencing. Both natural and tap water sources were contaminated with FLA, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. All protozoan parasites were more abundant in the colder rainy season except for Harmannella spp. and Naegleria spp. which occurred more in the warmer months. The prevalence of all parasites was higher in tap water than in natural water samples. There was a strong negative correlation between the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmannella spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. with Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (P protozoa that could possibly be the cause of a number of silent morbidities and mortalities among rural households in QEPA. This implies that water used by communities in QEPA is of poor quality and predisposes them to a variety of protozoan infections including the FLA whose public health importance was never reported, thus necessitating adoption of proper water safety measures.

  9. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Detection of Intestinal Protozoa in HIV-Infected Children in Malawi, Enterocytozoon Bieneusi is Common and Associated with Gastrointestinal Complaints and May Delay BMI (Nutritional Status) Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibers, Minke H W; Moons, Peter; Maseko, Nelson; Gushu, Monfort B; Iwajomo, Oluwadamilola H; Heyderman, Robert S; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Brienen, Eric A; van Lieshout, Lisette; Calis, Job C J

    2018-05-14

    Intestinal protozoa are common opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Longitudinal studies on either the clinical relevance, or the effect of immune reconstitution by anti-retroviral therapy on intestinal protozoan infections are children is lacking however. This study investigates prevalence and clinical relevance of intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected Malawian children prior to and during their first year of ART. Stool samples collected at enrolment and during follow-up were tested for non-opportunistic (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica) and opportunistic protozoa (Entroctytoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp., Cryptosporidium spp and Cystoisospora belli) using multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Associations between infections and clinical symptoms were evaluated using univariate methods. Non-opportunistic and opportunistic protozoa were detected in 40%(14/35) and 46%(16/35) of children at baseline respectively. E. bieneusi was the most prevalent protozoa (37%, 13/35) and associated with gastrointestinal complaints(43% in positive (10/13) versus 18% (4/22) in E. bieneusi-negative children, p=0.001). Body Mass Index (BMI) recovery during 12 months of ART was more commonly delayed in E. bieneusi-positive (+0.29+SD 0.83) than E. bieneusi-negative children (+1.03+SD 1.25; p=0.05). E. bieneusi was not detected after 12 months of ART. E. bieneusi was the most prevalent opportunistic intestinal protozoa, present in over a third of study participants prior to initiation of ART. Although all children cleared E.bieneusi after 12 months of ART, E. bieneusi was associated with gastro-intestinal complaints and may delay BMI recovery. Trials to assess effect of treatment of E. bieneusi on nutritional status should be considered in HIV-infected African children.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download

  10. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  11. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...

  12. Effects of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, total protozoa and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, R; Saravanan, M; Baruah, L; Prasad, C S

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves, Autocarpus integrifolis, Azardirachta indica and Ficus bengalensis, on the in vitro rumen fermentation pattern, total protozoa and methane suppression in order to establish the optimum dose of these leaves for inclusion in the ruminant diets. The air-dried and ground samples of Au. integrifolis, Az. indica and Ficus bengalensis were subjected to in vitro incubation using 30 ml buffered rumen fluid at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0% (dry matter refers to moisture-free basis) of a total mixed ration (TMR: refers to mixture of roughage and concentrate containing cereals and oil cakes) devoid of tannin. The TMR for the experimental incubation was prepared by mixing 40 parts of ground Elusine coracana straw as roughage source with 60 parts of concentrate mixture. The leaves contained an average 130 g kg(-1) CP with 7·0 MJ of ME kg(-1) DM. The average neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content was content also showed similar trend. However, condensed tannin (CT) was highest in F. bengalensis (260) followed by Au. integrifolis (186) and Az. indica (138). There was significant (P 5.0%) reduced TVFA concentration. Protozoa (cells per mL) were similar at all levels of inclusion with Au. integrifolis, but reduced in case of F. bengalensis and Az. indica. As the level of tannin increased in the incubation medium, there was a linear reduction in methane concentration. Highest methane reduction (%) was recorded in incubations supplemented with Az. indica (61.5) followed by F. bengalensis (46.8) and Au. integrifolis (30.3). It was established from this study that tropical leaves of F. bengalensis, Au. integrifolis and Az. indica suppress methanogenesis. Ficus bengalensis, Au. integrifolis and Az. indica leaves are of interest in the enteric methane ameliorative strategies. Total mixed ration containing 10-15% ground F. bengalensis or Au. integrifolis or Az

  13. Accuracy of Mobile Phone and Handheld Light Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Handheld light microscopy using compact optics and mobile phones may improve the quality of health care in resource-constrained settings by enabling access to prompt and accurate diagnosis.Laboratory technicians were trained to operate two handheld diagnostic devices (Newton Nm1 microscope and a clip-on version of the mobile phone-based CellScope. The accuracy of these devices was compared to conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, and intestinal protozoa infection in a community-based survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire. One slide of 10 ml filtered urine and a single Kato-Katz thick smear from 226 individuals were subjected to the Newton Nm1 microscope and CellScope for detection of Schistosoma eggs and compared to conventional microscopy. Additionally, 121 sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF-fixed stool samples were examined by the Newton Nm1 microscope and compared to conventional microscopy for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa.The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, as determined by conventional microscopy, was 39.8%, 5.3%, 20.7%, and 4.9%, respectively. The Newton Nm1 microscope had diagnostic sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium infection of 91.7% (95% confidence interval (CI 59.8-99.6% and 81.1% (95% CI 71.2-88.3%, respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100% and 97.1% (95% CI 92.2-99.1%, respectively. The CellScope demonstrated sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium of 50.0% (95% CI 25.4-74.6% and 35.6% (95% CI 25.9-46.4%, respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100% and 100% (95% CI 86.7-100%, respectively. For G. intestinalis and E. histolytica/E. dispar, the Newton Nm1 microscope had sensitivity of 84.0% (95% CI 63.1-94.7% and 83.3% (95% CI 36.5-99.1%, respectively, and 100% specificity.Handheld diagnostic devices can be employed in community-based surveys in resource

  14. Accuracy of Mobile Phone and Handheld Light Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T; Ouattara, Mamadou; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Fletcher, Daniel A; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Andrews, Jason R; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2016-06-01

    Handheld light microscopy using compact optics and mobile phones may improve the quality of health care in resource-constrained settings by enabling access to prompt and accurate diagnosis. Laboratory technicians were trained to operate two handheld diagnostic devices (Newton Nm1 microscope and a clip-on version of the mobile phone-based CellScope). The accuracy of these devices was compared to conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, and intestinal protozoa infection in a community-based survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire. One slide of 10 ml filtered urine and a single Kato-Katz thick smear from 226 individuals were subjected to the Newton Nm1 microscope and CellScope for detection of Schistosoma eggs and compared to conventional microscopy. Additionally, 121 sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-fixed stool samples were examined by the Newton Nm1 microscope and compared to conventional microscopy for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, as determined by conventional microscopy, was 39.8%, 5.3%, 20.7%, and 4.9%, respectively. The Newton Nm1 microscope had diagnostic sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium infection of 91.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 59.8-99.6%) and 81.1% (95% CI 71.2-88.3%), respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100%) and 97.1% (95% CI 92.2-99.1%), respectively. The CellScope demonstrated sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium of 50.0% (95% CI 25.4-74.6%) and 35.6% (95% CI 25.9-46.4%), respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100%) and 100% (95% CI 86.7-100%), respectively. For G. intestinalis and E. histolytica/E. dispar, the Newton Nm1 microscope had sensitivity of 84.0% (95% CI 63.1-94.7%) and 83.3% (95% CI 36.5-99.1%), respectively, and 100% specificity. Handheld diagnostic devices can be employed in community-based surveys in resource

  15. Household-based prevalence of helminths and parasitic protozoa in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, assessed from faecal vault sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trönnberg, Linda; Hawksworth, David; Hansen, Anette; Archer, Colleen; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2010-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the family-based prevalence of environmentally persistent parasites in two rural communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were collected from 120 urine-diversion family toilets and screened for selected protozoa and helminths with immunomagnetic separation and the ammonium bicarbonate (AMBIC) protocol respectively. The parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (59%), Giardia intestinalis (54%), Trichuris trichiura (48%), Cryptosporidium spp. (21%) and Taenia spp. (18%). Only 14% of the household toilets were negative for these pathogens. The occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was lower (Pparasites per gram was done for each sample and this provided realistic risk assessment data for the reuse of material from urine-diversion toilets. The high occurrence of parasites found in the two communities, in spite of sanitation and hygiene interventions in the areas, suggests an endemicity that will not be reduced without de-worming campaigns. Finally, the study showed that sampling directly from the deposited faecal material may be useful for parasitic prevalence estimations. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and new insights into intestinal protozoa in children living in the Chaco region, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2-12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Effect of 808 nm Diode Laser on Swimming Behavior, Food Vacuole Formation and Endogenous ATP Production of Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Alberico; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. To clarify the mechanisms of action of PBM at cellular and organism levels, we investigated its effect on Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa) irradiated by an 808 nm infrared diode laser with a flat-top handpiece (1 W in CW). Our results led to the conclusion that: (1) the 808 nm laser stimulates the P. primaurelia without a thermal effect, (2) the laser effect is demonstrated by an increase in swimming speed and in food vacuole formation, (3) the laser treatment affects endogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in a positive way, (4) the effects of irradiation dose suggest an optimum exposure time of 50 s (64 J cm(-2) of fluence) to stimulate the Paramecium cells; irradiation of 25 s shows no effect or only mild effects and irradiation up to 100 s does not increase the effect observed with 50 s of treatment, (5) the increment of endogenous ATP concentration highlights the positive photobiomodulating effect of the 808 nm laser and the optimal irradiation conditions by the flat-top handpiece. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. Dramatic Decrease in Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and New Insights Into Intestinal Protozoa in Children Living in the Chaco Region, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2–12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. PMID:25711609

  19. Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obala, A A; Simiyu, C J; Odhiambo, D O; Nanyu, V; Chege, P; Downing, R; Mwaliko, E; Mwangi, A W; Menya, D; Chelagat, D; Nyamogoba, H D N; Ayuo, P O; O'Meara, W P; Twagirumukiza, M; Vandenbroek, D; Otsyula, B B O; de Maeseneer, J

    2013-01-01

    Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS) area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. Direct saline and formal-ether-sedimentation techniques were used to process the specimens. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A prevalence of 52.3% (417/797) was obtained with the male child slightly more infected than the female (53.5% versus 51%), but this was not significant (χ (2) = 0.482, P > 0.05). Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most common pathogenic IPIs with a prevalence of 26.1% (208/797) and 11.2% (89/797), respectively. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797), 3.8% (30/797), and 0.13% (1/797) for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Conclusions. Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica were the most prevalent pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while STHs were less common. Community-based health promotion techniques are recommended for controlling these parasites.

  20. Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Obala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. Direct saline and formal-ether-sedimentation techniques were used to process the specimens. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A prevalence of 52.3% (417/797 was obtained with the male child slightly more infected than the female (53.5% versus 51%, but this was not significant (χ2=0.482, P>0.05. Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most common pathogenic IPIs with a prevalence of 26.1% (208/797 and 11.2% (89/797, respectively. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs were less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797, 3.8% (30/797, and 0.13% (1/797 for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Conclusions. Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica were the most prevalent pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while STHs were less common. Community-based health promotion techniques are recommended for controlling these parasites.

  1. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): Guideline for the evaluation of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa in livestock and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, T; Olson, M E; O'Handley, R M; Schetters, T; Bowman, D; Vercruysse, J

    2014-08-29

    The current guideline was written to aid in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoan parasites, with Giardia spp. as the leading example. The information provided in this guideline deals with aspects of how to conduct controlled studies using experimental infection models (dose determination and dose confirmation) and efficacy studies in commercial facilities (field effectiveness studies). Furthermore, the selection of suitable animals, housing, infection procedure, choice of diagnostic technique and data analysis are discussed. This guideline is intended to assist investigators in conducting specific studies, to provide specific information for registration authorities involved in the decision-making process, to assist in the approval and registration of new drugs and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of uniform procedures. The primary parameter for drug efficacy is the reduction in either parasite excretion or parasite counts and a minimum efficacy of 90% is required against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa. A supporting efficacy parameter is a significant difference in the proportion of infected animals between treated and non-treated groups. Persistent efficacy is considered as an additional claim to therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part I: Protozoa and tick-borne agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Pfeffer, Martin; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Deplazes, Peter; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed radical changes in climate, landscape, and ecosystems. These events, together with other factors such as increasing illegal wildlife trade and changing human behaviour towards wildlife, are resulting into thinning boundaries between wild canids and felids and their domestic counterparts. As a consequence, the epidemiology of diseases caused by a number of infectious agents is undergoing profound readjustements, as pathogens adapt to new hosts and environments. Therefore, there is a risk for diseases of wildlife to spread to domestic carnivores and vice versa, and for zoonotic agents to emerge or re-emerge in human populations. Hence, the identification of the hazards arising from the co-habitation of these species is critical in order to plan and develop adequate control strategies against these pathogens. In the first of this two-part article, we review the role that wild canids and felids may play in the transmission of protozoa and arthropod-borne agents to dogs and cats in Europe, and provide an account of how current and future progress in our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of parasites, as well as of host-parasite interactions, can assist efforts aimed at controlling parasite transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationships between free-living protozoa, cultivable Legionella spp., and water quality characteristics in three drinking water supplies in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valster, Rinske M; Wullings, Bart A; van den Berg, Riemsdijk; van der Kooij, Dick

    2011-10-01

    The study whose results are presented here aimed at identifying free-living protozoa (FLP) and conditions favoring the growth of these organisms and cultivable Legionella spp. in drinking water supplies in a tropical region. Treated and distributed water (±30°C) of the water supplies of three Caribbean islands were sampled and investigated with molecular techniques, based on the 18S rRNA gene. The protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis and cultivable Legionella pneumophila were observed in all three supplies. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with the highest similarity to the potential or candidate hosts Acanthamoeba spp., Echinamoeba exundans, E. thermarum, and an Neoparamoeba sp. were detected as well. In total, 59 OTUs of FLP were identified. The estimated protozoan richness did not differ significantly between the three supplies. In supply CA-1, the concentration of H. vermiformis correlated with the concentration of Legionella spp. and clones related to Amoebozoa predominated (82%) in the protozoan community. These observations, the low turbidity (water. The absence of H. vermiformis in most samples from supply CA-3 suggests that growth of this protozoan is limited at ATP concentrations of <1 ng liter(-1).

  4. Relationships between Free-Living Protozoa, Cultivable Legionella spp., and Water Quality Characteristics in Three Drinking Water Supplies in the Caribbean▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valster, Rinske M.; Wullings, Bart A.; van den Berg, Riemsdijk; van der Kooij, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The study whose results are presented here aimed at identifying free-living protozoa (FLP) and conditions favoring the growth of these organisms and cultivable Legionella spp. in drinking water supplies in a tropical region. Treated and distributed water (±30°C) of the water supplies of three Caribbean islands were sampled and investigated with molecular techniques, based on the 18S rRNA gene. The protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis and cultivable Legionella pneumophila were observed in all three supplies. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with the highest similarity to the potential or candidate hosts Acanthamoeba spp., Echinamoeba exundans, E. thermarum, and an Neoparamoeba sp. were detected as well. In total, 59 OTUs of FLP were identified. The estimated protozoan richness did not differ significantly between the three supplies. In supply CA-1, the concentration of H. vermiformis correlated with the concentration of Legionella spp. and clones related to Amoebozoa predominated (82%) in the protozoan community. These observations, the low turbidity (water. The absence of H. vermiformis in most samples from supply CA-3 suggests that growth of this protozoan is limited at ATP concentrations of <1 ng liter−1. PMID:21873489

  5. Detection of Waterborne Protozoa, Viruses, and Bacteria in Groundwater and Other Water Samples in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the prevalence of various waterborne pathogens in water samples collected in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, and the applicability of Escherichia coli as an indicator of pathogen contamination in groundwater were assessed. Fifty-three water samples, including shallow groundwater and river water, were analyzed to examine the presence of protozoan (oo)cysts via fluorescence microscopy and that of viral and bacterial genomes via quantitative PCR. At least one of the seven types of pathogens tested (i.e., Cryptosporidium, Giardia, human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, and Vibrio cholerae) was detected in 68% (15/22) of the shallow dug well water samples; groundwater in the shallow dug wells was more contaminated compared with that in shallow tube wells (8/15, 53%). River water and sewage samples were contaminated with extremely high concentrations of multiple pathogens, whereas a tap water sample supplied by a water tanker tested positive for human adenoviruses and V. cholerae. The detection of host-specific Bacteroidales genetic markers revealed the effects of human and animal feces on groundwater contamination. The tested pathogens were sometimes detected even in E. coli-negative groundwater samples, indicative of the limitations of using E. coli as an indicator for waterborne pathogens in groundwater.

  6. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  7. Black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) as sentinels of ecosystem health: patterns of zoonotic protozoa infection relative to degree of human-primate contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Martin M; Salzer, Johanna S; Deutsch, Joseph C; Raño, Mariana; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Exponential expansion of human populations and human activities within primate habitats has resulted in high potential for pathogen exchange creating challenges for biodiversity conservation and global health. Under such conditions, resilient habitat generalists such as black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) may act as effective sentinels to overall ecosystem health and alert us to impending epidemics in the human population. To better understand this potential, we examined noninvasively collected fecal samples from black and gold howler monkeys from remote, rural, and village populations in Northern Argentina. We examined all samples (n=90) for the zoonotic protozoa Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. via immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) detection. All samples were negative for Cryptosporidium sp. The prevalence of Giardia sp. was significantly higher at the rural site (67%) compared with the remote forest (57%) and village (40%) sites. A lack of Cryptosporidium sp. in all samples examined suggests that this pathogen is not a natural component of the howler parasite communities at these sites and that current land-use patterns and livestock contact are not exposing Argentine howler monkeys to this pathogen. High prevalence of Giardia sp. at all sites suggests that howler monkeys may serve as a viable reservoir for Giardia. Significantly higher prevalence of Giardia sp. at the rural site, where primate-livestock contact is highest, suggests the presence of multiple Giardia clades or increased exposure to Giardia through repeated zoonotic transmission among nonhuman primates, livestock, and/or people. These results highlight the need for future research into the epidemiology, cross-species transmission ecology, and clinical consequences of Giardia and other infectious agents not only in humans and livestock, but also in the wild animals that share their environments. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Tomo II

    OpenAIRE

    Llano Zapata, José Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Vegetal, Tomo II. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Muy Señor mío, juzgo que los 20 artículos del libro que remití a Vuestra Merced le habrán hecho formar el concepto que merece la fecundidad de aquellos países en las producciones minerales. Y siendo es...

  9. Effect of an integrated intervention package of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation and health education on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Zouzou, Fabien; Ouattara, Mamadou; Schmidlin, Thomas; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse A; Dongo, Kouassi; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Koné, Siaka; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Raso, Giovanna

    2018-02-27

    Preventive chemotherapy with donated anthelminthic drugs is the cornerstone for the control of helminthiases. However, reinfection can occur rapidly in the absence of clean water and sanitation coupled with unhygienic behaviour. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an integrated package of interventions, consisting of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation (CLTS) and health education, on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections and on participants' knowledge, attitude, practice and beliefs (KAPB) towards these diseases including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). A cross-sectional survey was carried out in nine communities of south-central Côte d'Ivoire to assess people's infection with helminths and intestinal protozoa and KAPB. Subsequently, interventions were targeted to five communities, while the remaining communities served as control. The intervention encouraged latrine construction and an evaluation was done 6-7 months later to determine open defecation status of the respective communities. Anthelminthic treatment was provided to all community members. A follow-up cross-sectional survey was conducted approximately one year later, using the same procedures. Overall, 810 people had complete baseline and follow-up data and were given anthelminthic treatment. The baseline prevalence of hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni and Ascaris lumbricoides was 31.1%, 7.0%, 2.0%, 1.0% and 0.3%, respectively. Four of the five intervention communities were classified open-defecation free. For hookworm infection, we observed higher negative changes in terms of proportion of decrease (-0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): - 0.16, -0.04) and higher egg reduction rate (64.9 vs 15.2%) when comparing intervention with control communities. For intestinal protozoa, prevalence reduction was higher in intervention compared to control communities (8.2 vs 2.6%) and WASH indicators and

  10. Observation on Nematocystis kailashi sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) from an Indian earthworm Glyphidrilus tuberosus Stephenson (Annelida: Oligochaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Prabir K

    Surveys on aseptate gregarines in earthworm hosts in different districts of West Bengal state of India revealed the existence of one new species of aseptate gregarine of the genus Nematocystis Hesse, 1909 have been identified from the seminal vesicles of the earthworm, Glyphidrilus tuberosus Stephenson, 1916 in the district of Purba Midnapur, West Bengal of India. Gamonts of the organism are very much elongated, cylindrical, nematoid and without mucron. The terminal end adjacent to the nucleus rounded and the distal end pointed. The gamonts measure 846.45-1031.13 (931.86±70.48) μm in length and 18.40-20.45 (19.43±1.05) μm in width. Nucleus elongated or depressed elliptoid, measures 53.17-63.39 (60.33±3.28) μm in length and 13.29-16.36 (14.15±0.89) μm in width. The gametocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 110.43-120.65 (114.31±3.44) μm in diameter. Oocysts navicular and measure 9.24-10.39 (9.78±0.40) μm×5.77-6.16 (6.04±0.18) μm. Based on critical analysis and comparison with earlier reported species, the species under discussion established as new one.

  11. Effects of juniper essential oil on growth performance, some rumen protozoa, rumen fermentation and antioxidant blood enzyme parameters of growing Saanen kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbag, D; Biricik, H; Cetin, I; Kara, C; Meral, Y; Cengiz, S S; Orman, A; Udum, D

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper essential oil on the growth performance, rumen fermentation parameters, rumen protozoa population, blood antioxidant enzyme parameters and faecal content in growing Saanen kids. Thirty-six male Saanen kids (36 ± 14 days of age) were used in the study. Each group consisted of 9 kids. The control group (G1) was fed with a diet that consisted of the above concentrated feed and oat hay, whereas the experimental groups consumed the same diet but with the concentrated feed uniformly sprayed with juniper essential oil 0.4 ml/kg (G2), 0.8 ml/kg (G3) or 2 ml/kg (G4). There were no differences (p > 0.05) in live weight, live weight gain or feed consumption between the control and experimental groups. There was a significant improvement (p rumen pH, rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile or faecal pH of the control and experimental groups. The rumen NH 3 N values were similar at the middle and end of the experiment, but at the start of the experiment, the rumen NH 3 N values differed between the control and experimental groups (p < 0.05). The faecal score value was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the experimental groups. The addition of juniper essential oil supplementation to the rations caused significant effects on the kids' antioxidant blood parameters. Although the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase values were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the experimental groups (G2, G3 and G4), especially group G4, the blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) value significantly decreased in the experimental groups. The results of this study suggest that supplementation of juniper oil is more effective on antioxidant parameters than on performance parameters and may be used as a natural antioxidant product. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  13. Cd(II), Cu(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Depending on the way goethite was pretreated with oxalic acid, affinity for Cd(II) varied ...... Effects and mechanisms of oxalate on Cd(II) adsorption on goethite at different ... precipitation, surfactant mediation, hydrothermal and micro-emulsion.

  14. Cu(II) AND Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SYNTHESIS OF 2,2-DIMETHYL-4-PHENYL-[1,3]-DIOXOLANE USING ZEOLITE. ENCAPSULATED Co(II), Cu(II) AND Zn(II) COMPLEXES. B.P. Nethravathi1, K. Rama Krishna Reddy2 and K.N. Mahendra1*. 1Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001, India. 2Department of Chemistry, Government ...

  15. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  16. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    often with disrupted plasma membranes and a matrix which was vacuolated and less electron- dense than normal (figure 7). The merozoites were covered...Plasmodium brasilianum. J. Infect. Dis., 75: 1-32. -~ ~.Clak, .A., Allison, A.C., Cox, F.E., 1976. Protection of mice against Babesia and Plasmodium with BCG ...binding trypanosome were observed in each case (Fig 6). Lack of enhanced uptake by cells of BCG -treated mice. BCG (Mycobacterium bovis) treatment of mice

  17. Biochemistry and physiology of protozoa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levandowsky, Michael; Hutner, Seymour Herbert

    1979-01-01

    ..., BY ACADEMIC PRESS, I N C . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY, RECORDING, OR ...

  18. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    technique has defined sensitivity and specificity and the decision to use certain techniques depends on several practicalities such as reason for analysis, sample size, time, cost, and logistic requirements. In this work we present and discuss existing criteria for the differentiation of waterborne...

  19. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-15

    Mannaberg (1905), Craig (1909), Marchoux (1926), Taliaferro and Mulligan (1937), and Maegraith (1966). These reviews contain detailed gross and microscopic...correlated with biochemical changes such as abnormal respiration and oxidative-phosphorylation (Riley and Deegan , 1960; Riley and Maegraith, 1962). Hlowever...Institute of Pathology, Washington, 1). C. pp. 273-283. * Craig , C. F., 1909. The Malarial Fevers. New York. pp. 477. Daroff, R.B., Deller, J.J. Jr., Kastl

  20. The rise of model protozoa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montagnes, D. J. S.; Roberts, E. C.; Lukeš, Julius; Lowe, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2012), s. 184-191 ISSN 0966-842X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ecology * model organism * physiology * protist * teaching * toxins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.434, year: 2012

  1. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  2. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N RAMAN*, Y PITCHAIKANI RAJA and A KULANDAISAMY. Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001, India e-mail: ra_man@123india.com.

  3. Helmintos e protozoários em fezes de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa criados em cativeiro Helminths and protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa feces raised in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.S. Mundim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faecal samples from 79 wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa were examined by sedimentation method, zinc sulfate flotation method, and centrifugal flotation in sugar solution for endoparasites research. The results showed that 97.5% of the samples were positive for helminths and/or protozoa as follows: strongilides (70.9%, Ascaris suum (46.9%, Trichuris suis (29.1%, Metastrongylus sp. (12.6%, Strongyloides ransomi (3.8%, Balantidium coli (38.0%, Entamoeba spp. (15.2%, Giardia spp. (1.3%, Blastocystis sp. (12.6%. The frequency of Entamoeba was higher in young animals. Coccidian oocysts were observed in 59.5% samples and five species of Eimeria and one Isospora were recovered: Eimeria scabra (31.9%, E. deblieck (31.9%, E. perminuta (23.4%, E. cerdonis (17.0%, E. scrofae (12.8% and Isospora suis (12.8%.

  4. A Comparison of Soil microbial community structure, protozoa and nematodes in field plots of conventional and genetically modified maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.; Thompson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Field trials were established at three European sites (Denmark, Eastern France, South-West France) of genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the CryIAb Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt), the near-isogenic non-Bt cultivar, another conventional maize cultivar and grass. Soil from Denmark......) and phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), and protozoa and nematodes in all samples. Individual differences within a site resulted from: greater nematode numbers under grass than maize on three occasions; different nematode populations under the conventional maize cultivars once; and two occasions when...... there was a reduced protozoan population under Bt maize compared to non-Bt maize. Microbial community structure within the sites only varied with grass compared to maize, with one occurrence of CLPP varying between maize cultivars (Bt versus a conventional cultivar). An overall comparison of Bt versus non-Bt maize...

  5. (II) COMPLEX COMPOUND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    electrochemical sensors, as well as in various chromatographic ... were carried out using Jenway pH meter Model 3320 and a conductivity ... Figure 1: the proposed molecular structure of the copper (II) Schiff base complex. M = Cu (II) or Mn (II).

  6. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (II) and copper(II)–zinc(II) complexes. SUBODH KUMAR1, R N PATEL1*, P V KHADIKAR1 and. K B PANDEYA2. 1 Department of Chemistry, APS University, Rewa 486 003, India. 2 CSJM University, Kanpur 208 016, India e-mail: (R N Patel) ...

  7. Pius II. a utrakvismus

    OpenAIRE

    Šimek, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Milan Šimek Pius II. a utrakvismus Pius II. and utraquism Based on sources work - out, the thesis aims the description and analysis of the attitude alternation of Enea Sylvio Piccolomini - Pius II to the utraquism. The conclusions stress the postulate that Pius II. did not change that attitude, but just did not succed in quelling the utraquist movement. In the sense of political background that finally led to fatal dissention among both leaders, king Jiří of Poděbrady and pope Pius II.

  8. Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(II) with thiophene-2-aldehydethiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balwan; Misra, Harihar

    1986-01-01

    Metal complexes of thiosemicarbazides have been known for their pharmacological applications. Significant antitubercular, fungicidal and antiviral activities have been reported for thiosemicarbazides and their derivatives. The present study describes the systhesis and characterisation of complexes of Co II , Cu II , Zn II ,Cd II and UO II with thiosemicarbazone obtained by condensing thiophene-2-aldehyde with thiosemicarbazide. 17 refs., 2 tables. (author)

  9. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhuang Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  10. Rumen ciliated protozoa of crossbred sheep kept in natural pasture of caatinga Protozoários ciliados do rúmen de ovinos mestiços mantidos em pastagem natural de caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Vieira Batista

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the sampling time and ruminal pH on the concentration of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of five fistulated Santa Inez crossbred sheep, reared in natural caatinga (scrubland pasture were evaluated. Ruminal content samples were obtained at zero hour (before the animals were released to the pasture, at 7:00h and 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours thereafter. Samples were fixed in formalin at 18.5% (v/v. It was identified and quantified organisms of the genera Dasytricha, Diplodinium, Diploplastron, Entodinium, Eodinium, Elytroplastron, Enoploplastron, Epidinium, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Isotricha, Metadinium and Ophryoscolex. Among them, only Diploplastron and Entodinium presented variations at their population concentrations in function of the sampling time. The number of ciliates undergoing division was not correlated with the sampling times. Stable division rate seemed to contribute the maintenance of ciliates concentrations in the rumen. Ruminal pH was negatively correlated with sampling time, and was not correlated with the number of protozoa, probably because the variations observed included parameters considered ideal for establishment and maintenance protozoa populations of rumen.Foram avaliados os efeitos do tempo de amostragem e do pH ruminal sobre a concentração de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de cinco ovinos mestiços Santa Inês, fistulados no rúmen, mantidos extensivamente em pastagem natural de caatinga no município de Sertânia, PE. As amostras de conteúdo ruminal foram obtidas nos seguintes horários: zero hora (antes dos animais serem soltos na pastagem, às 7:00h e 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 horas depois de iniciado o pastejo. As amostras obtidas foram fixadas em formalina 18,5% (v/v. Foram identificados e quantificados organismos dos gêneros Dasytricha, Diplodinium, Diploplastron, Entodinium, Eodinium, Elytroplastron, Enoploplastron, Epidinium, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Isotricha, Metadinium e Ophryoscolex, sendo que

  11. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  12. Efeitos da fonte de enxofre sobre a população de protozoários e degradabilidade no rúmen Effects of sulfur source on protozoa population and ruminal degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saran Netto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos de fontes de enxofre na dieta sobre os parâmetros ruminais de bovinos Nelore, utilizando-se oito novilhos canulados no rúmen e submetidos a quatro tratamentos, segundo a fonte de enxofre. Os animais do grupo-controle não receberam suplementação de enxofre. Os dos outros três grupos receberam flor de enxofre ou metionina ou carboquelatado, como suplementação. Os animais foram arraçoados com dieta total, utilizando cana-de-açúcar picada como volumoso. O período experimental foi de 76 dias, dividido em quatro subperíodos de 19 dias, dos quais 14 eram para adaptação à dieta e cinco para as colheitas. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre as fontes de enxofre na degradabilidade da matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibras em detergente ácido e neutro e no pH ruminal. O tratamento com carboquelatado resultou em maior número de protozoários ciliados e o tratamento metionina em menor contagem. O carboquelatado pode ser uma boa alternativa para a suplementação de enxofre para bovinos em confinamento.This research was carried out at FZEA/USP to compare the effects of different sulphur sources in diets of Nellore cattle on ruminal parameters. Eight steers were rumen cannulated and submitted to four treatments, using the following sulphur sources: control (no supplement, elemental sulphur, methionine, and carboquelated. Animals were fed a total ration using sugarcane as the roughage. The proportion roughage:concentrate was 40:60. The experimental period lasted 76 days, divided in four 19-days sub-periods. The first 14 days of each sub-period were used to adapt the animals to the diet and the last five days to collect the samples. During the sample period, ruminal liquid was sampled to protozoa count and pH determination. Also, nylon bags were incubated in rumen to determinate the degradability of dietary dry matter, crude protein, and acid and neutral detergent fiber. Treatments did not affect dietary dry matter

  13. cobalt(II), nickel(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    procedures. The supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 used in the voltammetric experiment was purchased from. Sigma. IR spectra were recorded in KBr medium on .... (13⋅6). L = Schiff base ligand form of one broad band envelope. The electronic spectra of Co(II) complex showed two spin-allowed transitions at 17856 and ...

  14. Nuclear physics II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, T.

    1988-01-01

    This script consisting of two parts contains the matter of the courses Nuclear Pyhsics I and II, as they were presented in the winter term 1987/88 and summer term 1988 for students of physics at Frankfurt University. In the present part II the matter of the summer term is summarized. (orig.) [de

  15. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  16. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  17. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_005945 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005945 gi|49184136 >1dlwA 1 115 7 124 8e-22 ... ref|YP_017820.1| protozoan/cyanoba...cterial globin family protein [Bacillus anthracis ... str. 'Ames Ancestor'] ref|NP_843684.1| ... protozoa...n/cyanobacterial globin family protein [Bacillus ... anthracis str. Ames] ref|YP_027388.1| ... protozoa...racis str. ... A2012] gb|AAP25170.1| protozoan/cyanobacterial globin ... family protein [Bacil...lus anthracis str. Ames] ... gb|AAT30295.1| protozoan/cyanobacterial globi

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_007530 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_007530 gi|47526471 >1dlwA 1 115 7 124 8e-22 ... ref|YP_017820.1| protozoan/cyanoba...cterial globin family protein [Bacillus anthracis ... str. 'Ames Ancestor'] ref|NP_843684.1| ... protozoa...n/cyanobacterial globin family protein [Bacillus ... anthracis str. Ames] ref|YP_027388.1| ... protozoa...racis str. ... A2012] gb|AAP25170.1| protozoan/cyanobacterial globin ... family protein [Bacil...lus anthracis str. Ames] ... gb|AAT30295.1| protozoan/cyanobacterial globi

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_003997 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003997 gi|30261307 >1dlwA 1 115 7 124 8e-22 ... ref|YP_017820.1| protozoan/cyanoba...cterial globin family protein [Bacillus anthracis ... str. 'Ames Ancestor'] ref|NP_843684.1| ... protozoa...n/cyanobacterial globin family protein [Bacillus ... anthracis str. Ames] ref|YP_027388.1| ... protozoa...racis str. ... A2012] gb|AAP25170.1| protozoan/cyanobacterial globin ... family protein [Bacil...lus anthracis str. Ames] ... gb|AAT30295.1| protozoan/cyanobacterial globi

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_003995 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003995 gi|21399119 >1dlwA 1 115 7 124 8e-22 ... ref|YP_017820.1| protozoan/cyanoba...cterial globin family protein [Bacillus anthracis ... str. 'Ames Ancestor'] ref|NP_843684.1| ... protozoa...n/cyanobacterial globin family protein [Bacillus ... anthracis str. Ames] ref|YP_027388.1| ... protozoa...racis str. ... A2012] gb|AAP25170.1| protozoan/cyanobacterial globin ... family protein [Bacil...lus anthracis str. Ames] ... gb|AAT30295.1| protozoan/cyanobacterial globi

  2. Preliminary PBFA II design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; VanDevender, J.P.; Martin, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network

  3. Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 3. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N Raman Y Pitchaikani Raja A Kulandaisamy. Inorganic Volume 113 Issue 3 June 2001 pp 183-189 ...

  4. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J

    2017-01-01

    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  5. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm Factor II deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Ni(II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    analytical chemistry, catalysis, electrochemistry, ring-opening metathesis ... Ethanol was dried over anhydrous copper(II) sulfate and distilled over metallic sodium. ... All bacteria were inoculated into Nutrient Broth (Difco) and incubated for 24 h ...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  9. Disruption Rose Tinted II

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    'Disruption - Rose Tinted II' continues to engage narratives of historical English china as previously explored in the work 'Rose Tinted'. This work engages the sleepy rural idyll which is overlaid with visual contemporary social commentary.

  10. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  11. Gamble II Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  12. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  13. Tokapole II device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.G.

    1978-05-01

    A discussion is given of the design and operation of the Tokapole II device. The following topics are considered: physics considerations, vacuum vessel, poloidal field, ring and support design, toroidal field, vacuum system, initial results, and future plans

  14. copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) ... Abstract. Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodyna- ... phere, over a wide range of substrate temperatures and total reactor pressures.

  15. Digital optical computer II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.

    1991-12-01

    OptiComp is currently completing a 32-bit, fully programmable digital optical computer (DOC II) that is designed to operate in a UNIX environment running RISC microcode. OptiComp's DOC II architecture is focused toward parallel microcode implementation where data is input in a dual rail format. By exploiting the physical principals inherent to optics (speed and low power consumption), an architectural balance of optical interconnects and software code efficiency can be achieved including high fan-in and fan-out. OptiComp's DOC II program is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO), NASA space station group and Rome Laboratory (USAF). This paper not only describes the motivational basis behind DOC II but also provides an optical overview and architectural summary of the device that allows the emulation of any digital instruction set.

  16. Anti-Leishmania activity of new ruthenium(II) complexes: Effect on parasite-host interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mônica S; Gonçalves, Yasmim G; Nunes, Débora C O; Napolitano, Danielle R; Maia, Pedro I S; Rodrigues, Renata S; Rodrigues, Veridiana M; Von Poelhsitz, Gustavo; Yoneyama, Kelly A G

    2017-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The many complications presented by the current treatment - including high toxicity, high cost and parasite resistance - make the development of new therapeutic agents indispensable. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-Leishmania potential of new ruthenium(II) complexes, cis‑[Ru II (η 2 -O 2 CR)(dppm) 2 ]PF 6 , with dppm=bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and R=4-butylbenzoate (bbato) 1, 4-(methylthio)benzoate (mtbato) 2 and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (hmxbato) 3, in promastigote cytotoxicity and their effect on parasite-host interaction. The cytotoxicity of complexes was analyzed by MTT assay against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes and the murine macrophage (RAW 264.7). The effect of complexes on parasite-host interaction was evaluated by in vitro infectivity assay performed in the presence of two different concentrations of each complex: the promastigote IC 50 value and the concentration nontoxic to 90% of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Complexes 1-3 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against all Leishmania species assayed. The IC 50 values ranged from 7.52-12.59μM (complex 1); 0.70-3.28μM (complex 2) and 0.52-1.75μM (complex 3). All complexes significantly inhibited the infectivity index at both tested concentrations. The infectivity inhibitions ranged from 37 to 85%. Interestingly, the infectivity inhibitions due to complex action did not differ significantly at either of the tested concentrations, except for the complex 1 against Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. The infectivity inhibitions resulted from reductions in both percentage of infected macrophages and number of parasites per macrophage. Taken together the results suggest remarkable leishmanicidal activity in vitro by these new ruthenium(II) complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SPEAR II performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The single beam and colliding beam performance of the SLAC electron-positron storage ring SPEAR II is described. The sevenfold increase in harmonic number in SPEAR II in comparison to SPEAR I has made significant changes in single beam behavior. Strong synchrobetatron resonances and a new transverse instability are observed, and our first studies of these phenomena are described. Measurements on current dependent bunch lengthening are presented. (auth)

  18. Computing at Belle II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Belle II, a next-generation B-factory experiment, will search for new physics effects in a data sample about 50 times larger than the one collected by its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To match the advances in accelerator and detector technology, the computing system and the software have to be upgraded as well. The Belle II computing model is presented and an overview of the distributed computing system and the offline software framework is given.

  19. Nsls-II Boster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, S. M.; Akimov, A. V.; Akimov, V. E.; Anashin, V. V.; Anchugov, O. V.; Baranov, G. N.; Batrakov, A. M.; Belikov, O. V.; Bekhtenev, E. A.; Blum, E.; Bulatov, A. V.; Burenkov, D. B.; Cheblakov, P. B.; Chernyakin, A. D.; Cheskidov, V. G.; Churkin, I. N.; Davidsavier, M.; Derbenev, A. A.; Erokhin, A. I.; Fliller, R. P.; Fulkerson, M.; Gorchakov, K. M.; Ganetis, G.; Gao, F.; Gurov, D. S.; Hseuh, H.; Hu, Y.; Johanson, M.; Kadyrov, R. A.; Karnaev, S. E.; Karpov, G. V.; Kiselev, V. A.; Kobets, V. V.; Konstantinov, V. M.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Korepanov, A. A.; Kramer, S.; Krasnov, A. A.; Kremnev, A. A.; Kuper, E. A.; Kuzminykh, V. S.; Levichev, E. B.; Li, Y.; Long, J. De; Makeev, A. V.; Mamkin, V. R.; Medvedko, A. S.; Meshkov, O. I.; Nefedov, N. B.; Neyfeld, V. V.; Okunev, I. N.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Petrov, V. V.; Petrichenkov, M. V.; Philipchenko, A. V.; Polyansky, A. V.; Pureskin, D. N.; Rakhimov, A. R.; Rose, J.; Ruvinskiy, S. I.; Rybitskaya, T. V.; Sazonov, N. V.; Schegolev, L. M.; Semenov, A. M.; Semenov, E. P.; Senkov, D. V.; Serdakov, L. E.; Serednyakov, S. S.; Shaftan, T. V.; Sharma, S.; Shichkov, D. S.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Shvedov, D. A.; Simonov, E. A.; Singh, O.; Sinyatkin, S. V.; Smaluk, V. V.; Sukhanov, A. V.; Tian, Y.; Tsukanova, L. A.; Vakhrushev, R. V.; Vobly, P. D.; Utkin, A. V.; Wang, G.; Wahl, W.; Willeke, F.; Yaminov, K. R.; Yong, H.; Zhuravlev, A.; Zuhoski, P.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a third generation light source, which was constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This project includes a highly-optimized 3 GeV electron storage ring, linac preinjector, and full-energy synchrotron injector. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics built and delivered the booster for NSLS-II. The commissioning of the booster was successfully completed. This paper reviews fulfilled work by participants.

  20. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_002952 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002952 gi|49483165 >1dlwA 19 115 21 120 3e-19 ... ref|YP_040389.1| protozoan/cyano...bacterial globin family protein [Staphylococcus ... aureus subsp. aureus MRSA252] emb|CAG39975.1| ... protozoa

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_002976 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002976 gi|57866545 >1dlwA 19 115 47 146 6e-19 ... ref|YP_188173.1| protozoan/cyano...bacterial globin family protein [Staphylococcus ... epidermidis RP62A] gb|AAW53991.1| ... protozoa

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_002977 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002977 gi|53804116 >1dlwA 19 113 26 120 5e-13 ... gb|AAU92168.1| protozoan/cyanoba...cterial globin family protein [Methylococcus ... capsulatus str. Bath] ref|YP_114018.1| ... protozoa

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_002951 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002951 gi|57650195 >1dlwA 19 115 21 120 3e-19 ... ref|YP_185875.1| protozoan/cyano...bacterial globin family protein [Staphylococcus ... aureus subsp. aureus COL] gb|AAW36475.1| ... protozoa

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_004578 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004578 gi|28871348 >1dlwA 1 114 25 138 3e-25 ... ref|NP_793967.1| protozoan/cyanob...acterial globin family protein [Pseudomonas ... syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000] gb|AAO57662.1| ... protozoa

  6. About APPLE II Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  7. VATICANO II CONCILIO DOCTRINAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Bojorge

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a century since the army of Victor Manuel invaded Rome and put an end to Vatican I. In this article we try to understand Vatican II linking it to the previous circumtances and binding it to its doctrinal and pastoral character. Vatican II omitted many subjects that seemed important, e. g. not giving any dogmatic definitions. Contrasting with the Tridentine and Vatican I, that were mostly doctrinal, Vatican II was pastoral. But it was also doctrinal as were the two previous also pastoral. The Constitution "Dei Verbum" brings forth the intentions that led John XXIII to summon the Council in 5-8-1962. The world looked confused and agitated. What could the Church do?

  8. Datalogger usando nios ii

    OpenAIRE

    Campoverde Rugel, Luis Enrique; Velásquez Vargas, Washington Adrián; Ponguillo, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en la implementación de un Datalogger utilizando el microprocesador NIOS II el cual fue embebido en el FPGA CYCLONE II que se encuentra integrada en la tarjeta de desarrollo ALTERA DE2, el cual obtiene datos de distintos sensores y los almacena en una tarjeta SD Card. Para la realización del proyecto se aplican cuatro etapas. La primera etapa está basada en obtener los datos mediante el uso de sensores y la transmisión usando un PIC, la siguiente etapa se basa...

  9. Results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66 -13 +18 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73 -16 +18 (stat) -7 5 (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69 -11 +11 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  10. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The brochure published by BfS describes the actual situation of Asse II with respect to the debate on an interim storage and the status of the realization of a final repository search law. During the visit of the new environment minister Hendricks in the underground facility repository Asse II the issue interim storage site and the retrieval of the corroded casks with radioactive waste were discussed. The challenges for BFS include the acceleration of the retrieval process and the safety of the procedure.

  11. TJ-II project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaldre, C.; Gozalo, J.J.A.; Perez, J.B.; Magaria, F.C.; Diaz, J.R.C.; Perez, J.G.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Garcia, L.; Krivenski, V.I.; Martin, R.; Navarro, A.P.; Perea, A.; Rodriguez-Yunta, A.; Ayza, M.S.; Varias, A.

    1990-01-01

    The TJ-II device is a medium-size helical-axis stellarator to be built in Madrid. Its main characteristics are potential for high-beta operation; flexibility, i.e., its rotational transform can be varied over a wide range and its shear to some extent; and bean-shaped plasma cross section. The latest understanding of TJ-II physics in the fields of electron cyclotron resonance heating, transport, and magneto-hydrodynamics, and the engineering solutions introduced in its final design are discussed

  12. ECLESIOLOGIA DO VATICANO II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Codina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Não se pode compreender a eclesiologia do Vaticano II sem conhecer a vida, o estilo pastoral e o carisma de João XXIII, que convocou o Concílio e abriu o caminho em direção a uma nova configuração eclesial que acabava com séculos de uma Igreja de Cristandade. O Vaticano II implica uma transição de uma Igreja clerical a uma Igreja Povo de Deus, povo de batizados. A passagem de uma Igreja juridicista e legalista a uma Igreja Mistério de comunhão em Cristo. Mudar de uma Igreja triunfalista e ligada ao poder mundano a uma Igreja vivificada pela força renovadora do Espírito. A Igreja está a caminho rumo ao Reino de Deus juntamente com todos os cristãos e com toda a humanidade. A recepção do Vaticano II supõe uma conversão pastoral: voltar ao Evangelho e abrir-se aos novos sinais dos tempos seguindo o Espírito que inspirou João XXIII. ABSTRACT: You cannot understand the Ecclesiology of Vatican II without knowing the life, the pastoral style and the charisma of John XXIII, who convened the Council and opened the way toward a new ecclesial setting that ended centuries of a church of Christendom. The Vatican II involves a transition from a clerical Church to a “People (baptized people of God” Church. The Vatican II implies the passage from a juridical and legalistic Church to a Church as the Mystery of the communion in Christ. The Vatican II implies the change from a triumphalistic Church and connected to worldly power to a Church vivified by the renewing force of the Spirit. The Church is on its way toward the Kingdom of God together with all Christians and all mankind. The reception of the Vatican II supposes a pastoral conversion: a return to the Gospel and openness to new signs of the times following the Spirit that inspired John XXIII.

  13. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  14. Calculus II For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-understand primer on advanced calculus topics Calculus II is a prerequisite for many popular college majors, including pre-med, engineering, and physics. Calculus II For Dummies offers expert instruction, advice, and tips to help second semester calculus students get a handle on the subject and ace their exams. It covers intermediate calculus topics in plain English, featuring in-depth coverage of integration, including substitution, integration techniques and when to use them, approximate integration, and improper integrals. This hands-on guide also covers sequences and series, wit

  15. Efeitos da inclusão de torta de macaúba sobre a população de protozoários ruminais de caprinos Effects of inclusion of macaúba cake on ruminal protozoa population of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.A. Rufino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de inclusão da torta de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata sobre a população de protozoários do rúmen de caprinos. Foram utilizados oito cabritos machos castrados, sem raça definida, portadores de fístulas ruminais, dispostos em dois quadrados latinos e alimentados com quatro dietas com diferentes níveis da torta. Para quantificação dos protozoários, amostras de 1 mL do líquido ruminal de cada animal foram diluídas em 9 mL de solução de formaldeído a 10%. Após diluições decimais sucessivas em solução salina, os protozoários foram quantificados em câmara de Sedgewick. A inclusão de torta de macaúba no nível de 5% da dieta não alterou a concentração média dos protozoários no líquido ruminal em comparação ao grupo controle (0% de inclusão. As dietas com 10 e 15% de torta promoveram aumento significativo da concentração média de protozoários e não reduziram a concentração de protozoários dos outros grupos. O perfil das populações de protozoários foi alterado somente em três dos dezessete gêneros detectados, comprovando diversidade no ecossistema ruminal e sugerindo que esse subproduto pode ser uma alternativa segura para esses microrganismos ruminais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different levels of inclusion of macauba (Acrocomia aculeata cake on the protozoa population in the rumen of goats. It was used eight castrated undefinied breed goats with rumen cannula arranged in two Latin squares and fed four diets with different levels of macauba cake. For quantification of protozoa, 1-mL samples of the rumen fluid of each animal were diluted in 9 ml of formaldehyde solution at 10%. After successive decimal dilutions in saline solution, protozoa were quantified in Sedgewick chambers. The inclusion of macauba cake at the level of 5% of the diet did not change the average protozoa concentration in the rumen fluid, compared

  16. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  17. Workshop 96. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.).

  18. Experiment CATETO II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, J.A.; Freudenreich, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    In the irradiation experiment CATETO II different reduced activation (RA) steels will be irradiated up to 2.5 dpa at a temperature of 300 C. The results of the calculation of the nuclear constants, the reactivity effect, and the activity of the steel samples are presented. (orig.)

  19. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  20. Workshop 96. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.)

  1. UNISIST II: Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattery, Lowell H., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The major part of this report of the Intergovernmental Conference on Scientific and Technical Information (UNISIST II), held in Paris May 28-June 1, 1979, focuses on three sets of recommendations which were unanimously approved after combining the recommendations proposed by various groups and blocs: (1) recommendations to the United Nations…

  2. Photosystem II and photoinhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feikema, Willem Onno

    2006-01-01

    Plants harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Light absorption by photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) results in charge separations in their reaction centers (RCs), initiating a chain of redox reactions with PSI generating the reducing power for CO2 assimilation into sugars, and

  3. European Telecommunications Satellite II (EUTELSAT II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, G.; Brittinger, P.

    1991-01-01

    EUTELSAT II is a regional public telecommunications system for Europe. The services which will be provided are telephone and television. The satellites will be placed at a geostationary orbit within the arcs of 6 degrees east to 19 degrees east or 26 degrees to 36 degrees east. The designed lifetime is 7 years. After separation of the satellites from the launch vehicles, telemetry, telecommand, and ranging will be performed within the S-band frequencies. After positioning of the satellite at its final geostationary orbit, the Ku-band telecommunication equipment will be activated. From this time on, all satellite control operations will be performed in Ku-band. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas at Goldstone and Canberra as prime support for the transfer and drift orbits. Maximum support will consist of a 7-day period, plus 14 days of contingency support. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  4. Ni (II) and Cu(II) complexes of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of novel. Schiff base metal complexes. The resistance of micro-organisms to classical antimicrobial compounds poses a challenge to effective management and treatment of some diseases. In line with this, copper (II), nickel (II) and cobalt (II) ...

  5. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  6. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The information brochure on Asse II describes the situation in the repository for radioactive wastes that was closed by law due to the violations of safety standards. The discussed topics include the necessity of waste retrieval, the problems with public anxiety and public information, the hazard of an uncontrolled water ingress (worst case scenario), the work sites in the cavern, man-machine interactions and the cost of the project.

  7. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The information on Asse II include the following topics: The image and what is behind - the barrier building Dammjoch built 1914; Fact finding - underground explorations; concept for a site comparison; Learning from experiences - the final repository projects Asse, Gorleben and Morsleben show what should not be done; At first drilling - thereafter building - progress of the recovery duct; The retrieval can only go on in dialogue with the public.

  8. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  9. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  10. Review on technology II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroziewicz, B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important requirements for the spectral properties of photodetectors are reviewed with particular attention to the fiber optics applications. Data on a number of materials are collected and presented. Pros and cons are pointed out for each type of photodetector-photoconductor, p-i-n photodiode and APD. A review is given of the relevant papers presented in the poster session 'Technology II' of the Symposium

  11. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  12. EASI graphics - Version II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) is an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. EASI Graphics is a computer graphics extension of EASI which provides a capability for performing sensitivity and trade-off analyses of the parameters of a physical protection system. This document reports on the implementation of the Version II of EASI Graphics and illustrates its application with some examples. 5 references, 15 figures, 6 tables

  13. BeII** revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    Doubly excited 1s2snl and 1s2pnl quartet states of BeII** are readily populated in beam-foil experiments and line-rich spectra have been obtained covering 600 to 5500 A wavelength range. In spite of several theoretical calculations a substantial number of observed lines have not been identified. The quartet system in BeII is an intersting one from a theoretical point of view. Three electron systems are simple enough that a fairly high level of accuracy is attainable without the calculations becoming horrendous. The important correlation effects are between the outer two electrons and, to a good approximation, the three-electrons system may be treated as a two-electron system outside a 1s-core. The multi-configuration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method has been used successfully in a number of studies. Programs are under development that take into account the non-orthogonality of orbitals in the initial and final state, and allow for some non-orthogonal orbitals in a wavefunction expansion. LS dependent relativistic effects are also included. A study of BeII** was undertaken to evaluate the MCHF techniques being developed and to assit in the identification of observed lines. Most of the earlier calculations concentrated on the lower-lying levels. In this work particular attention was given to the more highly-excited states, though calculations for lower-lying states had to be repeated in order to predict life-times

  14. What is LAMPF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H - beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent

  15. What is LAMPF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H/sup -/ beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent.

  16. Average [O II] nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers: dependence on Fe II absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Petitjean, Patrick; Noterdaeme, Pasquier

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effect of Fe II equivalent width (W2600) and fibre size on the average luminosity of [O II] λλ3727, 3729 nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers (at 0.55 ≤ z ≤ 1.3) in the composite spectra of quasars obtained with 3 and 2 arcsec fibres in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We confirm the presence of strong correlations between [O II] luminosity (L_{[O II]}) and equivalent width (W2796) and redshift of Mg II absorbers. However, we show L_{[O II]} and average luminosity surface density suffer from fibre size effects. More importantly, for a given fibre size, the average L_{[O II]} strongly depends on the equivalent width of Fe II absorption lines and found to be higher for Mg II absorbers with R ≡W2600/W2796 ≥ 0.5. In fact, we show the observed strong correlations of L_{[O II]} with W2796 and z of Mg II absorbers are mainly driven by such systems. Direct [O II] detections also confirm the link between L_{[O II]} and R. Therefore, one has to pay attention to the fibre losses and dependence of redshift evolution of Mg II absorbers on W2600 before using them as a luminosity unbiased probe of global star formation rate density. We show that the [O II] nebular emission detected in the stacked spectrum is not dominated by few direct detections (i.e. detections ≥3σ significant level). On an average, the systems with R ≥ 0.5 and W2796 ≥ 2 Å are more reddened, showing colour excess E(B - V) ˜ 0.02, with respect to the systems with R < 0.5 and most likely trace the high H I column density systems.

  17. 124 Prevalence of Henneguya Chrysichthys (Flagellated Protozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    oil immersion objectives (XL 00) of the microscope. Also a drop of whole blood was placed on a slide and allowed to clot, contraction of the clot left a circle of .... parasites invading fish body during wet season. The length of fish is usually.

  18. Algebra II workbook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    To succeed in Algebra II, start practicing now Algebra II builds on your Algebra I skills to prepare you for trigonometry, calculus, and a of myriad STEM topics. Working through practice problems helps students better ingest and retain lesson content, creating a solid foundation to build on for future success. Algebra II Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition helps you learn Algebra II by doing Algebra II. Author and math professor Mary Jane Sterling walks you through the entire course, showing you how to approach and solve the problems you encounter in class. You'll begin by refreshing your Algebr

  19. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.

  20. Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Starch ... The results showed that 0.025 % loaded SSMNPs gave the optimal sorption ... constants (Lagergren and Pseudo-2nd-order) for Ni2+ and Co2+ adsorption were ... Langmuir correlation coefficients showed a better fit for the adsorption isotherms.

  1. Electronics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet

  2. Engineering mathematics-II

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, A

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book Engineering Mathematics-II is designed as a self-contained, comprehensive classroom text for the second semester B.E. Classes of Visveswaraiah Technological University as per the Revised new Syllabus. The topics included are Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus and Vector Integration, Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms. The book is written in a simple way and is accompanied with explanatory figures. All this make the students enjoy the subject while they learn. Inclusion of selected exercises and problems make the book educational in nature. It shou

  3. Thermodynamics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl

  4. Physics II for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A plain-English guide to advanced physics. Does just thinking about the laws of motion make your head spin? Does studying electricity short your circuits? Physics II For Dummies walks you through the essentials and gives you easy-to-understand and digestible guidance on this often intimidating course. Thanks to this book, you don?t have to be Einstein to understand physics. As you learn about mechanical waves and sound, forces and fields, electric potential and electric energy, and much more, you?ll appreciate the For Dummies law: The easier we make it, the faster you'll understand it!

  5. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  6. Graphics gems II

    CERN Document Server

    Arvo, James

    1991-01-01

    Graphics Gems II is a collection of articles shared by a diverse group of people that reflect ideas and approaches in graphics programming which can benefit other computer graphics programmers.This volume presents techniques for doing well-known graphics operations faster or easier. The book contains chapters devoted to topics on two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry and algorithms, image processing, frame buffer techniques, and ray tracing techniques. The radiosity approach, matrix techniques, and numerical and programming techniques are likewise discussed.Graphics artists and comput

  7. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  8. Statistics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  9. Data structures II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge

  10. Computer science II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly

  11. Synthesis and spectral studies of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxaldehyde hydrazone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, N.; Khattab, M.A.; Bekheit, M.M.; El-Kaddah, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    A few complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-chlorobenzylhydrazone) (BCBH) and 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-methylbenzylhydrazone) (BMBH) have been synthesised and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivities, magnetic measurements and infrared (IR) and visible spectral studies. The IR spectra show that BCBH and BMBH behave as bidentate ligands either in the keto or enol form. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II

  13. 2-Hexadecynoic acid inhibits plasmodial FAS-II enzymes and arrests erythrocytic and liver stage Plasmodium infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M

    2010-11-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of Plasmodium yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC(50) value 6.6 μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC(50) value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescence analysis (IC(50) 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory activity against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC(50) values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC(50) control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml), respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50) values 3.7-31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC(50) 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC(50) values 4.1-13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature, and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggests that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to

  14. 2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty

  15. RTNS-II utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Panayotou, N.F.; Powell, R.W.

    1979-12-01

    The objective of the several RTNS-II irradation programs is to maximize information gained from the small test volume available in this unique irradiation facility for application in the fusion materials program. While this facility provides the highest 14 MeV neutron flux available, the flux is generally too low and the irradiation volume too small for testing of engineering materials. Emphasis, therefore, is on identifying damage mechanisms of high energy neutrons and correlating them quantitatively with effects produced by fission neutrons. The information gained will be used to evaluate and calibrate damage and correlation models under development. The scope of the program includes in-situ experiments, postirradiation experiments, irradiation temperatures ranging from 4 0 K to 1,000 0 K, and fluences ranging from 3 x 10 16 to about 3 x 10 19 n/cm 2

  16. Belle II Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, T; Ritter, M

    2016-01-01

    Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development. (paper)

  17. Inside ISIS II

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    ISIS stands for Identification of Secondaries by Ionization Sampling. It was a drift chamber with an active volume of about 40 m3 built by Oxford University as a particle identifier for the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS). The photo shows the electrostatic grading structure and the central anode-wire plane, with Roger Giles standing just under it (Annual Report 1981 p. 57, Fig. 4). ISIS-II differed from the prototype ISIS-I only in the depth of the track (4 m instead of 1 m) thus extending the momentum range for particle identification to 50 GeV/c. See Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 224 (1984) 396, and Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 258 (1987) 26.

  18. Water radiological surveillance (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo San Martin de, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the Environmental Surveillance Radiological Networks (ESRN) currently operating in CEDEX. In the first part, the Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been presented. This second one describes Spanish Costal Waters ESRN and the High Sensitivity Networks in Continental and Marine Waters. It also presents the Radiological Surveillance of Drinking Waters that CEDEX carries out in waters of public consumption management by the Canal de Isabel II (CYII) and by the Mancomunity of Canals Taibilla (M.C.T.). The legislation applicable in each case is reviewed as well. Due to its extension the article has been divided into two parts. As Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been reviewed in the first part, the others ESRN are discussed in this second one. (Author) 10 refs

  19. PEP-II Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Gaydosh, M

    2003-01-01

    The PEP-II Asymmetric B-factory consists of two independent storage rings, one located atop the other in the 2200m-circumference PEP tunnel. The high-energy ring, which stores a 9-GeV electron beam, is an upgrade of the existing PEP collider. It re-utilizes all of the PEP magnets and incorporates a state-of-the-art copper vacuum chamber and a new RF system capable of supporting a one-amp stored beam. The low-energy ring, which stores 3.1-GeV positrons, is new construction. Injection is achieved by extracting electrons and positrons at collision energies from the SLC and transporting them each in a dedicated bypass line. The low-emittance SLC beams will be used for the injection process.

  20. Stage II Seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagerman, R.H.; Kotlove, D.J.; Regine, W.; Chung, C.T.; King, G.A.; Dalai, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1985, 32 patients with stage II (21 A,11 B) testicular seminoma were treated with postorchiectomy irradiation to the retroperitoneal and ipsilateral iliac nodes; 28 received elective mediastinal-supraclavicular irradiation. The median follow-up was 8 1/2 years; 29 patients were followed up for over 3 years and 24 for over 5 years. Twenty-eight patients remain alive and well and four have die, two of a second primary cancer. Two patients developed recurrent seminoma in the mediastinum; these patients showed a variant lymphangiographic pattern. Both remain well after further irradiation or irradiation plus chemotherapy. A third patient developed nonseminomatous ''recurrence'' in the radiation field and is well after chemotherapy

  1. Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuknecht, Nate [Project Manager; White, David [Principle Investigator; Hoste, Graeme [Research Engineer

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  2. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  3. Aerospace Systems Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposal Title: Aerospace Systems Monitor PHASE 1 Technical Abstract: This Phase II STTR project will continue development and commercialization of the Aerospace...

  4. Lead (II) and nickel (II) adsorption kinetics from aqueous metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the kinetics of lead (II) and Nickel (II) ions adsorption from aqueous solutions using chemically modified and unmodified agricultural adsorbents at 28°C, pH 6.2 and 0.01M NaCl ionic strength. The removal of the two metals were found to increase with increase in chemical modification, the sequence ...

  5. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  6. Recent results from AMANDA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.; Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; De Young, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herque, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Koci, B.; Koepke, L.; Kuehn, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new data taken with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope array. The AMANDA-II upgrade was completed at the beginning of 2000. It significantly extends the sensitivity of the 10-string AMANDA-B10 detector to high- and ultrahigh-energy neutrino fluxes into regions of interest for probing current astrophysical models which remain unexplored by other experiments

  7. Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) complexes with some mixed ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Samiran; Kundu, Parimal; Singh, Rajkumar Bhubon

    1998-01-01

    Dichloro-(DCA) and trichloroacetate(TCA) -cyclic ligand morpholine (Morph)/thiomorpholine (Tmorph)/methylmorpholine (Mmorph)/dimethyl-piperazine (DMP) complexes of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) with the compositions [Ni(tmorph) 2 (DCA) 2 ], [Ni(tmorph) 2 (TCA) 2 ].2H 2 O, [Cu(DMP) 2 (TCA) 2 ],[ML 2 X 2 ].nH 2 O where M=Zn II or Cd II , L=Morph, DMP or tmorph and X=DCA or TCA and n=O except in case of [Cd (Morph) 2 (TCA) 2 ] where n=1 have been synthesised. Some intermediate complexes have been isolated by temperature arrest technique (pyrolysis) and characterised. Configurational and conformational changes have been studied by elemental analyses, IR and electronic spectra, magnetic moment data (in the case of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes) and thermal analysis. E a * , ΔH, and ΔS for the decomposition reaction of these complexes are evaluated and the stability of the complexes with respect to activation energy has also been compared. The linear correlation has been found between E a * and ΔS for the decomposition of the complexes. (author)

  8. Dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that H II regions may contain dust: 1) the continuum light scattered by dust grains (O'Dell and Hubbard, 1965), 2) thermal radiation from dust grains at infrared wavelengths (Ney and Allen, 1969), 3) the abnormal helium abundance in some H II regions (Peimbert and Costero, 1969), etc. Although observations of the scattered continuum suggest that the H II region cores may be dust-free, dust grains and gas must be well mixed in view of the infrared observations. This difficulty may be solved by introducing globules with sizes approximately 0.001 pc. These globules and the molecular clouds adjacent to H II regions are the main sources supplying dust to H II regions. (Auth.)

  9. RTNS-II operations guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended to provide training criteria, procedures and guidelines for operation of the RTNS-II neutron sources and ancilliary equipment. Use of this document requires full knowledge of the RTNS-II Facility Safety Procedure (FSP) and any Operational Safety Procedures (OSP) in effect. The RTNS-II FSP defines the hazards which may be encountered at RTNS-II and defines the procedures which must be followed in performing any task including operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a central source of detailed information concerning systems and equipment used in operating the RTNS-II neutron sources on a day-to-day basis. All members of the Operations Group are expected to be familiar with its contents. It is also intended to be used in training new members of the Operations Group

  10. BEPC II positron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Guoxi; Sun Yaolin; Liu Jintong; Chi Yunlong; Liu Yucheng; Liu Nianzong

    2006-01-01

    BEPC II-an upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) is a factory type of e + e - collider. The fundamental requirements for its injector linac are the beam energy of 1.89 GeV for on-energy injection and a 40 mA positron beam current at the linac end with a low beam emittance of 1.6 μm and a low energy spread of ±0.5% so as to guarantee a higher injection rate (≥50 mA/min) to the storage ring. Since the positron flux is proportional to the primary electron beam power on the target, the authors will increase the electron gun current from 4A to 10A by using a new electron gun system and increase the primary electron energy from 120 MeV to 240 MeV. The positron source itself is an extremely important system for producing more positrons, including a positron converter target chamber, a 12kA flux modulator, the 7m focusing module with DC power supplies and the support. The new positron production linac from the electron gun to the positron source has been installed into the tunnel. In what follows, the authors will emphasize the positron source design, manufacture and tests. (authors)

  11. Dark matter detection - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  12. Textos sobre Sostenibilidad II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciudades para un futuro más sostenible http://habitat.aq.upm.es

    2004-12-01

    This issue assembles a selection of articles publicly available on the website Ciudades para un Futuro más Sostenible (CF+S: http://habitat.aq.upm.es. This selection was originally used as a printed companion guide to the public lecture series on ‘‘Sustainability in the Architecture and Urban Project’’, held on March 2004 and organized by the Madrid School of Architecture within the Initiative for a more Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism (IAU+S. The compilation an overall vision on sustainability presents to average audience. The basic criterion to select these articles was therefore a pedagogical one, including those simpler and clearer papers dealing with all main topics in CF+S. However, due to space limitations, many excellent articles available on the website are unfortunately not included within this selection. CF+S was created in 1996 as a partnership between the Spanish Ministry of Works and Madrid School of Architecture. The objective was to translate into Spanish and publish the experiences selected at the International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment, organized by United Nations after the Istanbul Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II. CF+S aims to gather documents concerning any kind of actions and experiences both on the territory and the city actually improving people’s living conditions according to the sustainability concept in its strongest sense. It also offers papers, reports and theoretical reflections on the state of and the possible alternatives to urban development nowadays.

  13. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  14. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  15. National Energy Plan II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the Administration's second National Energy Plan, as required by section 801 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91). A second volume will contain an assessment of the environmental trends associated with the energy futures reported here. Detailed appendices to the Plan will be published separately. The eight chapters and their subtitles are: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future (The Immediate Crisis and the Continuing Problem, The Emergence of the Energy Problem, The Uncertainties of the World Energy Future, World Oil Prices, Consequences for the U.S.); The U.S. Energy Future: The Implications for Policy (The Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term, The Strategy in Perspective); Conservation (Historical Changes in Energy Use, Post-Embargo Changes - In Detail, Conservation Policies and Programs, The Role of Conservation); Oil and Gas (Oil, Natural Gas); Coal and Nuclear (Coal, Nuclear, Policy for Coal and Nuclear Power); Solar and Other Inexhaustible Energy Sources (Solar Energy, Geothermal, Fusion, A Strategy for Inexhaustible Resources); Making Decisions Promptly and Fairly (Managing Future Energy Crises: Emergency Planning, Managing the Current Shortfall: The Iranian Response Plan, Managing the Long-Term Energy Problem: The Institutional Framework, Fairness in Energy Policy, Public Participation in the Development of Energy Policy); and NEP-II and the Future (The Second National Energy Plan and the Nation's Energy Future, The Second National Energy Plan and the Economy, Employment and Energy Policy, The Second National Energy Plan and Individuals, The Second National Energy Plan and Capital Markets, and The Second National Energy Plan and the Environment). (ERA citation 04:041097)

  16. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  17. Kursk Operation Simulation and Validation Exercise - Phase II (KOSAVE II)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauman, Walter

    1998-01-01

    ... (KOSAVE) Study (KOSAVE II) documents, in this report a statistical record of the Kursk battle, as represented in the KDB, for use as both a standalone descriptive record for historians, and as a baseline for a subsequent Phase...

  18. RTNS-II [Rotating Target Neutron Source II] operational summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source II facility (RTNS-II) operated for over nine years. Its purpose was to provide high intensities of 14 MeV neutrons for materials studies in the fusion energy program. For the period from 1982-1987, the facility was supported by both the US (Department of Energy) and Japan (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science). RTNS-II contains two accelerator-based neutron sources which use the T(d,n) 4 He reaction. In this paper, we will summarize the operational history of RTNS-II. Typical operating parameters are given. In addition, a brief description of the experimental program is presented. The current status and future options for the facility are discussed. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II binary complexes of l-methionine in 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Padma Latha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.

  20. New instruments at IPNS: POSY II and SAD II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Felcher, G.P.; Kleb, R.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Three new instruments are currently in varying degrees of development/construction at IPNS. One of these, the Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous Materials Diffractometer (GLAD) is the subject of a separate paper in these Proceedings, and so will not be discussed further here. The other two, a second neutron reflectometer (POSY II) and a second small-angle diffractometer (SAD II) are described briefly below. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II (IPMS II) is online/ batch system for collecting developing, managing and disseminating procurementrelated data at NASA Johnson Space Center. Portions of IPMS II adaptable to other procurement situations.

  2. Bose Condensate in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Condensate Saga, now halfway through its fifth decade, is reviewed. The recent neutron-scattering work which has at last convincingly established that there is indeed a Bose Condensate in He II is described

  3. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  4. Penetrating Internet Information Services (IIS).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... Information Services (IIS) packages have been presented. Note that while some of ... encompasses a variety of services including FTP, SMTP ..... for Web-based Distributed Authoring ... denial-of-service vulnerabilities we have.

  5. Coordination compounds of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) with pantothenic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabilalov, A.A.; Yunuskhodzhaev, A.N.; Khodzhaev, O.F.; Azizov, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The compounds Ni(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 4H/sub 2/O (PANA stands for pantothenic acid, and - H indicates a deprotonated ligand), Cu(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 2H/sub 2/O, Zn(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/O, Co(PANA - H)Cl x H/sub 2/O, and Ni(PANA - H)Cl x 3H/sub 2/O have been synthesized on the basis of pantothenic acid and Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) salts in aqueous media. The compounds have been identified by elemental and x-ray diffraction analysis. Some physicochemical properties (solubility, melting point, molar conductivity) of the compounds obtained have been studied. The structure of the compounds isolated has been established on the basis of an analysis of their IR, ESR, and electronic spectra, as well as derivatograms.

  6. Lunar Health Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  7. Australia; Basel II Implementation Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    The key findings of Australia’s BASEL II implementation assessment are presented. The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) allocated sufficient resources, including highly skilled staff, prior to the Basel II start date, and the outcome has been a robust and high-quality implementation that has built upon and substantially strengthened the risk-management capabilities of major banks. The quality of leadership and commitment by all involved has been instrumental in the success of ...

  8. Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) adsorption on low grade manganese ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low grade manganese ore (LMO) of Orissa containing 58.37% SiO2, 25.05% MnO2, 8.8% Al2O3, and 5.03% Fe2O3 as the main constituents was taken to study its adsorption behaviour for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The XRD studies showed the crystalline phases to be quartz, ß-MnO2, d-MnO2 and ...

  9. Cr(III,Mn(II,Fe(III,Co(II,Ni(II,Cu(II and Zn(II Complexes with Diisobutyldithiocarbamato Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tarique

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of sulphur and nitrogen containing dithiocarbamato ligand derived from diisobutylamine as well as its coordination compounds with 3d series transition metals is presented. These synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, conductometric measurements and IR spectral studies. The analytical data showed the stoichiometry 1:2 and 1:3 for the compounds of the types ML2 {M=Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II} and M'L3{M'=Cr(III and Fe(III} respectively. The conductometric measurements proved the non-electrolytic behaviour of all the compounds. The bidentate nature of dithiocarbamato moiety was confirmed on the basis of IR spectral data.

  10. Mu2e-II Injection from PIP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2018-04-26

    We discuss injection of 800 MeV proton beam from PIP-II into the production target for Mu2e-II, assuming a targeting and μ production scenario similar to mu2e. The incoming beam trajectory must be modified from the mu2e parameters to match the focusing fields. Adding a vertical deflection at injection enables the injected beam to reach the target. Other differences from the mu2e system must be considered, including changes in the target structure, the radiation shielding and beam dump/absorber. H- beam should be stripped to p+. Other variations are discussed.

  11. The CDF SVX II upgrade for the Tevatron Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoletto, Daniela

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip silicon detector SVX II has been proposed for the upgrade of CDF to be installed in 1999 for Run II of the Tevatron. Three barrels of five layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors will cover the interaction region. A description of the project status will be presented. Emphasis will be given to the R and D program for silicon sensors which includes capacitance minimization, the study of coupling capacitor integrity, the operation of the detectors in conjunction with the SVXH and SVX2 readout chips in two beam tests and the determination of the detectors performance deterioration due to radiation damage

  12. EBR-II Data Digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sackett, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.

  13. Genetic and structural study of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II of Trypanosoma brucei, towards the designing of novel antiparasitic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Papageorgiou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei brucei (TBB belongs to the unicellular parasitic protozoa organisms, specifically to the Trypanosoma genus of the Trypanosomatidae class. A variety of different vertebrate species can be infected by TBB, including humans and animals. Under particular conditions, the TBB can be hosted by wild and domestic animals; therefore, an important reservoir of infection always remains available to transmit through tsetse flies. Although the TBB parasite is one of the leading causes of death in the most underdeveloped countries, to date there is neither vaccination available nor any drug against TBB infection. The subunit RPB1 of the TBB DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (DdRpII constitutes an ideal target for the design of novel inhibitors, since it is instrumental role is vital for the parasite’s survival, proliferation, and transmission. A major goal of the described study is to provide insights for novel anti-TBB agents via a state-of-the-art drug discovery approach of the TBB DdRpII RPB1. In an attempt to understand the function and action mechanisms of this parasite enzyme related to its molecular structure, an in-depth evolutionary study has been conducted in parallel to the in silico molecular designing of the 3D enzyme model, based on state-of-the-art comparative modelling and molecular dynamics techniques. Based on the evolutionary studies results nine new invariant, first-time reported, highly conserved regions have been identified within the DdRpII family enzymes. Consequently, those patches have been examined both at the sequence and structural level and have been evaluated in regard to their pharmacological targeting appropriateness. Finally, the pharmacophore elucidation study enabled us to virtually in silico screen hundreds of compounds and evaluate their interaction capabilities with the enzyme. It was found that a series of chlorine-rich set of compounds were the optimal inhibitors for the TBB DdRpII RPB1 enzyme. All

  14. RTNS-II: present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    The present status of the RTNS-II facility is described and typical operating parameters are given. A brief discussion is given of the methods used in production of the TiT 2 targets as well as their performance and tritium handling at RTNS-II. The various types of non-interactive beam diagnostics presently in use at the neutron sources are outlined. The on-line computer system which provides a time history of an irradiation and records target performance is described. Examples are listed of several representative experimental programs which have been carried out thus far at RTNS-II. These include both active and passive experiments. Finally, several of the major improvements to the facility made since the beginning of the experimental program are given

  15. STARFIRE-II studies. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy has initiated several studies during FY-1985 called Tokamak Power System Studies (TPSS). The TPSS is being carried out by several laboratories, universities and industry with the general objective of developing innovative physics and technology concepts to improve the commercial attractiveness of tokamak power reactors. The effort of Argonne National Laboratory, entitled STARFIRE-II, is an effort to update and improve STARFIRE, which was the last comprehensive conceptual design study in the US of a commercial tokamak power plant. The STARFIRE-II effort has developed a number of goals in order to improve fusion commercial power plants based in part on several recent studies. The primary goals for STARFIRE-II are listed

  16. First results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76 -18 +21 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74 -12 +13 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  17. Facilities design for TIBER II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design of the reactor building and reactor maintenance building for the TIBER II tokamak. These buildings are strongly influenced by the reactor configuration, and their characterization allows a better understanding of the economic and technical implications of the reactor design. Key features of TIBER II that affect the facilities design are the small size and compact arrangement, the use of an external vacuum vessel, and the complete reliance on remote maintenance. The building design incorporates requirements for equipment layout, maintenance operations and equipment, safety, and contamination control. 4 figs

  18. First results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Gusev, A.O.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shalagin, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Nico, J.S.; Teasdale, W.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.; Daily, T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Wildenhain, P.W.; Elliott, S.R.; Cherry, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76 +21 -18 (stat) +5 -7 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74 +13 -12 (stat) +5 -7 (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Extinction of H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, F.P.; Kennicutt, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Visual extinction of H II regions in nine nearby galaxies as derived from the ratio of the radio continuum emission to H-alpha emission is systematically larger than visual extinction deduced from the Balmer lines alone, if one assumes a value Av/E(B-V) 3. An optically-limited sample of about 30 extragalactic H II regions has a mean extinction of 1.7 m in the visual while about 1.2 m is not seen in the reddening of the Balmer lines. Both reddening and extinction decreases with increasing galactic radius, at least for M33 and M101

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of nickel(II), cobalt(II), Zinc(II), manganese(II), cadmium(II) and uranium(VI) complexes of α-oximinoacetoacet-o/p-anisidide thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.S.; Patel, M.M.; Ray, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    A few metal complexes of α-oximinoacetoacet-o/p-anisidide thiosemicarbazones (OAOATS)/(OAPATS) with Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and UO 2 (II) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry study, thermogravimetric analyses and infrared and electronic spectral measurements in conjunction with magnetic susceptibility measurements at room temperature. They have also been tested for their antimicrobial activities. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Irradiations at RTNS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The RTNS-II 14-MeV neutron source facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is described. Average neutron source parameters are outlined. A brief general description of the irradiation program to the present time is given. A short discussion of guidelines for prospective users is also given

  2. DUMAND-II progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, R.J.; Alexander, C.M.; Aoki, T.; Berson, U.; Bosetti, P.; Bolesta, J.; Boynton, P.E.; Bradner, H.; Camerini, U.; Dye, S.T.; Gergin, E.; Gorham, P.W.; Grieder, P.K.F.; Grogan, W.; Hanada, H.; Harris, D.; Hayashino, T.; Hazen, E.; Ito, M.; Jaworski, M.; Jenko, M.; Kawamoto, H.; Kitamura, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Kondo, S.; Koske, P.; Learned, J.G.; Ley, C.; Lord, J.J.; Lord, R.; Lozic, T.; March, R.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuno, S.; Mavretic, A.; McCourry, L.; Mignard, M.; Miller, K.; Minkowski, P.; Mitiguy, R.; Mitsui, K.; Narita, S.; Nicklaus, D.

    1993-01-01

    The design, scientific goals, and capabilities of the DUMAND II detector system are described. Construction was authorized by DOE in 1990, and construction of various detector subsystems is under way. Current plans include deployment of the shore cable, junction box and three strings of optical detector modules in 1993, with expansion to the full 9-string configuration about one year later

  3. Tech Area II: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  4. Light harvesting in photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, H.; Croce, R.

    2013-01-01

    Water oxidation in photosynthesis takes place in photosystem II (PSII). This photosystem is built around a reaction center (RC) where sunlight-induced charge separation occurs. This RC consists of various polypeptides that bind only a few chromophores or pigments, next to several other cofactors. It

  5. TJ-II Library Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.; Milligen, B.Ph., van; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the TJ-II library and its routines. The library is written in FORTRAN 77 language and is available in the CRAY J916 and DEC Alpha 8400 computers at CIEMAT. This document also contains some examples of its use. (Author)

  6. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  7. Rahvusvaheline "Scripta manent II" Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Eduard Taska 110. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud rahvusvaheline köitekunsti- ja kalligraafianäitus "Scripta manent II" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Köitekunsti osas pälvis "kuldraamatu" Marielle Liivat, ergutusauhinnad: Marje Kask, Kadi Kiipus, Urve Kolde

  8. Recent results from DORIS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into γγ physics. 18 refs., 10 figs

  9. Paiton II financing locked up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 2 x 610 MW Paiton II coal-fired independent power project in Indonesia became a reality last week with the completion of a 1.36 billion dollars commercial financing for the 1.65 billion dollar undertaking. Details of the financing are given. A table lists Indonesia`s independent power projects and their current status.

  10. Elizabeth II / Fagira D. Morti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fagira D. Morti, pseud., 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Järjejutt Elizabeth II elust. Järgneb nr. 80, lk. 30-33, nr. 81, lk. 30-32, nr. 82, lk. 34-36, nr. 83, lk. 34-37, nr. 84, lk. 42-45, nr. 85, lk. 36-38, 86, lk. 44-47, nr. 87, lk. 32-35. Nr. 86 ja 87 autor: Helene Wait

  11. Application Programming in AWIPS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Matt; McGrath, Kevin; Burks, Jason; Carcione, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception almost 8 years ago, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has integrated NASA data into the National Weather Service's decision support system (DSS) the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SPoRT has, in some instances, had to shape and transform data sets into various formats and manipulate configurations to visualize them in AWIPS. With the advent of the next generation of DSS, AWIPS II, developers will be able to develop their own plugins to handle any type of data. Raytheon is developing AWIPS II to be a more extensible package written mainly in Java, and built around a Service Oriented Architecture. A plugin architecture will allow users to install their own code modules, and (if all the rules have been properly followed) they will work hand-in-hand with AWIPS II as if it were originally built in. Users can bring in new datasets with existing plugins, tweak plugins to handle a nuance or desired new functionality, or create an entirely new visualization layout for a new dataset. SPoRT is developing plugins to ensure its existing NASA data will be ready for AWIPS II when it is delivered, and to prepare for the future of new instruments on upcoming satellites.

  12. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  13. Sequestration of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) by ethyleneimine immobilized on silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Luiza N.H.; Alves, Ana Paula M.; Silva Filho, Edson C. da; Fonseca, Maria G.; Oliveira, Severino F.; Espinola, Jose Geraldo P.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamic data on interaction of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) with silica modified with ethyleneimine are obtained by calorimetric titration. The amount of ethyleneimine anchored on silica surface was estimated to be 0.70 mmol g -1 . The enthalpies of binding Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II), are -3.59 ± 0.001, -4.88 ± 0.001, and -7.75 ± 0.003 kJ mol -1 , respectively

  14. Solar photocatalytic removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II): Speciation modeling of metal-citric acid complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabra, Kavita; Chaudhary, Rubina; Sawhney, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study is targeted on solar photocatalytic removal of metal ions from wastewater. Photoreductive deposition and dark adsorption of metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), using solar energy irradiated TiO 2 , has been investigated. Citric acid has been used as a hole scavenger. Modeling of metal species has been performed and speciation is used as a tool for discussing the photodeposition trends. Ninety-seven percent reductive deposition was obtained for copper. The deposition values of other metals were significantly low [nickel (36.4%), zinc (22.2%) and lead (41.4%)], indicating that the photocatalytic treatment process, using solar energy, was more suitable for wastewater containing Cu(II) ions. In absence of citric acid, the decreasing order deposition was Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Pb(II) > Zn(II), which proves the theoretical thermodynamic predictions about the metals

  15. Radioimmunologic determination of plasmapepsinogen II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzschke, C.; Berg, U.

    1979-01-01

    Within the frame of this study the pepsinogen II concentration could be determined for the first time with a radioimmunoassay in the plasma. In our normal study group the mean value was 13.91 ng/ml with a variation between 4.08 and 36.19 ng/ml. With increasing patient age a continuous increase of this concentration could be observed. The mean value of 14.99 ng/ml for male patients was by 4.75 ng/ml higher than the mean value of 10.24 ng/ml for female patients. The 24 hour profiles represented for the pepsinogen plasma concentration daily physiologic fluctuations and a stabilisation at night. The effects of meals could not be defined unambiguously. In stimulation tests Pentagastrin provoked in 4 of 9 test persons an increase of the concentration of up to 70% of the basic value. In short-term stress-tests the Pg II concentrations found in the test subjects presented an increase or a decrease. In investigations before or after the same patient underwent an operative procedure, an expressive Pg II decrease (up to 33.74 ng/ml) could be detected. Patients with a total resection of the stomach had only a very low Pg II concentration (less than 3.1 ng/ml). In patients with gastric pathologies a significant difference of the confidence limits was found for the Pg II concentration between superficial gastritis (m = 16.04 ng/ml) and atrophic gastritis (m = 27.38 ng/ml). Compared with various gastric diseases the normal patient group presents a significant difference with reference to the atrophic gastritis or the cancerous stomach. The mean values found in atrophic gastritis or the cancerous stomach. The mean values found in atrophic gastritis and in gastric carcinoma are close to each other and are increased, compared to those measured in the normal patient group. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II Complexes of N-Thiophenoyl-N′-Phenylthiocarbohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II complex of N-thiophenoyl -N′-phenylthiocarbohydrazide (H2 TPTH have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared, NMR, electronic, and ESR spectral studies. The complexes were found to have compositions [Mn(H TPTH2], [Co(TPTH (H2O2], [Ni(TPTH (H2O2], [Cu(TPTH], [Zn(H TPTH], [Cd(H TPTH2], and [Fe(H TPTH2(EtOH]. The magnetic and electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for [Cu(TPTH], tetrahedral geometry for [Zn(TPTH] and [Cd(H TPTH2], and octahedral geometry for rest of the complexes. The infrared spectral studies of the 1 : 1 deprotonated complexes suggest bonding through enolic oxygen, thiolato sulfur, and both the hydrazinic nitrogens. Thus, H2TPTH acts as a binegative tetradentate ligand. H2 TPTH and its metal complexes have been screened against several bacteria and fungi.

  17. Digital logic circuit design with ALTERA Quartus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ho

    2009-09-01

    This book consists 31 chapters about digital logic circuit with ALTERA Quartus II. It includes the introduction of ALTERA Quartus II, ALTERA Quartus II schematic editor, ALTERA Quartus II compiler, ALTERA Quartus II simulator, ALTERA Quartus II timing analyzer, how to use HBE-COMBO II training and HBE-COMBO II training kit with schematic editor, VHDL grammar and practice of ALTERA Quartus II and HBE-COMBO II training kit with VHDL.

  18. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and As(V) on bacterially produced metal sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-07-01

    The adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II) and As(V) onto bacterially produced metal sulfide (BPMS) material was investigated using a batch equilibrium method. It was found that the sulfide material had adsorptive properties comparable with those of other adsorbents with respect to the specific uptake of a range of metals and, the levels to which dissolved metal concentrations in solution can be reduced. The percentage of adsorption increased with increasing pH and adsorbent dose, but decreased with increasing initial dissolved metal concentration. The pH of the solution was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and As(V) by BPMS. The adsorption data were successfully modeled using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Desorption experiments showed that the reversibility of adsorption was low, suggesting high-affinity adsorption governed by chemisorption. The mechanism of adsorption for the divalent metals was thought to be the formation of strong, inner-sphere complexes involving surface hydroxyl groups. However, the mechanism for the adsorption of As(V) by BPMS appears to be distinct from that of surface hydroxyl exchange. These results have important implications to the management of metal sulfide sludge produced by bacterial sulfate reduction.

  19. Information on Asse II; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    The information on Asse II include the following topics: The image and what is behind - the barrier building Dammjoch built 1914; Fact finding - underground explorations; concept for a site comparison; Learning from experiences - the final repository projects Asse, Gorleben and Morsleben show what should not be done; At first drilling - thereafter building - progress of the recovery duct; The retrieval can only go on in dialogue with the public.

  20. Type II Supernova Spectral Diversity. II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; González-Gaitan, Santiago; Galbany, Lluis; Dessart, Luc; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia; Folatelli, Gastón

    2017-11-01

    We present an analysis of observed trends and correlations between a large range of spectral and photometric parameters of more than 100 type II supernovae (SNe II), during the photospheric phase. We define a common epoch for all SNe of 50 days post-explosion, where the majority of the sample is likely to be under similar physical conditions. Several correlation matrices are produced to search for interesting trends between more than 30 distinct light-curve and spectral properties that characterize the diversity of SNe II. Overall, SNe with higher expansion velocities are brighter, have more rapidly declining light curves, shorter plateau durations, and higher 56Ni masses. Using a larger sample than previous studies, we argue that “Pd”—the plateau duration from the transition of the initial to “plateau” decline rates to the end of the “plateau”—is a better indicator of the hydrogen envelope mass than the traditionally used optically thick phase duration (OPTd: explosion epoch to end of plateau). This argument is supported by the fact that Pd also correlates with s 3, the light-curve decline rate at late times: lower Pd values correlate with larger s 3 decline rates. Large s 3 decline rates are likely related to lower envelope masses, which enables gamma-ray escape. We also find a significant anticorrelation between Pd and s 2 (the plateau decline rate), confirming the long standing hypothesis that faster declining SNe II (SNe IIL) are the result of explosions with lower hydrogen envelope masses and therefore have shorter Pd values. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS- 2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programs 076.A-0156, 078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  1. Information on Asse II; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-15

    The information brochure on Asse II describes the situation in the repository for radioactive wastes that was closed by law due to the violations of safety standards. The discussed topics include the necessity of waste retrieval, the problems with public anxiety and public information, the hazard of an uncontrolled water ingress (worst case scenario), the work sites in the cavern, man-machine interactions and the cost of the project.

  2. Physicochemical properties of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. FERENC

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid anion of the formula: M(C10H11O52·nH2O, where n = 6 for Ni(II, n = 1 for Mn(II, Co(II, Cu(II, and n = 0 for Zn, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X–ray diffraction measurements, thermogravimetry and magnetic studies. They are crystalline compounds characterized by various symmetry. They decompose in various ways when heated in air to 1273 K. At first, they dehydrate in one step and form anhydrous salts. The final products of decomposition are oxides of the respective metals (Mn2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, ZnO. The solubilities of the analysed complexes in water at 293 K are in the orders of 10-2 – 10-4 mol dm-3. The magnetic susceptibilities of the Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes were measured over the range of 76–303 K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that the 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II are high-spin complexes but that of Cu(II forms a dimer [Cu2(C10H11O54(H2O2]. The carboxylate groups bind as monodentate or bidentate chelating or bridging ligands.

  3. TAF(II)250: a transcription toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassarman, D A; Sauer, F

    2001-08-01

    Activation of RNA-polymerase-II-dependent transcription involves conversion of signals provided by gene-specific activator proteins into the synthesis of messenger RNA. This conversion requires dynamic structural changes in chromatin and assembly of general transcription factors (GTFs) and RNA polymerase II at core promoter sequence elements surrounding the transcription start site of genes. One hallmark of transcriptional activation is the interaction of DNA-bound activators with coactivators such as the TATA-box binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAF(II)s) within the GTF TFIID. TAF(II)250 possesses a variety of activities that are likely to contribute to the initial steps of RNA polymerase II transcription. TAF(II)250 is a scaffold for assembly of other TAF(II)s and TBP into TFIID, TAF(II)250 binds activators to recruit TFIID to particular promoters, TAF(II)250 regulates binding of TBP to DNA, TAF(II)250 binds core promoter initiator elements, TAF(II)250 binds acetylated lysine residues in core histones, and TAF(II)250 possesses protein kinase, ubiquitin-activating/conjugating and acetylase activities that modify histones and GTFs. We speculate that these activities achieve two goals--(1) they aid in positioning and stabilizing TFIID at particular promoters, and (2) they alter chromatin structure at the promoter to allow assembly of GTFs--and we propose a model for how TAF(II)250 converts activation signals into active transcription.

  4. Roget's II the new thesaurus

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Roget’s II: The New Thesaurus, Third Edition, allows the user to find the right synonym with a minimum of effort. Unlike many thesauruses, this easy-to-use reference lists main entry words alphabetically, as in a dictionary, for quick lookup. Each entry is divided into senses, with brief definitions and a full list of synonyms for each sense, to ensure that the selected usage is the most appropriate one. All special usages, such as slang terms, are labeled and grouped together at the end of each synonym list. Following each list is a cross-reference to a related entry in the thesaurus’s unique Category Index. This index leads the reader from the starting word to dozens of others that have related or opposite meanings. All these features make Roget’s II the best resource for finding the right word every time.

  5. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  6. MPS II drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed

  7. FRM-II conversion revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, A.; Pistner, C.; Liebert, W.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities for a conversion of the currently constructed research reactor FRM-II has been extensively discussed at various RERTR meetings over the past years. In order to support the ongoing decision-making process in Germany, we prepared computer simulations providing extra information on the scientific usability of the converted reactor based on designs proposed by ANL and TUM. The most important results of these calculations are presented and discussed. Special attention is thereby given to the specific German context. (author)

  8. TRANSWRAP II: problem definition manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, D.E.

    1981-02-01

    The TRANSWRAP II computer code, written in Fortran IV and described in this Problem Definition Manual, was developed to analytically predict the magnitude of pressure pulses of large scale sodium-wate reactions in LMFBR secondary systems. It is currently being used for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Program. The code provides the options, flexibility and features necessary to consider any system configuration. The code methodology has been validated with the aid of extensive sodium-water reaction test programs

  9. Spectroscopic and thermal degradation behavior of Mg(II, Ca(II, Ba(II and Sr(II complexes with paracetamol drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moamen S. Refat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mg(II, Ca(II, Ba(II and Sr(II with paracetamol drug were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity, UV–Vis, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis, as well as screened for antimicrobial activity. The IR spectral data suggested that the ligand behaves as paracetamol behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the lone pair of electrons of nitrogen and carbonyl-O atoms of the amide group. From the microanalytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes reacts with Mg(II, Ca(II, Ba(II and Sr(II by molar ratios (2:1 (paracetamol:metal ion. The thermal behavior (TG/DTG of the complexes was studied. The ligand and their metal complexes were screened against both of antibacterial and fungicidal activities.

  10. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of heterobimetallic complexes of the type [Cu(pn2][MCl4] where M = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II, and Hg(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Yadav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new bimetallic transition metal complexes of the type [Cu(pn2] [MCl4] have been synthesized (where M = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Hg(II, pn = 1,3-diaminopropane and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, TGA, IR and electronic spectra. All the compounds are 1:1 electrolyte in DMF. The Cu(II ion is square-planar while metal ions in the anionic moiety acquire their usual tetrahedral arrangement. On the basis of these studies it is concluded that anionic moiety is electrically stabilized by its cationic counterpart.

  12. Preparation of Schiff s base complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) and their spectroscopic, magnetic, thermal, and antifungal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, H.M.; Patel, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The potassium salt of salicylidene-DL-alanine (KHL), bis(benzylidene)ethylenediamine (A 1 ), thiophene-o-carboxaldene-p-toluidine (A 2 ), and its metal complexes of the formula [(M II (L)(A)(H 2 O)] (M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II); A = A 1 or A 2 ) are prepared. They are characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and infrared and electronic spectral studies. The electronic spectral and magnetic moment data suggest an octahedral geometry for the complexes. All of these complexes, metal nitrates, fungicides (bavistin and emcarb), and ligands are screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus flavus using a plate poison technique. The complexes show higher activity than those of the free ligands, metal nitrate, and the control (DMSO) and moderate activity against bavistin and emcarb [ru

  13. Status of Gerda Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index (BI) of 10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. No signal has been found and a lower limit on the half-life of 2.1.10{sup 25} yr (at 90% C.L.) is extracted. The aim of Phase II is to double the Ge mass and further reduce the BI by an order of magnitude to explore half-lives of about 10{sup 26} yr. Thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by an active veto to read out argon scintillation light. The Phase II commissioning showed that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl decays, can be suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. This talk presents the current status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade.

  14. Testing the Gossamer Albatross II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Gossamer Albatross II is seen here during a test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The original Gossamer Albatross is best known for completing the first completely human powered flight across the English Channel on June 12, 1979. The Albatross II was the backup craft for the Channel flight. It was fitted with a small battery-powered electric motor and flight instruments for the NASA research program in low-speed flight. NASA completed its flight testing of the Gossamer Albatross II and began analysis of the results in April, 1980. During the six week program, 17 actual data gathering flights and 10 other flights were flown here as part of the joint NASA Langley/Dryden flight research program. The lightweight craft, carrying a miniaturized instrumentation system, was flown in three configurations; using human power, with a small electric motor, and towed with the propeller removed. Results from the program contributed to data on the unusual aerodynamic, performance, stability, and control characteristics of large, lightweight aircraft that fly at slow speeds for application to future high altitude aircraft. The Albatross' design and research data contributed to numerous later high altitude projects, including the Pathfinder.

  15. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This light echo offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves. 22 references

  16. Synthesis, spectral characterization thermal stability, antimicrobial studies and biodegradation of starch–thiourea based biodegradable polymeric ligand and its coordination complexes with [Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)] metals

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Nishat; Ashraf Malik

    2016-01-01

    A biodegradable polymer was synthesized by the modification reaction of polymeric starch with thiourea which is further modified by transition metals, Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). All the polymeric compounds were characterized by (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectra, magnetic moment measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and antibacterial activities. Polymer complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) show octahedral geometry, wh...

  17. Levels of Cd (II, Mn (II, Pb (II, Cu (II, and Zn (II in Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo from Sicily (Italy by Derivative Stripping Potentiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Licata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn in different organs (liver, kidney, muscle, lung, skin, and feathers of buzzards (Buteo buteo, utilized as a “biological indicator” for environmental contamination, from different areas of Sicily and to investigate the relationships between birds sex, age, and weight and metal levels in these samples. All samples of common buzzards were collected at the “Recovery Center of Wild Fauna” of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA was used to determine the content of Cd(II, Cu(II, Mn(II, Pb(II, and Zn(II in bird tissues. For toxic metals, the highest levels of Pb were in liver and those of Cd in lung; Zn levels were higher than Cu and Mn in all tissues analyzed. The concentrations in liver, lung, kidney, and muscle could be considered as an indicative of chronic exposure to metals while the presence of metals in skin could be consequential to storing and elimination processes. The found concentrations of metals in the studied matrices required a highly sensitive method for their determination and a simple sample preparation procedure, and the proposed method was well suited for this purpose.

  18. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial studies on cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and palladium(II) complexes containing thiosemicarbazone ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sawaf, Ayman K.; El-Essawy, Farag; Nassar, Amal A.; El-Samanody, El-Sayed A.

    2018-04-01

    The coordination characteristic of new N4-morpholinyl isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone (HL) towards Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pd(II) has been studies. The structures of the complexes were described by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, magnetic, thermal and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR and ESR) studies. On the basis of analytical and spectral studies the ligand behaves as monobasic tridentate ONS donor forming two five membered rings towards cobalt, copper and palladium and afforded complexes of the kind [M(L)X], (Mdbnd Co, Cu or Pd; Xdbnd Cl, Br or OAc). Whereas the ligand bound to NiCl2 as neutral tridentate ONS donor and with ZnCl2 as neutral bidentate NS donor. The newly synthesized thiosemicarbazone ligand and some of its complexes were examined for antimicrobial activity against 2 gram negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli Pseudomonas and aeruginosa), 2 gram positive bacterial strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus)} and two Pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans). All metal complexes possess higher antimicrobial activity comparing with the free thiosemicarbazone ligand. The high potent activities of the complexes may arise from the coordination and chelation, which tends to make metal complexes act as more controlling and potent antimicrobial agents, thus hindering the growing of the microorganisms. The antimicrobial results also show that copper bromide complex is better antimicrobial agent as compared to the Schiff base and its metal complexes.

  19. Efficiency of Chitosan for the Removal of Pb (II, Fe (II and Cu (II Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals have been recognized as harmful environmental pollutant known to produce highly toxic effects on different organs and systems of both humans and animals. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the adsorption potential of chitosan for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was conducted in laboratory scale. In this paper chitosan has been used as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II from aqueous solution. In batch tests, the effects of parameters like pH solution (1.0-8.0, initial metal concentrations (100-1000 mgL-1, contact time (5.0-150 min and adsorbent dose (1.0-7.0 g on the adsorption process were studied. Results: The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions on chitosan strongly depends on pH. The experimental isothermal data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and it was found that the removal process followed the Langmuir isotherm and maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions by the chitosan were 55.5mg g−1, 71.4 mg g−1 and 59 mg g−1, respectively, under equilibrium conditions at 25±1 ºC. The adsorption process was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that chitosan is a readily, available, economic adsorbent and was found suitable for removing Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solution.

  20. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site's high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified

  1. Competition from Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in Pb(II) binding to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakraborty, P.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of trace metal competition in the complexation of Pb(II) by well-characterized humic substances, namely Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) in model solutions. It was found that Cu(II) seems to compete with Pb(II) for strong binding sites of SRFA when present at the same concentration

  2. Macrocyclic receptor showing extremely high Sr(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Ca(II) selectivities with potential application in chelation treatment of metal intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; de Blas, Andrés; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa

    2011-04-18

    Herein we report a detailed investigation of the complexation properties of the macrocyclic decadentate receptor N,N'-Bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridil)methyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (H(2)bp18c6) toward different divalent metal ions [Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Sr(II), and Ca(II)] in aqueous solution. We have found that this ligand is especially suited for the complexation of large metal ions such as Sr(II) and Pb(II), which results in very high Pb(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) selectivities (in fact, higher than those found for ligands widely used for the treatment of lead poisoning such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta)), as well as in the highest Sr(II)/Ca(II) selectivity reported so far. These results have been rationalized on the basis of the structure of the complexes. X-ray crystal diffraction, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as theoretical calculations at the density functional theory (B3LYP) level have been performed. Our results indicate that for large metal ions such as Pb(II) and Sr(II) the most stable conformation is Δ(δλδ)(δλδ), while for Ca(II) our calculations predict the Δ(λδλ)(λδλ) form being the most stable one. The selectivity that bp18c6(2-) shows for Sr(II) over Ca(II) can be attributed to a better fit between the large Sr(II) ions and the relatively large crown fragment of the ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of the Pb(II) complex shows that the Δ(δλδ)(δλδ) conformation observed in solution is also maintained in the solid state. The Pb(II) ion is endocyclically coordinated, being directly bound to the 10 donor atoms of the ligand. The bond distances to the donor atoms of the pendant arms (2.55-2.60 Å) are substantially shorter than those between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the crown moiety (2.92-3.04 Å). This is a typical situation observed for the so-called hemidirected compounds, in which the Pb(II) lone pair is stereochemically active. The X-ray structures of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes show that

  3. Eight joint BER II and BESSY II users meeting. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Accelerator operation and projecs, photon science and instrumentation at BESSY II, status of energy materials in-situ Lab at BESSY II, high resolution spectrometer PEAXIS at BESSY II, sample environment at BESSY II, molecular control mechanisms in the Brr2 RNA helicase for efficient and regulated splicing, the Li conversion reaction of 4CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, buried interfaces in lithium ion batteries probed with HAXPES, ARPES studies of the STO(001) 2DEG, all-in/all-out magnetic order in rare earth iridates, oxygen reduction reaction on graphene in Li-air batteries, electronic order in high-T{sub c} superconductors, in-siu observation of novel switching phenomena in highly porous metal-organic frameworks, photoinduced demagnetization and insulator-to-metal transition in ferromagnetic insulating BaFeO{sub 3} thin films, ARPES measurement of the ferroelectric bulk Rashba system GeTe, bisphenol A on Cu(111) and Ag(111), reverse water-gas shift or Sabathier methanation on N(110), structural studies of molecular machines, multi-MHz time-of-flight electronic band-structure imaging of graphene on Ir(111), diffusion pathways in ion conductors, ground-state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, solar energy in an emerging country, in-situ neutron analysis of electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage, structure and transport properties in thermoelectric skutterudites, investigation of the interphase formation on solid lithium-ion conductors by neutron reflectometry, load partitin and damage characterization of cast AlSi{sub 12}CuMgNi alloy with ceramic reinforcement, methane adsorption in highly porous metal-organics, structure and magnetic interactions in dimer system Ba{sub (3-x)}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}, distribution of S in C-S nanocomposites, current status of HFM-EXED FACITIY; SPIN NEAMTICITY IN s=1/2 frustrated zigzag chaIN β-TeVO{sub 4}, electronic

  4. Eight joint BER II and BESSY II users meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Accelerator operation and projecs, photon science and instrumentation at BESSY II, status of energy materials in-situ Lab at BESSY II, high resolution spectrometer PEAXIS at BESSY II, sample environment at BESSY II, molecular control mechanisms in the Brr2 RNA helicase for efficient and regulated splicing, the Li conversion reaction of 4CoFe_2O_4 nanoparticles, buried interfaces in lithium ion batteries probed with HAXPES, ARPES studies of the STO(001) 2DEG, all-in/all-out magnetic order in rare earth iridates, oxygen reduction reaction on graphene in Li-air batteries, electronic order in high-T_c superconductors, in-siu observation of novel switching phenomena in highly porous metal-organic frameworks, photoinduced demagnetization and insulator-to-metal transition in ferromagnetic insulating BaFeO_3 thin films, ARPES measurement of the ferroelectric bulk Rashba system GeTe, bisphenol A on Cu(111) and Ag(111), reverse water-gas shift or Sabathier methanation on N(110), structural studies of molecular machines, multi-MHz time-of-flight electronic band-structure imaging of graphene on Ir(111), diffusion pathways in ion conductors, ground-state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, solar energy in an emerging country, in-situ neutron analysis of electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage, structure and transport properties in thermoelectric skutterudites, investigation of the interphase formation on solid lithium-ion conductors by neutron reflectometry, load partitin and damage characterization of cast AlSi_1_2CuMgNi alloy with ceramic reinforcement, methane adsorption in highly porous metal-organics, structure and magnetic interactions in dimer system Ba_(_3_-_x_)Sr_xCr_2O_8, distribution of S in C-S nanocomposites, current status of HFM-EXED FACITIY; SPIN NEAMTICITY IN s=1/2 frustrated zigzag chaIN β-TeVO_4, electronic properties of U(Ru_0_._9_2Rh_0_._0_8)_2Si_2 in

  5. Iodine capture by Hofmann-type clathrate Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massasso, Giovanni; Long, Jerome; Haines, Julien; Devautour-Vinot, Sabine; Maurin, Guillaume; Larionova, Joulia; Guerin, Christian; Guari, Yannick; Grandjean, Agnes; Onida, Barbara; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The thermally stable Hofmann-type clathrate framework Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] (pz = pyrazine) was investigated for the efficient and reversible sorption of iodine (I_2) in the gaseous phase and in solution with a maximum adsorption capacity of 1 mol of I_2 per 1 mol of Ni(II)pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] in solution. (authors)

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Multimetallic Fe(II) and Mn(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron(II) and Manganese(II) complexes of the resulting ligand were obtained from its reactions with Fe(II) and Mn(II) salts in absolute methanol for the metal to ligand ratio 2:3. These complexes were characterized by Solubility, Conductivity, IR and UV-VIS spectrometry, elemental analysis and mass spectrometry. Keywords: ...

  7. DNA damage by the cobalt (II) and zinc (II) complexes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... distributed in grade 3. The results indicated that Co(II)-L induced a relatively high level of DNA damage in comparison with the level of damage induced by Zn(II)-L. Key words: Tetraazamacrocycle Zn(II) complex, tetraazamacrocycle Co(II) complex, Tetrahymena thermophila, DNA damage, the comet assay.

  8. Syntheses and spectroscopic properties of mercury(II) and nickel(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury(II) complex, [Hg2(BPTU-2H)Cl2] and nickel(II) complex, [Ni(BPTU-H)2] were prepared by reacting Bis(N-phenylthiourea), BPTU, with mercury(II) chloride and nickel(II) acetate respectively. The complexes were characterized by IR, diffuse reflectance, 1H NMR spectra and elemental analysis. BPTU acts as ...

  9. BES-II fast data reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Gang; Zhang Jiawen; Guo Yiqing; Zhang Shaoqiang; Zhao Dixin

    2002-01-01

    The BES-II fast data reconstruction is reported. Based on PC FARM and/or a 'Distributed Clustered Linux PC System', BES-II fast data reconstruction system is set up. With this system the BES-II data can be fully reconstructed in about 20 minutes after data collection. It takes only 12 minutes to fully reconstruct 30000 events, collected with BES-II detector at BEPC Collider, with a P III-800 PC. The detector performance can be examined based on fully reconstructed data in about 20 minutes after data taking in the BES-II experiment

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Cobalt (II and Nickel (II By First Order Derivative Spectrophotometry in Micellar Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Rohilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A first-derivative spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of Co (II and Ni (II with Alizarin Red S in presence of Triton X-100 is described. Measurements were made at the zero-crossing wavelengths at 549.0 nm for Co (II and 546.0 nm for Ni (II. The linearity is obtained in the range of 0.291- 4.676 μg/ml of Ni (II and 0.293- 4.124 μg/ml of Co (II in the presence of each other by using first derivative spectrophotometric method. The possible interfering effects of various ions were studied. The validity of the method was examined by using synthetic mixtures of Co (II and Ni (II. The developed derivative procedure, using the zero crossing technique, has been successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of Co (II and Ni (II in spiked water samples.

  11. DNA damage by the cobalt (II) and zinc (II) complexes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the single cell gel electrophoresis method, the tetraazamacrocycle Zn(II) complex (Zn(II)-L) and the tetraazamacrocycle Co(II) complex (Co(II)-L) were investigated focusing on their DNA damage to Tetrahymena thermophila. When the cells were treated with the 0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg/ml Zn(II)-L, the tail length ...

  12. (Diethylenetriaminebis(theophyllinatozinc(II dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila-Zsolt Kun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Zn(C7H7N4O22(C4H13N3]·2H2O, the ZnII ion is pentacoordinated by three N atoms of the diethylenetriamine ligand and one N atom of each of the two theophyllinate anions in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. The Zn—N distances range from 2.076 (3 to 2.221 (3 Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H...O, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the theophylline and diethylenetriamine ligands and uncoordinated water molecules.

  13. Actions against Asse II dismissed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    In the legal dispute over the storage of radioactive waste in the former Asse II salt mine near Wolfenbuettel, the Higher Administrative Court for Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein in a decision dated January 17, 1980, dismissed as inadmissible the appeals brought by plaintiffs from the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark and Austria against the decision by the Braunschweig Administrative Court, in which that action had been dismissed. Also more recent applications were declared to be inadmissible on the grounds that the Lower Saxony State Ministry of Social Affairs was not the proper defendant. No appeal was permitted. The written decision by the Court has not yet been published. (HSCH) [de

  14. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  15. Reference design for LAMPF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A reference design for the 32-GeV LAMPF II proton accelerator is proposed. This design consists of a 30-Hz rapid-cycling synchrotron with a dc stretcher. A superiodicity 5 design with dispersion-free straight sections is suggested for both machines. Beam-dynamics calculations are partially complete and rf requirements are given. Apertures are calculated for 2 x 10 13 protons per pulse (100 μA average current). No significant problems are observed at any time in the cycle in a longitudinal beam-dynamics simulation including space charge

  16. Pep for PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The major B-factory project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center have(SLAC) is well underway and moving along smartly, en route to commencement of operations in September 1998. Called PEP-II, the new facility is a joint venture of three California laboratories: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) and SLAC. Housed at SLAC in the tunnels and buildings built for the original PEP electron-positron collider in the late 1970s, it involves no conventional civil engineering. In fact, PEP-II is a recycling project in more ways than one: for example, most of the original PEP magnets have been renovated for reuse in the PEP-II high-energy ring. While some of them require substantial rework (to change their length, for instance), many of them merely require repainting and remeasuring. The work of building the hardware is divided up among the three laboratories. LBL is primarily responsible for the low-energy ring; LLNL is building most of the interaction region, the complicated part where the high and low energy rings come together; and SLAC is responsible for the rest. Proposed by President Clinton as a ''presidential initiative'' (December 1993, page 2), the project was given a four-year funding profile. The total cost of $177 million, excluding the BaBar detector (September, page 16), was planned by the US government to be entirely provided during the present administration, the last increment coming in the final quarter of 1997. Happily, the first two increments have been forthcoming as planned and the third is faring well in US Congress. The PEP-II design is based on two intersecting storage rings, one carrying 9 GeV electrons and the other 3.1 GeV positrons, operating with high beam currents (a few amperes) to produce a luminosity of 3 x 10 33 per sq cm per s. The asymmetry in the energies of the colliding particles means that the centre-ofmass of the electron-positron annihilation system moves rapidly in the

  17. PEP-II status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfan, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    The main design features of the PEP-II asymmetric two-ring electron-positron B Factory collider, built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, are described. This facility will complete construction in June 1998. The high energy ring, completed in May 1997, has had 3 months of commissioning and successfully stored 0.75 A of electrons. The success of the high energy ring testing validates not only its ring components, but also the injection system, the RF system and the control system all of which are common to the two rings

  18. Belle II Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, K; Ahn, S; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Aloi, M; Andricek, L; Aoki, K; Arai, Y; Arefiev, A; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Barberio, E; Barvich, T; Belous, K; Bergauer, T; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Brovchenko, O; Browder, T E; Cao, G; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C -C; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Choi, S -K; Chung, K; Comerma, A; Cooney, M; Cowley, D E; Critchlow, T; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dieguez, A; Dierlamm, A; Dillon, M; Dingfelder, J; Dolenec, R; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Enomoto, A; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Garcia, M Fernandez; Fifield, T; Fischer, P; Flanagan, J; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Freixas, L; Frey, A; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Fukuma, Y; Funakoshi, Y; Furukawa, K; Fuster, J; Gabyshev, N; Cueto, A Gaspar de Valenzuela; Garmash, A; Garrido, L; Geisler, Ch; Gfall, I; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Gorton, I; Grzymkowski, R; Guo, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Haruyama, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashi, K; Hayashii, H; Heck, M; Heindl, S; Heller, C; Hemperek, T; Higuchi, T; Horii, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Huang, C -H; Hwang, S; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iglesias, C; Iida, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Irmler, C; Ishizuka, M; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwai, G; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Iwata, S; Jang, H; Ji, X; Jinno, T; Jones, M; Julius, T; Kageyama, T; Kah, D H; Kakuno, H; Kamitani, T; Kanazawa, K; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, M; Kawai, Y; Kawasaki, T; Kennedy, J; Kichimi, H; Kikuchi, M; Kiesling, C; Kim, B K; Kim, G N; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J -B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, S K; Kim, K T; Kim, T Y; Kinoshita, K; Kishi, K; Kisielewski, B; van Dam, K Kleese; Knopf, J; Ko, B R; Koch, M; Kodys, P; Koffmane, C; Koga, Y; Kohriki, T; Koike, S; Koiso, H; Kondo, Y; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Kreidl, Ch; Kreps, M; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Krueger, H; Kruth, A; Kuhn, W; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kupper, S; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnicka, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lacasta, C; Lange, J S; Lee, I -S; Lee, M J; Lee, M W; Lee, S -H; Lemarenko, M; Li, J; Li, W D; Li, Y; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Liventsev, D; Virto, A Lopez; Makida, Y; Mao, Z P; Marinas, C; Masuzawa, M; Matvienko, D; Mitaroff, W; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Miyoshi, T; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Mori, T; Morita, A; Morita, Y; Moser, H -G; Martin, D Moya; Mueller, T; Muenchow, D; Murakami, J; Myung, S S; Nagamine, T; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, T T; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nam, S -H; Natkaniec, Z; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neubauer, S; Ng, C; Ninkovic, J; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Novikov, E; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, S; Ohmi, K; Ohnishi, Y; Ohshima, T; Ohuchi, N; Oide, K; Olsen, S L; Ono, M; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, H; Park, H K; Peak, L S; Peng, T; Peric, I; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Regimbal, K; Reisert, B; Richter, R H; Riera-Babures, J; Ritter, A; Ritter, A; Ritter, M; Roehrken, M; Rorie, J; Rosen, M; Rozanska, M; Ruckman, L; Rummel, S; Rusinov, V; Russell, R M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Santelj, L; Sasaki, T; Sato, N; Sato, Y; Scheirich, J; Schieck, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seljak, A; Senyo, K; Seon, O -S; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shiizuka, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Simonis, H J; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Sitarz, M; Smerkol, P; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Suetsugu, Y; Sugihara, S; Sugimura, T; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Takagaki, H; Takasaki, F; Takeichi, H; Takubo, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Taniguchi, N; Tarkovsky, E; Tatishvili, G; Tawada, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsunada, K; Tu, Y -C; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S; Valentan, M; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vazquez, P; Vila, I; Vilella, E; Vinokurova, A; Visniakov, J; Vos, M; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wassatch, A; Watanabe, M; Watase, Y; Weiler, T; Wermes, N; Wescott, R E; White, E; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Williams, K M; Won, E; Xu, H; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yin, Y; Yoon, H; Yu, J; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zander, D; Zdybal, M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, L; Zhao, Z; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O

    2010-01-01

    The Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider has collected almost 1 billion Y(4S) events in its decade of operation. Super-KEKB, an upgrade of KEKB is under construction, to increase the luminosity by two orders of magnitude during a three-year shutdown, with an ultimate goal of 8E35 /cm^2 /s luminosity. To exploit the increased luminosity, an upgrade of the Belle detector has been proposed. A new international collaboration Belle-II, is being formed. The Technical Design Report presents physics motivation, basic methods of the accelerator upgrade, as well as key improvements of the detector.

  19. Solid Phase Extraction of Trace Al(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) Ions in Beverages on Functionalized Polymer Microspheres Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Hale; Alpdogan, Güzin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, poly(glycidyl methacrylate-methyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) was synthesized in the form of microspheres, and then functionalized by 2-aminobenzothiazole ligand. The sorption properties of these functionalized microspheres were investigated for separation, preconcentration and determination of Al(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum pH values for quantitative sorption were 2 - 4, 5 - 8, 6 - 8, 4 - 6, 2 - 6 and 2 - 3 for Al(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, and also the highest sorption capacity of the functionalized microspheres was found to be for Cu(II) with the value of 1.87 mmol g -1 . The detection limits (3σ; N = 6) obtained for the studied metals in the optimal conditions were observed in the range of 0.26 - 2.20 μg L -1 . The proposed method was successfully applied to different beverage samples for the determination of Al(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, with the relative standard deviation of <3.7%.

  20. Diet History Questionnaire II FAQs | EGRP/DCCPS/NCI/NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Answers to general questions about the Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II), as well as those related to DHQ II administration, validation, scanning, nutrient estimates, calculations, DHQ II modification, data quality, and more.

  1. potentiometric studies of the complexes formed by copper (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    The overall stability constants of copper (II) and zinc (II) ions with some polar ... The average number of coordinated amino acids to the copper (II) and zinc (II) ions .... of chelated rings (Yamuchi and Odani, 1996). ... Synthesis and techniques in.

  2. ERB-II operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.N.; Cissel, D.W.; Smith, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    As originally designed and operated, EBR-II successfully demonstrated the concept of a sodium-cooled fast breeder power plant with a closed fuel reprocessing cycle (mini-nuclear park). Subsequent operation has been as an irradiation facility, a role which will continue into the foreseeable future. Since the beginning of operation in 1961, operating experience of EBR-II has been very satisfactory. Most of the components and systems have performed well. In particular, the mechanical performance of heat-removal systems has been excellent. A review of the operating experience reveals that all the original design objectives have been successfully demonstrated. To date, no failures or incidents resulting in serious in-core or out-of-core consequences have occurred. No water-to-sodium leaks have been detected over the life of the plant. At the present time, the facility is operating very well and continuously except for short shutdowns required by maintenance, refueling, modification, and minor repair. A plant factor of 76.9% was achieved for the calendar year 1976

  3. THE SPECTRUM OF Fe II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nave, Gillian [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Johansson, Sveneric, E-mail: gillian.nave@nist.gov [Lund Observatory, University of Lund, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 A to 5.5 {mu}m. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range from 10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} for strong lines around 4 {mu}m to 0.05 cm{sup -1} for weaker lines around 1500 A. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 A. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 {+-} 0.4) cm{sup -1} was estimated from the 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)5g and 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)6h levels.

  4. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedurin, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jing, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratakis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Swinson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  5. Efeitos de rações com níveis crescentes de cana-de-açúcar em substituição à silagem de milho sobre a população de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de ovinos Effects of diets with increasing levels of sugar cane in substitution of corn silage on rumen population ciliate protozoa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Tieghi Franzolin

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Oito ovinos machos com fístulas ruminais foram delineados em dois quadrados latinos, em quatro períodos de 35 dias cada e quatro tratamentos, compreendendo níveis crescentes de cana-de-açúcar (CA em substituição à silagem de milho (SM: A 100% SM; B 67% SM e 33% CA; C 33% SM e 67% CA; e D 100% CA, para avaliação da população de protozoários ciliados no rúmen. As concentrações totais de protozoários ciliados no rúmen e de Entodinium diminuíram e os valores de pH do conteúdo ruminal aumentaram linearmente com o incremento das quantidades de cana-de-açúcar na ração. Não houve diferenças entre tratamentos para o volume ruminal e a taxa de passagem da fase líquida do rúmen.Eight rumen fistulated rams were delineated in two Latin Squares in four periods of 35 days each and four treatments consisted of increasing levels of sugar cane (SC in substitution to the corn silage (CS: A 100% CS, B 67% CS and 33% SC, C 33% CS and 67% SC and D 100% SC, to evaluate the population of ciliate protozoa in the rumen. The total concentrations of rumen ciliate protozoa and of Entodinium decreased and the values of pH of the ruminal content increased linearly as dietary sugar cane levels increased. No differences between treatments were observed for the rumen volume and the rumen liquid turnover rate.

  6. District heating concept Hirtenwiesen II; Nahwaermekonzept Hirtenwiesen II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Josef [Stadtwerke Crailsheim GmbH, Crailsheim (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Hirtenwiesen II is a new urban development project on an abandoned industrial site west of Crailsheim, Germany. It will house a population of about 2,000 and provide a comprehensive infrastructure including kindergarten, schools, sports centers and shopping centers. Modern amenities will be combined with environment-friendly energy concepts based on solar energy. A school building - Lise-Meitner-Gymnasium - and a sports hall - Hirtenwiesenhalle - will be supplied with solar power as well. Solar energy will provide more than 50 % of the energy required, which is more than average. Also, the solar power plant will have a collector surface of 10,000 m{sup 3} and a capacity of 7 MW{sub th}, which will make it Germany's biggest individual thermal solar power plant. (orig./AKB)

  7. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and polymerization of methacrylates of copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II). Generation of new materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Bolanos, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Coordination compounds of the species copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II) with methacrylic acid were synthesized and characterized. Besides, it realized reactions of bromine addition to the doubles links of the species obtained previously, also too like reactions with dry HCl. Finally, it got hybrids materials by polymerization of the first compounds in an acrylic matrix. Research concluded with the characterization of all the products. (author) [es

  9. Shark class II invariant chain reveals ancient conserved relationships with cathepsins and MHC class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Ohta, Yuko; Graham, Matthew D; Eubanks, Jeannine O; Chen, Patricia L; Flajnik, Martin F

    2012-03-01

    The invariant chain (Ii) is the critical third chain required for the MHC class II heterodimer to be properly guided through the cell, loaded with peptide, and expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Here, we report the isolation of the nurse shark Ii gene, and the comparative analysis of Ii splice variants, expression, genomic organization, predicted structure, and function throughout vertebrate evolution. Alternative splicing to yield Ii with and without the putative protease-protective, thyroglobulin-like domain is as ancient as the MHC-based adaptive immune system, as our analyses in shark and lizard further show conservation of this mechanism in all vertebrate classes except bony fish. Remarkable coordinate expression of Ii and class II was found in shark tissues. Conserved Ii residues and cathepsin L orthologs suggest their long co-evolution in the antigen presentation pathway, and genomic analyses suggest 450 million years of conserved Ii exon/intron structure. Other than an extended linker preceding the thyroglobulin-like domain in cartilaginous fish, the Ii gene and protein are predicted to have largely similar physiology from shark to man. Duplicated Ii genes found only in teleosts appear to have become sub-functionalized, as one form is predicted to play the same role as that mediated by Ii mRNA alternative splicing in all other vertebrate classes. No Ii homologs or potential ancestors of any of the functional Ii domains were found in the jawless fish or lower chordates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of dietary energy and nitrogen supplements on rumen fermentation and protozoa population in buffalo and zebu cattle Efeitos de suplementos energéticos e nitrogenados na dieta sobre a fermentação e a população de protozoários no rúmen de búfalos e bovinos zebuínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Franzolin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects were assessed of two energy sources in concentrate (ground grain corn vs. citrus pulp and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal vs. urea on rumen metabolism in four buffaloes and four zebu cattle (Nellore with rumen cannula and fed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with feeds containing 60% sugar cane. Energy supplements had no effect on the rumen ammonia concentration in cattle, but ground grain corn promoted higher ammonia level than citrus pulp in buffalo. Urea produced higher ammonia level than soybean meal in both animal species. On average, the buffaloes maintained a lower rumen ammonia concentration (11.7 mg/dL than the cattle (14.5 mg/dL. Buffaloes had lower production of acetic acid than cattle (58.7 vs. 61.6 mol/100 mol and higher of propionic acid (27.4 vs. 23.6 mol/100 mol. There was no difference in the butyric acid production between the buffaloes (13.6 mol/100 mol and cattle (14.8 mol/100 mol and neither in the total volatile fatty acids concentration (82.5 vs. 83.6 mM, respectively. The energy or nitrogen sources had no effect on rumen protozoa count in either animal species. The zebu cattle had higher rumen protozoa population (8.8 × 10(5/mL than the buffaloes (6.1 × 10(5/mL. The rumen protozoa population differed between the animal species, except for Dasytricha and Charonina. The buffaloes had a lower Entodinium population than the cattle (61.0 vs 84.9%, respectively and a greater percentage of species belonging to the Diplodiniinae subfamily than the cattle (28.6 vs. 1.4%, respectively. In cattle, ground corn is a better energy source than citrus pulp for use by Entodinium and Diplodiniinae. In the buffaloes, the Entodinium are favored by urea and Diplodiniinae species by soybean meal.Foram avaliados os efeitos de duas fontes de energia no concentrado (grãos de milho moídos vs polpa cítrica e duas fontes nitrogenadas (farelo de soja vs ureia sobre o metabolismo ruminal em quatro bubalinos e quatro bovinos zebu

  11. Chelation of Cu(II, Zn(II, and Fe(II by Tannin Constituents of Selected Edible Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karamać

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The tannin fractions isolated from hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds were characterised by colorimetric assays and by an SE-HPLC technique. The complexation of Cu(II and Zn(II was determined by the reaction with tetramethylmurexide, whereas for Fe(II, ferrozine was employed. The walnut tannins exhibited a significantly weaker reaction with the vanillin/HCl reagent than hazelnut and almond tannins, but the protein precipitation capacity of the walnut fraction was high. The SE-HPLC chromatogram of the tannin fraction from hazelnuts revealed the presence of oligomers with higher molecular weights compared to that of almonds. Copper ions were most effectively chelated by the constituents of the tannin fractions of hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds. At a 0.2 mg/assay addition level, the walnut tannins complexed almost 100% Cu(II. The Fe(II complexation capacities of the tannin fractions of walnuts and hazelnuts were weaker in comparison to that of the almond tannin fraction, which at a 2.5 mg/assay addition level, bound Fe(II by ~90%. The capacity to chelate Zn(II was quite varied for the different nut tannin fractions: almond tannins bound as much as 84% Zn(II, whereas the value for walnut tannins was only 8.7%; and for hazelnut tannins, no Zn(II chelation took place at the levels tested.

  12. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and photophysical properties of structurally diverse polyazine-bridged Ru(II),Pt(II) and Os(II),Ru(II),Pt(II) supramolecular motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Jessica D; Arachchige, Shamindri M; Wang, Guangbin; Rangan, Krishnan; Miao, Ran; Higgins, Samantha L H; Okyere, Benjamin; Zhao, Meihua; Croasdale, Paul; Magruder, Katherine; Sinclair, Brian; Wall, Candace; Brewer, Karen J

    2011-09-19

    Five new tetrametallic supramolecules of the motif [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)PtCl(2)](6+) and three new trimetallic light absorbers [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)](6+) (TL = bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine or phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; M = Ru(II) or Os(II); BL = dpp = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine, dpq = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)quinoxaline, or bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine) were synthesized and their redox, spectroscopic, and photophysical properties investigated. The tetrametallic complexes couple a Pt(II)-based reactive metal center to Ru and/or Os light absorbers through two different polyazine BL to provide structural diversity and interesting resultant properties. The redox potential of the M(II/III) couple is modulated by M variation, with the terminal Ru(II/III) occurring at 1.58-1.61 V and terminal Os(II/III) couples at 1.07-1.18 V versus Ag/AgCl. [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)](PF(6))(6) display terminal M(dπ)-based highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) with the dpp(π*)-based lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy relatively unaffected by the nature of BL. The coupling of Pt to the BL results in orbital inversion with localization of the LUMO on the remote BL in the tetrametallic complexes, providing a lowest energy charge separated (CS) state with an oxidized terminal Ru or Os and spatially separated reduced BL. The complexes [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)](6+) and [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)PtCl(2)](6+) efficiently absorb light throughout the UV and visible regions with intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible at about 540 nm (M = Ru) and 560 nm (M = Os) (ε ≈ 33,000-42,000 M(-1) cm(-1)) and direct excitation to the spin-forbidden (3)MLCT excited state in the Os complexes about 720 nm. All the trimetallic and tetrametallic Ru-based supramolecular systems emit from the terminal Ru(dπ)→dpp(π*) (3)MLCT state, λ(max)(em) ≈ 750 nm. The tetrametallic systems display complex excited state dynamics with quenching of the (3)MLCT emission at

  13. Elaboration of a Highly Porous RuII,II Analogue of HKUST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Freitag, Kerstin; Wannapaiboon, Suttipong; Schneider, Christian; Epp, Konstantin; Kieslich, Gregor; Fischer, Roland A

    2016-12-19

    When the dinuclear Ru II,II precursor [Ru 2 (OOCCH 3 ) 4 ] is employed under redox-inert conditions, a Ru II,II analogue of HKUST-1 was successfully prepared and characterized as a phase-pure microcrystalline powder. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy confirms the oxidation state of the Ru centers of the paddle-wheel nodes in the framework. The porosity of 1371 m 2 /mmol of Ru II,II -HKUST-1 exceeds that of the parent compound HKUST1 (1049 m 2 / mmol).

  14. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  15. Transdermic absorption of Melagenina II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, I.; Martinez Lopez, B.; Ruiz Pena, M.; Caso Pena, R.

    1997-01-01

    The transdermic absorption of Melagenina II (MII) was evaluated. MII was a labelled with 125I by the yodogen method and purified by column chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 in ethanol: water (7:3). In vitro absorption of ( 125I ) - MII thought human skin was carried out in Keshary-Chien modified diffusion cells. Tape stripping method was applied after 24 hours to evaluate the accumulated activity in dermis and epidermis. In vivo assays were performed in Sprague Dawley rats to analyze absorption of MII until 24 hours after a single application and for five days a low penetrability of the drug while in vivo there were not found blood levels significantly greater than zero , nevertheless and important amount of radioactivity was found in feces and urine. The activity was concentrated mainly in the application site in both models

  16. HERMES II experimenters' manual (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    The HERMES II is a high-intensity laboratory photon source for gamma-ray radiation effects experiments as well as a high-energy pulsed electron beam generator for a variety of potential applications. The purpose of this manual is to serve as a basic source of information for prospective users of HERMES. Included is a brief discussion of the design and operation of the accelerator system as well as a summary of environmental data for x-ray operation and output characteristics for electron beam modes. The manual also contains a description of the HERMES experimental facilities, including geometry of the test cell, instrumentation and data collection capabilities, and services and support available to experimenters

  17. RTNS-II utilization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1978-09-01

    This plan describes a general program for the effective utilization of this resource by the fusion materials community. Because its flux is low relative to levels expected in commercial fusion reactors, the RINS-II is not expected to produce data of direct engineering significance (with some exceptions). Rather, it will be used chiefly to aid in the development of models of high energy neutron effects. Such models are needed in projecting engineering data obtained in high flux fission reactors to the fusion environment. Fission reactors, because of their relatively soft neutron spectra, cannot produce the high ratio of transmutations to displacements (except in an important special case) or the high energy recoil atoms appropriate to fusion reactors utilizing the D-T reaction.

  18. PEP-II prototype klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Lee, T.G.; Pearson, C.; Wright, E.L.

    1993-04-01

    A 540-kW continuous-wave (cw) klystron operating at 476 MHz was developed for use as a power source for testing PEP-II rf accelerating cavities and rf windows. It also serves as a prototype for a 1.2 MW cw klystron presently being developed as a potential rf source for asymmetric colliding ring use. The design incorporates the concepts and many of the parts used in the original 353 MHz PEP klystron developed sixteen years ago. The superior computer simulation codes available today result in improved performance with the cavity frequencies, drift lengths, and output circuit optimized for the higher frequency.The design and operating results of this tube are described with particular emphasis on the factors which affect efficiency and stability

  19. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  20. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty

  1. SWAMI II technology transfer plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.; Peterson, K.D.; Harpring, L.J.; Immel, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Thousands of drums of radioactive/hazardous/mixed waste are currently stored at DOE sites throughout US; they are stored in warehouse facilities on an interim basis, pending final disposition. Recent emphasis on anticipated decommissioning of facilities indicates that many more drums of waste will be generated, requiring additional storage. Federal and state regulations dictate that hazardous waste covered by RCRA be inspected periodically for container degradation and to verify inventories. All known DOE waste storage facilities are currently inspected manually. A system to perform robotic inspection of waste drums is under development by the SRTC Robotics Group of WSRC; it is called the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI). The first version, SWAMI I, was developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as a proof of principle system for autonomous inspection of drums in a warehouse. SWAMI I was based on the Transitions Research Corporation (TRC) HelpMate mobile robot. TRC modified the Helpmate to navigate in aisles of drums. SRTC added subsystems to SWAMI I to determine its position in open areas, read bar code labels on the drums up to three levels high, capture images of the drums and perform a radiation survey of the floor in the aisles. The radiation survey was based on SRTC patented technology first implemented on the Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator (SIMON). The radiation survey is not essential for the inspection of drums, but is an option that can increase the utility and effectiveness of SWAMI in warehouses with radioactive and/or mixed waste. All the sensors on SWAMI I were fixed on the vehicle. From the success of SWAMI I, a second version, SWAMI II, was developed; it will be evaluated at Fernald and tested with two other mobile robots. Intent is to transfer the technology developed for SWAMI I and II to industry so that it can supply additional units for purchase for drum inspection

  2. MHC Class II epitope predictive algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole; Buus, S

    2010-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space, allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. To be able to predict the immune response to given pathogens, a number of methods have been...... developed to predict peptide-MHC binding. However, few methods other than the pioneering TEPITOPE/ProPred method have been developed for MHC-II. Despite recent progress in method development, the predictive performance for MHC-II remains significantly lower than what can be obtained for MHC-I. One reason...

  3. Spectroscopic and thermal degradation behavior of Mg(II), Ca(II), Ba(II) and Sr(II) complexes with paracetamol drug

    OpenAIRE

    Moamen S. Refat; Gehad G. Mohamed; Mohamed Y. El-Sayed; Hamada M.A. Killa; Hammad Fetooh

    2017-01-01

    Complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Ba(II) and Sr(II) with paracetamol drug were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity, UV–Vis, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis, as well as screened for antimicrobial activity. The IR spectral data suggested that the ligand behaves as paracetamol behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the lone pair of electrons of nitrogen and carbonyl-O atoms of the amide group. From the microanalytical dat...

  4. TRUPACT-II Container Maintenance Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This document details the maintenance, repair, and replacement of components, as well as the documentation required and the procedures to be followed to maintain the integrity of the TRUPACT-II container in accordance with OM-134, TRUPACT-II Container Operations and Maintenance Manual; and the TRUPACT-II Container Certificate of Compliance (Number 9218). The routine shipping and receiving inspections required by the Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other regulations are not addressed in this document. This document applies to all DOE shipping and receiving sites that use the TRUPACT-II containers

  5. Optimization of simultaneous electrochemical determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) at carbon nanotube-modified graphite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikna, L'ubomír; Heželová, Mária; Kováčová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The health of the environment is worsening every day. Monitoring of potentially toxic elements and remediation of environmental pollution are necessary. Therefore, the research and development of simple, inexpensive, portable and effective sensors is important. Electrochemistry is a useful component of the field of environment monitoring. The present study focuses on evaluating and comparing three types of electrodes (PIGE, PIGE/MWCNT/HNO3 and PIGE/MWCNT/EDTA/HNO3) employed for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of four potentially toxic elements: Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II). Cyclic voltammograms were measured in an acetate buffer. The LOD, LOQ, the standard and relative precisions of the method and a prediction intervals were calculated (according to the technical procedure DIN 32 645) for the three electrodes and for each measured element. The LOD for PIGE/CNT/HNO3 (the electrode with narrowest calculated prediction intervals) was 2.98 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cd(II), 4.83 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Pb(II), 3.81 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cu(II), 6.79 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Hg(II). One of the benefits of this study was the determination of the amount of Hg(II) in the mixture of other elements.

  6. Biosorption of Fe (II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Biosorption of Fe (II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution using a low cost ... human activities in the environment poses a lot of risk ... ion exchange or reverse osmosis, electrochemical treatment ..... is the adsorption coefficient, n indicates the.

  7. Serum insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) in chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Lijun; Chen Donghai; Ji Naijun; Fan Bifu; Wang Chengyao; Mei Yibin; Li Fuyuan; Kao Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) levels in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: Serum IGF-II levels were measured with RIA in 132 cases of chronic heart failure and 45 controls. Results: Serum IGF-II levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic heart failure than those in the controls (t=0.033, P<0.001). IGF-II levels were highest in grade IV CHF patients (vs grade II t=3.963, P<0.01; vs grade III, t=3.578, P<0.01). In the twelve patients died in hospital, the serum IGF-II levels were significantly higher than those patients recovered (t=7.141, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II levels were increased in CHF patients and were highest in the most severe cases. (authors)

  8. Syntheses and spectroscopic properties of mercury(II) and nickel(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syntheses and spectroscopic properties of mercury(II) and nickel(II) ... The complexes were characterized by IR, diffuse reflectance, 1H NMR spectra and elemental ... coordinating through thiolato sulphur and hydrazinic nitrogen atoms.

  9. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yongjie; Hou Haobo; Zhu Shujing

    2009-01-01

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01 M NaNO 3 . In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84 mM in the single element system and 0.21 mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH 50 (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd in single-element systems, but Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems

  11. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Yongjie [School of Resource and Environment Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan (China); Wuhan Kaidi Electric Power Environmental Protection Co. Ltd., Hubei, Wuhan (China)], E-mail: xueyj@mail.whut.edu.cn; Hou Haobo; Zhu Shujing [School of Resource and Environment Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan (China)

    2009-02-15

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3}. In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84 mM in the single element system and 0.21 mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH{sub 50} (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd in single-element systems, but Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems.

  12. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongjie; Hou, Haobo; Zhu, Shujing

    2009-02-15

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01M NaNO(3). In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84mM in the single element system and 0.21mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH(50) (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd in single-element systems, but Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems.

  13. Derivation of electron density and temperature from (S II) and (O II) line intensity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J; Meaburn, J; Theokas, A C [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy; Elliott, K H [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1980-12-01

    Line intensity ratios for (S II) and (O II) due to collisional de-excitation are briefly discussed. Comparison is made between various reaction rate parameters presented by separate investigators. Included are observations of ratios obtained from the Orion nebula which experimentally confirm the reaction rates of Pradhan as best representing the observed distribution of these ratios. (O II) and (S II) contour plots are also presented, which allow effective electron temperatures and densities to be estimated from pairs of line ratios.

  14. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-01-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II

  15. Mutation and biochemical analysis in carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olpin, S E; Afifi, A; Clark, S

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency has three basic phenotypes, late-onset muscular (mild), infantile/juvenile hepatic (intermediate) and severe neonatal. We have measured fatty acid oxidation and CPT II activity and performed mutation studies in 24 symptomatic patients...

  16. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) by nostoc commune: isotherm and kinetics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, Fatthy M. [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Hassan, Sedky H.A. [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Koutb, Mostafa [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Applied Science, Biology Department, Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    In this study, Nostoc commune (cyanobacterium) was used as an inexpensive and efficient biosorbent for Cd(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solutions. The effect of various physicochemical factors on Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption such as pH 2.0-7.0, initial metal concentration 0.0-300 mg/L and contact time 0-120 min were studied. Optimum pH for removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was 6.0, while the contact time was 30 min at room temperature. The nature of biosorbent and metal ion interaction was evaluated by infrared (IR) technique. IR analysis of bacterial biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn (II). The maximum biosorption capacities for Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption by N. commune calculated from Langmuir biosorption isotherm were 126.32 and 115.41 mg/g, respectively. The biosorption isotherm for two biosorbents fitted well with Freundlich isotherm than Langmuir model with correlation coefficient (r{sup 2} < 0.99). The biosorption kinetic data were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thus, this study indicated that the N. commune is an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial properties of Co(II), Ni (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of novel Schiff base metal complexes. The resistance of micro-organisms to classical antimicrobial compounds poses a challenge to effective management and treatment of some diseases. In line with this, copper (II), nickel (II) and cobalt (II) complexes of ...

  18. The CDF SVX II detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarha, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    The proposed CDF SVX II detector upgrade for secondary vertex detection during the Fermilab Tevatron Run II collider run is described. The general design and important features of this silicon vertex detector are presented. The CDF physics goals which are addressed by this detector are also given

  19. Photocleavage of DNA by copper (II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of ternary and binary copper(II) complexes showing efficient visible lightinduced DNA cleavage activity is summarized in this article. The role of the metal in photo-induced DNA cleavage reactions is explored by designing complex molecules having a variety of ligands. Ternary copper(II) complexes with amino ...

  20. TRUPACT-II procedures and maintenance instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for operation, inspection and maintenance of a TRUPACT-II Shipping Package and directly related components. This document shall supply the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9218. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the TRUPACT-II SARP (NRC Certificate of Compliance No. 9218), the TRUPACT-II SARP shall govern. This document details the operations, maintenance, repair, replacement of components, as well as the documentation required and the procedures to be followed to maintain the integrity of the TRUPACT-II container. These procedures may be modified for site use, but as a minimum all parameters and format listed herein must be included in any site modified version. For convenience and where applicable steps may be performed out of sequence. Packaging and payload handling equipment and transport trailers have been specifically designed for use with the TRUPACT-II Packaging. This document discusses the minimum required procedures for use of the adjustable center of gravity lift fixture and the TRUPACT-II transport trailer in conjunction with the TRUPACT-II Packaging