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Sample records for eugenol essential oil

  1. Antimicrobial activity of eugenol and essential oils containing eugenol: A mechanistic viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Anna; Barbieri, Ramona; Coppo, Erika; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Izadi, Morteza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ajami, Marjan

    2017-11-01

    Eugenol is a hydroxyphenyl propene, naturally occurring in the essential oils of several plants belonging to the Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Myristicaceae families. It is one of the major constituents of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae) oil and is largely used in both foods and cosmetics as a flavoring agent. A large body of recent scientific evidence supports claims from traditional medicine that eugenol exerts beneficial effects on human health. These effects are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Eugenol has also shown excellent antimicrobial activity in studies, being active against fungi and a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this review is to analyze scientific data from the main published studies describing the antibacterial and antifungal activities of eugenol targeting different kind of microorganisms, such as those responsible for human infectious diseases, diseases of the oral cavity, and food-borne pathogens. This article also reports the effects of eugenol on multi-drug resistant microorganisms. On the basis of this collected data, eugenol represents a very interesting bioactive compound with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against both planktonic and sessile cells belonging to food-decaying microorganisms and human pathogens.

  2. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pessoa, L.M; Morais, S.M; Bevilaqua, C.M.L; Luciano, J.H.S

    2002-01-01

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants...

  3. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, L M; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Luciano, J H S

    2002-10-16

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants. The oil and eugenol were diluted in Tween 20 (0.5%) at five different concentrations. In the egg hatch test, H. contortus eggs were obtained from feces of goats experimentally infected. At 0.50% concentration, the essential oil and eugenol showed a maximum eclodibility inhibition. These results suggest a possible utilization of the essential oil of O. gratissimum as an aid to the control of gastrointestinal helmintosis of small ruminants.

  4. Study the Photochemical of Fragrance Allergens of Eugenol Derivatives in Commercial Essential Oils and Containing Clove Drugs Using Gas Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lai-Hao Wang; Yu-Yo Lin; Jhih-Cheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Screening the content of fragrance allergens (citral, geraniol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, hydroxycitronellal, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, dihydrocoumarin, methyl eugenol, iso-eugenol, coumarin, eugeyl acetate, α-hexylcinnamadehyde) in commercial essential oils and containing essential oil drugs has been using a gas chromatographic method. We selected 7 essential oils based on eugenol Derivatives for more content and can be used to process photo-irradiation. Comparision with results of photochemica...

  5. Antifungal activity of essential oil isolated from Ocimum gratissimum L. (eugenol chemotype against phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha de Jesus Faria

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of antifungal activity of the essential oil obtained by steam-distillation (1.1% w/w of the aerial parts of Ocimum gratissimum and of an ethanolic extract from the steam-distillation residue was carried out using the agar diffusion method. The results revealed that the essential oil inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including the phytopathogens, Botryosphaeria rhodina, Rhizoctonia sp. and two strains of Alternaria sp., while the extract from the residue was inactive. The essential oil was subjected to TLC bioautography used to detect fungitoxic constituents. The compound that showed antifungal activity was isolated and identified as eugenol. GC/MS analysis showed that eugenol was the main constituent of the essential oil studied. The antifungal activity of eugenol was evaluated against a species of Alternaria isolated from tomato (A1 and Penicillium chrysogenum. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of eugenol were 0.16 and 0.31 mg/disc for Alternaria sp. (A1 and P. chrysogenum, respectively.O óleo essencial resultante da destilação por arraste a vapor das partes aéreas de Ocimum gratissimum e o extrato etanólico obtido do resíduo da destilação foram avaliados quanto à atividade antifúngica, utilizando-se o método de difusão em agar. O óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de todos os fungos testados, incluindo os fitopatogênicos Botryosphaeria rhodina e duas espécies de Alternaria sp, enquanto que o extrato do resíduo da destilação não apresentou atividade. O óleo essencial foi, então, submetido ao método de bioautografia em TLC para detecção do composto ativo. O componente ativo foi isolado e identificado através da análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas como o eugenol, constituinte majoritário do óleo estudado. Ensaios de atividade antifúngica revelaram a atividade do eugenol contra Alternaria isolada de tomate (A1 e Penicillium chrysogenum. As concentra

  6. Essential Oils and Eugenols Inhibit Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Gwon, Giyeon; Kim, Soon-Il; Park, Jae Gyu; Lee, Jintae

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has caused foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the bacterium forms antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. We investigated the abilities of various plant essential oils and their components to inhibit biofilm formation by EHEC. Bay, clove, pimento berry oils and their major common constituent eugenol at 0.005% (v/v) were found to markedly inhibit EHEC biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth. In addition, three other eugenol derivatives isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol had antibiofilm activity, indicating that the C-1 hydroxyl unit, the C-2 methoxy unit, and C-4 alkyl or alkane chain on the benzene ring of eugenol play important roles in antibiofilm activity. Interestingly, these essential oils and eugenol did not inhibit biofilm formation by three laboratory E. coli K-12 strains that reduced curli fimbriae production. Transcriptional analysis showed that eugenol down-regulated 17 of 28 genes analysed, including curli genes (csgABDFG), type I fimbriae genes (fimCDH) and ler-controlled toxin genes (espD, escJ, escR, and tir), which are required for biofilm formation and the attachment and effacement phenotype. In addition, biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) coatings containing clove oil or eugenol exhibited efficient biofilm inhibition on solid surfaces. In a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model, clove oil and eugenol attenuated the virulence of EHEC. PMID:27808174

  7. Essential Oils and Eugenols Inhibit Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Gwon, Giyeon; Kim, Soon-Il; Park, Jae Gyu; Lee, Jintae

    2016-11-03

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has caused foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the bacterium forms antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. We investigated the abilities of various plant essential oils and their components to inhibit biofilm formation by EHEC. Bay, clove, pimento berry oils and their major common constituent eugenol at 0.005% (v/v) were found to markedly inhibit EHEC biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth. In addition, three other eugenol derivatives isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol had antibiofilm activity, indicating that the C-1 hydroxyl unit, the C-2 methoxy unit, and C-4 alkyl or alkane chain on the benzene ring of eugenol play important roles in antibiofilm activity. Interestingly, these essential oils and eugenol did not inhibit biofilm formation by three laboratory E. coli K-12 strains that reduced curli fimbriae production. Transcriptional analysis showed that eugenol down-regulated 17 of 28 genes analysed, including curli genes (csgABDFG), type I fimbriae genes (fimCDH) and ler-controlled toxin genes (espD, escJ, escR, and tir), which are required for biofilm formation and the attachment and effacement phenotype. In addition, biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) coatings containing clove oil or eugenol exhibited efficient biofilm inhibition on solid surfaces. In a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model, clove oil and eugenol attenuated the virulence of EHEC.

  8. Essential Oils and Eugenols Inhibit Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Gwon, Giyeon; Kim, Soon-Il; Park, Jae Gyu; Lee, Jintae

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has caused foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the bacterium forms antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. We investigated the abilities of various plant essential oils and their components to inhibit biofilm formation by EHEC. Bay, clove, pimento berry oils and their major common constituent eugenol at 0.005% (v/v) were found to markedly inhibit EHEC biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth. In addition, three other eugenol derivativ...

  9. Obtaining the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum, identification of eugenol and its effect on Streptococcus mutans.

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    Osvelia Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a disease which affects the human oral cavity. Currently, the search for active principles of plants with antimicrobial effect seems promising for dental therapy. In this article the activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove was evaluated with an emphasis on its antimicrobial properties. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, characterized by thin layer chromatography and chemical tests. The main compound was identified in the oil obtained from the flower buds and its antibacterial activity against planktonic cells Streptcoccus mutans ATCC700611 was assessed by performing serial dilutions, from 15 up to 1000µg/mL, compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine and dimethylsulfoxide. MIC was also determined. Subsequently, UFC was analyzed and compared with CMR® Test Ivoclar Vivadent. The efficiency in obtaining the oil was 2.20%. By using the CCD technique, a fraction was revealed by UV light, corresponding to eugenol. It had a good response for triterpenoids and flavonoids. It showed greater antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 1000, 500 and 250µg/ml. The MIC and MBC of the oil was 125 to 250µg/mL, respectively. Eugenol was found as an active principle in the oil obtained. Currently, the impact of using plant extracts has favored the evaluation of alternative, effective and biocompatible antibacterial agents for the formulations of oral hygiene products applied to the prevention or treatment of oral diseases.

  10. Model study of the enzymatic modification of natural extracts: peroxidase-based removal of eugenol from rose essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Charfeddine; Dolhem, Gwenn'Ann; Fernandez, Xavier; Antoniotti, Sylvain

    2012-02-01

    A protocol based on the use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is proposed for the removal of allergenic eugenol from rose essential oil without loss of the organoleptic quality and with a good conservation of the chemical composition. For the first time, an enzyme-based strategy is proposed for essential oils treatment and opens new opportunities in the detoxification of natural extracts used in perfumery and cosmetics. Our results on eugenol in rose essential oil constitute a first step toward the development of efficient and mild processes for the removal of more toxic compounds of natural extracts.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apparecido N. Daniel

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  12. In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and eugenol in peroxynitrite-induced oxidative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chericoni, Silvio; Prieto, José M; Iacopini, Patrizia; Cioni, Pierluigi; Morelli, Ivano

    2005-06-15

    The essential oil obtained from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) and three of its main components, eugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and linalool (representing 82.5% of the total composition), were tested in two in vitro models of peroxynitrite-induced nitration and lipid peroxidation. The essential oil and eugenol showed very powerful activities, decreasing 3-nitrotyrosine formation with IC50 values of 18.4 microg/mL and 46.7 microM, respectively (reference compound, ascorbic acid, 71.3 microg/mL and 405.0 microM) and also inhibiting the peroxynitrite-induced lipid peroxidation showing an IC50 of 2.0 microg/mL and 13.1 microM, respectively, against 59.0 microg/mL (235.5 microM) of the reference compound Trolox. On the contrary, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and linalool were completely inactive.

  13. Immunomodulatory activity of geranial, geranial acetate, gingerol, and eugenol essential oils: evidence for humoral and cell-mediated responses

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    Seema Farhath

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The immunomodulatory effect of geranial, geranial acetate, gingerol, and eugenol essential oils were evaluated by studying humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Materials and Method: The essential oils were evaluated for immunomodulatory activity in in vivo studies, using rats as the animal model. The essential oils were tested for hypersensitivity and hemagglutination reactions, using sheep red blood cells (SRBC as the antigen while sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC served as the control in all the tests. Result: Orally administrated essential oils showed a significant increase of test parameters, viz., haemagglutinating antibody titre (HAT and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH response. In rats immunized with sheep RBC, essential oils enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen and significantly potentiated the cellular immunity by facilitating the foot pad thickness response to sheep RBC in sensitized rats with doses of 50-800 mg/ml. Haemagglutination titre of geraniol showed the highest increase of 139.3±6.38 and with 5.9±0.7 DTH, respectively. For geranial acetate, the haemagglutination titre showed a moderate increase of 87.5±5.9 and highest increase in DTH with 5.9±0.8, respectively. Using gingerol, the haemagglutination titre showed a moderate increase with 88.2±6.306 and DTH 3.5±0.5, respectively and for eugenol, the haemaggulation titre showed a moderate increase with 112.06±6.169 and DTH 4.4±0.6, respectively. These differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The essential oils were found to have a significant immunostimulant activity on both the specific and non-specific immune mechanisms.

  14. Acaricidal activity of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum, hydrolate and eugenol formulated or free on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F M; Delmonte, C C; Novato, T L P; Monteiro, C M O; Daemon, E; Vilela, F M P; Amaral, M P H

    2017-08-18

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), is the most important ectoparasite in cattle-breeding areas and is responsible for severe economic losses. Synthetic acaricides have been used to control this parasite. However, the need for safer products has stimulated the search for new acaricides, such as those to be obtained from medicinal plants. The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) has many biological properties and shows great potential for use in veterinary applications. In the context of the need for new agents, this study investigated the in vitro properties of the hydrolate, essential oil and the main constituent of S. aromaticum, eugenol, in formulated and free applications against larvae and females of R. microplus. Eugenol and the essential oil caused 100% mortality in larvae at starting applications of 2.5 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. The hydrolate showed no activity. Both eugenol and essential oil had good efficacy in adult immersion tests at 50 mg/mL and achieved 100% efficacy at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. The results of these tests reaffirm the important potential of clove essential oil and eugenol. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of eugenol from essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (clove) leaf against periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis.

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    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Xiaojing; Cao, Ping; Wei, Shaomin; Lu, Yanhua

    2017-12-01

    The antibacterial effect and mechanism of eugenol from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (clove) leaf essential oil (CLEO) against oral anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis were investigated. The results showed that eugenol, with content of 90.84% in CLEO, exhibited antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis at a concentration of 31.25 μM. Cell shrink and lysis caused by eugenol were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The release of macromolecules and uptake of fluorescent dye indicated that the antibacterial activity was due to the ability of eugenol to permeabilize the cell membrane and destroy the integrity of plasmatic membrane irreversibly. In addition, eugenol inhibited biofilm formation and reduced preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis at different concentrations. The down-regulation of virulence factor genes related to biofilm (fimA, hagA, hagB, rgpA, rgpB, kgp) explained that eugenol suppressed biofilm formation at the initial stage. These findings suggest that eugenol and CLEO may be potential additives in food and personal healthcare products as a prophylactic approach to periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L. by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol

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    Inder Singh Rana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L. against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content.

  17. Effects of clove essential oil and eugenol on quality and browning control of fresh-cut lettuce.

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    Chen, Xiangning; Ren, Lupei; Li, Menglin; Qian, Jia; Fan, Junfeng; Du, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This study confirmed the inhibitory effects of clove essential oil (CEO) and eugenol (EUG) on the browning and relevant enzymes of fresh-cut lettuce, and examined associated mechanisms by inhibition kinetics and computational docking analysis. Fresh-cut lettuce was treated with 0.05% CEO and 0.05% EUG solutions, resulting in inhibition of the deterioration of texture quality and browning of the lettuce surface and interior. Compared with the controls, CEO and EUG significantly inhibited the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD, all p<0.05). EUG suppressed PAL, PPO, and POD in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 5.4±0.9, 29.5±3.5, and 61.9±6.7mM, respectively. The binding and inhibition effects of EUG on PAL, PPO, and POD, determined by inhibition kinetics and computational docking analysis, established EUG as a competitive inhibitor of these browning-relevant enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

    2014-07-16

    Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists.

  19. Clove and rosemary essential oils and encapsuled active principles (eugenol, thymol and vanillin blend) on meat quality of feedlot-finished heifers.

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    de Oliveira Monteschio, Jéssica; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Kempinski, Emília Maria Barbosa Carvalho; Barcelos, Vinícius Cunha; Nascimento, Karina Favoreto; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2017-08-01

    Forty Nellore heifers were fed (73days) with different diets: with or without essential oils (clove and/or rosemary essential oil) and/or active principle blend (eugenol, thymol and vanillin). The pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area and water losses (thawing and drip) were evaluated 24h post mortem on the Longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (14days) was evaluated on the meat cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Treatments had no effect (P>0.05) on pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area, thawing and drip losses. However, treatments affected (P<0.05) cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. The diets with essential oil and the active principle blend reduced the lipid oxidation and reduced the color losses in relation to control diet. Aging affected (P<0.05) texture and lipid oxidation. The essential oil and active principles or its blend have potential use in animal feed aiming to maintain/improve meat quality during shelf-life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Large-scale preparation of clove essential oil and eugenol-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor and a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Based on our previous study where optimal conditions were defined to encapsulate clove essential oil (CEO) into liposomes at laboratory scale, we scaled-up the preparation of CEO and eugenol (Eug)-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor (600 mL) and a pilot plant (3 L) based on the principle of ethanol injection method, both equipped with a Shirasu Porous Glass membrane for injection of the organic phase into the aqueous phase. Homogenous, stable, nanometric-sized and multilamellar liposomes with high phospholipid, Eug loading rates and encapsulation efficiency of CEO components were obtained. Saturation of phospholipids and drug concentration in the organic phase may control the liposome stability. Liposomes loaded with other hydrophobic volatile compounds could be prepared at large scale using the ethanol injection method and a membrane for injection.

  1. Combination of the essential oil constituents citral, eugenol and thymol enhance their inhibitory effect on Crithidia fasciculata and Trypanosoma cruzi growth

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    Camila M. O. Azeredo

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effect of the combination of citral, eugenol and thymol, respectively the main constituents of essential oils of Cympobogon citratus (DC Stapf, Poaceae (lemon grass, Syzygium aromaticum(L. Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae (clove and Thymus vulgarisL., Lamiaceae (thyme, on the proliferation of the trypanosomatids Crithidia fasciculataand Trypanosoma cruzi.The constituents were initially added individually at different concentrations to C. fasciculatacultures to estimate the IC50/24h. Concentrations in a triple combination were about 2 times and 16.5 times lower against C. fasciculata and T. cruzi, respectively, as compared to isolated compounds. Incubation of C. fasciculatawith the trypanocydal agent benznidazole did not affect parasite growth at concentrations up to 500 µg/ml, but the IC50 of this drug against T. cruziwas 15.8 µg/ml, a value about 2-5 times higher than that of constituents in the triple combination. Analysis of treated C. fasciculata by scanning electron microscopy showed rounding of the cell body. Our data show that combination of essential oil constituents resulted in increased inhibitory activity on growth of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic trypanosomatid species and indicate that the non-patogenic C. fasciculata may represent a resistant model for drug screening in trypanosomatids.

  2. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

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    A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

  3. Encapsulation of eugenol from clove oil using casein micelle for solid preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanto, Andri; Putri, Yeshinta Risky Priasmara; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Liquid preparation of eugenol in clove oil form is one of eugenol preparation form that is easiest to get it nowadays in many level of purity. The problem is the liquid preparation of chemical is often not easy to handle than the solid one. In this study, we observe the effectivity of cow milk casein in case of encapsulating eugenol from clove oil for creating the solid preparation of eugenol in nanoscale size. The result is 63.86% eugenol from clove oil can be encapsulated by the casein. The average particle diameter is about 377.5 nm, with loading capacity until 67.2%.

  4. Bio-based thermosetting copolymers of eugenol and tung oil

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    Handoko, Harris

    There has been an increasing demand for novel synthetic polymers made of components derived from renewable sources to cope with the depletion of petroleum sources. In fact, monomers derived vegetable oils and plant sources have shown promising results in forming polymers with good properties. The following is a study of two highly viable renewable sources, eugenol and tung oil (TO) to be copolymerized into fully bio-based thermosets. Polymerization of eugenol required initial methacrylate-functionalization through Steglich esterification and the synthesized methacrylated eugenol (ME) was confirmed by 1H-NMR. Rheological studies showed ideal Newtonian behavior in ME and five other blended ME resins containing 10 -- 50 wt% TO. Free-radical copolymerization using 5 mol% of tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (crosslinking catalyst) and curing at elevated temperatures (90 -- 160 °C) formed a series of soft to rigid highly-crosslinked thermosets. Crosslinked material (89 -- 98 %) in the thermosets were determined by Soxhlet extraction to decrease with increase of TO content (0 -- 30%). Thermosets containing 0 -- 30 wt% TO possessed ultimate flexural (3-point bending) strength of 32.2 -- 97.2 MPa and flexural moduli of 0.6 -- 3.5 GPa, with 3.2 -- 8.8 % strain-to-failure ratio. Those containing 10 -- 40 wt% TO exhibited ultimate tensile strength of 3.3 -- 45.0 MPa and tensile moduli of 0.02 GPa to 1.12 GPa, with 8.5 -- 76.7 % strain-to-failure ratio. Glass transition temperatures ranged from 52 -- 152 °C as determined by DMA in 3-point bending. SEM analysis on fractured tensile test specimens detected a small degree of heterogeneity. All the thermosets are thermally stable up to approximately 300 °C based on 5% weight loss.

  5. Combined Toxicity of Three Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae.

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    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Doll, Kenneth M; Bowman, Michael J

    2017-11-07

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty-one essential oils were initially screened for their toxicity against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae and three out of the seven most toxic essential oils (Manuka, oregano, and clove bud essential oils) were examined for their chemical composition and combined toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with oregano essential oil and antagonistically with clove bud essential oil. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 21 components in Manuka essential oil and three components each in oregano and clove bud essential oils. Eugenol (84.9%) and eugenol acetate (9.6%) were the principal constituents in clove bud essential oil while carvacrol (75.8%) and m-isopropyltoluene (15.5%) were the major constituents in oregano essential oil. The major constituents in Manuka essential oil were calamenene (20%) and 3-dodecyl-furandione (11.4%). Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with eugenol acetate and antagonistically with eugenol, suggesting that eugenol was a major contributor to the antagonistic interaction between Manuka and clove bud essential oils. In addition, Manuka interacted synergistically with carvacrol suggesting its contribution to the synergistic interaction between Manuka and oregano essential oils. These findings provide novel insights that can be used to develop new and safer alternatives to synthetic insecticides. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Comparative study of the antifungal activity of some essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimould activity of oregano, thyme, rosemary and clove essential oils and some of their main constituents: eugenol, carvacrol and thymol against Aspergillus niger. This antifungal activity was assessed using broth dilution, disc diffusion and micro atmosphere methods. In both agar diffusion ...

  7. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.

  8. Influence of clove oil and eugenol on muscle contraction of silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheawfu, Kantaporn; Pikulkaew, Surachai; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-05-30

    Clove oil is used in fish anesthesia and expected to have a mechanism via glutamic receptor. The present study explores the activities of clove oil and its major compound, eugenol, in comparison with L-glutamic acid on glutamic receptor of silkworm muscle and fish anesthesia. It was found that clove oil and eugenol had similar effects to L-glutamic acid on inhibition of silkworm muscle contraction after treated with D-glutamic acid and kainic acid. Anesthetic activity of the test samples was investigated in goldfish. The results demonstrated that L-glutamic acid at 20 and 40 mM could induce the fish to stage 3 of anesthesia that the fish exhibited total loss of equilibrium and muscle tone, whereas clove oil and eugenol at 60 ppm could induce the fish to stage 4 of anesthesia that the reflex activity of the fish was lost. These results suggest that clove oil and eugenol have similar functional activities and mechanism to L-glutamic acid on muscle contraction and fish anesthesia.

  9. Modeling the Drug Discovery Process: The Isolation and Biological Testing of Eugenol from Clove Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William H.; Smiley, Patricia M.

    2002-01-01

    This experiment describes the isolation and biological testing of eugenol and neutral compounds from commercially available clove oil. By coupling the chemical separation of the components of clove oil (an experiment described in many introductory organic laboratory textbooks) with a simple antibiotic test, the students "discover" the biologically active compound in clove oil. This experiment models one of the primary methods used in the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents.

  10. Essential oil components from Asarum sieboldii Miquel are toxic to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiqiang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Fang; Li, Li; Liu, Zhigang; He, Zhendan

    2012-11-01

    In our effort to develop novel plant-derived acaricides, we examined the contact and fumigant toxicity of Asarum heterotropoides (Asarum sieboldii Miquel) essential oil constituents to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). Ten constituents, including methyl eugenol (relative amount 42.18 %), were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) in the A. sieboldii Miq. essential oil. In contact toxicity tests, methyl eugenol (4.2 μg/cm(2), 24 h LD50) was most toxic to D. farinae, followed by benzyl benzoate (9.1 μg/cm(2)), A. sieboldii Miq. essential oil (37.7 μg/cm(2)), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP 57.9 μg/cm(2)). The potency of methyl eugenol and A. sieboldii Miq. essential oil was higher than benzyl benzoate and DBP, with mortalities of 100, 100, 94.6, and 13.2 %, respectively, after 2.5 h of exposure. In the vapor phase mortality bioassay, methyl eugenol and A. sieboldii Miq. essential oil resulted in 100 % mortality in closed containers after 24-h exposure, but only 4.7 and 7.9 %, respectively, in open containers, indicating that the toxicity in these tests was largely due to the vapor phase. Methyl eugenol and A. sieboldii Miq. essential oil merit further study as potential D. farinae control compounds.

  11. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Eugénia; Vale-Silva, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2009-11-01

    The composition and antifungal activity of clove essential oil (EO), obtained from Syzygium aromaticum, were studied. Clove oil was obtained commercially and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The EO analysed showed a high content of eugenol (85.3 %). MICs, determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols, and minimum fungicidal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the clove oil and its main component, eugenol, against Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte clinical and American Type Culture Collection strains. The EO and eugenol showed inhibitory activity against all the tested strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on yeasts and filamentous fungi, flow cytometric and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis studies were performed. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells when the cells were treated with concentrations just over the MICs, meaning that the fungicidal effect resulted from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Clove oil and eugenol also caused a considerable reduction in the quantity of ergosterol, a specific fungal cell membrane component. Germ tube formation by Candida albicans was completely or almost completely inhibited by oil and eugenol concentrations below the MIC values. The present study indicates that clove oil and eugenol have considerable antifungal activity against clinically relevant fungi, including fluconazole-resistant strains, deserving further investigation for clinical application in the treatment of fungal infections.

  12. GC-MS method validation and levels of methyl eugenol in a diverse range of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Carolyn A; Davies, Noel W; Larkman, Tony

    2017-03-01

    Tea tree oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia has widespread use in the cosmetic industry as an antimicrobial as well as for other functions in topical products. Concerns were first raised by the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products in 2004 about the level of the potentially carcinogenic phenylpropanoid compound methyl eugenol in tea tree oil. Limits on oil content in different types of cosmetic products were set based on a reported upper level of 0.9% methyl eugenol in the oil. A previous publication indicated that these levels were based on oil from a Melaleuca species not used in the commercial production of oil. Even the highest recorded levels in Melaleuca alternifolia, the overwhelmingly most common species used, were ∼15 times less than this, meaning that more oil could be safely used in the products. The current study, including details on methodology and reproducibility, extends that work across a suite of 57 plantation-sourced oils from a range of geographical locations and production years, as well as many Australian and international commercial oils. Lower levels of methyl eugenol in oils of known provenance were confirmed, with a recorded range of 160-552 ppm and a mean of 337 ppm. Analysis of variance showed methyl eugenol levels in Australian plantation oils to be correlated to the geographical region but not to the year of production. Average methyl eugenol levels in commercial oils were significantly lower, and these samples were divided into an authentic group and a group that were suspected of being adulterated based on an independent test. Authentic commercial oils had similar levels of methyl eugenol to Australian provenance material, whilst the oils classed as suspect had significantly lower levels.

  13. Improvement of colchicine oral bioavailability by incorporating eugenol in the nanoemulsion as an oil excipient and enhancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The effect of eugenol on colchicine transport across an isolated rat intestinal membrane was studied using an in vitro diffusion chamber system. We found that eugenol increased the absorptive transport of the drug efficiently. The effect of eugenol on intestinal absorption of colchicine in an oral administrative nanoemulsion formulation was also demonstrated in vivo. The colchicine nanoemulsion was prepared with isopropyl myristate, eugenol, Tween80, ethanol and water, and eugenol was used as an oil phase in the formulation; an average particle size of this nanoemulsion was 41.2 ± 7.2 nm. The permeation of colchicine in the nanoemulsion across the intestinal membrane was significantly different from that of the control group (0.2 mM colchicine). Finally, co-administration of eugenol in colchicine nanoemulsion to enhance the colchicine bioavailability was investigated by an oral administration method. After oral administration of colchicine (8 mg/kg) in the form of either the nanoemulsion or in free colchicine solution, the relative bioavailability of nanoemulsion and eugenol–nanoemulsion were enhanced by about 1.6- and 2.1-fold, respectively, compared with free colchicine solution. The procedure indicated that the intestinal absorption of colchicine was enhanced significantly by eugenol in the tested nanoemulsion. All the results suggested that eugenol is an efficient component in an oral administrative formulation for improving the intestinal absorption of colchicine. PMID:21753875

  14. Potential of the Essential Oil from Pimenta Pseudocaryophyllus as an Antimicrobial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Érika Yoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of the essential oil of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus in inhibiting the growth of the main bacteria responsible for bad perspiration odor (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus hauseri, Micrococcus yunnanensis and Corynebacterium xerosis. The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HR-GC and four constituents were identified, eugenol being the major component (88.6 %. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by means of the turbidimetric method, using the microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the essential oil ranged from 500 to 1,000 μg mL-1. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations confirmed the physical damage and morphological alteration of the test bacteria treated with the essential oil, reference drugs and eugenol. The findings of the study demonstrated that this essential oil can be used in the formulation of personal care products.

  15. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Essential Oil Compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Salleh, Farediah Ahmad * , Khong Heng Yen, Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been largely employed for human need due to their antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities. At present, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important. Essential oils or some of their components are used in perfumes and make-up products, sanitary products, dentistry, agriculture, as food preservers and additives, and as natural remedies. The essential oil compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae family have been investigated for many years. In the recent years, studies on the essential oils of the species have been progressing and many of them have reported interesting pharmacological activities. In this article, we summarized and updated the chemical compositions and biological activities of Malaysian Lauraceae. Throughout our literature review, only four genera which are Lindera, Beilschmiedia, Litsea, and Cinnamomum have been studied for their essential oil compositions in Malaysia. They were found to contain mainly safrole, eugenol, linalool, camphor, benzyl benzoate or cinnamaldehyde as major components. There were significant priorities to find out the details of the chemical compositions of the essential oils from Malaysian Lauraceae. Therefore, more clinical studies on the toxicity of the essential oil of the species are also crucial to ensure their safety and to assess their eligibility to be used as the sources of modern medicines.

  17. Chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He Qin; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2013-04-09

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%), estragole (8.55%), and eugenol (7.54%), followed by thymol (3.62%), pulegone (2.56%), limonene (2.49%) and caryophyllene (2.38%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 μg/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 μg/mL) and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 μg/mL) exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 μg/mL). The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

  18. Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wei Deng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 μg/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 μg/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 μg/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

  19. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as with standard treatments , for symptom management . Essential oils (also known as volatile oils) are the fragrant ( aromatic ) part found in many plants, often under the surface of leaves, bark, or peel. The fragrance is released if ...

  20. Eugenol oil nanoemulsion: antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and phytotoxicity on cottonseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2015-02-01

    The current research deals with the formulation and characterization of bio-based oil-in-water nanoemulsion. The formulated eugenol oil nanoemulsion was characterized by dynamic light scattering, stability test, transmission electron microscopy and thin layer chromatography. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 80 nm and TEM study reveals the spherical shape of eugenol oil nanoemulsion (EON). The size of the nanoemulsion was found to be physically stable up to more than 1-month when it was kept at room temperature (25 °C). The TEM micrograph showed that the EON was spherical in shape and moderately mono or di-dispersed and was in the range of 50-110 nm. Three concentrations of the nanoformulation were used to evalute the anti-fusarium activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. SDS-PAGE results of total protein from the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) isolate before and after treatment with eugenol oil nanoemulsion indicate that the content of extra cellular soluble small molecular proteins decreased significantly in EON-treated fungus. Light micrographs of mycelia and spores treated with EON showed the disruption of the fungal structures. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Fusarium wilt incidence indicated highly significant ( p = 0.000) effects of concentration, genotype, and their interaction. The difference in wilt incidence between concentrations and control was not the same for each genotype, that is, the genotypes responded differently to concentrations. Effects of three EON concentration on germination percentage, and radicle length, were determined in the laboratory. One very interesting finding in the current study is that cotton genotypes was the most important factors in determining wilt incidence as it accounted for 93.18 % of the explained (model) variation. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential phytotoxic effect of three EON concentrations. Concentration, genotype and

  1. Toxic effect of Atalantia monophylla essential oil on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattudurai, Gopal; Baskar, Kathirvelu; Paulraj, Micheal Gabrial; Islam, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu

    2017-01-01

    The hydrodistillated essential oil of Atalantia monophylla was subjected to GC-MS. Forty compounds were presented in the essential oil. Eugenol (19.76 %), sabinene (19.57 %), 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-methoxyethenyl) benzene (9.84 %), beta-asarone (7.02 %) and methyl eugenol (5.52 %) were found the predominant compounds. The oil was tested for fumigant toxicity and repellent activity against Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae. The development stage of C. maculatus fecundity, adult emergence and also ovicidal activities were studied by the treatment of A. monophylla oil. The oil exhibited considerable fumigation toxicity (70.22 %), repellent activity (85.24 %) and ovicidal activity (100 %) against C. maculatus. The oil significantly reduced the protein, esterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase on C. maculatus and S. oryzae. It can be considered that A. monophylla has a potential insecticide against stored product pests.

  2. Toxic effects of two essential oils and their constituents on the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, L C; Plata-Rueda, A; Colares, H C; Campos, J M; Dos Santos, M H; Fernandes, F L; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C

    2017-12-14

    The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor. In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor. Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.

  3. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grant Wyllie; Dimitrios Zabaras

    2001-01-01

    The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor) exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8%) and linalool (+2.5%) were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the post-wounding response...

  4. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus growth and ochratoxin A production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Hua

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150-250 µL/L with fumigation and 250-500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ≥ 100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ≥ 75 µg/mL and ≥ 150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn't fully inhibit OTA production at ≤ 200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains.

  5. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus growth and ochratoxin A production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Huijuan; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yueju; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150-250 µL/L with fumigation and 250-500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ≥ 100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ≥ 75 µg/mL and ≥ 150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn't fully inhibit OTA production at ≤ 200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains.

  6. Toxicity of essential and non-essential oils against the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, R; Wall, R

    2012-10-01

    The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC(50) at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Essential Oil Compositions of Ocimum basilicum from Three Different Regions: Nepal, Tajikistan, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Satyal, Prabodh; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Pokharel, Suraj; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Kukaniev, Muhammadsho A; Setzer, William N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. were collected from four different geographical locations, Sindhuli and Biratnagar (Nepal), Chormaghzak village (Tajikistan), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 179 essential oil compositions revealed six major chemotypes: Linalool, eugenol, estragole, methyl eugenol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol. All four of the basil oils in this study were of the linalool-rich variety. Some of the basil oils were screened for bioactivity including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, brine shrimp lethality, nematicidal, larvicidal, insecticidal, and antioxidant. The basil oils in this study were not notably antibacterial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, nor nematicidal, but were active in the brine shrimp lethality test, and did show larvicidal and insecticidal activities. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Astani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  9. Superheated water extraction of essential oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Bimali; Smith, Roger M

    2010-01-01

    Superheated water extraction (SHWE) potentially provides an environmentally friendly and clean extraction technique which uses a minimum or no organic solvent. The scope and limitations of the technique have still to be fully explored. To investigate the application of SHWE to cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark and leaves as typical plant materials to determine if this extraction method can yield a higher quality oil. Samples of cinnamon bark or leaves were extracted at 200°C with water under pressure. The essential oils were obtained from the aqueous solution using a solid phase extraction cartridge and were then examined by GC-MS. Using superheated water extraction, cinnamon bark oil with over 80% cinnamaldehyde and cinnamon leaf oil containing up to 98% eugenol were obtained. Alternative solvent extraction methods were also studied but led to emulsion formation apparently because of the presence of cellulose breakdown products. Superheated water extraction offers a cheap, environmentally friendly technique with a shorter extraction time than hydrodistillation and yielded a higher quality oil with a higher proportion of eugenol than hydrodistillation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus and Tynanthus micranthus

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    Dayana Lacerda Custódio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (1.0% w/w and Tynanthus micranthus (1.1% w/w. GC and GC/MS analysis demonstrated that eugenol was the only component in the T. micranthus essential oil (99.9% and the major component in the P. pseudocaryophyllus essential oil (92.59%, which also presented methyleugenol, terpinen-4-ol, o-cymene and (E-caryophyllene, among others. Both the oils presented antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi tested.The Bioautography test revealed that eugenol was the bioactive component in both the oils against Cladosporium herbarum. This is the first report about the T. micranthus essential oil, and the antifungal activity of P. pseudocaryophyllus. The results confirmed the potential of eugenol-rich essential oils not only as a source of flavor compounds, but also of use as antimicrobial agent in agriculture and in pharmaceutical and food products.O presente trabalho descreve a análise da composição química e a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais obtidos por hidrodestilação das folhas de Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (1.0% m/m e de Tynanthus micranthus (1.1% m/m. As análises por CG e CG-EM demonstraram que o óleo essencial de P. pseudocaryophyllus apresenta o eugenol como componente principal (92.6% , além de outros constituintes como methyleugenol, tepinen-4-ol, O-cimeno e (E-cariofileno. O óleo de T. micranthus contém o eugenol como único constituinte (99.9%. Ambos os óleos apresentaram atividade contra bactérias, leveduras e fungos filamentosos. O teste de bioautografia revelou o eugenol como a substância responsável pela atividade contra o Cladosporium herbarum dos óleos das duas espécies. Este é o primeiro estudo sobre o óleo essencial de T. micranthus e o primeiro relato sobre a atividade antifúngica do

  11. Chemical polymorphism of essential oils from populations of Laurus nobilis grown on Tunisia, Algeria and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Hanen; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2011-10-01

    The compositions of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of tree Mediterranean populations of Laurus nobilis L. collected during the flowering phase on Tunisia, Algeria and France, were studied by GC and GC-MS. The analysis has allowed identifying 54 components. The main components were 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpinyl acetate (10-18.6%), methyl eugenol (10-22.1%), sabinene (1.2-8%), eugenol (1.2-11.7%) alpha-pinene (tr-4.5%) and beta-pinene (0.4-4.2%). The monoterpene fraction was dominant in all the oils analysed and consisted mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes. The oils from the tree populations studied showed a clear chemical polymorphism. The principal component and the hierarchical cluster analyses separated the Laurus nobilis leaf essential oils into three groups.

  12. Effects of seasonal variation on the central nervous system activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Cristiana M Murbach; Marques, Márcia Ortiz M; Costa, Mirtes

    2006-04-21

    Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) and other species of the same genus are used as medicines to treat central nervous system (CNS) diseases, commonly encountered in warm regions of the world. The chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil varies according to their chemotypes: timol, eugenol or geraniol. In this study, the essential oil type eugenol was extracted by hydrodistillation in each of the four seasons of the year. Activity upon CNS was evaluated in the open-field and rota-rod tests; sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (PBS, 40 mg/kg, intra-peritoneally, i.p.) and anticonvulsant activity against seizures induced by both pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 85 mg/kg, s.c.) and maximal electroshock (MES, 50 mA, 0.11 s) were determined. Essential oils obtained in each season were effective in increasing the sleeping duration and a preparation obtained in Spring was able to protect animals against tonic seizures induced by electroshock. In each season, eugenol and 1,8-cineole were the most abundant compounds, and in Spring the essential oil presented the greatest relative percentage of sesquiterpenes, suggesting that these compounds could explain the differences observed in the biological activity in essential oils obtained in different seasons of the year.

  13. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  14. Composition of the essential oils of three Uzbek Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirjonovna; Sharopov, Farukh; Satyal, Prabodh; Azimova, Shahnoz Sadykovna; Wink, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria immaculata Nevski ex Juz., Scutellaria ramosissima M. Pop. and Scutellaria schachristanica Juz. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Uzbekistan was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oils from S. immaculata were acetophenone (30.39%), eugenol (20.61%), thymol (10.04%) and linalool (6.92%), whereas constituents of the essential oils fromS. schachristanica were acetophenone (34.74%), linalool (26.98%) and eugenol (20.67%). The S. ramosissima oil is dominated by germacrene D (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (11.09%), linalool (9.63%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.34%). The essential oils of Scutellaria species exhibited weaker antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. In FRAP assay, only eugenol exhibited a substantial reducing power IC 50  = 2476.92 ± 15.8 (mM Fe(II)/g).

  15. Effect of some essential oils on phagocytosis and complement system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2015-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro activity of 15 essential oils, 4 essential oil fractions, and 3 pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol) on phagocytosis by human neutrophils and on complement system. Samples were characterized by GC and GC-MS. Most of the oils (nutmeg, clove, niaouli, tea tree, bay laurel, lemon, red thyme, ginger), nutmeg terpenes, eugenol, and carvacrol showed mild to moderate inhibition of phagocytosis (25-40% inhibition at doses ranging from 40 to 60 μg/mL); highest inhibitory activity was found for thymol (72% at 56 μg/mL), whereas the mixture of bornyl and isobornyl acetates showed a mild stimulating activity (21% at 56 μg/mL). All samples were inactive in the alternative pathway of complement system, whereas on classical pathway, clove oil, eugenol, palmarosa oil, red thyme oil, tarragon oil, and carvacrol showed the highest activity, with IC50 values ranging from 65 to 78 μg/mL.

  16. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil.

  17. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  18. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  19. Essential oils in broiler nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung-woo

    2002-01-01

    Dietary antibiotics at low, subtherapeutic levels have been shown to improve growth performance in farm animals. However, there is a trend to look for alternatives to dietary antibiotics, due to occurrence of antibiotic-resistance bacteria. The present thesis explored the essential oils as the

  20. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grant Wyllie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8% and linalool (+2.5% were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA showed the post-wounding response to be independent from the pre-wounding levels of the particular compounds expressing the response and from the overall leaf oil-composition.

  1. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antiproliferative and Molecular Mechanism of Eugenol-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Supriyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic phytochemicals are a broad class of nutraceuticals found in plants which have been extensively researched by scientists for their health-promoting potential. One such a compound which has been comprehensively used is eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, which is the active component of Syzigium aromaticum (cloves. Aromatic plants like nutmeg, basil, cinnamon and bay leaves also contain eugenol. Eugenol has a wide range of applications like perfumeries, flavorings, essential oils and in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. Increasing volumes of literature showed eugenol possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in melanoma, skin tumors, osteosarcoma, leukemia, gastric and mast cells has been well documented. This review article will highlight the antiproliferative activity and molecular mechanism of the eugenol induced apoptosis against the cancer cells and animal models.

  3. Antimicrobial Efficacy of an Array of Essential Oils Against Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Laurel L; Davidson, P Michael; Critzer, Faith J

    2016-02-01

    The essential oils of clove bud, cinnamon bark and thyme, and their individual compounds including allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, eugenol, and thymol were initially assessed for antimicrobial activity against 9 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species. Carvacrol and thymol were the most inhibitory with MICs of 0.1% (v/v and w/v, respectively). Cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon bark oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, and thyme oil were moderately inhibitive (MICs = 0.2% v/v), while cinnamic acid required a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). AIT was not effective with MICs in excess of concentrations tested (0.75% v/v). The bactericidal capability of the oil components carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and thymol were further examined against Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc citrovorum. Thymol at 0.1% (w/v) was bactericidal against L. citrovorum (>4-log reduction), but resulted in a 2-log CFU/mL reduction against L. buchneri and P. acidilactici. Cinnamaldehyde at 0.2% to 0.25% (v/v) was effective against L. citrovorum, L. buchneri, and P. acidilactici, resulting in a >2-log reduction. All 3 organisms were susceptible to 0.2% carvacrol with >3-log reduction observed after exposure for 6 h. Eugenol was the least effective. Concentrations of 0.2% and 0.25% (v/v) were needed to achieve an initial reduction in population, >3-log CFU/mL after 6 h exposure. However, at 0.2%, P. acidilactici and L. buchneri recovered to initial populations in 48 to 72 h. Results indicate essential oils have the capacity to inactivate LAB that are commonly associated with spoilage of shelf stable low-acid foods. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Phytochemical study of essential oil from the aerial parts of Coleus aromaticus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, G; Pande, C; Kharkwal, G; Singh, S; Singh, C

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil composition of Coleus aromaticus Benth. (family Lamiaceae) was examined by capillary GC and GC-MS. Analyses revealed the presence of 28 constituents, of which 16 were identified. Thymol (83.39%) was found to be the major compound, while 1-octen-3-ol, terpine-4-ol, eugenol, trans-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and α-cadinol were present as minor constituents.

  5. Impacts of Sample Preparation Methods on Solubility and Antilisterial Characteristics of Essential Oil Components in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Davidson, P. Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil components (EOCs) have limited water solubility and are used at much higher concentrations in complex food matrices than in growth media to inhibit pathogens. However, the correlation between solubility and activity has not been studied. The objective of this work was to characterize the solubility of EOCs in solvents and milk and correlate solubility with antilisterial activity. The solubilities of four EOCs, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde, in water was si...

  6. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  7. Regeneration of β-Carotene from Radical Cation by Eugenol, Isoeugenol, and Clove Oil in the Marcus Theory Inverted Region for Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Ting; Cheng, Hong; Han, Rui-Min; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-02-01

    The rate of regeneration of β-carotene by eugenol from the β-carotene radical cation, an initial bleaching product of β-carotene, was found by laser flash photolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy to be close to the diffusion limit in chloroform/methanol (9:1, v/v), with a second-order rate constant (k2) of 4.3 × 109 L mol-1 s-1 at 23 °C. Isoeugenol, more reducing with a standard reduction potential of 100 mV lower than eugenol, was slower, with k2 = 7.2 × 108 L mol-1 s-1. Regeneration of β-carotene following photobleaching was found 50% more efficient by eugenol, indicating that, for the more reducing isoeugenol, the driving force exceeds the reorganization energy for electron transfer significantly in the Marcus theory inverted region. For eugenol/isoeugenol mixtures and clove oil, kinetic control by the faster eugenol determines the regeneration, with a thermodynamic backup of reduction equivalent through eugenol regeneration by the more reducing isoeugenol for the mixture. Clove oil, accordingly, is a potential protector of provitamin A for use in red palm oils.

  8. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  9. MARKOVNIKOV ADDITION OF CHLOROSULFURIC ACID TO EUGENOL ISOLATED FROM CLOVE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sudarma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to synthesize new compounds with potential biological activity from readily accessed natural products. Eugenol has been reported to posses antioxidant and anticancer properties and was prepared by extracting from clove buds with dichloromethane and followed by isolation using column chromatography to afford pure eugenol (73%. In an attempt to enhance intrinsic activity of this natural compound, some derivatives were possible to synthesize. The main aim of this preliminary research was to transform eugenol to become sulfonic derivative. Eugenol was transformed to its sulfonic derivative in moderate yield (64% by treatment with chlorosulfuric acid which undergoes Markovnikov addition. This product was rapidly confirmed by GC-MS and NMR analyses. Selective inhibition was performed by cyclic sulfonic ester derivative which could inhibit Eschericia coli and Staphylococcus aureus but not for Bacillus cereus.

  10. Essential oil composition in three cultivars of Ocimum L. in Albania

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    Imeri Alma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basil is an important medicinal and aromatic plant. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative analyses of the essential oils obtained from an autochthon cultivar of Ocimum basilicum L. and two other Italian cultivars, O. basilicum L. cv. purple and O. basilicum L green basil with wide leaves .In the volatile oil of O. basilicum L. cv. with green wide leaves, twelve components were characterized, representing 90% of the total oil, of which linalool (45.3 % and eugenol (42.06 % were the major components. In the volatile oil of O. basilicum L. cv. purple, nine components were characterized representing 90% of the total oil, of which farnesene (14.94%, elemol (11.29% and carvacrol (9% were the major components. In the O. basilicum L. cv. (autochthon cultivar with green narrow leaves, twelve components were characterized representing 90% of the total oil, with. Linalool (48 % and eugenol (36.09 % as the major components. Linalool (Raguso et. al., 1999 is the dominant constituent in the two cultivars; There was no big difference between the two green cultivars with different leaf morphology in their oil content. These results suggest that further research to improve the quality of the essential oil content is necessary.

  11. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used.Methods and Results: Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented...... with 100 and 250 mu l l(-1) essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 mu l l(-1) volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage...... on the application method. Larger phenolic compounds such as thymol and eugenol (thyme, cinnamon and clove) had best effect applied directly to medium, whereas smaller compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate and citral (mustard and lemongrass) were most efficient when added as volatiles.Significance and Impact...

  12. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO of Ocimum gratissimum inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 0.75 mg/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Shigella flexineri, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus mirabilis were at concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 mg/ml. The endpoint was not reached for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (>=24 mg/ml. The MICs of the reference drugs used in this study were similar to those presented in other reports. The minimum bactericidal concentration of EO was within a twofold dilution of the MIC for this organism. The compound that showed antibacterial activity in the EO of O. gratissimum was identified as eugenol and structural findings were further supported by gas chromatography/mass spectra retention time data. The structure was supported by spectroscopic methods.

  13. Essential oils: from extraction to encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asbahani, A; Miladi, K; Badri, W; Sala, M; Aït Addi, E H; Casabianca, H; El Mousadik, A; Hartmann, D; Jilale, A; Renaud, F N R; Elaissari, A

    2015-04-10

    Essential oils are natural products which have many interesting applications. Extraction of essential oils from plants is performed by classical and innovative methods. Numerous encapsulation processes have been developed and reported in the literature in order to encapsulate biomolecules, active molecules, nanocrystals, oils and also essential oils for various applications such as in vitro diagnosis, therapy, cosmetic, textile, food etc. Essential oils encapsulation led to numerous new formulations with new applications. This insures the protection of the fragile oil and controlled release. The most commonly prepared carriers are polymer particles, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  15. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oil of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. was analyzed, for the first time, by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC-FID. A total yield of 3 mg of essential oil per100 g of plant dry mass was obtained, and 27 compounds were identified, representing 97. 7 % of total oil. The essential oil were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes and phenolic derivatives. The main constituents were eugenol (53.8%, eugenol acetate (24.5%, b -caryophyllene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (6.4% and aromadendrene oxide II (2.1%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method, and t he free-radical-scavenging activity was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  16. No induction of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes during continuous exposure to eugenol and citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolónio, Joana; Faleiro, Maria L; Miguel, Maria G; Neto, Luís

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation response of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Listeria monocytogenes to the essential oil (EO), eugenol, and citral. The minimum inhibitory concentration of eugenol and citral was determined by agar dilution and microdilution. Adaptation to eugenol and citral was done by sequential exposure of the pathogens to increasing concentrations of the essential oils. The M2-A9 standard was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility. The effect of eugenol and citral on the adherence ability was evaluated by the crystal violet assay. The impact of adaptation to eugenol on virulence was estimated using the Galleria mellonella model. No development of resistance to the components and antibiotics was observed in the adapted cells of S. aureus, MRSA, and L. monocytogenes. Eugenol and citral at subinhibitory concentration reduced the bacterial adherence. Adaptation to subinhibitory concentration of eugenol affected the virulence potential of S. aureus, MRSA, and L. monocytogenes. Eugenol and citral do not pose a risk of resistance development in a continuous mode of use. These EO components showed a high efficacy as antistaphylococcal and antilisterial biofilm agents. Adaptation at subinhibitory concentration of eugenol protected the larvae against listerial and staphylococcal infection. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical and biological evaluation of the essential oils of different Melaleuca species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, R S; Shalaby, A S; El-Baroty, G A; Ibrahim, N A; Ali, M A; Hassan, E M

    2004-01-01

    The essential oils of the fresh leaves of M. ericifolia, M. leucadendron, M. armillaris and M. styphelioides were isolated by a hydrodistillation method and analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. The essential oil of M. ericifolia contained methyl eugenol (96.84%) as a major constituent, whereas M. leucadendron was rich in 1,8-cineole (64.30%). The essential oil of M. armillaris was rich in 1,8-cineole (33.93%) followed by terpinen-4-ol (18.79%), whereas M. styphelioides was rich in caryophyllene oxide (43.78%) and (-) spathulenol (9.65%). The essential oils of these species possessed antimicrobial and antifungal activities. M. ericifolia exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against Bacillus subtiles and Aspergillus niger. The antiviral activities of the essential oils against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were studied in African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) by a plaque reduction assay. The volatile oil of M. armillaris was more effective as a virucidal (up to 99%) than that of M. leucadendron (92%) and M. ericifolia (91.5%). The effects of the essential oils on the antioxidant system status in carbon tetrachloride treated animals were studied. The essential oil of M. armillaris exhibited a marked antioxidant effect, it improved vitamin E, vitamin C and superoxide dismutase parameters so it can be used as a free radical suppressor. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effect of oven drying and storage on essential oil composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni, V. W.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Hastuti, L. T.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The research about post-harvested clove is still limited especially in Indonesia, as the biggest producer of clove in the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of drying process and storage on the composition of essential oil of Indonesian clove originated from Toli-Toli. The essential oil of fresh and dried clove was obtained by steam distillation and the composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In all of the clove oil samples, eugenol was the major component, followed by caryophyllene and acetyleugenol. The drying method used was oven drying at 50°C until clove's moisture content reaches 13±1%. During the drying process, the content of phenylpropanoids such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavicol increased, while esters and monoterpenes decreased. The composition of clove oil was studied from dried clove after oven drying, then stored in the laboratory at room temperature for 4 months. There was slightly change on clove oil composition after 4 months of storage. The content of major components of clove like eugenol was higher while acetyleugenol was lower after 4 months of storage.

  19. Essential oils: renewal of interest and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigan, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of substances from vegetable matter, the definition of which is based on their method of extraction. They are characterized by their ambivalence, their ambiguity and their disparity: plant families from which essential oils are extracted are numerous; the composition of each essential oil depends not only on the family but also on the part of the plant from which it is extracted, and sometimes on the soil where the plant grows, or even on the time of the harvest. Gas chromatography is therefore necessary to characterize an essential oil. Essential oils can be found in cosmetics, in drugs, and in food. They are natural substances, but natural is not synonymous with harmless. Evaluation of the toxicity of essential oils and European regulation are underway.

  20. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemba, D; Kunicka, A

    2003-05-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances, and some questions concerning the safety of synthetic compounds have encouraged more detailed studies of plant resources. Essential oils, odorous and volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, have a wide application in folk medicine, food flavouring and preservation as well as in fragrance industries. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been known for many centuries. In recent years (1987-2001), a large number of essential oils and their constituents have been investigated for their antimicrobial properties against some bacteria and fungi in more than 500 reports. This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities. The agar diffusion method (paper disc and well) and the dilution method (agar and liquid broth) as well as turbidimetric and impedimetric monitoring of microorganism growth in the presence of tested essential oils are described. Factors influencing the in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the mechanisms of essential oils action on microorganisms are reported. This paper gives an overview on the susceptibility of human and food-borne bacteria and fungi towards different essential oils and their constituents. Essential oils of spices and herbs (thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove) were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested.

  1. Fumigation Toxicity of Essential Oil Monoterpenes to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olufunmilayo E. Ajayi; Arthur G. Appel; Henry Y. Fadamiro

    2014-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of eight essential oil components, 1-8-cineole, carvacrol, eugenol, (−)-menthone, (−)-linalool, S-(−)-limonene, (−)-β-pinene, and (+)-α-pinene, was tested against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), at 0.25–60 µL/L air doses. 1-8-Cineole, carvacrol, and eugenol caused complete adult mortality at 10 µL/L air 24 h after treatment. 1-8-Cineole and carvacrol were the most toxic with LD50 values of 0.24 and 0.6 µL/L air at 24 h...

  2. Comparing terpenes from plant essential oils as pesticides for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, O; Khallaayoune, K; Duvallet, G; Nayak, S; George, D

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to conventional synthetic pesticides has been widely reported in ticks, parasitic mites and other pests of veterinary and medical significance. New and novel approaches to manage these pests are therefore needed to ensure efficient control programmes that can be implemented now and in the future. Recent research in this area has focused on the pesticidal potential of plant essential oils. These products are attractive as pesticide candidates on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries (limiting the development of pest resistance against them). Although issues may exist concerning reliability in efficacy of essential oils, these may be overcome by identifying and developing bioactive oil components for use in pest management. In the current work, three such components (terpenes) found in essential oils (eugenol, geraniol and citral) were tested against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. All provided 100% mortality in toxicity tests when undiluted. Even at 1% of this dose, eugenol was 20% effective against experimental pest populations, although the remaining terpenes were largely ineffective at this concentration. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

  4. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

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    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  5. The synergistic effects of insecticidal essential oils and piperonyl butoxide on biotransformational enzyme activities in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliwitiya, Ranil; Nicholson, Russell A; Kennedy, Christopher J; Lowenberger, Carl A

    2012-05-01

    The biochemical mechanisms underlying the increased toxicity of several plant essential oils (thymol, eugenol, pulegone, terpineol, and citronellal) against fourth instar of Aedes aegypti L. when exposed simultaneously with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were examined. Whole body biotransformational enzyme activities including cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation (ethoxyresorufin O-dethylase [EROD]), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and beta-esterase activity were measured in control, essential oil-exposed only (single chemical), and essential oil + PBO (10 mg/liter) exposed larvae. At high concentrations, thymol, eugenol, pulegone, and citronellal alone reduced EROD activity by 5-25% 16 h postexposure. Terpineol at 10 mg/liter increased EROD activity by 5 +/- 1.8% over controls. The essential oils alone reduced GST activity by 3-20% but PBO exposure alone did not significantly affect the activity of any of the measured enzymes. All essential oils in combination with PBO reduced EROD activity by 58-76% and reduced GST activity by 3-85% at 16 h postexposure. This study indicates a synergistic interaction between essential oils and PBO in inhibiting the cytochrome P450 and GST detoxification enzymes in Ae. aegypti.

  6. Fumigation Toxicity of Essential Oil Monoterpenes to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilayo E. Ajayi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fumigant toxicity of eight essential oil components, 1-8-cineole, carvacrol, eugenol, (−-menthone, (−-linalool, S-(−-limonene, (−-β-pinene, and (+-α-pinene, was tested against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, at 0.25–60 µL/L air doses. 1-8-Cineole, carvacrol, and eugenol caused complete adult mortality at 10 µL/L air 24 h after treatment. 1-8-Cineole and carvacrol were the most toxic with LD50 values of 0.24 and 0.6 µL/L air at 24 h, respectively. (−-β-Pinene and (+-α-pinene were the least toxic with LD50 values of 31 and 31.4 µL/L air at 24 h, respectively. Toxicity was negatively correlated with vapor pressure. 1-8-Cineole and carvacrol caused 100% oviposition deterrence at all doses tested. Eugenol and (−-menthone completely inhibited adult emergence. S-(−-Limonene, (−-β-pinene, and (+-α-pinene were not effective at preventing oviposition or adult emergence, suggesting that a lethal dose of the three oil components would be necessary to control C. maculatus infestations.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basim, E; Basim, H

    2003-06-01

    The essential oil of Rosa damascena petals was evaluated for its antibacterial effects against three strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis spp. vesicatoria. The essential oil may be a potential control agent in the management of the disease caused by X.a. vesicatoria in tomato and pepper plants.

  8. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

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    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  9. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  10. [Determination of capsaicinoids and eugenol in waste-edible-oil by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong; Ren, Fei; Zhang, Pan

    2012-11-01

    A method was developed for the determination of capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and synthetic capsaicin) and eugenol in waste-edible-oil extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The capsaicinoids and eugenol in waste-edible-oil were extracted by methanol, and then separated by a SUPEL COSIL ABZ + Plus dC18 column (150 mm x4.6 mm, 5 microm). The analysis was performed by MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive and negative ion modes with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limits of detection for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, synthetic capsaicin and eugenol were 0.02, 0.03, 0.03 and 0.6 microg/L, respectively. The good linear relationships were obtained in certain concentration ranges of capsaicinoids and eugenol. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) of same-worker and different-worker were less than 5%. The method is exclusive, sensitive and accurate, and can be used in waste-edible-oil determination.

  11. Leaf and fruit essential oil compositions of Pimenta guatemalensis (Myrtaceae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Carlos; Cicció, José F

    2015-03-01

    Pitnenta is a genus of flowering plants in the Myrtaceae family, which has about 15 species, mostly found in the Caribbean region of the Americas. Commonly used for culinary and medicinal purposes, the best known commercial species are allspice, P. dioica (P. officinalis) and bay rum, P. racemosa, but there is little information concerning P. guatemalensis. The aim of the present study was to identify the chemical composition of the leaf and fruit essential oils ofP. guatemalensis. The extraction of essential oils of P. guatemalensis growing wild in Costa Rica was carried out by the hydrodistillation method at atmospheric pressure, using a modified Clevenger type apparatus. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatographyflame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using the retention indices on DB-5 type capillary column. A total of 103 and 63 compounds were identified in the leaf and fruit oils, respectively, corresponding to 96.8% and 86.1% of the total amount of the oils. The leaf oil consisted mainly of eugenol (72.8%), and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (18.2%). Among terpenes the major components were beta-caryophyllene (8.2%) and terpinolene (3.0%). The fruit oil also consisted mainly of eugenol (74.7%) and minor amounts of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes (7.3%), mainly caryophyllene oxide (3.3%). This is the first report of the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from this plant species.

  12. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

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    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  13. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. In vitro efficacy of five essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, Kerdalidec; Nicolas, Patrick; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Izri, Arezki; Durand, Rémy

    2018-02-01

    Treatment of head lice has relied mainly on the use of topical insecticides. Today, conventional topical pediculicides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. There is increasing interest in the use of natural products such as essential oils for head louse control, and many of them are now incorporated into various over-the-counter products presented as pediculicides, often without proper evaluation. The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro efficacy of five essential oils against adults of Pediculus humanus capitis using a contact filter paper toxicity bioassay. The chemical composition of the essential oils from wild bergamot, clove, lavender, tea tree, and Yunnan verbena was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All treatments and controls were replicated three times on separate occasions over a period of 11 months. In all, 1239 living lice were collected from the scalp of 51 subjects, aged from 1 to 69 years. Clove oil, diluted either in coco oil or sunflower oil, demonstrated the best adulticidal activity, reaching > 90% mortality within 2 h in lice submitted to a 30-min contact. Yunnan verbena oil diluted in coco oil showed also a significant efficacy. Other essential oils showed a lower efficacy. The oil's major component(s) differed according to the tested oils and appeared chemically diverse. In the case of clove oil, the eugenol appeared as the main component. This study confirmed the potential interest of some of the essential oils tested, but not all, as products to include possibly in a pediculicidal formulation.

  15. Growth Stage and Drying Methods Affect Essential Oil Content and Composition of Pickling Herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin

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    Arif ŞANLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted during 2012 in order to determine the essential oil content and composition of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin. Plants were collected during rosette, vegetative growth, full flowering and fruit-ripening stages. Oil was extracted using Clavenger hydro-distillation apparatus from either fresh, shade dried or sun dried samples. Oil composition was determined with a GC/MS. Oil content of samples showed significant variation during the vegetative stages of development. Oil contents of fresh samples were found to be 0.76% at seedling stage whereas oil content has risen to 1.06% at seed set. The shade-dried samples had higher oil contents than the fresh and sun dried samples. The oil composition of pickling herb changed with drying method and growth stage. Throughout the growth stage of the plant, the oil was composed of 21 components and the main components were found to be α- phellandrene (47.43 - 66.39% and methyl eugenol (21.29 – 38.72%. While methyl eugenol content decreased during vegetation period for both fresh and dried samples, α-phellandrene level increased. Attention should be given to the collection time and drying method of pickling herb for different uses since vegetative stage and drying method influence oil content and composition.

  16. Radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extracts of Echinophora sibthorpiana Guss. from Macedonia

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    Mileski Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of essential oil and extracts of Echinophora sibthorpiana Guss. (fam. Apiaceae collected in Macedonia. The chemical composition of E. sibthorpiana essential oil was characterized by the presence of methyl eugenol (60.40%, p-cymene (11.18% and α-phellandrene (10.23%. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts and essential oil was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The aqueous extract of aerial parts exhibited the strongest scavenging activity (IC50=1.67 mg/ml; results of the ABTS test showed that the most effective was the ethanol extract of aerial parts (1.11 mg vit. C/g. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity compared to hydroxyanisole, ascorbic acid and quercetin that were used in the DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. The total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations in the extracts ranged between 38.65-60.72 mg GA/g, and 3.15-19.00 mg Qu/g, respectively. The antimicrobial properties of the extracts and essential oil were investigated using a micro-well dilution technique against human pathogenic strains. The results were comparable with the effects of the positive controls, streptomycin and fluconazole. These findings indicate that E. sibthorpiana extracts and oil can be used in preventive treatments and as an alternative for synthetic preservatives. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029 i br. 173021

  17. Chemical constituents, physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of leaves essential oil of Ocimum urticifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketema Alemayehu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine chemical compositions, physicochemical properties and evaluating antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Ocimum urticifolium (O. urticifolium. Methods: Essential oil of O. urticifolium was extracted by hydrodistillation technique. A number of phytochemical screening tests were applied to identify the classes of compounds in the leaves extract of O. urticifolium. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to characterize the chemical components in the essential oil. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity as per of standard procedure. Results: Phytochemical screening of crude extract revealed that the presence of tannins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phenols. The obtained oil yield is (0.33 ± 0.11 % (v/w. Analysis of oil using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry showed a total of 22 components, the abundance of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes (98.99%. The percentage composition of monoterpene in the oil was α-pinene (22.105%, eugenol (21.099%, while sesquiterpenes α-cubebene (11.341%, α-bisabolene (9.945%, α-caryophyllene (7.709%, α-caryophyllene oxide (5.754%, and copaene (3.594%. The oil inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, while no activity was shown to Salmonella typhi. Conclusions: The O. urticifolium is a rich source of various classes of chemical constituents and the antibacterial activity of the oil could be attributed mainly to these compounds.

  18. Antifungal activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil and its lead molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman A

    2010-02-01

    Aqueous extracts and oils of five Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for their antimicrobial activities, were evaluated against two of the most prevalent Candida species causing candidiasis, C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Of these plant materials, three showed varying degrees of antifungal activity against both species. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) essential oil (TEO) was found to be the most effective, followed by Peppermint essential oil, and Aloe vera aqueous leaf extract. The product with the lowest MIC was further studied along with its lead molecules to explore the possible mechanism of action of the most active constituents. Eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, and 1, 8-cineole, along with TEO were then evaluated at the same. The pattern and extent of inhibition was studied using growth and WST1 cytotoxicity assays. Proton pumps are important for growth and metabolism of Candida species and so H+ extrusion studies were performed to explore the possible mechanism of the test compounds. Linalool was the most active constituent of TEO, whereas inhibition of H+ extrusion appeared to be a synergistic function of the lead molecules.

  19. Preliminary study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal properties of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants

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    Aristides M. Leite

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants. Molluscicide and larvicidal activity were determined by, respectively, the lethality bioassays using Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae and Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae larvae. Essential oils from Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae and the phytochemicals α-pinene and eugenol presented citotoxicity toward Artemia salina with CL50 values between 9.59 and 253.43 μL/mL. Essential oils from E. uniflora, M. piperita, O. vulgare and R. officinalis showed embryotoxicity on Aedes aegypti larvae with a viability inhibition between 40 and 100%. These results show the bioactivity of the assayed essential oils and phytochemicals and, partially, justify their insertion in further evaluation in order to establish a safe exploitation of their biological potentiality.

  20. Influence of Essential Oils on Infectious Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Elżbieta; Rusiecka-Ziółkowska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are substances of plant origin used to produce cosmetics, to preserve and aromatize food. Recently, they have become more popular among scientists and doctors due to their germicidal, antifungal, antiviral and anti-parasitic properties. As a consequence, essential oils are regarded as the source of new therapeutic substances. Numerous publications have been written regarding their effect on microorganisms in vitro. There have also been reports regarding their use in therapy as an additive to the traditional medical treatment. Essential oils may have other properties with positive effect on health because they may have an influence on the central nervous system and human mental state. It should be, however, kept in mind that compounds of essential oils might also have side effects and lead, like antibiotics, to the selection of resistant pathogens. It is necessary to develop quality standards of obtaining and using these plant preparations, so that they may provide safe and effective assistance in the fight against human pathogens.

  1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Akway

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    Meike Meilan Lisangan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Akway. Akway (Drimys piperita Hook f. is a woody, evergreen andaromatic plan that was a member of winteraceae. This plant is used by Sougb tribe lived in Sururey village, District ofManokwari, to heal malaria and to enhance the vitality of body. The objectives of this research were to know the yieldof essential oil using water distillation of leaves and its chemical composition using gas chromatography and massspectroscopy (GC-MS. The results indicated that the yield of leaves essential oil by using water distillation was 0.2%.The essential oil composed by 49 compounds categorized by terpene and its derivatives 83.67%, derivatives of benzene4.08% and alifatic compounds 8.16%.

  2. REINVESTIGATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT OF THAPSIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was dried under shade and subjected to hydrodistillation procedure as described in many references, to give 0.32g, 0.29g and 0.22 g of essential oil from flowers, leaves and stems respectively. 3. ANALYTICAL CONDITIONS. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The oil was analyzed by GC/MS using a Agilent ...

  3. Essential Oil of Otostegia integrifolia Benth: Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of the oil was either comparable to or better than griseofulvin against most of the fungal pathogens tested. The study provides evidence for an excellent broadspectrum antimicrobial and significant antioxidant activity of O. integrifolia essential oil, a possible explanation for the traditional use of the plant.

  4. ANTIBACTERIAL PROFILE OF PEUCEDANUM LONGIFOLIUM ESSENTIAL OIL

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    Budimir Ilić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Peucedanum longifolium Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae essential oil were examined, as well as the association between it and standard antibiotics. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to analyze the chemical composition of the oil. The antibacterial activity of the oil was investigated by the broth microdilution method against thirteen bacterial strains. The interactions of the essential oil with three conventional antibiotics: tetracycline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol toward five selected bacterial strains were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (61.60%, with myrcene (15.88% as the dominant constituent, were the most abundant compound class of the essential oil of P. longifolium from Serbia. The researched essential oil exhibited slight antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains in vitro. On the contrary, essential oil of P. longifolium posseses significant synergistic potential in combination with streptomycin and chloramphenicol (FIC indices in the range 0.21–0.87. Their combinations reduced the minimum effective dose of the antibiotic and, consequently, minimized its adverse side effects. In addition, investigated interactions are especially successful against Gram-negative bacteria, the pharmacological treatment of which is very difficult nowadays. These results indicate a method to enhance the efficacy of antibacterial drugs, especially against resistant bacterial strains.

  5. Effects of essential oil compounds on survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in çiğ köfte

    OpenAIRE

    DİKİCİ, ABDULLAH; İlhak, Osman İrfan; ÇALICIOĞLU, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of some essential oil compounds for the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in çiğ köfte. In experiment 1, a çiğ köfte batch was inoculated with high levels of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes (7.00 log10 cfu/g) and the batches were divided into 6 groups. Each group was treated with 18 mL/kg of normal saline, cineole, limonene, carvone, linalool, or eugenol. Treatment with carvone, linalool, and eugenol resul...

  6. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  7. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adelina; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Morona, Domenica; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-09-06

    Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification. Probit regression analysis was used for LC50 and LC95 calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract. Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC50 and LC95 values. The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. The mortality effect following exposure to a blend of the two essential oils was higher for blends containing a greater proportion of cinnamon oil. In the chemical analysis of the active ingredients of cinnamon essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol, and the rarest was β-Linalool while for clove essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol and the rarest was Bicyclo. The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. The active ingredient compositions triggered different responses in mortality. Further research in small-scale should be conducted with concentrated extracted compounds.

  8. Postharvest quality of essential oil treated roses

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    Guilherme Mariano Manfredini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.

  9. Characterization of Essential Oil Composition in Different Basil Species and Pot Cultures by a GC-MS Method

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    Andrea Muráriková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Basil (Ocimum L. species are used as medicinal plants due to their essential oils exhibiting specific biological activity. The present work demonstrated that both the variety and season/conditions of cultivation had a significant effect on (i the produced amount (extraction yield, (ii qualitative, as well as (iii quantitative profile of basil essential oil. Among studied basil varieties, a new variety, ‘Mánes’, was characterized for the first time. Based on our quantitative evaluation of GC-MS profiles, the following chemotypes and average concentrations of a main component were detected in the studied basil varieties: ‘Ohře’, ‘Lettuce Leaf’, ‘Purple Opaal’, ‘Dark Green’ (linalool, 5.99, 2.49, 2.34, 2.01 mg/mL, respectively, and ‘Mammolo Genovese’, ‘Mánes’, ‘Red Rubin’ (eucalyptol, 1.34, 0.96, 0.76 mg/mL, respectively. At the same time, when considering other compounds identified in GC-MS profiles, all the studied varieties, except from ‘Lettuce Leaf’, were methyl eugenol-rich with a strong dependence of the eugenol:methyl eugenol ratio on the seasonal changes (mainly solar irradiation, but also temperature and relative humidity. More complex and/or variable (depending on the season and cultivation chemotypes were observed with ‘Lettuce Leaf’ (plus estragole, 2.27 mg/mL, ‘Dark Green’ (plus eucalyptol, 1.36 mg/mL, ‘Mammolo Genovese’ (plus eugenol, 1.19 mg/mL, ‘Red Rubin’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.46 and 0.56 mg/mL, respectively, and ‘Mánes’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.58 and 0.40 mg/mL, respectively. When considering superior extraction yield (ca. 17 mL·kg−1, i.e., two to five times higher than other examined varieties and consistent amounts (yields of essential oil when comparing inter-seasonal or inter-year data (RSD and inter-year difference in mean yield values ˂2.5%, this new basil variety is very promising for use in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries.

  10. Characterization of Essential Oil Composition in Different Basil Species and Pot Cultures by a GC-MS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muráriková, Andrea; Ťažký, Anton; Neugebauerová, Jarmila; Planková, Alexandra; Jampílek, Josef; Mučaji, Pavel; Mikuš, Peter

    2017-07-20

    Basil (Ocimum L.) species are used as medicinal plants due to their essential oils exhibiting specific biological activity. The present work demonstrated that both the variety and season/conditions of cultivation had a significant effect on (i) the produced amount (extraction yield), (ii) qualitative, as well as (iii) quantitative profile of basil essential oil. Among studied basil varieties, a new variety, 'Mánes', was characterized for the first time. Based on our quantitative evaluation of GC-MS profiles, the following chemotypes and average concentrations of a main component were detected in the studied basil varieties: 'Ohře', 'Lettuce Leaf', 'Purple Opaal', 'Dark Green' (linalool, 5.99, 2.49, 2.34, 2.01 mg/mL, respectively), and 'Mammolo Genovese', 'Mánes', 'Red Rubin' (eucalyptol, 1.34, 0.96, 0.76 mg/mL, respectively). At the same time, when considering other compounds identified in GC-MS profiles, all the studied varieties, except from 'Lettuce Leaf', were methyl eugenol-rich with a strong dependence of the eugenol:methyl eugenol ratio on the seasonal changes (mainly solar irradiation, but also temperature and relative humidity). More complex and/or variable (depending on the season and cultivation) chemotypes were observed with 'Lettuce Leaf' (plus estragole, 2.27 mg/mL), 'Dark Green' (plus eucalyptol, 1.36 mg/mL), 'Mammolo Genovese' (plus eugenol, 1.19 mg/mL), 'Red Rubin' (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.46 and 0.56 mg/mL, respectively), and 'Mánes' (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.58 and 0.40 mg/mL, respectively). When considering superior extraction yield (ca. 17 mL·kg-1, i.e., two to five times higher than other examined varieties) and consistent amounts (yields) of essential oil when comparing inter-seasonal or inter-year data (RSD and inter-year difference in mean yield values ˂2.5%), this new basil variety is very promising for use in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries.

  11. Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Cardozo, P W; Castillejos, L; Ferret, A

    2007-06-01

    Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane, and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde (the main active component of cinnamon oil), eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce acetate or methane production, and modify proteolysis, peptidolysis, or deamination in the rumen. However, the effects of some of these essential oils are pH and diet dependent, and their use may be beneficial only under specific conditions and production systems. For example, capsaicin appears to have small effects in high-forage diets, whereas the changes observed in high-concentrate diets (increases in dry matter intake and total VFA, and reduction in the acetateto-propionate ratio and ammonia N concentration) may be beneficial

  12. Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Lippia multiflora Moldenke, Mentha x piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oils and Their Major Monoterpene Alcohols Alone and in Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Hama Dicko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from leaves of Lippia multiflora, Mentha x piperita and Ocimum basilicum from Burkina Faso were analysed by GC–FID and GC–MS. Major components were p-cymene, thymol, b-caryophyllene, carvacrol and carvone for L. multiflora, menthol and iso-menthone for M. x piperita and, linalool and eugenol for O. basilicum. The essential oils and their major monoterpene alcohols were tested against nine bacterial strains using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The essential oils with high phenolic contents were the most effective antimicrobials. The checkerboard method was used to quantify the efficacy of paired combinations of essential oils and their major components. The best synergetic effects among essential oils and major components were obtained with combinations involving O. basilicum essential oil and eugenol, respectively. As phenolic components are characterized by a strong spicy aroma, this study suggests that the selection of certain combinations of EOs could help to reduce the amount of essential oils and consequently reduce any adverse sensory impact in food.

  13. Insecticide activity of clove essential oil on bean weevil and maize weevil

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    Carlos F. Jairoce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bean weevil and maize weevil can cause considerable damage to stored grains. These insects are mainly controlled with synthetic chemical insecticides, which may bring serious problems to human and environmental health. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the essential oil of clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill & Perry (Myrtaceae (origin: Bahia, season Sep.2014-Feb.2015] in the control of S. zeamais and A. obtectus under laboratory conditions. The essential oil was extracted through the classic hydrodistillation process and its chemical components were identified via gas chromatography. Oil efficiency was tested at the doses of 35, 17.9, 8.9, 3.6, 1.8, 0.4 and 0.2 μL g-1 (derived from a pilot study for insect control and the LC50 was determined. The results showed that eugenol was the major compound. The essential oil caused mortality of 100% for both species 48 h after treatment with the concentrations of 17.9 and 35 μL g-1. The LC50 for A. obtectus was 9.45 μL g-1, against 10.15 μL g-1 for S. zeamais. The use of clove essential oil represents a promising alternative to be used under storage conditions for the integrated management of stored grains pests.

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use.

  15. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

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    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-09-15

    The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  17. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils

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    Hsiao-Fen Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power (RP, β-carotene bleaching (BCB activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%, thymol (14.36% and carvacrol (12.33%, and eugenol (0.87%, respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability.

  18. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Antitumor Phenylpropanoids Found in Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Andrade Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new bioactive substances with anticancer activity and the understanding of their mechanisms of action are high-priorities in the research effort toward more effective treatments for cancer. The phenylpropanoids are natural products found in many aromatic and medicinal plants, food, and essential oils. They exhibit various pharmacological activities and have applications in the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, the anticancer potential of 17 phenylpropanoids and derivatives from essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental report, and mechanisms of action of bioactive substances are presented.

  20. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Demirci

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively found were α-copaene (12% and 10%, germacrene D (11% and 18% and δ-cadinene (11% and 15% in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation.

  1. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Etlingera sayapensis A.D. Poulsen & Ibrahim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Behnam; Yaacob, Wan A; Din, Laily B

    2017-08-01

    To report the chemical composition and bioactivity (including antioxidant and antimicrobial activity) of essential oils from the rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Etlingera sayapensis (E. sayapensis) A.D. Poulsen & Ibrahim for the first time. First, the essential oils were obtained using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Then, the essential oils compositions were identified by chromatography methods including GC-FID and GC-MS. For the next step, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), β-carotene bleaching (BCB), and ferrous ion chelating ability (FIC) were chosen to evaluate the essential oils antioxidant activity. Finally, disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC) was applied to investigate antimicrobial activity of the rhizomes and leaves oils of E. sayapensis against 18 microorganisms. All of the oils contained oxygenated monoterpenes (leaves: 74.18%, stems: 75.60%, and rhizome: 54.61%), The essential oil obtained from leaves contained high amount of carvone (21.38%), cis-carveol (13.49%); The rhizomes oil was rich in linalool formate (25.47%), eugenol (11.84%); and the stems oil was dominated by α-terpineol (39.86%), linalool formate (30.55%). The leaves oil represented the highest ability in all of the antioxidant activity tests. For antimicrobial activity, the rhizome oil presented more active when compared to leaves oil against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella sonnei, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. The most components of the essential oils belong to oxygenated monoterpenes. Linalool formate, carvone, and α-terpineol are found as the most abundant compounds in the oils of the different parts of E. sayapensis. The rhizomes oil can prevent the growth of wide spectrum microorganisms; however, the oils are

  2. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Liriope muscari (DECN. Bailey against Three Insect Tobacco Storage Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15% and safrole (17.15%, followed by myristicin (14.18% and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%. After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  3. GC-MS analysis of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud essential oil from Java and Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, B.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U.; Sulistyoningrum, A. S.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The largest clove production contributors in Indonesia are mostly coming from Java and Manado. Different flavor among clove origins is caused by chemical constituents in clove oil. Unfortunately, scientific research and publications about flavor in clove from Indonesia's origin are still limited. The objective of this research is to determine significant differences of constituents in terms of flavor in clove oil originated from Java and Manado. The essential oils were isolated from cut clove bud samples by steam distillation method. The chemical constituents of clove bud oil were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Constituents were then identified by comparing the results of the chromatogram and reference retention time using Wiley mass spectra library (Wiley W9N11). Thirty-six and thirty-four chemical constituents were identified based on GC-MS from clove oil collected from Java and Manado, respectively. Major classes of compounds are sesquiterpenes, phenyl propanoid, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and esters. Different compositions in major constituents were found between both origins. Clove Java contained eugenol (55.60 %), eugenyl acetate (20.54 %), caryophyllene (14.84 %), and α-humulene (2.75 %). While, in clove Manado, the composition were eugenol (74.64 %), caryophyllene (12.79 %), eugenyl acetate (8.70 %), and α-humulene (1.53 %). Moreover, minor constituents β-elemene (0.04 %), α-cadinene (0.05 %) and ledol (0.06 %) were existed only in clove Java, while clove Manado had some unique minor constituents which were not found in clove Java, i.e. β-gurjunene (0.04 %), γ-cadinene %), and humulene oxide (0.05 %). In conclusion, both clove oils from Java and Manado contained same major chemical constituents but different in their composition. In addition, some minor constituents existed only in specific origin.

  4. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Essential Oil from Clove Buds against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Ting; Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming

    2016-09-08

    The essential oil of clove has a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities and is widely used in the medicine, fragrance and flavoring industries. In this work, 22 components of the essential oil obtained from clove buds were identified. Eugenol was the major component (76.23%). The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.625 mg/mL, and the antibacterial effects depended on its concentration and action time. Kill-time assays also confirmed the essential oil had a significant effect on the growth rate of surviving S. aureus. We hypothesized that the essential oil may interact with the cell wall and membrane first. On the one hand it destroys cell wall and membranes, next causing the losses of vital intracellular materials, which finally result in the bacterial death. Besides, essential oil penetrates to the cytoplasmic membrane or enters inside the cell after destruction of cell structure, and then inhibits the normal synthesis of DNA and proteins that are required for bacterial growth. These results suggested that the effects of the clove essential oil on the growth inhibition of S. aureus may be at the molecular level rather than only physical damage.

  5. Insecticidal activity against Bemisia tabaci biotype B of peel essential oil of Citrus sinensis var. pear and Citrus aurantium cultivated in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Nicolle de Carvalho; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes; Born, Flávia de Souza; de Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu

    2010-11-01

    The fumigant action of peel essential oils of Citrus sinensis var. pear (pear orange = PO) and C. aurantium (bitter orange = BO) from the northeast of Brazil were evaluated against Bemisia tabaci biotype B and compared with eugenol as a positive control. The oil concentration in the PO at 8.5 microL/L of air caused 97% mortality, while the oil concentration of BO at 9.5 microL/L of air caused 99% mortality. However, the LC50 estimates for both oils (LC50 = 3.80 microL/L of air for PO and LC50 = 5.80 microL/L of air for BO) did not differ from each other, but they did when compared with eugenol (LC50 = 0.20 microL/L of air). Regarding their effects on oviposition, the Citrus oils showed concentration-response dependence, reducing the number of eggs as the concentration increased, which was not observed for eugenol. The minimum concentrations of the oils that caused a significant reduction in the egg lay were 3.5 and 7.0 microL/L of air for BO and PO, respectively. These results suggest that oils from PO and BO peels may be promising as models to develop new insecticides that might be applied into the integrated management of whiteflies.

  6. Essential Oils and Fragrances from Natural Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our body uses the aromatic molecules (essential oils) in two ways: (1) through our olfactory system which is connected to the brain where our most primal feelings .... Fixatives are scented components that act to hold the fragrance together and .... Gas chromatography alone is not a definitive tool for determin- ing the purity of ...

  7. Moldicidal properties of seven essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen

    2006-01-01

    When wood and wood products are exposed to moisture during storage, construction or while in-service, mold growth can occur in 24 to 48 hours. Mold growth could be suppressed or prevented if wood was treated with an effective mold inhibitor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold inhibiting properties of natural plant extracts such as essential oils....

  8. The essential oil of patchouli, Pogostemon cablin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Teris A.; Joulain, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The leaves of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae) are the source of patchouli essential oil, which is - with an annual production of about 1300 tonnes - an important and unique commodity in the fragrance industry. All the literature pertaining to patchouli was critically reviewed with

  9. ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF FOUR ARTEMISIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. rehan) and A. absinthium (from Europe) was also conducted. ... composition of the essential oils of A. schimperi, A. afra and A. abyssinica are mainly dominated by irregular monoterpenes: ... Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. [1].

  10. ESSENTIAL OIL OF Protium unifoliolatum (BURSERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    ZOGHBI, Maria das G. B.; CUNHA, Emidio V. L. da; WOLTER FILHO, Wilson

    1993-01-01

    The major constituents of the leaf essential oil of P. unifoliolatumare trans-caryophyllene (37.45%), limonene (24.23%) and α-humulene (9.94%). O óleo essencial obtido das folhas frescas de P. unifoliolatumapresentou como constituintes principais trans-cariofileno (37,45%), limoneno (24,23%) e α-humuleno (9,94%).

  11. Essential Oils and Fragrances from Natural Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 4. Essential Oils and Fragrances from Natural Sources. Padma S Vankar. General Article Volume 9 Issue 4 April 2004 pp 30-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/04/0030-0041 ...

  12. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... through the eggshell if the egg is contaminated with fecal ... through the eggshell upon contact with contaminated ... synthetic pesticides. One such method involves the use of plant-derived-products, such as plant essential oils, having antimicrobial effect. Keeping all these points in consideration, an attempt.

  13. Essential-Oil Variability in a Collection of Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Roscigno, Graziana; Bruno, Maurizio; De Falco, Enrica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant of great tradition in the Mediterranean area. Its economic importance is growing up determining an expansion of cultivation. This paper evaluated the morphological traits, the chemical profiles, and antibacterial activity of 21 cultivars of basil belonging to 'Genovese', 'Napoletano', and 'Purple basil' types. The cultivars were characterized by different growth rate and morphological traits. The chemical composition of the oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS analysis, supported by the PCA analysis, underlined the strong influence of chemotype. It is noteworthy that estragole, never present in Genovese and purple basil types, occurred in Napoletano type. The high presence of eugenol, methyl eugenol, and linalool in the majority of cultivars, belonging both to Genovese and to Napoletano types was registered. Of great interest resulted the composition of the purple basil 'Opal'. All the samples tested exhibited similar antibiotic profiles with moderate antibacterial activity. The results enhanced the importance of determination of essential-oil profile in the selection of cultivars characterized by diverse morphological traits and are useful for different purposes. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils on two Venturia inaequalis strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Deweer, Caroline; Sahmer, Karin; Halama, Patrice

    2017-11-02

    The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC 50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity. Copper sulfate was selected as the reference mineral fungicidal substance. IC 50 with confidence intervals were calculated after three independent experiments. The results showed that all essential oils and all major compounds had in vitro antifungal activities. Moreover, it was highlighted that the effectiveness of four essential oils (clove, eucalyptus, mint, and savory) was higher than copper sulfate on both strains. For each strain, the best activity was obtained using clove and eucalyptus essential oils. For clove, the IC 50 obtained on the sensitive strain (5.2 mg/L [4.0-6.7 mg/L]) was statistically lower than the IC 50 of reduced sensitivity strain (14 mg/L [11.1-17.5 mg/L]). In contrast, for eucalyptus essential oil, the IC 50 were not different with respectively 9.4-13.0 and 12.2-17.9 mg/L for S755 and rs552 strains. For mint, origano, savory, tea tree, and thyme, IC 50 were always the best on rs552 strain. The majority compounds were not necessarily more efficient than their corresponding oils; only eugenol (for clove) and carvacrol (for oregano and savory) seemed to be more effective on S755 strain. On the other hand, rs552 strain seemed to be more sensitive to essential oils than S755 strain. In overall, it was shown that essential oils have different antifungal activities but do not have the same antifungal activities depending on the fungus strain used.

  15. Carvacrol and eugenol effectively inhibit Rhizopus stolonifer and control postharvest soft rot decay in peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D; Wang, Z; Li, M; Xing, M; Xian, T; Tu, K

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal mechanism of carvacrol and eugenol to inhibit Rhizopus stolonifer and the control of postharvest soft rot decay in peaches. To investigate the antifungal mechanism, the effects of carvacrol and eugenol on the mycelium growth, leakages of cytoplasmic contents, mycelium morphology, cell membrane and membrane composition of R. stolonifer were studied. Carvacrol and eugenol both exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against R. stolonifer, carvacrol at a concentration of 2 μl per plant and eugenol at a concentration of 4 μl per plant inhibited fungal growth completely. The two essential oils (EOs) increased cell membrane penetrability and caused the leakage of cytoplasm, nucleic acid and protein content. The observation using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy showed modification of the hyphal morphology and breakage of the cell plasma membrane. Decreased ergosterol contents confirmed that the two EOs could destroy the membrane of R. stolonifer. For the in vivo test, the inhibition of soft rot disease and the induction of defence-related enzymes were investigated. Carvacrol and eugenol significantly reduced the incidence and severity of soft rot decay in inoculated peaches. The best treatments for controlling soft rot decay were obtained at 0·5 μl l -1 for carvacrol and 1 μl l -1 for eugenol. The activities of defence-related enzymes in peaches were also enhanced by fumigation with two EOs. This study showed that carvacrol and eugenol could effectively inhibit the growth of R. stolonifer in vitro and successfully control the incidence of soft rot decay in honey peaches. The above findings may be the main antifungal mechanism of carvacrol and eugenol on R. stolonifer. Furthermore, carvacrol and eugenol are helpful for their commercial application on the preservation of fresh fruit. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Evaluation of essential oil composition and DNA diversity of mint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... cultivated for their essential oils. Essential oil composition from the leaves of M. spicata has been described pre- viously, such as carvone and menthone-rich oils (Sticher and Flőck 1968), carvone and neodihydrocarveol-rich oils. (Nagasawa et al., 1976a, b), dihydrocarveol and carvone- rich oils ...

  17. Acaricidal activity of eugenol based compounds against scabies mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cielo Pasay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the "itch mite" Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties.Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues--acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact.The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies.

  18. Essential oil polymorphism in finnish thymus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl-Biskup, E; Laakso, I

    1990-10-01

    Chemical polymorphism concerning the essential oils of the genus THYMUS is a widespread phenomenon, especially in the northern species. The two Finnish species, T. SERPYLLUM ssp. SERPYLLUM and T. SERPYLLUM ssp. TANAENIS, turned out to form four different chemotypes each, with hedycaryol, germacra-1(10),5-dien-4-ol, germacra-1(10),4-dien-6-ol, linalool, and linalyl acetate as type-characterizing compounds. Otherwise the oils of the two subspecies were similar containing myrcene, TRANS-beta-ocimene, beta-caryophyllene, and germacrene D as the main terpene hydrocarbons. 1,8-Cineol and camphor represented another great portion in both oils. If Finland is regarded as an area of T. SERPYLLUM (s.l.), a total of six types of plants can be defined with regard to the essential oil chemistry only. Including the frequency of these six types at the four areas investigated, a certain gradient from the south to the north can be seen. A most interesting aspect is the fact that the most frequent, linalyl acetate containing chemotype of the northern Lapland has nearly the same oil composition as T. PRAECOX ssp. ARCTICUS in Island, Norway, and Greenland.

  19. Designing of steam distillation system for essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    川崎, 聖司; 池間, 洋一郎; 國吉, 和男; 秋永, 孝義; Kawasaki, Seiji; Ikema, Youitirou; Kuniyoshi, Kazuo; Akinaga, Takayoshi

    2006-01-01

    Different processing methods are required to extract essential oils from different plants. Most oils are extracted using steam distillation, during which the plant tissues break down, the essential oils and water vapor are released, then collected and cooled. The volatile essential oil condenses, separates and is easily isolated. In this process the steam is prepared in a separate chamber and piped into the tank. This is especially good for plant materials with high boiling point oils.Essenti...

  20. Optimization of Steam Distillation of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    372. ISSN 0794- ... pharmaceuticals. Generally, essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbon monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes, hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, oxygenated ... matrix, oil content and constituents affect the production.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Lalit Kumar D; Jawale, Bhushan Arun; Sharma, Sheeba; Sharma, Hemant; Kumar, C D Mounesh; Kulkarni, Pooja Adwait

    2012-01-01

    Many essential oils have been advocated for use in complementary medicine for bacterial and fungal infections. However, few of the many claims of therapeutic efficacy have been validated adequately by either in vitro testing or in vivo clinical trials. To study the antibacterial activity of nine commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and to compare the antibacterial activity between each material. Nine pure essential oils; wintergreen oil, lime oil, cinnamon oil, spearmint oil, peppermint oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil were selected for the study. Streptococcus mutans was inoculated at 37ºC and seeded on blood agar medium. Agar well diffusion assay was used to measure antibacterial activity. Zone of inhibition was measured around the filter paper in millimeters with vernier caliper. Cinnamon oil showed highest activity against Streptococcus mutans followed by lemongrass oil and cedarwood oil. Wintergreen oil, lime oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil showed no antibacterial activity. Cinnamon oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil exhibit antibacterial property against S. mutans. The use of these essential oils against S. mutans can be a viable alternative to other antibacterial agents as these are an effective module used in the control of both bacteria and yeasts responsible for oral infections.

  2. In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna integrifolia Linn (Lamiaceae, and to test the efficacy of the oil and various organic extracts as an antibacterial potential. The chemical compositions of the essential oil were analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty-nine compounds representing 94.81% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which phytol (27.25%, α-humulene (14.21%, spathulenol (12.12%, 1-octen-3-ol (8.21%, eugenol (6.69% and phenylethyl alcohol (5.81% were the major compounds. The oil (15 μL disk−1 and extracts (300 μg disk−1 of P. integrifolia displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 13867, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031 and Xanthomonas campestries IAM 1671 with their respective zones of inhibition of 12.0 ± 1.2 to 22.1 ± 1.2 mm and MIC values of 62.5–250 μg mL−1. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from P. integrifolia may have potential use in food, pharmaceutical and/or agro industries for preservatives or antimicrobial agents.

  3. Essential Oils of Echinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): A Relationship Between Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    are vectors for many pathogens that cause human diseases including dengue fever, yellow fever, and malaria. These illnesses can result in high rates...32608. 6 Emerging Pathogens Institute, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608. 7 Botany and...Kivanc, M. 1988. Antimicrobial activity of “çörtük” (Echino- phora sibthorpiana Guss.) spice , its essential oil and methyl eugenol. Die Nahrung. 32

  4. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. C15271. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-02-10

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Lutz, Daíse; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Kolodziejczyk, Paul P

    2008-05-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from aerial parts of seven wild sages from Western Canada -Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia biennis Willd., Artemisia cana Pursh, Artemisia dracunculus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Artemisia longifolia Nutt. and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 110 components were identified accounting for 71.0-98.8% of the oil composition. High contents of 1,8-cineole (21.5-27.6%) and camphor (15.9-37.3%) were found in Artemisia cana, A. frigida, A. longifolia and A. ludoviciana oils. The oil of A. ludoviciana was also characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a 5-ethenyltetrahydro-5-methyl-2-furanyl moiety, of which davanone (11.5%) was the main component identified. A. absinthium oil was characterized by high amounts of myrcene (10.8%), trans-thujone (10.1%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (26.4%). A. biennis yielded an oil rich in (Z)-beta-ocimene (34.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (40.0%) and the acetylenes (11.0%) (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers. A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%). Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger. A. biennis oil was the most active against dermatophytes, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger, and A. absinthium oil the most active against Staphylococcus strains. In addition, antioxidant (beta-carotene/linoleate model) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were determined, and weak activities were found for these oils.

  7. In vitro biological evaluation of eight different essential oils against Trypanosoma cruzi, with emphasis on Cinnamomum verum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Camila Maria O; Santos, Thalita Gilda; Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha Sales; Soares, Maurilio José

    2014-08-22

    Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites from various plants. It has been shown that several EOs, or their constituents, have inhibitory activity against trypanosomatid protozoa. Thus, we analyzed the biological activity of different EOs on Trypanosoma cruzi, as well as their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The following EOs were evaluated on T. cruzi epimastigote forms: Cinnamomum verum, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon nardus, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Eugenia uniflora, Myrocarpus frondosus, and Rosmarinus officinalis. Inhibitory activity against T. cruzi (IC50/24 h) and cytotoxicity against Vero cells (CC50/24 h) were evaluated by the MTT assay. The EO of C. verum was selected for further evaluation against trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, as well as on parasite metacyclogenesis. Constituents of C. verum EO were identified by GC-MS. One-way ANOVA statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad version 5.01. Cinnamomum verum EO was the most effective against T. cruzi epimastigotes (IC50/24 h = 24.13 μg/ml), followed by Myrocarpus frondosus (IC50/24 h = 60.87 μg/ml) and Eugenia uniflora (IC50/24 h = 70 μg/ml). The EOs of C. citriodora, E. globulus, and R. officinalis showed no activity at concentrations up to 300 μg/ml. Incubation of T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with C. verum EO resulted in IC50/24 h values of 5.05 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml, respectively. Therefore, trypomastigotes are more susceptible than epimastigotes, with selectivity index (SI) about 4.7-fold higher (9.78 and 2.05, respectively). Analysis of C. verum EO by GC-MS showed mainly (E)-cinnamaldehyde (81.52%) and eugenol (16.68%). C. verum essential oil is effective against T. cruzi (epimastigotes, trypomastigotes and amastigotes) and interferes with the parasite differentiation process in vitro. Thus, it represents a strong candidate for further studies to improve its activity on pathogenic trypanosomatids.

  8. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromatherapy with the use of essential oils has been studied in cancer patients to help with symptom relief. Read about how aromatherapy massage or inhalation of essential oils have reduced symptoms in cancer patients in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Effect of essential oils of clove and cumin against the growth of Staphylococus Aureus isolated from Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minasari Minasari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils of clove and cumin had an inhibition effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Clove’s essential oils has a compound named eugenol, which can directly damage the membrane cell of bacteria. Thymoquinone, the active ingredient in the black cumin’s essential oils inhibits the protein synthesis and cause malfunction of the bacterial cell. The purpose of this research was to determine the differences of inhibitory effect from essential oils of cloves and cumin to the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Method: This research was an experimental laboratory with Post-test Only Control Group Design. Sample that being used for this experiment was Staphylococcus aureus that had been isolated from a denture stomatitis patient. This inhibition test was determined using a Disc Diffusion Test’s method with the essential oils of clove and cumin, while distilled water and 96% ethanol as a negative and positive control, respectively. Essential oils were obtained from the distillation method with water and steam and the test was done 7 times repetition with every ingredients. Inhibition zone was measured with a vernier calipers. The data were analyzed by ANOVA One-way test followed by a multiple comparison test. Result:  The average zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus from aquades 0 mm, 96% ethanol 13.894 mm, the essential oils of clove 14.784 mm and black cumin 11.944 mm. The multiple comparison test analysis showed a significant differences (p <0.05 between the average zone of inhibition of the materials tested. Conclusion: Clove essential oil has a greater inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus than the essential oils of cumin.

  10. Effect of eugenol on growth and listeriolysin o production by Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tostes Filgueiras

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of eugenol, a naturally occurring compound mainly present in the essential oil fraction of cloves, was studied on the growth and listeriolysin O (LLO production by Listeria monocytogenes. Potassium efflux from cells promoted by eugenol was also determined after 24 h incubation in phosphate buffered saline. Eugenol promoted a delay on the growth of L. monocytogenes at concentrations of 100, 300 and 500 µg mL-1and above 800 µg mL-1 the effect was bactericidal. Production of LLO by L. monocytogenes in the presence of eugenol was reduced 80-100%. An accumulation of external K+ was observed above 300 µg mL-1 of eugenol which indicated that the cell membrane was affected. The results showed the effectiveness of eugenol in controlling growth and LLO production of L. monocytogenes cells.O efeito inibitório do eugenol, o principal constituinte do óleo essencial de cravo, foi avaliado sobre o crescimento e produção de listeriolisina O (LLO por Listeria monocytogenes. O efluxo de íons potássio das células também foi determinado após 24 h de incubação em solução tampão, contendo eugenol. Concentrações de 100, 300 e 500 µg mL-1 de eugenol promoveram a inibição do crescimento de L. monocytogenes e, em concentrações acima de 800 µg mL-1, constatou-se um efeito bactericida. O crescimento de L. monocytogenes na presença de eugenol resultou na inibição de 80 a 100% da produção de LLO. O efluxo de K+ promovido pelo eugenol indicou que a membrana celular foi afetada. Estes resultados indicam a efetividade do eugenol para o controle do crescimento e da produção de LLO por L. monocytogenes.

  11. Aromatherapy: Using Essential Oils as a Supportive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Debra; Jones, Tisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils can be a great adjunct to cancer care, aiding in the management of side effects, such as insomnia and nausea. Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about the quality and safety of essential oils when using them for clinical purposes. Using lesser quality essential oils and not understanding safety guidelines can negatively affect clinical outcomes. This article provides an overview of how nurses can help patients with cancer safely use essential oils as a supportive therapy.

  12. Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum)

    OpenAIRE

    Y.C.Wong; M. Y. Ahmad-Mudzaqqir; W.A. Wan-Nurdiyana

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the herbs and spices plants that come from cinnamon family which contains high quality of essential oil. In this study, the essential oil from plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted using two methods which were steam distillation and Soxhlex extraction. Steam distillation produced high quality essential oil extraction using separatory funnel. Soxhlet extraction produced essential oil in crude form using rotary evaporator to purify the extracted product. Cinn...

  13. Effects of linalool and eugenol on the survival of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi within macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Fernando L; Oliveira, Maurício M; Santos, Reinaldo S; Silva, Wagner Seixas; Alviano, Daniela S; Vieira, Danielle P; Lopes, Angela H

    2016-12-01

    The most commonly used drugs against visceral leishmaniasis are based on pentavalent antimonial compounds, which have played a fundamental role in therapy for over 70 years. However, the treatment is painful and has severe toxic side effects that can be fatal. Antimonial resistance is spreading and reaching alarming proportions. Linalool and eugenol have been shown to kill Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi at low doses. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of linalool and eugenol, components of essential oils, on Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, one of the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis. We compared the effects of those compounds to the effects of glucantime, a positive control. In L. infantum chagasi killing assays, the LD 50 for eugenol was 220μg/ml, and that for linalool was 550μg/ml. L. infantum chagasi was added to cultures of peritoneal mouse macrophages for four hours prior to drug treatment. Eugenol and linalool significantly decreased the number of parasites within the macrophages. Eugenol and linalool enhanced the activities of the L. infantum chagasi protein kinases PKA and PKC. Linalool also decreased L. infantum chagasi oxygen consumption. In conclusion, both linalool and eugenol promoted a decrease in the proliferation and viability of L. infantum chagasi. These effects were more pronounced during the interaction between the parasites and peritoneal mouse macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Eugenol Reduces the Expression of Virulence-Related Exoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Feng, Haihua; Lu, Jing; Xiang, Hua; Wang, Dacheng; Dong, Jing; Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Juxiong; Deng, Xuming

    2010-01-01

    Eugenol, an essential oil component in plants, has been demonstrated to possess activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study examined the influence that subinhibitory concentrations of eugenol may have on the expression of the major exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The results from a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release assay and a hemolysin assay indicated that S. aureus cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of eugenol (16 to 128 μg/ml) dose dependently decreased the TNF-inducing and hemolytic activities of culture supernatants. Western blot analysis showed that eugenol significantly reduced the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (the key exotoxins to induce TNF release), as well as the expression of α-hemolysin (the major hemolysin to cause hemolysis). In addition, this suppression was also evaluated at the transcriptional level via real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. The transcriptional analysis indicated that 128 μg/ml of eugenol remarkably repressed the transcription of the S. aureus sea, seb, tst, and hla genes. According to these results, eugenol has the potential to be rationally applied on food products as a novel food antimicrobial agent both to inhibit the growth of bacteria and to suppress the production of exotoxins by S. aureus. PMID:20639367

  15. Antiradical potential and antifungal activities of essential oils of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Essential oil composition. Essential oil was obtained by steam distillation for 5 h with a yield of 0.66%. GC and GC-MS analysis of essen- tial oil enabled the .... the plasma membrane (de Billerbeck et al., 2001;. Knobloch et al., 1989). From these results, it can be concluded that the essen- tial oil of C. latifolia ...

  16. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  17. Potential Development Essential Oil Production of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Supardi, K. I.; Masturi; Purwinarko, A.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is the source of raw essential oil in the world. Essential oils are used in various types of industries such as food and beverage, flavour, fragrance, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, the development of Indonesian essential oil industry has not been encouraging for the production of essential oils, further it is unable to meet global demand. Besides that, the quality of volatile oil resulted cannot meet the international market standards. Based on the facts, the potential of Indonesian essential oils needs to be developed to provide added value, through increased production, improved quality and product diversification. One part of Indonesia having abundant of raw essential oil source is Central Java. Central Java has the quite large potential production of essential oils. Some essential oils produced from refining industry owned by the government, private and community sectors include cananga oils (Boyolali district), clove oils (Semarang district), patchouli oils (Brebes district, Pemalang district, and Klaten district). The main problem in the development of plants industries that producing essential oil in Central Java is low crops production, farming properties, quality of essential oils are diverse, providing poor-quality products and volatile oil price fluctuations. Marketing constraints of Central Java essential oils are quite complex supply chain. In general, marketing constraints of essential oils due to three factors, namely the low quality due to type of essential oil business that generally shaped small businesses with different capital and technology, domestic marketing is still a buyer-market (price determined by the buyer) because of weak bargaining position processors businessman, and prices fluctuate (domestic and foreign) due to uncontrolled domestic production and inter-country competition among manufacturers.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Abbas M Yamani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum teniflorum (Tulsi, to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5% and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  19. Oxygen introduction during extraction and the improvement of antioxidant activity of essential oils of basil, lemon and lemongrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Freitas Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oil extraction is commonly carried out by using the hydrodistillation method, which is described in official compendia of food quality control and medicinal plants. Despite the widespread use of this method, few studies have evaluated the effect of the atmosphere change during extraction on the composition and antioxidant activity of essentials oils. Therefore, a study of oxygen introduction influence during the extraction of essential oils from basil, lemongrass and lemon by hydrodistillation was performed. Total amount of oxygenated compounds (e.g., linalool, camphor, α-terpineol, neral, geranial, eugenol and α-muurolol increased for all essential oils extracted under oxygen flow. Antioxidant activity evaluated by using the ORAC method significantly increased (P<0.0001 with oxygen from 618 to 906, 355 to 613 and 72 to 262µmol Trolox g-1 oil for basil, lemongrass and lemon, respectively. Therefore, the simple modification proposed could be considered a suitable alternative to obtain essential oils with higher antioxidant activity.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Hanaa A.; Pang, Edwin C.; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms. PMID:27242708

  2. The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... In the present study, the essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius was extracted using the hydrodistillation method. The oil yield obtained was 0.65%. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the major constituents of the essential.

  3. Essential Oil Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Clinopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine larvicidal activity of essential oil derived from Clinopodium gracile (Benth.) ... The essential oil has higher content of sesquiterpenoids (70.49 %) than monoterpenoids (12.21 %). The other principal compounds of the essential oil were germacrene D (20.59 %) .... and a small amount of dog or cat food.

  4. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    essential oil of A. frigida aerial parts also possessed the same level of fumigant toxicity to the booklice as that of essential oils of. Foeniculum vulgare [16], Illicium pachyphyllum fruits [25], and Curcuma wenyujin rhizomes [26]. The foregoing suggest that the fumigant activity of the essential oil of A. frigida has some promise.

  5. Adsorption of essential oil components of Lavandula angustifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... Lavandula angustifolia essential oil on sodium modified bentonite. Essential oils ... in the natural state or treated by various methods to improve some of .... Table 1. Identification results of the components and the percentage of each compound in essential oil. Product name. QI. Rt. Surface. Cx (µg/ml). KI.

  6. Comparative analysis of the essential oils from normal and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils were extracted with steam distillation from normal and hairy roots of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer. The constituents of essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 40 and 46 kinds of compounds were identified from the essential oils of normal ...

  7. [GC-MS analysis of essential oil from Curcuma aromatica rhizome of different growth periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Ming-ming; Huang, Xiu-lan; Liu, Hua-gang; Lai, Mao-xiang; Wei, Meng-han

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the essential oil from the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica of different growth periods, and to provide the scientific reference for reasonable cultivation and quality control of this plant. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC-MS. The relative contents were determined with area normalization method. The main volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica were basically the same. Among these volatile constituents, curdione was the major. The relative content of curdione was 16.35% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county, and 15.81% in the rhizome of one-year-old plant in Mingyang farm, Nanning city. The relative content of eucalyptol in the 2-year-old cultivated rhizome in Hengxian county was 15.40%, and 14.59% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county. beta-Elemene, beta-caryophyllene,eugenol and germacrone were also the main constituents in the rhizome essential oil. Volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica are similar to each other,but the relative content of each component is different. This result can provide the scientific foundation for the cultivation of Curcuma aromatica.

  8. Nanoemulgel (NEG) of Ketoprofen with eugenol as oil phase for the treatment of ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Manish; Neupane, Yub Raj; Kumar, Parveen; Kohli, Kanchan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the novel study was to check the efficacy of a locally applied 2%w/w nanoemulgel (NEG) of Ketoprofen (KP) in preventing the periodontitis, and was also checked NEG without KP to ensure the effect of eugenol in NEG as an oil phase. For experimentally induced periodontitis, sterile silk ligatures (3/0) were placed around the crevices of the first left lower molar teeth of the male Wistar rats. During 8 weeks, all rats were fed with 10%w/v sucrose solution. The experimental assessment was carried out at 11 d after treatment of experimental periodontal disease (EPD) rats by various clinical parameters like gingival index (GI), tooth mobility (TM), alveolar bone loss (ABL), histological analysis, detection of TNF-α, and IL-1β in gingival tissue by ELISA and the roughness were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in tapping modes. After treatment, comparison studies with EPD were performed. NEG loaded with KP prevents significantly (p eugenol as the oil phase, which have potential antibacterial, analgesic, and anesthetic properties to combat periodontal disease.

  9. Oviposition deterrent activity of basil plants and their essentials oils against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarou, Boni Barthélémy; Bawin, Thomas; Boullis, Antoine; Heukin, Stéphanie; Lognay, Georges; Verheggen, François Jean; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-08-07

    The leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yields by up to 100% in greenhouses and fields, in several countries globally. Because synthetic insecticides lead to resistance and have adverse effects on natural enemies and the health of producers, alternative control methods are needed. In this study, we assessed the oviposition-deterring effect of basil plants, Ocimum gratissimum L. and O. basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), using dual-choice behavioural assays performed in flight tunnels. We found that both plants significantly reduced T. absoluta oviposition behaviour on a tomato plant located nearby. To evaluate the potential effect of basil volatile organic compounds, we formulated essential oils of both plant species in paraffin oil, and observed a similar oviposition-deterring effect. Gas chromatography analyses detected 18 constituents in these essential oils which the major constituents included thymol (33.3%), p-cymene (20.4%), γ-terpinene (16.9%), myrcene (3.9%) in O. gratissimum and estragol (73.8%), linalool (8.6%), β-elemene (2.9%) and E-β-ocimene (2.6%) in O. basilicum. Twenty and 33 compounds were identified of the volatiles collected on O. gratissimum and O. basilicum plants, respectively. The main components include the following: p-cymene (33.5%), γ-terpinene (23.6%), α-terpinene (7.2%), α-thujene (6.7%) and E-α-bergamotene (38.9%) in O. gratissimum, and methyl eugenol (26.1%), E-β-ocimene (17.7%), and linalool (9.4%) in O. basilicum. Four compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, Myrcene, Limonene) were common in essential oils and plants. Our results suggest the valuable potential of basil and associated essential oils as a component of integrated management strategies against the tomato leafminer.

  10. Antimicrobial and Virulence-Modulating Effects of Clove Essential Oil on the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Judit K; Felső, Péter; Makszin, Lilla; Pápai, Zoltán; Horváth, Györgyi; Ábrahám, Hajnalka; Palkovics, Tamás; Böszörményi, Andrea; Emődy, Levente; Schneider, György

    2016-10-15

    Our study investigated the antimicrobial action of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil (EO) on the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni After confirming the clove essential oil's general antibacterial effect, we analyzed the reference strain Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. Phenotypic, proteomic, and transcriptomic methods were used to reveal changes in cell morphology and functions when exposed to sublethal concentrations of clove EO. The normally curved cells showed markedly straightened and shrunken morphology on the scanning electron micrographs as a result of stress. Although, oxidative stress, as a generally accepted response to essential oils, was also present, the dominance of a general stress response was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The results of RT-PCR and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE revealed that clove oil perturbs the expression of virulence-associated genes taking part in the synthesis of flagella, PEB1, PEB4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serine protease. Loss of motility was also detected by a phenotypic test. Bioautographic analysis revealed that besides its major component, eugenol, at least four other spots of clove EO possessed bactericidal activity against C. jejuni Our findings show that clove EO has a marked antibacterial and potential virulence-modulating effect on C. jejuni IMPORTANCE: This study demonstrates that the components of clove essential oil influence not only the expression of general stress genes but also the expression of virulence-associated genes. Based on this finding, alternative strategies can be worked on to control this important foodborne pathogen. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Comparative study on the cytotoxicity of different Myrtaceae essential oils on cultured vero and RC-37 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, P; Wiesenhofer, K; Reichling, J

    2008-11-01

    Medicinally and commercially important essential oils from the family Myrtaceae, i.e. cajuput, clove, kanuka and manuka were phytochemically analysed by GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of these essential oils was evaluated in a standard neutral red assay. Maximum noncytotoxic concentrations for cajuput oil and clove oil were determined at 0.006%, kanuka oil and manuka oil were more cytotoxic with a maximum noncytotoxic concentration of 0.001%. The compounds alpha-pinene, eugenol and leptospermone demonstrated maximum noncytotoxic concentrations at dilutions of 0.001%, 0.003% and 0.001%, respectively. However, the terpene 1,8-cineole was about 100 times less toxic to cultured cells with a maximum noncytotoxic concentration of 0.1% and a TC50 value of 0.44%. Manuka essential oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 as well against drug-resistant HSV-1 isolates in viral suspension tests. Determination of cytotoxicity of natural products is an important prerequisite for application in cosmetic and health care products and in antiviral tests.

  12. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Prestes Lessa Fernandes Oliveira; Larissa Canhadas Bertan; Christiane Maciel Vasconcellos Barros De Rensis; Ana Paula Bilck; Priscila Cristina Bizam Vianna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to prepare whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil at different concentrations, and evaluate their properties and antimicrobial activity. Films were more flexible with increasing the concentration of oregano oil and water vapor permeability was higher in the films with oregano oil. Increasing the concentration of essential oil decreased the water solubility. The solubility of control film and film with 1.5% oregano oil was 20.2 and 14.0%, res...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook. Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE C. BENOVIT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine the efficacy of the essential oil of A. gratissima as anesthetic for silver catfish, and to perform the bio-guided fractionation of essential oil aiming to isolate compounds responsible for the noted effects. Fish were submitted to anesthesia bath with essential oil, its fractions and isolated compounds to determine time of anesthetic induction and recovery. Eugenol (50 mg L-1 was used as positive control. Essential oil of A. gratissima was effective as an anesthetic at concentrations of 300 to 900 mg L-1. Fish presented involuntary muscle contractions during induction and recovery. The bio-guided fractionation of essential oil furnishedE-(--pinocamphone, (--caryophyllene oxide, (--guaiol and (+-spathulenol. E-(--pinocamphone caused the same side effects observed for essential oil. (--Caryophyllene oxide, (--guaiol and (+-spathulenol showed only sedative effects at proportional concentrations to those of the constituents in essential oil. (+-Spathulenol (51.2 mg L-1 promoted deep anesthesia without side effects. A higher concentration of (+-spathulenol, and lower or absent amounts ofE-(--pinocamphone could contribute to increase the activity and safety of the essential oil of A. gratissima. (+-Spathulenol showed potent sedative and anesthetic activities in silver catfish, and could be considered as a viable compound for the development of a new anesthetic.

  16. Obtaining the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum, identification of eugenol and its effect on Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Osvelia Rodríguez; Rosa Sánchez; María Verde; María Núñez; Rocío Ríos; Abelardo Chávez

    2014-01-01

    Resumen: La caries dental es una enfermedad que afecta la cavidad oral en los humanos. Actualmente la búsqueda de principios activos de plantas con efecto antimicrobiano representa una promesa en la terapia Odontológica. El presente trabajo, evaluó la actividad, del aceite esencial de Syzygium aromaticum (clavo) con énfasis en su propiedad antimicrobiana. El aceite fue obtenido por hidrodestilación, caracterizado por cromatografía en capa delgada y pruebas químicas. Se identificó el compuest...

  17. Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of Laurus nobilis L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with oral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghni, A; Marzouki, H; Hentati, H; Aouni, M; Mastouri, M

    2015-12-04

    Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic herb with relevant medicinal properties due to its important chemical composition and its potential therapeutic effects. In this study, we investigate the chemical composition, the antibacterial and the antibiofilms activities of Tunisian L. nobilis L. essential oils against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains. The chemical composition of L. nobilis L. essential oils was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of L. nobilis L. essential oils was evaluated in vitro against oral S. aureus (n=21) strains using broth microdilution method. The antibiofilm activity was assessed via Crystal Violet staining and MTT assays. Our results revealed that GC-MS assay exhibited 1.8-Cineole, methyl eugenol and α-terpinyl acetate as the major compounds in the essential oils. Moreover, the essential oil from Sousse exhibited the best bactericidal activity (MICs values ranged from 3.91 to 15.62mgm-1). Furthermore, this oil showed a strong biofilm inhibition effect above 70%, from a low sub-inhibitory concentration (1/16×MIC). MTT assay revealed that both essential oils displayed an excellent antibiofilm activity with eradication percentages ranging from 79.6±2.27 to 95.2±0.56. Our finding demonstrated that L. nobilis L. essential oils are able to inhibit oral S. aureus strains with important antibiofilm efficacy. It could have a promising role in the prevention of oral diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Catalytic activity of titania zirconia mixed oxide catalyst for dimerization eugenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursiloadi, S.; Kristiani, A.; Jenie, S. N. Aisyiyah; Laksmono, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Clove oil has been found to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant and insecticidal properties. The major compound of clove oil is eugenol about 49-87%. Eugenol as phenolic compounds exhibits antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The derivative compound of eugenol, dieugenol, show antioxidant potency better than parent eugenol. A series of TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides (TZ) with various titanium contents from 0 to 100wt%, prepared by using sol gel method were tested their catalytic activity for dimerization eugenol, Their catalytic activity show that these catalysts resulted a low yield of dimer eugenol, dieugenol, about 2-9 % and the purity is more than 50%.

  19. Phytochemical composition and biological activities of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil exhibited marked activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, but was not active against Clostridium perfringens up to the concentration of 100 g/ml. The essential oil also exhibited anti-oxidant activity. The significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of R. minima oil ...

  20. Essential Oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Brachylaena hutchinsii, essential oil, sesquiterpenes, antimicrobial activity. ... Screening of B. hutchinsii leaves from ... The oil is rich in caryophyllene (19.1 %), P-cubebene (1 5.5%), cis calamenene (10.5%) and .a-copaene (9.0%). Table 1. Antimicrobial of the essential oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii leavm-.

  1. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Abstract. The paper presents economic value of the design and manufacturing of essential oil production plant as a strategy for rural poverty alleviation in rural Ethiopia. The level of technology for small scale essential oil industry is characterized for rural community in Ethiopia. The adaptation of oil distillation technology for ...

  2. Quality assessment of essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the course of this study, essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and three Boswellia rivae species were analyzed using GC-MS. Comparison of the chemical compositions of 1,8-cineole and α-pinene in the assessment of these oils' quality will help in the production of high value essential oils that will enhance the economic ...

  3. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Essential Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Essential Oil of Aerial Parts of Glycosmis parviflora (Sims) Little (Rutaceae) ... Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis (HP-5MS column) of the essential oil was performed and the toxicity of the oil determined by contact test. Results: A total of 37 ...

  4. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Heredia Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques.

  5. Essential oils from Taiwan: Chemical composition and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of seven essential oils from Taiwan were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The eluates were identified by matching the mass fragment patents to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 08 database. The quantitative analysis showed that the major components of lemon verbena are geranial (26.9% and neral (23.1%; those of sweet marjoram are γ-terpinene (18.5%, thymol methyl ether (15.5%, and terpinen-4-ol (12.0%; those of clove basil are eugenol (73.6%, and β-(Z-ocimene (15.4%; those of patchouli are carvacrol (47.5% and p-cymene (15.2%; those of rosemary are α-pinene (54.8% and 1,8-cineole (22.2%; those of tea tree are terpinen-4-ol (33.0% and 1,8-cineole (27.7%; and those of rose geranium are citronellol (28.9% and 6,9-guaiadiene (20.1%. These components are somewhat different from the same essential oils that were obtained from other origins. Lemon verbena has the same major components everywhere. Tea tree, rose geranium, and clove basil have at least one major component throughout different origins. The major components and their amounts in sweet marjoram, patchouli, and rosemary vary widely from one place to another. These results demonstrate that essential oils have a large diversity in their composition in line with their different origins. The antibacterial activity of essential oils against Escherichia coli was evaluated using the optical density method (turbidimetry. Patchouli is a very effective inhibitor, in that it completely inhibits the growth of E. coli at 0.05%. Clove basil and sweet marjoram are good inhibitors, and the upper limit of their minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.1%.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Phytotoxic Activities of Peganum harmala Seed Essential Oils from Five Different Localities in Northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Apostolico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L., also known as Syrian rue or Pègano, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Zygohpyllaceae family, and is widely used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of essential oils of P. harmala seeds from five different regions of Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia was studied by GC and GC-MS analyses. A total of 105 compounds were identified, the main components being oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Eugenol is the main component in all oils. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against some bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693, Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313, Bacillus cereus (DSM4384, Escherichia coli (DMS 857 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071. All the oils showed different inhibitory activity. In the twentieth century this is an important result; we need possible new botanical drugs because the problem of resistance to antimicrobial drugs has become apparent. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their possible in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., and Ruta graveolens L. The results showed that both germination and radical elongation were sensitive to the oils.

  7. Antidermatophytic activities of nine (9) essential oils | Kuiate | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungicidal effect was observed for the C. lusitanica (leaves) oil (2 mg/ml) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Erigeron floribundus (leaves) oil (1 mg/ml) against Candida albicans and for oil of the flowering ends of C. lusitanica against Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 1 mg/ml. Finally, the essential oils of C. lusitanica ...

  8. Antifungal and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Essential Oil Active Components against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus laurentii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Kumari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is an emerging and recalcitrant systemic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. This invasive fungal infection is difficult to treat due to the ability of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus laurentii to form biofilms resistant to standard antifungal treatment. The toxicity concern of these drugs has stimulated the search for natural therapeutic alternatives. Essential oil and their active components (EO-ACs have shown to possess the variety of biological and pharmacological properties. In the present investigation the effect of six (EO-ACs sourced from Oregano oil (Carvacrol, Cinnamon oil (Cinnamaldehyde, Lemongrass oil (Citral, Clove oil (Eugenol, Peppermint oil (Menthol and Thyme oil (thymol against three infectious forms; planktonic cells, biofilm formation and preformed biofilm of C. neoformans and C. laurentii were evaluated as compared to standard drugs. Data showed that antibiofilm activity of the tested EO-ACs were in the order: thymol>carvacrol>citral>eugenol=cinnamaldehyde>menthol respectively. The three most potent EO-ACs, thymol, carvacrol, and citral showed excellent antibiofilm activity at a much lower concentration against C. laurentii in comparison to C. neoformans indicating the resistant nature of the latter. Effect of the potent EO-ACs on the biofilm morphology was visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, which revealed the absence of extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM, reduction in cellular density and alteration in the surface morphology of biofilm cells. Further, to realize the efficacy of the EO-ACs in terms of human safety, cytotoxicity assays and co-culture model were evaluated. Thymol and carvacrol as compared to citral were the most efficient in terms of human safety in keratinocyte- Cryptococcus sp. co-culture infection model suggesting that these two can be further exploited as cost-effective and non-toxic anti

  9. COMPOSITION OF HERB AND SEED OIL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF TWO VARIETIES OF OCIMUM BASILICUM HARVESTED AT SHORT TIME INTERVALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Sastry KAKARAPARTHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the changes in the chemical composition of the essential oil of two varieties of Ocimum basilicum over a period of six months at short harvest intervals for two crop seasons. In variety Vikarsudha, GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of eighteen essential oil constituents. Linalool (23.5­40.1% and 22.8­33.7% and methyl chavicol (25.4­51.9% and 40.0­52.7% were the major constituents in main and ratoon crops. Similarly, in variety Kuhmohak GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of linalool (19.2­25.4 % and 16.1­31.3% and methyl chavicol (34.7­53.4% and 39.4­59.2% in large quantities in main and ratoon crops, respectively. β myrcene, limonene, 1,8 cineole, ocimene, camphor, terpinen-4-ol, bornyl acetate, eugenol, methyl eugenol, β elemene, β caryophyllene, α humulene, γ Cadinene and cadinol were present in small quantities. Results pertaining to the zone of inhibition in the antimicrobial activity of essential oil indicated that Chromobacterium violaceum is more sensitive compared to Staphylococcus aureus. Among the fungal strains Aspergillus niger was found to be more sensitive. GC-MS analysis of the fixed oils obtained from the seeds in the ratoon crop revealed the presence of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The unsaturated fatty acids averaged 89% consisting of α-linolenic (49.3%­52.4%, linoleic (23.4%­26.0%, and oleic (10.3%­12.3% acids. The most abundant saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic acids.

  10. Toxicity of essential oil compounds against Exorista sorbillans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides and Ocimum species are potential candidates for management of Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae), a serious pest of silkworm. Considering that the pure compounds in essential oil may exhibit efficacy against the parasitoid, contact and topical toxicity of 22 essential ...

  11. Supercritical Extraction Process of Allspice Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasvet Y. Andrade-Avila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allspice essential oil was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 in a static process at three different temperatures (308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K and four levels of pressure (100, 200, 300, and 360 bar. The amount of oil extracted was measured at intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h; the most extraction yield reached was of 68.47% at 318.15 K, 360 bar, and 6 h of contact time. In this supercritical extraction process, the distribution coefficient (KD, the mean effective diffusion coefficient (Def, the energy of activation (Ea, the thermodynamic properties (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0, and the apparent solubility (S expressed as mass fraction (w/w were evaluated for the first time. At the equilibrium the experimental apparent solubility data were successfully correlated with the modified Chrastil equation.

  12. Phytochemical residue profiles in rice grains fumigated with essential oils for the control of rice weevil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ezhil Vendan

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the fumigant potential of five edible essential oils (EOs against Sitophilus oryzae and their phytochemical residues in treated grains. Among the tested EOs, peppermint oil proved significantly effective (P ≤ 0.05 on S.oryzae at 400 μl/L air concentration, inducing 83 and 100% mortalities in with-food and without-food conditions respectively over 72 h exposure. In addition, it was also observed that the binary mixtures of peppermint + lemon oil (1:1 ratio produced an equivalent effect to that of peppermint oil alone treatments. The phytochemical residue analysis by GC-MS revealed the presence of six compounds upon 72 h exposure to EOs. Further, the analysis of physico-chemical properties of the compounds indicated a positive correlation between polar surface area (PSA and its residual nature. The residue levels of eugenol were significantly elevated corresponding to its high PSA value (29 in clove and cinnamon oils. On the other hand, the compounds with zero PSA value imparted very less or no (D-Limonene, caryophyllene, pinene and terpinolene residues in treated grains. With respect to the most active peppermint oil, L-menthone, menthyl acetate and eucalyptol residues were at 67, 41 and 23% levels respectively. The outcome of the present study indicate the peppermint oil as a potent fumigant against S. oryzae, and although the residues of phytochemicals in treated grains is higher; they belong to the generally recognised as safe (GRAS status leaving no harmful effect.

  13. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sfeir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

  14. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  15. Chemical composition and toxic activity of essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estragole (24.8%) and linalool (14.0%) are the two main components of the essential oil followed by 1,8-cineol (5.2%) and δ-guaiene (4.1%). The essential oil possesses strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with an LC50 value of 10.05 mg/L air. The essential oil of C. incana also showed contact toxicity against ...

  16. Chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil of Illicium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal compounds in I. fargesii essential oil were α-terpineol (11.4%), carvone (10.9%), d-limonene (9.8%), trans-carveol (6.6%) and trans-pinocarveol (5.5%). The essential oil of I. fargesii possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the maize weevil with an LC50 value of 11.36 mg/L air. The essential oil of I. fargesii ...

  17. Essential Oils of Oregano: Biological Activity beyond Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of oregano are widely recognized for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their antiviral and antifungal properties. Nevertheless, recent investigations have demonstrated that these compounds are also potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and cancer suppressor agents. These properties of oregano essential oils are of potential interest to the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this manuscript is to review the latest evidence regarding essential oils of oregano and their beneficial effects on health.

  18. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF CHAMOMILE ESSENTIAL OIL IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, D.; Juhás, Š. (Štefan); Bukovska, A.; Bujňáková, D.; Grešáková, L.; Koppel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils are plant secondary metabolites with positive pharmacological properties, e.g. anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulative, but they can have toxic and allergic effects as well. The aim of this study was to analyze anti-inflammatory effects of chamomile essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw oedema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Mice received chamomile essential oil in three concentrations (5000, 2500 and 1250 ppm) in the standard roden...

  19. Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Essential Oils from Coniferous Trees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-01-01

    .... In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa...

  20. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated...

  1. Essential oils from the Hyptis genus--a review (1909-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Megil; Facey, Petrea; Porter, Roy

    2011-11-01

    Several species belonging to the Hyptis (Lamiaceae) genus represent an important source of bioactive constituents, which are reputed for their wide range of antimicrobial, anticancer and insecticidal activities. The volatile oils obtained from various parts of the Hyptis plants were found to be primarily composed of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Significant differences were observed in the percentage compositions of the major components, which allowed for differentiation among the species. Based on the dominant constituents, phylogenetic relationships were found to be common among some species: 1,8-cineole (H. fruticosa, H. goyazensis, H. martiusii and H. suaveolens); beta-caryophyllene (H. marrubioides, H. pectinata, H. spicigera and H. suaveolens); eugenol (H. recurvata and H. suaveolens); gamma-cadinene (H. glomerata and H. ovalifolia); p-cymene (H. mutabilis and H. pectinata); alpha-pinene (H. crenata and H. emoryi). The monoterpenes, alpha-pinene and p-cymene were detected at various concentrations in all the Hyptis oils investigated. This paper reviews the essential oil compositions of eighteen Hyptis plant species studied in various parts of the world covering the publications of 100 years (1909 to 2009) after the first article appeared in the literature.

  2. Culture conditions and salt effects on essential oil composition of sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana) from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baâtour, Olfa; Tarchoune, Imen; Mahmoudi, Hela; Nassri, Nawel; Abidi, Wissal; Kaddour, Rym; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Nasri-Ayachi, Mouhiba Ben; Lachaâl, Mohtar; Marzouk, Brahim

    2012-06-01

    O. majorana shoots were investigated for their essential oil (EO) composition. Two experiments were carried out; the first on hydroponic medium in a culture chamber and the second on inert sand in a greenhouse for 20 days. Plants were cultivated for 17 days in hydroponic medium supplemented with NaCl 100 mmol L⁻¹. The results showed that the O. majorana hydroponic medium offered higher essential oil yield than that from the greenhouse. The latter increased significantly in yield (by 50 %) under saline constraint while it did not change in the culture chamber. Under greenhouse conditions and in the absence of salt treatment, the major constituents were terpinen-4-ol and trans-sabinene hydrate. However, in the culture chamber, the major volatile components were cis-sabinene hydrate and terpinen-4-ol. In the presence of NaCl, new compounds appeared, such as eicosane, spathulenol, eugenol, and phenol. In addition, in the greenhouse, with or without salt, a very important change of trans-sabinene hydrate concentration in EO occurred, whereas in the culture chamber change appeared in cis-sabinene hydrate content.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rim Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit.

  5. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kon K, Rai M. 2012. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 50-56. Essential oils (EOs from plants represent an alternative approach in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the EOs with proven antibacterial properties is Thymus vulgaris EO. The purpose of the present work was to investigate in vitro antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris EO alone and in combination with other EOs. The activity of T. vulgaris EO was screened in combination with 34 EOs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by disk diffusion method; then the most effective combinations were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Against S. aureus the synergistic effect was found in combination of T. vulgaris and Cinnamomum zeylonicum EOs with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of 0.26; Juniperus communis and Picea abies EOs showed additive effect (FIC indexes were 0.74 and 0.78, respectively. Combination of T. vulgaris EO with Aniba rosaeodora and Melissa officinalis EOs demonstrated synergistic effect against E. coli (FIC indexes were 0.23 and 0.34, respectively; combination of T. vulgaris and Mentha piperita EOs was additive (FIC index 0.55. Therefore, combining T. vulgaris EO with other EOs has potential in further enhancing its antibacterial properties.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of peppermint essential oil (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapoval O.G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Рurposе. To study antimicrobial activity of fume of the essential oil of peppermint against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods: The screening study of antimicrobial activity of solutions of essential oil by disk-diffusion method and activity of essential oil fume of own preparation and pharmaceutical form of oil according to standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Esсherichia coli and 12 clinical strains of staphylococci (6 methicillin-resistant and 6 methicillin-sensitive has been carried out. Results: Essential oil of own preparation and pharmaceutical form showed equal antimicrobial activity against strains of staphylococci. Essential oil of own preparation has been determined to reveal higher activity against gram-negative strains. Conclusion: Received data have proved the presence of antimicrobial activity against all strains of microorganisms and mostly against staphy-lococci

  7. Eugenol-inhibited root growth in Avena fatua involves ROS-mediated oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Nitina; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Plant essential oils and their constituent monoterpenes are widely known plant growth retardants but their mechanism of action is not well understood. We explored the mechanism of phytotoxicity of eugenol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, proposed as a natural herbicide. Eugenol (100-1000 µM) retarded the germination of Avena fatua and strongly inhibited its root growth compared to the coleoptile growth. We further investigated the underlying physiological and biochemical alterations leading to the root growth inhibition. Eugenol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and membrane damage in the root tissue. ROS generation measured in terms of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical content increased significantly in the range of 24 to 144, 21 to 91, 46 to 173% over the control at 100 to 1000 µM eugenol, respectively. The disruption in membrane integrity was indicated by 25 to 125% increase in malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation byproduct), and decreased conjugated diene content (~10 to 41%). The electrolyte leakage suggesting membrane damage increased both under light as well as dark conditions measured over a period from 0 to 30 h. In defense to the oxidative damage due to eugenol, a significant upregulation in the ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzyme machinery was observed. The activities of superoxide dismutases, catalases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases were elevated by ~1.5 to 2.8, 2 to 4.3, 1.9 to 5.0, 1.4 to 3.9, 2.5 to 5.5 times, respectively, in response to 100 to 1000 µM eugenol. The study concludes that eugenol inhibits early root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative damage, despite an activation of the antioxidant enzyme machinery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Degradation of Zearalenone by Essential Oils under In vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczak, Adam; Juś, Krzysztof; Marchwińska, Katarzyna; Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Goliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of ZEA reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in ZEA content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g., palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20°C) a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of ZEA. We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of ZEA decontamination and/or detoxification. PMID:27563298

  9. Bioactivity of Five Essential Oils Against Bruchidius incarnatus (Bohemann, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Ahmed FOUAD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world, the faba bean beetle Bruchidius incarnatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is an important insect-pest, especially on faba bean Vicia faba (Leguminosae and it can infest field crops and cause severe damage in storage. Essential oils can be an alternative method to synthetic insecticides for pest management, due to their efficiency and environmental safety. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity and repellent activity of essential oils of camphor (Eucalyptus globules, castor (Ricinus communis, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, clove (Syzygium aromaticum and mustard (Brassica rapa against B. incarnatus adults. The treatments which contained essential oils at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and acetone (control were applied. All essential oils with 4% concentration repelled the B. incarnatus adult except castor oil. The percentage of repellence was higher when used essential oil of cinnamon with 2 and 4% concentration compared with other essential oils and concentrations. In residual film experiment, the cinnamon oil had the highest toxicity rate on B. incarnatus adult fallowed by clove, camphor, mustard and the lowest effect was by castor oil. Based on our results, I can conclude that essential oils of camphor, cinnamon, clove and mustard have potential for use in the integrated management of B. incarnatus adult.

  10. Degradation of zearalenone by essential oils under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Perczak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odour. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic and rosemary on zearalenone reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of zearalenone reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in zearalenone content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g. palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20C a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of zearalenone.We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of zearalenone decontamination and/or detoxification.

  11. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  12. Clove and eugenol in noncytotoxic concentrations exert immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory action on cytokine production by murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2012-04-01

    The extract and essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) are widely used because of their medicinal properties. Eugenol is the most important component of clove, showing several biological properties. Herein we have analysed the immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effect of clove and eugenol on cytokine production (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in vitro. Macrophages were incubated with clove or eugenol (5, 10, 25, 50 or 100µg/well) for 24h. Concentrations that inhibited the production of cytokines were used before or after incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to verify a preventive or therapeutic effect. Culture supernatants were harvested for measurement of cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clove (100µg/well) inhibited IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 production and exerted an efficient action either before or after LPS challenge for all cytokines. Eugenol did not affect IL-1β production but inhibited IL-6 and IL-10 production. The action of eugenol (50 or 100µg/well) on IL-6 production prevented efficiently effects of LPS either before or after its addition, whereas on IL-10 production it counteracted significantly LPS action when added after LPS incubation. Clove exerted immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting LPS action. A possible mechanism of action probably involved the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB pathway by eugenol, since it was the major compound found in clove extract. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chami

    Full Text Available Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05 reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU sampled from the oral cavity of rats treated for eight consecutive days, compared to untreated control rats. Treatment with nystatin gave similar results. Histologically, the untreated control animals showed numerous hyphae on the epithelium of the dorsal surface of the tongue. In contrast no hyphal colonization of the epithelium was seen in carvacrol-treated animals, while in rats treated with eugenol, only a few focalized zones of the dorsal surface of the tongue were occupied by hyphae. In the nystatin treated group, hyphae were found in the folds of the tongue mucosa. Thus, the histological data were confirmed by the microbiological tests for carvacrol and eugenol, but not for the nystatin-treated group. Therefore, carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as strong antifungal agents and could be proposed as therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  14. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Commiphora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Santi, Claudio; Mwankie, Gildas Norbert Oball-Mond; Curini, Massimo

    2009-12-01

    The essential oil composition of Commiphora erythraea (Ehrenb) Engl. is reported for the first time. The oil is rich in sesquiterpenes, particularly furanosesquiterpenes (50.3%). GC-MS analysis of the oil permitted differentiation between C. erythraea and C. kataf, two often confused species.

  15. Chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves of Premna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna coriacea leaves was investigated. Extraction by hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) yielded 27 compounds representing 99.89% of the oil. The major volatile components of the oil were aromadendrene ...

  16. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Rosmarinus Officinalis L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmen, Necla; Öz, Ayşenur; Sönmez, Aslı; Erol, Tuğçe; Gülümser, Deniz; Yurdakul, Burcu; Kayır, Ömer; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    – The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was produced by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was 1,8-cineole with 81.47% which is important for medicinal and pharmaceutical

  17. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Southern Africa against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oils were determined by the microdilution technique. The killing kinetics of the oils was further evaluated against specific bacterial and fungal organisms. Both antifungal and antibacterial activities were observed from the essential oil of P. graveolens and M. peripeta ...

  18. The essential oil composition of Carthamus tinctorius L. flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowers of Carthamus tinctorius L. growing in Iran was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). 29 compounds were identified in the oil. The major compounds of the oil were ...

  19. easonal variation in the essential oil composition of origanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of Origanum syriacum L. subsp. sinaicum Greuter and Burdet obtained by hydrodistillation during four seasons was analyzed by GC-MS. The composition of the oil showed qualitative and quantitative variation. Carvacrol was the major component (64.71%, 36.50%) in summer and spring oils, respectively.

  20. Chemistry and bacteriostatic activity of the essential oil and major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil produced via Clevenger equipment was chemically characterized with GC-MS and it revealed the presence of twenty four (24) isolates among which the monocyclic monoterpene (-)-Limonene (91.1 %) was found to be the chief element in the oil. The activities of the oils extracted through the two models ...

  1. Variation in the essential oil constituents of Pteronia incana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of Pteronia incana was collected and was investigated on a monthly basis using GCMS. The oil volume and its constituents vary greatly with different time of sampling and distillation. The oil contains a high percentage of myrcene a-pinene, b-pinene with sabinene, a-terpinene, 1.8 cineole and limonene.

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the composition of essential oils of two types of mint as well as compare the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the two oils. Methods: Peppermint (M. piperita L.) and chocolate mint (M. piperita L.) oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus.

  3. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adaptation of oil distillation technology for essential oil production is proposed for small scale industrial entrepreneur. ... small scale manufacturing industry in the country do not have the capacity to manufacture the complete distillation plant system with the required precision for standard quality of oil at affordable cost.

  4. chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydro-distilled essential oil from Satureja biflora (Lamiaceae) growing in Kenya was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Twenty two compounds which constitute 99.29 % of the total oil were identified. The oil was dominated by monoterpenes, which ...

  5. Comparative study of root, stalk and leaf essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The root, stalk and leaf essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus grown in Kaduna, North Central Nigeria were extracted separately by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils allowed the identification of 34, 26 and 16 compounds respectively. In the three oils, the ...

  6. Essential Oils and Fatty Acids Composition of Dry Fruits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid was about 54% saturated and 46% unsaturated with omega-6 and omega-3 constituting 27% and omega-9 (20%). The effectiveness of T.tetraptera to the treatment of variety of ailments does not depend largely on the essential oils composition of the plant since the oil is dominated by acetic acid. Any essential ...

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (small galanga) from China. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 46 constituents were identified. Methanol ...

  8. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the insecticidal properties of essential oil from Mosla soochowensis aerial parts against two insect pests, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum. Methods: Hydro-distillation of M. soochowensis was used to extract the essential oil. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was ...

  9. Persistence of active compounds of essential oils of Clausena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the evaluation of their insecticidal activity the persistence of each essential oil was observed every 2 days till 14 days. After the disappearance of their insecticidal activities, essential oil was re-extracted and their residual compounds were identified from treated grain and flour. The major compounds of C. anisata are, ...

  10. Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    essential oils also produced concentraion dependant radical scavenging activities with IC50 values ranging between 5.96 and 37.01 μl/ml, and 0.57 and 3.88 μl/ml, in DPPH and deoxyribose degradation assays, respectively. The present study revealed that all the essential oils have the potential to be used as naturally ...

  11. Essential Oil Composition of Two Grammosciadium DC Species, G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the essential oil composition of two Grammosciadium species obtained by hydrodistillation. Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of two species was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  12. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the chemical composition of essential oil from the exudates of Dryobalanops aromatica from Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ...

  13. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) on the growth of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The minimum inhibitory ...

  14. Composition of the Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, I; Holm, Y; Hiltunen, R

    1989-06-01

    AGASTACHE FOENICULUM contains 0.1-0.3% essential oil and the main components are limonene, beta-caryophyllene, methylchavicol, and germacrene B (92% altogether). In addition 35 components, each accounting for less than 1% of the total essential oil, were identified.

  15. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oils of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Pulicaria inuloides and Ocimum forskolei essential oils. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of P. inuloides and O. forskolei was performed using a Clevenger apparatus. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.

  16. Apple and quince peroxidase activity in response to essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymatic browning arises by peroxidase in fruits. However, essential oils are recognized as natural antioxidant agents. So in this study, the effect of thyme, coriander and rosemary essential oils were evaluated on the reduction of peroxidase activity in apples (Malus domestica Mill. cv Golden delicious), (M. domestica Mill.

  17. Essential Oil Composition of Two Grammosciadium DC Species, G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turk J Bot 2012; 36: 637-643. 7. Buchbauer G. The detailed analysis of essential oils leads to the understanding of their properties. Perfumer. & Flavourist 2000; 25: 64-67. 8. Tzakou O, Pitarokili D, Chinou IB, Harvala C. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Salvia ringens. Planta Med 2001; 67: 81-83.

  18. Evaluation of Ocimum suave essential oil against anthropophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Ocimum suave essential oil against anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s after ten years ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of freshly distilled and ten years old essential oil of Oc mum suave .... Journal of Natural products 44, 308-309. Hassanali, A., Lwande, W., ...

  19. Phytoconstituents and biological activities of essential Oil from Rhus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... ducted as previously described using a Hewlett Packard 6890 Gas. Chromatograph (Adams, 2001). Determination of the antibacterial activity of the essential oils. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was tested using the disc diffusion methods as previously described (Gundidza et al.,. 1993, Samie ...

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BURSERA MORELENSIS RAMÍREZ ESSENTIAL OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    M., Canales-Martinez; C.R., Rivera-Yañez; J., Salas-Oropeza; H.R., Lopez; M., Jimenez-Estrada; R., Rosas-Lopez; D.A., Duran; C., Flores; L.B., Hernandez; M.A., Rodriguez-Monroy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bursera morelensis, known as “Aceitillo”, is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil of B. morelensis. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was obtained by a steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. Results: GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 28 compounds. The principal compound of the essential oil was a-Phellandrene (32.69%). The essential oil had antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains. The most sensitive strains were S. pneumoniae, V. cholerae (cc) and E. coli (MIC 0.125 mg/mL, MBC 0.25 mg/mL). The essential oil was bactericidal for V. cholera (cc). The essential oil inhibited all the filamentous fungi. F. monilifome (IC50 = 2.27 mg/mL) was the most sensitive fungal strain. Conclusions: This work provides evidence that confirms the antimicrobial activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and this is a scientific support about of traditional uses of this species. PMID:28480418

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OFBURSERA MORELENSISRAMÍREZ ESSENTIAL OIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Canales-Martinez; C R, Rivera-Yañez; J, Salas-Oropeza; H R, Lopez; M, Jimenez-Estrada; R, Rosas-Lopez; D A, Duran; C, Flores; L B, Hernandez; M A, Rodriguez-Monroy

    2017-01-01

    Bursera morelensis , known as "Aceitillo", is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil of B. morelensis . The essential oil was obtained by a steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 28 compounds. The principal compound of the essential oil was a-Phellandrene (32.69%). The essential oil had antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains. The most sensitive strains were S. pneumoniae , V. cholerae (cc) and E. coli (MIC 0.125 mg/mL, MBC 0.25 mg/mL). The essential oil was bactericidal for V. cholera (cc). The essential oil inhibited all the filamentous fungi. F. monilifome (IC 50 = 2.27 mg/mL) was the most sensitive fungal strain. This work provides evidence that confirms the antimicrobial activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and this is a scientific support about of traditional uses of this species.

  2. Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on growth performance, cecal microflora and serum antioxidant activity of broiler chickens. ... In conclusion, OEO exerted growth promoting effects and also displayed potent antibacterial effects against cecal E. coli. Key words: Oregano essential oil, performance, ...

  3. Chemical Composition of Zanthoxylum avicennae Essential Oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam.) DC. (Rutaceae) leaves and stems against the larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse. Methods: Essential oil of Z. avicennae leaves and stems were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography ...

  4. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil Derived from Illicium henryi Diels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Illicium henryi Diels. (Illiciaceae) leaf and stem against the larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse. Methods: The essential oil of I. henryi leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass ...

  5. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by ... The presence of many terpenic and ester compounds is thought to contribute to the unique flavor of the P. cattleianum var. lucidum leaves. Keywords: Psidium ...

  6. Evaluation of the lethality of Porophyllum ruderale essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of flowers and leaves of Porophylum ruderale (Asteraceae) was investigated for its molluscicidal and larvicidal activities, and its toxicities to brine shrimps. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS analysis showed a total volatile content of 99.98% in the P.

  7. Antiradical potential and antifungal activities of essential oils of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were conducted to determine the chemical composition, antiradical and antifungal activities of the essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves of Citrus latifolia var. Tahiti from Cameroon against Phaeoramularia angolensis. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC and GC/MS.

  8. Essential oil composition of different fractions of Piper guineense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mme ESTHER

    Key words: Piper guineense Schum. et Thonn., essential oil fractions, chemotypes, toxicity, repellency, ... The leaves are elliptical in shape and have a pleasant aroma when crushed. The spherical fruits (berries) are yellow becoming orange, red and finally black ... Insecticidal activities of the essential oil have been tested.

  9. Comparative essential oils composition and insecticidal effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative essential oils composition and insecticidal effect of different tissues of Piper capense L., Piper guineense Schum. et Thonn., Piper nigrum L. and Piper ... The essential oil obtained from the leaves of P. capense was largely composed of a-pinene (12.8%), -pinene (50.1%) and b-caryophyllene (12.4%). The most ...

  10. Antimicrobial and physico-chemical effects of essential oils on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives were to study the effect of two essential oils extracted from local plants Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. and Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) ... Methodology and Results: At the first level, essential oils were extracted from the leaves of plants and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each one was detected ...

  11. Comparative analysis of the essential oils from normal and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-20

    Jan 20, 2011 ... The essential oils were extracted with steam distillation from normal and hairy roots of Panax japonicus. C.A. Meyer. The constituents of essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 40 and 46 kinds of compounds were identified from the.

  12. Modeling the kinetics of essential oil hydrodistillation from plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with modeling the kinetics of essential oils extraction from plant materials by water and steam distillation. The experimental data were obtained by studying the hydrodistillation kinetics of essential oil from juniper berries. The literature data on the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation from different plant materials were also included into the modeling. A physical model based on simultaneous washing and diffusion of essential oil from plant materials were developed to describe the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation, and two other simpler models were derived from this physical model assuming either instantaneous washing followed by diffusion or diffusion with no washing (i.e. the first-order kinetics. The main goal was to compare these models and suggest the optimum ones for water and steam distillation and for different plant materials. All three models described well the experimental kinetic data on water distillation irrespective of the type of distillation equipment and its scale, the type of plant materials and the operational conditions. The most applicable one is the model involving simultaneous washing and diffusion of the essential oil. However, this model was generally inapplicable for steam distillation of essential oils, except for juniper berries. For this hydrodistillation technique, the pseudo first-order model was shown to be the best one. In a few cases, a variation of the essential oil yield with time was observed to be sigmoidal and was modeled by the Boltzmann sigmoid function.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. collected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, the major components of the essential oils extracted from plants grown at both altitudes were 1,8-cineol, camphor, borneol, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, β-myrcene and caryophyllene, their percentage changed according to the altitude. S. officinalis essential oil was for its antibacterial activities by using Gram- ...

  14. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil Derived from Illicium henryi Diels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Illicium henryi Diels (Illiciaceae) leaf and stem against the larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse. Methods: The essential oil of I. henryi leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass ...

  15. Chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum var.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajuc

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... ~40 m on latitude (29 48′S) and longitude (30 56′E). Extraction of the essential oil. The essential oil from dried leaves of P. cattleianum var. lucidum was extracted using a modification of an established procedure. (Denny, 1989). Briefly, 100 g of milled leaves were hydrodistilled in a Clevenger apparatus.

  16. Chemical composition and biological studies of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and biological studies of the essential oil of Thymus decussatus benth growing in Egypt. A A El-Hela. Abstract. The essential oil of Thymus decussatus Benth herb growing in Egypt was prepared by hydro distillation of the dried herb and analyzed by GC/ MS. It revealed the presence of 12 peaks, which ...

  17. Composition of the Essential Oil of Clausena Suffruticosa Leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the essential oil content of Clausena suffruticosa leaf for its in-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Methods: The essential oil of Clausena suffruticosa leaf was extracted by hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus and was analyzed by GC-MS using electron impact ...

  18. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan) from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe) grown in two places ...

  19. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oils and their components are becoming increasingly popular as naturally occurring antioxidant agents. In this work, the composition of essential oil in Artemisia herba-alba from southwest Tunisia, obtained by hydrodistillation was determined by GC/MS. Eighteen compounds were identified with the main ...

  20. Encapsulation of Essential Oils of Piper Nigrum and Monodora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 140.02 and 1:5 clearly soluble respectively for and 1.21, 0.9021, 1.4950, 9.64, 75.32, 118.64 and 1:5 clearly respectively for . The two essential oil samples were well retained in the gum Arabic encapsulation matrices. Keywords: Monodora, African nutmeg, essential oil, Black Pepper, Piper nigrum, flavour encapsulation.

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Myrtus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... MATERIAL AND METHODS. 2.1. ... About 20 compounds, representing 82.75% of the essential oil (EO), were identified. GC/MS analyses revealed that this EO is characterized by high levels of oxygenated ... The monoterpenes are widespread components of the essential oils and used as fragrances and.

  2. Analysis of essential oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masada, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The book is in two parts: first part Essential Oil includes compositae; labiatae; verbenaceae; oleaceae; umbelliferae; myrtaceae; euphorbiaceae; rutaceae; geraniaceae; rosaceae; lauraceae; myristicaceae; anonaceae; santalaceae; moraceae; piperaceae; zingiberaceae; araceae; gramineae; and cupressaceae written in English and Japanese. Part two includes essential oil; gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry written in Japanese. (DP)

  3. The susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains to essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oils are frequently used for flavour and fragrance in the perfume, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils obtained by steam distillation of Rosmarinus officinalis L and Eucalyptus globules ...

  4. antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Belmimoun A, Meddah B, Meddah A.T.T and Sonnet P

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... INTRODUCTION. There is a popularity and scientific interest to screen essential oils and extracts of plants used medicinally in all over the world [1]. The main volatile constituents of the essential oils have been used historically in the pharmaceutical, food and perfume industries because of their antibacterial ...

  5. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nuñez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21º C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the needles of Pinus caribaea by ... chemical compositions of essential oil of many Pinus species .... Synergistic bactericidal effect of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde or thymol and refrigeration of inhibit Bacillus cereus in carrot broth. Food Microbiol.

  7. Comparative Chemical And Analgesic Properties Of Essential Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical and analgesic comparison of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo was investigated. The Chemical analysis wa carried out by using GS/MS for identification of components of the two essential oils while acetic acid-induced writhings, hot plate and tail flick test models were used ...

  8. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  9. Isolation of nematicidal constituents from essential oil of Kaempferia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the nematicidal activities of the essential oil of Kaempferia galanga rhizomes and its isolated constituents against Heterodera avenae. Methods: Essential oil of K. galanga rhizomes was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis using ...

  10. Antitumour Activity of the Microencapsulation of Annona vepretorum Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, Larissa M; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Neto, Albertino F S; Nascimento, Magaly P; Campos, Adriana F; Silva, Lidércia C R C E; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae), popularly known as 'bruteira', has nutritional and medicinal uses. This study investigated the chemical composition and antitumour potential of the essential oil of A. vepretorum leaf alone and complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a microencapsulation. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents in tumour cell lines from different histotypes was evaluated using the alamar blue assay. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of essential oil was demonstrated in mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma. The essential oil included bicyclogermacrene (35.71%), spathulenol (18.89%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.46%), α-phellandrene (8.08%), o-cymene (6.24%), germacrene D (3.27%) and α-pinene (2.18%) as major constituents. The essential oil and spathulenol exhibited promising cytotoxicity. In vivo tumour growth was inhibited by the treatment with the essential oil (inhibition of 34.46%). Importantly, microencapsulation of the essential oil increased in vivo tumour growth inhibition (inhibition of 62.66%). © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Chemical composition of the essential oil of whole plant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distillation extraction method previously described [4], the essential oil was obtained from. 500 g of the dried whole plants boiled in a required amount of distilled water. Then the essential oil was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and filtered through 0.22 μm membrane. Finally it was stored in a sealed brown reagent.

  12. The essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bmayekiso

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... hydro-distillation during summer and winter months. Both essential oils were analyzed by gas .... Hydro-distillation of leaves and branches of S. hippifolium yielded an essential oil which was light blue in .... to the out-membrane structure of Gram-negative bacteria. (Delamare et al., 2005; Page et al., 1997).

  13. Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil and ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil and ethanolic extract against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were studied in the present study. The essential oil and ethanolic fraction of C. zeylanicum showed ...

  14. Essential oil composition and bioactivity of Thuja orientalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus from aerial parts of Thuja orientalis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Ondo State, Nigeria was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry technique. Toxicity of the essential oils using anti-feedant and ...

  15. Volatile constituents of essential oils of Eleocharis pauciflora (Light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of the volatile compounds of essential oils of Eleocharis pauciflora (Light) Link and Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) J.A. Shultes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) led to the identification of 20 and 23 compounds, respectively. The presented essential oils were characterized by the abundance ...

  16. Chemical composition and antinociceptive effects of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antinociceptive effect of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Gundelia. tournefortii (EOGT) in various experimental models. Methods: The essential oil from the aerial parts of Gundelia tournefortii was extracted using steam distillation method median lethal dose (LD50) of EOGT was evaluated ...

  17. Insecticidal effect of kaolin powder flavoured with essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticidal effect of kaolin powder flavoured with essential oils of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) and Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) on ... Purified and pulverized kaolin was flavoured with essential oils of A. Senegalensis Pers. and L. camara (Lam) obtained through vapour distillation. Adults C. serratus ...

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (small galanga) from China. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 46 constituents were identified. Methanol extract from rhizoma A.

  19. Chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum var.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajuc

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical ...

  20. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... Essential oils and their components are becoming increasingly popular as naturally occurring antioxidant agents. In this work, the composition of essential oil in Artemisia herba-alba from southwest Tunisia, obtained by hydrodistillation was determined by GC/MS. Eighteen compounds were identified with ...

  1. Economic Analysis of Production of Essential Oil using Steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the economical analysis of producing essential oil from leafy part of Eucalyptus citriodora plant using steam distillation technology. The specific objectives were to examine the viability or otherwise of this method of producing essential oil in terms of net profit generated, return on investment and pay ...

  2. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, J.; Løkke, M.M.; Larsen, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were......The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial...

  3. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils on pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Aparecida do Couto

    2017-11-01

    riparia (misty plume bush have proved effectiveness and an immense applicability, this research studied the use of those essential oils, aiming the effectiveness against plant pathogens. The plants were collected from Universidade do Vale do Sapucaí, Pouso Alegre (MG. The fungi’s samples belong to the mycology collection from the institution and the tests were based on the mycelial development comparison of the control fungi on the dishes with essential oils. Notice that the inhibition caused by the oils over fungi’s mycelial developing and the analysis of the data have been made through Turkey’s statistic. From the data analyzed, it was possible to realize that the citronella’s grass essential oil was efficient to control the mycelial development of fungi analyzed, followed by, in order of efficiency, the eucalyptus oil, the weeping bottlebrush oil and the misty plume bush oil.

  4. Antimicrobial effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl bark essential oil in cream-filled cakes and pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Food poisoning has been always a major concern in health system of every community and cream-filled products are one of the most widespread food poisoning causes in humans. In present study, we examined the preservative effect of the cinnamon oil in cream-filled cakes. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (Cinnamon bark essential oil was examined against five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium to investigate its potential for use as a natural preservative in cream-filled baked goods. Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For evaluation of preservative sufficiency of the oil, pathogens were added to cream-filled cakes manually and 1 μL/mL of the essential oil was added to all samples except the blank.  Results: Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and twenty five components were identified where cinnamaldehyde (79.73%, linalool (4.08%, cinnamaldehyde para-methoxy (2.66%, eugenol (2.37% and trans-caryophyllene (2.05% were the major constituents. Cinnamon essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens in vitro and the minimum inhibitory concentration values against all tested microorganisms were determined as 0.5 μL/disc except for S. aureus for which, the oil was not effective in tested concentrations. After baking, no observable microorganism was observed in all susceptible microorganisms count in 72h stored samples.  Conclusion: It was concluded that by analysing the sensory quality of the preserved food, cinnamon oil may be considered as a natural preservative in food industry, especially for cream-filled cakes and pastries.

  5. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  7. Microwave-assisted extraction of essential oils from herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Ugarte, Gabriel Abraham; Juárez-Becerra, Gladys Paola; Sosa-Morales, María Elena; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) has been recognized as a technique with several advantages over other extraction methods, such as reduction of costs, extraction time, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions. In this study, MAE was performed to obtain essential oils from two different herbs (basil and epazote). A factorial design was conducted in order to determine the effect of solvent quantity, power, and heating time on essential oil yields. Chemical composition, physical properties and yield percentage of essential oils from MAE were compared with essential oils obtained by steam distillation (SD). Amount of solvent and heating time significantly affected the yields (p essential oils from basil and epazote were not affected by the extraction method (MAE or SD), with similar yielding obtained by both methods (p < 0.05).

  8. [Phytochemical evaluation of essential oils, medicinal plants and their preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberkovics, E; Kéry, A; Marczal, G; Simándi, B; Szöke, E

    1998-05-01

    A surway is presented on the authors' work in the field of volatile oil research. The gas chromatographic method previously used for analysis of essential oils was transformed to capillary gas chromatographic conditions. The method is also suitable for separation of compound-pairs frequently occurring in essential oils (peppermint, rosemary, lavender, sage, clary sage, thyme oils). Beside the gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils, which was necessary for their standardization and qualification, the influence of different extraction methods and some biological facts e.g. the ontogenesis on the change of essential oil composition are also discussed. It has been established that the water steam distillation from acidic medium can be more advantageous than the traditional one, if the volatile terpene derivatives were bound in form of glycosides or dimeric quajazolide lactons were present in plant (oregano, Sideritis, wormwood oils). Comparing the composition of essential oil obtained by water steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) it was found that the SFE fractions are richer in ester constituents because the possibility of hydrolysis is reduced, and the oils are more valuable than the classic oils. On the other hand, when the transformation processes are important (chamomile), the distillation is the better method. The change of essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Anthriscus cerefolium L. was also studied during the vegetation period. It has been established that in budding and early flowering stages the basil oil was rich in monoterpenes; the quantity of sesquiterpenes and phenylpropane derivatives increased only in later stadiums. Finally the extraction and analytical processes are discussed which are used for standardization of complex plant preparations which contained essential oil as active agent and represented various medicinal forms.

  9. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Starch Edible Films with Different Essential Oils Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated properties of starch-based edible films with oregano and black cumin essential oil addition. Essential oils addition positively affected film swelling (decreased due to essential oil addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased, and water vapor barrier properties (decreased along with essential oils addition. Control film did not have any biological activity, which proves the need for essential oils addition in order to obtain active packaging. Oregano oil was more effective in terms of biological activity. Endothermal peak, above 200°C, represents total thermal degradation of edible films. Diffraction pattern of control film showed significant destruction of A-type crystal structure. Addition of essential oils resulted in peak shape change: diffraction peaks became narrower. Principal Component Analysis has been used to assess the effect of essential oils addition on final starch-based edible films characteristics with the aim to reveal directions for the film characteristics improvement, since the next phase will be optimal film application for food packaging.

  11. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  12. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils: a systematic review

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    E Sadeghi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the harmful effects of chemical foods preservatives on human body, it is crucial to find out safe antimicrobials among essential oils and herbs. This study aimed to address the effects of different essential oils on various bacterial species through a systematic review. A wide range of published papers in national and international data bases have been searched for the relevant articles. For this reason, the keywords used in searching were: "essential oils in food", "antimicrobial effect" and "vegetable oils". Among 462 retrieved articles, 76 papers were selected for further reviewing based on their title and abstracts. Based on results, the antimicrobial effects of different essential oils on pathogenic and spoilage organisms were compared. Moreover, the most effective as well as the least effective essential oils on microbial growth were identified. It was concluded that essential oils are more effective on gram positive bacteria rather than gram negatives. Besides, it was evident that some essential oils negatively affected the useful organisms such as lactobacilli.

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

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    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

  14. Critical Concentration of Lecithin Enhances the Antimicrobial Activity of Eugenol against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoshu; Dudley, Edward G; Davidson, P Michael; Harte, Federico

    2017-04-15

    Lecithin is a natural emulsifier used in a wide range of food and nonfood applications to improve physical stability, with no known bioactive effects. In this study, the effect of lecithin on the antimicrobial performance of a constant eugenol concentration was tested against three Escherichia coli strains (C600, 0.1229, and O157:H7 strain ATCC 700728). This is the first study, to our knowledge, focusing on lecithin at concentrations below those commonly used in foods to improve the stability of oil in water emulsions (≤10 mg/100 ml). For all three cultures, significant synergistic antimicrobial effects were observed when E. coli cultures were exposed to a constant eugenol concentration (ranging from 0.043 to 0.050% [wt/wt]) together with critical lecithin concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1 mg/100 ml. Increasing the concentration of lecithin above 1 mg/100 ml (up to 10 mg/100 ml lecithin) diminished the antibacterial effect to values similar to those with eugenol-only treatments. The formation of aggregates (eugenol antimicrobial effects.IMPORTANCE Essential oils (EOs) are effective natural antimicrobials. However, their hydrophobicity and strong aromatic character limit the use of essential oils in food systems. Emulsifiers (e.g., lecithin) increase the stability of EOs in water-based systems but fail to consistently improve antimicrobial effects. We demonstrate that lecithin, within a narrow critical concentration window, can enhance the antimicrobial properties of eugenol. This study highlights the potential bioactivity of lecithin when utilized to effectively control foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Antimicrobial Effects of Several Essential Oil from Aromatic Plants

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    Felicia TUŢULESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs have been long recognized for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. The present research aimed to study the antimicrobial effects of some volatile oils from aromatic plants (sweet basil and dill against several microorganisms, namely Bacillus subtilis, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum. The oils have been extracted through distillation procedures and the antimicrobial action of the oils was assessed through the disc diffusion method. The best effect against the Bacillus subtilis strain has occurred when the essential oil of dill was undiluted. Regarding the the Alternaria species, it was noted that dill volatile oil has acted in an efficient way only undiluted. As the oil's concentration decreased, the strain becomed resistant. The sweet basil oil has proven to be highly effective when acting against the Bacillus strain. By volatilization, the sweet basil oil produced a strong antimicrobial effect, even in control disc, in which it was noticed a small development of colonies comparing with the dill oil. The results indicated that the sweet basil essential oil exerted an antimicrobial effect both against the tested bacteria and moulds, while the dill oil had a great inhibitory action on Bacillus subtilis and Alternaria alternata, but was less efficient against Penicillium expansum.

  16. Essential oils of three cow parsnips - composition and activity against nosocomial and foodborne pathogens and food contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ušjak, Ljuboš; Petrović, Silvana; Drobac, Milica; Soković, Marina; Stanojković, Tatjana; Ćirić, Ana; Niketić, Marjan

    2017-01-25

    Although some widespread, native cow parsnips (Heracleum L. spp., Apiaceae) had broad medicinal and culinary applications throughout history, the knowledge about their volatile constituents is insufficient. This work investigates the composition and bioactivities of H. sphondylium L. (HSPH), H. sibiricum L. (HSIB) and H. montanum Schleich. ex Gaudin (HMON) essential oils. The composition was tested by GC and GC-MS. (Z)-β-Ocimene was the most abundant in HSPH (28.9%) and HMON (20.4%) root oils, while in HSIB root oil, β-pinene (26.2%), methyl eugenol (22.3%) and elemicin (25.6%) prevailed. Leaf and flower oils were dominated by various sesquiterpenes (germacrene D, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E)-β-farnesene and/or (E)-caryophyllene) and/or phenylpropanoids (apiole, methyl eugenol, elemicin and/or (Z)-isoelemicin). Octyl acetate (57.5-67.1%) was the main constituent of all fruit oils. The antimicrobial activity was screened by a microdilution method against eight bacteria and eight fungi. The strongest antimicrobial effect, in several cases better than the activity of antibiotics, was shown by HSPH (MICs = 0.12-3.30 mg mL -1 ) and HMON (MICs = 0.10-1.30 mg mL -1 ) flower oils against bacteria, and HSIB fruit oil against fungi (MICs = 0.15-0.40 mg mL -1 ). The MTT test revealed that the oils were not or weakly cytotoxic against human malignant HeLa, LS174 and/or A549 cells (except HSPH root oil; IC 50 = 5.72-24.31 μg mL -1 ) and that tested oils were not toxic against human normal MRC-5 cells (at 200.00 μg mL -1 ). Significant activity observed against microorganisms that are the common cause of foodborne diseases, food contamination and/or hospital-acquired infections justifies certain traditional uses of the investigated plants and represents a good basis for further research of these Heracleum oils.

  17. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Ané

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822

  18. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Nieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  19. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-08-23

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  20. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ané Orchard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman’s literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils.

  1. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges. PMID:28930277

  2. Supercritical CO2 extract and essential oil of bay (Laurus nobilis L. – chemical composition and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA IVANOVIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation (HD of dried bay leaves (Laurus nobilis L.. The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the SC-CO2 extract and essential oil (EO from dried leaves of bay were compared to each other and literature data. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the SC-CO2 extract and EO were performed using GC–FID and GC–MS analytical methods. A significant difference in the chemical composition of the SC-CO2 extract and EO was observed. The EO comprised high contents of monoterpenes and their oxygenated derivates (98.4 %, principally 1,8-cineole (33.4 %, linalool (16.0 % and α-terpinyl acetate (13.8 %, sabinene (6.91 % and methyl eugenol (5.32 %. The SC-CO2 extract comprised twice less monoterpenes and their oxygenated derivates (43.89 %, together with sesquiterpenes (12.43 %, diterpenes (1.33 % and esters (31.13 %. The major components were methyl linoleate (16.18 %, α-terpinyl acetate (12.88 %, linalool (9.00 %, methyl eugenol (8.67 %, methyl arachidonate (6.28 % and eugenol (6.14 %. An investigation of the antibacterial activity of bay SC-CO2 extract and EO was completed on different Staphylococcus strains using the broth macrodilution method. Staphylococcus intermedius strains were the most susceptible to both the SC-CO2 extract and EO (MIC = 640 µg/ml.

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil

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    R. Mahmodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing drug resistance in microorganisms and concerns for side effects of chemical preservatives, especially in the food industry, have led to extensive studies on novel potential agents with natural origin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch in 2012-2013. The essential oil was extracted from different parts of the plant (leaves, stem and flower by hydrodistillation. The essential oil was phytochemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Antibacterial properties were examined by disc diffusion and microtiter plates. Antioxidant activity was examined by diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Findings: E-Citral in leaves, 2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl in stem, and Trans-Carveol in flower were the major components identified in the Melissa officinalis. Among different parts essential oil, the highest and the lowest antibacterial activity were related to leaves and stem, respectively. The largest diameter of the inhibition growth zone for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was related to the leaves essential oil. The highest antioxidant activity was related to the leaves essential oil in DPPH assay. Conclusion: With regards to the results, the Melissa officinalis essential oil can be used as a natural preservative for increasing the shelf life of foods.

  4. [Essential oils for the nutrition of poultry, swine and ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendarp, H

    2005-10-01

    Essential oils are very complex mixtures of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Due to their lipophility they posses a good intestinale and percutane absorption. Under external application essential oils demonstrate antiphlogistic or rubefacient to pro-inflammatority activities. Orally intake they stimulate the secretion of digestive enzymes and increase gastric and intestinal motility. Moreover they show spasmolytic, expectorative and diuretic activities. Besides antimicrobial properties on bacteria and fungi have been observed in vitro and in vivo. Due to their various effects essential oils increasingly gain attention in animal nutrition and are discussed to be alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. In some studies essential oils have been reported to reduce intestinal pathogens in broilers and piglets. When administered to ruminants essential oils decrease ruminal ammonia production by suppression the growth of deaminative microorganisms. However, the observed effects on growth performance are inconsistent among studies. In conclusion, there are still some unanswered questions concerning the mode of action, metabolic pathway and optimal dosage of essential oils in different animal species. Further scientific research is therefore needed to use essential oils effectivly in livestock feeding.

  5. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers.

  6. Essential Oil Composition from Oleogum Resin of Soqotraen Commiphorakua

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    Nasser A. Awadh Ali

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The major constituents of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the oleogum resin of Commiphora kua Vollesen were identified by GC-MS. Sixteen constituents were detected from the essential oil, which constituted about (90.5% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were α- cadinol (33.0%, g -cadinene (22.5%, d -cadinene (17.0%, isocaryophyllene (3.7%, allo-aromadendrene (2.8%, α-muurolene (2.7%, and α-humulene (2.4%. The Oil of Commiphora kua showed moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum

  7. Chemical variability in the essential oil of Hyptis suaveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, N R; Campos, I F; Ferreira, H D; Portes, T A; Santos, S C; Seraphin, J C; Paula, J R; Ferri, P H

    2001-07-01

    The essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens plants collected from 11 localities of the Brazilian Cerrado region were investigated by GC-MS. Sabinene, limonene, biclyclogermacrene, beta-phellandrene and 1,8-cineole were the principal constituents. The results were submitted to principal component and chemometric cluster analysis which allowed three groups of essential oils to be distinguished with respect to the content of p-mentha-2,4(8)-diene, limonene/beta-phellandrene/gamma-terpinene and germacrene D/bicyclogermacrene. In patterns of geographic variation in essential oil composition indicated that the sesquiterpenes are mainly produced in the samples grown at lower latitudes.

  8. The Effect of Essential Oils on Staphylococcus aureus

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    Seda Ozdikmenli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus are widespread through the world in spite of developing technology. S. aureus is an important pathogen causing food intoxications besides hospital infections by its antibiotic resistant strains. Nowadays, there has been worldwide increasing concern on usage of natural products to control microorganisms. One of these natural products is essential oils. They are produced from plants especially from spices and composed of many components and volatiles. This review summarizes informative literature on essential oils and their mode of antimicrobial action. In addition, current knowledge on in vitro researches on antibacterial activity of essential oils and food applications to control S. aureus has been discussed.

  9. Chemical stability of extra-virgin olive oil added with oregano essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2011-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil is highly consumed and well known for its nutritional and health benefits. However, it is fatty food highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preserving effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp vulgare called "oregano compacto") essential oil on physical and chemical properties in extra virgin olive oil during storage. Oregano essential oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. This essential oil was added into extra virgin olive oil at 0.05%. The samples were stored in 3 different conditions: darkness, light exposure, and temperature (60 °C). Chemical indicators of lipid oxidation (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, conjugated dienes, free fatty acidity, and carotenoid and chlorophyll contents) were measured. High content in carvomenthol (22.52%), terpinolene (19.77%), thymol (13.51%), and γ-terpinene (10.30%) were detected in oregano essential oil. Olive oil samples without oregano essential oil stored at 60 °C and exposure at artificial light had the highest peroxide values during storage. Higher p-anisidine and K232 values after day 7 of storage were detected in temperature, darkness, and light exposure treatments. Light treatment was the main factor that degraded chlorophyll causing loss of color. The highest chlorophyll content (3.87 mg/kg) was observed in olive oil with essential oil at the end of storage. In general, olive oil samples added with oregano essential oil had lower peroxide, conjugated dienes, and p-anisidine values and higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents during storage. Oregano essential oil retards lipid oxidation process in olive oil prolonging its shelf life. Oregano essential oil was and is used with the purpose of flavoring and aromatizing food. This essential oil due to its composition has shown antioxidant activity. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are thought to be promoters of carcinogenesis

  10. Antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L.

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    Stanojević, Lj.P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare L. by Clevenger-type hydrodistillation and hydromodulus 1:10 m/v during 180 minutes, has been investigated in this work. Qualitative and quantitative composition of the oil was determined by GC-MS and GC-FID spectrometry. Antioxidant activity of the obtained oil was examined spectrophotometrically by DPPH test (after 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes of incubation and TBA-MDA assay. The yield of essential oil was 4.1 mL/100 g of plant material. Seven components were identified: α-thujene, myrcene, α-terpinene, o-cymene, γ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol. The major components were thymol (45% and carvacrol (37.4%. Oil incubated for 60 minutes has shown the best antioxidant activity according to DPPH test. The concentrations of essential oil, required for neutralization of 50% of initial DPPH radical concentration (EC50, were 0.761, 0.590, 0.360 and 0.326 mg/mL, after 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes of incubation, respectively. Lipid peroxidation inhibition of 92.3% was achieved by 1.35 mg/mL essential oil concentration. The results obtained indicate that oregano essential oil is a good source of natural antioxidants with potential application in food and pharmaceutical industries, as a safer alternative to the synthetic antioxidants.

  11. Chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia caryophylla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition was assigned by GC and GC/SM and showed that E. caryophylla was mainly composed of eugenol (80.0 %), E-caryophyllene (8.3%), and eugenol acetate (6.7%) while Mentha sp cf piperita was characterized by piperitone (67.5 %), menthol (10.0 %) and ß-phellandrene (5.8%). The result ...

  12. Antifungal Effect of Essential Oils against Fusarium Keratitis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Mónika; Fekete, Ildikó Pálma; Böszörményi, Andrea; Singh, Yendrembam Randhir Babu; Selvam, Kanesan Panneer; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Juniperus communis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gaultheria procumbens, Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum majorana, Salvia sclarea, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Fusarium species, the most common etiologic agents of filamentous fungal keratitis in South India. C. zeylanicum essential oil showed strong anti-Fusarium activity, whereas all the other tested essential oils proved to be less effective. The main component of C. zeylanicum essential oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, was also tested and showed a similar effect as the oil. The in vitro interaction between trans-cinnamaldehyde and natamycin, the first-line therapeutic agent of Fusarium keratitis, was also investigated; an enhanced fungal growth inhibition was observed when these agents were applied in combination. Light and fluorescent microscopic observations revealed that C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces the cellular metabolism and inhibits the conidia germination. Furthermore, necrotic events were significantly more frequent in the presence of these two compounds. According to our results, C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde provides a promising basis to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of Fusarium keratitis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

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    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  14. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  15. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Essential Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C) for subsequent experiments. Analysis of the essential oil. Capillary gas chromatography was performed using Hewlett–Packard 5890 gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and fused silica capillary column HP-5 (5 % ...

  16. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , epicarp and mesocarp of Annona senegalensis Pers., oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), growing in Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic compounds (58.3 ...

  17. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    , epicarp and mesocarp of Annona senegalensis Pers., oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), growing in. Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic.

  18. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ROSEMARY ESSENTIAL OIL AGAINST FOODSTUFFS FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vallone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils are well known for their antibacteric, antomycotic and insecticide effects. In this research the antomycotic activity of Rosemary essential oil has been tested in vitro versus different moulds, common contaminants of food and feed, as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ustus, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium aurantio-griseum, Fusarium moniliforme. The Rosemary essential oil tested (produced in Sardegna, Italy shows a different efficacy against various moulds and his activity seems to be produced by borneol, α-pinene, eucalyptol, camphor and limonene. Aspergillus and Penicillium are the genus showing an important inhibition of their development in vitro. Rosemary essential oil for these natural properties can be used as antimycotic additive to extended shelf-life of many foodstuffs.

  19. Essential oil components of orange peels and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Anna; Di Stefano, Vita; Di Martino, Enrica; Schillaci, Domenico; Schicchi, Rosario

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the orange peel of 12 cultivars of Citrus sinensis from central-eastern Sicily was employed to obtain essential oils and extracts. The ones were extracted through steam distillation, the others through extraction in hexane. Chemical constituents were evaluated in terms of qualitative and quantitative analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fifty-four components were identified in the steam essential oils and 44 in the extracts. In all the cultivars, the main component is d-limonene (73.9-97%); discrete percentages of linalool, geraniol and nerol were also found. Cluster analysis based on essential oils composition showed a certain degree of affinity between cultivars of the same type. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against three micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). 'Sanguinello' and 'Solarino Moro' essential oils are significantly active against L. monocytogenes, while 'Valencia' hexanic extract against all the tested micro-organisms.

  20. Antimutagenic and antioxidant potentials of Teucrium ramosissimum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Boubaker, Jihed; Neffati, Aicha; Limem, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Bouhlel, Ines; Kilani, Soumaya; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel

    2010-07-01

    The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Teucrium ramosissimum were evaluated by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, and TA1535, with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 fraction). The T. ramosissimum essential oil showed no mutagenic effect. In contrast, our results established that it possessed antimutagenic effects against sodium azide (SA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD). The antioxidant capacity of the tested essential oil was evaluated using enzymatic, i.e., the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay, and nonenzymatic systems, i.e., the nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT)/riboflavin and the DPPH assays. A moderate free radical-scavenging activity was observed towards DPPH(.) and O2(.-). In contrast, T. ramosissimum essential oil showed no effect for all the tested concentrations in the X/XOD assay.

  1. Essential Oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential Oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania: Antimicrobial Activity and Composition. MM Oliva, MS Demo, RS Malele, CK Mutayabarwa, JW Mwangi, GN Thoithi, IO Kibwage, SM Faillaci, RL Scrivanti, AG Lopez, JA Zygadlo ...

  2. Effects of Macro- and Microelements in Soil of Rose Farms in Taif on Essential Oil Production by Rosa damascena Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shohayeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose is one of the most economically important ornamental crops in the world. In this study, we analyzed nine macro- and microelements in soils and petals of R. damascena Mill. cultivated in Shafa and Hada mountains. The amounts of the investigated macro- and microelements varied from one soil or petal sample to another and they were generally higher in most soil and petal samples of Shafa compared to Hada. On the other hand, the levels of the investigated elements in petal samples were not dependent on their levels in soil samples. While water extracts of the soil of farms of Shafa were slightly alkaline (pH 7.69, they were moderately alkaline (pH 8.04 in Hada farms. The amounts of oil produced by rose petals of Hada were relatively larger than those of Shafa. Amongst the five investigated constituents of the volatile oil of roses, the amounts of citronellol, geraniol, and eugenol were significantly larger in the volatile oil of rose petals of Hada compared to Shafa. This study suggests that the ecology of roses of both Hada and Shafa mountains is different and this is most likely reflected on the amount of volatile oil and its constituents. Therefore, further integrated multidisciplinary research correlating rose ecology, agronomy, and essential oil yield is highly recommended.

  3. Eryngium foetidum L. Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Paul S.; Essien, Emmanuel E.; Ntuk, Samuel J.; Choudhary, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Eryngium foetidum essential oils from Nigeria were investigated for the first time in order to ascertain their potency as natural antioxidants. E. foetidum is an aromatic and medicinal herb used in ethno-medicine and as a traditional spice for foods. Methods: The hydro-distilled oils of E. foetidum were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Free radical scavenging capacity of the volatile oils was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)...

  4. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Hyptis suaveolens Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Nantitanon, Witayapan; Chowwanapoonpohn, Sombat; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2007-01-01

    The essential oil of Hyptis suaveolens obtained by steam distillation was examined for its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was determined by means of the DPPH radical scavenging test and ABTS free radical decolorization assay. Results from both methods indicate that the antioxidant activity of H. suaveolens oil is time and concentration dependent. The antioxidant potential of H. suaveolens oil determined by the DPPH method expressed as IC50 was 3.72 mg/ml wh...

  5. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Saulo Luis da; Figueiredo,Patrícia Maria; Yano,Tomomasa

    2007-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool) were also tested to ve...

  6. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshir Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC₅₀ values (ppm of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm. Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC₅₀ values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473, P. melonis (33.097 and P. drechsleri (69.112, respectively. The mean EC₅₀ values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral (39.16% and z-citral (30.95% were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05. Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases.

  7. Chemical composition of the essential oil of whole plant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the essential oil on proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, with L02 and HeLa cells serving as control groups. Results: GC-MS results show that the essential oil of E. dense contains 40 components. Thirty seven ...

  8. Acaricidal Effect of Foam Soap Containing Essential Oil of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acaricidal effect of foam soap containing essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves was tested on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in western highland of Cameroon. Five doses of essential oil (0.00; 0.04; 0.06; 0.08; 0.10 μl/g) with four replications for each dose were tested in vitro. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in Petri dish ...

  9. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  10. Anti-ulcer activity of essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco de Assis; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; de Sousa, Elida Batista Vieira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2014-05-05

    Essential oils have attracted considerable worldwide attention over the last few decades. These natural products have wide-ranging pharmacological activities and biotechnological applications. Faced with the need to find new anti-ulcer agents and the great effort on the development of drugs for the treatment of ulcers, in this review, the anti-ulcer activities of 21 bioactive compounds found in essential oils are discussed.

  11. Variability of the essential oil of Viola etrusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Morelli, Ivano

    2003-03-01

    Essential oils obtained from different populations of Viola etrusca from Italy have been analysed to verify the phenotypic discontinuity observed in a previous study. All of the essential oils contained methyl salicylate as a main constituent. However, multivariate analysis showed differences among some populations, in particular between northern and southern ones. Results suggest that this species could be undergoing a slow schizogenetic differentiation process due to its genetic isolation.

  12. Essential Oils of Oregano: Biological Activity beyond Their Antimicrobial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nayely Leyva-López; Erick P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva; Gabriela Vazquez-Olivo; J. Basilio Heredia

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils of oregano are widely recognized for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their antiviral and antifungal properties. Nevertheless, recent investigations have demonstrated that these compounds are also potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and cancer suppressor agents. These properties of oregano essential oils are of potential interest to the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this manuscript is to review the latest evidence regarding ess...

  13. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activities of Salvia essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jija; Thoppil, John E

    2011-05-01

    Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. In this context, essential oils have received much attention as potentially useful bioactive compounds against insects. Therefore, our present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils from the aerial parts of Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia dorisiana Standl., Salvia splendens Sello ex J.A. Schult Blue Ribbon, and S. splendens Sello ex J.A. Schult Scarlet Sage Red (Lamiaceae) against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The mosquito larvicidal activities of the essential oils and chemical composition of four taxa of Salvia are investigated in this article for the first time. Chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four taxa of Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-FID, and the effects of essential oils on fourth instar larvae of A. albopictus were investigated. The main components identified from each Salvia essential oils were as follows: spathulenol (38.73%) and caryophyllene (10.32%) from S. elegans; ledol (45.8%) and 4,4'-[(p-phenylene)diisopropylidene]diphenol (17.38%) from S. dorisiana; β-cubebene (22.9%), and caryophyllene (12.99%) from S. splendens Blue Ribbon; phytol (41.46%) and cyclooctasulfur (24.88%) from S. splendens Scarlet Sage Red. The essential oils of S. elegans and S. splendens Blue Ribbon had excellent inhibitory larvicidal effect against A. albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24 h were 46.4 ppm (LC(90) = 121.8 ppm) and 59.2 ppm (LC(90) = 133.0 ppm), respectively. These findings demonstrate that the essential oils of these Salvia species could be considered as the powerful candidates to bring about useful botanicals so as to prevent the resurgence of mosquito vectors.

  14. Essential oil extract from Moringa oleifera roots as cowpea seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) roots essential oil extract on the survival of Callosobruchus maculatus. Behaviour of Hexane extract of powdered Moringa oleifera roots was obtained by the Soxhlet extraction method. Moringa roots oil extract was applied at dosages of 0.5 l, ...

  15. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Myrtus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gum paint formulation was found to be an oil-in-water emulsion with an optimal pseudoplastic viscosity (120 - 340 centpoises with 200 - 50 shear stress per min). Keywords: essential oil, Myrtus communis, antimicrobial activity, formulation, gum paint. Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal Vol. 25 (1) 2007: pp. 72-76 ...

  16. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on essential oils of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Volatile constituents of the dried fruits of. Citrus aurantifolia from Iran. J. Med. Arom. Plant Sci. 25(2): 400-401. Orafidiya LO (1993). The effect of autoxidation of Lemon-grass oil on it's antibacterial activity. Phytother. Res. 7(3): 269-271. Ozcan M (2003). Effect of essential oils of some plants used as thyme.

  17. Inhibitory effect of essential oil on aflatoxin activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... Inhibitory effects of Thyme oils on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Food Control,15: 479-483. Rasoli I, Fakoor MH, Yadegarinia D, Gachkar L, Allameh A, Rezaei MB. (2008). Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.

  18. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Lippia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Lippia kituiensis leaves against larvae of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The oil was obtained by hydro-distillation of fresh leaves and analysed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis showed that sesquiterpenes were dominant ...

  19. Biological activity and phytoconstituents of essential oil from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oil was extracted from fresh leaves of Eriosema englerianum by hydrodistillation and its major phytoconstituents determined by GC-MS. The major phytoconstituents were O-cymene, terpinolene and ascaridole with a yield of 0.28%. Antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested against nine human bacterial pathogens ...

  20. Economic Analysis of Production of Essential Oil using Steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Essential oils are the odoriferous constituents of plants. They occur in various sites of the plant anatomy and in some cases are found throughout the plant organs and in other cases are restricted to specific sites. These parts of plant organs include flower, fruits, leaves, roots, seeds and bark. (UNIDO, 1983). The oils are form ...

  1. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Cinnamomum cassia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum cassis and its main constituent compound, trans-cinnamaldehyde, against the booklice, Liposcelis bostrychophila. Methods: Steam distillation of C. cassis twigs was carried out using a Clavenger apparatus in order to obtain the volatile oils.

  2. Antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. growing in a rural area within the Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were extracted using the solvent free microwave extractor (SFME) and hydro-distillation (HD) methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the obtained oils were tested ...

  3. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of essential oil of Lantana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil was tested for antibacterial activity against 6 strains, using disc diffusion method, and for cytotoxicity using brine-shrimp lethality assay. The oil showed moderate activity against Candida albican, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus aureus. These activities support ...

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya. ... aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the

  5. Essential oil composition of different fractions of Piper guineense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oil fractions from dried seed powder of Piper guineense were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and evaluated for their insecticidal effects on Sitophilus oryzae L. The GC-MS analysis showed quantitative and qualitative differences between the oil fractions. Chromatographic results ...

  6. Composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... E. coli (0.8% v/v) was obtained. It was observed that essential oil and seed extracts of F. vulgare exhibit different degree of antimicrobial activities depending on the doses applied. Therefore, fennel oil could be a source of pharmaceutical materials required for the preparation of new therapeutic and antimicrobial agents.

  7. Chemical compositions and mosquito repellency of essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , respectively against female Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. The repellency activity of essential oil from leaves were significantly higher than from stem bark, but less than that of the standard citronella oil used (RC50 = 4.1×10-6 mg/cm2).

  8. CONSTITUENTS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF CHIMONANTHUS ERA GRANCE LINDLE

    OpenAIRE

    KATAYOUN JAVIDN1A; RAMTN MIRI; MARYAM CHERIKI ABBAS SHAFIEE

    1999-01-01

    The constituent of the essential oil ofChimonanthus fragrance Lindle (Calycanthaceae) were characterized by GLC and GC/MS. Twenty components representing 97% of the oil composition of which fifteen were sesquiterpenes were identified. The major components were p-Elemene, p-Caryophyllene, y-Cadinene, y-Bisabolene, p-EIemenone and a-Eudesmol.

  9. Comparative analysis of essential oil contents of Juniperus excelsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cones/berries of Juniperus excelsa from three provenances in Balochistan, Pakistan were collected and essential oil was extracted by solvent method. Oil contents were analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Identification and quantification was made by using Wiley and NIST spectral library and HP ...

  10. Insecticidal activity of essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum cassis and its main constituent compound, trans-cinnamaldehyde, against the booklice, Liposcelis bostrychophila. Methods: Steam distillation of C. cassis twigs was carried out using a Clavenger apparatus in order to obtain the volatile oils.

  11. the essential oils of coriandrum sativum l. grown in ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant materials. The dried coriander fruit samples were obtained from the major commercial sources, Bale and Gonder. The samples were authenticated by Dr ... Twenty one compounds comprising 97% of the essential oils were identified by. GC and GC/MS. The composition of the oils was dominated by a monoterpene.

  12. The effect of an essential oil combination derived from selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of an essential oil combination derived from selected herbs growing wild in Turkey on broiler performance. ... The oil in the EOC was extracted from different herbs growing in Turkey. The EOC at 24 ... The EOC, a feed additive of natural origin, may be considered as a potential growth promoter in broiler production.

  13. The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... (2007) from S. terebinthifolius fruits collected from Minas. Gerais state, in Brazil. These authors described essential oil yield of 4.65% w/w after 3 h of extraction, in relation to just dry fruit weight. The differences in the oil yield could be due to the geographical difference as well as the differences that may exist ...

  14. Mining the essential oils of the Anthemideae | Teixeira da Silva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous members of the Anthemideae are important cut-flower and ornamental crops, as well as medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine, the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. These oils and compounds contained within them are used in the ...

  15. Phytoconstituents and biological activities of essential Oil from Rhus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determined the major phytoconstituents, the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of Rhus lancea essential oil against eight bacterial and four fungal species. The yield was 0.18% and the major phytoconstituents found were µ-pinene, benzene and d-3-carene. The oil exhibited remarkable ...

  16. Leaf Essential oils of Salvia nilotica and Salvia schimperi : Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Salvia nilotica and Salvia schimperi were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of the analyses indicated that the components of the two oils are qualitatively similar with significant quantitative differences. Twenty-seven compounds ...

  17. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1 linalool; (2 borneol; (3 geraniol; (4 sabinene hydrate; (5 thymol; (6 carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%; the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%; the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%; and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%. A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris.

  18. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Murray, Brittney L.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Setzer, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. PMID:28231164

  19. The Types of Essentials Oil Components Isolated From the Leaves of Citrus Aurantifolia and Citrus Nobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Wulandari, Mutiara Juni; Mohammad Anwar Jamaludin,, Lailatul Riska, Agustin Laela Prunama; Mumun Nurmilawati, Indra Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil or known as the eteris oil (etheric oil) was result from secondary metabolism of a plant. In general essential oil contains of citronellal, Citronelal, Citronelol, Limonen, β-Pinene dan sabinene. The components essential oil derived from citrus plants commonly used by perfume industry, on other hand it is used as essentials oil orange flavour addition in some drinks and food, and also as an antioxidant and anti cancer. One of the essential oil is produced by Citrus aurantifolia ...

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.

  1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Results: Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties. PMID:25538349

  2. Whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil

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    Sandra Prestes Lessa Fernandes Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to prepare whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil at different concentrations, and evaluate their properties and antimicrobial activity. Films were more flexible with increasing the concentration of oregano oil and water vapor permeability was higher in the films with oregano oil. Increasing the concentration of essential oil decreased the water solubility. The solubility of control film and film with 1.5% oregano oil was 20.2 and 14.0%, respectively. The addition of 1% of oregano oil improved the resistance of the films. The tensile strength for the control film was 66.0 MPa, while for the film with 1% of oregano oil was 108.7 MPa. Films containing 1.5% oregano oil showed higher antimicrobial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged from 0 to 1.7 cm. The results showed that the whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil has potential application as active packaging.

  3. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonklev, J; Løkke, M M; Larsen, M K; Mortensen, G; Petersen, M A; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were tested for each essential oil. Respiratory exposure was facilitated by placing the animal in a chamber together with a sponge soaked in the essential oils. All exposures were spread over 9h. Milk samples were collected immediately before and after exposure, as well as the next morning. Twelve monoterpenes and 2 sesquiterpenes were analyzed in essential oils and in milk samples using dynamic headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the essential oils, almost all of the terpenes were detected in both essential oils at various levels. For caraway, the monoterpenes limonene, carvone, and carvacrol were most abundant; in oregano, the monoterpenes carvacrol and ρ-cymene were most abundant. For almost all treatments, an immediate effect was detected in milk, whereas little or no effect was detected in milk the following day. This suggests that the transfer into milk of these volatile terpenes is fast, and that the milk will not be influenced when treatment is discontinued. Principal component analysis was used to elucidate the effect of the treatments on the terpene profile of the milk. Terpene content for treatment milk samples was characterized by the same terpenes found in the treatment essential oil used for that animal, regardless of pathway of exposure. The terpenes appear to be transferred unaltered into the milk, regardless of the pathway of exposure

  4. Effects of essential oils on rumen fermentation, milk production, and feeding behavior in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tager, L R; Krause, K M

    2011-05-01

    Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in an incomplete Latin rectangle design to assess the effects of 2 commercial essential oil (EO) products on rumen fermentation, milk production, and feeding behavior. Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a 42:58 forage:concentrate ratio (DM basis). Treatments included addition of 0.5 g/d of CE Lo (85 mg of cinnamaldehyde and 140 mg of eugenol), 10 g/d of CE Hi (1,700 mg of cinnamaldehyde and 2,800 mg of eugenol), 0.25 g/d of CAP (50mg of capsicum), or no oil (CON). Cows were fed ad libitum twice daily for 21 d per period. Dry matter intake, number of meals/d, h eating/d, mean meal length, rumination events/d, h ruminating/d, and mean rumination length were not affected by EO. However, length of the first meal after feeding decreased with addition of CE Hi (47.2 min) and CAP (49.4 min) compared with CON (65.4 min). Total volatile fatty acids, individual volatile fatty acids, acetate:propionate ratio, and ammonia concentration were not affected by EO. Mean rumen pH as well as bouts, total h, mean bout length, total area, and mean bout area under pH 5.6 did not differ among treatments. Total tract digestibility of organic matter, dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude protein, and starch were not affected by EO. Milk yield and composition did not change with EO. In situ dry matter disappearance of ground soybean hulls was not affected by EO. However, organic matter disappearance of soybean hulls with CE Hi tended to decrease compared with CON. Compared with CON, neutral detergent fiber disappearance (41.5 vs. 37.6%) and acid detergent fiber disappearance (44.5 vs. 38.8%) decreased with addition of CE Hi. The CE Lo had no effect on rumen fermentation, milk production, or feeding behavior but CAP shortened the length of the first meal without changing rumen fermentation or production, making it a possible additive for altering feeding behavior. The CE Hi negatively affected

  5. In vitro activity of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei

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    Fang Fang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei. Methods The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experimentally infected pigs. For contact bioassays, essential oils were diluted with paraffin to get concentrations at 10, 5, and even 1% for the most efficient ones. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after contact. For fumigation bioassay, a filter paper was treated with 100 μL of the pure essential oil. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope for the first 5min, and then every 5min until 1h. Results Using contact bioassays, 1% clove and palmarosa oil killed all the mites within 20 and 50min, respectively. The oils efficacy order was: clove > palmarosa > geranium > tea tree > lavender > manuka > bitter orange > eucalyptus > Japanese cedar. In fumigation bioassays, the efficacy order was: tea tree > clove > eucalyptus > lavender > palmarosa > geranium > Japanese cedar > bitter orange > manuka. In both bioassays, cade oil showed no activity. Conclusion Essential oils, especially tea tree, clove, palmarosa, and eucalyptus oils, are potential complementary or alternative products to treat S. scabiei infections in humans or animals, as well as to control the mites in the environment.

  6. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  7. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

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    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  8. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

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    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  9. Essential Oils of Root of Stahlianthus campanulatus O. Kuzt

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    Do N. Dai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatiles from the root of Stahlianthus campanulatus O. Kuzt (Zingiberaceae has been studied. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC (FID and GC-MS. The components by identified by MS libraries and their LRIs. The major constituents of the oil were stahlianthusone (27.6%, a -copaene (16.7% and camphor (14.7%. The chemical compositions of the essential oil of S. campanulatus are being reported for the first time.

  10. Antinociceptive and wound healing activities of Croton adamantinus Müll. Arg. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Morais Nogueira, Lenise; Cassundé, Nathalia Maria Rodrigues; Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra; dos Santos, Simone Maria; Magalhães, Lucimere Paulino Machado; Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; de Sena, Kêsia Xisto da Fonseca Ribeiro; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Martins, René Duarte

    2013-10-01

    Leaves of Croton adamantinus have been used to treat inflammation and skin wounds in the semi-arid area of the Northeast of Brazil. In order to evaluate if the essential oil (EO) was responsible for the claimed activities; antinociceptive, wound healing and antimicrobial tests were carried out. Twenty constituents were identified in C. adamantinus EO by GC-MS, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR, the major compounds being methyl-eugenol (14.81%) and 1,8-cineol (13.74%). Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by the formalin test and the abdominal contortion assay in mice. The EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) decreased the licking time of both phases of the formalin test when compared to the vehicle, but not to morphine (7.5 mg/kg). In the abdominal contortion assay, the EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of contortions compared to the vehicle and to indometacin (10 mg/kg). The wound healing activity was verified also using two experimental models: excisional wound and dead space. Topical treatment with the EO (1%) increased the wound contraction from the third day of treatment (compared with nitrofurazone 0.2%), while systemic treatment (50 mg/kg/day) increased granulation tissue formation and reduced the water content. C. adamantinus EO also showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in disk diffusion method. These results corroborate the ethnobotanical use of this specie by Brazilian population.

  11. Anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil

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    Ricardo Dias de Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon. For this, tests were conducted to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC and the action of C. zeylanicum EO on fungal cell wall of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei strains. The composition of the was analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Significant antifungal activity of the EO was observed on the strains tested, with 87.5% and 62.5% of them sensitive, respectively at a MIC of 312.5 µg/mL and MFC of 2500 µg/mL. In the presence of sorbitol, the MIC was 625 µg/mL against all the strains, showing a possible action of the EO on fungal cell wall. Eugenol (73.27% and trans-β-caryophyllene (5.38% were found in higher concentrations. The results indicated anti-Candida activity of the EO analyzed and suggested that it occurred due to the action on fungal cell wall.

  12. Impacts of sample preparation methods on solubility and antilisterial characteristics of essential oil components in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-02-01

    Essential oil components (EOCs) have limited water solubility and are used at much higher concentrations in complex food matrices than in growth media to inhibit pathogens. However, the correlation between solubility and activity has not been studied. The objective of this work was to characterize the solubility of EOCs in solvents and milk and correlate solubility with antilisterial activity. The solubilities of four EOCs, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde, in water was significantly increased in the presence of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. In milk, the solubility of EOCs was lower than in water, with lower solubility in higher-fat milk. EOCs applied to milk as stock solutions (in 95% aqueous ethanol) enabled quicker dissolution and higher solubility in milk serum than other methods of mixing, such as end to end, and greater reductions of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A after 0 and 24 h. When the EOC concentration detected in milk serum was above the minimum bactericidal concentration, complete inhibition of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth resulted. Therefore, the antilisterial properties in milk could be correlated with the solubility by comparison to the minimum inhibitory or bactericidal concentrations of EOCs. While the EOCs applied using ethanol generally had solubility and activity characteristics superior to those of other mixing methods, ethanol is not used to a great extent in nonfermented foods. Therefore, mixing methods without an organic solvent may be more readily adaptable to enhancing the distribution of EOCs in complex food systems.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review

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    Irlan Almeida Freires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs. In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1% has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide.

  14. Variation in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is more affected by leaf position than by leaf age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ravit; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Rubin, Baruch; Dudai, Nativ

    2011-05-11

    The aroma in sweet basil is a factor affecting the commercial value of the crop. In previous studies leaf age was considered to be a factor that influences the composition of essential oil (EO). In this study it was hypothesized that a single observation of the EO content in leaves from different positions on the main stem (young vs old) could predict the developmental changes in the plant during its life cycle. Plants harvested at week 16 demonstrated an exponential increase (R(2) = 0.92) in EO concentration in leaves on the main stem and lateral shoots, indicating higher EO concentrations in younger than in older leaves. Eugenol and methyleugenol predominated (28-77%) in the extract. Eugenol levels were higher in younger leaves (∼53%), and methyl-eugenol levels predominated in older leaves (∼68%). Linalool was lower in mature leaves than in younger leaves. This suggested that eugenol converted into methyleugenol and linalool decreased as leaf mature. However, in weekly monitored plants, the levels of these compounds in the EO had limited variation in the maturing leaf regardless of its position on the stem. This proposed that the EO composition in an individual leaf is mostly affected by the leaf position on the stem and not by its maturation process. Because leaf position is related to plant development, it is probable that the plant's physiological age at the time of leaf formation from the primordial tissue is the factor affecting the EO composition. It was concluded that interpretation of scientific observations should be carried out with caution and that hypotheses should be tested utilizing multifaceted approaches.

  15. GC Analyses of Salvia Seeds as Valuable Essential Oil Source

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    Mouna Ben Taârit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of seeds of Salvia verbenaca, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia sclarea were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields (w/w were 0.050, 0.047, and 0.045% in S. verbenaca, S. sclarea, and S. officinalis, respectively. Seventy-five compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S. verbenaca seeds showed that over 57% of the detected compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed by sesquiterpenes (24.04% and labdane type diterpenes (5.61%. The main essential oil constituents were camphor (38.94%, caryophyllene oxide (7.28%, and 13-epi-manool (5.61%, while those of essential oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone (14.77%, camphor (13.08%, and 1,8-cineole (6.66%. In samples of S. sclarea, essential oil consists mainly of linalool (24.25%, α-thujene (7.48%, linalyl acetate (6.90%, germacrene-D (5.88%, bicyclogermacrene (4.29%, and α-copaene (4.08%. This variability leads to a large range of naturally occurring volatile compounds with valuable industrial and pharmaceutical outlets.

  16. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

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    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  17. Essential oil composition of wild growing Sage from R. Macedonia

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    Gjoshe Stefkov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze and identify the essential oil composition of S. officinalis populations growing in Republic of Macedonia and to evaluate these data according to different standards’ requirements for, commercially most utilized, Dalmatian sage. The essential oil yield, obtained after hydrodestilation from leaves, of three different populations of Salvia officinalis L. from Republic of Macedonia was determined, varying from 1.40 to 3.46%. The GC/FID/MS analysis of the composition of the essential oils revealed 63, 57 and 51 components in Galicica Mtn., Jablanica Mtn. and Karaorman Mtn. sage populations, respectively. The main components of the oil, in all three samples, were the terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: camphor (13.15 - 25.91%, α-thujone (19.25 - 26.33%, β-thujone (2.03 - 5.28%, 1,8-cineole (6.51 – 13.60%, α-pinene (0.93 – 1.47%, borneol (1.07 – 4.67%, then sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene (1.72 – 5.33%, α-humulene (2.89 – 7.99%, viridiflorol (4.27 – 7.99%, and the diterpene manool (2.13 - 3.79%. Thus, our results for the essential oil composition of sage complied with the reference values specified in the DAC 86 monograph for Salvia essential oil.

  18. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Zachary; Waggoner, Molly; Batdorff, Audra; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2014-05-27

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p=0.409). E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid.

  19. HIGH PRESSURE PHASE EQUILIBRIUM: PREDICTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL SOLUBILITY

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    CARDOZO-FILHO Lúcio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method to predict the solubility of essential oils in supercritical carbon dioxide. The method is based on the formulation proposed in 1979 by Asselineau, Bogdanic and Vidal. The Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equations of state were used with the van der Waals mixing rules with two interaction parameters. Method validation was accomplished calculating orange essential oil solubility in pressurized carbon dioxide. The solubility of orange essential oil in carbon dioxide calculated at 308.15 K for pressures of 50 to 70 bar varied from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.6± 0.1 mg/g. For same the range of conditions, experimental solubility varied from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.6± 0.1 mg/g. Predicted values were not very sensitive to initial oil composition.

  20. Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinzhe; Han, Dandan; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung-Ho

    2010-03-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction and hydrodistillation (HD) were used to determine the essential oil composition of the trunks and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa. The optimal extraction conditions for the oil yield within the experimental range of variables examined were temperature 50 degrees C, pressure 12 MPa, carbon dioxide flow rate 40 mL/min and extraction time 90 min. The maximum measured extraction yield was 2.9%. Entrainer solvents, such as methanol in water, had no additional effect on the extraction of essential oils. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were alpha-terpinyl acetate (>10.9%), 1-muurolol (>13.2%) and elemol (>8.1%). Sesquiterpenoids formed the major class of compounds present.

  1. Amtimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L, Lamiaceae

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    Aničić Nada V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis was investigated in this paper. The essential oil was obtained by the principle of water and steam and analyzed by GC and GC-MS using FID and MSD. The main components of the oil of Melissa officinalis were geranial (17.30%, neral (14.70% and citronellal (10.70%. The antimicrobial properties were tested against the following bacterial species: B subtilis, B.cereus Bifidobacterium sp., Corynobacterium sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp., L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, Listeria monocytogenes, P. vulgaris, P. aerugenosa, S. enteritidis, Shigella sp., S. aureus, and fungi Candida albicans, Alternarija sp. and Aspergillus niger. The diffusion technique was used for testing: the antimicrobial activity, and the MIC was determined by the broth dilution method. The essential oil of M. officinalis showed high antimicrobial activity.

  2. [Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].

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    Tittel, G; Wagner, H; Bos, R

    1982-10-01

    Different oil-samples of Melissa officinalis L. were analysed by capillary GC/MS, using fused silica columns and E.I.-Mass-spectrometry. Comparing the observed mass-spectra with those of a spectral collection, 70 compounds of the oil were identified. Geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, citronellal, geranyl-acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and beta-caryophyllene-oxide comprise about 96%. The fingerprint of the capillary gas-chromatogramm permitted differentiation of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Nepeta cataria var. citriodora., as well as a standardisation of pharmaceutical preparations containing Melissa oil.

  3. Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Beom-Su; Keum, Ki-Suk; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoi; Chang, Byoung-Soo; Ra, Ji-Young; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Seo, Bo-Ra; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) has been used as a spice in foods and as an antimicrobial in Oriental medicine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation. First, the inhibitory effects of C. longa essential oil on the growth and acid production of S. mutans were tested. Next, the effect of C. longa essential oil on adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) was investigated. C. longa essential oil inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL. The essential oil also exhibited significant inhibition of S. mutans adherence to S-HAs at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. The essential oil of C. longa inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. The components of C. longa essential oil were then analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the major components were α-turmerone (35.59%), germacrone (19.02%), α-zingiberene (8.74%), αr-turmerone (6.31%), trans-β-elemenone (5.65%), curlone (5.45%), and β-sesquiphellandrene (4.73%). These results suggest that C. longa may inhibit the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. ENTEROCOCCI AND THEIR RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS AND THYME ESSENTIAL OIL

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    Viera Ducková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are important part of microflora of food animal origin. They have positive (probiotic effect, production flavor compounds during food ripening and also negative (production biogenic amine, antibiotic resistance, biofilm production properties. The aim of this work was to determine resistance to different concentrations of thyme essential oil and antibiotic resistance of enterococci isolated from pork (n=3 and poultry (n=17. The antibiotic resistance of isolates was determined by disc diffusion method and the antibacterial effect of thyme essential oil was assayed by a microdilution method in 96-well microtitration plates after determination of absorbance at 630 nm (A630. Of 20 tested enterococci, 85 % were resistant to tetracycline, 35 % to erythromycin, 15 % to ampicillin and 5 % to gentamicin. No resistance to vancomycin was detected. All tested strains of enterococci were able to grow and reproduce at concentrations of thyme essential oil 0.033 % and 0.066 %. Inhibitory effect of thyme essential oil began at a concentration of 0.099 %, but only for 10 % of the tested strains. Even the highest concentration tested thyme essential oil 0.166 % did not inhibit all the tested strains, because 25 % of enterococcal strains continued to grow. No correlation between antibiotic resistance and resistance to the thyme essential oil was detected for tested enterococci. The thyme essential oil has potential for using in food industry to inhibit spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms, but it is necessary to test antimicrobial activity in other in vitro and in vivo experiments and also in experiments with impact on the sensory properties of food.

  5. Estudo da atividade antioxidante do extrato e do óleo essencial obtidos das folhas de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. Study of the antioxidant activity and essential oil from wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf

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    Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de antioxidantes naturais, extraídos de plantas, contribuem para a descoberta de novas fontes de compostos químicos. A alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. é uma planta conhecida por seus aspectos medicinais e pelo uso na culinária. A atividade antioxidante do extrato bruto e do óleo essencial das folhas de alfavaca foi comprovada através do método do tiocianato férrico. A porcentagem de inibição da oxidação lipídica foi de 96,89% para o extrato bruto e de 92,44% para o óleo essencial, ambos na concentração de 0,02%. O extrato bruto foi purificado através da cromatografia em coluna com sílica-gel e fase móvel hexano:acetato de etila em diferentes proporções. Para a identificação, foram utilizadas análises espectrais (infravermelho, ressonância magnética de hidrogênio e carbono 13. A substância isolada foi o eugenol, que apresentou 86,56% de atividade antioxidante. Alguns constituintes do óleo essencial foram caracterizados por cromatografia de fase gasosa, sendo o eugenol o principal componente (53,90%. Desta forma, a alfavaca apresenta-se como uma nova fonte de eugenol e, conseqüentemente, de antioxidante natural.The isolation and identification of natural antioxidants from plants contribute to the discovery of new sources of chemical compounds. Wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. is used as a herbal medicine and also as a culinary spice. The antioxidant activity of wild basil leaf crude extract and essential oil was confirmed by the ferric thiocyanate method. The crude extract showed 96.89% inhibition of lipid oxidation, while the essential oil showed 92.44% inhibition, both in a 0.02% concentration. The crude extract was purified by column chromatography using silica gel and different proportions of hexane:ethyl acetate as an eluant. The plant’s chemical compounds were identified by spectral analyses using NMR (hydrogen and 13C and infrared spectroscopy. The isolated substance was

  6. Impact of essential oils on mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea

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    Slavko Grgić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 22 essential oils (anise, thyme, cumin, peppermint, lavender, sage, lemon balm, rosemary, myrtle, cinnamon leaf, basil, white pine, eucalyptus, cedar, bergamot, mandarin, cypress, patchouli, ginger, bitter orange, sandalwood, camphor on the growth of gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. The experiment was performed in vitro on PDA medium in 2 repetitions. Oils were applied in three amounts (3, 5 and 7 μl, and the mycelial growth was measured after three and nine days of incubation. All oils, except oils of bitter orange, sandalwood and camphor, have shown a certain antifungal activity. Compared to the water control, thyme and anise oil have shown the best antifungal activity, while for oils of bitter orange, sandalwood and camphor a stimulating effect on a growth of fungus B. cinerea was determined.

  7. SEDATION OF NILE TILAPIA WITH ESSENTIAL OILS: TEA TREE, CLOVE, EUCALYPTUS, AND MINT OILS

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    FABRÍCIO PEREIRA REZENDE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been extensively used in many commercial applications, one of them being anesthetics. The effect of four essential oils (tea tree, clove, eucalyptus, and mint oils on the sedation, recovery, and behavioral stress of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated. The sedative solutions, prepared with essential oils and anhydrous ethanol (1:4, were used for fish management procedures at a dose of 7.4 mL L - 1 in a completely randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates. The means were compared using Scott – Knott test (P < 0.05. Clove oil was found to be the most suitable oil for the immobilization of Nile tilapia; however, behavioral observations indicate that tea tree oil was the most efficient in reducing stress.

  8. Authentication of Concentrated Orange Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Muñoz, G. A.; Balderas López, J. A.; López González, R. F.

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS) was used to study the thermal diffusivity and its relation with the composition in folded (concentrated) cold-pressed Mexican orange essential oils. A linear relation between the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample thickness, for PS was obtained through a theoretical model to fit the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in concentrated orange essential oils. Experimental results showed a linear increase in thermal-diffusivity values with the folding degree: 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, and 35-fold due to a decrease in terpenes (mainly D-limonene) related with the folding process that can be correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the orange essential oils. The obtained values in this study and those previously reported (see Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1066, 2011) showed the possibility of using this thermal property to make distinctions between citrus oils obtained by different extraction processes and also between concentrated citrus oils. This provides the viability of a new complementary method for this purpose, contrasting with the use of density and refraction index, physical properties commonly used in the authentication of citrus essential oils.

  9. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review

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    Babar Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, use of alternative and complementary therapies with mainstream medicine has gained the momentum. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary therapies which use essential oils as the major therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. The essential or volatile oils are extracted from the flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits and other parts of the plant by various methods. It came into existence after the scientists deciphered the antiseptic and skin permeability properties of essential oils. Inhalation, local application and baths are the major methods used in aromatherapy that utilize these oils to penetrate the human skin surface with marked aura. Once the oils are in the system, they remodulate themselves and work in a friendly manner at the site of malfunction or at the affected area. This type of therapy utilizes various permutation and combinations to get relief from numerous ailments like depression, indigestion, headache, insomnia, muscular pain, respiratory problems, skin ailments, swollen joints, urine associated complications etc. The essential oils are found to be more beneficial when other aspects of life and diet are given due consideration. This review explores the information available in the literature regarding therapeutic, medical, cosmetic, psychological, olfactory, massage aromatherapy, safety issues and different plants used in aromatherapy. All the available information was compiled from electronic databases such as Academic Journals, Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library search.

  10. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

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    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  11. Compositional variability and antifungal potentials of ocimum basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Saroj, Arvind; Samad, Abdul; Khaliq, Abdul

    2014-10-01

    The composition of hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (four chemovariants), O. tenuiflorum L., O. gratissimum L., and O. kilimandscharicum Guerke were analyzed and compared by using capillary gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phenyl propanoids (upto 87.0%) and monoterpenoids (upto 83.3%) were prevalent constituents distributed in the studied Ocimum taxa. The major constituents of the four distinct chemovariants of O. basilicum were methyl chavicol (86.3%), methyl chavicol (61.5%)/linalool (28.6%), citral (65.9%); and linalool (36.1%)/citral (28.8%). Eugenol (66.5% and 78.0%) was the major constituent of O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum. Eugenol (34.0%), β-bisabolene (15.4%), (E)-α-bisabolene (10.9%), methyl chavicol (10.2%) and 1,8-cineole (8.2%) were the major constituents of O. kilimandscharicum. In order to explore the potential for industrial use, the extracted essential oils were assessed for their antifungal potential through poison food technique against two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum, which cause root and wet rot diseases in various crops. O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum, and O. kilimandscharicum exhibited complete growth inhibition against R. solani and C. cucurbitarum after 24 and 48 h of treatment. O. basilicum chemotypes showed variable levels of growth inhibition (63.0%-100%) against these two phytopathogens.

  12. Tick repellent substances in the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, Katinka; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Baeckström, Peter; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2008-01-01

    The repellent effect of the essential oils of flower heads of the aromatic plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae), originating from Sweden, was tested against host-seeking nymphs of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation (SD) and by using an online solvent extraction separation setup. Further fractionations of the SD oils were obtained by medium-pressure liquid chromatography on silica gel. The volatiles of the essential oils and the fractions that exhibited strong tick repellency (90-100%) were collected by solid phase microextraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical analyses of the oils show that the populations of T. vulgare from Uppsala and Stockholm may represent different chemotypes, but that they exhibited similar tick repellency. Main volatiles detected from oils of T. vulgare collected at Uppsala were alpha-pinene (27%), beta-pinene (11%), pinocamphone (11%), 1,3,3-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-4-carboxaldehyde (11%), and 1,8-cineole (10%). In the sample collected in Stockholm, the main components were beta-thujone (39%) and camphor (23%) followed by alpha-thujone (11%) and 1,8-cineole (8%). When constituents in the oils, e.g., alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, alpha+beta-thujone, 1,8-cineol, verbenol, and verbenone, were tested separately (each diluted 0.5%, vol:vol), 64-72% tick repellency was obtained.

  13. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

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    Fabiana Barcelos Furtado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w, and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%, globulol (14.13%, viridiflorol (8.83%, γ-eudesmol (7.89% and α-eudesmol (6.88%. The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL−1 breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL−1. Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL−1 but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Borges, Bruna Cristina; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; Garces, Hans Garcia; Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues de; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Silva, Claudio Vieira da; Fernandes Junior, Ary

    2018-01-04

    Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w), and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%), globulol (14.13%), viridiflorol (8.83%), γ-eudesmol (7.89%) and α-eudesmol (6.88%). The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL-1) breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL-1). Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL-1) but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Ultrasound pretreatment as an alternative to improve essential oils extraction

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    Flávia Michelon Dalla Nora

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oils are substances originated from plants in general. These compounds are well known to have a high biological activity, specially the antioxidant and antimicrobial. Several extraction techniques are employed to obtain these substances. However, the majority of these techniques require a long extraction time. In this sense, innovative and alternative extraction techniques, such as ultrasound, have recently been the target of studies. In view of the small amount of publications using ultrasonic pretreatment, this review aimed to congregate current relevant information on ultrasound-assisted extraction of essential oils. In this sense, theoretical aspects, such as the main factors that influence the performance of this technique as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the use of ultrasound as an environmental friendly alternative technique to improve the extraction of essential oil in comparison to traditional methods, are shown. Considering the available studies in the literature on essential oil extraction using ultrasonic pretreatment, low frequencies ranged from 20 to 50kWz and times ranged from 20 to 40min were used. The use of ultrasonic pretreatment represents a time reduction to near 70% in relation to the conventional hydrodistillation. Also, these conditions enabled a growth in the extraction of bioactive compounds and consequently improving the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils.

  16. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), α-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24031588

  17. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

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    Abdullah Ijaz Hussain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%, camphor (17.1%, α-pinene (12.3%, limonene (6.23%, camphene (6.00% and linalool (5.70%. The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3 using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  18. Antimicrobial potential of essential oil from Pastinaca sativa L.

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    Matejić, J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Pastinaca sativa L. (Apiaceae essential oil. The aerial parts of plants were collected at Kopaonik Mountain (Serbia and the essential oil has been isolated by hydrodistillation from this plant material. Essential oil was dominated by (Z-β-ocimene (10.8%, hexyl butanoate (10.4%, (E-β-farnesene (6.1% and lavandulyl acetate (5.2%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was investigated using a micro-well dilution assay against the most common human gastrointestinal pathogenic microbial strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast Candida albicans. The results showed that minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations of essential oil ranged from 0.72 μg/ml (for the most sensitive B. cereus to above 92.5 mg/ml for S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. This finding suggests that P. sativa may be considered as a natural source of antimicrobial agents.

  19. Antifungal effect of eugenol and carvacrol against foodborne pathogens Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium roqueforti in improving safety of fresh-cut watermelon

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    Mirela and #352;imovi and #263;

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil components eugenol and carvacrol (ranging between 100 and 200 ppm for carvacrol and between 250 and 750 ppm for eugenol were tested for antifungal activity against foodborne pathogenic fungal species A. carbonarius A1102 and P. roqueforti PTFKK29 in vitro and in situ conditions. In vitro antifungal activity of eugenol and carvacrol was evaluated by macrobroth method, while watermelon Citrullus lanatus L. Sorento slices were used for antifungal assays in situ. Selected components, eugenol and carvacrol showed significant inhibitory effect against tested fungi (A. carbonarius A1102 and P.roqueforti PTFKK29 in YES broth, as well as in in situ conditions. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of eugenol against A. carbonarius A1102 determined by macrobroth method was 2000 ppm, while against P.roqueforti PTFKK29 determined MIC was 1000 ppm. Carvacrol inhibited growth of A. carbonarius A1102 at minimal concentration of 500 ppm, while against P.roqueforti PTFKK29, MIC was 250 ppm. The assays in real food system and #8211; watermelon slices for eugenol and carvacrol show that inhibitory effect against both selected fungal species was concentration dependent. Furthermore, our results showed that antifungal effect of carvacrol as well as eugenol applied on watermelon slices in all concentrations was a result of effective synergy between an active antifungal compound and lower incubation temperature (15 and deg;C in inhibition of A. carbonarius A1102. The present study suggests that the use of eugenol and carvacrol is promising natural alternative to the use of food chemical preservatives, in order to improve safety and quality of fresh-cut and ready-to-eat fruits. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 91-96

  20. In vitro and in vivo control of Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato by essential oil from Laurus nobilis of Chinese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixiang; Yan, Fujie; Ni, Zhendan; Chen, Qianru; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2014-05-01

    Many essential oils were reported to be used as natural, environmental friendly antimicrobial agents. The antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo of an essential oil extracted from Chinese local Laurus nobilis leaves against Alternaria alternata has been studied. The main components of the essential oil were investigated by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 14 components were identified. The main ones were eugenol, caryophyllene and cinnamaldehyde. The antifungal test showed that at 800 μg mL−1 of L. nobilis oil completely inhibited the growth of A. alternata. In addition, the conidial germination of the pathogen was significantly inhibited at 200 μgmL−1, and the weight of mycelia efficiently decreased at 500 μgmL−1. The in vivo assay indicated that 500 μg mL−1 L. nobilis oil was effective in protecting cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum)from infection of A. alternata, with an inhibition ratio of 33.9%. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the pathogen revealed significant morphological alterations in the hyphae. This work suggested that L. nobilis oil could be used as a potential fungicide to control the post-harvest disease caused by A. alternata.

  1. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Lis-Balchin, M; Kirk-Smith, M

    2000-09-01

    Childhood atopic eczema is an increasingly common condition in young children. As well as being irritating to the child, it causes sleepless nights for both the child and the family and leads to difficulties in parental relationships and can have severe effects on employment. A group of eight children, born to professional working mothers were studied to test the hypothesis that massage with essential oils (aromatherapy) used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with normal medical treatment, would help to alleviate the symptoms of childhood atopic eczema. The children were randomly allocated to the massage with essential oils group and both counselled and massaged with a mixture of essential oils by the therapist once a week and the mother every day over a period of 8 weeks. The preferred essential oils, chosen by the mothers for their child, from 36 commonly used aromatherapy oils, were: sweet marjoram, frankinsence, German chamomile, myrrh, thyme, benzoin, spike lavender and Litsea cubeba. A control group of children received the counselling and massage without essential oils. The treatments were evaluated by means of daily day-time irritation scores and night time disturbance scores, determined by the mother before and during the treatment, both over an 8 week period; finally general improvement scores were allocated 2 weeks after the treatment by the therapist, the general practitioner and the mother. The study employed a single case experimental design across subjects, such that there were both a within-subject control and between-subjects control, through the interventions being introduced at different times. The results showed a significant improvement in the eczema in the two groups of children following therapy, but there was no significant difference in improvement shown between the aromatherapy massage and massage only group. Thus there is evidence that tactile contact between mother and child benefits the symptoms of atopic eczema but there is no

  2. Alginate/cashew gum nanoparticles for essential oil encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Erick F; Paula, Haroldo C B; de Paula, Regina C M

    2014-01-01

    Alginate/cashew gum nanoparticles were prepared via spray-drying, aiming at the development of a biopolymer blend for encapsulation of an essential oil. Nanoparticles were characterized regarding to their hydrodynamic volume, surface charge, Lippia sidoides essential oil content and release profile, in addition to being analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. Nanoparticles in solution were found to have averaged sizes in the range 223-399 nm, and zeta potential values ranging from -30 to -36 mV. Encapsulated oil levels varied from 1.9 to 4.4% with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 55%. The in vitro release profile showed that between 45 and 95% of oil was released within 30-50h. Kinetic studies revealed that release pattern follow a Korsmeyer-Peppas mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Essential oil composition of Inula britannica L. from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Ivanova, Viktoria; Danova, Kalina; Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2017-07-01

    The separately distilled flowers (F) and leaves' (L) essential oils of Inula britannica L. were investigated using capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 83 constituents, representing 96.91% (F) and 96.73% (L) of the total oils, were registered. The oils were rich in terpenoids (57.85% and 77.28%), of which sesquiterpenoids dominated. The main constituents of the essential oils were viridiflorol (7.17%-8.20%) and himachalol (3.45%-8.71%) followed by 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (5.43%-2.95%), 13-tetradecanolide (3.93%-4.87%) and 3-methyl-4-propyl-2,5-furandione (4.06%-0.29%).

  4. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  5. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  6. Antifungal activity of essential oil from Artemisia afra Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundidza, M

    1993-07-01

    Artemisia afra is indigenous to the eastern highlands of Zimbabwe where it is used in folk medicine. Hydro-distilled volatile oil from the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antifungal activity against 10 fungal species using the dry weight method. The results obtained showed that the essential oil exhibited significant activity against Aspergillus ochraceus, Candida albicans, Alternaria alternata, Geotrichum candidum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrium and Aspergillus parasiticus.

  7. Seasonal variability of essential oils of Eugenia uniflora leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Deomar P.; Santos, Suzana C.; Seraphin, José C.; Ferri, Pedro H.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influence on the chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia uniflora leaves with red-orange fruit colour biotype has indicated the presence of two oil clusters in the two seasons of the Brazilian Cerrado. Cluster I included samples collected during dry months (April-September) which were characterized by the highest percentages of spathulenol (10%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.1%). In cluster II, whose samples were collected during wet months (October-March), the major constitue...

  8. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe grown in two places in Ethiopia (Addis Ababa and Butajira was also analyzed for comparison. Morphological study on the leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. rehan and A. absinthium (from Europe was also conducted. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Forty three compounds representing 76 to 94% of the oils were identified. The composition of the essential oils of A. schimperi, A. afra and A. abyssinica are mainly dominated by irregular monoterpenes: yogomi alcohol (13.5-37.6%, artemisyl acetate (12.7-35.5%, and artemisia ketone (2.3-13.2%. The composition of the oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan however, differs from the other three species in having camphor (21.2-28.3% and davanone (21.3-26.5% as major components. The composition of A. absinthum (Europe was found to have β-thujone (42.3-66.4% and chamazulene (11.3-24.2% as major components. The study indicated that the composition of the essential oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan is not only different from the other three species but also from A. absinthium from Europe and does not belong to any of the chemotypes described for the species in the literature. The morphological study on the leaves also showed that it differs from that of A. absinthium from Europe. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.11

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of Achillea aucheri essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The majority of the Achillea spp. are used as medicinal plants with therapeutic applications worldwide. Achillea aucheri was selected in our study to assess its essential oil chemical composition along with antimicrobial evaluation. Methods: The essential oil of A. aucheri achieved through hydrodistillation, was analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Afterwards, the microbial growth inhibitory property of the A. aucheri essential oil was determined using the agar disk-diffusion method against five Gram-positive strains (Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, three Gram-negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Psedumonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and a fungus (Candida albicans. Besides, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the sensitive strains were determined by broth dilution method to evaluate the inhibitory properties.Results: The GC-MS analysis, allowed us to identify 28 compounds, representing 98.1% of the total essential oil. The main components of the oil were identified as α-thujone (45.6%, artemisia alcohol (26.5% and yomogi alcohol (8.8%. The findings of the antimicrobial assay indicated that S. aureus was the most sensitive strain with the strongest inhibition zone of 31.5 ± 0.5 and MIC of 2.5 % v/v, followed by S. epidermidis and M. luteus, respectively.Conclusion: Overall, A. aucheri essential oil possessed potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to the high content of oxygenated monoterpenes present in the oil which requisite for further exploration of the compounds in charge, considering the growing statistics of bacterial resistance worldwide.

  10. Formulation of essential oil-loaded chitosan–alginate nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheebika Natrajan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring polymers such as alginate (AL and chitosan (CS are widely used in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields in various forms such as nanoparticles, capsules, and emulsions. These polymers have attractive applications in drug delivery because of their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and nontoxic nature. The pharmaceutical applications of essential oils such as turmeric oil and lemongrass oil are well-known, and their active components, ar-turmerone and citral, respectively, are known for their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, these essential oils are unstable, volatile, and insoluble in water, which limits their use for new formulations. Therefore, this study focuses on developing a CS–AL nanocarrier for the encapsulation of essential oils. The effects of process parameters such as the effect of heat and the concentrations of AL and CS were investigated. Various physicochemical characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy were performed. Results of characterization studies showed that 0.3 mg/mL AL and 0.6 mg/mL CS produced minimum-sized particles (<300 nm with good stability. It was also confirmed that the oil-loaded nanocapsules were hemocompatible, suggesting their use for future biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of turmeric oil- and lemongrass oil-loaded nanocapsules was estimated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in A549 cell lines and it was found that both the nanoformulations had significant antiproliferative properties than the bare oil.

  11. Evaluation of bacterial resistance to essential oils and antibiotics after exposure to oregano and cinnamon essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Raquel; Nerín, Cristina; Gómez-Lus, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are excellent antimicrobial agents sometimes used in active food packaging. This work studies the susceptibility of 48 clinical isolates and 12 reference strains of Gram-negative bacilli to oregano essential oil, cinnamon essential oil, and combinations of both. Furthermore, the tendency of the clinical isolates to develop resistance to these EOs and to different antibiotics after sequential oregano or cinnamon exposure was studied. For this purpose, antibiotic susceptibility (through disk diffusion assays and minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] determination) and oregano and cinnamon susceptibility (through MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC] determination) were compared after 50 passages in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of oregano and cinnamon essential oils. The results showed that all strains were susceptible to both EOs and their combination independently of the antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, neither synergistic nor antagonistic effects were observed between oregano and cinnamon essential oils at the concentrations tested. After the sequential exposure to both EOs, only Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, and Proteus mirabilis treated with oregano changed their antibiotic resistance profile and/or increased their resistance to this EO. However, the changes in antibiotic and oregano resistance were not related.

  12. Use of oregano ( Origanum onites L.) essential oil as hatching egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After chemical analysis, the main constituents of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, linalool, para-cymene and -terpinene. The lowest microbial counts on eggs were obtained from oregano essential oil. Microbial inhibition increased with the increasing essential oil concentrations. Essential oil exposure times had no ...

  13. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of essential oils. ...

  14. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

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    Gerard Vilarem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%, p-cymene (23.4% and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%. The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  15. Carbonyl species characteristics during the evaporation of essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2010-06-01

    Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  16. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

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    Pavel Novy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae, is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47% as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%, myristic acid (4.71%, linalool (4.65%, and anethole (4.09%. The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundidza, M

    1993-11-01

    The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus molle isolated by hydrodistillation was tested for antibacterial activity using the hole plate diffusion method and for antifungal activity using the mycelium or single cell growth inhibition method. Results obtained showed that the volatile oil exhibited significant activity against the following bacterial species: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Leuconostoc cremoris, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium sporogenes, Acinetobacter calcoacetica, Escherichia coli, Beneckea natriegens, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis and Brochothrix thermosphacata. The fungal species Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata exhibited significant sensitivity to the volatile oil.

  18. Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.B. Vieira de Melo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris leaves was studied using experimental data recently obtained in the Florys S.p.A. laboratory. Mass transfer coefficients in the supercritical and solid phases from extraction curves at 40°C and 20 MPa were evaluated using a mathematical model based on the local adsorption equilibrium of essential oil on lipid in leaves. The adsorption equilibrium constant was fitted to these experimental data, and internal and external mass transfer resistances were calculated, allowing identification of the mechanism controlling the extraction process.

  19. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Mr. Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great r...

  20. Spin trapping studies of essential oils in lipid systems

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    Makarova Katerina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report the results of a spin trapping ESR study of four essential oils widely used for skin care products such as creams and bath salts. The studied essential oils are Rosmarini aetheroleum (rosemary, Menthae piperitae aetheroleum (mint, Lavandulae aetheroleum (lavender, and Thymi aetheroleum (thyme. Fenton reaction in the presence of ethanol was used to generate free radicals. The N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN was used as a spin trap. In the Fenton reaction, the rosemary oil had the lowest effect on radical adduct formation as compared to the reference Fenton system. Since essential oils are known to be lipid soluble, we also conducted studies of essential oils in Fenton reaction in the presence of lipids. Two model lipids were used, namely 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC. The obtained results suggested that in the presence of DOPC lipids, the •OH and PBN/•CHCH3(OH radicals are formed in both phases, that is, water and lipids, and all the studied essential oils affected the Fenton reaction in a similar way. Whereas, in the DPPC system, the additional type of PBN/X (aN = 16.1 G, aH = 2.9 G radical adduct was generated. DFT calculations of hyperfine splittings were performed at B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p/EPR-II level of theory for the set of c-centered PBN adducts in order to identify PBN/X radical.

  1. Inhibition of lard oxidation by fractions of different essential oils

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    Milos, Mladen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to inhibit lard oxidation by the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum , Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus serpyllum L., Satureja montana L. and Satureja cuneifolia Ten. was examined. Except Satureja cuneifoila Ten. essential oil, all the essential oils studied showed a strong phenolic profile characterized by the presence of phenolic monoterpenes - thymol and carvacrol. The Rancimat method has been applied on lard spiked with essential oils and their fractions. The ability of the essential oils tested and their fractions to act as inhibitors of the lipid oxidation process was lower in comparison with reference antioxidants (BHA and BHT, ascorbic acid and a -tocopherol. The antioxidant effect of the antioxidants tested was dose-dependent. Induction time of pure lard is not effected by the quantity of the oil sample in the reacting system.Se examinó la capacidad de los aceites esenciales de Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum , Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus serpyllum L., Satureja montana L. y Satureja cuneifolia Ten. para inhibir la oxidación de la manteca de cerdo pura. Excepto Satureja cuneifolia Ten., todos los aceites esenciales mostraron un acusado perfil fenólico caracterizado por la presencia de fenoles monoterpénicos- timol y carvacrol. El método Rancimat ha sido aplicado a manteca de cerdo sembrada con los aceites esenciales y sus fracciones. La capacidad de los aceites y sus fracciones para actuar como inhibidores de la oxidación de lípidos fue menor en comparación con la de antioxidante sintéticos (BHA y BHT, ácido ascórbico y a -tocoferol. El efecto antioxidante de las sustancias ensayadas dependió de la dosis. El periodo de inducción de la manteca de cerdo pura no se afectó por la cantidad de muestra presente en el sistema de reacción.

  2. The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

    Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ρ-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

  3. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Macedo de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 78 µg/mL the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  4. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamella Macedo de; Goulart, Fátima Regina de Vasconcelos; Marques, Joana Montezano; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Groposo, Claudia; Sousa, Maíra Paula de; Vólaro, Vanessa; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Seldin, Lucy

    2017-04-19

    Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO) produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 78 µg/mL) the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral) and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  5. Formulation of Granules for Site-Specific Delivery of an Antimicrobial Essential Oil to the Animal Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yin-Hing; Wang, Qi; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-03-01

    Owing to proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the use of antibiotics for livestock growth promotion is banned in many countries and alternatives to in-feed antibiotics are needed. Cinnamon essential oil exhibits strong in vitro antibacterial activity; however, direct addition of essential oils to animal feed has limited practicality due to their high volatility, odor, fast decomposition, and poor availability in the lower intestines. To solve these problems, we formulated trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN) with an adsorbent powder and fatty acid via a melt-solidification technique. Core granules of an optimized composition contained up to 48% wt/wt CIN. The granules were then coated with an enteric polymer to impart site-specific release of CIN. CIN was mostly retained in simulated gastric fluid and released rapidly (>80% under 2 h) in simulated intestinal fluids. Rapid CIN autoxidation into cinnamic acid was inhibited by adding 1% vol/vol eugenol, which maintained CIN stability for at least 1 y. The granule formulation increased the antimicrobial activity of CIN against Escherichia coli K88 slightly with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 450 μg/mL for CIN in lauric acid-based granules compared with 550-600 μg/mL for palmitic acid-based granules and free CIN, respectively. These results encourage the potential use of encapsulated CIN for control of animal enteric pathogens by oral in-feed administration. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eryngium foetidum L. Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul S; Essien, Emmanuel E; Ntuk, Samuel J; Choudhary, Mohammad I

    2017-04-28

    Background: Eryngium foetidum essential oils from Nigeria were investigated for the first time in order to ascertain their potency as natural antioxidants. E. foetidum is an aromatic and medicinal herb used in ethno-medicine and as a traditional spice for foods. Methods: The hydro-distilled oils of E. foetidum were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Free radical scavenging capacity of the volatile oils was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Results: Leaf volatile oil contained a high proportion of ( E )-2-Dodecenal (28.43%), 13-tetradecenal (27.45%), dodecanal (14.59%) and 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde (10.77%); the stem oil comprised of dodecanal (20.21%), 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde (18.43%) and ( E )-2-dodecenal (8.27%), while 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde (56.08%), 13-tetradecenal (9.26%) and ( E )-2-dodecenal (7.65%) were the most dominant in the root oil. The IC 50 values for the leaf, stem and root oils were 56 µg/mL, 46µg/mL and 54.5 µg/mL respectively in the DPPH assay while the leaf oil exhibited the highest reducing potential among the test oils in the FRAP assay. Conclusions: The Nigerian E. foetidum volatile oils contain high amount of acyclic aldehydes and aromatic compounds. The oils are a potential source of natural antioxidant as demonstrated by their strong antioxidant activity.

  7. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Othman, Siti Nur Atiqah; Hassan, Muhammad Aizam; Nahar, Lutfun; Basar, Norazah; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2016-01-01

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%–72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species. PMID:28930124

  8. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%, C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa (94.0%, while sabinene (19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal (20 (61.7%–72.5%, linalool (18 (56.5%, and hedycaryol (23 (19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  9. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Othman, Siti Nur Atiqah; Hassan, Muhammad Aizam; Nahar, Lutfun; Basar, Norazah; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2016-06-03

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%-96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%-48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%-72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of six constituents of essential oil from Salvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonboli, Ali; Babakhani, Babak; Mehrabian, Ahmad Reza

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of three Salvia species, i.e. S. santolinifolia, S. hydrangea and S. mirzayanii, essential oils were investigated. The essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts of plants and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents of aforementioned species were alpha-pinene (72.4%), beta-pinene (6.6%) and limonene (5.3%); beta-caryophyllene (25.1%), 1,8-cineol (15.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.5%); alpha-terpinenyl acetate (22.6%), 1,8-cineol (21.2%) and linalool (8.9%), respectively. Bioassays exhibited that the property of the oil of S. myrzayanii was superior to others. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Salvia species may well be due to the presence of synergy between six tested compounds (linalool, 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene and limonene) and other constituents of the oils with various degrees of antimicrobial activity. Among these, linalool and 1,8-cineol had the highest antimicrobial activity.

  11. Essential-oil diversity of Salvia tomentosa Mill. in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlidou, Effie; Karousou, Regina; Lazari, Diamanto

    2014-08-01

    Salvia tomentosa essential oils from Greece were studied for the first time here. The oils from five populations growing in Mediterranean pine forests on the island of Thassos (northern Aegean Sea) and from 14 populations situated in deciduous forests in Thrace (northeastern Greek mainland) were investigated. Their essential-oil contents ranged from 1.1 to 3.3% (v/w, based on the dry weight of the plant material). The populations from Thassos had high contents of α-pinene (18.0 ± 2.9%), 1,8-cineole (14.7 ± 3.0%), cis-thujone (14.0 ± 6.9%), and borneol (12.8 ± 2.2%) and smaller amounts of camphene, camphor, and β-pinene, whereas the populations from Thrace showed high α-pinene (16.7 ± 4.0%), β-pinene (22.8 ± 4.5%), camphor (18.3 ± 4.3%), and camphene (10.3 ± 2.4%) contents, much lower 1,8-cineole and borneol amounts, while cis-thujone was completely lacking. The comparison of the present results with published data showed that oils having cis-thujone as one of the main compounds were reported for the first time here. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the observed essential-oil variation was related to geographical and environmental factors. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (L.) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswary, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2013-05-01

    The toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their major chemical constituents from Ocimum basilicum were evaluated against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. basilicum contained 20 compounds. The major chemical components identified were linalool (52.42%), methyl eugenol (18.74%) and 1, 8-cineol (5.61%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against late third-stage larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus with an LC(50) values of 14.01, 11.97 and 9.75 ppm and an LC(90) values of 23.44, 21.17 and 18.56 ppm, respectively. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Calli Essential Oils Synergize with Lawsone against Multidrug Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh S. M. Soliman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of multi-drug resistant (MDR organisms increasingly threatens global health and well-being. Plant natural products have been known for centuries as alternative medicines that can possess pharmacological characteristics, including antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activities of essential oil (Calli oil extracted from the Calligonum comosum plant by hydro-steam distillation was tested either alone or when combined with lawsone, a henna plant naphthoquinone, against MDR microbes. Lawsone showed significant antimicrobial activities against MDR pathogens in the range of 200–300 µg/mL. Furthermore, Calli oil showed significant antimicrobial activities against MDR bacteria in the range of 180–200 µg/mL, Candida at 220–240 µg/mL and spore-forming Rhizopus fungus at 250 µg/mL. Calli oil’s inhibition effect on Rhizopus, the major cause of the lethal infection mucormycosis, stands for 72 h, followed by an extended irreversible white sporulation effect. The combination of Calli oil with lawsone enhanced the antimicrobial activities of each individual alone by at least three-fold, while incorporation of both natural products in a liposome reduced their toxicity by four- to eight-fold, while maintaining the augmented efficacy of the combination treatment. We map the antimicrobial activity of Calli oil to its major component, a benzaldehyde derivative. The findings from this study demonstrate that formulations containing essential oils have the potential in the future to overcome antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

    2013-01-01

    White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  15. COMPOSITION OF STEMBARK ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SALVIA MACROSIPHON BOISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIROUZ MATLOUBI-MOGHADDAM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia macrosiphon boiss (Labiatae was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and coupled GC/MS. Twenty substances out of about thirty-three detected components were identified. The major constituents were sesquiterpenes (69.5%, a-Gurjunene (11%, P-Cubebene (10.6%, Germacrene-B (7%.

  16. Composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Bases Farmaco- logicas de la Terapeutica Medica Panamericana, Mexico DF. Lawrence BM (1992). Progress in essential oils. Perfume and Flavor 17: 44-46. Muckenstrum B, Foechterlen D, Reduron JP, Danton P, Hildenbrand M. (1997). Pythochemical and chemotaxonomic studies of Foeniculum vulgare ...

  17. Effect of lavender ( Lavandula Stoechas ) essential oil on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of lavender ( Lavandula Stoechas ) essential oil on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant status of broilers. ... Based on the data, it can be concluded that LEO could be used as a growth promoter in broiler nutrition with potential improvements in breast meat quality. Keywords: ...

  18. Antimycobacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the antimycobacterial, antioxidant and the cytotoxic activities of the essential oil from the gall part of Pistacia atlantica Desf from Algeria. Materials and Methods: The antimycobacterial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method against three species of ...

  19. essential oil extract from moringa oleifera roots as cowpea seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACT FROM MORINGA OLEIFERA ROOTS AS COWPEA. SEED PROTECTANT AGAINST COWPEA BEETLE. O.Y. ALABI and M.M. ADEWOLE. Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Corresponding author: alabi.jummy@gmail.com, jmkalabi@yahoo.

  20. Effects of oregano essential oil and attapulgite on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of a blend of oregano essential oil (OEO) (as a source of natural antibacterial growth-promoting substances) and attapulgite (as a source of toxin-binder and as an antidiarrhoeal agent) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphometry in broiler ...

  1. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on essential oils of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of the volatile constituents of five different plant essential oils, that is, Ocimum sanctum (leaves), Eucalyptus globulus (leaves), Mentha arvensis (leaves), Citrus lemon (fruit epicarp) and Citrus maxima (fruit epicarp) was evaluated in vitro against seven bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, ...

  2. Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oils Of Xylopia aethiopica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia aethiopica is a medicinal plant of great repute in West Africa which produces a variety of complex chemical compounds. The fresh and dried fruits, leaf, stem bark and root bark essential oils showed various degrees of activity against the Gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram ...

  3. Antimicrobial and physico-chemical effects of essential oils on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-03-31

    Mar 31, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Objectives: Milk and milk products are known to be the good media for development of many microorganisms. Some essential oils are known to have antimicrobial activities against bacteria, mould and fungi. With the aim of contributing to the preservation of the fermented dairy products, the ...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Myrtus Communis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC observed ...

  5. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a major constrain to production of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Control of bacterial wilt is very difficult as there are no effective curative chemicals. This study was aimed at investigating the potential roles of essential oil ...

  6. Essential oil of Ocimum grattissimum (Labiatae) as Sitophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocimum grattissimum L. (Labiatae) leaves are widely eaten as a vegetable in Nigeria, and in the eastern parts, are traditionally used in post-harvest protection and relieving stomach aches. The effect of the essential oil of O. grattissimum leaves on Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was assessed ...

  7. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and kept in a refrigerator (4 °C) pending subsequent experiments. Analysis of the essential oils. Capillary gas chromatography was performed using Hewlett–Packard 5890 gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and fused silica capillary column HP-5 (5 % diphenyl.

  8. essential oil and its activity against mosquito larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a refrigerator (4 °C) pending subsequent experiments. Analysis of the essential oil. Gas chromatographic analysis was performed using Hewlett–Packard 5890 gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and fused silica capillary column HP-5MS (5 % diphenyl and 95 % dimethylpolysyloxane, 30 m ×.

  9. Essential Oil Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Salvia officinalis samples were collected from northern and southern Albania, respectively. The crushed leaves were subjected to hydro-distillation, and the essential oils analyzed by gas chromatography GC/FID (for quantification of volatiles) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) for identification.

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From our experimental results, the extract of flowers, fruit, stem and leaves of those plants showed highest potential as free radical scavengers. Keywords: Antioxidant, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oil, extracts, gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC–MS). African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(34), pp. 5314-5320 ...

  11. Antimicrobial efficacy of the extract, fractions and essential oils from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia uniflora leaves is employed in Nigerian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, skin and wound infections. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract, fractions and essential oils from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora were investigated on some multidrug ...

  12. Antinociceptive And Antiinflammatory Effects Of Essential Oil Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of the essential oil (EO) of the fruits ofDennettia tripetala in rodents. The plant is a tropical African plant and the fruits are commonly eaten as spices and consumed as a stimulant, and its various parts are used in the treatment of fever, cough and as ...

  13. Behavioural effects and mechanisms of essential oils of dennettia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruits of the plant Dennettia tripetala G.Baker (Annonaceae) are well known in many communities of some southern states of Nigeria and some West African countries. They are commonly eaten as spices. We investigated the acute toxicity and behavioural effects of the essential oils of these fruits in mice and the ...

  14. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  15. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Essential Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the essential oil composition of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandifloroum L. (Jasminum grandiflorum) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The optimum GC-MS conditions used for the analysis were 250 oC inlet temperature, 150 oC MSD detector temperature, ...

  16. Evaluation Of The Essential Oil Of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill (Fennel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem.

  17. Using essential oils to control moss and liverwort in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...

  18. The antimicrobial effect of Origanum compactum essential oil, nisin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Oregano EO chemical analysis. The essential oil chemical composition was analyzed using a gas chromatograph (GC) fitted to a mass spectrometer (MS). Operating ..... in ground beef treated with nisin, chelators, organic acids and their combinations immobilized in calcium alginate gels. Food Microbiol.

  19. Essential Oil Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Clinopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    photoperiod for hatching. The newly emerged larvae were then isolated in groups of ten specimens in 100 ml tubes with mineral water and a small amount of dog ..... 21. Vokou D, Kokkini S, Bessiere JM. Geographic variation of. Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) essential oils. Biochem Syst Ecol 1993; 21: 287-.

  20. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) essential oil as a potent anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral antiinflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods:The chemical profile ofLGEOas determined bygas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed ...

  1. Comparative antimicrobial activity of clove and fennel essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative antimicrobial activity of clove and fennel essential oils against food borne pathogenic fungi and food spoilage bacteria. ... Bactericidal activity of culinary spices was evaluated against five food spoilage bacteria namely: Pseudomonas syringae, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp., and ...

  2. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patrick

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... fungicides against phytopathogenic fungi. Key words: GC/MS, essential oils , citrus, antifungal activity, phytopathogenic fungi. INTRODUCTION. Fungal diseases are considered as the main enemies of crops. Apart from the fact that they have the potential to cause significant yield losses and deterioration of.

  3. Anticancer Effects of Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. Essential Oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    168. 17. Hou J, Sun J, Chen SY, Chen S, Cai X, Zou G.. Chemical composition, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of the leaf essential oil of Photinia serrulata. Food Chemistry 2007;. 103: 355-358. 18. Bezerra DP, Costa EV, Nogueira PCL.

  4. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LACPREENE

    2012-08-12

    Aug 12, 2012 ... resin used in perfumes especially as a fixative. It is used ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... (Eastern of Morocco) and they were identified by Dr Haloui of the ... Analysis of essential oils was carried out by GC–MS using a.

  5. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... -caryophyllene (11.55%) and carvacrol (9.05%). Eucalyptol (50.13%) was identified as the main constituent of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. The other important components were linalool (12.65%), -terpineol (7.57%) and limonene (4.26%). M. communis showed some activity on Gram positive and Gram negative ...

  6. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2-ol (19.4%), transp- mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (16.4%) and limonene (13.7%). The major components identified in the oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus were piperitone (68.4%), and ä-2-carene (11.5%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential ...

  7. Effects of oregano essential oil and attapulgite on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2016-03-21

    Mar 21, 2016 ... alternative feed additives to promote growth, strengthen the immune system and sustain the health of broiler chickens because of .... Metabolizable energy, MJ/kg. 12.98. 13.31 .... dietary supplements of specific blends of organic acids and essential oils on broiler performance, Bozkurt et al. (2012) found ...

  8. Comparative Study of Root, Stalk and Leaf Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-03-03

    Mar 3, 2017 ... manufacture of perfumes, coloured soaps and synthesis of Vitamin A, ionones and β- carotene(Shah et al., 2011; Mirghani et al., 2012). Essential oils are characterized by qualitative and quantitative differences depending on the part of the plant. The variability is especially related to the proportions of ...

  9. Composition of the Essential Oil of Clausena Suffruticosa Leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The essential oil of Clausena suffruticosa leaf was extracted by hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus and was analyzed by GC-MS using electron impact ionization method. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic screenings were made by disc diffusion technique, poisoned food technique and ...

  10. Apple and quince peroxidase activity in response to essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Enzymatic browning arises by peroxidase in fruits. However, essential oils are recognized as ... Enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables tissues can cause undesirable quality changes (Nicoli et al., ..... maillard reaction products on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity in food. J. Food Biochem.

  11. Phenols, essential oils and carotenoids of Rosa canina from Tunisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of Rosa canina from diverse localities of Tunisia were evaluated by ABTS and DPPH methods, whereas in those of essential oils and carotenoids extracts such activity was determined only by the ABTS method. Total phenols determined by the Folin method revealed that at Aindraham, ...

  12. Research Report: The analysis of the essential oil of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Report: The analysis of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. growing in Kenya. TAR Akeng'a, SC Chhabra. Abstract. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology Vol.3(1) 2001: 72-75. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  13. Phthalides in the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijbels, M. J.; Scheffer, J. J.; Baerheim Svendsen, A.

    1982-01-01

    The composition of the phthalide mixture of the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale Koch was investigated. The phthalide mixture was analyzed by combining separation methods - GLC, LSC and TLC - and subsequently using spectroscopic methods - IR, MS and NMR. E- and

  14. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils to Reticulitermes flavipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Subterranean termite infestations occur in every state in the contiguous United States and are responsible for damage to wooden structures in excess of two billion dollars (U.S.) annually. Essential oils have historically been used to repel insects. They have relatively low toxicity and some of them are exempt from regulation by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and...

  15. Leach and mold resistance of essential oil metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Purified primary metabolites from essential oils were previously shown to be bioactive inhibitors of mold fungi on unleached Southern pine sapwood, either alone or in synergy with a second metabolite. This study evaluated the leachability of these compounds in Southern pine that was either dip- or vacuum-treated. Following laboratory leach tests, specimens were...

  16. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ostericum grosseserratum against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaisD. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of O. grosseserratum during the flowering stage was carried out using a Clavenger ...

  17. Adsorption of essential oil components of Lavandula angustifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of essential oil has basically one technical goal: to achieve the best possible separation performance by using the most effective, available and current technology of chromatography. The present work aimed to study the formulation created by the adsorption of active components of Lavandula angustifolia ...

  18. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts and essential oils of two medicinal and aromatic plants Zygophyllum album and Myrtus communis by using the 2,2- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, total antioxidant power and agar diffusion methods and ...

  19. Biological activities of four essential oils against Anopheles gambiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control of malaria is still a challenge partly due to mosquito's resistance to current available insecticides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellent activities of Lantana camara, Hyptis suaveolens, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum canum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae s.l. ...

  20. Investigation of effects of essential oils of Origanum minutiflorum O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oils extracted from Origanum minutiflorum and Cyclotrichium niveum (Labiatae) plants to the vascularization systems of the chick embryos in a chorioallantoic membrane model. The aerial parts of O. minutiflorum and C. niveum were subjected to hydrodistillation.

  1. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a major constrain to production of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Control of bacterial wilt is very difficult as there are no effective curative chemicals. This study was aimed at investigating the potential roles of essential oil plants in control of the disease.

  2. Chemical compositions of seven essential oils from Blighia sapida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Blighia sapida traditionally to treat many ailments, these chemical constituents identified might be useful pharmaceutically and industrially. These results indicate that Blighia sapida essential oils were mostly dominated by terpenoids and esters. Keywords: Hydrodistillation, gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry ...

  3. Biological activity and phytoconstituents of essential oil from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Fresh Leaves (1000 g) were subjected to steam distillation for approximately 6 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The yield obtained was 0.28% v/w. The essential oil was ... 0.45 µm membrane filter. Paper disc moistened with aqueous. DMSO was placed on the seeded Petri plate as a vehicle control. A.

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Essential oil distillation. Fresh leaf samples were subjected to hydro-distillation in a modified. Clevenger-type apparatus for a minimum of 4 h in accordance with the British .... ones because they posses outer membrane surrounding the cell membrane (Ratledge and Wilkinson, 1988) which restricts diffusion ...

  5. The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the hole-plate diffusion testing method, the essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsielia pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis with at least 58% inhibition compared to the positive ...

  6. Effect of essential oils extracted from Satureja calamintha, Mentha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... further in vitro and in vivo trials are required to search optimum dose which reduce methane production without adversely changing dietary fermentation and rumen function. Key words: Methane, ammonia, essential oils, Satureja calamintha (Calament), Mentha pulegium (fliou, Menthe pouliot), Juniperus phoenicea (Arar, ...

  7. chemical constituents of essential oils of ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2003-01-17

    Université René Descartes, 45 rue des Saints-Pères, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. (Received January 17, 2003; revised June 13, 2003). ABSTRACT. The following studies report the inhibitory effect produced by chemical constituents of essential oils of three plants used in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory and ...

  8. Geographical impact on essential oil composition of endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kundmannia anatolica Hub.-Mor. is an endemic specie of Apiaceae diversified in Turkey. Several parts of the plant may contain essential oils in different quantity which can be influenced by environmental factors, mainly altitude. The aim of this study was to test whether there is any altitude effect on volatile ...

  9. Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil and ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICC

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... ESBL-producing. Enterobacteriaceae and other kinds of bacteria have been reported widely. Infections caused by ESBL- producing bacteria have .... Amino acids. -ve. -ve. Flavonoids. +ve. +ve. Phenols. -ve. -ve. Proteins. -ve. -ve. Table 2. MIC (μg/ml) values of essential oil and ethanolic extract of C.

  10. ( Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) powder and essential oil on mould ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5% (v/w) of essential oil and 10% (w/w) of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds.

  11. Determination of the required HLB values of some essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orafidiya, Lara O; Oladimeji, F A

    2002-04-26

    The required HLB values of eucalyptus, lippia and peppermint essential oils were determined using droplet size analysis and turbidimetric method on emulsions prepared with emulsifier blends of varying HLB values. The percentage increase in mean droplet diameter and the degree of dispersion of droplet sizes were determined before and after centrifugation of the emulsions. The HLB value of the emulsion with the least dispersion ratio or the least percentage increase in mean droplet diameter was taken as the required HLB of the respective essential oil. The turbidimetric method was validated by the existence of correlation (r=-0.958) between the mean droplet diameter and the turbidity of the emulsions. The turbidity curve went through a maximum at the HLB value where the mean droplet diameter was least. Based on these methods, the required HLB values of eucalyptus, lippia and peppermint oils were determined as 9.8, 12.1 and 12.3, respectively (PHLB fell within literature value.

  12. Database of the Amazon aromatic plants and their essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme S. Maia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aromatic flora of the Amazon has been inventoried for 30 years. In this sense, were made over 500 field trips to collect over 2500 plants and to obtain more than 2000 essential oils and aroma concentrates, all of them submitted to GC and GC-MS. This work led to the creation of a database for the aromatic plants of the Amazon, which catalogs general information about 1250 specimens. The database has allowed the publication of the chemical composition of the oils and aromas of more than 350 species, associated with a larger number of chemical types. The essential oils of many species offer optimum conditions for economic exploitation and use in national and international market of fragrances, cosmetics, agricultural and household pesticides.

  13. Efficacy of medicinal essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia sp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Fahimirad, S

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the distribution pattern and population size of Malassezia species in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and the inhibitory efficacy of Zataria multiflora, Thymus kotschyanus, Mentha spicata, Artemisia sieberi, Rosmarinus officinalis and Heracleum persicum essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates. The samples were collected from 5 different anatomical sites of 33 atopic dogs and cultured onto modified Dixon agar (MDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media. The essential oil extraction was performed by steam distillation using Clevenger system. Anti-Malassezia efficacy of medicinal essential oils and standard drugs was evaluated using broth microdilution method. A total of 103 yeast colonies were isolated from dogs with AD. Eight different Malassezia species were identified as follows: Malassezia pachydermatis (81.4%), M. globosa (7.8%), M. restricta (3.9%), M. sloofiae (2.9%), M. furfur (1%), M. nana (1%), M. obtusa (1%) and M. sympodialis (1%). The most and least infected sites were: anal (21.2%) and ear (10.6%) respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent Malassezia species isolated from both skin and mucosa of dogs with AD. Antifungal susceptibility test revealed the inhibitory efficacy of essential oils on pathogenic Malassezia isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 30 to 850 μg/mL. Among the tested oils, Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus exhibited the highest inhibitory effects (Pessential oils of Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus showed strong antifungal activity against pathogenic Malassezia species tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  15. 4-coumarate: CoA ligase partitions metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shubhra; Kumar, Ritesh; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan M; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Shasany, Ajit K

    2013-08-01

    Biosynthesis of eugenol shares its initial steps with that of lignin, involving conversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to their corresponding coenzyme A (CoA) esters by 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs). In this investigation, a 4CL (OS4CL) was identified from glandular trichome-rich tissue of Ocimum sanctum with high sequence similarity to an isoform (OB4CL_ctg4) from Ocimum basilicum. The levels of OS4CL and OB4CL_ctg4-like transcripts were highest in O. sanctum trichome, followed by leaf, stem and root. The eugenol content in leaf essential oil was positively correlated with the expression of OS4CL in the leaf at different developmental stages. Recombinant OS4CL showed the highest activity with p-coumaric acid, followed by ferulic, caffeic and trans-cinnamic acids. Transient RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of OS4CL in O. sanctum leaves caused a reduction in leaf eugenol content and trichome transcript level, with a considerable increase in endogenous p-coumaric, ferulic, trans-cinnamic and caffeic acids. A significant reduction in the expression levels was observed for OB4CL_ctg4-related transcripts in suppressed trichome compared with transcripts similar to the other four isoforms (OB4CL_ctg1, 2, 3 and 5). Sinapic acid and lignin content were also unaffected in RNAi suppressed leaf samples. Transient expression of OS4CL-green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts was associated with the cytosol. These results indicate metabolite channeling of intermediates towards eugenol by a specific 4CL and is the first report demonstrating the involvement of 4CL in creation of virtual compartments through substrate utilization and committing metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis at an early stage of the pathway.

  16. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2012-06-15

    Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 μg/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening of anticancer activity from agarwood essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Phirdaous, Abbas; Azura, Amid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved. Objective: The aim of this current study was therefore to investigate the potential anticancer properties of agarwood essential oil obtained from distillation of agarwood (resin) towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was subjected to screening assays namely cell viability, cell attachment and sulforhodamine B (SRB)-based cytotoxicity assay to determine the IC50 value. Results: The agarwood essential oil caused reduction of the cell number in both the cell viability and attachment assay suggesting a cumulative effect of the cell killing, inhibition of the cell attachment and or causing cells to detach. The agarwood essential oil showed IC50 value of 900 μg/ml towards the cancer cells. Conclusion: The agarwood essential oil exhibited anticancer activity which supports the traditional use against the inflammatory-associated diseases. This warrants further investigation towards the development of alternative remedy towards cancer. PMID:25002797

  18. Synergy among thymol, eugenol, berberine, cinnamaldehyde and streptomycin against planktonic and biofilm-associated food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Niu, H; Zhang, W; Mu, H; Sun, C; Duan, J

    2015-05-01

    Essential oils have been found to exert antibacterial, antifungal, spasmolytic, and antiplasmodial activity and therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of four main essential oils' components (thymol (Thy), eugenol (Eug), berberine (Ber), and cinnamaldehyde (Cin)) were evaluated against two food-borne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium, either alone or in combination with streptomycin. Checkerboard assay demonstrated that Thy and Cin elicited a synergistic effect with streptomycin against L. monocytogenes, while a synergy existed between Cin or Eug and streptomycin against Salm. Typhimurium. Further experiments showed that this synergy was sufficient to eradicate biofilms formed by these two bacteria. Thus, our data highlighted that the combinations of specific components from essential oils and streptomycin were useful for the treatment of food-borne pathogens, which might help prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance through improving antibiotic effectiveness. This study has shown the synergistic effect of four components of essential oil (thymol, eugenol, berberine and cinnamaldehyde) combined with streptomycin on planktonic and biofilm-associated food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium. These findings indicate that combination of specific components of essential oils with streptomycin may provide alternative methods to overcome the problem of food-borne bacteria both in suspension and in biofilm. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  20. Fatty Acid And Essential Oil Compositions Of The Seed Oil Of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid and essential oil compositions of the seed oil of Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and A. squamosa were investigated by GC and GC/MS spectra. About eleven fatty acids were identified of which oleic, gondoic, palmitic and stearic acids predominated in each sample, and others ...