WorldWideScience

Sample records for eugenia jambolana seed

  1. α-Glucosidase inhibitory hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambolana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Raed; Li, Liya; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-08-24

    Three new hydrolyzable tannins including two gallotannins, jamutannins A (1) and B (2), and an ellagitannin, iso-oenothein C (3), along with eight known phenolic compounds were isolated from the seeds of Eugenia jambolana fruit. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory effects compared to the clinical drug acarbose.

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, S.S.; Bhatnagar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the hepatoprotective effects of the methanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), in Wistar albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Materials and Methods: Liver damage in rats treated with CCl4 (1ml/kg/Bw, administered subcutaneously, on alternate days for one week) was studied by assessing parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and bilirubin (total and direct). The effect of co-administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) on the above parameters was investigated. These biochemical observations were supplemented by weight and histological examination of liver sections. Liv.52® was used as positive control. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by Scheff's/Dunnett's test. Results: Administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) significantly prevented carbon tetrachloride induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, ACP and bilirubin (total and direct) level. Histological examination of the liver section revealed hepatic regeneration, after administration of various doses of Eugenia jambolana Lam. The results were comparable to that of Liv.52®. Conclusion: The study suggests preventive action of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity. Hepatic cell regeneration process was dose dependent. PMID:20177577

  3. Diabetic therapeutic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Musa paradisiaca and seeds of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, D K; Ghosh, Debidas; Bhat, B; Talwar, S K; Jaggi, M; Mukherjee, R

    2009-11-01

    The folklore medicine of primitive people has been greatly appreciated for centuries. Many researchers study the curative efficiency and mode of action of various medicinal plants. Serum glucose level, lipid profile, glucose tolerance, hepatic and muscle glycogen contents as well as the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase recovered significantly after oral administration of ethyl acetate fractions of Eugenia jambolana (E. jambolana) or Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in separate (E. jambolana L.: 200 mg/kg of body weight and M. paradisiaca: 100 mg/kg of body weight) or combined form for 90 days (twice a day through gavage) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The loss in body weight of diabetic animals was reversed and serum levels of insulin as well as C-peptide, which were found to be reduced in diabetic rats, increased significantly after oral administration of the fractions. A histological study of the rats' pancreas revealed that after 90 days of oral treatment with the plant fractions in separate or combined form, the size and volume of pancreatic islets in diabetic treated rats increased significantly compared with the diabetic control group. Treatment of diabetic rats with the combined dose (300 mg/kg of body weight) of plant fractions (200 mg E. jambolana and 100 mg M. paradisiaca) was found to be more effective than treatment with the individual fraction. The doses of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca selected for this study are the optimum antihyperglycemic doses of the plant fractions, which were determined after conducting a dose-dependent study at various dose levels (50-500 mg/kg) in our pilot experiments. The plant fractions were found to be free from metabolic toxicity. Through HPTLC finger printing, three different compounds were noted in the ethyl acetate fraction of E. jambolana L. and eight different compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of M. paradisiaca L. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All

  4. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth by Eugenia jambolana, Musa paradisiaca, and Coccinia indica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Harsha Raj; Ghosh, Debidas; Banerjee, Rita; Salimath, Bharathi P

    2017-12-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis and evasion of apoptosis are hallmarks of cancer. Accordingly, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic therapies are effective strategies for cancer treatment. Medicinal plants, namely, Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae), and Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae), have not been greatly investigated for their anticancer potential. We investigated the anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic efficacy of ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (NB) extracts of E. jambolana (seeds), EA extracts of M. paradisiaca (roots) and C. indica (leaves) with respect to mammary neoplasia. Effect of extracts (2-200 μg/mL) on cytotoxicity and MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis were evaluated by MTT, 3 [H]thymidine uptake and EC tube formation assays, respectively. In vivo tumour proliferation, VEGF secretion and angiogenesis were assessed using the Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) model followed by rat corneal micro-pocket and chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Apoptosis induction was assessed by morphological and cell cycle analysis. EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca exhibited the highest cytotoxicity (IC 50 25 and 60 μg/mL), inhibited cell proliferation (up to 81%), and tube formation (83% and 76%). In vivo treatment reduced body weight (50%); cell number (16.5- and 14.7-fold), secreted VEGF (∼90%), neoangiogenesis in rat cornea (2.5- and 1.5-fold) and CAM (3- and 1.6-fold) besides EAT cells accumulation in sub-G1 phase (20% and 18.38%), respectively. Considering the potent anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic properties, lead molecules from EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca can be developed into anticancer drugs.

  5. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam as a natural sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Garcia

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Jambolão (java plum, Eugenia jambolana Lam, was used as a natural sensitizer of a wide band-gap semiconductor (TiO2 in photoelectrochemical solar cells. The natural dye, adsorbed onto the semiconductor surface, absorbs visible light and promotes electron transfer across the dye/semiconductor interface. Photogenerated current and voltage as high as 2.3 mA and 711 mV, respectively, were obtained and effective conversion of visible light into electricity was achieved. The use of a natural product as the semiconductor sensitizer enables a faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmentally friendly solar cells.O extrato de Jambolão, Eugenia jambolana Lam, foi utilizado como um sensibilizador natural de um semicondutor com separação grande de bandas (TiO2 nas células solares fotoeletroquímica. O corante natural, adsorvido na superfície do semicondutor, absorve luz visível e promove transferência eletrônica na interface corante/semicondutor. A corrente e o potencial fotogerados tão altos como 2,3 mA e 711 mV, respectivamente, foram obtidos observando-se conversão eficiente de luz visível em eletricidade. O uso de um produto natural como o sensibilizador de semicondutor possibilita uma produção mais rápida e simples de células solares mais baratas que não agridem o meio ambiente.

  6. LC–MS characterization, anti-kinetoplastide and cytotoxic activities of natural products from Eugenia jambolana Lam. and Eugenia uniflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina Elba Sobral de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: The species E. jambolana and E. uniflora presented antiparasitic activity against all tested parasite strains, indicating that these species can serve as an alternative therapy as they were efficient in the tests performed. The E. uniflora extract and the E. jambolana flavonoid fraction presented a low cytotoxicity, opening the floor for new biological studies.

  7. Comparison of antihyperlipidaemic activity of eugenia jambolana fruit with punica granatum fruit in diet induced hyperlipidaemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, R.; Rashid, M.; Latif, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the antihyperlipidemic effects of Eugenia Jambolana fruit pulp with Punica Granatum fruit in diet induced hyperlipidaemic rats at the same dose level. Methods: An experimental randomized control study was conducted on seventy five male albino rats over a period of 14 weeks in University of Health Sciences Lahore. They were divided into five groups labelled A, B, C, D and E with fifteen rats in each group. Group A was kept as normal control, groups B, C, D and E were given hyperlipidaemic diet for six weeks. In group B no further intervention was done, group C and D were given ethanolic extract of Eugenia Jambolana and Punica Granatum respectively for eight weeks. Group E was given combination of both for same duration. Serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides (TG) were measured at zero, six and fourteen weeks. Results: At fourteenth week significant reductions in TC, LDL-c and TG and a rise in HDL-c was observed in interventional groups C, D and E as compared to experimental hyperlipidaemic control group B (p 0.57, p > 0.22, p > 0.56, p > 0.76, respectively. On sixth week, there was no significant difference between groups B, C, D and E (p > 0.05). However, 15 rats of group A had significant lower levels of cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and triglycerides when compared to 60 rats of groups B, C, D and E (p<0.05). Conclusion: In male albino rats combination of ethanolic extracts of Eugenia Jambolana and Punica Granatum fruit pulps was most effective in lowering serum total cholesterol and triglycerides while decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol and rise in high density lipoprotein cholesterol was same as the extracts given alone. (author)

  8. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future.

  9. Synergistic effect of Eugenia jambolana Linn. and Solidago canadensis Linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Linn. at Mysore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, B S; Prathibha, K P; Vijayan, V A

    2013-06-01

    With the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at University of Mysore. The extracts of Solidago canadensis and Eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. The deltamethrin when analyzed separately, LC50 and LC90 values were 0.00045 and 0.00148 ppm, respectively. Synergistic studies with two plant extracts on deltamethrin revealed S. canadensis as more effective with synergistic factor(SF) of 4.090 for LC50 value and 4.781 for LC90 followed by E. jambolana with SF 1.80 for LC50 and 2.467 for LC90 at 1:1 ratio of the phytoextracts and deltamethrin. Thus, S. canadensis was found to be a better larvicidal and synergistic agent. Combination of phytochemical and insecticide were found to be more effective than insecticides or phytochemicals alone which could be a good ecofriendly and cost-effective approach to reduce the dose of chemicals with high residual effect to be applied in vector control programs.

  10. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Psidium guajav on hepatic and intestinal drug metabolizing enzymes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Background: Present study investigated the synergistic effect of polyherbal formulations (PHF of Allium sativum L Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn and Psidium guajava L. in the inhibition/induction of hepatic and intestinal CYPs and Phase-II conjugated drug metabolizing enzymes. Consumption of these herbal remedy has been extensively documented for diabetes treatment in Auyureda. Methodology: PHF of these five herbs was prepared and different doses were orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of different groups except control group. Expression of mRNA and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes were examined by RT-PCR and HPLC in isolated liver and intestine microsomes in PHF pretreated rats. Results: Activities of hepatic and intestinal Phase-II enzyme levels increased along with mRNA levels except CYP3A mRNA level. PHF administration increases the activity of hepatic and intestinal UDPGT and GST in response to dose and time; however, activity of hepatic SULT increased at higher doses. Conclusions: CYPs and Phase-II conjugated enzymes levels can be modulated in dose and time dependent manner. Observations suggest that poly herbal formulation might be a possible cause of herb-drug interaction, due to changes in pharmacokinetic of crucial CYPs and Phase-II substrate drug. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 372-382

  11. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of triterpenoid-enriched Jamun (Eugenia jambolana Lam.) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Chunhui; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Liu, Feifei; Mu, Yu; Huang, Xueshi; Li, Liya

    2018-06-20

    The edible berries of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (known as Jamun) are consumed in various parts of the world. Our previous studies revealed that a triterpenoid-enriched Jamun fruit extract (TJFE) showed beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic mice. Herein, the anti-diabetic effects of TJFE (100 mg kg-1 by oral gavage for ten days) were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice. TJFE significantly attenuated STZ-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, suppressed the abnormal elevation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, and improved dyslipidemia in the mice. Histopathology and mechanism-based studies revealed that TJFE preserved the architecture and function of pancreatic islets, attenuated insulin secretion deficiency, enhanced insulin/Akt signaling transduction, reduced lipogenic gene expression, and prevented the abnormal activation of Erk MAPK in the liver tissues of the STZ-induced diabetic mice. The current study adds to previously published data supporting the potential beneficial effects of this edible fruit on diabetes management.

  12. Evaluation of the potential effect of Allium sativum, Momordica charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Ocimum sanctum & Psidium guajava on intestinal P-glycoprotein in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Background: This study was evaluated synergistic effect of Polyherbal formulation (PHF of Allium sativum L., Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn and Psidium guajava L on p-glycoprotein of intestine. These five herbs were traditionally used for diabetes. These herbs are commonly present in ayurvedic product as antidiabetics in India. Methodology: PHF was prepared by five indigenous herbs. Different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats of different groups for multiple weeks except control groups. Alteration in Pgp expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and western blotting while modulation in activity of Pgp was evaluated using rhodamine 123 as transport substrate by in-situ absorption and everted gut sac method. Results: In PHF pretreated group received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for seven days, mRNA level decreased by 1.75, 2.45 and 2.37 fold respectively as compared to control. Similarly when PHF at dose of 100 mg/kg/day was given consequently for four weeks maximum decrease in Pgp expression level was observed only after one week and further increase in the treatment duration did not produce significant decrease compared to first week treatment. Pgp mediated transport of rhodamine 123 was significantly decreased with everted gut sac prepared from PHF pretreated rats (one week compared to those prepared from vehicle treated rats. Conclusions: In conclusion, we report that PHF pretreatment down regulated the expression of intestinal Pgp and this down regulated intestinal Pgp would result in decreased functional activity. Additionally this down regulated Pgp expression might affect the bioavailability of antidiabetic Pgp substrate drugs. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(1.000: 68-74

  13. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p≤0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p≤0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  14. Drying and storage of Eugenia involucrata DC. seeds Secagem e armazenamento de sementes de Eugenia involucrata DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological quality of seeds of native species is important to produce healthy saplings and therefore guarantee the success of programs to recover disturbed vegetation. This reinforces the necessity for investigating the physiological quality of those seeds. To evaluate the effects of different drying rates on the germination, moisture content and storability of Eugenia involucrata diaspores, mature fruits collected at Mogi Guaçu, SP, Brazil had their epi- and mesocarps removed by washing and were dried at 30, 40 or 50ºC until their water content was reduced from 57% (fresh diaspores to 13% (final drying, totaling six drying levels. In a second experiment, diaspores had their moisture content reduced from 57% to 49%, at 30ºC, totaling six drying levels (0h, 1h, 2h, 3h, 4h and 5h, and were kept for 180 days in plastic bags under cold storage. The drying rate had no effect on tolerance to desiccation by E. involucrata diaspores; water contents lower than 51% decreased both germinability and storability. Diaspores can be stored for up to 180 days as long as their water content is reduced to 53% and they are kept inside plastic bags under cold storage.O uso de sementes de espécies nativas de alta qualidade é fundamental nos programas de recomposição vegetal, o que fortalece a necessidade de se investigar o potencial fisiológico das mesmas. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da velocidade de secagem dos diásporos de Eugenia involucrata sobre a sua germinação e vigor, bem como as relações entre teor de água e capacidade de armazenamento. Foram colhidos frutos maduros em pomar instalado em Mogi Guaçu, SP (22º15-16'S, 47º8-12'W, que tiveram seu epicarpo e mesocarpo removidos por lavagem. A seguir, os diásporos (semente + endocarpo foram submetidos a secagem controlada a 30, 40 e 50ºC, com reduções progressivas do teor de água inicial de 57% para até 13%, obtendo-se seis níveis de secagem em cada temperatura. Em um

  15. Purification of a lectin from Eugenia uniflora L. seeds and its potential antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M D L; Andrade, C A S; Santos-Magalhães, N S; Coelho, L C B B; Teixeira, J A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M G; Correia, M T S

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the antimicrobial properties of a purified lectin from Eugenia uniflora L. seeds. The E. uniflora lectin (EuniSL) was isolated from the seed extract and purified by ion-exchange chromatography in DEAE-Sephadex with a purification factor of 11.68. The purified lectin showed a single band on denaturing electrophoresis, with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. EuniSL agglutinated rabbit and human erythrocytes with a higher specificity for rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutination was not inhibited by the tested carbohydrates but glycoproteins exerted a strong inhibitory action. The lectin proved to be thermo resistant with the highest stability at pH 6.5 and divalent ions did not affect its activity. EuniSL demonstrated a remarkable nonselective antibacterial activity. EuniSL strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp. with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.5 microg ml(-1), and moderately inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus sp. and Escherichia coli with a MIC of 16.5 microg ml(-1). EuniSL was found to be effective against bacteria. The strong antibacterial activity of the studied lectin indicates a high potential for clinical microbiology and therapeutic applications.

  16. Potencial nutritivo de frutos de pitangão (Eugenia neonitida, Sobral Nutritive potential of pitangão (Eugenia neonitida, Sobral fruits and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia neonitida, Sobral (Myrtaceae ocorre naturalmente nas restingas dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, possui hábito arbustivo e pode alcançar até 2,5m de altura. Floresce entre os meses de outubro e novembro, frutificando de novembro a janeiro. Seus frutos, popularmente chamados de "Pitangão", são oblongos, e durante o processo de amadurecimento sua cor evolui do verde até o amarelo vivo quando maduro. Apresentam sabor agridoce e exalam fragrância agradável, tornando-os amplamente apreciados pela população local. Determinações analíticas revelaram que 100g de polpa deste fruto contêm alto teor de umidade (93,2% e baixo valor calórico, 54,21 kcal, oriundo de 3,21 ± 0,25g de lipídeos, 2,2 ± 0,86g de proteínas, 0,55 ± 0,03 g de carboidratos, além de 6g de sólidos solúveis e alta concentração de minerais, com destaque para o sódio, 480,8mg.100g-1 de polpa do fruto. A acidez total é de 1,38 ± 0,03g de NaOH.100g-1, o pH é 2,85 e a concentração de ácido ascórbico é de 17,86 ± 0,06mg.100g-1. O valor de beta-caroteno é de 60 ± 0,04 mg.100g-1. Comparando-se a polpa do pitangão com a da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L., foram constatados maiores valores nutricionais para a primeira. O pitangão pode ser uma ótima fonte de macro e micronutrientes para alimentação humana, embora ainda não seja cultivada nem comercializada.Eugenia neonitida, Sobral (Myrtaceae occurs naturally in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. Generally, it is a shrub, but it can reach up to 2,5m of height. It blooms from August to November and fructifies from October to December. Their fruits, popularly called "Pitangão", are oblong and during the maturation process the fruit color turns from green to bright yellow when ripe. They present a bittersweet taste and a pleasant fragrance, what makes much appreciated by local population. Analytical determinations revealed that 100g of pulp possess high concentration of

  17. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potentiation of antibiotic activity by Eugenia uniflora and Eugenia jambolanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Henrique D M; Costa, José G M; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S; Siqueira-Júnior, José P; Lima, Edeltrudes O

    2010-08-01

    This is the first report about the modifying antibiotic activity of Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia jambolanum L. In this study the ethanol extract of E. uniflora and E. jambolanum was tested for their antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli. The growth of the two strains of E. coli bacteria tested was not inhibited in a clinically relevant form by the extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration was >or=1,024 microg/mL for both strains of E. coli assayed. Synergism between this extract and gentamicin was demonstrated. In the same extract synergism was observed between chlorpromazine and kanamycin and between amikacin and tobramycin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. It is therefore suggested that extracts from E. uniflora L. and E. jambolanum L. could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with modifying antibiotic activity to gentamicin.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and cytotoxic action of fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L.: correlation with polyphenol and flavanoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirôa, Evellyne de Oliveira; Nascimento da Silva, Luís Cláudio; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Neves, Juliana Kelle de Andrade Lemoine; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of biological activities presented by medicinal plants has been investigated over the years, and they are used in the search for new substances with lower side effects. Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L. (Myrtaceae) have many folk uses in various countries. This current study was designed to quantify the polyphenols and flavonoids contents and evaluate the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of fractions from E. uniflora L. and E. malaccensis L. It was observed that the polyphenol content was higher in ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions have high antioxidant potential. E. malaccensis L. seeds showed the largest DPPH radical scavenger capacity (EC50 = 22.62). The fractions of E. malaccensis L. leaves showed lower antioxidant capacity. The samples did not alter the profile of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide release. The results indicate that species of the family Myrtaceae are rich in compounds with antioxidant capacity, which can help reduce the inflammatory response.

  20. DIVERSIDADE ESTRUTURAL EM Eugenia L. (MYRTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Rodrigues dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood anatomy of nine species of Eugenia (Myrtaceae native in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil is presently studied in order to identify diagnostic characters useful to identify genus and species. A great structural homogeneity was observed, reflecting the high number of shared anatomical features. None characteristic is exclusive to this taxonomic group. The value of axial parenchyma arrangement to species segregation is confirmed, as well as the frequency of pores and characteristics of rays. It is not possible to disprove, based on wood anatomy, the inclusion of Hexachlamys in Eugenia , as suggested by Landrum and Kawasaki (1997.

  1. Elemental investigation of momordica charantia linn. and syzigium jambolana linn. using atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    Elemental investigation of very important medicinal plant i.e. momordica charantia linn and syzigium jambolana linn, and its decoction has been carried out using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In present study fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements such as Zn, Cr, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Ba, Mn, Co, Ni and Cd were determined in different parts of both plants and in its decoction. The level of essential elements was found high as compared to the level of toxic elements. Both plants are useful in the treatment of diabetes. The validation of the method was checked by employing NBS- 1570 (Spanish) as a standard reference material . The measured values of elements are in close agreement with certified values. (author)

  2. Wound healing activity and chemical standardization of Eugenia pruniformis Cambess

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Diego Duarte Galhardo de Albuquerque; Jamila Alessandra Perini; Daniel Escorsim Machado; Thaís Angeli-Gamba; Ricardo dos Santos Esteves; Marcelo Guerra Santos; Adriana Passos Oliveira; Leandro Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eugenia pruniformis is an endemic species from Brazil. Eugenia genus has flavonoids as one of the remarkable chemical classes which are related to the improvement of the healing process. Aims: To evaluate of wound healing activity of E. pruniformis leaves and to identify and quantify its main flavonoids compounds. Materials And Methods: Wound excision model in rats was used to verify the hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts potential. The animals were divided in four groups o...

  3. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  4. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m - t s = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

  5. Eugenia e casamento Eugenics and marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Aurelia Castañeda

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisaremos algumas estratégias eugênicas para melhoramento da raça baseadas no controle de matrimônios. Para tanto, vamos buscar no contexto da Inglaterra vitoriana a preocupação com o casamento; tanto na obra de Thomas Malthus, quando interessado no crescimento populacional, como na de Francis Galton, quando propõe a eugenia como uma ciência do melhoramento das qualidades inatas da raça. Discutiremos também como tal medida de controle de matrimônios se deu no movimento eugênico brasileiro e sua influência na elaboração do Código Civil.This analysis of some eugenic strategies for "improving the race" through the control of marriages explores Victorian England's concern with matrimony as expressed in the works of Thomas Malthus, who was interested in population growth, and of Francis Galton, who proposed that eugenics be used as a science to "improve" the innate qualities of the race. The article also discusses how this matrimonial means of control was expressed within the Brazilian eugenics movement and how it influenced the drafting of the Brazilian Civil Code.

  6. EGG TRAY DAUN SALAM (Eugenia polyantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isna Bekti Pertiwi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Telur ayam ras merupakan salah satu makanan yang bergizi tinggi dengan rasa yang enak dan harga relatif murah serta dapat diolah menjadi berbagai macam produk makanan. Namun, telur ayam ras mentah memiliki sifat mudah menurun kualitasnya dan mudah rusak karena lama wak-tu simpan telur yang relatif pendek. Penelitian ini secara umum bertujuan untuk mengetahui pe-ngaruh penggunaan baki telur daun salam (Eugenia polyantha terhadap lama waktu simpan telur ayam ras mentah yang dicuci dan tidak dicuci, dan secara khusus bertujuan untuk menge-tahui pengaruh perbandingan komposisi 0 %, 20 % dan 40 % dari daun salam yang digunakan. Penelitian yang dilakukan adalah true experiment dengan rancangan post test only with control group. Sebagai kontrol adalah baki telur yang biasa dijumpai di pasaran. Di setiap baki telur, pa-da suhu kamar diletakkan masing-masing 10 butir telur yang tidak dicuci dan 10 butir telur yang dicuci sebelumnya. Pengamatan lama waktu simpan telur dilakukan selama dua puluh tujuh hari dengan melihat perubahan kondisi telur-telur tersebut. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji Anova satu jalan pada α 0,05; dan hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa baki telur dengan komposisi daun salam 40 % adalah yang paling efektif dalam memperpanjang lama waktu simpan telur ayam ras mentah yang dicuci. Nilai mean difference yan dihasilkan adalah 14.00000 dan nilai p lebih kecil dari 0,001.

  7. Chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia caryophylla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The essential oils obtained yielded of 5.9 for Eugenia caryophylla and 0.2% Mentha sp cf piperita respectively. The chemical composition was assigned by GC and GC/SM and showed that E. caryophylla was mainly composed of eugenol (80.0 %), E-caryophyllene (8.3%), and eugenol acetate (6.7%) while Mentha ...

  8. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  9. A regenerative route for Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae through in vitro germination and micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Diniz da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora is a tree species native from Central and South America, largely employed in the popular medicine, in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries and also consumed in natura. Aiming to provide plant material with high sanity and genetic uniformity for the establishment of commercial plantations, we developed a protocol for seeds disinfestation, in vitro germination and in vitro propagation of this species through organogenesis. Fruits of E. uniflora were obtained from wild trees growing in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil. Seeds were disinfested using ethanol 70% (10 min and NaOCl 1.25% (10 or 25 min. Shoot apexes and nodal segments of non-contaminated plantlets were cultivated in verification medium AS30 during 20 days, posteriorly in ½MS medium supplemented with sucrose, IBA and BAP during 45 days and acclimatized in greenhouse. Disinfesting seeds with ethanol 70% (10 min and NaOCl 1.25% (25 min allowed germination with significantly lower contamination (2.0% and production of healthy explants for the micropropagation. No difference concerning size and contamination was observed for the propagation using shoot apexes or nodal segments as explant. Acclimatized plants revealed normal phenotype and healthy appearance. This regenerative route can be applied for mass clonal propagation from seeds of cross-pollinated or self-pollinated selected trees aiming the establishment of commercial plantations of E. uniflora and other Myrtaceae species.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Cytotoxic Action of Fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L.: Correlation with Polyphenol and Flavanoid Content

    OpenAIRE

    Figueir?a, Evellyne de Oliveira; Nascimento da Silva, Lu?s Cl?udio; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Neves, Juliana Kelle de Andrade Lemoine; da Silva, Nic?cio Henrique; Pereira, Val?ria R?go Alves; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of biological activities presented by medicinal plants has been investigated over the years, and they are used in the search for new substances with lower side effects. Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L. (Myrtaceae) have many folk uses in various countries. This current study was designed to quantify the polyphenols and flavonoids contents and evaluate the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of fractions from E. uniflora L. and E. malaccens...

  11. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapoval, E E; Silveira, S M; Miranda, M L; Alice, C B; Henriques, A T

    1994-12-01

    In view of the extensive use of Eugenia uniflora in folk medicine, different extracts of dried and fresh leaves of the plant were assayed to test its possible pharmacological activities. The infusion of fresh leaves had a highly significant anti-inflammatory effect when administered p.o. to rats 1 h before subplantar injection of carrageenin. The infusion increased the pentobarbital sleeping time and also had an effect on intestinal transit, and had no acute toxic effect. No analgesic or antimicrobial activities were observed with any of the extracts used.

  12. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Jeromini, Tatiane S; Mussury, Rosilda M; Dresch, Daiane M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and photosynthetic metabolism of "uvaia" seedlings (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess.) on different substrates and water regimes. The seeds were sown in tubes of 50 x 190 mm in the following substrates: Sand (S), Latosol + Sand (L + S) (1:1), Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S1 + PL) ( 1:1:0.5), Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S2 + PL) (1:2:0.5), Latosol + Bioplant® (L + B) (1:1), and the water levels assessed were 50, 75 and 100% of water retention capacity. At 60, 90, 120 and 150 days the seedlings were evaluated according to their chlorophyll index, leaf area (cm2) and Dickson Quality Index (DQI) and at 150 days their internal concentration of carbon (mol m-2 s-1), stomatal conductance (mol m-2 s-1), transpiration rate (mmol m-2 s-1), photosynthesis (µmol m-2 s-1) and efficiency of water use (µmol de CO2 / mmol de H2O). Until their 150th days, the seedlings had higher quality and photosynthetic metabolism when cultured with substrates containing latosol + sand + poultry litter on the two variations assessed and water retention capacity of 50%.

  13. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVANA P.Q. SCALON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and photosynthetic metabolism of “uvaia” seedlings (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. on different substrates and water regimes. The seeds were sown in tubes of 50 x 190 mm in the following substrates: Sand (S, Latosol + Sand (L + S (1:1, Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S1 + PL ( 1:1:0.5, Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S2 + PL (1:2:0.5, Latosol + Bioplant® (L + B (1:1, and the water levels assessed were 50, 75 and 100% of water retention capacity. At 60, 90, 120 and 150 days the seedlings were evaluated according to their chlorophyll index, leaf area (cm2 and Dickson Quality Index (DQI and at 150 days their internal concentration of carbon (mol m–2 s–1, stomatal conductance (mol m–2 s–1, transpiration rate (mmol m–2 s–1, photosynthesis (µmol m–2 s–1 and efficiency of water use (µmol de CO2 / mmol de H2O. Until their 150th days, the seedlings had higher quality and photosynthetic metabolism when cultured with substrates containing latosol + sand + poultry litter on the two variations assessed and water retention capacity of 50%.

  14. Effect Of Various Substrates On Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoame, M.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of substrate on Eudrilus eugeniae production, 360 worms were raised in plastic buckets containing manure either from cattle (BV, from sheep (CM, from rabbit (CL, and from chicken (FP. At the end of the experiment which lasted 4 months, worm productivity was estimated at 111.9 g/kg of substrate in CL, 86.3 g/kg in CM, and 33.0 g/kg in BV. Substrate FP was inadequate as worms escaped from it. In another trial aiming at determining some of E. Eugeniae's reproductive parameters, each of the 3 substrates BV, CL, and CM was distributed into 15 plastic half bottles and was inoculated with one cocoon. In the 3 substrates cocoon incubation time and growing period were estimated at 3 to 4 weeks and 6 to 7 weeks respectively. Cocoons were laid approximately a week after the pairing of worms. On the average, each worm laid 2 cocoons per week.

  15. Eugenia vinculada a aspectos bioéticos: uma revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é analisar o que versam as produções científicas sobre eugenia, vinculando-as com aspectos bioéticos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura. Os dados foram coletados nas bases de dados Lilacs e SciELO, por meio dos descritores: eugenia, etnia e saúde, ética e bioética. Para a análise e posterior síntese dos artigos foi utilizada figura sinóptica. Verificou-se que a eugenia viola os direitos humanos, contradiz com o princípio da solidariedade e coloca em risco a diversidade humana. Conclui-se que houve déficit de artigos que abordem aspectos bioéticos vinculados à eugenia, assim, este estudo poderá contribuir para a reflexão sobre essa articulação.

  16. PEMANFAATAN DAUN SALAM (Eugenia polyantha SEBAGAI OBAT HERBAL DAN REMPAH PENYEDAP MAKANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Harismah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia polyantha, one of Indonesian medicine plant, often used in society as traditional medicine and also Indonesian culinary additives. Daun salam is called Indonesian bay-leaf, the leaves contain only tiny amounts of an essential oil 0.2%. As main components, eugenol, methyl chavicol, and citral have been identified. Thus application to used of Eugenia polyantha have done. The aim of the present work was the application of Eugenia polyantha for food and health in the community area of Keraton Surakarta. The results indicated that Eugenia polyantha is of particular interest, since it may be an alternative way to carry out of food flavor simultanous as herbal medicine.

  17. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Valéria C; Nava,Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  18. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  19. Atividade leishmanicida in vitro de Eugenia uniflora e Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Katiúcia Alves Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana no Brasil é causada por uma variedade de espécies de Leishmania e uma grande diversidade destes parasitas pode ser encontrada na Região Amazônica. Revisões recentes na quimioterapia de leishmaniose enfatizam as deficiências dos agentes terapêuticos atualmente disponíveis e mostram a necessidade urgente de novos candidatos. Uma alternativa para substituir esses medicamentos são extratos naturais de Eugenia uniflora e Momordica charantia. Foram preparados extratos etanólicos das folhas de E. uniflora e M. charantia. Para os testes in vitro de Leishmania brasiliensis foram utilizadas formas promastigotas. O ensaio de citotoxicidade foi realizado com linhagens de fibroblastos. Nossos resultados indicam que E. uniflora foi eficaz contra a cepa de parasita testada, representando uma fonte alternativa de produtos naturais com atividade contra L. brasiliensis.

  20. Comparison of the interfacial properties of Eugenia uniflora and Triticum vulgaris lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cesar A S; Oliveira, Maria D L; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S; Correia, Maria T S; de Melo, Celso P

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the interfacial and dielectric properties of EuniSL, a recently purified lectin obtained from seeds of Eugenia uniflora (EuniSL), through surface pressure (Pi) and surface potential (DeltaV) measurements of its floating monolayers at the 2.0

  1. In vitro establishment of Eugenia squarrose: an endemic species in danger of extinction from Santa Clara (Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Quiala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The tissue culture techniques can be supplemented with others that are carried out in the cultivation in situ and being applied in combined way to give solution to the extinction of different species. Eugenia squarrosa (Ekman & Urban it is an endemic species of Cuba in extinction danger due to the urbanization of their natural habitat, which have been reduced to a few hectares. The aim of this work was to achieve the establishment in vitro of this species. Seeds and young branches were collected starting from plants in its natural habitat. The effect of three concentrations of NaOCl (2.0, 2.5, 3.0% during 20 minutes in the disinfection of the seeds was studied. For the disinfection of the buds a treatment with alcohol to 70% was used during two minutes previously to the disinfection with NaOCl. The effect of three concentrations of this NaOCl was studied (1.0, 2.0, 3.0% during 10 minutes. The present microbiota was characterized in the contaminated branch. The 100% of disinfection of the seeds was achieved in all the treatments studied. The bigger explants percentage free of contaminant (88.6% was obtained in the treatment with 3% of NaOCl. However the biggest percentage of survival (45.7% was obtained when 2.0% of NaOCl was used. The establishment in vitro of the species was achieved starting from seeds and buds collected of field plants. Key Words: biodiversity, micropropagation, threatened species

  2. Involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) in the tail suspension test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, André R S; Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Colla, Guilherme; Magina, Michele D A; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2012-09-28

    Several species of Eugenia L. are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Eugenia brasiliensis is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, whereas Eugenia. uniflora is used for the treatment of symptoms related to depression and mood disorders, and is used in Brazil by the Guarani Indians as a tonic stimulant. To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of different plant species of genus Eugenia and to characterize the participation of the monoaminergic systems in the mechanism of action of the specie that afforded the most prominent antidepressant-like efficacy. In the first set of experiments, the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Eugenia beaurepaireana, Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae, Eugenia umbelliflora and Eugenia uniflora and the antidepressant fluoxetine (positive control) administered acutely by p.o. route were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST) and locomotor activity was assessed in the open-field test in mice. In the second set of experiments, the involvement of the monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like activity of Eugenia brasiliensis was evaluated by treating mice with several pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The effects of the combined administration of sub-effective doses of Eugenia brasiliensis and the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion were also evaluated. The administration of the extracts from Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae and Eugenia umbelliflora, but not Eugenia beaurepaireana and Eugenia uniflora, exerted a significant antidepressant-like effect, without altering locomotor activity. The behavioral profile was similar to fluoxetine. Pre-treatment of mice with ketanserin, haloperidol, SCH23390, sulpiride, prazosin and yohimbine prevented the reduction of immobility time induced by Eugenia brasiliensis. Treatment with sub-effective doses of WAY100635, SKF38393, apomorphine, phenylephrine, but not clonidine, combined

  3. Wound Healing Activity and Chemical Standardization of Eugenia pruniformis Cambess

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ricardo Diego Duarte Galhardo; Perini, Jamila Alessandra; Machado, Daniel Escorsim; Angeli-Gamba, Thaís; Esteves, Ricardo dos Santos; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Oliveira, Adriana Passos; Rocha, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eugenia pruniformis is an endemic species from Brazil. Eugenia genus has flavonoids as one of the remarkable chemical classes which are related to the improvement of the healing process. Aims: To evaluate of wound healing activity of E. pruniformis leaves and to identify and quantify its main flavonoids compounds. Materials And Methods: Wound excision model in rats was used to verify the hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts potential. The animals were divided in four groups of six and the samples were evaluated until the 15° day of treatment. Hydroxyproline dosage and histological staining with hematoxilin-eosin and Sirius Red were used to observe the tissue organization and quantify the collagen deposition, respectively. Chemical compounds of the ethyl acetate extract were identified by chromatographic techniques and mass spectrometry analysis and total flavonoids content was determined by spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant activity was determined by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate radical photometric (DPPH) assays. Results: The treated group with the ethyl acetate extract showed collagen deposition increase, higher levels of hidroxyproline, better tissue reorganization and complete remodeling of epidermis. Quercetin, kaempferol and hyperoside were identified as main compounds and flavonoids content value was 43% (w/w). The ORAC value of the ethyl acetate extract was 0.81± 0.05 mmol TE/g whereas the concentration to produce 50% reduction of the DPPH was 7.05± 0.09 μg/mL. Conclusion: The data indicate a wound healing and antioxidant activities of E. pruniformis. This study is the first report of flavonoids and wound healing activity of E. pruniformis. KEY MESSAGES Eugenia pruniformis extract accelerates wound healing in skin rat model, probably due to its involvement with the collagen deposition increase, higher levels of hidroxyproline, dermal remodelling and potent antioxidant activity

  4. EBV DNA polymerase inhibition of tannins from Eugenia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M H; Chiou, J F; Yen, K Y; Yang, L L

    2000-06-30

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the high population malignant tumors among Chinese in southern China and southeast Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human B lymphotropic herpes virus which is known to be closely associated with NPC. EBV DNA polymerase is a key enzyme during EBV replication and is measured by its radioactivity. The addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to Raji cell cultures led to a large increase in EBV DNA polymerase, which was purified by sequential DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose and DNA-cellulose column chromatography. Four tannins were isolated from the active fractions of Eugenia uniflora L., which were tested for the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase. The results showed the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of gallocatechin, oenothein B, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) were 26.5 62.3, 3.0 and 3.5 microM, respectively. Furthermore, when compared with the positive control (phosphonoacetic acid), an inhibitor of EBV replication, the IC(50) value was 16.4 microM. In view of the results, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) are the potency principles in the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase from E. uniflora.

  5. Floral heterochrony promotes flexibility of reproductive strategies in the morphologically homogeneous genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thais N C; Lucas, Eve J; Faria, Jair E Q; Prenner, Gerhard

    2018-01-25

    Comparative floral ontogeny represents a valuable tool to understand angiosperm evolution. Such an approach may elucidate subtle changes in development that discretely modify floral architecture and underlie reproductive lability in groups with superficial homogeneous morphology. This study presents a comparative survey of floral development in Eugenia (Myrtaceae), one of the largest genera of angiosperms, and shows how previously undocumented ontogenetic trends help to explain the evolution of its megadiversity in contrast to its apparent flower uniformity. Using scanning electron microscopy, selected steps of the floral ontogeny of a model species (Eugenia punicifolia) are described and compared with 20 further species representing all ten major clades in the Eugenia phylogenetic tree. Additional floral trait data are contrasted for correlation analysis and character reconstructions performed against the Myrtaceae phylogenetic tree. Eugenia flowers show similar organ arrangement patterns: radially symmetrical, (most commonly) tetramerous flowers with variable numbers of stamens and ovules. Despite a similar general organization, heterochrony is evident from size differences between tissues and structures at similar developmental stages. These differences underlie variable levels of investment in protection, subtle modifications to symmetry, herkogamic effects and independent androecium and gynoecium variation, producing a wide spectrum of floral display and contributing to fluctuations in fitness. During Eugenia's bud development, the hypanthium (as defined here) is completely covered by stamen primordia, unusual in other Myrtaceae. This is the likely plesiomorphic state for Myrteae and may have represented a key evolutionary novelty in the tribe. Floral evolution in Eugenia depends on heterochronic patterns rather than changes in complexity to promote flexibility in floral strategies. The successful early establishment of Myrteae, previously mainly linked to the

  6. Chromatographic profiles of extractives from leaves of Eugenia uniflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle C.F. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, popularly known as “pitanga”, is used in traditional medicine due the properties attributed to its chemical content, these being mainly hydrolysable tannins and flavonoids. This study provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chemical profile from leaves of E. uniflora. The HPLC analysis was carried out on a C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm by gradient elution with methanol and water (acidified with trifluoracetic acid; and silica gel Plates 60-F 254 with 10–12 µm and 5–6 µm particles, respectively for TLC and High HPTLC analysis. The chromatographic data obtained from HPLC, TLC and HPTLC presented bands and peaks related to flavonoids (myricitrin and derivatives and tannins (gallic and ellagic acids, which were observed from different samples. The chromatographic similarities enabled the building of a typical fingerprint for the herbal material. The similarity analysis of the sample data by Pearson correlation showed R values >0.9 among peaks (HPLC and bands (HPTLC. In addition, the analytical methodology developed by HPLC enabled the satisfactory quantification of marker substances [ellagic acid = 0.22% and 0.20% (m/m; gallic acid = 0.20% and 0.43%; myricitrin = 0.42 and 1.74% (m/m in herbal drug and crude extract, respectively]. The procedure was also validated in accordance with the assays required by Brazilian legislation. Thus, the HPTLC and HPLC methods developed in this study provide helpful and simple tools for the quality evaluation both qualitatively and quantitatively of raw materials and extractives from leaves of E. uniflora.

  7. Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia spp. caused by Cylindrocladium candelabrum and C. spathiphylli in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sebastião Poltronieri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh and Eugenia patrisii Vahl, caused respectively by Cylindrocladium candelabrum (Calonectria scoparia and C. spathiphylli (Calonectria spathiphylli are reported in the state of Pará, Brazil. On both host species, the disease is characterized by dark brown lesions of different sizes and shapes. A whitish bright sporulation, resembling Cylindrocladium is observed on the necrotic lesions by using a stereomycroscope or a pocket lense (10-20 X. Under favorable conditions and depending on the level of infection, intense premature tree defoliation may also be found.Although the conidial germination and mycelial growth were higher at 25ºC for both species, C. candelabrum was more sensitive to the variation of temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 ºC than C. spathiphylli. This is the first report of C. candelabrum and C. spathiphylli on Eugenia stipitata (araçá-boi and on Eugenia patrisii (ubaia-da-amazônia, respectively in Brazil.

  8. The effect of fresh leaf Ocimum gratissimum and dried buds Eugenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... Abstract. The use of antibiotics has lead to antibiotic resistance and residual effects among others in fish tissue thus necessitate the advocate for alternative natural plants for ... Keywords: Antimicrobial, aquaculture, Eugenia caryophyllata, extracts, Ocimum gratissimum ...

  9. Rediscovery of Eugenia fajardensis (Myrtaceae), a rare tree from the Puerto Rican Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge C. Trejo-Torres; Marcos A. Caraballo-Ortiz; Miguel A. Vives-Heyliger; Christian W. Torres-Santana; William Cetzal-Ix; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Tomas A. Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia fragrans var.? fajardensis was described in 1895 and raised to species status in 1923 as E. fajardensis. In 1925, it was relegated to the synonymy of Anamomis fragrans (Myrcianthes fragrans). Since 2001, we have re-discovered wild plants and herbarium specimens, including a previously unidentified isotype of E. fajardensis, supporting the validity of this...

  10. Frugivoria por aves em Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae em ambientes antropizados na região de Sorocaba–SP. Frugivory by birds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae at anthropic environment in Sorocaba–SP region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Francine LAMBERTI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As aves, assim como toda fauna consumidora de frutos possuem grande importância no processo de dispersão de sementes. O declínio de suas populações pode gerar consequências para a reprodução e para o crescimento populacional dessas plantas zoocóricas, se a dispersão não for adequada ou se a quantidade de sementes dispersas for insuficiente. A espécie Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, nativa do Brasil, é popularmente conhecida como pitangueira. Possui frutos globosos e sulcados, apresentando cores brilhantes desde o laranja, até vermelho ou preto, com polpa carnosa e agridoce, normalmente com umaa duas sementes. O presente estudo caracterizou as espécies de aves consumidoras dos frutos de E. uniflora, em dois ambientes da região de Sorocaba, Estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado entre fevereiro e setembro de 2012 com seis indivíduos de E. uniflora, sendo três em ambiente altamente antropizado, e três em área menos antropizada. A avifauna foi amostrada por meio de observações focais, considerando sua riqueza, abundância relativa, frequência de visitas, comportamento e diversidade. O padrão fenológico de E. uniflora também foi descrito, assim como a quantidade de frutos produzidos. Foram realizadas 116 horasde observação focal, durante as quais foram registradas 185 visitas de aves pertencentes àsfamílias Thamnophilidae, Vireonidae, Turdidae, Thraupidae consumindo seus frutos. Os resultadosobtidos indicam que áreas menos antropizadas, mais arborizadas e com fragmentos mais próximos, como a área urbana de Araçoiaba, apresentam maior riqueza, abundância e diversidade de aves consumidoras de E. uniflora, quando comparada com a área urbana de Sorocaba. The birds, as all frugivorous animals, have great importance to seed dispersion process. Populational decline can generate consequences for the reproduction and population growth of many zoochoric plants if the dispersion is not adequate or if the amount of

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST SEEDS REGARDING THE DESICCATION TOLERANCE AND STORAGE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Carvalho Mayrinck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to classify forest seeds native to the Alto Rio Grande region regarding the desiccation tolerance and storage behaviour. Germination and water content tests were performed in seeds of different species. The tests were conducted immediately after seed processing, at 12% and 5% of water content, and at 5% after 3 months of storage in -18°C. Based on the results obtained, seeds were classified into recalcitrant, intermediate and orthodox class. Seeds of Brosimum gaudichaudii, Erythroxylum deciduum, Eugenia pleurantha, Myrcia venulosa, Nectandra megapotamica were classified as recalcitrant (22.7% of all species. Seeds of Aegiphila sellowiana, Aspidosperma parvifolium, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Casearia lasiophylla, Cassia occidentalis, Dalbergia miscolobium, Diospyros brasiliensis, Diospyros hispida, Ilex brevicuspis, Ilex cerasifolia, Myrocarpus fastigiatus, Senna aversiflora, Senna splendida e Blepharocalyx salicifolius were classified as intermediate (59.1% of all species. Seeds of Miconia albicans, Platycyamus regnellii, Styrax camporum and Piptadenia gonoacantha were classified as orthodox (18.2% of all species.

  12. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. Objective: To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast c...

  13. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil.

  14. Seasonal variation in the phenol content of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, R.M; Oliveira, M.S; Ferri, P.H; Santos, S.C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrolysable tannins, total phenols and flavonoids in Eugenia uniflora leaves were monthly analysed for one year. The results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, cloudiness and mean temperature) through chemometric methods. Principal component analysis revealed high levels of hydrolysable tannins in the rainy season, whereas flavonoids were mainly produced in the dry season. These facts suggest that climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in...

  15. Mapping stable direct and retrograde orbits around the triple system of asteroids (45) Eugenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, R. A. N.; Moraes, R. V.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Winter, O. C.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that knowing the composition and the orbital evolution of asteroids might help us to understand the process of formation of the Solar system. It is also known that asteroids can represent a threat to our planet. Such an important role has made space missions to asteroids a very popular topic in current astrodynamics and astronomy studies. Taking into account the increasing interest in space missions to asteroids, especially to multiple systems, we present a study that aims to characterize the stable and unstable regions around the triple system of asteroids (45) Eugenia. The goal is to characterize the unstable and stable regions of this system and to make a comparison with the system 2001 SN263, which is the target of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) mission. A new concept was used for mapping orbits, by considering the disturbance received by the spacecraft from all perturbing forces individually. This method has also been applied to (45) Eugenia. We present the stable and unstable regions for particles with relative inclination between 0° and 180°. We found that (45) Eugenia presents larger stable regions for both prograde and retrograde cases. This is mainly because the satellites of this system are small when compared to the primary body, and because they are not close to each other. We also present a comparison between these two triple systems, and we discuss how these results can guide us in the planning of future missions.

  16. Various compositions containing organic substrates to produce Eugenia uniflora L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licielo Romero Vieira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of substrates formulated with agro-industrial residues, such as coconut shell fiber, sawdust, and carbonized rice husk, is among the sustainable alternatives to decrease the production costs of seedlings of plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the use of various substrates for obtaining high quality Eugenia uniflora L. seedlings. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA – Campus in São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by sowing directly into 200 cm3 polypropylene tubes, testing various substrates (50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% rice husk; commercial substrate Plantmax®; 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% coconut shell fiber; and 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% sawdust. Every 3 days, the number of emerged seedlings was evaluated and, after 180 days, the following morphological features were analyzed: shoot height, stem diameter, number of leaves, root and total fresh weight, shoot, root, and total dry weight, and Dickson’s quality index. The results indicate that all substrates were suitable for Eugenia uniflora emergence, but that containing 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% sawdust provided a delay in the emergence of this Myrtaceae; also, substrates containing 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% husk rice and 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% coconut shell fiber showed to be satisfactory for the growth of Eugenia uniflora seedlings.

  17. Eugenia negativa/positiva: o suposto colapso da natureza em J. Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck, José Nicolau

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Há muito tempo o progresso científico provoca nossas convicções e ameaça deixar o discurso moral para trás. Mais recentemente, a polêmica em torno da persmissão ou proibição da eugenia negativa e positiva questiona nossa autocompreensão de natureza, moralidade e liberdade. O presente texto tem por objeto uma série de artigos de J. Habermas, convertidos posteriormente em livro, onde são expostos argumentos fortemente plausíveis em favor da tese da indisponibilidade da natureza humana no âmbito da eugenia positiva. Após contextuar o problema e mapeá-lo no horizonte filosófico, o trabalho apresenta a posição metafísica habermasiana, com destaque para a distinção entre eugenia negativa e positiva, e a confronta com os argumentos liberais dworkinianos acerca do tema. O artigo pleiteia a favor da tese de que a naturalidade humana consiste, desde os primórdios da espécie, em autocriação natural, de modo que cabe à moralidade e ao direito preencherem o vácuo do destino criado pela biotecnologia

  18. Biodegradation of Garden Waste, Market Waste Using Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugenia and Assessment of Manure Quality on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S. Mariraj

    2014-06-01

    Comparative study was performed to evaluate the vermicomposting efficiency of two earthworm species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugenia from the garden wastes, vegetable market wastes. Three different experimental works were conducted. For each experiment three plastic vermibins were used. Experiment (1) mentioned for control without earthworms. Experiment (2) bedded with Eudrilus eugenia, Experiment (3) comprised of bedding with Eisenia fetida. Pre composting was allowed for 10 days after that Eudrilus eugenia, Eisenia fetida were added in respective vermibins. The multiplication of earthworms in terms of number was calculated at the end of vermicomposting. The N, P, K value of the manure in each vermibin was estimated before and after the completion of the experiment. High N, P, K value was obtained in Experiment (2) and Experiment (3) compared to control. Among the solid wastes, the vegetable wastes were degraded quickly by Eudrilus eugenia and also it has the best quality of manure. Eudrilus eugenia was found to be efficient for quick degradation of both garden wastes and vegetable wastes. After manure production, field trials were conducted using different fertilizers to assess the manure quality in the growth and yield of tomato plants. Six types of experimental trial pots were prepared where one was kept as control and five others were treated with different category of fertilizers. The treatment pots (P3) showed better growth parameters (leaf numbers, stem diameter, plant height) than the rest of the trial.

  19. Chemical composition and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Eugenia platysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenfen, Adrielli; Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; Mendes de Córdova, Caio Maurício; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition and evaluates the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Eugenia platysema leaves. Analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS allowed the identification of 22 compounds. Different from the other species of the Eugenia genus, the major compound found in the essential oil was the diterpene phytol (66.05%), being this the first report of the presence of this compound in the essential oils from Eugenia genus. The sesquiterpene elixene was the second most concentrated compound in the studied essential oil (9.16%). The essential oil from E. platysema was tested for its antibacterial activity against cell-walled bacteria and mollicute strains of clinical interest using the microdilution broth assay. The results showed that the essential oil of E. platysema was inactive until 1000 μg mL(-1) against tested bacteria.

  20. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of leaves and branches of Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk (Myrtaceae); Constituintes quimicos e atividade antioxidante de folhas e galhos de Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk (Myrtaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Junior, Almir Ribeiro de; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de, E-mail: almirribeiro@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica

    2014-05-15

    Phytochemical investigation of Eugenia copacabanensis allowed for the isolation and identification of following compounds: β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-glucoside, eight triterpenes, (mixture of α- and β-amyrins, ursolic acid, 30-hydroxy-ursolic acid, betulin, friedelin, friedelan-3,4-lactone, and taraxerol), a mixture of three sesquiterpenes, (clovandiol, globulol, and viridiflorol), three flavonoids (kaempferol-3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside, and quercetin), and a mixture of four coumaroyl esters (octacosanyl, heptacosanyl, hexacosanyl, and tetracosanyl coumarates). The structures of these compounds were assigned based on comparison with literature data and spectroscopic analysis, including analysis by two-dimensional NMR techniques. Total phenolic content and total flavonoids were evaluated. Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts and fractions were measured by the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl free radical scavenging assay. (author)

  1. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  2. Atividade antioxidante de três espécies de Eugenia (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Magina, Michele A.; Gilioli, Andressa; Moresco, Henrique H.; Colla, Guilherme; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa

    2010-01-01

    A atividade antioxidante dos extratos vegetais de Eugenia brasiliensis, E. beaurepaireana e E. umbelliflora foi avaliada usando diferentes métodos: Determinação da ação sequestrante de radicais livres usando DPPH, determinação do potencial redutor e determinação do potencial inibidor da peroxidação lipídica. Foi correlacionado também a o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e de flavonóides contidos nestes extratos e frações com a atividade antioxidante. As espécies E. brasiliensis e E. beaurepairean...

  3. Preliminary pharmacological studies on Eugenia uniflora leaves: xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Theoduloz, C; Franco, L; Ferro, E; de Arias, A R

    1987-11-01

    Eugenia uniflora is widely used in Paraguayan folk medicine. A hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves showed some central nervous system activity in hippocratic screening when given intraperitoneally, but little to no acute or subacute toxicity in doses up to 4200 mg/kg orally in BALB c mice. The LD50 of the extract was 220 mg/kg i.p. in mice. A decoction or infusion of the leaves is recommended for treating gout by native herbalists. The known flavonoids quercitrin, quercetin, myricitrin and myricetin were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action of the plant extract.

  4. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-07-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity.

  5. Rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp at pasteurization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp in the range of temperatures used for pasteurization (83 to 97 °C was studied. The results indicated that Brazilian Cherry pulp presented pseudoplastic behavior, and the Herschel-Bulkley model was considered more adequate to represent the rheological behavior of this pulp in the range of temperatures studied. The fluid behavior index (n varied in the range from 0.448 to 0.627. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity was described by an equation analogous to Arrhenius equation, and a decrease in apparent viscosity with an increase in temperature was observed.

  6. Seasonal variation in the phenol content of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Variação sazonal nos teores de fenóis de folhas de Eugenia uniflora L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysable tannins, total phenols and flavonoids in Eugenia uniflora leaves were monthly analysed for one year. The results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, cloudiness and mean temperature through chemometric methods. Principal component analysis revealed high levels of hydrolysable tannins in the rainy season, whereas flavonoids were mainly produced in the dry season. These facts suggest that climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in Eugenia uniflora.Taninos hidrolisáveis, fenóis totais e flavonóides presentes em folhas de Eugenia uniflora foram quantificados mensalmente durante um ano. Os resultados foram correlacionados com as condições climáticas (pluviosidade, umidade, nebulosidade e temperatura média através de métodos quimiométricos. Análise de componentes principais revelou a ocorrência de altos teores de taninos hidrolisáveis durante a estação de chuvas, enquanto os flavonóides foram produzidos principalmente na estação seca. Estes fatos sugerem que mudanças climáticas podem ser um dos fatores que afetam os níveis de fenóis em Eugenia uniflora.

  7. Evaluation of sublethal toxicity of zinc and chromium in Eudrilus eugeniae using biochemical and reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Latha, V

    2016-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) act as essential nutrients; however, they can be toxic at higher concentrations. In this study, earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae was studied for its sensitivity to sublethal doses of Cr (8 ppm) and Zn (350 ppm) in terms of alterations occurred in oxidative stress indices and reproductive parameters in the testis. A significant (p food intake was observed on 7, 14 and 21 days of Cr toxicity; while increased rate was evident upon 7 days of Zn exposure. Changes evident in the rate of cocoon production (-39.54 and +38.63 %), hatchability (-77.85 and +30.0 %) highlight higher toxic potential of Cr than Zn, respectively. Moderate to severe vacuolization in spermatic follicles and higher incidence of tailless (+52.6 % in Cr and 20.8 % in Zn), and head bent (+18.8 % in Cr and 0 % in Zn) sperms were evident in Cr(VI) exposed worms emphasizing the higher vulnerability of E. eugeniae to Cr toxicity. A significant (p implied from results that excessive free radical production and inadequate antioxidant defenses have lead to morphological alterations in sperms which sequentially reduced the reproductive rate.

  8. Pharmacological basis for the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, A E; Baldini, O A; Amat, A G

    1999-07-01

    The rational basis for the use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive in Northeastern Argentina was assessed in normotensive rats. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous crude extract (ACE) decreased blood pressure (BP) of normotensive rats dose-dependently until 47.1 +/- 8.2% of control. The effective-dose 50 was 3.1 +/- 0.4 mg dried leaves/kg (d.l./kg) (yielding of ACE: 17% w/w). To determine the origin of hypotensive activity. Alpha-adrenergic antagonistic and vasorelaxant ACE activities were tested. The dose-response curve for phenylephrine on BP was inhibited non-competitively until 80% of its maximal effect (at 8 mg d.l. ACE/kg). Perfusion pressure (PP) of rat hindquarters (previously vasoconstricted by high-K+) was decreased by ACE in a concentration-dependent manner until -32.3 +/- 11.5% of tonic contraction at 1.2 g d.l. ACE/100 ml. In addition, A.C.E demonstrated diuretic activity at a dose (120 mg d.l./kg) higher than the hypotensive one. It was almost as potent as amiloride, but while amiloride induced loss of Na+ and saving of K+, ACE induced decrease in Na+ excretion. The results suggest that the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is mostly due to a hypotensive effect mediated by a direct vasodilating activity, and to a weak diuretic effect that could be related to an increase in renal blood flow.

  9. Initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga spectabilis, and Inga edulis in Napo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicio Abril Saltos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has been one of the causes of deforestation, causing environmental impact and soil degeneration, which leads to lower income earned by farmers; hence the need to implement agroforestry systems .This research aims to describe fromthe initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga edulis, and Inga spectabilis to 320 days after emergence. The study took place at the Amazon Research and Conservation Center of the Amazonas State University, during 2014 and 2015. The growth process was evaluated in regards to plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and branch length. Plant height and stem diameter were compared over time applying variance analysis. Precipitation was also compared to analyze whether its variations had a direct influence on plant growth. The linear and polynomial models fitted better for thespecies regarding plant height and sprout diameter. Predominance of green leaves compared to yellow and dry ones, as branch length showed significant differences over all the sampling periods. The two-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the correlation between age and precipitation over plant height and stem diameter. The outcomes led to conclude that Eugenia stipitata had a lower growth than both Inga edulis and Inga spectabilis. Branch production and growth and the number of leaves were also important elements of the growth process.

  10. Activity of in vitro forms of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on cariogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovito, Vanessa C; Freires, Irlan A; Almeida, Leopoldina F D; Moura, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo D; Paulo, Marçal Q; Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557) and Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469). Five dentifrices were used: D1: containing hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D2: containing fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D3: containing triclosan and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L; D4: containing triclosan, fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D5: positive control (Colgate Total 12). To determine the antibacterial activity, the technique used was the minimum inhibitory concentration by the diffusion method in solid culture medium. At the concentration 0.05 g/mL, the best results were achieved with D1 (18 mm) and D4 (24 mm) on L.casei, and with D3 (19 mm) on S. oralis. The dentifrices D3 and D4 were found to have greater activity on the Streptococcus oralis, while D4 and D1 were found to have greater activity on Lactobaccilus casei. It is concluded that dentifrices with Eugenia uniflora L. have antimicrobial activity, suggesting that clinical trials should be conducted.

  11. Lead contamination in Eugenia dyeriana herbal preparations from different commercial sources in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, H H

    2008-06-01

    The Drug Control Authority (DCA) of Malaysia implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January, 1992. A total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, containing Eugenia dyeriana, either single or combined preparations (more than one medicinal plant), were analyzed for the presence of lead contamination, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These samples were bought from different commercial sources in the Malaysian market, after performing a simple random sampling. Results showed that 22% of the above products failed to comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. Although this study showed that 78% of the products fully complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to lead, however, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency.

  12. A study on the effect of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrot, Antony V.; Justin, C.; Padmanaban, S.; Burman, Ujjala

    2017-02-01

    Most look into the benefits of the nanoparticles, but keeping aside the benefits; this study focuses on the impacts of nanoparticles on living systems. Improper disposal of nanoparticles into the environment is a subject of pollution or nano-pollution which in turn affects the flora and fauna in the ecosystem, particularly soil ecosystem. Thus, this study was done to understand the impacts of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm— Eudrilus eugeniae, a soil-dependent organism which acquires food and nutrition from decaying matters. The chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Earthworms were allowed to interact with different concentrations of synthesized nanoparticles and the effect of the nanoparticles was analysed by studying the phenotypic changes followed by histology and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analyses.

  13. Essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L.: antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli; Perin, Gelson; Jacob, Raquel Guimarães; Alves, Diego; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Nascente, Patricia da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian cherry tree) was evaluated for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The acute toxicity of the EO administered by oral route was also evaluated in mice. The EO exhibited antioxidant activity in the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays and reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney of mice. The EO also showed antimicrobial activity against two important pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and against two fungi of the Candida species, C. lipolytica and C. guilliermondii. Acute administration of the EO by the oral route did not cause lethality or toxicological effects in mice. These findings suggest that the EO of the leaves of E. uniflora may have the potential for use in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant Activities of Hydrolysable Tannins and Flavonoid Glycosides Isolated from Eugenia uniflora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara A. C. Fortes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphytochemical investigation of Eugenia uniflora ’s leaf extract resulted in the isolation of eleven phenolic compounds: 2,3-di-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (1, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (2, gemin D (3, hippomanin A (4, oenothein B (5, eugeniflorin D 2 (6, camptothin A (7, afzelin (8, quercitrin (9, myricitrin, (10 and desmanthin-1 (11. These compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR, and TOF/MS. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 11 were isolated from this species for the first time. Ten isolates were evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC-Fluorecein assay . Dimeric tannins, oenothein B (5, eugeniflorin D 2 (6, and camptothin A (7 showed a remarkable radical scavenging capacity.

  15. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxic activities of Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Rolón, Miriam; Vega, Celeste; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, being considered a public health problem. An alternative to combat this pathogen is the use of natural products isolated from fruits such as Eugenia uniflora, a plant used by traditional communities as food and medicine due to its antimicrobial and biological activities. Ethanolic extract from E. uniflora was used to evaluate in vitro anti-epimastigote and cytotoxic activity. This is the first record of anti-Trypanosoma activity of E. uniflora, demonstrating that a concentration presenting 50% of activity (EC(50)) was 62.76 μg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤ 1024 μg/mL. Our results indicate that E. uniflora could be a source of plant-derived natural products with anti-epimastigote activity with low toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Flavonoids from Eugenia uniflora Leaves and Its Protective Effect against Murine Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattmann, Yanna D; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Malquevicz-Paiva, Simone M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, referred to as Pitanga cherry shrub, is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is cultivated in many countries and it is suitable for the production of juice, frozen pulp, and tea. Besides, it can be used as treatment for inflammatory diseases. We reported that a flavonoid-rich fraction (HE-Bu) obtained from leaves decreased the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The oral administration of HE-Bu reduced the late mortality rate by 30%, prevented neutrophil accumulation in lungs, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels, and markedly decreased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by ileum cells. Chemical investigation showed myricetin and quercetin rhamnosides as the major components of this fraction. The results showed that HE-Bu protected mice from sepsis and indicated that this edible plant produces compounds that could be considered as potential adjuvants for sepsis treatment.

  17. a-glucosidase Inhibitors From Paraguayan Natural Medicine, Ñangapiry, The Leaves Of Eugenia Uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, T; Kasai, M; Hayashi, T; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y; Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y

    2000-01-01

    The water-soluble extract from a Paraguayan natural medicine, Nangapiry, the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), which has been used as an antidiabetic agent, was found to show inhibitory activities on the increase of plasma glucose level in the sucrose tolerance test (STT) conducted with mice. The portion adsorbed on a cation exchange resin was also found to inhibit a-glucosidases. From the active portion, two new active compounds named uniflorines A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ) and known (+)-(3a, 4a, 5ß)-1-methylpiperidine-3, 4, 5-triol ( 3 ) were isolated. The structures of uniflorines A and B were determined as (-)-(1S, 2R, 6S, 7R, 8R, 8aR)-1,2,6,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine and (+)-(1S, 2R, 5R, 7R, 8S, 8aS)-1,2,5,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine by spectral means, respectively.

  18. Microencapsulation of Eugenia uniflora L. juice by spray drying using fructans with different degrees of polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Basurto, R I; Rubio-Ibarra, M E; Ragazzo-Sanchez, J A; Beristain, C I; Jiménez-Fernández, M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to microencapsulate pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) juice by spray drying, using High Performance Agave Fructans (HPAF) and High Degree of Polymerisation Agave Fructans (HDPAF) and maltodextrin (MD), respectively, as the wall materials. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the capsules during storage at various temperatures were evaluated. The microparticles developed using fructans HPAF and HDPAF, exhibited similar physicochemical and flow properties to those presented by the microparticles prepared with MD. The highest yield and concentration of anthocyanins after drying and during storage were found for a 1:6 core:wall material ratio. The total color change was a good indicator of the microcapsule stability. This study showed that both fructans fraction possess similar encapsulating properties to MD and that the HDPAF were more efficacious than MD at protecting the antioxidants during drying and storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of leaves and branches of Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk (Myrtaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Junior, Almir Ribeiro de; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Eugenia copacabanensis allowed for the isolation and identification of following compounds: β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-glucoside, eight triterpenes, (mixture of α- and β-amyrins, ursolic acid, 30-hydroxy-ursolic acid, betulin, friedelin, friedelan-3,4-lactone, and taraxerol), a mixture of three sesquiterpenes, (clovandiol, globulol, and viridiflorol), three flavonoids (kaempferol-3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside, and quercetin), and a mixture of four coumaroyl esters (octacosanyl, heptacosanyl, hexacosanyl, and tetracosanyl coumarates). The structures of these compounds were assigned based on comparison with literature data and spectroscopic analysis, including analysis by two-dimensional NMR techniques. Total phenolic content and total flavonoids were evaluated. Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts and fractions were measured by the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl free radical scavenging assay. (author)

  20. Identification of microRNAs from Eugenia uniflora by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Frank; Almerão, Mauricio P; Körbes, Ana P; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs or miRNAs are small non-coding regulatory RNAs that play important functions in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNAs for degradation or inhibiting protein translation. Eugenia uniflora is a plant native to tropical America with pharmacological and ecological importance, and there have been no previous studies concerning its gene expression and regulation. To date, no miRNAs have been reported in Myrtaceae species. Small RNA and RNA-seq libraries were constructed to identify miRNAs and pre-miRNAs in Eugenia uniflora. Solexa technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library, and the data obtained were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. From 14,489,131 small RNA clean reads, we obtained 1,852,722 mature miRNA sequences representing 45 conserved families that have been identified in other plant species. Further analysis using contigs assembled from RNA-seq allowed the prediction of secondary structures of 25 known and 17 novel pre-miRNAs. The expression of twenty-seven identified miRNAs was also validated using RT-PCR assays. Potential targets were predicted for the most abundant mature miRNAs in the identified pre-miRNAs based on sequence homology. This study is the first large scale identification of miRNAs and their potential targets from a species of the Myrtaceae family without genomic sequence resources. Our study provides more information about the evolutionary conservation of the regulatory network of miRNAs in plants and highlights species-specific miRNAs.

  1. Seasonal variation in the phenol content of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Variação sazonal nos teores de fenóis de folhas de Eugenia uniflora L

    OpenAIRE

    R.M Santos; M.S Oliveira; P.H Ferri; S.C Santos

    2011-01-01

    Hydrolysable tannins, total phenols and flavonoids in Eugenia uniflora leaves were monthly analysed for one year. The results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, cloudiness and mean temperature) through chemometric methods. Principal component analysis revealed high levels of hydrolysable tannins in the rainy season, whereas flavonoids were mainly produced in the dry season. These facts suggest that climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in...

  2. Chemical Composition of Four Essential Oils of Eugenia from the Brazilian Amazon and Their Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Barreto, Leilane H; da Silva, Nádia Carolina F; Ribeiro, Alcy F; Montenegro, Raquel C; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2017-07-08

    Background: Eugenia species are appreciated for their edible fruits and are known as having anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and insecticidal actions. Methods: The plant material was collected in the southeastern Pará state of Brazil and submitted to hydrodistillation. GC-MS analyzed the oils, and their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated by the DPPH and MTT assays. Results: The main components identified in the Eugenia oils were 5-hydroxy- cis -calemene, (2 E ,6 E )-farnesol, (2 E ,6 Z )-farnesol, caryophylla-4(12),8(13)-dien-5α-ol-5β-ol, E -γ-bisabolene, β-bisabolene, germacrene D, and ishwarane. The oil of E. egensis showed the most significant antioxidant activity (216.5 ± 11.6 mg TE/mL), followed by the oils of E. flavescens (122.6 ± 6.8 mg TE/mL) and E. patrisii (111.2 ± 12.4 mg TE/mL). Eugenia oils were cytotoxic to HCT-116 (colon cancer) cells by the MTT assay, where the most active was the oil of E. polystachya (10.3 µg/mL), followed by the oils of E. flavescens (13.9 µg/mL) and E. patrisii (16.4 µg/mL). The oils of E. flavescens and E. patrisii showed the highest toxicity for MRC5 (human fibroblast) cells, with values of 14.0 µg/mL and 18.1 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that Eugenia oils could be tested in future studies for the treatment of colon cancer and oxidative stress management.

  3. Chemical and biological study of essential oils from Eugenia pruniformis cambess., an endemic species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Ricardo D.D.G.; Tietbohl, Luis A. C.; Fernandes, Caio P.; Couteiro, Pedro P.; Eiriz, Débora N.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Silva Filho, Moacélio V.; Alves, Gutemberg G.; Bachinski, Róber; Rocha, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia pruniformis Cambess. is an endemic species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Essential oils from leaves and fruits from this species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS/CG-FID. In all, 25 compounds were identified, with predominance of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in both plant parts. The major compounds were β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene D, δ- cadinene and α-copaene. Antioxidant activity was performed for essential oil from leaves using ORAC method, s...

  4. Eugenia uniflora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-04-04

    Apr 4, 2010 ... kitchen blender with little water (pulp: water; 4:1) for 10 minutes. ... harvested for consumption on site or for sale in urban centers [2]. ... underutilized as a result of climate (season, harvest time, pest and insect attack) and.

  5. The evolutionary history of Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx (Myrtaceae) corroborates historically stable areas in the southern Atlantic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Fernanda Mazine, Fiorella; Forest, Félix; Leandro Bueno, Marcelo; Renato Stehmann, João; Lucas, Eve J

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx Nied. includes 14 species endemic to the Neotropics, mostly distributed in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Here the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group is presented, and this phylogeny is used as the basis to evaluate the recent infrageneric classification in Eugenia sensu lato (s.l.) to test the history of the evolution of traits in the group and test hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. A total of 42 taxa were sampled, of which 14 were Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx for one nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-rpl32 and trnQ-rps16). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood. Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx is paraphyletic and the two clades recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Cerrado and south-eastern species and a difference in the composition of species from north-eastern and south-eastern Atlantic forest. Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for Eugenia s.l. within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics. Furthermore, valuable insight is offered into diversification and biome shifts of plant species in the highly environmentally impacted Atlantic forest of South America. Evidence is presented that climate stability in the south-eastern Atlantic forest during the Quaternary contributed to the

  6. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  7. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage.

  8. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  9. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  10. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  11. Augmentation of catecholamine release elicited by an Eugenia punicifolia extract in chromaffin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Pascual

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth DC., Myrtaceae, are used in Amazon region of Brazil to treat diarrhea and stomach disturbances, and as hypoglycemic medicine. We have recently shown that an aqueous extract of E. punicifolia augmented cholinergic neurotransmission in a rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. In this study, we investigated the effects of an E. punicifolia dichloromethane extract (EPEX in a neuronal model of cholinergic neurotransmission, the bovine adrenal chromaffin cell. EPEX augmented the release of catecholamine triggered by acetylcholine (ACh pulses but did not enhance ACh-evoked inward currents, which were inhibited by 30%. Since EPEX did not cause a blockade of acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase, it seems that EPEX is not directly activating the cholinergic system. EPEX also augmented K+-elicited secretion without enhancing the whole-cell inward calcium current. This novel and potent effect of EPEX in enhancing exocytosis might help to identify the active component responsible for augmenting exocytosis. When elucidated, the molecular structure of this active principle could serve as a template to synthesise novel compounds to regulate the exocytotic release of neurotransmitters.

  12. Induction of apoptosis by hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambos L. on human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L L; Lee, C Y; Yen, K Y

    2000-08-31

    Eugenia jambos L. (Myrtaceae) is an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory herb of Asian folk medicine. A 70% acetone extract exerted the strongest cytotoxic effects on human leukemia cells (HL-60) from a preliminary screening of 15 plants. The cytotoxic principles were separated by bio-assay-guided fractionation to HL-60 cells; two hydrolyzable tannins (1-O-galloyl castalagin and casuarinin) were isolated from the 70% acetone extract. All significantly inhibited human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and showed less cytotoxicity to human adenocarcinoma cell line SK-HEP-1 and normal cell lines of human lymphocytes and Chang liver cells. Thus, these compounds were exhibited the dose-dependent manner in HL-60 cells and the IC(50) were 10.8 and 12.5 microM, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the presence of apoptotic cells with low DNA content, a decrease of cell population at G(2)/M phase, and a concomitant increase of cell population at G(1) phase. The apoptosis induced by these two compounds was also demonstrated by DNA fragmentation assay and microscopic observation. These results suggest that the cytotoxic mechanism of both antitumor principle constituents might be the induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells.

  13. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant capacity of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bagetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain more information about the physicochemical properties, composition, and antioxidant activity of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L., particularly fruits from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Pitanga with different flesh colors (purple, red, and orange from tree selections cultivated at Embrapa Clima Temperado (RS-Brazil were analyzed. Only slight differences were observed in the quality parameters and in the proximate and fatty acid compositions among the fruits studied. The extracts from purple-fleshed pitanga had the highest total phenolic and anthocyanin contents along with the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP assays of methanolic pitanga extracts was highly correlated with the total phenolic content, but in ethanolic extracts, the anthocyanin content was correlated only with the FRAP antioxidant capacity. Orange fleshed pitanga had higher β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene levels than those of the red fruit, which had higher lycopene content. The results indicate that the purple-fleshed pitanga, cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul, is a rich source of phenolic compounds and has high antioxidant capacity. The red and orange-fleshed pitanga, on the other hand, are rich sources of carotenoids.

  14. Influence of foliar nutrients on phenol levels in leaves of Eugenia uniflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, leaves contain high amounts of phenolic compounds which are responsible for several pharmacological activities. In order to evaluate the phenolics seasonal variation leaves were analysed on a monthly basis during the period of two years for the contents of hydrolysable tannins, total phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe. Results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature by Principal Component and ClusterAnalysis which allowed four groups to be distinguished with respect to the age of the leaves and the content of some metals. Young leaves were characterised by high levels of Zn and nitrogen whereas old leaves contained high levels of Fe and calcium, and both groups had moderate amounts of phenolics. Adult leaves were divided in two groups and results revealed that while one group had the highest levels of all phenols and lowest amounts of Mn and Cu, the other showed opposite quantities. The Canonical Correlation Analysis confirmed a highly significant negative correlation between phenol contents and Mn and Cu. These facts suggested that flavonoids and tannins production depends of the amounts of foliar nutrients, Cu and Mn in particular, which are cofactors of enzymes involved in phenol degradation and lignin biosynthesis. This knowledge can improve this specie cultivation in order to enhance the phenolic compounds concentration.

  15. In-vitro evaluation of anti-trichomonal activities of Eugenia uniflora leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibikunle, Gabriel Femi; Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Famuyiwa, Funmilayo Gladys; Aladesanmi, Adetunji Joseph; Adewunmi, Clement Oladapo

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, used ethnomedically in some tropical countries as an anti-infective, has shown anti-malarial and anti-trypanocidal activities. Therefore using bioactivity guided fractionation, anti-trichomonal activity of E. uniflora leaf was investigated. Anti-trichomonal activities of leaf methanol extract and its fractions against Trichomonas gallinae as well as their cytotoxicities using an in vitro haemaglutination assay were determined. Anti-trichomonacidal activities of the extract improved on purification up to a stage. Subfractions E(2-5) had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 4.77 - 5.28, 18.49 - 25.00 and 4.53 - 5.18, 18.32 - 19.07 µg/ml at 24 and 48 hrs, respectively that were better than those of metronidazole. Further purification of E(2-5) led to loss of activity suggesting that the active components were probably working synergistically and additively. Demonstration of low haemaglutination titre values of 0.00 - 5.33 by methanolic extract and its partition fractions suggested their low toxicity profile. The established safety of the leaf indicated that its anti-trichomonal activity was not due to non-specific cytotoxicity, hence could be used in ethnomedicine as an anti-trichomonal agent.

  16. Atividade inseticida de Eugenia uniflora L. e Melia azedarach L. sobre Atta laevigata Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Jung

    Full Text Available As formigas cortadeiras estão entre os principais insetos pragas das florestas plantadas brasileiras, causando danos econômicos desde a implantação até a sua colheita. Em razão das questões ambientais e da exigência da certificação florestal, métodos alternativos estão sendo desenvolvidos para o controle do gênero Atta. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L. e cinamomo (Melia azedarach L. sobre soldados de Atta laevigatta Smith. Para tal, a partir de folhas, foram obtidos extratos pelos processos de decocção, infusão, maceração, extrato alcoólico e extração de óleo essencial, em diferentes concentrações. O óleo essencial de E. uniflora, nas concentrações de 1,25, 2,5 e 5%, apresentou potencial inseticida sobre soldados de A. laevigata, quando comparado às demais formas de obtenção. O extrato alcoólico de M. azedarach, a 10%, também apresentou potencial inseticida, podendo estes extratos serem testados em práticas de campo.

  17. Electrolytic treatment and biosurfactants applied to the conservation of Eugenia uniflora fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme DILARRI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microorganisms are the primary responsible for food poisoning and food spoilage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different fruit washing methods with tap water, electrolyzed water and rhamnolipids solution produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, in order to inhibit microbial growth. The tested organism was Eugenia uniflora. The fruits were washed and periodically inoculated into culture media to evaluate and count the colonies on the fruit surface. It was also observed the deterioration level of the fruits after each treatment. The results showed that treatment with rhamnolipids were the most efficient, inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. The electrolyzed water proved to be very efficient in bacterial inhibition at the initial time, but in the final time it did not present any inhibitory effect. The electrolyzed water was also not effective in eliminating fungus. Washing with tap water was the less efficient treatment of all. The only treatment that showed an increased durability has been with rhamnolipids, increasing shelf life by up to two days. Thus rhamnolipids are the most recommended method for fruits sanitation.

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE LEISHMANICIDA IN VITRO DE EUGENIA UNIFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Gimenez Guimarães

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As leishmanioses são um conjunto de doenças causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, transmitidas por meio de hábitos hematófagos de fêmeas de dípteros infectados, pertencentes à subfamília Phlebotominae. É uma doença negligenciada e de grande relevância devido sua incidência e letalidade quando não tratada. O tratamento das leishmanioses é um obstáculo, devido à alta toxidade e efeitos adversos causados pelos fármacos disponíveis. Neste sentido, as plantas medicinais têm ganhado grande destaque na busca por fármacos que possam apresentar menos efeitos colaterais. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar atividade leishmanicida do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Eugenia uniflora na espécie Leishmania amazonensis. Os valores de IC50 foram de 1,99 µg/mL, 1,64 µg/mL e 1,39 µg/mL nos tempos de 24, 48 e 72 horas, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que o extrato testado possui significativa atividade leishmanicida.

  19. Variation in the carotenoid composition of the lycopene-rich Brazilian fruit Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Ornella M; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2008-12-01

    The indigenous pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is now marketed and commercially processed in Brazil. In the present work, the carotenoids of the pitanga fruit from two states and at two stages of ripening, as well as of processed pitanga products (frozen pulp and juice, the brands being designated as A, B and C) commercialized in Campinas, São Paulo, were determined by HPLC. As compared to ripe pitanga from Medianeira, Paraná, those from Campinas had significantly higher (all-E)-lycopene (14.0 vs. 71.1 microg/g), (13Z)-lycopene (1.1 vs. 5.0 microg/g) and (all-E)-gamma-carotene (1.6 vs. 3.8 microg/g) levels. Significant increases in most of the carotenoids occurred from the partially ripe to the ripe fruits, with (all-E)-lycopene doubling its concentration in fruits from both states. Pitanga was found to be one of the richest fruit sources of carotenoids, particularly lycopene, but the processed products had much lower lycopene content. The mean (all-E)-lycopene concentration was 16.6 microg/g for frozen pulp brand A, 23.0 microg/g for bottled juice brand B and 25.6 microg/g for bottled juice brand C. Optimization of processing is therefore needed to guarantee better retention of this important carotenoid.

  20. Pharmacological effects of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) aqueous crude extract on rat's heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Alicia E; Sarubbio, Marisol Gracía

    2002-06-01

    The effect of aqueous crude extract (ACE) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was studied on rat's perfused ventricles. This plant is used in South American traditional medicine as an antihypertensive and we already demonstrated previously its hypotensive properties. In this paper, maximal left intraventriclular pressure (P) of rat's hearts beating at 0.2 Hz firstly increased to 162.1+/-11.1% of basal value during 1-3 min of perfusing ACE 0.6%. Maximum rate of contraction (+P) also increased to duplicating +P/P ratio. Both types of effect were significantly decreased by either propranolol 0.35 microM, and pre-treatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg), suggesting that they were caused by a compound that releases cathecolamines with beta-adrenergic action. Nevertheless, after 20 min of perfusing ACE, ventricles decreased P to about 50% of their basal value, suggesting a negative-inotropic compound present in the extract. The perfusion of 1.2% ACE decreased P in a pressure-[Ca](o) curve (0.5-2 mM) in a non-competitive manner, suggesting that an irreversible Ca-blocking compound is also present in the extract. In summary, E. uniflora ACE has a dual effect on the heart related to its hypotensive action and is probably responsible for the therapeutic or adverse effects in patients under cardiac risk.

  1. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract on activated hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Parisi, Mariana M; Martins, Leo A M; Terra, Silvia R; Borojevic, Radovan; Vizzotto, Márcia; Perry, Marcos L S; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Guma, Fátima T C R

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phenolic compounds in fruit- and vegetable-rich diets has attracted researchers' attention due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract on cell proliferation, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death and cell cycle in murine activated hepatic stellate cells (GRX). Cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was significantly decreased on cells treated with 50 and 100 µg ml(-1) of purple pitanga extract for 48 and 72 h, and the percentage of dead cell stained with 7-amino-actinomycin D was significantly higher in treated cells. The reduction of cell proliferation was dose dependent, and we also observed alterations on cell cycle progression. At all times studied, GRX cells treated with 50 and 100 µg ml(-1) of purple pitanga showed a significant reduction in cellular mitochondrial content as well as a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, our results indicated that purple pitanga extract induces early and late apoptosis/necrosis and necrotic death in GRX cells. This is the first report describing the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and apoptotic activity for E. uniflora fruits in hepatic stellate cells. The present study provides a foundation for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis, and more studies will be carried to elucidate this effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Improving effects of the extracts from Eugenia uniflora on hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y; Okada, M; Hayashi, T; Kasai, M; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y

    1999-12-15

    EtOH (70%) extracts from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora were separated into six fractions with different polarity and molecular size, i.e. NP-1-NP-6. In an oral glucose tolerance test, NP-1 and 4 inhibited the increase in plasma glucose level. However, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, such an inhibitory effect was not seen. Thus, the effects of NP-1 and 4 were apparently due to the inhibition of glucose absorption from the intestine. In a sucrose tolerance test, all fractions inhibited the increase in plasma glucose level. In an oral corn oil tolerance test, NP-3 and 4 showed an inhibitory effect on the increase in plasma triglycerides level. On the other hand, NP-3, 4, 5 and 6 inhibited maltase and sucrase activities and all fractions except for NP-1 showed an inhibitory effect on lipase activity dose-dependently. The inhibition of the increase in plasma glucose level by NP-3, 4, 5 and 6 in the oral sucrose tolerance test and the inhibition of the increase in plasma triglycerides by NP-3 and 4 in the oral corn oil tolerance test were apparently due to the inhibition of the decomposition of carbohydrates and fats in the intestine, respectively.

  3. Bioactive Formylated Flavonoids from Eugenia rigida: Isolation, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Mohamed A; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Hetta, Mona H; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Mohammed, Rabab; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Coleman, Christina; Fronczek, Frank R; Ferreira, Daneel; Muhammad, Ilias

    2016-09-23

    Two new flavonoids, rac-6-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (1) and 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-3'-methylchalcone (2), together with five known derivatives, rac-8-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (3), 4',6'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-3'-methyldihydrochalcone (4), rac-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methylflavanone (5), 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxy-5'-methyldihydrochalcone (6), and 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (7), were isolated from the leaves of Eugenia rigida. The individual (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of 1 and 3, together with the corresponding formylated flavones 8 (6-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and 9 (8-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavone), as well as 2',4',6'-trihydroxychalcone (10), 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxychalcone (11), and the corresponding 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (7) and 2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (12), were synthesized. The structures of the isolated and synthetic compounds were established via NMR, HRESIMS, and electronic circular dichroism data. In addition, the structures of 3, 5, and 8 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography. The isolated and synthetic flavonoids were evaluated for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against a panel of microorganisms and solid tumor cell lines.

  4. Dr Eugenia Rose Aylmer Cooper (1898-1991): Manchester's renowned female anatomist and neurohistologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeve, David R

    2016-11-01

    Having excelled in histology, Dr Eugenia Cooper, following graduation in medicine in Manchester, embarked on a career spanning 44 years in anatomy and histology at Manchester University. Her inimitable character was readily remembered by those she had taught. She was the first female graduate to gain an MD with gold medal for her thesis on the histology of the endocrine organs. However, her main study was the development of the human brainstem from the early weeks of gestation, which remains the basis for anatomical understanding today. More controversial was her theory on circulation and absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid. On retiring as Reader in Histology, she expressed disappointment at not being appointed a professor, which she considered was due to her gender. Possibly to compensate for this, she had studied law as an additional interest. She continued in research for a further 10 years in reproductive pharmacology. After retirement she donated her medals to the University, three to be awarded in medicine and histology, which have now lapsed, but the medals in computer science and music continue to be important rewards. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. ESTUDO FITOQUÍMICO E ANTIMICROBIANO DAS FOLHAS DE EUGENIA ASTRINGENS CAMBESS. (MYRTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Carminate

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre plantas medicinais simboliza muitas vezes o único recurso terapêutico de muitas comunidades e grupos étnicos. A tradição popular é a origem de valiosos conhecimentos acerca das plantas, muitas das observações populares sobre a utilização de plantas medicinais contribuem, de forma relevante, para a divulgação das virtudes terapêuticas vegetais. A E. astringens é uma espécie que apresenta casca e folhas aromáticas, adstringentes, anti-reumáticas e diuréticas. Apesar do uso medicinal já relatado, não existem muitos estudos quanto a atividade antimicrobiana. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a realização da triagem fitoquímica e a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Eugenia astringens Cambess. Foram encontrados taninos, fenóis, catequinas e ácidos orgânicos e o extrato apresentou atividade antibacteriana para todas as 8 cepas testadas.

  6. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  7. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Val?ria; de Oliveira, Jamylla Mirck Guerra; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando A?cio de Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components...

  8. The sublethal effects of the organochlorines dieldrin and lindane on growth and reproduction of Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental exposure of the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae to organochlorines showed that dieldrin causes damage to sperm ultrastructure when viewed electronmicroscopically. Worms containing concentrations of 7,27 mg/kg dieldrin and higher showed more than 10% sperm damage. Exposure of Eisenia fetida to sublethal concentrations of lindane did not result in sperm damage but demonstrated an increase in growth and reproductive activity. It is argued that quantification of sperm damage and correlation with pesticide concentration could provide a useful tool for evaluating environmental quality. Furthermore, the effects of sublethal concentrations of pesticides that manifest themselves in increased growth and reproductive activity could affect ecological balances.

  9. In vivo pretreatment of Eudrilus eugeniae powder attenuates β-adrenoceptor toxicity mediated by isoproterenol in rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Jaganathan Anitha; Kadarkarai Murugan; Akon Higuchi; Abdullah A. Alarfaj; Murugan A. Munusamy; Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to discover the potential cardioprotective function of earthworm powder (EWP) extracted from Eudrilus eugeniae on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, with six rats in each group. Certain rats were pretreated with EWP (200 mg/kg bwt) (Group III), and a myocardial infarction was then induced by subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bwt) (Group II). Oral pretreatment of 200 mg/kg bwt of EW...

  10. The determination of antioxidant activity of Brazil-cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves extract using FRAP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Maulida, Ika Rahma; Muhaimin

    2017-12-01

    Brazil-cherry leaves (Eugenia uniflora L.) have antioxidant activity because they contain phenolic and flavonoids compounds. The aim of the study was to obtain antioxidant activity using FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) method. Brazil-cherry leaves were extracted using soxhlet method by ethanol 70%. The free radical activity absorbance was measured with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 711 nm and the total value of antioxidant activity was calculated based on the data absorbance. The results showed that Brazil-cherry leaves have the antioxidant activity with the value 2.493mgAAE/g extract.

  11. O abajurú (Chrysobalanus icaco L. e Eugenia rotundifolia Casar.) comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Inês Machline; Peixoto,Ariane Luna

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo analisa as prováveis razões de introdução e comercialização de uma espécie de uso medicinal em um mercado popular urbano na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - o Mercado de Madureira. Durante os anos de 2005 e 2006 aplicaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas a 15 erveiros obtendo-se o freelist das espécies consideradas como mais comercializadas (97) a partir do qual se calculou o índice de saliência, que para o abajurú (Eugenia rotundifolia Casar), foi elevado. A espécie conhecida n...

  12. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-10-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast cells. Protective ability of flavonoid-enriched (FE) fraction of clove was studied against UV-B induced cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 antioxidant response element (Nrf2 ARE) pathway. FE fraction showed a significant antioxidant potential. Pretreatment of cells with FE fraction (10-40 μg/ml) reversed the effects of UV-B induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The present study demonstrated for the first time that the FE fraction from clove could confer UV-B protection probably through the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which included the down-regulation of Nrf2 and HO-1. These findings suggested that the flavonoids from clove could potentially be considered as UV-B protectants and can be explored further for its topical application to the area of the skin requiring protection. Pretreatment of human dermal fibroblast with flavonoid-enriched fraction of Eugenia caryophylata attenuated effects of ultraviolet-B radiationsIt also conferred protection through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response pathway and increased tolerance of cells against oxidative stressFlavonoid-enriched fraction can be explored further for topical application to the skin as a

  13. A preliminary exploration of the potential of Eugenia uvalha Cambess juice intake to counter oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J M M; Lage, N N; Guerra, J F C; Silva, M; Bonomo, L F; Paulino, A H S; Regis, A L R S; Pedrosa, M L; Silva, M E

    2018-03-01

    The ability of foods to aid in the prevention of chronic metabolic diseases, has recently become an area of increased interest. In addition, there is growing interest in exploring the benefits of consuming underutilized fruits as alternatives to commercially available fruits. Eugenia uvalha Cambess (uvaia) is a native fruit of Brazil with great market and phytotherapy potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of uvaia juice (UJ) on the levels of protein carbonyls (PCO) and antioxidant enzymes in the livers of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty-two female rats were randomly assigned to four groups. The rats were fed either a standard diet (group C) or a high-fat diet (group HF). In addition, groups CUJ and HFUJ were treated with UJ (2mL/day) administered via gavage for 8weeks. In our study, UJ displayed high antioxidant activity (135.14±9.74 GAE/100g). Administration of UJ caused a significantly reduced concentration of rat liver PCO (47.4%), which was associated with a 29% increase in catalase activity. A significant increase in the concentration of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) (15.04±5.08nmol/ml) and a reduction in the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) (11.30±2.68) were found in the HF group, whilst these changes were not observed in the HFUJ group (a result similar to that of group C). Our results demonstrate that UJ decreases oxidative damage by improving antioxidant efficiency and attenuating oxidative damage to proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DE Eugenia uniflora L. (MYRTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonias Almeida Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora, pertencente à família Myrtaceae, é uma espécie arbórea, nativa do Bioma Mata Atlântica e conhecida no Brasil como pitangueira. É uma planta de frutos comestíveis, o chá das folhas tem aplicação na medicina popular como hipotensor, antigota, estomáquico e hipoglicemiante. Explorada pelas indústrias alimentícias, cosméticas e medicinais, é alvo de contínuos estudos em relação à composição química do óleo essencial. Este trabalho é uma prospecção e tem como objetivos mapear as pesquisas patenteadas referentes à pitangueira. A prospecção foi realizada com base nos pedidos de patentes depositadas no European Patent Office (EPO, na World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, no United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO e no Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil (INPI com coleta de dados nos meses de agosto e setembro de 2015. USPTO foi a base de dados que apresentou o maior número de pedidos patentes e o INPI apresentou um número pouco expressivo envolvendo a E. uniflora. No período de 2006 a 2015 observou-se, de modo geral, um aumento no número de pedido de patentes, verificou-se ainda que os Estados Unidos é o maior detentor de patentes, com destaque para as seções A (Necessidades Humanas e C (Química; Metalurgia da classificação internacional de patentes.

  15. Eugenia uniflora Dentifrice for Treating Gingivitis in Children: Antibacterial Assay and Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovito, Vanessa de Carvalho; Freires, Irlan Almeida; Ferreira, Danilo Augusto de Holanda; Paulo, Marçal de Queiroz; Castro, Ricardo Dias de

    2016-01-01

    School-age children are frequently at high risk for the onset of biofilm-dependent conditions, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing Eugenia uniflora Linn. (Surinam cherry) extract versus a triclosan-based comparator in treating gingivitis in children aged 10-12 years. The in vitro antibacterial potential of the dentifrice was tested against oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei). Then a phase-II clinical trial was conducted with 50 subjects aged 10-12 years, with clinical signs of gingivitis. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=25) and control group (n=25), in which participants used the experimental dentifrice and a triclosan-based fluoridated dentifrice (Colgate Total 12(r)), respectively. Clinical examinations assessed the presence of gingivitis (primary outcome) and biofilm accumulation (secondary outcome) using the Gingival-Bleeding Index (GBI) and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and after seven days of tooth brushing 3x/day. The data were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test (GBI) and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney (OHI-S), with p≤0.05. The experimental dentifrice showed efficient antibacterial activity in vitro. In the clinical trial, a significant reduction in gingival bleeding was observed in both experimental and control groups (puniflora dentifrice showed anti-gingivitis properties in children aged 10-12 years. Thus, it may be a potentially efficient and safe product to be used alternatively in preventive dental practice.

  16. Quorum Quenching and Microbial Control through Phenolic Extract of Eugenia Uniflora Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Adeline Conceição; Zola, Flávia Guimarães; Ávila Oliveira, Brígida D'; Sacramento, Nayara Thais Barbosa; da Silva, Elis Regina; Bertoldi, Michele Corrêa; Taylor, Jason Guy; Pinto, Uelinton Manoel

    2016-10-01

    We describe the characterization of the centesimal composition, mineral and phenolic content of Eugenia uniflora fruit and the determination of the antioxidant, antimicrobial and quorum quenching activities of the pulp phenolic extract. Centesimal composition was determined according to standard methods; trace elements were measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The phenolic compounds were extracted by solid-phase chromatography and quantified by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 3 different methods. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against a panel of foodborne microorganisms and antiquorum sensing activity in Chromobacterium violaceum was performed by measuring inhibition of quorum sensing dependent violacein production. The centesimal composition (per 100 g of pulp) was as follows: protein 3.68 ± 0.21 g, lipids 0.02 ± 0.03 g, carbohydrates 10.31 g and fiber 2.06 g. Trace elements (mg/g of pulp) were determined as: K 0.90, Ca 3.36, Fe 0.60, Zn 0.17, Cl 0.56, Cr 0.06, Ni 0.04, and Cu 0.07. The pulp is a source of phenolic compounds and presents antioxidant activity similar to other berries. The fruit phenolic extract inhibited all tested bacteria. We also found that the fruit phenolic extract at low subinhibitory concentrations inhibited up to 96% of violacein production in C. violaceum, likely due to the fruit's phenolic content. This study shows the contribution of E. uniflora phenolic compounds to the antioxidant, antimicrobial and the newly discovered quorum quenching activity, all of which could be used by the food and pharmaceutical industries to develop new functional products. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia – IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Snow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen new endemic species of the genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae are proposed from Madagascar, including: E. andapae N. Snow, E. barriei N. Snow, E. bemangidiensis N. Snow, E. calciscopulorum N. Snow, E. delicatissima N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson, E. echinulata N. Snow, E. gandhii N. Snow, E. hazonjia N. Snow, E. iantarensis N. Snow, E. malcomberi N. Snow, E. manomboensis N. Snow, E. obovatifolia N. Snow, E. ranomafana N. Snow & D. Turk, E. ravelonarivoi N. Snow & Callm., E. razakamalalae N. Snow & Callm., E. tiampoka N. Snow & Callm., and E. wilsoniana N. Snow, and one new combination, Eugenia richardii (Blume N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson is provided. Detailed descriptions, information on distribution and ecology, distribution maps, vernacular names (where known, digital images of types, comparisons to morphologically similar species. Preliminary assessment of IUCN risk of extinction and conservation recommendations are provided, including Vulnerable (4 species, Endangered (2 species, and Critically Endangered (4 species. Lectotpyes are designated for Eugenia hovarum H. Perrier, Eugenia nompa H. Perrier, and E. scottii H. Perrier respectively.

  18. Efficient, highly enantioselective synthesis of selina-1,3, 7(11)-trien-8-one, a major component of the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, A; Patin, A; Greene, A E

    2000-09-01

    The first synthesis of selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (1), a major constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, has been accomplished, with excellent stereo- and regiocontrol, in eight steps and in 12% overall yield from the known octalone derivative 2a.

  19. Nutrient Status of Vermicompost of Urban Green Waste Processed by Three Earthworm Species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnaik, S.; Vikram, M.

    2010-01-01

    Major nutrient status of vermicompost of vegetable market waste (MW) and floral waste (FW) processed by three species of earthworms namely, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. Their physical parameters temperature, moisture, ph, and electrical conductivity were also recorded. The nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium increased in the vermicompost and compost while the organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios decreased as the composting process progressed from 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The nutrient statuses of vermicomposts of all earthworm species produced from both the wastes were more than that of the compost and that of their respective substrates. Moreover, the vermicompost produced by E. eugeniae possessed higher nutrient contents than that of E. fetida, P. excavatus, and compost. The MW showed higher nutrient contents than the FW. Thus, vermicomposting is the paramount approach of nutrient recovery of urban green waste.

  20. NATUREZA HUMANA VERSUS APERFEIÇOAMENTO? UMA CRÍTICA AOS ARGUMENTOS DE HABERMAS CONTRA A EUGENIA POSITIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Dias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é criticar os argumentos bioconservadores de Jürgen Habermas contra a eugenia positiva (aperfeiçoamento humano. Em suma, ele sustenta a tese de que a natureza humana seria fundamento das ideias centrais que consubstanciariam a correta compreensão normativa das relações humanas. Assim, para ele, a biotecnociência deveria restringir-se à esfera da eugenia negativa (terapia, apresentando, contudo, argumentos que nos parecem amplamente questionáveis. Anteriormente, todavia, abordamos o debate em torno da noção de pós-humanidade, uma vez que o estágio pós-humano é considerado como uma consequência incontornável das biotécnicas de aperfeiçoamento humano, perfazendo um dos pontos fulcrais da discórdia dos bioconservadores com os transumanistas. Após isto, então, abordamos a perspectiva habermasiana, a fim de mostrar seus problemas.

  1. The Effect of Storage on the Efficacy of Eugenia Aromatica (Baill.) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    fumigant toxicity test, first use of the differently aged powders prevented ... In a consecutive reuse of powders, adults emerged from fumigated eggs but the ... These study investigated aspects ... material per 20 g of seed in separate plastic Petri.

  2. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  3. Implementation of bio-fungicides and seed treatment in organic rice cv. KDML 105 farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the several chemical compounds of relatively composite structure with antifungal activity from Thai local medical plants. The antifungal activity of Stemona curtisii HK. f., Stemona tuberose L., Acorus calamus L., Eugenia caryophyllus, Memmea siamensis Kost. and an eugenol active compound were studied in vitro. Four pathogenic seed borne fungi, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium moniliforme and Rhizoctonia solani were used as target organisms. The agar overlay technique and spore inhibition techniques were applied for the determination of their essential oil and active compound antifungal activity at various concentration; 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v) and untreated as control (0% v/v). Eugenol active compound showed the strongest antifungal activity on all species of tested fungal species. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of those bio-fungicides was lined up into a series from strong to low, as follows: Eugenia caryophyllus > Acorus calamus Linn. > Stemona tuberosa L. > Stemona curtisii Hk.f, while Mammea siamensis Kost. could not control any fungal species. Moreover, after eugenol application, lysis of spore and inhibition of mycelium growth were detected. Microscopic analysis exhibited complete lysis of spores after 24 h at a concentration of 1.00% v/v. Moreover, at the same concentration and 96 h incubation the mycelia growth was completely inhibited.

  4. Influence of different extraction methods on the yield and linalool content of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhiane, Mário S; Rissato, Sandra R; Chierice, Gilberto O; Almeida, Marcos V; Silva, Letícia C

    2006-09-15

    This work has been developed using a sylvestral fruit tree, native to the Brazilian forest, the Eugenia uniflora L., one of the Mirtaceae family. The main goal of the analytical study was focused on extraction methods themselves. The method development pointed to the Clevenger extraction as the best yield in relation to SFE and Soxhlet. The SFE method presented a good yield but showed a big amount of components in the final extract, demonstrating low selectivity. The essential oil extracted was analyzed by GC/FID showing a large range of polarity and boiling point compounds, where linalool, a widely used compound, was identified. Furthermore, an analytical solid phase extraction method was used to clean it up and obtain separated classes of compounds that were fractionated and studied by GC/FID and GC/MS.

  5. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA S FIUZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  6. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  7. Antinociceptive and hypothermic evaluation of the leaf essential oil and isolated terpenoids from Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Lima, Cleverton Kleiton F; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Rezende, Claudia M

    2009-10-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), known as Brazilian cherry tree, is a fruity tree spread all over Brazil used in popular medicine to treat inflammations, rheumatic pain and fever, as hypoglycemic, diuretic and has been widely used in the cosmetics industry. The present study discusses the chemical composition, the antinociceptive and hypothermic profile of the essential oil of pitangueira leaves. The chemical composition was evaluated by GC-MS and the main constituent of the oil was characterized, after isolation, as a mixture of atractylone (1) and 3-furanoeudesmene (2). The essential oil, its pentane fraction and the isolated mixture of sesquiterpenes (1 and 2), given orally, significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions, increased the latency time in hot plate test and showed a hypothermic effect. The results suggest that the responsible for the antinociceptive and hypothermic effect were the isolated furanosesquiterpenes. These findings provided additional pharmacological information and may contribute for the use of Brazilian cherry tree as a phytomedicine.

  8. Constituintes químicos e atividade antioxidante de folhas e galhos de Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Ribeiro de Carvalho Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Eugenia copacabanensis allowed for the isolation and identification of following compounds: β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-glucoside, eight triterpenes, (mixture of α- and β-amyrins, ursolic acid, 30-hydroxy-ursolic acid, betulin, friedelin, friedelan-3,4-lactone, and taraxerol, a mixture of three sesquiterpenes, (clovandiol, globulol, and viridiflorol, three flavonoids (kaempferol-3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside, and quercetin, and a mixture of four coumaroyl esters (octacosanyl, heptacosanyl, hexacosanyl, and tetracosanyl coumarates. The structures of these compounds were assigned based on comparison with literature data and spectroscopic analysis, including analysis by two-dimensional NMR techniques. Total phenolic content and total flavonoids were evaluated. Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts and fractions were measured by the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl free radical scavenging assay.

  9. María Eugenia Dengo Obregón: mujer de lectura, educación y cultura...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jóse Pablo Eduarte Salazar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es una semblanza de la Licenciada María Eugenia Dengo Obregón viuda de Vargas que recorre la vida y las obras de esta dama en su faceta personal, profesional, pública y más recien-temente, como exponente de la cultura costarricense. Este documento es un sentido homenaje a la figura de esta incansable mujer, que con su lectura y escritura ha logrado dejar un legado en la educación costarri-cense, como profesora, decana, vicerrectora, ministra y ex ministra de educación pública. La Licda. Dengo Obregón fue galardonada con el premio nacional de Cultura “Magón 2007” otorgado por el Ministerio de Cultura y Juventud de la República de Costa Rica a sus 82 años de edad. Honor al que honor merece.

  10. Efecto del choque térmico de arazá (Eugenia stipitata Me Vaugh sobre la tolerancia al frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez Cuenca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Los frutos de arazá (Eugenia stipitata fueron cosechados en su madurez fisiológica y calentados a 50 °C durante O, 10, 20 ó 30 min antes de ser refrigerados a 7 °C durante 14 días y maduración complementaria a 25 °C durante 3 días.

  11. ENSAYO PRELIMINAR DE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTIBACTERIANA DE EXTRACTOS DE ALLIUM SATIVUM, CORIANDRUM SATIVUM, EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLATA, ORIGANUM VULGARE, ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS Y THYMUS VULGARIS FRENTE A CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Q., Martha I; Vargas A., Andrés F; Pérez C., Jorge E; Mejía G., Luis F

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana frente a Clostridium perfringens (cepa ATCC: 13124) por el método de Kirby Bauer en agar SPS de los aceites esenciales o extractos vegetales obtenidos con solventes orgánicos de diferente polaridad a partir de Allium sativum (ajo), Coriandrum sativum (cilantro), Eugenia Caryophyllata (clavo de olor), Origanum vulgare (orégano), Rosmarinus officinalis (romero) y Thymus vulgaris (tomillo), utilizando la vancomicina como control. Los extractos obtenidos por ...

  12. Evaluation of the Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia Uniflora Lineau e Psidium Sobraleanum Proença & Landrum Against Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina E. Sobral-Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of antioxidant activity has been an important issue considering its importance in human health. Recent studies show that the use of plants in the form of juices or teas as sources of natural antioxidants with low risk can be used as an aid to the treatment of various diseases. Material and Methods: Evaluation of the antioxidant potential in vitro, extracts of Eugenia uniflora and Psidium sobraleanum, as well as the quantification of phenols and flavonoids present in the extracts. Results: Findings showed a better antioxidant activity for the extract of Eugenia uniflora. In the TBARS test with egg phospholipids, extracts presented a reduction in the basal levels in the lipid peroxidation process; and when the Fe2 + extract was inducted, Psidium sobraleanum proved to be more efficient.. Conclusions: These tests proved that the extracts of leaves of the species Eugenia uniflora and Psidium sobraleanum present antioxidant activity which is directly related to phenolic substances produced in its secondary metabolism.

  13. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  14. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  15. Germination, seed diameter and pregerminative treatments in species with different purposes of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicio Abril-Saltos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of vegetal species germination consents to know its characteristics and permits to understand the factors that influence this process. The aim of this research was to know the germination’s characteristics of some species, such as Eugenia stipitata McVaugh, Inga edulis Mart, Inga spectabilis (Vahl Wild, Piptocoma discolor (Kunth Pruski, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, and Verbena officinalis L., and also their reaction to pregerminative treatments depending on the seed’s diameter. This study was carried out in Pastaza, Province of Pastaza, Ecuador, between February and June, 2014. Different diameters of seeds and pregerminative treatments were used in species, which did not present germination percentages higher than 40%. In the first practice I. edulis and I. spectabilis exceeded this value without treatment. Other species had lower values. Seeds were classified considering two diameters and two doses of gibberellin acid, this was applied to, and evaluated in the E. stipitata. In addition, scarification with sulfuric acid was done. After 45 days of its application, 100 ppm of gibberellic acid with larger seed diameter reported higher percentages of germination in S. cayenennsis, and in E. stipitata, which also interacted with the scarification. V. officinalis and P. discolor, did not present any response to the applications made. I. edulis and I. spectabilis presented high germination percentages without pregerminative treatments, E. stipitata and S. cayenennsis showed response to seed diameter and the applied treatments, while P discolor and V. officinalis did not show any response.

  16. Essential oil composition of fruit colour varieties of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Composição dos óleos essenciais de variedades de coloração de frutos de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto H. Moreno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. is a variable species concerning fruit colour, with three recognized varieties. However, the definition of varieties is not easy for Myrtaceae species and not widely accepted. Two fruit colour varieties (purple and yellow of E. brasiliensis had their essential oil composition analysed in order to give support to the existence of varieties for this species. Although, the major components in the leaf oil are the same monoterpenes for both varieties, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 1,8-cineol, the purple fruit variety accumulates more oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.9% than the one with yellow fruits (3.8%. The major differences occurred in purple fruits that present as major components caryophyllene oxide (22.2% and alpha-cadinol (10.4%, not found in the leaf oil, and the yellow fruit oil presented a similar composition as observed for the leaves. These fruit colour varieties of E. brasilensis can be considered as two distinct chemotypes, since the sesquiterpene pathway is more operant in the purple variety than in the yellow one, in which monoterpenes are mainly accumulated.A espécie Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. apresenta a coloração dos frutos variável, sendo reconhecidas três variedades. Entretanto, a definição de variedades não é fácil para espécies de Myrtaceae e também não é amplamente aceita. Duas variedades de Eugenia brasiliensis, baseado na cor dos frutos (roxos e amarelos, tiveram a composição de seus óleos essenciais analisadas com a finalidade de obter indícios de variedade botânica para esta espécie. Embora, os componentes principais nos óleos das folhas fossem os mesmos monoterpenos para ambas as variedades, alfa-pineno, beta-pineno e 1,8-cineol, a variedade com frutos roxos acumulou maior quantidade de sesquiterpenos oxigenados (33,9% do que aquela com frutos amarelos (3,8%. As diferenças principais ocorreram nos frutos roxos que apresentaram como componente principal o óxido de cariofileno

  17. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Materials and Methods: Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. Results: E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH•, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Conclusion: Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. SUMMARY Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed

  18. Excesso de ferro sobre o crescimento e a composição mineral em Eugenia uniflora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gládis de Oliveira Jucoski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O ferro, embora micronutriente essencial, quando em excesso pode causar redução no crescimento e, consequentemente, na produtividade das plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a absorção, o acúmulo, a distribuição do Fe e suas consequências sobre o crescimento e composição mineral de plantas jovens de Eugenia uniflora L.. As plantas foram expostas às concentrações de Fe 0,045 (controle, 1,0 e 2,0 mM, aplicado na forma de FeEDTA, em solução nutritiva de Hoagland, pH 5,0, durante 15; 30 e 45 dias e, então, foram avaliados o número de folhas, a altura da parte aérea, o comprimento da raiz primária, a massa seca de raízes, caule e folhas e os teores de clorofila, carotenóides totais e minerais. Plantas expostas aos tratamentos com Fe 1,0 e 2,0 mM apresentaram aumento nos teores deste elemento em folhas, caule e raízes em relação às plantas-controle, especialmente aos 45 dias de exposição. Sob esta condição, as plantas exibiram sintomatologia típica de toxidez de Fe, caracterizada por bronzeamento foliar, escurecimento das raízes, redução no número de folhas, na altura da parte aérea, no comprimento da raiz principal, na produção de massa seca e nos teores de pigmentos cloroplastídicos. O excesso de Fe modificou a partição da biomassa e promoveu redução nos teores de P, Zn, Cu e Mn, especialmente nas raízes. Além de um efeito direto do Fe em excesso, a desordem nutricional resultante pode estar associada aos efeitos restritivos sobre o crescimento vegetativo inicial das plantas de Eugenia uniflora L..

  19. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Camellia sinensis , the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora , a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH • ) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC 50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH • , in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed synergistic effect over alpha-glucosidase and peroxyl radicals

  20. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Flavonoids in Herbal Material, Crude Extract, and Fractions from Leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rhayanne T M; Bezerra, Isabelle C F; Ferreira, Magda R A; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2017-01-01

    The traditional use of Eugenia uniflora L. ("Pitanga") is reported due to several properties, which have often been related to its flavonoid content. The aim was to evaluate analytical procedures for quantification of total flavonoids content (TFCs) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry in the herbal material (HM), crude extract (CE), and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora . The method for quantification of flavonoids after complexation with aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) was evaluated: amount of sample (0.25-1.5 g); solvent (40%-80% ethanol); reaction time and AlCl 3 concentration (2.5%-7.5%). The procedures by direct dilution (DD) and after acid hydrolysis (AH) were used and validated for HM and CE and applied to the aqueous fraction (AqF), hexane fraction, and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF). The ideal conditions of analysis were ethanol 80% as solvent; 0.5 g of sample; λmax of 408 (DD) and 425 nm (AH); 25 min after addition of AlCl 3 5%. The procedures validated for standards and samples showed linearity ( R 2 > 0.99) with limit of detection and limit of quantification between 0.01 and 0.17 mg/mL (rutin and quercetin); and 0.03 and 0.09 mg/mL (quercetin), for DD and AH, respectively. The procedures were accurate (detect, practice, and repair 90%), and stable under robustness conditions (luminosity, storage, reagents, and equipment). The TFCs in AqF and EAF were 0.65 g% and 17.72 g%, calculated as rutin. UV-Vis methods for quantification of TFC in HM, CE, and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora were suitably validated. Regarding the analysis of fractions, the EAF achieved enrichment of about nine times in the content of flavonoids. The total flavonoids content (TFCs) of herbal material, crude extract, and fractions from Eugenia uniflora can be quantified by ultraviolet-visibleThe spectrophotometric methods (direct dilution and acid hydrolysis) were reproducible and able to quantify TFC in raw material and derivatives from leaves of E. uniflora Higher

  1. Did it really happen? Memory, history and myth in Eugenia Tsoulis´ Between the ceiling and the sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ribas Segura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available World War II, the Nazi occupation and several dictatorships forced many Greek men and women into migration. In 1952 Greece signed an agreement on assisted migration to Australia and more than “250 000 Greek and Cypriot migrants from Greece (1952-74, Rumania (1952-8, Egypt and the Middle East (1952-2 [sic], Cyprus (1974-84 and other politically turbulent countries of Eastern Europe and Latin America” moved to Australia (Tamis, Anastasios M. The Greeks in Australia, 2005: 47. The lives of those migrants changed radically as they left home behind. Some of them, or their children, wrote fictional texts explaining some of their experiences. An example of this is Eugenia Tsoulis´ Behind the Ceiling and the Sky (1998, where the main characters live their lives between present and past and between memories and myths, on the one hand, and facts and the lifeworld that surround them, on the other. This paper will analyse this novel and the sometimes blurred boundaries between memory, history and myth.

  2. In vivo pretreatment of Eudrilus eugeniae powder attenuates β-adrenoceptor toxicity mediated by isoproterenol in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaganathan Anitha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to discover the potential cardioprotective function of earthworm powder (EWP extracted from Eudrilus eugeniae on isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, with six rats in each group. Certain rats were pretreated with EWP (200 mg/kg bwt (Group III, and a myocardial infarction was then induced by subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bwt (Group II. Oral pretreatment of 200 mg/kg bwt of EWP for 28 days significantly (p > 0.05 improved the blood profile levels, including (a the lipid profile of total cholesterol (TC, free fatty acids (FFA, and triglycerides (TG; (b low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and protein; and (c A/G ratio, glucose and uric acid levels. The electrophoretic pattern of elevated lactose dehydrogenase (LDH levels was recovered by EWP treatment as evidenced by comparison with ISO-induced rats with cardiac damage. The above results indicate that EWP (200 mg/kg bwt provides a cardioprotective effect by attenuating the blood profile, lipid profile, biochemical levels, and LDH patterns in rats that experienced an ISO-induced myocardial infarction.

  3. Clusia hilariana and Eugenia uniflora as bioindicators of atmospheric pollutants emitted by an iron pelletizing factory in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; Pereira, Tiago Augusto Rodrigues; Castro, Letícia Nalon; Silva, Eduardo Chagas; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate if the pollution emitted by the pelletizing factory causes visual symptoms and/or anatomical changes in exposed Eugenia uniflora and Clusia hilariana, in active biomonitoring, at different distances from a pelletizing factory. We characterize the symptomatology, anatomical, and histochemistry alterations induced in the two species. There was no difference in the symptomatology in relation to the different distances of the emitting source. The foliar symptoms found in C. hilariana were chlorosis, necrosis, and foliar abscission and, in E. uniflora, were observed necrosis punctuais, purple spots in the leaves, and increase in the emission of new leaves completely purplish. The two species presented formation of a cicatrization tissue. E. uniflora presented reduction in the thickness of leaf. In C. hilariana, it was visualized hyperplasia of the cells and the adaxial epidermis did not appear collapsed due to thick cuticle and cuticular flanges. Leaves of C. hilariana showed positive staining for iron, protein, starch, and phenolic compounds. E. uniflora showed positive staining for total phenolic compounds and starch. Micromorphologically, there was accumulation of particulate matter on the leaf surface, obstruction of the stomata, and scaling of the epicuticular wax in both species. It was concluded that the visual and anatomical symptoms were efficient in the diagnosis of the stress factor. C. hilariana and E. uniflora showed to be good bioindicators of the atmospheric pollutants emitted by the pelletizing factory.

  4. Cytotoxic and antioxidative potentials of ethanolic extract of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) leaves on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Matias, Edinardo Fagner Ferreira; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Sanmi, Adekunle Adeniran; Boligon, Aline Augusti; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Posser, Thaís; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia uniflora is used in the Brazilian folk medicine to treat intestinal disorders and hypertension. However, scanty information exist on its potential toxicity to human, and little is known on its antioxidant activity in biological system. Hence, we investigated for the first time the potential toxic effects of ethanolic extract (EtOH) of E. uniflora (EEEU) in human leukocytes and erythrocytes, as well as its influence on membrane erythrocytes osmotic fragility. In addition, EEEU was chemically characterized and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated. We found that EEEU (1-480μg/mL) caused neither cytotoxicity nor DNA damage evaluated by Trypan blue and Comet assay, respectively. EEEU (1-480μg/mL) did not have any effect on membrane erythrocytes fragility. In addition, EEEU inhibited Fe 2+ -induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain and liver homogenates, and scavenged the DPPH radical. EEEU presented some polyphenolic compounds with high content such as quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, luteolin and ellagic acid, which may be at least in part responsible for its beneficial effects. Our results suggest that consumption of EEEU at relatively higher concentrations may not result in toxicity. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies should be conducted to ascertain its safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.): characterization of aqueous dispersions and lyophilized formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, P A; Yokota, D; Foglio, M A; Rodrigues, R A F; Pinho, S C

    2010-01-01

    Multilamellar liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves were produced by dry film hydration. Gas chromatography demonstrated the compounds found in the essential oil were effectively incorporated in the aqueous dispersions of liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed the incorporation of the essential oil did not cause phase separation in the membrane structure; the gel-liquid crystalline transition temperature (main transition) remained the same despite the higher heterogeneity indicated by the transition peak broadening. Different cryoprotectors (sucrose and trehalose) were added to the liposomal formulations to be tested in their ability to protect the liposomal structure during the lyophilization. The morphological aspect of the lyophilized powders analysed by scanning electron microscopy showed significant differences among the samples with and without cryoprotectors. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the cryoprotectors interacted effectively with the polar heads of phospholipids in the bilayer. In terms of water absorption, trehalose was identified as a much more effective protector agent against it than sucrose. The cryoprotectors showed different degrees of effectiveness of preservation of the liposomal structure when the rehydration assays of lyophilized liposomes were carried out, as particle size measurements indicated a moderate process of fusion when the formulations with sucrose were rehydrated.

  6. De novo assembly of Eugenia uniflora L. transcriptome and identification of genes from the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Frank; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Margis, Rogerio

    2014-12-01

    Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is of particular interest due to its medicinal properties that are attributed to specialized metabolites with known biological activities. Among these molecules, terpenoids are the most abundant in essential oils that are found in the leaves and represent compounds with potential pharmacological benefits. The terpene diversity observed in Myrtaceae is determined by the activity of different members of the terpene synthase and oxidosqualene cyclase families. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transcripts from E. uniflora leaves and to annotation to identify the genes potentially involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway and terpene diversity. In total, 72,742 unigenes with a mean length of 1048bp were identified. Of these, 43,631 and 36,289 were annotated with the NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. The gene ontology categorized the sequences into 53 functional groups. A metabolic pathway analysis with KEGG revealed 8,625 unigenes assigned to 141 metabolic pathways and 40 unigenes predicted to be associated with the biosynthesis of terpenoids. Furthermore, we identified four putative full-length terpene synthase genes involved in sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes biosynthesis, and three putative full-length oxidosqualene cyclase genes involved in the triterpenes biosynthesis. The expression of these genes was validated in different E. uniflora tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Nárgella S; Alves, Cassia C F; Alves, José M; Egea, Mariana B; Martins, Carlos H G; Silva, Thayná S; Bretanha, Lizandra C; Balleste, Maira P; Micke, Gustavo A; Silveira, Eduardo V; Miranda, Mayker L D

    2017-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal bacteria and antioxidant properties. Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (pêra-do-cerrado, in Portuguese) is a species of Myrtaceae with restricted distribution in the Cerrado. The essential oils were extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours) and chemically characterized by GC-MS. The major compounds were α-copaene (10.6 %) found in oil from leaves in natura, β-bisabolene (17.4 %) in the essential oil from dry leaves and α-(E)-bergamotene (29.9 %) in oil from flowers. The antioxidant activity of essential oils showed similarities in both methods under analysis (DPPH and ABTS˙+) and the results suggested moderate to high antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), using the microdilution method. MIC values below 400 µg/mL were obtained against Streptococcus salivarius (200 µg/mL), S. mutans (50 µg/mL), S. mitis (200 µg/mL) and Prevotella nigrescens (50 µg/mL). This is the first report of the chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of E. klotzschiana. These results suggest that E. klotzschiana, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.

  8. Elaboration and Characterization of Apple Nectars Supplemented with Araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata Mac Vaugh—Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ferrari Baldini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are known as sources of nutritionally important phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, and Brazilian biodiversity may be hiding many underexplored fruits with potential health benefits. In this study, we formulated a fruit-based beverage by supplementing known amounts of freeze-dried araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata (FD to a commercial apple nectar in order to evaluate the impact in terms of nutritional (level of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity and sensory parameters. The best acceptance was evidenced for the apple nectar supplemented with 1 g/L of FD, while no statistically significant changes were obtained for non-supplemented apple nectar and apple nectar supplemented with 5 or 10 g/L FD. Lower acceptances for apple nectars supplemented with 15, 20 or 30 g/L FD were suggested to be caused by an increase in acidity. In general, total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (DPPH, TEAC and ORAC increased with the supplementation level, although not always a statistically significant difference was observed. When compared to control (non-supplemented, the apple nectar supplemented with 10 g/L FD presented a significant increase in total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (except for ORAC assay, and therefore this level of supplementation was considered ideal, considering both nutritional and sensory properties.

  9. Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) standardized extract: a potential pharmacological tool to diet-induced metabolic syndrome damage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pathise Souto; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Bona, Natália Pontes; Soares, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira; Cardoso, Juliane de Souza; Vasconcellos, Flávia Aleixo; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli; Vizzotto, Marcia; Silva, Luísa Mariano Cerqueira da; Grecco, Fabiane Borelli; Gamaro, Giovana Duzzo; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Lencina, Claiton Leoneti; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Stefanello, Francieli Moro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) extract on metabolic status, as well as on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in an animal model of metabolic syndrome induced by a highly palatable diet (HPD). Rats were treated for 150days and divided into 4 experimental groups: standard chow (SC) and water orally, SC and E. uniflora extract (200mg/kg daily, p.o), HPD and water orally, HPD and extract. Our data showed that HPD caused glucose intolerance, increased visceral fat, weight gain, as well as serum glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol; however, E. uniflora prevented these alterations. The extract decreased lipid peroxidation and prevented the reduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum of animals submitted to HPD. We observed a HPD-induced reduction of thiol content in these cerebral structures. The extract prevented increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the prefrontal cortex caused by HPD and the increase in immobility time observed in the forced swim test. Regarding chemical composition, LC/MS analysis showed the presence of nine anthocyanins as the major compounds. In conclusion, E. uniflora extract showed benefits against metabolic alterations caused by HPD, as well as exhibited antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. On the concept of eugenics: preliminaries to a critical appraisal Sobre o conceito de eugenia: preliminares à uma avaliação crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio Neri

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's main issue is linked to what can be foreseen as the increasing capability of medical genetics to modify the genetic composition of the human species through direct interventions in the human genome for medical and non-medical purposes, i.e., the 'risk' of a resurgence of eugenics. In current discussions on the topic (briefly presented in the first section, the 'phantom of eugenics' is raised several times, but there is a great deal of confusion on what counts as eugenics, partly because of broad conceptual disagreement over the notion itself. Furthermore, according to some scholars there is no hope of overcoming this unsatisfactory conceptual uncertainty. Partly challenging this opinion, the second and third sections of this paper attempt to identify some basic features which could be seen as intrinsically linked to the notion of eugenics, with the aim of reducing the range of conceptual disagreement as a preliminary step in bringing into focus what exactly is wrong with practicing eugenics. The subsequent sections deal with the substantive issue of whether or not to practice eugenics from the point of view of the interest of future generations in the human species' genetic composition. The main moral arguments for and against eugenics are examined from the point of view of our obligations towards future generations, and the conclusion is in favor of a cautious 'open-door' position.O ponto principal desse artigo está vinculado ao que pode ser antevisto como a crescente capacidade da genética médica de modificar a espécie humana por meio de intervenções diretas no genoma humano com propósitos médicos e não médicos, isto é, o risco do ressurgimento da eugenia. Nas atuais discussões sobre o tópico, o fantasma da eugenia é levantado diversas vezes, mas há grande confusão no que se refere ao que é considerado como eugenia, particularmente em razão da ampla discordância sobre a noção em si. Procura-se identificar

  11. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  12. Biologia floral e da polinização de quatro espécies de Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae Floral and pollination biology of four species of Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Gomes da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora, E. punicifolia, E. neonitida e E. rotundifolia são espécies perenes, geralmente de porte arbustivo, que ocorrem na restinga do Parque Natural Municipal de Grumari, região oeste do Município do Rio de Janeiro. Possuem inflorescências racemosas com flores pediceladas inseridas nas axilas foliares. Suas flores são andróginas, polistêmones, do tipo Papaver, generalistas, com grãos de pólen como único recurso floral sendo enquadradas dentro da categoria de "flores-pólen". O estigma é seco, diminuto e formado por papilas delgadas. A antese é diurna, as flores duram apenas um dia e são visitadas por uma ampla variedade de insetos, incluindo himenópteros, dípteros, coleópteros e neurópteros, totalizando 29 espécies. As abelhas são os visitantes mais comuns e, dentre elas, Apis mellifera L., espécie introduzida pela ação humana, é a mais freqüente e abundante, sendo considerada o polinizador efetivo das espécies aqui estudadas. A floração é anual e em massa. E. uniflora floresce de agosto a outubro, com frutificação de setembro a novembro. E. neonitida floresce do final de agosto até início de dezembro, com frutificação de outubro até início de janeiro. E. punicifolia floresceu por duas vezes no ano de 2003, sendo a primeira florada entre os meses de junho e julho, frutificando no mês de agosto e a segunda, entre os meses de setembro e outubro, frutificando entre novembro e dezembro e no ano de 2004, floriu apenas no mês de agosto e frutificou entre outubro e dezembro. E. rotundifolia floresceu no mês de março, com frutificação de maio a junho.Eugenia uniflora, E. punicifolia, E. neonitida and E. rotundifolia are perennial species, usually shrubs, occurring in the restinga of Grumari Natural Municipal Park west of Rio de Janeiro. They have racemose inflorescences with pedicellate flowers inserted in the leaf axils. The flowers are androgynous, polystemonous, of the Papaver type, and

  13. Análise estrutural de folhas de Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae coletadas em ambientes rural e urbano, SP, Brasil Leaf anatomy of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae in urban and rural environments, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenise Segala Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo verificar se plantas de Eugenia uniflora que crescem na cidade de São Paulo, diferem quanto à estrutura foliar, de exemplares encontrados em área rural, isenta de poluentes aéreos urbanos. Foram avaliadas, comparativamente, as dimensões da folha e, em microscopia de luz, a espessura dos tecidos foliares, a densidade de estômatos e de cristais da espécie, coletada em área rural e em dois pontos da cidade de São Paulo: canteiro central da Avenida dos Bandeirantes, com tráfego veicular intenso, portanto com alta carga de poluentes primários, e no Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI submetido a altas concentrações de poluentes secundários. Buscaram-se variações que possam ser decorrentes da poluição urbana. As folhas coletadas no meio urbano mostraram menores dimensões, menor espessura do mesofilo, maior densidade estomática e maior quantidade de cristais. A espessura do parênquima lacunoso sofreu redução, quando se comparam as plantas do ambiente rural e urbano; observou-se a menor espessura nas folhas submetidas a poluentes secundários. Não foram observadas variações qualitativas entre as folhas dos três locais avaliados. Considerando que folhas coletadas no meio urbano variaram menos entre si, quando comparadas àquelas de área rural, acredita-se que a poluição aérea da cidade possa ser responsável, pelo menos em parte, pelas variações observadas. Exposições padronizadas, em ambiente monitorado, devem ser realizadas para comprovar tal hipótese.The aim of this study was to compare leaves of Eugenia uniflora from the city of São Paulo with leaves of plants from a rural site. Leaf size, tissue thickness, and stomatal and crystal density of E. uniflora growing at two sites in the city of São Paulo were investigated by light microscopy and compared with samples from a rural area. The level and types of air pollutants varied at the urban sites. Primary pollutants were present

  14. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil.

  15. O gênero Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae na planície de alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná, Brasil The genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae on the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Barion Romagnolo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento das espécies de Eugenia L. da planície alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná (22º40' a 22º55'S e 53º10' a 53º40'W. Esta área localiza-se no domínio da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e apresenta formações ripárias ao longo do rio Paraná, de suas ilhas e de seus tributários. As espécies registradas foram: Eugenia egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O. Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart. e E. uniflora L. Os meses que apresentaram o maior número de espécies em floração e frutificação foram respectivamente, setembro e novembro. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis e E. repanda apresentam ampla distribuição na área, enquanto que E. ramboi e E. sulcata foram encontradas somente na margem esquerda do rio Paraná. É fornecida uma chave para a identificação das espécies, acompanhada de ilustrações e descrições das mesmas, além de informações sobre o período de floração, frutificação e distribuição na área estudada.A floristic survey of Eugenia L. species of the Upper Paraná River floodplain in Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil (22º40'-22º55'S; 53º10'-53º40'W is presented. The study area is covered by Seasonal Semideciduous Forest, with riparian formations along the Paraná River and its islands and tributaries. The following species were identified: E. egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O.Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart., and E. uniflora L. The greatest number of species in flower or fruit was detected in September and November, respectively. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis and E. repanda are widely distributed in the study area, whereas E. ramboi and E. sulcata were observed only

  16. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  17. Seeds and Synergies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'Seeds and Synergies presents inspiring evidence of change in practice and policy ... Seeds of inspiration: breathing new life into the formal agricultural research .... and Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Commodity ...

  18. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  19. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  20. O abajurú (Chrysobalanus icaco L. e Eugenia rotundifolia Casar. comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Machline Silva

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as prováveis razões de introdução e comercialização de uma espécie de uso medicinal em um mercado popular urbano na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - o Mercado de Madureira. Durante os anos de 2005 e 2006 aplicaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas a 15 erveiros obtendo-se o freelist das espécies consideradas como mais comercializadas (97 a partir do qual se calculou o índice de saliência, que para o abajurú (Eugenia rotundifolia Casar, foi elevado. A espécie conhecida na literatura e comercializada como abajurú é Chysobalanus icaco L., que apresenta propriedades hipoglicemiantes comprovadas por pesquisas farmacológicas e é utilizada pela população para este fim; no entanto, verificou-se, nesse mercado, a venda quase exclusiva de E. rotundifolia, com esse nome popular e mesma propriedade. Até o momento não existem dados farmacológicos para essa espécie. Ambas são nativas e ocorrem, predominantemente, nas restingas litorâneas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A atribuição da atividade hipoglicemiante a E. rotundifolia pode indicar uma correlação, por parte dos erveiros, com a farmacologia de outras espécies de Myrtaceae. Questões relacionadas à fiscalização ambiental bem como desconhecimento e coleta equivocada podem também estar envolvidos nesse processo.

  1. Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Eugenia uniflora on Proteins Global Expression during Morphogenesis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P; de Azevedo, Matheus F; Ferreira, Magda R A; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Milan, Eveline P; Soares, Luiz A L; Rocha, Keyla B F; Uchôa, Adriana F; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J S; Fusco Almeida, Ana M; Chaves, Guilherme M

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is able to switch from yeast to hyphal growth and this is an essential step for tissue invasion and establishment of infection. Due to the limited drug arsenal used to treat fungal infections and the constant emergence of resistant strains, it is important to search for new therapeutic candidates. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate by proteomic analysis the role of a natural product ( Eugenia uniflora ) in impairing hypha formation in C. albicans . We also tested the potential action of E. uniflora to prevent and treat oral candidiasis induced in a murine model of oral infection and the ability of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to phagocytize C. albicans cells treated with the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract. We found that this fraction greatly reduced hypha formation after morphogenesis induction in the presence of serum. Besides, several proteins were differentially expressed in cells treated with the fraction. Surprisingly, the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced phagocytosis in C. albicans (Mean 120.36 ± 36.71 yeasts/100 PMNs vs. 44.68 ± 19.84 yeasts/100 PMNs). Oral candidiasis was attenuated when C. albicans cells were either pre-incubated in the presence of E. uniflora or when the fraction was applied to the surface of the oral cavity after infection. These results were consistent with the reduction in CFU counts (2.36 vs. 1.85 Log10 CFU/ml) and attenuation of tissue damage observed with histopathological analysis of animals belonging to treated group. We also observed shorter true hyphae by direct examination and histopathological analysis, when cells were treated with the referred natural product. The E. uniflora ethyl acetate fraction was non-toxic to human cells. E. uniflora may act on essential proteins mainly related to cellular structure, reducing the capacity of filamentation and attenuating infection in a murine model, without causing any toxic effect on human cells, suggesting that it may be a future

  2. Chemical Profiling of the Essential Oils of Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium samarangense and Eugenia uniflora and Their Discrimination Using Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeh, Mansour; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Krstin, Sonja; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The essential oil compositions of the leaves of three related Myrtaceae species, namely Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium samarangense and Eugenia uniflora, were investigated using GLC/MS and GLC/FID. Altogether, 125 compounds were identified: α-Selinene (13.85%), β-caryophyllene (12.72%) and β-selinene constitute the most abundant constituents in S. aqueum. Germacrene D (21.62%) represents the major compound in S. samarangense whereas in E. uniflora, spathulenol (15.80%) represents the predominant component. Multivariate chemometric analyses were used to discriminate the essential oils using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) based on the chromatographic results. The antimicrobial activity of the popularly used E. uniflora essential oil was assessed using broth microdilution method against six Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungi. The oil showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis exhibiting MIC and MMC of 0.63 mg/ml. The cytotoxic activity of E. uniflora essential oil was investigated against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei) and MCF-7 cancer cell line using MTT assay. It showed moderate activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC 50 value of 76.40 μg/ml. On the other hand, T. brucei was highly susceptible to E. uniflora essential oil with IC 50 of 11.20 μg/ml, and a selectivity index of 6.82. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides induced by oenothein B, a potential antifungal agent from the Brazilian Cerrado plant Eugenia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambuzzi-Carvalho, Patrícia Fernanda; Tomazett, Patrícia Kott; Santos, Suzana Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Martins, Wellington Santos; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Pereira, Maristela

    2013-10-12

    The compound oenothein B (OenB), which is isolated from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian Cerrado plant, interferes with Paracoccidioides yeast cell morphology and inhibits 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation, which is involved in cell wall synthesis. In this work we examined the gene expression changes in Paracoccidioides yeast cells following OenB treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. We constructed differential gene expression libraries using Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) of Paracoccidioides yeast cells treated with OenB for 90 and 180 min. Treatment for 90 min resulted in the identification of 463 up-regulated expressed sequences tags (ESTs) and 104 down-regulated ESTs. For the 180 min treatment 301 up-regulated ESTs and 143 down-regulated were identified. Genes involved in the cell wall biosynthesis, such as GLN1, KRE6 and FKS1, were found to be regulated by OenB. Infection experiments in macrophages corroborated the in vitro results. Fluorescence microscopy showed increased levels of chitin in cells treated with OenB. The carbohydrate polymer content of the cell wall of the fungus was also evaluated, and the results corroborated with the transcriptional data. Several other genes, such as those involved in a variety of important cellular processes (i.e., membrane maintenance, stress and virulence) were found to be up-regulated in response to OenB treatment. The exposure of Paracoccidioides to OenB resulted in a complex altered gene expression profile. Some of the changes may represent specific adaptive responses to this compound in this important pathogenic fungus.

  4. Autophagy induced by purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract triggered a cooperative effect on inducing the hepatic stellate cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Martins, Leo A M; Parisi, Mariana M; Vieira, Moema Queiroz; Terra, Silvia R; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia M; Borojevic, Radovan; Vizzotto, Márcia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the major source of collagen I in liver fibrosis. Eugenia uniflora L. is a tree species that is widely distributed in South America. E. uniflora L. fruit-popularly known as pitanga-has been shown to exert beneficial properties. Autophagy contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival under stress situation, but it has also been suggested to be an alternative cell death pathway. Mitochondria play a pivotal role on signaling cell death. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria is an important cell defense mechanism against organelle-mediated cell death signaling. We previously found that purple pitanga extract induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle arrest, and death by apoptosis and necrosis in GRX cells, a well-established activated HSC line. We evaluated the effects of 72-h treatment with crescent concentrations of purple pitanga extract (5 to 100 μg/mL) on triggering autophagy in GRX cells, as this is an important mechanism to cells under cytotoxic conditions. We found that all treated cells presented an increase in the mRNA expression of autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7). Concomitantly, flow cytometry and ultrastructural analysis of treated cells revealed an increase of autophagosomes/autolysosomes that consequentially led to an increased mitophagy. As purple pitanga extract was previously found to be broadly cytotoxic to GRX cells, we postulated that autophagy contributes to this scenario, where cell death seems to be an inevitable fate. Altogether, the effectiveness on inducing activated HSC death can make purple pitanga extract a good candidate on treating liver fibrosis.

  5. Effect of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora, a tree native to the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, D J; Faria, M V; da Silva, P R

    2012-12-06

    Habitat fragmentation, caused by the expansion of agriculture in natural areas, may be one of the strongest impacts humans have on the ecosystem. These changes can decrease the number of individuals in a population, leading to endogamy. In allogamous species, endogamy can have a negative effect on reproductive capacity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora L., a tree species native to the Atlantic Forest. We analyzed 4 populations, 3 of which were connected by forest corridors and 1 of which was isolated by agricultural fields on all sides. For microsporogenesis analysis, 9000 meiocytes representing all stages of meiosis were evaluated. To perform the pollen viability test, we evaluated 152,000 pollen grains. Microsporogenesis was stable in plants from populations that were connected by forest corridors (abnormalities, less than 6%), while microsporogenesis in plants from the isolated population showed a higher level of abnormalities (13-29%). Average pollen viability was found to be more than 93% in the non-isolated populations and 82.62% in the isolated population. The χ(2) test showed that, in the isolated population, the meiotic index was significantly lower than that in the non-isolated populations (P = 0.03). The analysis of variance for the percentage of viable pollen grains confirmed the significant difference between the isolated and non-isolated populations. Our data show that forest fragmentation has a direct effect on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in E. uniflora and can directly influence the reproductive capacity of isolated populations of this species.

  6. Fungos endofíticos de Eugenia dysenterica DC como biocontroladores de fitopatógenos in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martins Malta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os micro-organismos antagonistas (bactérias, leveduras e fungos filamentosos têm a capacidade de exercer um efeito antagonista sobre diferentes patógenos sendo empregados para controlar diversas enfermidades de frutos e vegetais. Este estudo objetivou isolar e testar microrganismos presentes em Eugenia dysenterica DC contra Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Monilinia fructicola e in vitro. Foram coletados caules e folhas de 30 indivíduos de Cagaiteira. Os fragmentos vegetais passaram por desinfecção superficial, de acordo com o proposto por Rosa, et. al, (2010. Os fragmentos foram inoculados em placas de Petri contendo ágar Batata a 25-28 ºC por um período de até 60 dias. Os 263 endofíticos obtidos foram purificados e avaliados quanto ao seu potencial de inibição por produção de substâncias difusíveis e voláteis. Um total de 96 dos isolados, demonstraram atividade antagonista contra os fitopatógenos. Sendo 45 isolados capazes de inibir o crescimento do fitopatógeno A. parasiticus. Contra o fitopatógeno C. gloeosporioides 68 endofíticos apresentaram atividade antagonista. Já contra o fitopatógeno M. fructicola apenas 17 fungos foram capazes de exercer efeito inibitório. Os isolados obtidos apresentaram potencial para produção de substâncias bioativas contra estes fitopatógenos.

  7. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  8. Variação intraespecífica do lenho de Eugenia uniflora L. em duas diferentes fitofisionomias do complexo vegetacional atlântico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Alves Marques

    Full Text Available Myrtaceae está entre as principais famílias lenhosas da Floresta Atlântica, destacando-se Eugenia L. como o gênero de maior riqueza de espécies na família. Eugenia uniflora L. apresenta grande representatividade em áreas de restinga, seu ambiente natural, e é amplamente cultivada em outras regiões em função da sua importância econômica. Este estudo investigou a anatomia do lenho de E. uniflora, crescendo em duas fitofisionomias do complexo vegetacional atlântico no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dezesseis parâmetros anatômicos foram analisados e revelaram que os elementos celulares dos indivíduos de restinga apresentam maior frequência e são mais curtos e mais largos, e os raios mais baixos e largos do que os dos indivíduos crescendo na Floresta Ombrófila Densa. Os resultados mostraram como as condições ambientais influenciam a estrutura anatômica da madeira e indicam variações intraespecíficas da espécie e de seus mecanismos de adaptação e de sobrevivência no complexo Mata Atlântica.

  9. Nutrient Status of Vermicompost of Urban Green Waste Processed by Three Earthworm Species—Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pattnaik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major nutrient status of vermicompost of vegetable market waste (MW and floral waste (FW processed by three species of earthworms namely, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. Their physical parameters—temperature, moisture, pH, and electrical conductivity—were also recorded. The nutrients—nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium—increased in the vermicompost and compost while the organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios decreased as the composting process progressed from 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The nutrient statuses of vermicomposts of all earthworm species produced from both the wastes were more than that of the compost and that of their respective substrates. Moreover, the vermicompost produced by E. eugeniae possessed higher nutrient contents than that of E. fetida, P. excavatus, and compost. The MW showed higher nutrient contents than the FW. Thus, vermicomposting is the paramount approach of nutrient recovery of urban green waste.

  10. Reserve carbohydrates and lipids from the seeds of four tropical tree species with different sensitivity to desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of water content for the conservation and storage of seeds, and the involvement of soluble carbohydrates and lipids for embryo development, a comparative study was carried out among the seeds of Inga vera (ingá, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, both classified as recalcitrant, and Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood and Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, considered as orthodox seeds. Low concentrations of cyclitols (0.3-0.5%, raffinose family oligosaccharides (ca. 0.05% and unsaturated fatty acids (0-19% were found in the seeds of ingá and pitanga, while larger amounts of cyclitols (2-3% and raffinose (4.6-13% were found in brazilwood and mulungu, respectively. These results, in addition to higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (53-71% in orthodox seeds, suggested that sugars and lipids played important role in water movement, protecting the embryo cell membranes against injuries during dehydration.Os compostos de reserva das sementes, além de suprirem energia para o desenvolvimento embrionário, desempenham importantes funções relacionadas à proteção celular contra secagem e congelamento. Considerando a importância do teor de água para a conservação e para o armazenamento de sementes de espécies arbóreas e o envolvimento dos carboidratos solúveis e de lipídios nesses processos, foi realizada uma análise comparativa desses compostos em sementes de Inga vera (ingá e Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, consideradas recalcitrantes, e em Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil e Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, com comportamento ortodoxo. Baixas concentrações de ciclitóis (0,3-0,5%, de oligossacarídeos da série da rafinose (0,05% e de ácidos graxos insaturados (0-19% foram encontradas em sementes de ingá e pitanga, enquanto maiores quantidades de ciclitóis (2-3% e de rafinose (4,6-13% foram encontradas nas sementes de pau-brasil e mulungu, respectivamente. Estes resultados, juntamente com as altas proporções de

  11. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T c suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  12. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  13. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE PRODUCTION OF BEVERAGES: THE TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY FROM THE PRODUCTION OF AGUARDENTE DE CAGAITA (EUGENIA DYSENTERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversity in the types of vegetation, Brazil is the second largest biome Cerrado, occupying 25% of the country, surpassed only by the Amazon. In Minas Gerais, the Brazilian state has about 10.3% of its area the Cerrado vegetation, covering mainly areas of the Upper and Middle Jequitinhonha. The flora of the cerrado has several fruit species with high potential for agricultural use, which are traditionally used by local people, and the fruits have high levels of sugars, proteins and minerals. Among the great diversity of plants and fruits present in the cerrado is the Eugenia dysenterica, popularly known as cagaita. The fruit is globular yellow color when ripe, slightly acid and can reach up to 4 cm long and up to 5 cm diameter. The work here exposed was led initially to a survey of state schools that have high school in the city of Sete Lagoas-MG. After this survey was chosen for the project development a nearby school of the Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei (UFSJ-CSL for viability of the project and in which direction proved to be very available. 3rd year high school classes were chosen, totaling 55 students, selecting the students who had greater knowledge of the concepts studied and shown interest. Various activities with students have been developed, one of which is the application of a questionnaire in the first meeting, which enabled us to identify where the problems thereof. a booklet with texts followed fixation exercises and illustrative images on each topic worked in class and the students images developing the proposed project activities was developed. This study aimed to use a fruit of the Cerrado, cagaita to perform fermentation and subsequent distillation, to promote ownership of the concepts of chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology in high school students. Through the questionnaire at the end of the project, it was possible to assess the relevance of their work and the impact on the training of students. The study

  14. Variabilidade genética de Eugenia uniflora L. em remanescentes florestais em diferentes estádios sucessionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Valmorbida Aguiar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão da diversidade genética fornece elementos básicos sobre a dinâmica e funcionamento de populações, auxiliando na conservação e uso sustentável das espécies. Supõe-se que populações sucessionais precoces poderiam ser geneticamente mais diferenciadas do que populações sucessionais mais tardias. Visando testar esta hipótese, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a variabilidade genética de populações de Eugenia uniflora L. em manchas florestais em diferentes estádios sucessionais. Foram selecionadas duas áreas em diferentes estádios de sucessão, sendo a primeira em estádio inicial e a segunda em estádio avançado. A área de estudo apresenta um remanescente florestal em transição de Floresta Ombrófila Mista e Floresta Estacional Semidecídua. Por meio da técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA e análise multivariada, a diversidade gênica esperada e a porcentagem de loci polimórficos foram estimadas, além da similaridade genética entre as populações de cada mancha florestal e a diversidade de cada área por meio do índice de diversidade de Simpson. Os resultados indicaram 79% de loci polimórficos para a área em estádio avançado e 70% para a área em estádio inicial de sucessão. A similaridade genética entre pares de indivíduos variou entre 0,55 e 0,86 na área em estádio inicial de sucessão e entre 0,45 e 0,78 para a área em estádio avançado. Não houve diferenças significativas entre a diversidade das duas áreas (P = 89. Um escalonamento multidimensional não-métrico indicou menor distância genética entre os indivíduos da área em estádio inicial. Da mesma forma, uma análise de similaridade - ANOSIM indicou separação entre os indivíduos das duas áreas.

  15. CARACTERIZAÇÃO ANATÔMICA E HISTOQUÍMICA DAS FOLHAS DE EUGENIA UNIFLORA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Damasceno Sá

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L., popularmente conhecida como pitangueira, é uma importante frutífera muito utilizada na medicina tradicional brasileira para o tratamento de diarreia e disenteria, gripe, parasitas intestinais, febre, hipertensão e como calmante e diurético. Devido ao seu amplo interesse popular e com o intuito de ampliar as informações farmacobotânicas da espécie, este trabalho tem como objetivo realizar a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica das folhas de E. uniflora. Foram confeccionadas e analisadas em microscópico de luz lâminas semipermanentes contendo secções transversais de pecíolo e lâmina foliar, além de secções paradérmicas de lâmina foliar. Realizou-se também testes histoquímicos em secções transversais de lâmina foliar A análise microscópica permitiu a identificação de estruturas importantes na diagnose da espécie: cavidades secretoras no pecíolo e na lâmina foliar; cristais prismáticos no floema do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar, bem como no mesofilo e nas células parenquimáticas e colenquimáticas da nervura central; drusas estão presentes apenas no parênquima do pecíolo e no mesofilo, parênquima e colênquima da lâmina foliar; presença de cutícula espessa no pecíolo e na lâmina foliar; feixes vasculares bicolaterais e mesofilo dorsiventral, com parênquima paliçádico bisseriado. Através da histoquímica evidenciou-se na lâmina foliar a presença de compostos fenólicos, taninos, lignina, compostos lipofílicos, óleos essenciais, triterpenos e esteroides e cristais de oxalato de cálcio. Os resultados apresentados são úteis para a identificação correta da espécie.

  16. Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Eugenia uniflora on Proteins Global Expression during Morphogenesis in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicyranison P. Silva-Rocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is able to switch from yeast to hyphal growth and this is an essential step for tissue invasion and establishment of infection. Due to the limited drug arsenal used to treat fungal infections and the constant emergence of resistant strains, it is important to search for new therapeutic candidates. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate by proteomic analysis the role of a natural product (Eugenia uniflora in impairing hypha formation in C. albicans. We also tested the potential action of E. uniflora to prevent and treat oral candidiasis induced in a murine model of oral infection and the ability of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to phagocytize C. albicans cells treated with the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract. We found that this fraction greatly reduced hypha formation after morphogenesis induction in the presence of serum. Besides, several proteins were differentially expressed in cells treated with the fraction. Surprisingly, the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced phagocytosis in C. albicans (Mean 120.36 ± 36.71 yeasts/100 PMNs vs. 44.68 ± 19.84 yeasts/100 PMNs. Oral candidiasis was attenuated when C. albicans cells were either pre-incubated in the presence of E. uniflora or when the fraction was applied to the surface of the oral cavity after infection. These results were consistent with the reduction in CFU counts (2.36 vs. 1.85 Log10 CFU/ml and attenuation of tissue damage observed with histopathological analysis of animals belonging to treated group. We also observed shorter true hyphae by direct examination and histopathological analysis, when cells were treated with the referred natural product. The E. uniflora ethyl acetate fraction was non-toxic to human cells. E. uniflora may act on essential proteins mainly related to cellular structure, reducing the capacity of filamentation and attenuating infection in a murine model, without causing any toxic effect on human cells, suggesting that it may be a

  17. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  18. Diferentes composições com substratos orgânicos na produção de mudas de Eugenia uniflora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licielo Romero Vieira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p43 A utilização de substratos formulados com resíduos da agroindústria, tais como a fibra de coco, a serragem e a casca de arroz carbonizada, é uma das alternativas sustentáveis visando a diminuir os custos de produção de mudas de espécies vegetais. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a utilização de diferentes substratos na obtenção de mudas de Eugenia uniflora L. de alta qualidade. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal do Pampa (Unipampa – Campus São Gabriel-RS, com semeadura diretamente em tubetes de polipropileno de 200 cm3, testando diferentes substratos (50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% de casca de arroz; substrato comercial Plantmax®; 50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% de fibra de casca de coco; e 50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% de serragem. A cada três dias foram avaliados o número de plântulas emergidas e, após 180 dias, as seguintes características morfológicas foram analisadas: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro do coleto, número de folhas, massa fresca radicular e total, massa seca da parte aérea, radicular e total e o índice de qualidade de Dickson. Os resultados indicam que todos os substratos foram adequados à emergência de Eugenia uniflora, mas aquele com 50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% de serragem proporcionou um atraso na emergência dessa Myrtaceae; além disso, os substratos com 50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% casca de arroz e 50% substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% fibra de casca de coco mostraram-se satisfatórios para o crescimento de mudas de Eugenia uniflora.

  19. Comentario al libro "Los mil abrazos de Morfeo" de la Académica Eugenia Guzmán Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Señor Presidente, Señores Académicos:


    Permítame, Señor Presidente, expresar a Usted y a la Junta Directiva de la Academia Nacional de Medicina mi profundo agradecimiento por la distinción de que he sido objeto al designárseme para hacer el comentario de orden al libro «Los Mil Abrazos de Morfeo», del que es autora la distinguida Académica y Profesora Titular del Departamento de Psicología de la Universidad Nacional, doña Eugenia Guzmán Cervantes, quien esta noche lo ha presentado con brillantez, erudición y amenidad ante los señores Académicos y el distinguido Auditorio que nos acompaña.

    La obra es el resultado de largos años de estudio y de trabajo de su autora en los campos de la neuropsicología clínica, la neurofisiología del sueño y sus diferentes patologías, la psicopatología de la conducta y los aspectos biológicos del comportamiento, y de su interés por incursionar en el área de los ritmos biológicos y sus implicaciones en la industria y el transporte aéreo, para compensar, según confiesa, su frustración al no haber podido ser piloto de pruebas.

    Esta ambición de Eugenia, frustrada en buena hora, le ha permitido llegar a alturas aún mayores que las que hubiera podido alcanzar como aviadora, al entregar a la comunidad científica este espléndido libro de casi trescientas páginas, treinta de las cuales corresponden a referencias bibliográficas, en las que actualiza los conocimientos que se tienen sobre el dormir y el soñar, discute con autoridad las diversas teorías formuladas sobre estas materias, analiza con propiedad los datos aportados por la ciencia en los últimos años y expone además, sus personales y bien sedimentadas opiniones sobre tan fascinantes temas.

    Por tratarse de asuntos que han inquietado a la humanidad desde tiempo inmemorial, es lógico que la autora se refiera a tres dioses de la mitología griega: Morfeo, el dios

  20. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  1. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  2. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  3. Paper (essay on seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revolution was simply caused by the sowing of seeds; 3. for the sake of sowing man began to develop more complex processing techniques; 4. everywhere and forever, especially since the late 15th century, the seed has been a carrier of (rescuing plants between Europe and the New World, that is, between continents; 5. seed was the first product that has been chemically treated since the mid-18th century; 6. standard operation procedures and quality are promoted on seed by which it became the first product to have prescribed (compulsory methods, but it also became a good whose quality has to be tested before sale; 7. hybrid seed is a 'perpetrator' of the green revolution in the mid-20th century and at last there is disputable seed of genetically modified organisms that are spreading with certain reactions. The author proposes that the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification includes a special section (division which would classify the seed for sowing, while beyond this Classification terms such as seed, plant seed should be replaced with non-seed

  4. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The long-term resistance mechanisms, critical irrigation threshold and relief capacity shown by Eugenia myrtifolia plants in response to saline reclaimed water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Hernández, José Antonio; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-01-01

    water potential, the relative water content of leaves, leaf stomatal conductance, the leaf photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency and accumulated evapotranspiration in order to limit water loss; and 4) changes in the antioxidant defence mechanisms. These different responses induced oxidative stress...... to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied. The RW...... with the highest electric conductivity (RW3, EC = 6.96 dS m(-1)) provoked a number of responses to salinity in these plants, including: 1) accumulation and extrusion of phytotoxic ions in roots; 2) a decrease in the shoot/root ratio, leaf area, number of leaves; 3) a decrease in root hydraulic conductivity, leaf...

  6. Chemical and biological evaluation of essential oils from two species of Myrtaceae - Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, João Henrique G; Souza, Elisângela Dutra; Mariane, Bruna; Pascon, Renata; Vallim, Marcelo A; Martins, Roberto Carlos C; Baroli, Adriana A; Carvalho, Bianca A; Soares, Marisi G; dos Santos, Roberta T; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2011-11-25

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from leaves of two Myrtaceae species-Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS as well as determination of Kovatz indexes indicated atractylone (26.78%) and curzerene (17.96%) as major constituents of E. uniflora oil and α-cadinol (19.15%), apiole (11.15%) and cubenol (5.43%) as main components in P. trunciflora oil. Both essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria. E. uniflora and P. trunciflora essential oils were active towards two Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus equi and Staphylococcus epidermis. In addition, biological activity of both essential oils was detected for pathogenic yeasts of the genus Candida and Cryptococcus. E. uniflora was active towards all yeast tested and exhibited interesting minimal inhibitory concentrations (0.11 to 3.75 mg/mL) across a broad spectrum of activity.

  7. A new approach for quantifying furanodiene and curzerene: a case study on the essential oils of Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae (pitangueira leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, which grows in the Brazilian savannah, was studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Furanodiene (1.2% was thermally rearranged to curzerene (85.1% to produce a combined content of 86.3%. GC analysis carried out under mild conditions (with a constant temperature of 100 ºC showed that the furanodiene concentration was three-fold greater than the curzerene concentration, i.e., the essential oil contained 64.7% furanodiene and 21.6% curzerene. Germacrene B also rearranged to γ-elemene and the concentration of both was 2.3%. Special care should be taken when conventional gas chromatography analysis is used for quantifying compounds that can rearrange at high temperatures.

  8. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Layane Valéria; de Oliveira, Jamylla Mirck Guerra; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ-elemene (14.25%), and trans-β-elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04 μg·mL−1) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92 μg·mL−1) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400 μg·mL−1); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50 μg·mL−1. While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity. PMID:23533469

  9. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinger Antonio da Franca Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%, with curzerene (47.3%, γ-elemene (14.25%, and trans-β-elemenone (10.4% being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04 μg·mL−1 and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92 μg·mL−1 suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400 μg·mL−1; however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50 μg·mL−1. While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity.

  10. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: egpereira@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  11. Maturação fisiológica e coleta de sementes de Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga, Santa Maria, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Luciana de Avila

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este estudo teve como objetivo acompanhar a maturação fisiológica, seus parâmetros indicadores e identificar o momento adequado para a coleta de sementes de Eugenia uniflora, avaliando também a incidência de fungos em frutos e sementes. A pesquisa foi realizada de agosto a outubro de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. A coleta dos frutos e sementes ocorreu semanalmente, partindo de três árvores matrizes, com início aos 7 dias após a antese (DAA e término aos 77 DAA. As variáveis observadas foram: altura, diâmetro, peso verde e sanidade de frutos e sementes e teor de umidade, massa seca e germinação das sementes. Identificou-se que a época adequada para a coleta das sementes, no período e local de estudo, ocorreu entre 56 e 63 DAA, quando os frutos apresentavam coloração vermelha e as sementes elevada germinação. Nesse período, o tamanho e o peso de frutos e sementes atingiram seus valores máximos e o teor de umidade e matéria seca das sementes mostraram tendência à estabilização. Os gêneros fúngicos Cladosporium sp. e Alternaria sp.  apresentaram as maiores taxas de incidência nos frutos e nas sementes e podem influenciar o armazenamento e a germinação das sementes de mudas de Eugenia uniflora.

  12. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; de Oliveira, Jamylla Mirck Guerra; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ -elemene (14.25%), and trans- β -elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04  μ g·mL(-1)) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92  μ g·mL(-1)) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400  μ g·mL(-1)); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50  μ g·mL(-1). While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity.

  13. Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time.

  14. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio; Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM Fe ) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM Fe application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  15. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    currently working on ... heterozygosity of seed, minute seed size, presence of reduced ... Advantages of Artificial or Synthetic Seeds over Somatic Embryos for Propagation .... hour gives optimum bead hardness and rigidity for the produc-.

  16. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  17. Saving Seed Microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Gabriele; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Plant seeds are home to diverse microbial communities whose composition is determined by plant genotype, environment, and management practices. Plant domestication is now recognized as an important driver of plant-associated microbial diversity. To what extent and how domestication affects seed

  18. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  19. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  20. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  1. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  2. Prosopis Africana SEEDS (OKPEYE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Prosopis africana, okpeye seeds, thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity, .... 2.3 Determination of Thermal Properties of Prosopis. Africana .... and the guard ring was filled with fiber glass at both the.

  3. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  4. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  5. Seeds of impurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pavoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ai Weiwei’s art installation Kui Hua Zi [Sunflower Seeds] took place between 2010 and 2011 in the gigantic Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern Gallery, in London. It consisted of 100 millions hand-crafted porcelain seeds made in Jingdezhen, China.1 An uneven surface to dive into, a haptic space of undulating vision, rustling steps, unusual horizontality, a meaningless quicksand where the separation between artwork and spectator is engulfed, the immunity of distant contemplation denied.

  6. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  7. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  8. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Pluto-Charon and the Discovery of a Moon aroun d the Asteroid 45 Eugenia: The Potential of Adaptive Optics in Planetary Astrono my

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, L. M.; Merline, W. J.; Tholen, D.; Owen, T.; Roddier, F.; Dumas, C.

    1999-12-01

    We outline two separate projects which highlight the power of adaptive optics (AO) to aid planetary research. The first project utilized AO to resolve the Pluto-Charon system by producing 0.15" FWHM images. We used the University of Hawaii AO system (Roddier et al. PASP 103, 131,1991) at CFHT to obtain deep (20 min) narrow band images in/out the molecular bands of water and methane ices. Our images confirm that the variation of Pluto's albedo is mainly governed by the presence of methane ice over its surface, resulting in a lower albedo at 2.26 um than at 2.02 um. Our observations confirm also that Charon is mostly covered with water-ice (Buie et al. NATURE 329, 522,1987). See Tholen et al. (ICARUS submitted) for more details on these AO results. In another application of AO, we discovered a moon around asteroid 45 Eugenia by use of the PUEO AO facility at CFHT (Rigaut et al. PASP 110, 152, 1998). With PUEO we preformed a search for asteroidal satellites among two dozen asteroids, achieving moderate Strehl ratios (35%) and FWHM of about 0.12" at H band. During this survey, we detected a faint close companion to 45 Eugenia. The satellite was 6.14 magnitudes (at 1.65 um) fainter and located at most 0.75" from Eugenia. Without the ability of AO (to sharpen the contrast and increase the resolution to 0.1"), the detection of this companion would have been impossible with ground based-telescopes. The companion was found to be in a 1200 km circular orbit with a period of 4.7 days. A more detailed discussion of this new satellite is given by Merline et al. in this volume. Adaptive optics is entering a powerful new age as all the major ground based large telescopes are developing facility AO systems. Planetary astronomy is particularly well posed to take advantage of the diffraction-limited, near-IR images (0.050" FWHM) that will become commonplace at all 8 m facilities in the near future (It is already occurring on the KECK and GEMINI-North telescopes). In particular, we

  9. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  10. The importance of using certified seed

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Sandra; Mladenov Velimir; Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Certified seed is produced from the seed of known genetic origin and genetic purity with controlled and tested production, processed and declared in accordance with the Law on Seeds. Production of certified seed is carried out under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, by seed producers formally listed in the Seed Register. Seed is processed in registered seed processing centres and quality is tested in laboratories accredited for seed testing. The orga...

  11. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  13. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under... seeds. (b) Seed consigned to a seed cleaning or processing establishment, for cleaning or processing for... pertaining to such seed show that it is “Seed for processing,” or, if the seed is in containers and in...

  14. Frugivoria e dispersão de sementes pelo lagarto teiú Tupinambis merianae (Reptilia: Teiidae Frugivory and seed dispersal by the tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae Reptilia: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Rodrigo de Castro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os lagartos teiús possuem uma dieta generalista, podendo agir como importantes dispersores de sementes em florestas semidecíduas do sudeste do Brasil. Foram estudadas a frugivoria e a dispersão de sementes de lagartos teiús usando animais em cativeiro, através da oferta de frutos de uma floresta semidecídua. Frutos de trinta espécies vegetais foram oferecidos aos lagartos em cativeiro, com diâmetro variando de 0,81 a 10,0 cm. Não foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas na germinação entre as sementes que passaram pelo trato digestivo do lagarto e as controle de Eugenia uniflora (chi²= 0.69, P>0.50, Genipa americana (chi²= 6.4, P>0.975, Cereus peruvianus (chi²= 0.018, P>0.10, e Solanum viarum (chi²= 6.23, P>0.975. O tempo de retenção da semente no tubo digestivo do teiú variou de 22 a 23 h para Solanum lycocarpum e 43 a 44 h para Syagrus romanzoffiana. Nossos resultados indicam que o lagarto teiú tem potencial para agir como um importante dispersor de sementes nos trópicos.Tegu lizards have a generalist diet and may play an important role as seed dispersers in semideciduous forests in south-east Brazil. We studied the frugivory and seed dispersal of tegu lizards using captive animals and offering wild fruits from a semideciduous forest. Thirty fruit species were eaten by the lizards in captivity, ranging from 0.81 to 10.0 cm (fruit diameter. Even large fruit adapted to dispersal by large mammals were swallowed (ex. Syagrus oleracea. There were no statistical differences in seed germination between seeds that passed through the lizard gut and the control in Eugenia uniflora (chi2 = 0.69, P>0.50, Genipa americana (chi2 = 6.4, P>0.975, Cereus peruvianus (chi2 = 0.018, P>0.10, and Solanum viarum (chi2 = 6.23, P>0.975. Seed retention time in the tegu gut ranged from 2224 h (Solanum lycocarpum to 4344 h (for Syagrus romanzoffiana. Our results indicate that tegu lizards have a potential to be an important seed dispersers in the

  15. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed. I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differe...

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  18. In vitro safety and efficacy evaluations of a complex botanical mixture of Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae): Prospects for developing a new dermocosmetic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Larissa Cleres; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Veloso, Danillo Fabrini Maciel Costa; Pedrosa, Tatiana Nascimento; Lima, Emerson Silva; do Couto, Renê Oliveira; Lima, Eliana Martins; Batista, Aline Carvalho; de Paula, José Realino; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2017-12-01

    In the context of developing a new natural product-based cosmetic, the in vitro efficacy and safety evaluations of a complex botanical mixture based on Eugenia dysenterica leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EDE) (2.5-1000μg/mL) were carried out. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated the presence of the tannin (ellagic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin and gallic acid) which characterize the EDE as a polyphenol-rich mixture. Using HFF-1 fibroblasts, it was shown that EDE promoted cell regeneration after UVA exposure. It also led to the inhibition of the collagenase, elastase and tyrosinase enzymes, which are involved in skin-related disorders. In terms of toxicological evaluation, the EDE was classified as non-phototoxic through the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test (OECD N° 432, 2004) and non-eye irritant by Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (OECD N° 437, 2013) assay, in conjunction with corneal histomorphometric analysis. Furthermore, the EDE has no skin sensitization potential as demonstrated by a two-out-of-three prediction model [protein-binding/haptenization (OECD N° 442C, 2015), keratinocyte and dendritic cell activations]. In addition, it was shown that the EDE seems to be non-genotoxic through the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (OECD N° 487, 2014) using HepG2 cells. When considered together, these findings support the use of EDE botanical mixture in cosmetic/pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspectos agronómicos sobre el cultivo del arazá (eugenia stipitata me vaugh Frutal promisorio de la amazonia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevedo Garcia Enrique

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio del manejo agronómico del cultivo del arazá (Eugenia slipitata Mc. Vaugh en la Amazonia colombiana y una revisión del manejo del arazá en la Amazonia del Brasil y Perú. Se concluye que esta es una especie en vía de domesticación que puede ser cultivada en otras regiones de Colombia y que podría ser un sustituto para los cultivos ilícitos. Si somos hábiles en logra establecer el cultivo del arazá. En reglones con características ecológicas adecuadas para esta especie en corto tiempo, obtendremos un fruto para el consumo humano y su usa extensivo en Colombia.

  20. Sun-drying diminishes the antioxidative potentials of leaves of Eugenia uniflora against formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced in homogenates of rat brain and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kade, Ige Joseph; Ibukun, Emmanuel Oluwafemi; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2008-08-01

    Extracts from leaves of Pitanga cherry (Eugenia uniflora) are considered to be effective against many diseases, and are therefore used in popular traditional medicines. In the present study, the antioxidative effect of sun-dried (PCS) and air-dried (PCA) ethanolic extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves were investigated. The antioxidant effects were tested by measuring the ability of both PCS and PCA to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) induced by prooxidant agents such as iron (II) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in rat brain and liver tissues. The results showed that while PCA significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited the formation of TBARS in both liver and brain tissues homogenates, PCS did not. Further investigation reveals that the phenolic content of the PCS was significantly (P<0.0001) lower compared to PCA. Since phenolics in plants largely contributed to the antioxidative potency of plants, we conclude that air-drying should be employed in the preparation of extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves before it is administered empirically as a traditional medicament, and hence this study serves a public awareness to traditional medical practitioners.

  1. EFEITOS DO EXTRATO DE Eugenia uniflora SOBRE OS PARÂMETROS HEMATOLÓGICOS E PRESSÃO ARTERIAL DE RATOS HIPERTENSOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemia Aparecida Partelli Mariani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Eugenia uniflora é uma planta amplamente encontrada no Brasil, utilizada popularmente para tratar diversos distúrbios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do extrato de suas folhas sobre parâmetros hematológicos e pressão arterial de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controle e tratados com extrato nas doses de 100mg/kg e 200mg/kg. O tratamento foi diário, via gavagem, por 28 dias. O sangue dos animais foi coletado semanalmente, para a contagem global e diferencial de leucócitos e ao final do tratamento, os animais foram anestesiados e foi realizada cateterização da artéria carótida para medida de pressão arterial sistólica, diastólica, média e frequência cardíaca. O extrato não alterou os parâmetros hematológicos e não reduziu a frequência cardíaca dos SHR, porém observou-se uma tendência à redução. Ao passo que, diminuiu a pressão arterial sistólica, diastólica e média, sugerindo um efeito anti-hipertensivo.

  2. Effect of the crude extract of Eugenia uniflora in morphogenesis and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes in Candida albicans from the oral cavity of kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; de Brito Lemos, Vitor Luiz; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzisnki, Terezinha Inês Estivalet; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2015-02-05

    Candida albicans is a diploid yeast that in some circumstances may cause oral or oropharyngeal infections. Yeasts virulence factors contribute for both the maintenance of colonizing strains in addition to damage and cause tissue invasion, thus the establishment of infection occurs. The limited arsenal of antifungal drugs for the treatment of candidiasis turn the investigation of natural products mandatory for the discovery of new targets for antifungal drug development. Therefore, tropical countries emerge as important providers of natural products with potential antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to investigate morphogenesis and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (phospholipase and proteinase) in the presence of the CE of Eugenia uniflora. The isolates were tested for their ability to form hyphae in both solid and liquid media under three different conditions: YPD + 20% FBS, Spider medium and GlcNac and the ability to secrete phospholipase and proteinase in the presence of 2000 μg/mL of E. uniflora. The CE of E. uniflora inhibited hypha formation in both liquid and solid media tested. It also impaired hydrolytic enzymes production. This was the first study to describe the interaction of a natural product with the full expression of three different factors in C. albicans. E. uniflora may be an alternative therapeutic for oral candidiasis in the future.

  3. Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oils from Two Species of Myrtaceae — Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg Kausel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi G. Soares

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from leaves of two Myrtaceae species–Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg Kausel–were determined. Analysis by GC/MS as well as determination of Kovatz indexes indicated atractylone (26.78% and curzerene (17.96% as major constituents of E. uniflora oil and α-cadinol (19.15%, apiole (11.15% and cubenol (5.43% as main components in P. trunciflora oil. Both essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria. E. uniflora and P. trunciflora essential oils were active towards two Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus equi and Staphylococcus epidermis. In addition, biological activity of both essential oils was detected for pathogenic yeasts of the genus Candida and Cryptococcus. E. uniflora was active towards all yeast tested and exhibited interesting minimal inhibitory concentrations (0.11 to 3.75 mg/mL across a broad spectrum of activity.

  4. Magnetic Ligand Fishing as a Targeting Tool for HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR: α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Ligands and Alkylresorcinol Glycosides from Eugenia catharinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Brighente, Inês M C; Moaddel, Ruin; Staerk, Dan

    2015-11-25

    A bioanalytical platform combining magnetic ligand fishing for α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for structural identification of α-glucosidase inhibitory ligands, both directly from crude plant extracts, is presented. Magnetic beads with N-terminus-coupled α-glucosidase were synthesized and characterized for their inherent catalytic activity. Ligand fishing with the immobilized enzyme was optimized using an artificial test mixture consisting of caffeine, ferulic acid, and luteolin before proof-of-concept with the crude extract of Eugenia catharinae. The combination of ligand fishing and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR identified myricetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol as α-glucosidase inhibitory ligands in E. catharinae. Furthermore, HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis led to identification of six new alkylresorcinol glycosides, i.e., 5-(2-oxopentyl)resorcinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 5-propylresorcinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 5-pentylresorcinol 4-O-[α-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, 5-pentylresorcinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 4-hydroxy-3-O-methyl-5-pentylresorcinol 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-methyl-5-pentylresorcinol 1-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  5. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  6. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  7. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  8. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  9. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... The role of 20E in plant physiology including seed germination is not studied. ..... GA3, ABA and CKs on lettuce Lactuca sativa seed germination are ..... Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals and humans: an update. J.

  10. Seed research for improved technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bino,R.J.; Jalink,H.; Oluoch,M.O.; Groot,S.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The production of high-quality seed is the basis for a durable a profitable agriculture. After production, seed is processed, conditioned, stored, shipped and germinated. For quality assurance, seed quality has to be controlled at all steps of the production chain. Seed functioning is accompanied by programmed transitions from cell proliferation to quiescence upon maturation and from quiescence to reinitiation of cellular metabolism upon imbibition. Despite the obvious importance of these con...

  11. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food ... lupin seeds can be utilized for milk and meat imitation products. ... estimated by multiplying the percentage of crude protein, crude fat and ...

  12. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  13. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  14. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  15. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  16. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  18. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  19. [Study on seed testing for Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Hong-mei; Qi, Jian-jun; Zhou, Li-li; Li, Xian-en

    2008-09-01

    To establish a seed testing methods for Salvia miltiorrhiza. Referring to the International Seed Testing Rules made by ISTA and the Seed Testing for Crops (GB/T3543. 1-1995) issued by China. The seeds are selected by winnowing; the seed purity is about 50%-60%; 100 grain weight is used to determine the quality of the seed; the seed moisture content is determined by air drying, the drying hour is 3 h. Seed viability is tested by TFC method.

  20. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  1. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  2. Seed systems support in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyi, Peter; Jonge, De Bram

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector

  3. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  4. Arquivo de Antropologia Física do Museu Nacional: fontes para a história da eugenia no Brasil The National Museum's physical anthropology archive: sources on the history of eugenics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta um conjunto de fontes documentais que integram o Arquivo de Antropologia Física, de responsabilidade do Setor de Antropologia Biológica do Museu Nacional/UFRJ. O arquivo contém importante documentação sobre o Primeiro Congresso Brasileiro de Eugenia, realizado em 1929, no Rio de Janeiro, em comemoração ao centenário da Academia Nacional de Medicina. Além de originais dos trabalhos apresentados no evento - alguns inéditos -, constam também nesse arquivo documentos reunidos pela secretaria do Congresso, como convocações para a sua realização, ficha dos inscritos, correspondências, recortes de jornais e revistas com artigos sobre eugenia, bem como moções, relatórios e atas finais, constituindo acervo fundamental para a compreensão da história da eugenia no Brasil.The article presents a set of documental sources that are part of the physical anthropology archive administered by the National Museum's biological anthropology sector (UFRJ. The archive holds important documentation on the first Brazilian congress of eugenics, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1929, in celebration of the National Academy of Medicine centennial. In addition to the originals of papers presented at the event (some unpublished, the archive also contains a series of documents compiled by the congress organizers, including announcements of the event, attendee registrations, correspondence, newspaper and magazine clippings of articles on eugenics, as well as motions, reports, and final minutes, all of which makes this collection invaluable in understanding the history of eugenics in Brazil.

  5. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  6. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  7. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  8. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: A Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG. Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L. Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L. (syn: Sanctum; Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana; Linum usitatissimum (L. and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor.

  9. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  10. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  11. Eugenia negativa e positiva: significados e contradições Eugenesia negativa y positiva: significados y contradicciones Negative and positive eugenics: meanings and contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Denise Mai

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A prática da eugenia constitui importante tema de debate associado aos atuais avanços biogenéticos. Considerando que a centralidade da eugenia é a preocupação com a saúde e constituição das futuras gerações, e que a utilização de meios e conhecimentos científicos em prol do nascimento de uma criança física e mentalmente saudável pode ser considerada uma ação eugênica, pretende-se, nesse texto, analisar significados e contradições das ações eugenistas negativas e positivas, construídos concomitantes aos avanços técnico-científicos do século XX. Conclui-se que os significados transitam, respectivamente, em torno de limitar ou estimular a reprodução humana, no início do século, até prevenir doenças ou melhorar características físicas e mentais, na atualidade. Implementando ações, produziram-se contradições, como a discriminação e eliminação de muitas pessoas frente a um ideal de homem, à biologização de fatores eminentemente sociais, à defesa da pretensa neutralidade científica e ao uso indiscriminado do direito de escolha reprodutiva.La práctica de la eugenesia es un importante tema de debate, ligado a los avances biogenéticos actuales. Considerando que la cuestión central de la eugenesia es la preocupación con la salud y la constitución de las futuras generaciones y que la utilización de medios y conocimientos científicos en función del nacimiento de un niño física y mentalmente saludable puede ser considerada una acción eugenésica, en este texto se pretende analizar los significados y contradicciones de las acciones eugenésicas negativas y positivas, construidos concomitantes a los avances técnico-científicos del siglo XX. Se concluye que los significados giran, respectivamente, en torno de limitar o estimular la reproducción humana, al comienzo del siglo, hasta prevenir enfermedades o mejorar características físicas y mentales, en la actualidad. Implementando acciones, se

  12. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  13. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial potential and modification of antibiotic activity of the Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil in association with led lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nara L F; Aquino, Pedro E A; Júnior, José G A S; Cristo, Janyketchuly S; Vieira Filho, Marcos A; Moura, Flávio F; Ferreira, Najla M N; Silva, Maria K N; Nascimento, Eloiza M; Correia, Fabrina M A; Cunha, Francisco A B; Boligon, Aline A; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Matias, Edinardo F F; Guedes, Maria I F

    2017-09-01

    Due to the great biodiversity of its flora, Brazil provides combat tools against bacterial resistance with the utilization of natural products with vegetable origin. Therefore, the present study had as its objective to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the Eugenia uniflora essential oil (EuEO) in vitro, as well as to analyze the modulatory effect of the oil against antibiotics by gaseous contact and to compare them when associated with a LED apparatus. The chemical components were characterised by gas chromatography which revealed the presence of the isoflurane-germacrene, considered the major component (61.69%). The MIC obtained from the EuEO was ≥256 μg/mL for S. aureus and ≥1024 μg/mL for E. coli. When combined with antibiotics, the EuEO presented synergism reducing the MIC when associated, with the exception of gentamicin against E. coli, where an antagonistic effect was observed. The was an interference of the EuEO over the activity of ciprofloxacin when associated with red and blue LED lights, increasing the inhibition halos against S. aureus and E. coli. Norfloxacin presented similar results to ciprofloxacin against S. aureus bacteria. When combined, norfloxacin and the EuEO presented synergism against S. aureus, which did not occur in the combination with ciprofloxacin. Interference occurred only with blue light for E. coli. Thus, it was observed that the EuEO causes changes in the activity of antibiotics, the same occurring with the use of LED lights, without significant differences in the association of the oil and the lights with the antibiotics tested. Further research is needed to elucidate the modulatory effects of the EuEO, as well as its association with LED lights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EFEITO DE FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES E DA ADUBAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Eugenia uniflora L., PRODUZIDAS EM DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMANTA JAQUELINE DALANHOL

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs, da adubação e da composição do substrato no crescimento de mudas de Eugenia uniflora. As sementes foram germinadas em vermiculita média e repicadas para tubetes (100 cm3 contendo substratos à base de vermicomposto e casca de arroz carbonizada e, como controle, utilizou-se do substrato comercial à base de casca de pínus. Estes substratos foram testados com e sem inoculação micorrízica, adicionada ao substrato, como também se testaram a presença e a ausência de adubação de cobertura. Foram analisadas as propriedades físico-químicas dos substratos formulados. Avaliaram-se a altura, o diâmetro do colo, a agregação das raízes ao substrato, a biomassa seca aérea, a biomassa seca radicial e foram determinados a relação entre altura e diâmetro do colo e o índice de qualidade de Dickson. A inoculação com FMAs não influenciou no crescimento das mudas, enquanto a interação entre substratos e adubação foi significativa para a maioria das variáveis. A ausência de resposta aos FMAs foi, provavelmente, devido às altas concentrações de fósforo nestes substratos. Concluiu-se que o substrato à base de vermicomposto e casca de arroz carbonizada, na proporção de 20/80, pode ser utilizado na produção de mudas desta espécie.

  15. Analysis of the role of nitric oxide in the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora in the rat thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazlawik, E; Da Silva, M A; Peters, R R; Correia, J F; Farias, M R; Calixto, J B; Ribeiro-Do-Valle, R M

    1997-04-01

    This study has evaluated the possible role played by the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the vasorelaxant action of the hydroalcoholic extract from Eugenia uniflora, and fractions from the extract, in rings of rat thoracic aorta. The addition of an increasing cumulative concentration of hydroalcoholic extract from E. uniflora (1-300 micrograms mL-1) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation response in intact endothelium-thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (30-100 nM). The IC50 value, with its respective confidence limit, and the maximum relaxation (Rmax) were 7.02 (4.77-10.00) micrograms mL-1 and 83.94 +/- 3.04%, respectively. The removal of the endothelium completely abolished these responses. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 30 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), inhibited the relaxation (Rmax) to -10.43 +/- 7.81% and -3.69 +/- 2.62%, respectively. In addition, L-arginine (1 mM), but not D-arginine (1 mM), completely reversed inhibition by L-NOARG. Methylene blue (30 microM), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the relaxation induced by the extract to 14.60 +/- 7.40%. These data indicate that in the rat thoracic aorta the hydroalcoholic extract, and its fractions, from the leaves of E. uniflora have graded and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects.

  16. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  17. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  18. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  19. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  20. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  1. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228818; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241338735

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  2. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  3. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  4. Why high seed densities within buried mesh bags may overestimate depletion rates of soil seed banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van T.A.; Stomph, T.J.; Murdoch, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    1. Estimates of seed bank depletion rates are essential for modelling and management of plant populations. The seed bag burial method is often used to measure seed mortality in the soil. However, the density of seeds within seed bags is higher than densities in natural seed banks, which may elevate

  5. Heirloom biodynamic seeds network rescue, conservation and multiplication of local seeds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jovchelevich, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Structuring a network organic and biodynamic seed involving farmers in the central- southern Brazil. Training, participatory breeding, edition of publications, fairs of exchange seeds, a processing unit and assessment of seed quality, commercial seed multiplication with emphasis on vegetables. This network has garanteed the autonomy of farmers in seed production and enriched agrobiodiversity through exchanges of seed.

  6. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    acting on the drill coulters, which generates unwanted vibrations and, consequently, a non-uniform seed placement. Therefore, a proof-of-concept dynamic coulter depth control system for a low-cost seed drill was developed and studied in a field experiment. The performance of the active control system...... depth control system this variability was reduced to±2 mm. The system with the active control system operated more accurately at an operational speed of 12 km h−1 than at 4 km h−1 without the activated control system.......An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistance...

  7. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or... sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert...

  8. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  9. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  10. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  11. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  12. Orthodox seeds and resurrection plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Maria Cecília Dias; Cooper, Keren; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.; Farrant, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Although staple crops do not survive extended periods of drought, their seeds possess desiccation tolerance (DT), as they survive almost complete dehydration (desiccation) during the late maturation phase of development. Resurrection plants are plant species whose seeds and vegetative tissues are

  13. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  14. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  15. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  16. Armazenamento de sementes de cerejas-do-mato (Eugenia involucrata DC. submetidas ao recobrimento com biofilmes e embalagem a vácuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luis Alegretti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruteiras como Eugenia involucrata ainda continuam inexploradas, necessitando-se de informações técnicas que incentivem o agricultor a utilizá-las. O método de propagação por sementes é o normalmente adotado; porém, elas devem ser imediatamente semeadas, pois corre-se o risco de perda de sua viabilidade com o armazenamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o hidrocondicionamento e as técnicas de conservação (vácuo e biofilme, durante armazenamento, aos cinco e aos 30 dias, de sementes de cerejeira-do-mato. O trabalho foi realizado na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - Câmpus Dois Vizinhos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em fatorial 2 × 4 × 2 (pré-hidrocondicionamento x técnica de armazenamento x tempo de armazenamento, com quatro repetições, de 50 sementes por unidade experimental. As sementes extraídas foram separadas em dois lotes, sendo um submetido ao pré-hidrocondicionamento, em água destilada, durante 24 horas, e, outro, não. Sementes hidrocondicionadas, ou não, foram submetidas a quatro técnicas de armazenamento, sendo, estas, a embalagem plástica a vácuo, o revestimento com biofilme de fécula de mandioca (3% m/v, a embalagem plástica a vácuo + biofilme de fécula de mandioca e sem tratamento (controle. Posteriormente, as sementes foram mantidas em câmara fria, em temperatura de 5 ºC e UR 85%, durante cinco e 30 dias. Aos 110 dias após a semeadura, avaliou-se a percentagem de germinação, o índice de velocidade de emergência e a massa da matéria seca total das plântulas. Para o armazenamento das sementes de cerejeira-do-mato, devem-se utilizar técnicas a vácuo, isoladamente, ou com revestimento de biofilme.

  17. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment indexes of Eugenia uniflora L. in response to changes in light intensity and soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Marcelo S; Schaffer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The interactive effects of changing light intensity and soil flooding on the photosynthetic performance of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) seedlings in containers were examined. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) the photosynthetic apparatus of shade-adapted leaves can be rapidly acclimated to high light after transfer from shade to full sun, and (ii) photosynthetic acclimation to changing light intensity may be influenced by soil flooding. Seedlings cultivated in a shade house (40% of full sun, approximately 12 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1)) for 6 months were transferred to full sun (20-40 mol m(-2) day(-1)) or shade (30% of full sun, approximately 8 mol m(-2) day(-1)) and subjected to soil flooding for 23 days or not flooded. Chlorophyll content index (CCI), chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf weight per area (LWA), photosynthetic light-response curves and leaf reflectance indexes were measured during soil flooding and after plants were unflooded. The CCI values increased throughout the experiment in leaves of shaded plants and decreased in leaves of plants transferred to full sun. There were no significant interactions between light intensity and flooding treatments for most of the variables analyzed, with the exception of Fv/Fm 22 days after plants were flooded and 5 days after flooded plants were unflooded. The light environment significantly affected LWA, and light environment and soil flooding significantly affected the light-saturated gross CO(2) assimilation rate expressed on area and dry weight bases (A(max-area) and A(max-wt), respectively), stomatal conductance of water vapor (g(ssat)) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/g(s)). Five days after flooded plants were unflooded, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI) were significantly higher in shade than in sun leaves. Thirty days after transferring plants from the shade house to the light treatment, LWA was 30% higher in sun than in shade leaves, and A

  18. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de pitangueira submetidas a diferentes procedimentos de secagem e substratos - Parte 2 Physiological quality of surinam cherry seeds submitted to different procedures of drying and substrates - Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia H. de M. Sena

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o procedimento de secagem e substratos ideais para avaliar a visibilidade e o vigor das sementes e crescimento inicial das plântulas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (2 procedimentos de secagem: à sombra e ao sol; 4 substratos: Areia, vermiculita, pó-de-coco e papel toalha, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada uma e se avaliaram os seguintes parâmetros: tempo médio de germinação, comprimento da raiz e do epicótilo e massa seca da plântula. O experimento foi conduzido em germinador tipo BOD, regulado a temperatura constante de 25 ºC e regime de luz contínua. O procedimento de secagem à sombra e o substrato vermiculita podem ser recomendados para testar o vigor dessa espécie.This study had as its objective the determination of ideal procedure of drying and the substrate to evaluate the vigour and the initial growth of surinam cherry seedlings (Eugenia uniflora L.. The used design was entirely randomized in factorial scheme 2 x 4 (2 procedures of drying: shade and sun; 4 substrates: sand, vermiculite, coconut fiber and paper towels with four replications of 25 seeds each. The following parameters were also analyzed: average time of germination, length of primary root and epicotyl and dry weight of the seedling. The experiment was conducted in BOD regulated at constant temperature of 25 ºC and regime of continuous light. The shade method of drying and the vermiculite substrate can be recommended to test the vigour of this specie.

  19. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  20. Eugenia e Fundação Rockefeller no Brasil: a saúde como proposta de regeneração nacional Eugenics and the Rockefeller Foundation in Brazil: health as an instrument of national regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Kobayashi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, a Fundação Rockefeller atuou de modo decisivo na implementação de ações voltadas para a saúde pública no Brasil, especialmente naquilo denominado de movimento sanitarista. Nesse mesmo período, a eugenia brasileira era equivalente ao sanitarismo, onde defendia-se a máxima de que "sanear era eugenizar". Vários trabalhos discutem o movimento sanitário, a questão da saúde pública no Brasil, a Fundação Rockefeller, a eugenia e seus ativistas. Entretanto, é escassa a discussão a respeito da Rockefeller e o movimento eugenista brasileiro. É necessário alertar que embora nos deparemos com questões ligadas à raça, teorias sobre genética ou evolução, este trabalho não tem como objetivo analisar tais assuntos com profundidade. O que buscamos construir foi o cenário no qual a eugenia de maneira geral, e a brasileira, especificamente, se desenrolou trazendo à tona as posturas de alguns eugenistas brasileiros.In the first decades of the twentieth century, the work of the Rockefeller Foundation was decisive for the implementation of public health initiatives in Brazil, especially in the so-called public health movement. At that time, Brazilian eugenics was the same as public health, as expressed in the maxim "to sanitize is to eugenize". There are several studies discussing the public health movement, the issue of public health in Brazil, the Rockefeller Foundation, eugenics and its supporters. However, there is little discussion on the relationship between the Rockefeller Foundation and the Brazilian eugenics movement. It is worth to mention that although there are issues related to race, and theories on genetics and evolution, this work does not intend to examine these issues in depth. The aim was to recreate the scenario in which eugenics in general, and particularly in the Brazilian case, was developed, exposing the positions of some of the Brazilian eugenicists.

  1. Eugenesia: Un análisis histórico y una posible propuesta Eugenia: Uma análise histórica e uma possível proposta Eugenics: A historical analysis and a possible proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Villela Cortés

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La eugenesia es un tema abordado, entre otros, por historiadores, filósofos, médicos, bioeticistas, por distintas razones. La idea de mejorar la raza humana siempre ha estado presente en la historia de la civilización, también han sido objeto de comentarios el intento de consolidarla como una ciencia, la presencia de movimientos eugenésicos en varios países del mundo, el holocausto nazi y, finalmente, el resurgimiento de la eugenesia a raíz de la decodificación del genoma humano. Nuestro objetivo es dar un repaso por los movimientos eugenésicos que tuvieron lugar a mediados del siglo XX, el resurgimiento de la eugenesia y los adelantos con los que contamos actualmente.A eugenia é um tema abordado, entre outros, por historiadores, filósofos, médicos, bioeticistas, e por diferentes razões. A ideia de melhorar a raça humana sempre tem estado presente na história da civilização. Também tem sido objeto de comentários a intenção de consolidá-la como uma ciência a presença de movimentos eugênicos em vários países do mundo, o holocausto nazista e, finalmente, o ressurgimento da eugenia na raíz da decodificação do genoma humano. Nosso objetivo é dar um repasso pelos movimentos eugênicos que tiveram lugar em meados do século XX, o ressurgimento da eugenia e os avanços com os quais contamos atualmente.Eugenics is a topic treated for several reasons by, among others, historians, philosophers, physicians, bioethicists. The idea to improve human race always has been present in the history of civilization, to try to consolidate it as a science also has been the object of commentaries, the presence of eugenic organizations in several countries, the nazi holocaust and finally, the eugenic resurgence since the human genome sequencing. Our objective is to review eugenic movements in the mid twentieth century, eugenic resurgence and current advancements.

  2. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the

  3. Farmer’s seed sources and seed quality: 2. seed health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the health quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples collected from formal and informal sector in Ethiopia and Syria. In Ethiopia, several seed-borne fungi were found on wheat samples: Cochliobolus sativum, Fusarium avenaceum, F.

  4. Size, physiological quality, and green seed occurrence influenced by seeding rate in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Sampaio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding rate influences the intraspecific competition, which might affect the development and quality of seeds in soybean. However, the impact of seeding rate on the physical and physiological qualities of soybean seeds needs to be better elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean plant density on the seed size as well as the effects of the interaction between the plant density and seed size on the seed mass, green seed occurence, and physiological seed quality. The experiments were carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013/14 and 2014/15 in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, under a randomized complete block design, using the NK 7059 RR cultivar with six replications. Four plant densities (150, 300, 440, and 560 thousand viable seeds ha–1 were evaluated. After the classification of seeds into four sizes, using a set of sieves, a 4 ×4 factorial scheme was used for the statistical analysis of the four plant densities and four seed sizes. The seed samples were evaluated for the seed mass, green seed percentage, germination, and vigor. Under thermal and water stress during seed development, an increase in the seeding rate led to a reduction in the green seed occurrence and an increase in the seed size and mass. However, in the absence of thermal and water stress, the seed size and mass were not altered by the seeding rate and, there was no occurrence of green seeds.

  5. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  6. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  7. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  8. Análise tecidual e celular das brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. tratadas com extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. - Myrtaceae Tissue and cell analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L. gill treated with crude ethanol extract and fractions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Fiuza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae é uma planta que ocorre no bioma Cerrado e é utilizada popularmente no tratamento de diarréias, inflamações, hiperglicemia e hipertensão. Estudos prévios revelaram atividade antimicrobiana da E. uniflora in vitro. Tendo em vista o uso popular, este trabalho objetivou avaliar as possíveis atividades celulares e teciduais sistêmicas do extrato bruto e das frações das folhas dessa planta em brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. (tilápia nilótica. Para isso, o extrato etanólico e as frações das folhas dessa planta foram administrados no peixe, por via oral, adicionadas à ração. Após um período de 24 horas, os peixes foram sacrificados e o segundo arco branquial de cada peixe foi dissecado, fixado em formalina neutra, desidratado, incluído em parafina e cortado. Nas análises histológicas, utilizaram-se tricômico de Masson e hematoxilina e eosina (HE. Pelas análises qualitativas na microscopia de luz, concluiu-se que o extrato etanólico bruto e as frações das folhas da E. uniflora apresentaram efeito sistêmico nas tilápias nilóticas atingindo as brânquias. As ações tóxicas como destacamento e descamação do epitélio respiratório e hiperplasia das células do epitélio interlamelar, foram mais pronunciadas nas tilápias que ingeriram maiores concentrações. Este trabalho colaborou para identificar o efeito vasodilatador dessa planta, e contribuiu para estabelecer a tilápia nilótica como sistema-modelo para testes com princípios ativos de plantas. Espera-se, com esses testes, viabilizar o uso de plantas como medicamentos para tratamentos de peixes, a manutenção da saúde de animais em cultivo intensivo e extensivo, a partir do qual se possibilite emprego alternativo aos medicamentos sintéticos.Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae is a plant found in the Cerrado biome and traditionally used in the treatment of diarrheas, inflammations, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Previous studies

  9. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested ... fruits into plastic bag that was exposed in ambient air in the field; SFD, seeds ..... Concepts and technologies of selected.

  10. Improving the traditional sesame seed planting with seed pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 1Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey. 2Fethiye ... the pelleted sesame seeds improved the yield significantly ... Sesame holds a special importance in the world's oil.

  11. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  12. Studies on the Vigour of Soybean Seeds : II. Varietal Differences in Seed Coat Quality and Swelling Components of Seed during Moisture Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnisjah, Wahju Qamara; Shimano, Itaru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; 島野, 至; 松本, 重男

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory experiment was conducted to elucidate the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed coat quality with varietal differences in seed vigour, and to pursue an alternative on the mechanism of varietal differences in seed resistance to field weathering. Results of this study revealed that seed polymer change (seed volume change minus seed weight change during moisture imbibition) was the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed ...

  13. Development and Validation of a HPLC-UV Method for the Evaluation of Ellagic Acid in Liquid Extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae Leaves and Its Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Isaac Dias Assunção

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC-UV method has been developed and validated for the quantification of ellagic acid (EA in ethanol extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae leaves. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE optimization was performed using a Box Behnken design (33 combined with response surface methodology to study the effects of the ethanol concentration (%, w/w, extraction time (minutes, and temperature (°C on the EA concentration. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield of EA by UAE was 26.0 μg mL−1 when using 44% (w/w ethanol as the solvent, 22 minutes as the extraction time, and 59°C as the extraction temperature. The concentration of EA in relation to the predicted value was 93.7%  ±  0.4. UAE showed a strong potential for EA extraction.

  14. Development and Validation of a HPLC-UV Method for the Evaluation of Ellagic Acid in Liquid Extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) Leaves and Its Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Paulo Isaac Dias; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; de Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano

    2017-01-01

    A simple HPLC-UV method has been developed and validated for the quantification of ellagic acid (EA) in ethanol extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) leaves. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) optimization was performed using a Box Behnken design (3 3 ) combined with response surface methodology to study the effects of the ethanol concentration (%, w/w), extraction time (minutes), and temperature (°C) on the EA concentration. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield of EA by UAE was 26.0  μ g mL -1 when using 44% (w/w) ethanol as the solvent, 22 minutes as the extraction time, and 59°C as the extraction temperature. The concentration of EA in relation to the predicted value was 93.7%  ±  0.4. UAE showed a strong potential for EA extraction.

  15. Significación y trascendencia del género epistolar en la política cortesana: la correspondencia inédita entre la Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia y el Marqués de Velada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Martínez Hernández

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is make known the unpublished correspondence maintained between the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia and the Marquis of Velada, her lord high steward for a period of eleven years in the early seventeenth century. This private correspondence has become a vital source of information, especially for the historiography of the court, specifically in comparison with official correspondence. The content of the letters brings nuance and personal judgements which, by virtue of the freedom with which they were written, prove to have a much greater value than the public documents. Certainly, the letters not only transmitted news but also became a powerful means for maintaining the relationship over a considerable distance. This correspondence provides a number of insights into the political and personal relations between a princess and a courtier. The article also includes a transcription and abstract of the letters.

  16. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de pitangueira submetidas a diferentes procedimentos de secagem e substratos - Parte 1 Physiological quality of surinam cherry seeds submitted to different procedures of drying and substrates - Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia H. de M. Sena

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, no presente trabalho, determinar o procedimento de secagem e substratos ideais para avaliar a viabilidade e o vigor de sementes de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L.. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 (2 procedimentos de secagem: à sombra e ao sol; 4 substratos: Areia, vermiculita, pó-de-coco e papel toalha com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada uma. Caracterizou-se a curva de absorção de água pela semente e se avaliaram os seguintes parâmetros: germinação (%, primeira contagem de germinação (%, índice de velocidade de germinação e sementes mortas (%. O experimento foi conduzido em germinador do tipo BOD, regulado a temperatura constante de 25 ºC e regime de luz contínua. Nas condições em que o trabalho foi realizado, a secagem à sombra e o substrato vermiculita podem ser recomendados para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica, porque proporcionaram maior germinação e desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas de pitangueira.The present work had as its objective to determine the ideal procedure of drying and the substrate to evaluate the viability and vigour of surinam cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.. The experiment was developed in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme 2 x 4 (2 procedures of drying: shade and sun; 4 substrates: sand, vermiculite, coconut fiber and paper towels with four replications of 25 seeds each. The water absortion curve was characterized and the following parameters were analyzed: germination percentage, first germination count (%, germination speed index and dead seeds (%. The experiment was conducted in a BOD germinator regulated at constant temperature of 25 ºC and regime of continuous light. In the conditions where the work was carried out, the drying under shade and vermiculite may be recommended to evaluate the vigour because they provided the best germination and initial development of surinam cherry seedlings.

  17. Seed cryopreservation of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Università

    2013-04-17

    control) and liquid nitrogen-treated seeds were .... 76.0 ± 4.0 (NT in GA3), with an intermediary value of 70.0. ± 5.0% (Cryo seeds in water .... in November, suggesting a loss of dormancy during seed maturation. Furthermore, seed ...

  18. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  19. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  20. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  1. Brassica rapa L. seed development in hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.; Allen, J.; Blasiak, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments had shown that microgravity adversely affected seed development in Brassica rapa L. We tested the hypothesis that gravity controls seed development via modulation of gases around the developing seeds, by studying how hypergravity affects the silique microenvironment and seed

  2. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  3. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  4. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  6. Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

  7. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size

  8. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  9. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  10. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  11. EFEITO DA TEMPERATURA E DO USO DE EMBALAGEM NA CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA DE FRUTOS DE CAGAITA (Eugenia dysentericaDC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA DE OLIVEIRA CARNEIRO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaiteira destaca-se entre as espécies nativas do Cerrado por produzir frutos de sabor agradável, os quais podem ser consumidos tanto in natura quanto processados na forma de doces, compotas e geleias. Apesar do potencial econômico, é uma planta pouco explorada, principalmente devido à baixa durabilidade dos frutos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da embalagem e da temperatura sobre a conservação pós-colheita de frutos de E. dysenterica. Para isto, os frutos de cagaita foram coletados no estádio verde-maduro, ainda ligados à planta-mãe, e levados ao Laboratório de Botânica da Universidade Federal da Bahia, onde foram selecionados quanto à integridade física, ausência de danos mecânicos epatogênicos. Após lavagem em água corrente, os frutos foram secos e acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, cobertas por filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC de 10 micras, perfurados e sem perfuração, e em bandejas sem revestimento de PVC. A perfuração foi realizada visando a maior circulação de ar dentro das embalagens. Em seguida, foram armazenados em duas temperaturas, 5 e 25ºC. Para a avaliação da durabilidade dos frutos, foram realizadas avaliações diárias das características físicas e químicas, incluindo coloração, firmeza, pH, perda de massa, altura e diâmetro. O metabolismo de carboidratos também foi avaliado por meio da quantificação dos açúcares solúveis. Os frutos da cagaita apresentaram durabilidade de 5 dias, independentemente dos tratamentos utilizados, sendo que os submetidos à refrigeração apresentaram sintomas de injúria por frio, alteração da coloração e firmeza (25%, redução de pH e do consumo de carboidratos. Já em frutos mantidos a 25ºC, houve amarelecimento completo, perda de firmeza, aumento do pH e maior consumo de carboidratos. Verificou-se que o uso de embalagens, praticamente, não promoveu efeitos ben

  12. Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, P.I.; Gevers, H.; Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food

  13. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  14. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  15. Equilibrium relative humidity as a tool to monitor seed moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2010-01-01

    The importance of seed moisture in maintaining high seed viability is well known. The seed storage chapters in the Tropical Tree Seed Manual (Hong and Ellis 2003) and the Woody Plant Seed Manual (Bonner 2008a) give a detailed discussion and many references on this point. Working with seeds in an operational setting requires a test of seed moisture status. It is...

  16. The Seed Proteome Web Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eGalland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Seed Proteome Web Portal (SPWP; http://www.seedproteome.com/ gives access to information both on quantitative seed proteomic data and on seed-related protocols. Firstly, the SPWP provides access to the 475 different Arabidopsis seed proteins annotated from 2 dimensional electrophoresis (2DE maps. Quantitative data are available for each protein according to their accumulation profile during the germination process. These proteins can be retrieved either in list format or directly on scanned 2DE maps. These proteomic data reveal that 40% of seed proteins maintain a stable abundance over germination, up to radicle protrusion. During sensu stricto germination (24 h upon imbibition about 50% of the proteins display quantitative variations, exhibiting an increased abundance (35% or a decreasing abundance (15%. Moreover, during radicle protrusion (24 h to 48 h upon imbibition, 41% proteins display quantitative variations with an increased (23% or a decreasing abundance (18%. In addition, an analysis of the seed proteome revealed the importance of protein post-translational modifications as demonstrated by the poor correlation (r2 = 0.29 between the theoretical (predicted from Arabidopsis genome and the observed protein isoelectric points. Secondly, the SPWP is a relevant technical resource for protocols specifically dedicated to Arabidopsis seed proteome studies. Concerning 2D electrophoresis, the user can find efficient procedures for sample preparation, electrophoresis coupled with gel analysis and protein identification by mass spectrometry, which we have routinely used during the last 12 years. Particular applications such as the detection of oxidized proteins or de novo synthetized proteins radiolabeled by [35S]-methionine are also given in great details. Future developments of this portal will include proteomic data from studies such as dormancy release and protein turnover through de novo protein synthesis analyses during germination.

  17. Report on seed born diseases in organic seed and propagation material

    OpenAIRE

    Micheloni, C.; Plakolm, G.; Schärer, H.

    2007-01-01

    The key questions which will be addressed in this report are: • Are seed born diseases an important factor that prevents seed companies from producing organic seeds and organic farmers from using them? • Which seed treatments are available in organic farming? Which treatments are or will be acceptable? To which degree are they effective? • Are the thresholds for seed born diseases different among Member States? Can this cause unfair competition among farmers and seed producers? • ...

  18. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Branimir; Svitlica, Brankica; Ćosić, Jasenka; Andrić, Luka; Rozman, Vlatka; Postić, Jelena; Liović, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control) had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g), intergrowth energy (18-37 %) and seed germination (39-52 %). In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g), intergrowth energ...

  19. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-10-01

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs.

  20. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. [Dynamics of seed rain of Tripterygium hypoglaucum and soil seed bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wei, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiang; Su, Shu; Qu, Xian-You; Wang, Chang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Tripterygium hypoglaucum is an endangered species in arid areas of Xiannvshan Chongqing, China. The dynamic characteristics of seed rain and soil seed bank of T. hypoglaucum were studied in this paper.Results showed that T. hypoglaucum years of mature seeds distribution number up to October; the seed rain occurred from the last ten-day of September to in the first ten-day of November and the peak of scattered seed rain concentrated in the October.The numbers of soil seed bank at 2-5 cm soil layer,mainly concentrated in the 1.5-3.5 m range. T. hypoglaucum seeds to the wind as a force for transmission, the transmission ability is strong, but in the process of natural reproduction, full mature seed rate is low, the soil seed bank seeds seed short-lived factors these were unfavorable for the natural reproduction of T. hypoglaucum population. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Factors influencing upon the incidence of seed migration in I-125 seed transperineal prostate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun; Onishi, Kayoko; Kanemura, Mikio

    2005-01-01

    Transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer is rapidly expanding in Japan. Seed migrations to lung and abdomen are well known complication in the seed brachytherapy. The rate of incidence and the predisposing factors were studied. From April 2004 through January 2005, 36 patients underwent transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. In all patients loose I-125 seeds were inserted with Mick applicator according to modified peripheral loading pattern. One day, 1 week, and 1 month after the procedure, posteroanterior and lateral chest X-rays and abdominal X-ray were performed. Abdominal and chest seed migrations were seen in 11 (30.6%) and 14 (38.9%) patients, respectively. In total, 20 patients (55.6%) showed seed migrations. Forty-two I-125 seeds migrated out of 2,508 implanted seeds. Most of the migrations were seen until 1 month after the procedure. The preplanned number of the extraprostatic seeds had a statistically significant influence upon the incidence of seed migration. Seed migration is not a rare phenomenon in transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. To confirm seed migration, X-ray examinations 1 month after the procedure are suited. At the preplanning, the number of extraprostatic seeds should be limited to minimal to decrease the incidence of seed migration. In future, the introduction of linked I-125 seeds is preferred. (author)

  3. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... bottles were seal-locked and kept in the accelerated ageing cham- ber at three ... Hundred (100) seeds of each treatment were performed in plastic ..... by heat stress: the activation state of Rubisco as a limiting factor in.

  4. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... high, suggesting that wet soil is necessary for an on farm reliable evaluation of seed fermentation method in the .... with tap water, and sundried in ambient air until attaining 6 to 7% moisture. ..... arabica in Brazil. Int. J. Food ...

  5. Nutrient composition of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. OGUNKA-NNOKA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nutrient composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, proximate, and vitamin compositions were evaluated using standard methods. Saponins were very high, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins were high, while terpenoids were low, and glycosides, aldehydes, and steroids were absent. The quantitative phytochemical determination followed the order; saponin > kaempferol > rutin > catechin > tannin > sapogenin > lunamarine > phenol > ribalinidine > anthocyanin > oxalate > phytate. For the proximate composition, carbohydrates had the highest concentration, followed by lipids and fibre, while, protein concentration was the lowest. Vitamin E (5.42 mg/100g, vitamin C (3.24 mg/100g, and vitamin A (2.84 mg/100g were the highest occurring constituent vitamins while vitamin B12 (0.035 mg/100g and vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g were the least occurring vitamins. This study has shown the rich phytochemical composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture while showing deficiencies in proteins, distinct vitamins, and ash contents.

  6. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the

  7. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... As a result, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root were improved. Seed priming alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on germination and seedling growth of maize under salt stress. ... Salinization is more spreading in irrigated lands because of inappropriate management of irrigation and drainage.

  8. Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the

  9. Forest Seed Collection, Processing,and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    This chapter pertains to the techniques of capturing the best genetic quality seeds a seed source can produce at the optimal time of high physiological maturity and maintaining these qualities throughout the handling processes, all at a minimum cost. Different collection and processing techniques...... apply to different species, seed types, situations, and purposes. Yet the collection and processing toolbox contains a number of “standard” methods for most of these groups. Records and documentation help in evaluating “best practice” for future method improvement, and it helps in linking offspring...... to seed source. Conditions are set for short- and long-term seed storage by their inert storability physiology. The potential storage life of seed may for some robust “orthodox” species be several decades, while no available storage conditions can maintain viability for sensitive “recalcitrant” seed. Seed...

  10. Chemical Composition of Kapok (Ceibapentandra) Seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -5 years. ... with a sharp steel knife from which healthy seeds were selected. ... Total carbohydrate was determined by difference. .... resistance to microbial attack of plant tissue (Taiz and. Zeiger, 1991 ... Maintenance of soybean seed quality in ...

  11. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. Copyright 2004 The American Genetic Association

  12. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  13. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  14. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  15. Effects of seed and seedling predation by small mammals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed predation reduced seedling recruitment from seeds planted in March 1986 in mature fynbos, but ... Seed predation did not significantly reduce seedling recruitment from seed planted in July, August and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype relationship study in 31 ... Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. ... to the Mesoamerican gene pool, comprising the cultigroups Sieva-Big Lima, ...

  17. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.

  18. Efficient chaining of seeds in ordered trees

    OpenAIRE

    Allali, Julien; Chauve, Cédric; Ferraro, Pascal; Gaillard, Anne-Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We consider here the problem of chaining seeds in ordered trees. Seeds are mappings between two trees Q and T and a chain is a subset of non overlapping seeds that is consistent with respect to postfix order and ancestrality. This problem is a natural extension of a similar problem for sequences, and has applications in computational biology, such as mining a database of RNA secondary structures. For the chaining problem with a set of m constant size seeds, we describe...

  19. Composition of jojoba seeds and foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiscar, A.J.; Banigan, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The desert shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) may be browsed by cattle. The seeds have about 50% oil but the extracted meal is at present unsuitable for feeding. Simmondsin, the most prevalent toxin, is present in seed, 2.3%, and in husks, leaves and twigs. Seeds contained another toxin, Simmondsin 2'-ferulate. The contents of oil, protein, carbohydrate and amino acids in seed are tabulated. 13 references.

  20. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  1. Training and research in seed technology. No quality seeds without skilled staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    The seed industry in the Netherlands is the largest exporter of horticultural seeds, reaching farmers in every country of the world. High seed quality is one of the key factors of this success. Maintaining and increasing the level of seed qualtiy requires skilled staff, innovation and collaboration

  2. How seed orchard culture affects seed quality: experience with the southern pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have influenced significantly the quality of southern pine seeds produced when compared to collections from native stands. Seed orchard management practices such as fertilization can increase seed size and reduce seed dormancy. These result in the need for less complex pregermination treatments. Repeated cone collections from the same clones...

  3. Consistent individual differences in seed disperser quality in a seed-eating fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, Bart J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Animal-mediated seed dispersal (zoochory) is considered to be an important mechanism regulating biological processes at larger spatial scales. To date, intra-specific variation in seed disperser quality within seed-dispersing animals has not been studied. Here, I employed seed feeding trials to

  4. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social

  5. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... however, abscisic acid (ABA) can counter this effect by keeping seeds ... Tris-HCl buffer at pH 8.8, with constant current set at 20 mA/gel. The gels were ..... on plants is rarely studied and the importance of 20E in the life cycle ...

  6. The Seed Is the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

  7. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  8. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  9. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  10. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Vidigal, De D.; Willems, L.A.J.; Arkel, van J.; Dekkers, S.J.W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Bentsink, L.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increasedcosts in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive forseed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive

  11. Seed dormancy and germination : light and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable

  12. Dormancy cycling in seeds: mechanisms and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most plants starts, and ends, at the seed stage. In most species mature seeds are shed and dispersed on the ground. At this stage of its life cycle the seed may be dormant and will, by definition, not germinate under favourable conditions (Bewley, 1997).

    Seasonal

  13. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  14. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  15. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  16. Running title: Water distribution in chickpea seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agriphy20

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... molecular mobility of cellular water in magnetically exposed seeds as compared to unexposed seeds. Analysis of ... protrusion takes place through the seed coat and absorption .... directly related to water activity (aw) of the cell water. (Gambhir ..... plants, including photosynthesis, respiration and enzymatic ...

  17. Strategies for Seed Propagation of Native Forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2006-01-01

    Native forbs are an increasingly important component of container production for many public and private nurseries. Propagators are often called upon to grow species with unknown requirements. A systematic approach is required to obtain plants from seeds of these species, beginning with determining what is a propagule and evaluating seed quality. Next, seed dormancy...

  18. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Seed dormancy has been defined as the failure of an intact, viable seed to ... expected ratio of 3 dormant : 1 non-dormant seeds in F2 generations of crosses of ICGV 87378 and ICGV ... ICGV 87378 x ICGV 86158. 163. 0. 163.

  19. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  20. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  1. The biomechanics of seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence. Endosperm weakening as a prerequisite for radicle emergence is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms. Research into the biochemistry and biomechanics of endosperm weakening has demonstrated that the reduction in puncture force of a seed's micropylar endosperm is environmentally and hormonally regulated and involves tissue-specific expression of cell wall remodelling proteins such as expansins, diverse hydrolases, and the production of directly acting apoplastic reactive oxygen. The endosperm-weakening biomechanics and its underlying cell wall biochemistry differ between the micropylar (ME) and chalazal (CE) endosperm domains. In the ME, they involve cell wall loosening, cell separation, and programmed cell death to provide decreased and localized ME tissue resistance, autolysis, and finally the formation of an ME hole required for radicle emergence. Future work will further unravel the molecular mechanisms, environmental regulation, and evolution of the diverse biomechanical cell wall changes underpinning the control of germination by endosperm weakening. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Improving seed potato quality in Ethiopia: a value chain perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, use of low-quality seed potatoes by the majority of potato growers is
    associated with underdevelopment of the seed potato value chains. Three seed potato systems are present in Ethiopia: the informal seed system, the alternative seed system and the formal seed system. This chapter

  3. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  4. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  5. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  6. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  7. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  8. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  9. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    testing records. Genetic quality is documented as documents on origin or seed source. New types of tree planting by smallholders imply special problems in distribution and supply systems since production systems for tree seeds have large areas while many consumers have small space for planting....... A centralized forest seed supply contains large central units with good facilities for production and procurement but is far from seed users. Alternative decentralized systems with many small producers may have problems meeting high standards of seed quality and dealing with central regulations....

  10. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  11. GERMINATION STUDIES ON Tabebuia impetiginosa Mart. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling production of native forest tree species are an important step in ex situ conservation programs and in the reforestation with ecological purposes. Therefore, understanding seed germination and its regulation is mandatory for the complete success of the conservation programs and revegetation techniques. Thus, morphological studies, temperature requirements for seed germination and its control by gibberellins (GAs were studied in Tabebuia impetiginosa (“ipê-roxo” seeds. The best temperature for germination under constant light was 30oC. The imbibition of T. impetiginosa seeds followed the common triphasic pattern, with most of the seeds attaining phase II at 24 hours and phase III at 72 hours of imbibition. Visible germination, as radicle elongation, started at 30 hours in water-imbibed seeds and at 24 hours in GA-imbibed seeds. Seeds imbibed in Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, failed to germinate. However, application of exogenous gibberellins overcame inhibition and allowed germination, suggesting that GAs are regulators of Tabebuia impetiginosa seed germination. The results suggested that germination in Tabebuia impetiginosa seeds is controlled by elongation of the radicle and gibberellins may play an important role in regulating it. The possible role of gibberellins is discussed.

  12. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method.

  13. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  14. Seed counting system evaluation using arduino microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Escobar Paim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of automated systems has been highlighted in the most diverse productive sectors, among them, the agricultural sector. These systems aim to optimize activities by increasing operational efficiency and quality of work. In this sense, the present work has the objective of evaluating a prototype developed for seed count in laboratory, using Arduino microcontroller. The prototype of the system for seed counting was built using a dosing mechanism commonly used in seeders, electric motor, Arduino Uno, light dependent resistor and light emitting diode. To test the prototype, a completely randomized design (CRD was used in a two-factorial scheme composed of three groups defined according to the number of seeds (500, 1000 and 1500 seeds tested, three speeds of the dosing disc that allowed the distribution in 17, 21 and 32 seeds per second, with 40 repetitions evaluating the seed counting prototype performance in different speeds. The prototype of the bench counter showed a moderate variability of seed number of counted within the nine tests and a high precision in the seed count on the distribution speeds of 17 and 21 seeds per second (s-1 up to 1500 seeds tested. Therefore, based on the observed results, the developed prototype presents itself as an excellent tool for counting seeds in laboratory.

  15. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Claessens, Mascha; Soons, Merel B

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12-17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds.

  16. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Merel B.

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12–17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds. PMID:29614085

  17. Evaluation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Seed Quality of Certified Seed and Farm-Saved Seed in Three Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaei Fardin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the seed quality aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and the extent of weed seed contamination present in wheat seeds produced in different regions of Iran. Four districts (cities, each including 12 fields (six certified seed fields and six farm-saved seed fields, were selected in each regions (provinces. One kilogram of the wheat seed sample was collected from each field for analysis in the laboratory. Wheat seeding was commonly done by farm-saved seed sourced from within the farm due to the high costs of certified seeds purchased from outside sources, followed by the low seed quality. The use of a farm-saved seed resulted in a higher germination rate and a lower mean time to germination compared with another system. The more positive temperatures experienced by mother plants could decrease the number of normal seedling and seedling length vigor index. Generally there was virtually no difference about physiological quality between certified seed and farm-saved seed sector that is related to lower quality of certified seed. The certified produced seeds had the lower number of weed seed, species and genus before and after cleaning. The highest seed purity and 1000 seed weight was obtained from the certified seed production system. The need for cleaning the farm-saved seed samples before sowing is one of the important findings of this survey.

  18. Effect of the clove (Eugenia caryophyllus L. ethanol extract and essential oil on the quality of pre-cooked rainbow trout fillet during storage at -18°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shabani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of clove (Eugenia caryophyllus L. extract and essential oil (EO on oxidative stability and sensory properties of pre-cooked trout fillet during frozen storage period. Trout fillets (treated with clove EO (0.1%, extract (2%, BHT (0.02% and the control were fried, oven baked and steamed and stored at -18 ºC for 4 months. By the end of storage period, the highest value peroxide value was obtained from fried fillets contained EO and extract (4.48 and 5.45 meq/kg, respectively and the lowest was observed in oven-baked samples contained EO and extract (2.63 and 3.47 meq/kg, respectively. TBA values did not increase in pre-cooked fillets with EO and extract except control steamed samples (0.58 mg MA/kg. Samples treated with clove EO showed slower PV and TBA increse than those of extract-treated samples or control. However, the additions of clove EO and extract have positive effect on sensory quality of baked fillets.

  19. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Simon Gonzalez Schumacher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1 treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes.

  20. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Nayara Simon Gonzalez; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima

    2015-10-09

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes.

  1. Évaluation de la toxicité d’un herbicide à base de 2,4-D sur le ver de terre Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg, 1867 (Oligochaeta, Eudrilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouakou Gains KPAN KPAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 2,4-D is commonly used in the world to control undesirable plant species in monocotyledonous fields. The massive use of this herbicide requires knowledge of its ecotoxicological spectrum for better regulation of its use. This study aimed to characterize acute toxicity and to determine the long-term effects of a 2,4-D herbicide on Eudrilus eugeniae. The tests were carried out in Azaguié (Côte d’Ivoire, on natural soil enriched with rabbit droppings. The lethal concentration (LC50 was 175.6±12.3 mg/kg. The exposure of earthworms to 20 mg/l of 2,4-D (9.2 mg/kg reduced significantly cocoon production, hatching rate and juvenile’s number per cocoon. With regard to these results, we concluded that 2,4-D based herbicides are potential threat to earthworms because CL 50 was largely below concentrations of 1920 mg/l and 2880 mg/l of 2,4-D recommended by the manufacturer.

  2. Acute And Subchronic Toxicity Studies Of SNEDDS (Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems) From Ethyl Acetate Extract Of Bay Leaf (Eugenia polyantha W.) with Virgin Coconut Oil As Oil Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihapsara, F.; Alamsyah, R. I.; Widiyani, T.; Artanti, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Bay leaf (Eugenia polyantha) is widely used as an alternative therapy for diabetic and hypercholesterol. However, the administration of the extract has a low oral bioavailability, therefore it is prepared by Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) ethyl acetate extract of bay leaf. Therefore, acute and subchronic toxicity test is required. The toxicity test performed was an experimental study, including acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Animal experiments were used using Wistar strain rats. Acute toxicity test using 5 groups (n=5) consisted of 1 control group and 4 groups of SNEDDS dose with 48 mg/kgBW 240 mg/kg, 1200 mg/kg, and 6000 mg/kg, while for subchronic toxicity test with 1 group control and 3 groups of doses of SNEDDS with dose group variation 91.75 mg/kgBW, 183.5 mg/kg, and 367 mg/kg. Duration of observation at acute toxicity test for 14 days while for subcronic toxicity test for 28 days with continuous SNEDDS dosage. The results of the acute toxicity test showed toxic symptoms and obtained median lethal dose (LD50) values from SNEDDS from ethyl acetate extract of bay leaf 1409.30 mg/kgBW belonging to slightly toxic category. Subchronic toxicity studies show that the test drug has minor damage in liver and kidneys and moderate damage in pancreas.

  3. Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Allana K L; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Cansanção, Isaac F; Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants' ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated.

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte; Rolston, M P

    2013-01-01

    production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among...... species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like...

  5. Noahs Ark of the seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristan, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    The so-called 'vault of the end of the world', located in the archipelago Arctic Svalbard, brings together more than 860,000 samples seeds from around the world. The purpose of your existence -like the of thousands of other banks of its kind in all the planet - is to preserve the genetic diversity of crops, most of them are now disappearing. An international treaty approved by the United Nations, and in force since 2004, allowed the construction of this 'Sanctuary' where more than one hundred countries maintain their own banks of seeds, freezing them to 18 degrees below zero to lower its biological activity. (Author)

  6. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan; Chen, Rujin

    2016-11-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes.

  7. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  8. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  9. Agrowaste: Phytosterol from Durian Seed

    OpenAIRE

    D. Mohd Nazrul Hisham; J. Mohd Lip; R. Suri; H. Mohamed Shafit; Z.Kharis; K. Shazlin; A. Normah; M.F. Nurul Nabilah

    2012-01-01

    Presence of phytosterol compound in Durian seed (Durio zibethinus) or known as King of fruits has been discovered from screening work using reagent test. Further analysis work has been carried out using mass spectrometer in order to support the priliminary finding. Isolation and purification of the major phytosterol has been carried out using an open column chromatography. The separation was monitored using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Major isolated compounds and pur...

  10. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  11. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  12. PHO1 Exports Phosphate from the Chalazal Seed Coat to the Embryo in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzaki, Evangelia; Baroux, Célia; Jung, Ji-Yul; Poirier, Yves

    2017-10-09

    Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds. PHO1 is additionally expressed in developing ovules. Phosphorus (P) content and Pi flux between the seed coat and embryo were analyzed in seeds from grafts between WT roots and scions from either pho1, phoh1, or the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. Whereas P content and distribution between the seed coat and embryo in fully mature dry seeds of these mutants are similar to the WT, at the mature green stage of seed development the seed coat of the pho1 and pho1 phoh1 mutants, but not of the phoh1 mutant, retains approximately 2-fold more P than its WT control. Expression of PHO1 under a CZSC-specific promoter complemented the seed P distribution phenotype of the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. CZSC-specific down-expression of PHO1 also recapitulated the seed P distribution phenotype of pho1. Together, these experiments show that PHO1 expression in the CZSC is important for the transfer of P from the seed coat to the embryo in developing seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y.; Messing, E.; Rubens, D.; Sarkar, N.; Ng, W.

    2008-01-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  14. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  16. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  17. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Saez-Aguayo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  18. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  19. Impurities in alfalfa seed and their impact on processing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Marković, Jordan; Terzić, Dragan; Anđelković, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine relevant parameters and optimal alfalfa seed processing technology by a comparative analysis of two systems of machinery for processing natural alfalfa seed of different purity (59.0% and 71.0%) and with different content of impurities. The relevant parameters monitored during the test were: pure seed (%), weed seeds and seeds of other crops (%), inert matter (%), amount of processed seed (kg), seed processing time (min), consumption of steel powder (...

  20. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  1. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. Yield and quality of white mustard seed depending on the seeding dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sowing dates and harvest dates on yield and quality of white mustard seed been investigated in this study. During the experiment two sowing dates have been tested the first one based on the crops in March, and the other one when the direct sowing was carried out in late May, after the harvest of camomile crops. The harvest of the seed crops in the first seeding date was performed on 1st July, and the second on 15th September. Seed fractioning extracted the following fractions: large (3mm, medium (2 mm and small (1mm. I he objective of the laboratory' experiments was to observe the effect of the seed fraction size on the most important parameters of its quality (germination energy, total germination and absolute mass according to the stipulated terms. Based on the data obtained in the survey, it can be concluded that the seed yield is significantly affected by the varied seeding dates. Earlier seeding date produced significantly increased seed yield (1920 kg/ha than the later seeding date (1160 kg/ha. According to the seed quality parameters, the best characteristics are found in the seed fraction of 3 mm, in both seeding and harvest dates.

  3. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  4. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  5. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  6. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  7. Effects of seed priming and water potential on seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... (without seed drying), primed and 12 h drying on seed germination of wheat .... completely with the lower half and the paper were rolled and placed ..... water stress and control of germination: a review. Plant Cell Environ.

  8. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  9. [The research of Valeriana amurensis seed germination characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Yang, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Min; Du, Juan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect of different treatments on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Used different chemical reagents and seed soakings on the routine germination test and the orthogonal test of the Valeriana amurensis seed, calculated the germination rate under different germination condition. Valeriana amurensis treated with different chemical reagends had different germination rate. The suitable immersion time could enhance Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Different treatment time, different disposal temperature, different germination temperature would have an impact on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. In order to raise the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate, use appropriate treatment on the seed before plant seeds; The seed growing must under suitable time and temperature.

  10. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.

  11. Regulatory redox state in tree seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Ratajczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins (Prx are important regulators of the redox status of tree seeds during maturation and long-term storage. Thioredoxins (Trx are redox transmitters and thereby regulate Prx activity. Current research is focused on the association of Trx with Prx in tree seeds differing in the tolerance to desiccation. The results will allow for better understanding the regulation of the redox status in orthodox, recalcitrant, and intermediate seeds. The findings will also elucidate the role of the redox status during the loss of viability of sensitive seeds during drying and long-term storage.

  12. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-05

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Patogenic fungi associated with blue lupine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 10% ofseeds harvested in 1991 and 1992 (50 samples, 400 seeds in each sample proved to be infested with various fungi. Fusarium spp. and Botrytis cinerea were the most common pathogens isolated. Fusarium avenaceum was the most common and highIy pathogenic species. Fusarium semitectum and F. tricinctum were highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings but they were the least common Fusarium isolated from seeds. Similarily, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was isolated only from 0,2% seeds tested but this fungus was highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings. Some other fungi know as lupin pathogens (F. oxysporum, Stemphylium botryosum, Pleiochaeta setosa and Phomopsis leptostromiformis were also noted in tested seeds.

  14. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  15. Microscale Insight into Microbial Seed Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J; Fisk, Melany C; Lennon, J T

    2016-01-01

    Microbial dormancy leads to the emergence of seed banks in environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. These seed banks act as reservoirs of diversity that allow microbes to persist under adverse conditions, including extreme limitation of resources. While microbial seed banks may be influenced by macroscale factors, such as the supply of resources, the importance of microscale encounters between organisms and resource particles is often overlooked. We hypothesized that dimensions of spatial, trophic, and resource complexity determine rates of encounter, which in turn, drive the abundance, productivity, and size of seed banks. We tested this using >10,000 stochastic individual based models (IBMs) that simulated energetic, physiological, and ecological processes across combinations of resource, spatial, and trophic complexity. These IBMs allowed realistic dynamics and the emergence of seed banks from ecological selection on random variation in species traits. Macroscale factors like the supply and concentration of resources had little effect on resource encounter rates. In contrast, encounter rates were strongly influenced by interactions between dispersal mode and spatial structure, and also by the recalcitrance of resources. In turn, encounter rates drove abundance, productivity, and seed bank dynamics. Time series revealed that energetically costly traits can lead to large seed banks and that recalcitrant resources can lead to greater stability through the formation of seed banks and the slow consumption of resources. Our findings suggest that microbial seed banks emerge from microscale dimensions of ecological complexity and their influence on resource limitation and energetic costs.

  16. Inheritance of seed coat color in sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Laurentin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance mode of seed coat color in sesame. Two crosses and their reciprocals were performed: UCLA37 x UCV3 and UCLA90 x UCV3, of which UCLA37 and UCLA90 are white seed, and UCV3 is brown seed. Results of reciprocal crosses within each cross were identical: F1 seeds had the same phenotype as the maternal parent, and F2 resulted in the phenotype brown color. These results are consistent only with the model in which the maternal effect is the responsible for this trait. This model was validated by recording the seed coat color of 100 F2 plants (F3 seeds from each cross with its reciprocal, in which the 3:1 expected ratio for plants producing brown and white seeds was tested with the chi-square test. Sesame seed color is determined by the maternal genotype. Proposed names for the alleles participating in sesame seed coat color are: Sc1, for brown color; and Sc2, for white color; Sc1 is dominant over Sc2.

  17. Evaluation of seed vigor tests for determinig alfalfa seed quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza tavakoli kakhki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best seed vigor test in laboratory which may provide high correlation between alfalfa seedling stablishment in the field, two experiment were conducted in field as well as in laboratory. Four alfalfa cultivars Bami, Ghareyonjeh, Hamadani and Yazdi were used. Different seed vigor tests including standard germination, germination in low tempretaure (5c , germination rate, osmotic stress, accelerated ageing and electrical conductivity tests were laid out in a randomized completely design (RCD with four replications in laboratory experiment‌. The second experiment was carried out in a randomized completely block design (RCBD and each treatment replicated four times‌. Results revealed significant differences (p≤ 0.01 among different cultivars for establishment percentage and rate. Results also showed that there were significant correlations between electrical conductivity test and establishment percentage (r= -0.65 , p ≤ 0.01 as well as establishment rate (r= -0.80 , p ≤ 0.01. Correlation coefficients for rate and emergence percentage were significant and positive (r= 0.91, p ≤ 0.01 . Stepwise method disclosed that the regression model (y=165.23 – 0.15 x r2=0.64 , (p ≤ 0.01 for predicting rate of emergence could be recommended. In this model x (dependent variable is value of electrical conductivity and y (independent variable is rate of emergence.

  18. Chemical Characteristics of Pumpkin Seed Tempeh From Soybean and Pumpkin Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Pujilestari, Shanti; Sandrasari, Diny A; Marida, Rimmaria

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of the combination of soybean and pumpkin seeds on the chemical characteristics of pumpkin seed tempeh. The pumpkin seed tempeh samples were analyzed for its water, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate and crude fiber. Meanwhile, support data were isoflavone and zinc. Sensory hedonic was conducted by 25 untrained panelists for selecting the best formulation of soybean and pumpkin seeds in tempeh. The result shows the formulation of soybean and pumpki...

  19. Seed Placement in Permanent Breast Seed Implant Brachytherapy: Are Concerns Over Accuracy Valid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Daniel, E-mail: dmorton@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Hilts, Michelle [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Batchelar, Deidre [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate seed placement accuracy in permanent breast seed implant brachytherapy (PBSI), to identify any systematic errors and evaluate their effect on dosimetry. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans and postimplant computed tomography scans for 20 PBSI patients were spatially registered and used to evaluate differences between planned and implanted seed positions, termed seed displacements. For each patient, the mean total and directional seed displacements were determined in both standard room coordinates and in needle coordinates relative to needle insertion angle. Seeds were labeled according to their proximity to the anatomy within the breast, to evaluate the influence of anatomic regions on seed placement. Dosimetry within an evaluative target volume (seroma + 5 mm), skin, breast, and ribs was evaluated to determine the impact of seed placement on the treatment. Results: The overall mean (±SD) difference between implanted and planned positions was 9 ± 5 mm for the aggregate seed population. No significant systematic directional displacements were observed for this whole population. However, for individual patients, systematic displacements were observed, implying that intrapatient offsets occur during the procedure. Mean displacements for seeds in the different anatomic areas were not found to be significantly different from the mean for the entire seed population. However, small directional trends were observed within the anatomy, potentially indicating some bias in the delivery. Despite observed differences between the planned and implanted seed positions, the median (range) V{sub 90} for the 20 patients was 97% (66%-100%), and acceptable dosimetry was achieved for critical structures. Conclusions: No significant trends or systematic errors were observed in the placement of seeds in PBSI, including seeds implanted directly into the seroma. Recorded seed displacements may be related to intrapatient setup adjustments. Despite observed seed

  20. Seed abnormalities and associated mycoflora of rain- fed wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    seeds with discoloured embryo (germ) (1.2 – 1.5%) and brush (0.25 – 1.25%) ends. Fusarium graminearum and Helminthosporium sativum were associated with all seeds, ... Key words: Fungi, seed health testing, seed discolouration, wheat. INTRODUCTION. Abnormality in seeds is a major constraint in crop production in ...

  1. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  2. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in seed morphology of the Lima bean in 31 accessions was studied. Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. The differences among the accessions were significant, based on the three seed characteristics. K-means cluster analysis grouped the 31 accessions into four distinct groups, ...

  3. Ecological correlates of seed survival after ingestion by Fallow Deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Van der Veen, CEJ; Veen, GF; Van Diggelen, R

    1. The survival and retention of seeds was studied by feeding known quantities of seeds of 25 species to four captive Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.). To test for ecological correlates, plant species were selected to represent large variation in seed size, seed shape, seed longevity and habitat

  4. 7 CFR 201.57a - Dormant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57a Dormant seeds. Dormant seeds are viable seeds, other than hard seeds, which fail to germinate when provided the specified germination..., or application of germination promoting chemicals. (b) The percentage of dormant seed, if present...

  5. Seed regulation: choices on the road to reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Louwaars, N.P.

    1997-01-01

    Major changes in national seed systems, including the rapid development of commercial seed enterprises, the growth of non-governmental organization (NGO) seed projects, and the concomitant decline of public sector seed provision, call for a re-examination of seed regulatory frameworks in developing

  6. Conference Proceedings: Seed Ecology III - The Third International Society for Seed Science Meeting on Seeds and the Environment - "Seeds and Change"; June 20-June 24, 2010; Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary Pendleton; Susan Meyer; Bitsy Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Seed Ecology III was held in Salt Lake City, Utah in June 2010, sharing the latest research on all aspects of seed ecology. Our meeting was organized around the theme "Seeds and Change." We welcomed contributions in any area of seed ecology. Our agenda also aimed to create bridges between seed ecology and plant conservation, restoration ecology, and global...

  7. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  8. Lipids in citrus sinensis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, S.; Liaquat, L.; Khalid, B.; Khan, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    The seed oil of citrus sinensis when subjected to different physicochemical tests showed moisture 13.2%, ash 7.5%, ester value 1.29%, free fatty acid 0.4%. iodine value 65.0% and protein value 6.0%. According to lipid analysis. the oil was classified into hydrocarbons. wax esters, sterol esters, triglycerides. free fatty acids, 1,3 and 1,2 diglycerides, alcohols, sterols, monoglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. The fatty acid (C/sub 12.0/ - C/sub 21.0/) composition of all lipid classes was determined with the help of thin layer and gas liquid chromatography. (author)

  9. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  10. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem Afzal; Ni, Jun; Chen, Jing; Wang, Qiaojian; Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Xue; Tang, Caiguo; Fu, Songling; Wu, Lifang

    2018-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum , an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen) and endospermic cap (ESC) contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE) or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum . We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs) suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum .

  11. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.; Nicklas, Melissa B.; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert—sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application.

  12. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, Al S.; Wikstrom, M.; Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Jahn, M.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec­tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of

  13. Bulk YBCO seeded with 45°–45° bridge-seeds of different lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y-H; Durrell, J H; Dennis, A R; Cardwell, D A

    2013-01-01

    Single grain, (RE)BCO (rare earth–barium–copper oxide) bulk superconductors in large or complicated geometries are required for a variety of potential applications, such as in motors and generators and magnetic shielding devices. As a result, top, multi-seeded, melt growth has been investigated over the past 15 years in an attempt to enlarge the size of (RE)BCO single grains specifically for such applications. Of these multi-seeding techniques, so-called bridge-seeding provides the best alignment of two seeds in a single grain growth process. Here we report, for the first time, the successful growth of YBCO (yttrium–barium–copper oxide) using a special, 45°–45°, arrangement of bridge-seeds. The superconducting properties, including trapped field, of the multi-seeded YBCO grains have been measured for different bridge lengths of the 45°–45° bridge-seeds. The boundaries at the impinging growth front and the growth features of the top, multi-seeded surface and cross-section of the multi-seeded, samples have been analysed using optical microscopy. The results suggest that an impurity-free boundary between the two seeds of each leg of the bridge-seed can form when 45°–45° bridge-seeds are used to enlarge the size of YBCO grains. (paper)

  14. Estimating Cone and Seed Production and Monitoring Pest Damage in Southern Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; H. David Muse; Thomas Miller; Helen T. Bhattacharyya

    1988-01-01

    Field sampling procedures and computer programs are described for monitoring seed production and pest damage in southern pine seed orchards. The system estimates total orchard yields of female strobili and seeds, quantifies pest damage, determines times of year when losses occur, and produces life tables for female strobili. An example is included to illustrate the...

  15. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed

  16. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Afzal Shah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum, an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen and endospermic cap (ESC contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs. Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum. We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum.

  17. Incorporating seeds in activated carbon pellets limits herbicide effects to seeded bunchgrasses when controlling exotic annuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revegetation of exotic annual grass-invaded rangeland with pre-emergent herbicides is challenging because seeding is delayed until herbicide toxicity has diminished, but at this time, exotic annuals can be re-invading. Incorporating seeds into activated carbon pellets may allow seeding to occur at t...

  18. In vitro Seed-dressing Technique for the Control of Seed-borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro Seed-dressing Technique for the Control of Seed-borne Fungi of Rice variety Faro -29. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Fernasan-D, Apron Plus 50 DS and Dithane–M45), and soaking and slurry methods at various concentrations, for the control of seed-borne fungi of rice variety

  19. Local Seed Business in the Context of Integrated Seed Sector Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, M.H.; Borman, G.D.; Verhoosel, K.S.; Mastenbroek, A.; Heemskerk, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Quality seed is a key input for agriculture, with a direct impact on agricultural production and productivity. Integrated seed sector development (ISSD) is an inclusive approach that recognizes and builds upon a diversity of seed systems in the sector. We use the ISSD approach to guide us in the

  20. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MACHINERY FOR PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF RADISH SEEDS FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pre-sowing treatment of radish seeds aimed at increasing of seed production, yield and its productivity in protected area are presented. The density fractionation of radish seeds by gravity separator is recommended for improvement of planting material quality and increasing of utilization efficiency of frame area.

  1. Genetic analysis of seed-soluble oligosaccharides in relation to seed storability of Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentsink, L.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Tesnier, K.; Groot, S.P.C.; Koornneef, M.

    2000-01-01

    Seed oligosaccharides (OSs) and especially raffinose series OSs (RSOs) are hypothesized to play an important role in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and consequently in seed storability. In the present work we analyzed the seed-soluble OS (sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose) content of

  2. Recent trends in post-wildfire seeding in western US forests: costs and seed mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin; Peter Z. Fule; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Jan L. Beyers; Molly E. Hunter; Pete Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used post-fire rehabilitation treatments to establish ground cover for erosion control and mitigation of non-native plant species invasions. Little quantitative information is available on overall trends of post-fire seeding expenditures and seed mixes used over time in forested ecosystems in the western USA. We reviewed...

  3. Potential of endozoochorous seed dispersal by sheep in calcareous grasslands: correlations with seed traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Huiskes, H.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What is the potential of sheep to serve as seed dispersers via ingestion and defecation in calcareous grasslands? Is the presence of viable seeds from dung correlated with specific seed traits? Location: Calcareous grasslands, South Limburg, the Netherlands/Belgium. Methods: Dung samples

  4. Emergence of native plant seeds in response to seed pelleting, planting depth, scarification, and soil anti-crusting treatment, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Seed of native plants is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Reliable commercial seed production is desirable to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. Establishment of native seed crops has been difficult, because fall-planted seed is susceptible to bird damage, soil crusting, and soil erosion. Fall planting is important for...

  5. Plasticity of seed weight compensates reductions in seed number of oilseed rape in response to shading at flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labra Fernandez, Marcelo; Struik, Paul C.; Evers, Jochem B.; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the response of the number of seeds and seed weight to the availability of assimilates is crucial for designing breeding strategies aimed to increase seed and oil yield in oilseed rape. This study aims to answer the questions: i) do seed number and seed weight in oilseed rape differ

  6. Etica do discurso e eugenia liberal: Jürgen Habermas e o futuro da natureza humana | The ethics of discourse and liberal eugenics: Jürgen Habermas and the future of human nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aécio Amaral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Em O Futuro da Natureza Humana, Jürgen Habermas afirma que os avanços recentes no campo das biotecnologias constituem um desafio para a ética do discurso nas Ciências Sociais. Por trás de sua crítica aos defensores da eugenia liberal reside o reconhecimento de que o Diagnóstico Genético Pré-Implantação potencialmente põe em cheque o papel exercido pela razão comunicativa na constituição de uma ética individual de auto-compreensão. A ‘ética da espécie’ proposta por Habermas como contraposição a esse fenômeno se nos apresenta como moralmente reativa, na medida em que sua crítica não alcança abarcar os aspectos metafísicos que estão no núcleo do discurso da eugenia liberal. O artigo é dividido em dois momentos: perceber como a recente intervenção de Habermas ecoa o motivo da alegada colonização do mundo-da-vida pela razão tecnológica, e demonstrar como a concepção de técnica que embasa seu relato o impede de divisar a crítica dos aspectos metafísicos da cultura genética contemporânea. Palavras-chave Jürgen Habermas; cultura genética; sociedade da informação; ciência e mundo-da-vida; ética do discurso Abstract In The Future of Human Nature, Jürgen Habermas recognizes that current advances in biotechnology are challenging discourse ethics in Social Sciences. Behind his fear of the possibility of liberal eugenics, lies the recognition that pre-implanted genetic diagnosis potentially puts into question the role played by communicative reason in the constitution of the individual’s ethics of self-understanding. The ethics of species proposed by Habermas sounds morally reactive, insofar as his critique does not manage to encompass the metaphysical features which are at the core of liberal eugenics discourse. This paper is divided into two moments: the current echoing in Habermas’ work of the motif of the alleged colonization of the lifeworld by technological reason, and a demonstration of

  7. Energy cost of seed drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachet Jittanit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the energy costs of drying corn, rice and wheat seeds between 3 drying options were compared. They consisted of 1 two-stage drying by using fluidised bed dryer (FBD in the 1st stage and in-store dryer (ISD in the 2nd stage, 2 single-stage drying by fixed bed dryer (FXD and 3 two-stage drying by using FXD in the 1st  stage and ISD in the 2nd  stage. The drying conditions selected for comparison were proved to be safe for seed viability by the previous studies. The results showed that the drying options 2 and 3 consumed less energy than option 1. However, the benefits from lower energy cost must be weighed against some advantages of using FBD. Furthermore, it appeared that running the burners of FXD and ISD for warming up the ambient air during humid weather condition could shorten drying time significantly with a little higher energy cost.

  8. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  9. Eugenia 'negativa', psiquiatria e catolicismo: embates em torno da esterilização eugênica no Brasil 'Negative' eugenics, psychiatry, and Catholicism: clashes over eugenic sterilization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wegner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisa o diálogo do eugenista Renato Kehl com um grupo de psiquiatras brasileiros que, no início da década de 1930, aproximaram-se da chamada eugenia negativa. Entusiasmados com as pesquisas e a aplicação de medidas eugênicas em países como os EUA e a Alemanha, autores como Ernani Lopes, Ignácio da Cunha Lopes, Alberto Farani e Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva elegeram a religião católica como empecilho para que o Brasil pudesse seguir caminho semelhante, especialmente quanto à resistência à implantação da esterilização dos ditos 'degenerados' que passara a vigorar na Alemanha em 1934. O artigo mapeia as diferentes estratégias propostas pelos autores para dialogar com a Igreja católica.The article analyzes the dialogue between eugenicist Renato Kehl and a group of Brazilian psychiatrists who turned their interest to so-called negative eugenics in the early 1930s. Enthused about research into eugenics and the application of eugenic methods in countries such as the United States and Germany, authors like Ernani Lopes, Ignácio da Cunha Lopes, Alberto Farani, and Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva blamed Catholicism for impeding Brazil from moving in a similar direction, especially the church's resistance to the sterilization of 'degenerates', which entered into effect in Germany in 1934. The article charts the various strategies these authors proposed for engaging in dialogue with the Catholic Church.

  10. Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile, ... cheaper alternative source for good quality protein for dietary purposes, we evaluated Detarium ... Whole seed residue, DDS seed flour and control diets (soybeans) were ...

  11. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Seed Quality as Affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bicolor (L.) Moench seeds subjected to different field cultural management practices. ... Germination and vigour tests indicated that seed selection time did not ... In relation to this, variety E1291 showed better seed vigour, viability and yield ...

  12. Economic performance of community based bean seed production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-08

    May 8, 2017 ... in rural areas and those in farmer organisations/cooperatives. However, seed production through this model is concentrated closer to urban areas, where individual seed producers are easily linked to the formal seed system.

  13. heritability and number of genes controlling seed yield in bottle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2018-05-10

    May 10, 2018 ... For seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight per fruit, and number of seeds per fruit, a positive hypothetical heterosis was observed when calabash type was a maternal parent. ...... genes controlled fruit weight in watermelon.

  14. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Seed germination tests: After 72 h of fermentation in plastic bags, seeds were ... Models (GLM) procedure of the R statistical version 9.1 was used to identify traits .... L-1) had accelerated seed germination. Germination rates.

  15. Increasing storability of Ceratoides arborescens seeds in ultradry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... After ultradrying, aging was accelerated in the seeds (45°C,. 2 days), and some .... According to International Rules for Seed Testing (ISTA, 1993). Seed moisture content was ... Statistical analysis. Data were subjected to ...

  16. EFFECTS OF NATURAL LONG STORAGE DURATION ON SEED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lep

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... germination and viability, seed vigor index and seed vigor under a 7.3% moisture content when .... containing two disks of Whatman filter papers soaked in distilled water. ..... desiccation tolerance (Review Update). Seed Sci.

  17. STATIONARY\\MOBILE SEEDS EXTRACTOR FROM FRUITS OF CUCURBIT CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Tokarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical specifications and test data in 2012-2014 of a new fixed-mobile seed extractor of pumpkin and squash seeds (varieties of different ripeness, size and shape of fruit and seeds are presented.

  18. Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and Physiological Characteristics of Gmelina Arborea , Roxb. ... African Research Review ... They were grouped into 3 categories as large seed size (LSS), medium seed size ...

  19. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  20. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  1. processing of fluted pumpkin seeds, telfairia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    anti-nutritional factors in the seeds as well as growth and animal metabolism. Fresh seeds of ..... Adeyemi of the Department of Anatomy; Mrs. E.A. Adebiyi and O. Olatoye of the. Department .... China Agricultural University: Beijing, China. 2003 ...

  2. Seed bank characteristics of Dutch plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Schaminee, JHJ; Bakker, JP; Thompson, K

    With the recent appearances of a new and well-documented classification of the Dutch plant communities (Schaminee et al 1995a,b; 1996) and a database on the seed longevity of plant species of North West Europe (Thompson ct al. 1997a) it was possible to investigate patterns of seed longevity in Dutch

  3. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  4. Sycamore produces viable seed after six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Ike

    1966-01-01

    In the early stages of any tree improvement program it is desirable to know how soon progenies of selected parents can themselves be included in a breeding program. How soon will they produce viable pollen and seed? In the case of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), the information is meager: the Woody- Plant Seed Manual lists the minimum commercial seedbearing age...

  5. Ants, rodents and seed predation in Proteaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their nests extremely rapidly. One benefit of the ant-plant interaction may be seed escape ... (odourless to humans when dry) household glue or, b) placing seed in a Petri dish ... the layout of exclosures was completed. Response was not as.

  6. Study of seed for synthetical quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.K.; Torikai, D.

    1988-01-01

    Natural quartz blocks for seed (synthetic quartz technology) were studied by using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray topography, optical micrography, inspectoscopy, polariscopy and conoscopy, and etching. One of the most commonly found defect is the electrical or Dauphine twin. In The present research, we have developed a methodology to obtain a highly perfect seed for the synthetic quartz industries. (author) [pt

  7. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  8. UTILISATION OF RUBBER SEED OL IN THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal degradation studies on polyvinyl chloride in the presence of rubber seed oil, epoxidized rubber seed oil and metal ... Epoxidation of RSO was carried out at 29°C using peractic acid ..... impurities such as pigments, Vitamins, sterols ...

  9. Radiosensitivity of quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Orto, F.A.C.; Ojima, M.; Hiroce, R.; Igue, T.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation with quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) radiosensitivity and the mineral composition of the plants obtained for mutation breeding are related. The concentration of some macro and micronutrients in quince seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds

    The growth in the world population requires an increase in the production of protein-rich foods from plant-based materials. Lupin seeds have potential to become a novel plant protein source for food products because they are rich

  11. Proteomics of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and

  12. Regulation of seasonal patterns in seed dormancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, M.P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Buried seeds of many wild species pass annually through a pattern of induction and release of dormancy. These reversible changes in dormancy may be repeated for numbers of years when seeds are deprived from light and other germination-stimulating factors, and are a highly useful adaptation

  13. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  14. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  15. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  16. STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Jahn, M.; Kromphardt, C.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Roberts, S.J.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Forsberg, G.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Wikström, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with

  17. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Helen

    1976-05-01

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  18. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  19. Some insects affecting Penstemon seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hammon; Melissa Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Beardtongue (Penstemon Schmidel [Scrophulariaceae)) seeds are often produced without apparent damage from pests, but several species of native insects can adversely impact seed production fields. Tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot)) and western plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight [Hemiptera: Miridae]), penstemon weevil (Hesperobaris sp. Casey [Coleoptera:...

  20. Electromagnetic treatment of loblolly pine seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. P. [Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA (United States); Krugman, S. L.

    1989-11-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus faeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process@, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed any improvement over untreated controls.

  1. Puncturevine seed response to postemergence herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) continues to plague growers, vegetation managers, and home gardeners. Puncturevine is a summer annual weed with spiny fruits that split into five segments, each containing one to four seeds. The seed nearest the pointed end of the bur is the largest and usually ge...

  2. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  3. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  4. Seed rain, soil seed bank, seed loss and regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii (Fagaceae) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun Du; Qinfeng Guo; Xianming Gao; Keping Na

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the seed rain and seed loss dynamics in the natural condition has important significance for revealing the natural regeneration mechanisms.We conducted a 3-year field observation on seed rain, seed loss and natural regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii Franch., a dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dujiangyan,...

  5. [Study on influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Guang-Lin; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Long-Yun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve reproductive efficiency and quality standard, the influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides werew studied. The fruit and seed morphological characteristics of L. macranthoides were observed, the seed water absorbing capacity was determined, and different wet sand stratification time, temperature and germination bed treatment were set up. The effects of the parameters on seed germination and seedling growth were analysed. There was no obstacles of water absorption on L. macranthoides seed, quantity for 22 h water absorption was close to saturation. In the first 80 d, with the increase of the stratification time, seed initial germination time was shortened, germination rate and germination potential was improved. Stratification for 100 d, germination rate decreased. At 15 ℃, seed germination and seedling growth indicators were the best. The seedling cotyledon width in light was significantly higher than that in dark. Seeds on the top of paper and top of sand germination rate, germination potential, and germination index was significantly higher than that of other germination bed and mildew rate is low. The optimal conditions of seeds germination test was stratified in 4 ℃ wet sand for 80 d, 15 ℃ illuminate culture on the top of paper or top of sand. The first seeding counting time was the 4th day after beginning the test, the final time was the 23th day. The germination potential statistical time was the 13th day after beginning the test. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Seed predators exert selection on the subindividual variation of seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, M; Guitián, J; Guitián, P; Larrinaga, A R

    2014-07-01

    Subindividual variation among repeated organs in plants constitutes an overlooked level of variation in phenotypic selection studies, despite being a major component of phenotypic variation. Animals that interact with plants could be selective agents on subindividual variation. This study examines selective pressures exerted during post-dispersal seed predation and germination on the subindividual variation of seed size in hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). With a seed offering experiment and a germination test, we estimated phenotypic selection differentials for average and subindividual variation of seed size due to seed predation and germination. Seed size affects germination, growth rate and the probability of an individual seed of escaping predation. Longer seeds showed higher germination rates, but this did not result in significant selection on phenotypes of the maternal trees. On the other hand, seed predators avoided wider seeds, and by doing so exerted phenotypic selection on adult average and subindividual variation of seed size. The detected selection on subindividual variation suggests that the levels of phenotypic variation within individual plants may be, at least partly, the adaptive consequence of animal-mediated selection. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Seed Priming with Melatonin Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Maize under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Li, H.; Song, X.

    2016-01-01

    The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K/sup +/ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na/sup +/ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize. (author)

  8. A Methodological Approach for Testing the Viability of Seeds Stored in Short-Term Seed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. FORTE GIL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient management of ‘active’ seed banks – specifically aimed at the short-term storage at room temperature of seeds to be used locally in conservation/regeneration programmes of endemic or endangered plant species – requires establishing the optimal storage time to maintain high seed viability, for each stored species. In this work, germination of seeds of the halophytes Thalictrum maritimum, Centaurea dracunculifolia and Linum maritimum has been investigated. The seeds had been stored for different periods of time in the seed bank of ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park (Valencia, SE Spain after collection in salt marshes of the Park, where small populations of the three species are present. Seeds of T. maritimum and C. dracunculifolia have a relatively short period of viability at room temperature, and should not be stored for more than three years. On the other hand, L. maritimum seeds maintain a high germination percentage and can be kept at room temperature for up to 10 years. T. maritimum seeds, in contrast to those of the other two species, did not germinate in in vitro tests nor when sown directly on a standard substrate, unless a pre-treatment of the seeds was applied, mechanical scarification being the most effective. These results will help to improve the management of the seed bank, to generate more efficiently new plants for reintroduction and reinforcement of populations of these species in their natural ecosystems within the Natural Park.

  9. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  10. Asymbiotic in vitro seed propagation of Dendrobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tsavkelova, Elena A; Ng, Tzi Bun; Parthibhan, S; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Rao, M V; Zeng, Songjun

    2015-10-01

    The ability to germinate orchids from seeds in vitro presents a useful and viable method for the propagation of valuable germplasm, maintaining the genetic heterogeneity inherent in seeds. Given the ornamental and medicinal importance of many species within the genus Dendrobium, this review explores in vitro techniques for their asymbiotic seed germination. The influence of abiotic factors (such as temperature and light), methods of sterilization, composition of basal media, and supplementation with organic additives and plant growth regulators are discussed in context to achieve successful seed germination, protocorm formation, and further seedling growth and development. This review provides both a basis for the selection of optimal conditions, and a platform for the discovery of better ones, that would allow the development of new protocols and the exploration of new hypotheses for germination and conservation of Dendrobium seeds and seedlings.

  11. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  12. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salni Salni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester. Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level, Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level and Lahat District (627 m above sea level. The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different. Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in

  13. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  14. Seeds of hope, seeds of despair: towards a political economy of the seed industry in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, N

    2001-01-01

    The seed industry in Southern Africa has been radically transformed by a policy of liberalisation and privatisation started under structural adjustment. Traditionally under the domain of parastatals, seed research, production and distribution has been criticised for failing to provide modern variety seed to smallholder farmers. However, the private companies which have stepped in to replace seed parastatals in southern Africa have proven no more effective in meeting the demands of smallholders. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement, concluded in 1994 as part of the Uruguay Rounds of GATT negotiations, as well as certain biotechnological innovations such as Terminator or Traitor technologies, threaten to further undermine local seed production and consumption by destroying the informal seed sector so central to agricultural production in the region. What alternatives exist? The success of Zimbabwe's maize seed network offers some insight. Resting on a unique relationship between government and nationally based producer co-operatives, Zimbabwe's maize programme was able to provide nearly every farmer in the country with hybrid maize suited for local growing conditions.

  15. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  16. Cambios físicos, químicos y sensoriales durante el almacenamiento congelado de la pulpa de arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía Liliana Josefina

    2006-06-01

    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    Se evaluaron los efectos de la congelación lenta a -20 °C en pulpa de arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh. La pulpa fue almacenada durante 4 meses y cada 15 d se evaluó: pH;  acidez total titulable; grados Brix; contenido de algunos compuestos antioxidantes: ácidoascórbico, carotenoides, fenólicos; actividad antioxidante por el método del blanqueamiento del

  17. Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Method Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Key Results Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. Conclusions The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds. PMID:22975287

  18. Climate Change: Seed Production and Options for Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hampton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

  19. Seed coat development in Velloziaceae: primary homology assessment and insights on seed coat evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Baena, Mariane S; de Menezes, Nanuza L

    2014-09-01

    Seed coat characteristics have historically been used to infer taxonomic relationships and are a potential source of characters for phylogenetic reconstruction. In particular, seed coat morphoanatomy has never been studied in detail in Velloziaceae. One character based on seed surface microsculpture has been used in phylogenies, but was excluded from recent studies owing to problems in primary homology. This work aimed to clarify the origin and general composition of seed coat cell layers in Velloziaceae and to propose hypotheses of primary homology among seed characters.• Seed coat development of 24 Velloziaceae species, comprising nine genera, and one species of Pandanaceae (outgroup) was studied using standard anatomical methods. Developmental data were interpreted in the light of a recently published phylogeny.• Eight types of seed coat were identified. Whereas the most common type has four distinct cell layers (two-layered tegmen and testa), we encountered much more variation in seed coat composition than previously reported, the analysis of which revealed some potential synapomorphies. For instance, an exotesta with spiral thickenings may be a synapomorphy of Barbacenia.• Our results showed that the character states previously used in phylogenies are not based on homologous layers and that the same state was misattributed to species exhibiting quite different seed coats. This study is a first step toward a better understanding of seed coat structure evolution in Velloziaceae. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.