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Sample records for eugenia cerro atajo

  1. The formation placement and palaeoenvironment of the Middle Miocene Los Atajos Member, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent; Farfan, Philip; Hughes, Chantelle

    2017-07-01

    The age, palaeoenvironment and formation placement of the conglomeratic Los Atajos Member of central Trinidad have long been unclear. Seven samples (four from calcareous silts near the member's base exposed by building work at the Los Atajos Community Centre, and three from the underlying calcareous claystones of the Brasso Formation) were examined for calcareous microfossils. These indicate a conformable succession encompassing an overall regression. The oldest of the claystone samples, of uppermost early Middle Miocene Globorotalia fohsi fohsi Zone age (N11), contained an upper bathyal benthic foraminiferal assemblage, while the younger claystone samples yielded abundant, shallow neritic Hanzawaia carstensi. The recovery of the planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia mayeri but absence of Globigerinoides subquadratus suggest a Middle Miocene age (Globorotalia mayeri planktonic foraminiferal Zone; N14) for both the uppermost Brasso claystone sample and the Los Atajos Member. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the Los Atajos is dominated by Rosalina subaraucana, with subdominant Cibicides ex gr. aknerianus and C. floridanus sensu Galloway and Heminway, and common Elphidium spp. This faunal succession has a close affinity with that of parts of the Lower to Middle Miocene Brasso Formation, especially the N10 Guaracara Limestone Member and the clays on which it sits. However, the Los Atajos Member assemblage differs markedly from that of the overlying Late Miocene San José Calcareous Silt Member of the Manzanilla Formation, from which the Los Atajos is separated by an unconformity of Globorotalia menardii (N15) Zone age. On these grounds, the Los Atajos Member is here placed within the Brasso Formation. The low diversity, high dominance benthic foraminiferal fauna and the associated ostracod assemblage in the Los Atajos are indicative of inner to shallower middle neritic palaeodepths in a carbonate-prone palaeoenvironment with marine vegetation and strong current action

  2. Eugenia e casamento

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    Castañeda Luzia Aurelia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisaremos algumas estratégias eugênicas para melhoramento da raça baseadas no controle de matrimônios. Para tanto, vamos buscar no contexto da Inglaterra vitoriana a preocupação com o casamento; tanto na obra de Thomas Malthus, quando interessado no crescimento populacional, como na de Francis Galton, quando propõe a eugenia como uma ciência do melhoramento das qualidades inatas da raça. Discutiremos também como tal medida de controle de matrimônios se deu no movimento eugênico brasileiro e sua influência na elaboração do Código Civil.

  3. ENTREVISTA CON EUGENIA ETKINA

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    OLGA LUCIA CASTIBLANCO ABRIL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brief biography: Dr. Eugenia Etkina, born in Moscow, Soviet Union. Professor in the Physics Department, at Rutgers University, USA. Has 30 years of teaching experience in physics and astronomy instruction at middle school, high school and university levels. She earned her Ph.D. in physics education from Moscow State Pedagogical University. In 1995-1997 she taught physics courses for students at-risk at Rutgers university (New Jersey, USA, for which she together with Dr. Horton developed a highly successful approach.Her main research interest is in the cognitive and epistemological aspects of learning physics, acquisition and transfer of scientific abilities and the process of constructing physics teacher. Her doctoral students earn Ph.D.s in Learning Sciences, Ed.D.s in Science Education in the GSE and Ph.D.s in Physics Education Research in the Department of Physics and Astronomy.Questions for professor Etkina.1. Can you tell us a little about your education as a physics teacher?2. What kind of things helps a person become a better physics teacher? 3. Why do you use the word “magic” to talk about physics teaching?4. What that’s mean for you “didactic physics”?5. What kind of knowledge does a physics teacher need?6. What would you say to pre service physics teachers, in order to improve their future practice?

  4. Flavonoid glycosides from Eugenia jambos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowing, K; Söllhuber, M; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    1994-09-01

    Two flavonol diglycosides isolated from the leaves of Eugenia jambos were characterized as quercetin and myricetin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->2) alpha-L-rhamnopyranosides by means of spectral analyses applying 2D NMR techniques and NOE experiments.

  5. Potentiation of antibiotic activity by Eugenia uniflora and Eugenia jambolanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Henrique D M; Costa, José G M; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S; Siqueira-Júnior, José P; Lima, Edeltrudes O

    2010-08-01

    This is the first report about the modifying antibiotic activity of Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia jambolanum L. In this study the ethanol extract of E. uniflora and E. jambolanum was tested for their antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli. The growth of the two strains of E. coli bacteria tested was not inhibited in a clinically relevant form by the extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration was >or=1,024 microg/mL for both strains of E. coli assayed. Synergism between this extract and gentamicin was demonstrated. In the same extract synergism was observed between chlorpromazine and kanamycin and between amikacin and tobramycin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. It is therefore suggested that extracts from E. uniflora L. and E. jambolanum L. could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with modifying antibiotic activity to gentamicin.

  6. Polyoxygenated flavonoids from Eugenia edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Sahar A M; Hashem, Amani N M; Seliem, Mohammed A; Lindequist, Ulrike; Nawwar, Mahmoud A M

    2003-10-01

    Leaves of Eugenia edulis contain the new polyoxygenated flavonoid derivatives, gossypetin-3,8-dimethyl ether-5-O-beta-glucoside; gossypetin-3,5-dimethyl ether, and myricetin-3,5,3'-trimethyl ether. In addition, ten known polyphenolics were also isolated and identified. All structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence, including ESI-MS and 13C NMR.

  7. Overview of Cerro Prieto studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The studies performed on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, since the late 1950's are summarized. Emphasis is given to those activities leading to the identification of the sources of heat and mass, the fluid flow paths, and the phenomena occurring in the field in its natural state and under exploitation.

  8. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  9. Eugenia neonitida Sobral and Eugenia rotundifolia Casar. (Myrtaceae) essential oils: composition, seasonality influence, antioxidant activity and leaf histochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Defaveri, Anna C. A.; Sato, Alice; Borré, Leandro B.; Aguiar, Daniel L. M.; Gil, Rosane A. S. San; Arruda, Rosani C. O.; Riehl, Carlos A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The seasonality influence on the essential oil composition of trimestrially collected fresh leaves of Eugenia neonitida Sobral and Eugenia rotundifolia Casar. (Myrtaceae) was investigated, as well as the antioxidant activity of dried leaves essential oils, and the leaf histochemistry. Eugenia neonitida essential oil major compounds were bicyclogermacrene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Eugenia rotundifolia major compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-caryophyllene. The essential oils of...

  10. DIVERSIDADE ESTRUTURAL EM Eugenia L. (MYRTACEAE

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    Sidinei Rodrigues dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood anatomy of nine species of Eugenia (Myrtaceae native in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil is presently studied in order to identify diagnostic characters useful to identify genus and species. A great structural homogeneity was observed, reflecting the high number of shared anatomical features. None characteristic is exclusive to this taxonomic group. The value of axial parenchyma arrangement to species segregation is confirmed, as well as the frequency of pores and characteristics of rays. It is not possible to disprove, based on wood anatomy, the inclusion of Hexachlamys in Eugenia , as suggested by Landrum and Kawasaki (1997.

  11. Geohydrology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, J.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer is summarized, with special emphasis on the initial production zone where the wells completed in the Alpha aquifer are located. These wells produce steam for power plant units 1 and 2. Brief comments also are made on the Beta aquifer, which underlies the Alpha aquifer in the Cerro Prieto I area and which extends to the east to what is known as the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas. The location of the area studied is shown. The Alpha and Beta aquifers differ in their mineralogy and cementing mineral composition, temperatures, and piezometric levels. The difference in piezometric levels indicates that there is no local communication between the two aquifers. This situation has been verified by a well interference test, using well E-1 as a producer in the Beta aquifer and well M-46 as the observation well in the Alpha aquifer. No interference between them was observed. Information on the geology, geohydrology, and geochemistry of Cerro Prieto is presented.

  12. Evaluation of the postharvest quality of Cagaita fruits ( Eugenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the postharvest quality of Cagaita fruits ( Eugenia dysenterica DC.) coated with chitosan and associated with refrigeration. ... The color of cagaita fruits confirmed ripening during storage regardless of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the film solution did not adhere, as desired, to the cell ...

  13. Larvicidal activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cid Aimbire

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Malaria and dengue are the cause of a heavy public health burden in the Amazon region. The present work evaluated the larvicidal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts from clove, Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg (Myrtaceae), and a chemical component are found in cloves, eugenol, against.

  14. variation studies on the volatile oil of eugenia uniflora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphological part of the plant, stage of growth, time and season of collection of the leaves were found to be important factors that determine the amount of the oil produced. Also conditions for storage of the oil and its commercial exploitation were studied. Keywords: Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae, volatile oil, variation

  15. Una nueva especie de eugenia (myrtaceae) de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Eugenia (Myrtaceae) para los Andes de Colombia. Se discuten las afinidades taxonómicas del nuevo taxón y se analizan algunos caracteres morfológicos relevantes del mismo.

  16. Life-cycle of the African nightcrawler, Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... an average rate of 1,65 cocoons per worm per day. The mean incubation period of cocoons is 16,6 days with a hatching success of 84% and 2,7 hatchlings per cocoon that hatched. Sexual maturity is attained by the offspring within 40 to 50 days after hatching. E. eugeniae is compared to other vermicomposting species.

  17. Larvicidal activity of clove ( Eugenia caryophyllata ) extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria and dengue are the cause of a heavy public health burden in the Amazon region. The present work evaluated the larvicidal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts from clove, Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg (Myrtaceae), and a chemical component are found in cloves, eugenol, against malaria and dengue ...

  18. Life-cycle of the African nightcrawler, Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-31

    Mar 31, 1988 ... Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826). Landbauforsch. Volkenrode 24: 137-142. GRAFF, O. 1981. Preliminary experiments of vermicomposting of different waste materials using. Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg. In: Role of Earthworms in the stabilization of organic residues. Workshop. (Ed.) AppeIhof, M. Beech Leaf, ...

  19. Analysis of Cerro Prieto production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.; Vonder Haar, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Heat and mass production data from the Cerro Prieto field are analyzed in order to provide a basis for a detailed quantitative model of the system. It is found, in general, that the production from the individual wells decreased with time. This can be due to a reduction in permeability by silica deposition in the aquifer pores, relative permeability effects in a two-phase flow, and/or a reduced pressure gradient over years of production. Specific increases in the total mass production rate of the field are associated with the increased number of producing wells. Average enthalpy of the produced fluid varied over the years. It first increased, then decreased, and again increased. An increase in enthalpy was usually the result of adding higher enthalpy wells to those already in the field. The decrease in the enthalpy is thought to be mostly due to the mixing of relatively cold water with the geothermal aquifer fluid. Downhole pressures, temperatures and saturations in the flowing wells were calculated from the known wellhead data. Between 1973 and 1980, the pressures and temperatures have decreased by about 15 bars and 20/sup 0/C respectively, and the steam saturations have slightly increased in the near-well regions.

  20. Evaluation of geologic characteristics at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Halfman, S.E.; Vonder Haar, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Computerized well-log analysis of Cerro Prieto has led to the identification of a relatively large and irregular low-density volume extending from near the surface in the vicinity of Laguna Volcano to greater depths toward the northeast. This low-density volume is located about a plane of symmetry of a self-potential anomaly and a group of northeast trending active faults. The presence of a volume of relatively high-density rock has been recognized at shallow depths in the initially developed part of the resource. It is believed to be due to minerals deposited by cooled, rising geothermal brine. Storativity calculated from well logs at the south end of the western part of the field shows acceptable comparison with storativity calculated from well tests. The amount of fluid produced from the field during the period 1973-1977 is greater than the amount in situ calculated from the completed interval thicknesses. Because this part of the field is still producing today, fluid must be recharging this part of the field.

  1. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  2. Chemical constituents of Eugenia catharinae and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henrique H; Colla, Guilherme; Cavalcante, Ingrid D; Queiroz, Gustavo S; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Brighente, Inês M C

    2016-01-13

    Nine compounds were isolated from the leaves of Eugenia catharinae, namely monomethyl olivetol (1), β-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), uvaol (4), erythrodiol (5), rotundic acid (6), quercetin (7), catechin (8) and myricitrin (9). The structures of 1-9 were established through analysis of their spectroscopic (1H and 13C NMR) and spectrometric (MS) data. Compounds 1 and 6 are reported the first time in the Eugenia genus. In addition, these data were compared with those reported in the literature. The antioxidant activity of plant samples and compounds was measured using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids 7, 8, 9 and the ethanolic extract showed the best results, with IC50 values of 20.94 μM, 44.20 μM, 30.01 μM and 58.82 μg/mL, respectively.

  3. Seasonal variability of essential oils of Eugenia uniflora leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Deomar P.; Santos, Suzana C.; Seraphin, José C.; Ferri, Pedro H.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influence on the chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia uniflora leaves with red-orange fruit colour biotype has indicated the presence of two oil clusters in the two seasons of the Brazilian Cerrado. Cluster I included samples collected during dry months (April-September) which were characterized by the highest percentages of spathulenol (10%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.1%). In cluster II, whose samples were collected during wet months (October-March), the major constitue...

  4. Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Magina,Michele Debiase Alberton; Dalmarco,Eduardo Monguilhot; Dalmarco,Juliana Bastos; Colla,Guilherme; Pizzolatti,Moacir Geraldo; Brighente,Inês Maria Costa

    2012-01-01

    A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of α-amyrin and β-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinester...

  5. Navajo minettes in the Cerros de las Mujeres, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D.; Laughlin, A. W.; Gladney, E. S.

    1985-06-01

    The Cerros de las Mujeres in west-central New Mexico are three mafic minette plugs that should be considered part of the Navajo volcanic fields on the central Colorado Plateau. This newly recognized occurrence extends the Navajo volcanic fields to the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, within 45 km of the extensional tectonic setting in which the Mogollon ash-flow tuff cauldrons occur. The Cerros de las Mujeres provide additional evidence for contemporaneous sodic and potassic volcanism within the Navajo volcanic fields.

  6. Del valle al cerro: el sitio del Cerro Zapotecas durante el Epiclásico

    OpenAIRE

    Salomón Salazar, María Teresa

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es definir qué tipo de asentamiento era el Cerro Zapotecas durante el periodo Epiclásico (600-900 d.C.), ubicado a escasos tres kilómetros de Cholula. Los antecedentes de investigación en este sitio lo señalan como un centro focal de las actividades del valle de Puebla-Tlaxcala durante la transición del Clásico al Posclásico. Esta investigación llevó a cabo un nuevo recorrido de superficie con el cual se documentó la composición arquitectónica y ...

  7. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, N.L. (US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA); D' Amore, F.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal gases at Cerro Prieto are derived from high temperature reactions within the reservoir or are introduced with recharge water. Gases collected from geothermal wells should, therefore, reflect reservoir conditions. Interpretation of gas compositions of wells indicates reservoir temperatures, controls of oxygen and sulfur fugacities, and recharge source and direction.

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Cytotoxic Action of Fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L.: Correlation with Polyphenol and Flavanoid Content

    OpenAIRE

    Figueir?a, Evellyne de Oliveira; Nascimento da Silva, Lu?s Cl?udio; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Neves, Juliana Kelle de Andrade Lemoine; da Silva, Nic?cio Henrique; Pereira, Val?ria R?go Alves; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of biological activities presented by medicinal plants has been investigated over the years, and they are used in the search for new substances with lower side effects. Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L. (Myrtaceae) have many folk uses in various countries. This current study was designed to quantify the polyphenols and flavonoids contents and evaluate the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of fractions from E. uniflora L. and E. malaccens...

  9. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapoval, E E; Silveira, S M; Miranda, M L; Alice, C B; Henriques, A T

    1994-12-01

    In view of the extensive use of Eugenia uniflora in folk medicine, different extracts of dried and fresh leaves of the plant were assayed to test its possible pharmacological activities. The infusion of fresh leaves had a highly significant anti-inflammatory effect when administered p.o. to rats 1 h before subplantar injection of carrageenin. The infusion increased the pentobarbital sleeping time and also had an effect on intestinal transit, and had no acute toxic effect. No analgesic or antimicrobial activities were observed with any of the extracts used.

  10. Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Debiase Alberton Magina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae leaves led to the isolation of α-amyrin and β-amyrin (in a mixture, betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

  11. Criteria for determining casing depth in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas M., H.M.; Vaca S., J.M.E.

    1982-08-10

    On the basis of geological data obtained during drilling and its relation to electric logs, together with the problems that arose when drilling through formations until the production zone was reached, it is possible to establish the most suitable manner to line a well and thus formulate an optimum casings program. The main criteria to be taken into consideration in preparing such a program and its application in the drilling of wells programmed in Cerro Prieto to optimize and economize such drilling and achieve suitable techniques for well completion are presented. The criteria are based on the characteristics of the Cerro Prieto field and on casing design factors, as well as a experience gained during drilling in such a field.

  12. Open file data on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippman, M.J.; Aguirre, B.D.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the unpublished data presently available on open file at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are listed and described. In addition, in the files are a number of internal memoranda of the Commission Federal de Electricidad of Mexico (CFE) on chemical characteristics of the produced fluids and incrustations; published papers on Cerro Prieto and the geologic setting of the Salton Trough; and data on the hydrogeology of the Mexicali Valley. (MHR)

  13. Dating thermal events at Cerro Prieto using fission track annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, S.J.; Elders, W..

    1981-01-01

    Data from laboratory experiments and geologic fading studies were compiled from published sources to produce lines of iso-annealing for apatite in time-temperature space. Fission track ages were calculated for samples from two wells at Cerro Prieto, one with an apparently simple and one with an apparently complex thermal history. Temperatures were estimated by empirical vitrinite reflectance geothermometry, fluid inclusion homogenization and oxygen isotope equilibrium. These estimates were compared with logs of measured borehole temperatures.

  14. Polygenetic Nature of a Rhyolitic Dome: Cerro Pizarro, Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Nuñez, G.; Riggs, N.

    2006-12-01

    Rhyolitic domes are commonly regarded as monogenetic volcanoes associated with single, brief eruptions, such as those forming basaltic scoria cones; this contrasts with domes of andesitic or dacitic composition that usually show a complex evolution. Rhyolitic domes are characterized by short-lived successions of pyroclastic and effusive activity associated with a series of discrete eruptive events that commonly last on the order of years to decades or perhaps centuries. Cerro Pizarro is an isolated rhyolitic dome with a volume of ~1.1 km3, located in the eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt, in the intermontane Serdán-Oriental basin. Cerro Pizarro has an eruptive history similar to a polygenetic volcano, including a complex evolution of alternating explosive and effusive eruptions, a cryptodome phase, and sector collapse, marked chemical variations with time, and long-term repose periods (~ 50-80 ky) between eruptions that reveals intermittent injection of magmas. Whereas major element chemistry does not show significant changes, trace and rare-earth elements show marked differences between the last eruptive episode and the initial and intermediate stages of activity. Other rhyolitic domes such as Glass Mountain, CA, Taylor Creek, NM, South Sister domes, OR, and the Mono Inyo complex, CA, show moderate to strong chemical variations. These domes, however, are related to larger volcanic fields or are dome complexes formed by numerous vents, in contrast with Cerro Pizarro, which is an isolated volcano with no apparent relation to nearby larger volcanic systems (e.g., Los Humeros caldera). This eruptive behavior provides new insights into how rhyolite domes may evolve. A protracted, complex evolution bears important implications for hazard assessment. Activity at Cerro Pizarro leads us to speculate that isolated rhyolitic systems may become reactivated, potentially after tens of thousands of years.

  15. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, M.L.; Vonder Haar, S.

    1980-01-01

    To aid in a paleoenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495 m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. We found foraminifera in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples, and nannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscs, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations are not possible at this time because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350{sup 0}C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to brackish water environments that correspond, in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-My-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500 m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet, have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  16. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  17. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, M.L.; Haar, S.V.

    1982-08-10

    To aid in a paleonenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. Foraminifera was found in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples and mannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscus, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations at this time cannot be made because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350/sup 0/C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to backish water inviroments that correspond in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-m.y.-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  18. PEMANFAATAN DAUN SALAM (Eugenia polyantha SEBAGAI OBAT HERBAL DAN REMPAH PENYEDAP MAKANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Harismah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia polyantha, one of Indonesian medicine plant, often used in society as traditional medicine and also Indonesian culinary additives. Daun salam is called Indonesian bay-leaf, the leaves contain only tiny amounts of an essential oil 0.2%. As main components, eugenol, methyl chavicol, and citral have been identified. Thus application to used of Eugenia polyantha have done. The aim of the present work was the application of Eugenia polyantha for food and health in the community area of Keraton Surakarta. The results indicated that Eugenia polyantha is of particular interest, since it may be an alternative way to carry out of food flavor simultanous as herbal medicine.

  19. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  20. Identification of microRNAs from Eugenia uniflora by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guzman, Frank; Almerão, Mauricio P; Körbes, Ana P; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    ... or inhibiting protein translation. Eugenia uniflora is a plant native to tropical America with pharmacological and ecological importance, and there have been no previous studies concerning its gene expression and regulation...

  1. Eugenia vinculada a aspectos bioéticos: uma revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é analisar o que versam as produções científicas sobre eugenia, vinculando-as com aspectos bioéticos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura. Os dados foram coletados nas bases de dados Lilacs e SciELO, por meio dos descritores: eugenia, etnia e saúde, ética e bioética. Para a análise e posterior síntese dos artigos foi utilizada figura sinóptica. Verificou-se que a eugenia viola os direitos humanos, contradiz com o princípio da solidariedade e coloca em risco a diversidade humana. Conclui-se que houve déficit de artigos que abordem aspectos bioéticos vinculados à eugenia, assim, este estudo poderá contribuir para a reflexão sobre essa articulação.

  2. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  3. The Leaf Essential Oil of Eugenia reinwardtiana Growing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Joseph J; Clarkson, John R; Deseo, Myrna A; Ford, Andrew J; Lawes, Douglas J; Leach, David N

    2015-09-01

    The leaf essential oils of the two chemotypes of Eugenia reinwardtiana (Blume) DC growing in Australia have been investigated. Chemotype 1, isolated in 0.2% yield, w/w, dry weight, contained major amounts of α-pinene (10-26%), limonene (1-15%), β-caryophyllene (0.7-11%), α-humulene (0.9-16%) and bicyclogermacrene (1-23%). The second chemotype, found only on coastal dunes SW of Lockerbie Qld, and isolated in 0.4-0.6% (w/w, dry weight), contained α-pinene (tr-8.5%) β-caryophyllene (12-27%) and α-humulene (1-17%) as the major terpenes. This chemotype also contained the novel aliphatic diketone, 2-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-5-methoxycyclohex-5-en-1,3-dione (18-33%), whose structure determination is reported herein.

  4. Atividade leishmanicida in vitro de Eugenia uniflora e Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Katiúcia Alves Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana no Brasil é causada por uma variedade de espécies de Leishmania e uma grande diversidade destes parasitas pode ser encontrada na Região Amazônica. Revisões recentes na quimioterapia de leishmaniose enfatizam as deficiências dos agentes terapêuticos atualmente disponíveis e mostram a necessidade urgente de novos candidatos. Uma alternativa para substituir esses medicamentos são extratos naturais de Eugenia uniflora e Momordica charantia. Foram preparados extratos etanólicos das folhas de E. uniflora e M. charantia. Para os testes in vitro de Leishmania brasiliensis foram utilizadas formas promastigotas. O ensaio de citotoxicidade foi realizado com linhagens de fibroblastos. Nossos resultados indicam que E. uniflora foi eficaz contra a cepa de parasita testada, representando uma fonte alternativa de produtos naturais com atividade contra L. brasiliensis.

  5. HIV-1 Ribonuclease H Inhibitory Phenolic Glycosides from Eugenia hyemalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokesch, Heidi R.; Wamiru, Antony; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.; Beutler, John A.; McKee, Tawnya C.; McMahon, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Three new galloyl arbutins, hyemalosides A–C (1–3), along with nine known compounds were isolated from the evergreen tree Eugenia hyemalis. The structures of compounds 1–3 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. Compounds 1–3 inhibited HIV-1 RNase H in vitro with IC50 values of 1.46, >18, and 1.19 μM, respectively. However, in a XTT-based cell viability assay using the human T-cell line CEM-SS infected with HIV-1RT, none of the compounds inhibited the cytopathic effect of HIV-1 infection at the highest dose tested (20 μg/mL). PMID:18763827

  6. Environmental variations drive polyploid evolution in neotropical Eugenia species (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, R M; Machado, R M; Forni-Martins, E R; Verola, C F; Costa, I R

    2016-10-24

    Polyploidy is one of the most important mechanisms of speciation and diversification in plant evolution. Polyploidy results in genetic variation among individuals of the same species and even between populations, and may be responsible for differences in environmental tolerance between populations of the same species. This study determined chromosome numbers of Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae, x = 11) for 26 populations of 14 species by conventional cytogenetic techniques. Nine species (13 populations) were diploid (2n = 2x = 22), but diploid and/or polyploid cytotypes were found in the other five species (13 populations), with 2n = 33, 2n = 44, and 2n = 55. Data on chromosome number/ploidy level for other Eugenia species/populations were collected from the literature and included in this cytogeographic analysis. For each collection point (32 species and 62 populations), environmental variables were recorded using georeferencing techniques through the DIVA-GIS v.7.5 program. Environmental variables such as temperature, altitude, rainfall, solar radiation, soil type, and vegetation were analyzed with the R program, using Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests, principal component analysis, and graphic analyses, such as scatterplots, boxplots, and barplot. Polyploid and diploid populations had different spatial distribution patterns and were found in areas subjected to different environmental conditions. Polyploid individuals were collected from locations with more adverse environmental conditions, usually at higher elevations than the diploid individuals. Polyploidy allows species to occur at locations with varying environmental conditions. As diploidy and polyploidy occur under different environmental conditions, species with cytotypes exhibit wide environmental tolerance.

  7. Atmospheric conditions at Cerro Armazones derived from astronomical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakićević, Maša; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Kerber, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We studied the precipitable water vapour (PWV) content near Cerro Armazones and discuss the potential use of our technique of modelling the telluric absorbtion lines for the investigation of other molecular layers. The site is designated for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and the nearby planned site for the Čerenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Methods: Spectroscopic data from the Bochum Echelle Spectroscopic Observer (BESO) instrument were investigated by using a line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) for the Earth's atmosphere with the telluric absorption correction tool molecfit. All observations from the archive in the period from December 2008 to the end of 2014 were investigated. The dataset completely covers the El Niño event registered in the period 2009-2010. Models of the 3D Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) were used for further comparison. Moreover, we present a direct comparison for those days for which data from a similar study with VLT/X-Shooter and microwave radiometer LHATPRO at Cerro Paranal are available. Results: This analysis shows that the site has systematically lower PWV values, even after accounting for the decrease in PWV expected from the higher altitude of the site with respect to Cerro Paranal, using the average atmosphere found with radiosondes. We found that GDAS data are not a suitable basis for predicting local atmospheric conditions - they usually systematically overestimate the PWV values. The large sample furthermore enabled us to characterize the site with respect to symmetry across the sky and variation with the years and within the seasons. This technique of studying the atmospheric conditions is shown to be a promising step into a possible monitoring equipment for the CTA. Based on archival observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile and of the Cerro Armazones Observatory facilities of the Ruhr Universität Bochum.Full Table 1

  8. La infertilidad en un área de salud del municipio Cerro Infertility in a health area of Cerro municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Amaylid Arteaga García; Ana Margarita Toledo Fernández; Cristina Villalón Aldana

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: caracterizar el comportamiento de la infertilidad en 11 consultorios del Policlínico "Héroes de Girón" del municipio Cerro. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. La selección de los consultorios fue por muestreo por criterios, y los de selección fueron: que tuvieran una distribución equitativa en los Grupos Básicos de Trabajo, así como la estabilidad y conocimiento profundo del área por el personal de enfermería (quien ejecutó la investigación, previa cap...

  9. Involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) in the tail suspension test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, André R S; Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Colla, Guilherme; Magina, Michele D A; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2012-09-28

    Several species of Eugenia L. are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Eugenia brasiliensis is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, whereas Eugenia. uniflora is used for the treatment of symptoms related to depression and mood disorders, and is used in Brazil by the Guarani Indians as a tonic stimulant. To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of different plant species of genus Eugenia and to characterize the participation of the monoaminergic systems in the mechanism of action of the specie that afforded the most prominent antidepressant-like efficacy. In the first set of experiments, the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Eugenia beaurepaireana, Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae, Eugenia umbelliflora and Eugenia uniflora and the antidepressant fluoxetine (positive control) administered acutely by p.o. route were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST) and locomotor activity was assessed in the open-field test in mice. In the second set of experiments, the involvement of the monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like activity of Eugenia brasiliensis was evaluated by treating mice with several pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The effects of the combined administration of sub-effective doses of Eugenia brasiliensis and the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion were also evaluated. The administration of the extracts from Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae and Eugenia umbelliflora, but not Eugenia beaurepaireana and Eugenia uniflora, exerted a significant antidepressant-like effect, without altering locomotor activity. The behavioral profile was similar to fluoxetine. Pre-treatment of mice with ketanserin, haloperidol, SCH23390, sulpiride, prazosin and yohimbine prevented the reduction of immobility time induced by Eugenia brasiliensis. Treatment with sub-effective doses of WAY100635, SKF38393, apomorphine, phenylephrine, but not clonidine, combined

  10. Hydrocarbons emissions from Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Karina; Navarro-González, Rafael; de la Rosa, José; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Imaz, Mireya

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important environmental issues related to the use of geothermal fluids to generate electricity is the emission of non-condensable gases to the atmosphere. Mexico has one of the largest geothermal plants in the world. The facility is located at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, roughly 30 km south of Mexicali and the international boundary between Mexico and United States. The Cerro Prieto power plant has 13 units grouped on four individual powerhouses. Gas samples from 9 units of the four powerhouses were collected during 4 campaigns conducted in May-July, 2010, February, 2012, December, 2012, and May, 2013. Gas samples from the stacks were collected in 1000 ml Pyrex round flasks with Teflon stopcocks, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methane was the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon, with a concentration that ranged from less than 1% up to 3.5% of the total gas mixture. Normal alkanes represented the second most abundant species, and displayed a decreasing abundance with increasing carbon number in the homologous series. Isoalkanes were also present as isobutane and isopentane. Cycloalkanes occurring as cyclopentane and cyclohexane, were detected only at trace level. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes) were not detected. Benzene was detected at levels ranging from less than 1% up to 3.4% of the total gas mixture. Other aromatic hydrocarbons detected were toluene, and xylenes, and were present at lower concentrations (

  11. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  12. Characterization of pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-del-Rio, H.; Mireles-Garcia, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez-Cardona, R.Y. [Unidad Academica de Antropologia, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas-Caretta, M. [INAH Delegacion Zacatecas (Mexico); Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, UASLP, Fracc. Talleres, SLP (Mexico); Speakman, R.J. [Museum Conservation Inst., Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD (United States); Glascock, M.D. [Research Reactor Center, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2009-09-15

    With the aim of classifying prehispanic pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas site, Juchipila, Zacatecas, Mexico, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyze ceramic samples at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. Thirty-two chemical elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Mesoamerican ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Malpaso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de Las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (orig.)

  13. Wound Healing Activity and Chemical Standardization of Eugenia pruniformis Cambess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ricardo Diego Duarte Galhardo; Perini, Jamila Alessandra; Machado, Daniel Escorsim; Angeli-Gamba, Thaís; Esteves, Ricardo Dos Santos; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Oliveira, Adriana Passos; Rocha, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Eugenia pruniformis is an endemic species from Brazil. Eugenia genus has flavonoids as one of the remarkable chemical classes which are related to the improvement of the healing process. To evaluate of wound healing activity of E. pruniformis leaves and to identify and quantify its main flavonoids compounds. Wound excision model in rats was used to verify the hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts potential. The animals were divided in four groups of six and the samples were evaluated until the 15° day of treatment. Hydroxyproline dosage and histological staining with hematoxilin-eosin and Sirius Red were used to observe the tissue organization and quantify the collagen deposition, respectively. Chemical compounds of the ethyl acetate extract were identified by chromatographic techniques and mass spectrometry analysis and total flavonoids content was determined by spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant activity was determined by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate radical photometric (DPPH) assays. The treated group with the ethyl acetate extract showed collagen deposition increase, higher levels of hidroxyproline, better tissue reorganization and complete remodeling of epidermis. Quercetin, kaempferol and hyperoside were identified as main compounds and flavonoids content value was 43% (w/w). The ORAC value of the ethyl acetate extract was 0.81± 0.05 mmol TE/g whereas the concentration to produce 50% reduction of the DPPH was 7.05± 0.09 μg/mL. The data indicate a wound healing and antioxidant activities of E. pruniformis. This study is the first report of flavonoids and wound healing activity of E. pruniformis. Eugenia pruniformis extract accelerates wound healing in skin rat model, probably due to its involvement with the collagen deposition increase, higher levels of hidroxyproline, dermal remodelling and potent antioxidant activity. Chemical standardization of the active wound healing extract was done

  14. A review of progress in understanding the fluid geochemistry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nehring, N.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Janik, C.J.; Coplen, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    Fluid geochemistry has played a major role in our present understanding of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have been used to indicate the origin of water, salts and gases, original subsurface temperature and fluid flow, fluid-production mechanisms, and production-induced aquifer boiling and cold-water entry. The extensive geochemical data and interpretations for Cerro Prieto published from 1964 to 1981 are reviewed and discussed. Fluid geochemistry must continue to play an important role in the further development of the Cerro Prieto field. ?? 1984.

  15. EBV DNA polymerase inhibition of tannins from Eugenia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M H; Chiou, J F; Yen, K Y; Yang, L L

    2000-06-30

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the high population malignant tumors among Chinese in southern China and southeast Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human B lymphotropic herpes virus which is known to be closely associated with NPC. EBV DNA polymerase is a key enzyme during EBV replication and is measured by its radioactivity. The addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to Raji cell cultures led to a large increase in EBV DNA polymerase, which was purified by sequential DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose and DNA-cellulose column chromatography. Four tannins were isolated from the active fractions of Eugenia uniflora L., which were tested for the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase. The results showed the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of gallocatechin, oenothein B, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) were 26.5 62.3, 3.0 and 3.5 microM, respectively. Furthermore, when compared with the positive control (phosphonoacetic acid), an inhibitor of EBV replication, the IC(50) value was 16.4 microM. In view of the results, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) are the potency principles in the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase from E. uniflora.

  16. Biomanagement of sago-sludge using an earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, J Rajesh; Yeom, Ick Tae; Esakkiraj, S; Kumar, Naresh; Logakanthi, S

    2008-03-01

    Sago, the tapioca starch is manufactured by over 800 small-scale units located in the Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. During the processing of sago it generates huge quantities of biodegradable solid waste, as crushed tubers. In present study an attempt was made to convert these biodegradable solid sago tubers into value added compost using an exotic earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The experiments were carried out in a plastic tray at various concentrations of sago-sludge (50% 75% and 100%) for a period of 90 days. During the vermicomposting, data were collected on life form (cocoon, non clitellates, clitellates) of earthworm and it was found to be high in 50% followed by 75% and 100% concentrations. Chemical analysis of worked substrates showed a step wise increase of nitrogen and phosphorus. The fold increase of phosphorus and nitrogen were found to be high for sago-sludge undergoing vermicomposting than the control. During the composting period the organic carbon decreased from its initial value of 58, 76 and 107 mg/kg to 21, 24 and 65 mg/kg for 50, 70 and 100%, respectively The microbial analysis showed that after 75 days of composting, their population stabilized and further increase in composting period did not increase their population size. The results indicate that 50% and 75% concentration of sludge mixed with bedding material was ideal for the vermicomposting.

  17. Floral heterochrony promotes flexibility of reproductive strategies in the morphologically homogeneous genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thais N C; Lucas, Eve J; Faria, Jair E Q; Prenner, Gerhard

    2018-01-25

    Comparative floral ontogeny represents a valuable tool to understand angiosperm evolution. Such an approach may elucidate subtle changes in development that discretely modify floral architecture and underlie reproductive lability in groups with superficial homogeneous morphology. This study presents a comparative survey of floral development in Eugenia (Myrtaceae), one of the largest genera of angiosperms, and shows how previously undocumented ontogenetic trends help to explain the evolution of its megadiversity in contrast to its apparent flower uniformity. Using scanning electron microscopy, selected steps of the floral ontogeny of a model species (Eugenia punicifolia) are described and compared with 20 further species representing all ten major clades in the Eugenia phylogenetic tree. Additional floral trait data are contrasted for correlation analysis and character reconstructions performed against the Myrtaceae phylogenetic tree. Eugenia flowers show similar organ arrangement patterns: radially symmetrical, (most commonly) tetramerous flowers with variable numbers of stamens and ovules. Despite a similar general organization, heterochrony is evident from size differences between tissues and structures at similar developmental stages. These differences underlie variable levels of investment in protection, subtle modifications to symmetry, herkogamic effects and independent androecium and gynoecium variation, producing a wide spectrum of floral display and contributing to fluctuations in fitness. During Eugenia's bud development, the hypanthium (as defined here) is completely covered by stamen primordia, unusual in other Myrtaceae. This is the likely plesiomorphic state for Myrteae and may have represented a key evolutionary novelty in the tribe. Floral evolution in Eugenia depends on heterochronic patterns rather than changes in complexity to promote flexibility in floral strategies. The successful early establishment of Myrteae, previously mainly linked to the

  18. Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, K. P.; Lippmann, M. J.; Tsang, C. F.

    1982-09-01

    Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field began in 1978 under a five-year cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico, with the ultimate objective of simulating the reservoir to forecast its production capacity, energy longevity, and recharge capability under various production and injection scenarios. During the fiscal year 1981, attempts were made to collect information on the evolution history of the field since exploitation began; the information is to be used later to validate the reservoir model. To this end, wellhead production data were analyzed for heat and mass flow and also for changes in reservoir pressures, temperatures, and saturations for the period from March 1973 to November 1980.

  19. Geothermal emissions data base: Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    A new database subset on the gaseous emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. Properties and states of the reservoir fluid such as flow rates, wellhead pressure, and enthalpy are included in the file along with the well name and constituent measurement. This subset is the result of an initial screening of the data covering 1967 to 1969, and new additions will be appended periodically to the file. The data are accessed by a database management system as are all other subsets in the file. Thereby, one may search the database for specific data requirements and print selective output. For example, one may wish to locate reservoir conditions for cases only when the level of the constituent exceeded a designated value. Data output is available in the form of numerical compilations such as the attached, or graphical displays disposed to paper, film, or magnetic tape.

  20. Geochemical evidence of drawdown in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, M.A.; Jimenez, S.M.E.; Sanchez, A.A.; Fausto, L.J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Some wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have undergone changes in the chemistry of fluids produced which reflect reservoir processes. Pressure decreases due to production in the southeastern part of the field have produced both drawdown of lower chloride fluids from an overlying aquifer and boiling in the aquifer with excess steam reaching the wells. These reservoir changes are indicated by changes in fluid chloride concentrations, Na/K ratios and measured enthalpies and by comparisons of aquifer fluid temperatures and chloride concentrations calculated from enthalpy and chemical measurements. Fluid temperatures have not been greatly affected by this drawdown because heat contained in the rock was transferred to the fluid. When this heat is exhausted, fluid temperatures may drop rapidly. ?? 1979.

  1. The origin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Nehring, N.L.; Janik, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal brine may have originated from mixing of Colorado River water with seawater evaporated to about six times its normal salinity. This mixture circulated deeply and was heated by magmatic processes. During deep circulation, Li, K, Ca, B, SiO2 and rare alkalis were transferred from rock minerals to the water, and Mg, SO4, and a minor quantity of Na were transferred to the rock. Similar alteration of seawater salt chemistry has been observed in coastal geothermal systems and produced in laboratory experiments. After heating and alteration the brine was further diluted to its present range of composition. Oxygen isotopes in the fluid are in equilibrium with reservoir calcite and have been affected by exploitation-induced boiling and dilution. ?? 1981.

  2. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  3. Results from two years of resistivity monitoring at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and resistivity monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on an annual basis since then. Two 20 km long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at one kilometer spacings were established over the field area; one of these lines is remeasured annually. Resistivity measurements are taken using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor controlled signal averaging receiver; this high power-low noise system is capable of highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter-receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points, but 95% confidence intervals show error limits about 2 to 4 times higher. Analysis of collected data indicate little change in the apparent resistivity of the upper 300 m over the field production zone and that in this section measurements are relatively insensitive to the annual rainfall cycle. Apparent resistivity increases were observed over the older producing zone at Cerro Prieto at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of decreasing apparent resistivity were observed flanking the zone of increases on both sides. The increase in apparent resistivity in the production region may be due to an increasing fraction of steam in the reservoir resulting from a production related decline in reservoir pressure. Alternatively the increases may be the result of fresh water influx from the Colorado River. The zone of declining resistivity flanking the area of increase may be due to the movement of saline waters into the reservoir region as a result of the pressure decline. Quantitative modeling of observed changes is impractical owing to the high uncertainty in estimating apparent resistivity changes and the nonuniqueness of models.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and cytotoxic action of fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L.: correlation with polyphenol and flavanoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirôa, Evellyne de Oliveira; Nascimento da Silva, Luís Cláudio; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Neves, Juliana Kelle de Andrade Lemoine; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of biological activities presented by medicinal plants has been investigated over the years, and they are used in the search for new substances with lower side effects. Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L. (Myrtaceae) have many folk uses in various countries. This current study was designed to quantify the polyphenols and flavonoids contents and evaluate the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of fractions from E. uniflora L. and E. malaccensis L. It was observed that the polyphenol content was higher in ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions have high antioxidant potential. E. malaccensis L. seeds showed the largest DPPH radical scavenger capacity (EC50 = 22.62). The fractions of E. malaccensis L. leaves showed lower antioxidant capacity. The samples did not alter the profile of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide release. The results indicate that species of the family Myrtaceae are rich in compounds with antioxidant capacity, which can help reduce the inflammatory response.

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Cytotoxic Action of Fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L.: Correlation with Polyphenol and Flavanoid Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyne de Oliveira Figueirôa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of biological activities presented by medicinal plants has been investigated over the years, and they are used in the search for new substances with lower side effects. Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L. (Myrtaceae have many folk uses in various countries. This current study was designed to quantify the polyphenols and flavonoids contents and evaluate the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of fractions from E. uniflora L. and E. malaccensis L. It was observed that the polyphenol content was higher in ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions have high antioxidant potential. E. malaccensis L. seeds showed the largest DPPH radical scavenger capacity (EC50=22.62. The fractions of E. malaccensis L. leaves showed lower antioxidant capacity. The samples did not alter the profile of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide release. The results indicate that species of the family Myrtaceae are rich in compounds with antioxidant capacity, which can help reduce the inflammatory response.

  6. An Art Educator for All Seasons: The Many Roles of Eugenia Eckford Rhoads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the role of women in U.S. art education by focusing on the art education contributions of Eugenia Eckford Rhoads. Presents a biographical sketch and describes her published works. Questions the role of sexism in how art educators judge the success or failure of a professional career. (KM)

  7. Rediscovery of Eugenia fajardensis (Myrtaceae), a rare tree from the Puerto Rican Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge C. Trejo-Torres; Marcos A. Caraballo-Ortiz; Miguel A. Vives-Heyliger; Christian W. Torres-Santana; William Cetzal-Ix; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Tomas A. Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia fragrans var.? fajardensis was described in 1895 and raised to species status in 1923 as E. fajardensis. In 1925, it was relegated to the synonymy of Anamomis fragrans (Myrcianthes fragrans). Since 2001, we have re-discovered wild plants and herbarium specimens, including a previously unidentified isotype of E. fajardensis, supporting the validity of this...

  8. Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia spp. caused by Cylindrocladium candelabrum and C. spathiphylli in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sebastião Poltronieri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh and Eugenia patrisii Vahl, caused respectively by Cylindrocladium candelabrum (Calonectria scoparia and C. spathiphylli (Calonectria spathiphylli are reported in the state of Pará, Brazil. On both host species, the disease is characterized by dark brown lesions of different sizes and shapes. A whitish bright sporulation, resembling Cylindrocladium is observed on the necrotic lesions by using a stereomycroscope or a pocket lense (10-20 X. Under favorable conditions and depending on the level of infection, intense premature tree defoliation may also be found.Although the conidial germination and mycelial growth were higher at 25ºC for both species, C. candelabrum was more sensitive to the variation of temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 ºC than C. spathiphylli. This is the first report of C. candelabrum and C. spathiphylli on Eugenia stipitata (araçá-boi and on Eugenia patrisii (ubaia-da-amazônia, respectively in Brazil.

  9. Toxic effects of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora Linn. in rats | Abatan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxi effects of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn on rats was evaluated by observing abnormal changes in the haemogram including erythron and leukogram, serum biochemical parameters, histopathology, and hexobarbital sleeping time. The leaf extract produced significant increases in the packed cell volume (PCV) ...

  10. Geology of the Cerro Summit quadrangle, Montrose County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Robert G.

    1966-01-01

    The Cerro Summit quadrangle covers 58 square miles of dissected plateau on the south flank of the Gunnison uplift in southwestern Colorado. It lies east of the Uncompahgre River valley and south of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison River. Rocks dip gently in most of the quadrangle, but they are locally upturned and faulted on the margin of the Gunnison uplift and are intensely deformed in the core of the uplift. The rocks exposed are of Precambrian, late Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age. Precambrian rocks include metasedimentary schist and gneiss, granitic pegmatite, and olivine gabbro. The oldest Mesozoic rocks exposed are continental, fresh-water, and lagoonal deposits in the Late Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, Wanakah Formation, and Morrison Formation. Channel-fill deposits that unconformably overlie the Jurassic rocks are possibly the Burro Canyon Formation of Early Cretaceous age. Upper Cretaceous rocks include marine and nearshore deposits of the Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, and the fresh- and brackish-water sandstone, shale, and coal of the Fruitland Formation. Rocks of Late Cretaceous age that crop out in the adjacent Cimarron Ridge area may also have been deposited in this quadrangle but are now eroded; these rocks include the nonmarine Kirtland Shale and an unnamed volcanic conglomerate and tuff breccia. Nine faunal zones in the Mancos Shale help to establish the correct correlation of units in the Upper Cretaceous. The Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, Fruitland Formation, and Kirtland Shale of the Cerro Summit area have been mapped by some geologists as the Mesaverde Formation. Fossils indicate that the rocks are younger than the type Mesaverde. The unnamed volcanic rocks represent major volcanism in nearby areas. A Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) age for the volcanism is indicated by palynological evidence and an isotopic age of approximately 66 million years. Middle Tertiary rocks are conglomerate and tuff breccia. Upper Tertiary or

  11. Hydrogeophysics and Water Balance of Cerro Prieto Dam, NE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutsis, V.; de León Gómez, H.; Masuch Oesterreich, D.; Izaguirre, F.

    2007-05-01

    The geographical location of the State of Nuevo Leon, due to its physiographic features, has temperate and arid climate; undeveloped drainage, low precipitations, and high evapotranspiration rates, as well as rapid demographic growth. The hydrological data of the Pablillo basin, registered in the hydrometric station Cerro Prieto, showed an annual precipitation from 415 up to 1130 mm/a , the mean evaporation of 705 mm/a (up to 2460 mm/a in 1996). The maximum water storage of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is 395 millions m3 which corresponds to a water level of 295 meters. However, this level was reached only three times after the dam's construction. By the end of June 2006 the water level was at 276.2 m which corresponds to a water volume of about 127,806,300 m3 which is less than a third of maximum storage. Analysis of hydrological data showed sufficient misbalance between water recharge (by rain, river flow) and loss due to evaporation, filtration, extraction, discharge, etc. 160 gravity reading points, 400 onshore magnetic field readings as well as about 250 offshore magnetic points were carried out. The standard corrections as instrumental drift, latitude, elevation, IGRF, etc. were applied to obtained data. Data procession includes Fourier transformation, wavelength filters, upward continuation, vertical and horizontal derivates, etc. As a result a 2D geological-geophysical models and 3D maps were elaborated. The general trend of the magnetic field reduced to a pole is NW - SE on which background anomalies of northeast trend are obviously traced. The general trend of the gravity field received as a result of our works is the same. However, local magnetic and residual gravity anomalies have mosaic character and, being morphologically extended in a NE direction, grouped in chains of northwest trend. Potential data interpretation allows assuming a series of the superficial fractures focused in a NE direction, perpendicular (NW-SE) to the general deep fault. The

  12. Extracción y medida de peroxidasa en pulpa de arazá (Eugenia stipitata MC Vaugh) Extraction and activity of peroxidase in arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh) pulp fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca

    2008-01-01

    ... (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh) is described. Peroxidase from arazá pulp fruit was extracted using a combination of protein precipitation with acetone and extraction with 50 mM sodium buffer phosphate (pH 6.0...

  13. Extracción y medida de peroxidasa en pulpa de arazá (Eugenia stipitata MC Vaugh)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca

    2008-01-01

    ... (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh) is described. Peroxidase from arazá pulp fruit was extracted using a combination of protein precipitation with acetone and extraction with 50 mM sodium buffer phosphate (pH 6.0...

  14. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto reservoirs under exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Puente, H.G. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal field of Baja California (Mexico) has been under commercial production to generate electricity since 1973. Over the years, the large amount of Geothermal fluids extracted (at present about 12,000 tons per hour) to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in a reduction of pressures, changes in reservoir processes, and increased flow of cooler groundwater into the geothermal system. The groundwater recharging the reservoir moves horizontally through permeable layers, as well as vertically through permeable fault zones. In addition, the supply of deep hot waters has continued unabated, and perhaps has increased as reservoir pressure decreased. Since 1989, this natural fluid recharge has been supplemented by injection which presently amounts to about 20% of the fluid produced. Changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of the reservoir fluids due to the drop in pressures and the inflow of cooler groundwaters and injectate have been detected on the basis of wellhead data. These changes point to reservoir processes like local boiling, phase segregation, steam condensation, mixing and dilution. Finally, the study identified areas where fluids are entering the reservoir, as well as indicated their source (i.e. natural Groundwater recharge versus injectate) and established the controlling geologic structures.

  15. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  16. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  17. Performance of casings in Cerro Prieto production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, B.; Vital B, F.; Bermejo M, F.; Sanchez G, G.

    1981-01-01

    A careful evaluation of different production casings used at Cerro Prieto from 1964 to date has shown that the following casings have yielded particularly impressive results: 7 5/8-in. diameter, J-55, 26 lb/ft; 7 5/8-in. diameter, K-55, 45.3 lb/ft; and 5-in. diameter, K-55, 23.2 lb/ft. These casings differ from others of the same diameter but lighter weight which were also used at the field. The results are favorable in spite of severe construction problems, especially the loss of circulation during cementing operations, which we encountered in some of the wells where these casings were used. The use of gravity-fed fine sand as packing material and the arrangement of the production and intermediate casings were important in avoiding damage due to tension-compression stresses and, above all, damage due to internal or external corrosion over time. This situation is clearly evidenced if we compare the damage to the above casings with that experienced by grade N-80 production casings, especially in a corrosive environment.

  18. Detailed microearthquake studies at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA); McEvilly, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    There appears to be an increase in seismic activity within the Cerro Prieto production zone since early 1978. The microearthquake activity is now more or less constant at a rate of 2 to 3 events per day. The b-values within the field are significantly higher inside the production zone than are those for events on faults outside of the production region. The earthquakes seem to be controlled by the Hidalgo fault, although slight clustering was observed in the center of the main production region. The earthquakes within the production zone may reflect the reservoir dynamics associated with heat and mass withdrawal. Mechanisms such as volume change, thermal stresses and weakening of materials associated with boiling (i.e., phase changes, dissolution) may all be responsible for the increased seismic activity. Although a small reinjection program has started, the pressure drawdown conditions existing within the field would imply that increased pore pressure resulting from the injection activities is not responsible for the increased seismic activity.

  19. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the ornamental Eugenia myrtifolia L. plants for coping with NaCl stress and recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Álvarez Martín, Sara; Fernández, Nieves; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús; Hernández, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Main Conclusion: We studied the response ofEugenia myrtifoliaL. plants, an ornamental shrub native to tropical and subtropical areas, to salt stress in order to facilitate the use of these plants in Mediterranean areas for landscaping.E. myrtifoliaplants implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. Furthermore, the post-recovery period seems to be detected by Eugenia plants as a new stress situation. Different phys...

  20. Update of the conceptual geological model for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto, BC; Actualizacion del modelo geologico conceptual del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Herrera, Hector [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, B.C., (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    An updated, conceptual geologic model is presented for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The tectonic extension that formed the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States and Northwestern Mexico during Upper Tertiary in the Cerro Prieto area resulted in the formation of a half graben tectonic basin between the Cerro Prieto and Imperial faults. Called the Cerro Prieto basin, it includes listric faults, predominately northwest-southwest trending, stepped generally to the northeast. The zone of cortical weakness, formed during the Tertiary, allowed an intrusion of basic rock associated with the magnetic anomaly know as Nuevo Leon. The intrusive rock has been fed by new magmatic intrusions originated by the present tectonic extension of the Gulf of California. The oldest rocks identified in the area are gneiss and biotite-schists of Permian-Jurassic age and tonalities of Jurassic-Cretaceous age in contact with Cretaceous granites, all representing the regional basement. The lithologic column in the subsurface of the Cerro Prieto basin in formed by a basement of Cretaceous granites; an argillaceous package resting on the basement composed of gray shales with interleaves of sandstone, Tertiary brown-shales and mudstone, with an average thickness of 2700 m; clastic sediments of the Quaternary age deposited mainly by the Colorado River and alluvial fans of the Cucapa Range, comprised of gravel, sands and clays with an average thickness of 2500 m, covering the shales. The fluids feeding the geothermal reservoir heat as they pass though the zone where the basic intrusive is located (the heat source) and migrate through the listric faults toward the permeable layers of sandstone located within the gray shales. [Spanish] Se presenta el modelo geologico conceptual actualizado del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto. La tectonica extensional que origino la Provincia de Cuencas y Cordilleras (Basin and Range) del oeste de Estados Unidos y

  1. Measured ground-surface movements, Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley, 30 kilometers southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, incurred slight deformation because of the extraction of hot water and steam, and probably, active tectonism. During 1977 to 1978, the US Geological Survey established and measured two networks of horizontal control in an effort to define both types of movement. These networks consisted of: (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from stations on an existing US Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border; and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the present and planned geothermal production area. Electronic distance measuring instruments were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks in 1978, 1979 and 1981. Lines in the regional net averaged 25 km. in length and the standard deviation of an individual measurement is estimated to be approx. 0.3 part per million of line length. The local network was measured using different instrumentation and techniques. The average line length was about 5 km. and the standard deviation of an individual measurement approached 3 parts per million per line length. Ground-surface movements in the regional net, as measured by both the 1979 and 1981 resurveys, were small and did not exceed the noise level. The 1979 resurvey of the local net showed an apparent movement of 2 to 3 centimeters inward toward the center of the production area. This apparent movement was restricted to the general limits of the production area. The 1981 resurvey of the local net did not show increased movement attributable to fluid extraction.

  2. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  3. Lack of antidiabetic effect of a Eugenia jambolana leaf decoction on rat streptozotocin diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepato M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated for 17 days with a decoction of Eugenia jambolana (Myrtaceae leaves (15%, w/v as a substitute for water. Body weight, food and fluid intake, urine volume, glycemia, urinary glucose and urea were evaluated every 5 days. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation and blood samples collected for the determination of glycemia, serum cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and angiotensin-converting enzyme. The weight of adipose and muscle tissues was also determined. There were no statistically significant differences between treated and untreated rats for any of the biochemical or physiological parameters. We conclude that, at least in this experimental model, Eugenia jambolana leaf decoction has no antidiabetic activity.

  4. Seasonal variation in the phenol content of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, R.M; Oliveira, M.S; Ferri, P.H; Santos, S.C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrolysable tannins, total phenols and flavonoids in Eugenia uniflora leaves were monthly analysed for one year. The results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, cloudiness and mean temperature) through chemometric methods. Principal component analysis revealed high levels of hydrolysable tannins in the rainy season, whereas flavonoids were mainly produced in the dry season. These facts suggest that climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in...

  5. Analysis of Flavonoids from Eugenia uniflora Leaves and Its Protective Effect against Murine Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Rattmann, Yanna D.; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Malquevicz-Paiva, Simone M.; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gorin, Philip A. J.; Iacomini, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, referred to as Pitanga cherry shrub, is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is cultivated in many countries and it is suitable for the production of juice, frozen pulp, and tea. Besides, it can be used as treatment for inflammatory diseases. We reported that a flavonoid-rich fraction (HE-Bu) obtained from leaves decreased the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The oral administration ...

  6. Influence of foliar nutrients on phenol levels in leaves of Eugenia uniflora

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rosa M.; Fortes, Gilmara A. C.; Ferri, Pedro H.; Santos, Suzana C.

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, leaves contain high amounts of phenolic compounds which are responsible for several pharmacological activities. In order to evaluate the phenolics seasonal variation leaves were analysed on a monthly basis during the period of two years for the contents of hydrolysable tannins, total phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe). Results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature) by Principal...

  7. Anti-quorum sensing activity of phenolic extract from Eugenia brasiliensis (Brazilian cherry)

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES,Adeline Conceição; OLIVEIRA,Brígida D’Ávila de; SILVA,Elis Regina da; SACRAMENTO,Nayara Thais Barbosa; BERTOLDI,Michele Corrêa; PINTO,Uelinton Manoel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of phenolic extracts from grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis), also known as Brazilian cherry, in concentrations that did not interfere with bacterial growth. The pulp phenolic compounds were extracted by using solid phage extraction in a mini-collumn C18 and quantified by spectrophotometry. The anti-quorum sensing activity was evaluated by testing the inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum and...

  8. Eugenia negativa/positiva: o suposto colapso da natureza em J. Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck, José Nicolau

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Há muito tempo o progresso científico provoca nossas convicções e ameaça deixar o discurso moral para trás. Mais recentemente, a polêmica em torno da persmissão ou proibição da eugenia negativa e positiva questiona nossa autocompreensão de natureza, moralidade e liberdade. O presente texto tem por objeto uma série de artigos de J. Habermas, convertidos posteriormente em livro, onde são expostos argumentos fortemente plausíveis em favor da tese da indisponibilidade da natureza humana no âmbito da eugenia positiva. Após contextuar o problema e mapeá-lo no horizonte filosófico, o trabalho apresenta a posição metafísica habermasiana, com destaque para a distinção entre eugenia negativa e positiva, e a confronta com os argumentos liberais dworkinianos acerca do tema. O artigo pleiteia a favor da tese de que a naturalidade humana consiste, desde os primórdios da espécie, em autocriação natural, de modo que cabe à moralidade e ao direito preencherem o vácuo do destino criado pela biotecnologia

  9. Mapping stable direct and retrograde orbits around the triple system of asteroids (45) Eugenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, R. A. N.; Moraes, R. V.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Winter, O. C.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that knowing the composition and the orbital evolution of asteroids might help us to understand the process of formation of the Solar system. It is also known that asteroids can represent a threat to our planet. Such an important role has made space missions to asteroids a very popular topic in current astrodynamics and astronomy studies. Taking into account the increasing interest in space missions to asteroids, especially to multiple systems, we present a study that aims to characterize the stable and unstable regions around the triple system of asteroids (45) Eugenia. The goal is to characterize the unstable and stable regions of this system and to make a comparison with the system 2001 SN263, which is the target of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) mission. A new concept was used for mapping orbits, by considering the disturbance received by the spacecraft from all perturbing forces individually. This method has also been applied to (45) Eugenia. We present the stable and unstable regions for particles with relative inclination between 0° and 180°. We found that (45) Eugenia presents larger stable regions for both prograde and retrograde cases. This is mainly because the satellites of this system are small when compared to the primary body, and because they are not close to each other. We also present a comparison between these two triple systems, and we discuss how these results can guide us in the planning of future missions.

  10. Metagenomic analysis of the bovine hindgut from Salmonella Kentucky and Cerro-shedding dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from dairy cows that appear asymptomatic. Although they are not major contributors to the salmonellosis burden, these serovars have been implicated in human clinical cases in recent years. To...

  11. Gravity Modeling of the Cerro Goden fault zone, NW Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Asencio, E.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake served as a reminder of potential earthquake hazards on upper-crustal fault systems along the northern boundary of the Carribean plate. In this study we modeled the structure of the Cerro Goden and subparallel fault zones in northwestern Puerto Rico, which cross through densely populated areas, using existing and newly collected gravity data. The fault zone had previously been mapped at the surface, but the details of the fault zone in the subsurface and the detailed structure remain poorly constrained. We used our gravity data to extend surface geologic models to greater depth. Specifically, we modeled and interpreted a north-to-south 2-D model perpendicular to the Cerro Goden fault zone. We used horizontal derivative and residual anomaly maps to emphasize edges of subsurface bodies and shallow structures of interest. Our preliminary 2D model constrains the width and depth extent of serpentinite bodies along the fault zones, the relationship of the faults with the Cerro Goden anticline in central Puerto Rico, and confirms the steep NE dip of the faults extrapolated from surface data. Additional data will be collected in the future across the Cerro Goden fault zone to laterally extend our models of subsurface structural features.

  12. La infertilidad en un área de salud del municipio Cerro Infertility in a health area of Cerro municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaylid Arteaga García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar el comportamiento de la infertilidad en 11 consultorios del Policlínico "Héroes de Girón" del municipio Cerro. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. La selección de los consultorios fue por muestreo por criterios, y los de selección fueron: que tuvieran una distribución equitativa en los Grupos Básicos de Trabajo, así como la estabilidad y conocimiento profundo del área por el personal de enfermería (quien ejecutó la investigación, previa capacitación en el tema. Se aplicaron 2 instrumentos: un formulario a nivel del consultorio y una encuesta a las parejas con problemas por infertilidad. Como medida de resumen se utilizó el porcentaje. RESULTADOS: de un total de 700 parejas en edad fértil que se encontraron, 40 tenían problemas de infertilidad, para un 5,7 %, y de ellas fueron entrevistadas 35. Existió predominio de los factores femeninos, principalmente el tubárico. La mayoría de las parejas estaban en edades óptimas para procrear, con relaciones matrimoniales estables y más de 2 años intentando tener descendencia. Predominó la infertilidad primaria. Más de la mitad de las parejas no tenían seguimiento por esta causa, y las que lo tuvieron, a pesar de ser por más de 3 años, conocen poco la causa de la infertilidad. CONCLUSIONES: la infertilidad en la población estudiada alcanza una mayor magnitud por los problemas de atención, que por la proporción numérica que representa. Se encontró fundamentalmente en edades óptimas para la reproducción, en relaciones estables, con una espera prolongada y con predominio de infertilidad primaria de causa tubárica. Las dificultades diagnósticas y terapéuticas y lo largo del proceso hacen que la mayor parte de las parejas se encuentren insatisfechas con el seguimiento que reciben.OBJECTIVE: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to characterize the behavior of infertility in 11 family physician's offices of "H

  13. Chemical composition and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Eugenia platysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenfen, Adrielli; Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; Mendes de Córdova, Caio Maurício; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition and evaluates the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Eugenia platysema leaves. Analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS allowed the identification of 22 compounds. Different from the other species of the Eugenia genus, the major compound found in the essential oil was the diterpene phytol (66.05%), being this the first report of the presence of this compound in the essential oils from Eugenia genus. The sesquiterpene elixene was the second most concentrated compound in the studied essential oil (9.16%). The essential oil from E. platysema was tested for its antibacterial activity against cell-walled bacteria and mollicute strains of clinical interest using the microdilution broth assay. The results showed that the essential oil of E. platysema was inactive until 1000 μg mL(-1) against tested bacteria.

  14. Potencial nutritivo de frutos de pitangão (Eugenia neonitida, Sobral Nutritive potential of pitangão (Eugenia neonitida, Sobral fruits and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia neonitida, Sobral (Myrtaceae ocorre naturalmente nas restingas dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, possui hábito arbustivo e pode alcançar até 2,5m de altura. Floresce entre os meses de outubro e novembro, frutificando de novembro a janeiro. Seus frutos, popularmente chamados de "Pitangão", são oblongos, e durante o processo de amadurecimento sua cor evolui do verde até o amarelo vivo quando maduro. Apresentam sabor agridoce e exalam fragrância agradável, tornando-os amplamente apreciados pela população local. Determinações analíticas revelaram que 100g de polpa deste fruto contêm alto teor de umidade (93,2% e baixo valor calórico, 54,21 kcal, oriundo de 3,21 ± 0,25g de lipídeos, 2,2 ± 0,86g de proteínas, 0,55 ± 0,03 g de carboidratos, além de 6g de sólidos solúveis e alta concentração de minerais, com destaque para o sódio, 480,8mg.100g-1 de polpa do fruto. A acidez total é de 1,38 ± 0,03g de NaOH.100g-1, o pH é 2,85 e a concentração de ácido ascórbico é de 17,86 ± 0,06mg.100g-1. O valor de beta-caroteno é de 60 ± 0,04 mg.100g-1. Comparando-se a polpa do pitangão com a da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L., foram constatados maiores valores nutricionais para a primeira. O pitangão pode ser uma ótima fonte de macro e micronutrientes para alimentação humana, embora ainda não seja cultivada nem comercializada.Eugenia neonitida, Sobral (Myrtaceae occurs naturally in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. Generally, it is a shrub, but it can reach up to 2,5m of height. It blooms from August to November and fructifies from October to December. Their fruits, popularly called "Pitangão", are oblong and during the maturation process the fruit color turns from green to bright yellow when ripe. They present a bittersweet taste and a pleasant fragrance, what makes much appreciated by local population. Analytical determinations revealed that 100g of pulp possess high concentration of

  15. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of leaves and branches of Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk (Myrtaceae); Constituintes quimicos e atividade antioxidante de folhas e galhos de Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk (Myrtaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Junior, Almir Ribeiro de; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de, E-mail: almirribeiro@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica

    2014-05-15

    Phytochemical investigation of Eugenia copacabanensis allowed for the isolation and identification of following compounds: β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-glucoside, eight triterpenes, (mixture of α- and β-amyrins, ursolic acid, 30-hydroxy-ursolic acid, betulin, friedelin, friedelan-3,4-lactone, and taraxerol), a mixture of three sesquiterpenes, (clovandiol, globulol, and viridiflorol), three flavonoids (kaempferol-3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside, and quercetin), and a mixture of four coumaroyl esters (octacosanyl, heptacosanyl, hexacosanyl, and tetracosanyl coumarates). The structures of these compounds were assigned based on comparison with literature data and spectroscopic analysis, including analysis by two-dimensional NMR techniques. Total phenolic content and total flavonoids were evaluated. Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts and fractions were measured by the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl free radical scavenging assay. (author)

  16. The potential reuse of soybean husk as feedstock of Eudrilus eugeniae in vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Pei Nie; Wu, Ta Yeong; Sim, Edwin Yih Shyang; Lim, Su Lin

    2011-11-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one the most commonly consumed legumes worldwide, with 200 million metric tons produced per year. However, the inedible soy husk would usually be removed during the process and the continuous generation of soybean husk may represent a major disposal problem for soybean processing industries. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility to convert soybean husk (S) amended with market-rejected papaya (P) into vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Soybean husk was mixed with market-rejected papaya in different ratios to produce five different treatments (1P:1S, 2P:1S, 1P:2S, S only and P only) for laboratory screening of solid wastes. Generally, the application of E. eugeniae permitted a significant increase in Ca (42.3-91.6%), K (93.8-235%), Mg (25.4-84.6%) and P (37.1-129%) but a decrease in the C:N ratio (21.4-52.8%) after 9 weeks of vermicomposting. Among all the treatments investigated, soybean husk which was mixed with an equal amount of market-rejected papaya (1P:1S) showed superior quality vermicompost. Waste mixtures also encouraged the growth of E. eugeniae except the treatments with soybean husk alone as well as soybean husk which was mixed with market-rejected papaya in 1P:2S ratio. Vermicomposting could be used as an efficient technology to convert soybean husk into nutrient-rich organic fertiliser if it was mixed with market-rejected papaya in appropriate ratio. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Genesis and evolution of the Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, L.; Macías, J. L.; Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Arce, J. L.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Saucedo, R.; Avellán, D. R.; Rangel, E.; Layer, P. W.; López-Loera, H.; Rocha, V. S.; Cisneros, G.; Reyes-Agustín, G.; Jiménez, A.; Benowitz, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex (CPVC), located in northwestern Mexico, is the only surface manifestation of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, the third largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. This geothermal field and the Salton Sea in the USA sit in a pull-apart basin that belongs to the trans-tensional tectonic zone that includes the San Andreas Fault system and the Salton Trough basin to the NW and the East Pacific Rise to the SE. In spite of its strategic importance in the generation of geothermal energy, the origin of Cerro Prieto and its relationship with the geothermal reservoir were unknown. In this contribution, we discuss the origin, evolution, and mechanisms of formation of this small monogenetic volcano and the magmas that fed the system. The volcanic complex is located on top of the Cerro Prieto left lateral fault to the northwest of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The complex consists of a lava cone and a series of domes (˜0.15 km3) protruding from Tertiary sandstones and recent unconsolidated sediments of the alluvial plain of the Colorado River. The Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex consists of seven stratigraphic units emplaced in a brief time span around 78-81 ka. Its activity began with the extrusion of a dacitic lava that came into contact with water-saturated sediments, causing brecciation of the lava. The activity continued with the emplacement of dacitic domes and a dyke that were destroyed by a phreatic explosion emplacing a lithic-rich breccia. This phreatic explosion formed a 300-m-wide and 40-m-deep circular crater. The activity then migrated ˜650 m to the SW where three dacitic lava domes were extruded and ended with the emplacement of a fissure-fed lava flow. Subsequent remobilization of the rocks in the complex has generated debris and hyperconcentrated flow deposits interbedded with fluviatile sediments in the surrounding terrain. All rocks of the CPVC are dacites with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe

  18. Evolution of a complex isolated dome system, Cerro Pizarro, central México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nancy; Carrasco-Nunez, Gerardo

    Cerro Pizarro is an isolated rhyolitic dome in the intermontane Serdán-Oriental basin, located in the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Cerro Pizarro erupted 1.1 km3 of magma at about 220 ka. Activity of Cerro Pizarro started with vent-clearing explosions at some depth; the resultant deposits contain clasts of local basement rocks, including Cretaceous limestone, 0.46-Ma welded tuff, and basaltic lava. Subsequent explosive eruptions during earliest dome growth produced an alternating sequence of surge and fallout layers from an inferred small dome. As the dome grew both vertically and laterally, it developed an external glassy carapace due to rapid chilling. Instability of the dome during emplacement caused the partial gravitational collapse of its flanks producing various block-and-ash-flow deposits. After a brief period of repose, re-injection of magma caused formation of a cryptodome with pronounced deformation of the vitrophyric dome and the underlying units to orientations as steep as near vertical. This stage began apparently as a gas-poor eruption and no explosive phases accompanied the emplacement of the cryptodome. Soon after emplacement of the cryptodome, however, the western flank of the edifice catastrophically collapsed, causing a debris avalanche. A hiatus in eruptive activity was marked by erosion of the cone and emplacement of ignimbrite derived from a caldera to the north of Cerro Pizarro. The final growth of the dome growth produced its present shape; this growth was accompanied by multiple eruptions producing surge and fallout deposits that mantle the topography around Cerro Pizarro. The evolution of the Cerro Pizarro dome holds aspects in common with classic dome models and with larger stratovolcano systems. We suggest that models that predict a simple evolution for domes fail to account for possibilities in evolutionary paths. Specifically, the formation of a cryptodome in the early stages of dome formation may be far more common than

  19. Rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp at pasteurization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp in the range of temperatures used for pasteurization (83 to 97 °C was studied. The results indicated that Brazilian Cherry pulp presented pseudoplastic behavior, and the Herschel-Bulkley model was considered more adequate to represent the rheological behavior of this pulp in the range of temperatures studied. The fluid behavior index (n varied in the range from 0.448 to 0.627. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity was described by an equation analogous to Arrhenius equation, and a decrease in apparent viscosity with an increase in temperature was observed.

  20. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-07-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity.

  1. Preliminary pharmacological studies on Eugenia uniflora leaves: xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Theoduloz, C; Franco, L; Ferro, E; de Arias, A R

    1987-11-01

    Eugenia uniflora is widely used in Paraguayan folk medicine. A hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves showed some central nervous system activity in hippocratic screening when given intraperitoneally, but little to no acute or subacute toxicity in doses up to 4200 mg/kg orally in BALB c mice. The LD50 of the extract was 220 mg/kg i.p. in mice. A decoction or infusion of the leaves is recommended for treating gout by native herbalists. The known flavonoids quercitrin, quercetin, myricitrin and myricetin were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action of the plant extract.

  2. Atividade antioxidante de três espécies de Eugenia (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Magina, Michele A.; Gilioli, Andressa; Moresco, Henrique H.; Colla, Guilherme; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa

    2010-01-01

    A atividade antioxidante dos extratos vegetais de Eugenia brasiliensis, E. beaurepaireana e E. umbelliflora foi avaliada usando diferentes métodos: Determinação da ação sequestrante de radicais livres usando DPPH, determinação do potencial redutor e determinação do potencial inibidor da peroxidação lipídica. Foi correlacionado também a o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e de flavonóides contidos nestes extratos e frações com a atividade antioxidante. As espécies E. brasiliensis e E. beaurepairean...

  3. In vitro phototoxic activity of Eugenia jambolana L. and Hyptis martiusii Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Henrique D M; Costa, José G M; Lima, Edeltrudes O; Siqueira-Júnior, José P

    2009-07-17

    Ethanol extracts from Hyptis martiusii and Eugenia jambolana were assayed for light-mediated activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. Both extracts showed activity against at least two bacterial strains, but H. martiusii was the most active extract, being active against all strains of S. aureus and E. coli. The results represent a first report of the light-mediated antimicrobial activities of H. martiusii and E. jambolana and suggest that phytochemical investigations may be warranted.

  4. Seasonal variation in the phenol content of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Variação sazonal nos teores de fenóis de folhas de Eugenia uniflora L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysable tannins, total phenols and flavonoids in Eugenia uniflora leaves were monthly analysed for one year. The results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, cloudiness and mean temperature through chemometric methods. Principal component analysis revealed high levels of hydrolysable tannins in the rainy season, whereas flavonoids were mainly produced in the dry season. These facts suggest that climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in Eugenia uniflora.Taninos hidrolisáveis, fenóis totais e flavonóides presentes em folhas de Eugenia uniflora foram quantificados mensalmente durante um ano. Os resultados foram correlacionados com as condições climáticas (pluviosidade, umidade, nebulosidade e temperatura média através de métodos quimiométricos. Análise de componentes principais revelou a ocorrência de altos teores de taninos hidrolisáveis durante a estação de chuvas, enquanto os flavonóides foram produzidos principalmente na estação seca. Estes fatos sugerem que mudanças climáticas podem ser um dos fatores que afetam os níveis de fenóis em Eugenia uniflora.

  5. The last glacial cycle and palaeolake synchrony in the southern bolivian Altiplano: Cerro Azanaques case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available SYNCHRONISME ENTRE LE DERNIER CYCLE GLACIAIRE ET L'EXTENSION DES PALÉOLACS DANS LE SUD DE L'ALTIPLANO BOLIVIEN : EXEMPLE DU CERRO AZANAQUES. Dans la Cordillère Orientale, au niveau du Cerro Azanaques (18°S, Bolivie, des moraines, des sédiments glaciaires, des rivages paléolacustres, des deltas et des stromatolites qui se sont préservés, révèlent des conditions climatiques fortement différentes dans le passé. La culmination de la dernière avancée du glacier Lijunimani a été datée par la méthode du radiocarbone à 13 000 ans BP à partir de sédiments glaciaires ayant remanié un horizon organique de tourbe. La cartographie de cette diacmitite argileuse particulière révèle un delta en forme de cône bordé par un glacier cela montre que les glaciers et les anciens systèmes lacustres font partie d'un processus d'expansion simultanée. L'étude stratigraphique détaillée réalisée au Cerro Azanaques fournit de fortes évidences allant dans le sens d'une réponse commune des glaciers et des lacs à un signal piloté par un changement climatique les lacs ne sont donc pas le simple résultat de la fonte des glaciers des cordillères. SINCRONISMO ENTRE EL ÚLTIMO CICLO GLACIAL Y LA EXTENSIÓN DE LOS PALEOLAGOS EN EL SUR DEL ALTIPLANO BOLIVIANO: CASO DEL CERRO AZANAQUES. En la Cordillera Oriental, a la altura del Cerro Azanaques (18º S, Bolivia aparecen preservadas morrenas y sedimentos glaciares, líneas de costa paleolacustres, deltas y estromatolitos, lo que revela condiciones climáticas pasadas significativamente diferentes. La culminación del último avance del glaciar Lijunimani ha sido fechada mediante radiocarbono a 13 000 años BP a partir de sedimentos glaciares que han desplazado un horizonte orgánico de turba. La cartografía de esta particular diamictita arcillosa revela un delta en forma de abanico con hielo en sus márgenes lo que indica que los glaciares y los sistemas paleolacustres sufrieron un proceso

  6. Progress report on LBL's numerical modeling studies on Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman-Dooley, S.E.; Lippman, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1989-04-01

    An exploitation model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system is needed to assess the energy capacity of the field, estimate its productive lifetime and develop an optimal reservoir management plan. The model must consider the natural state (i.e., pre-exploitation) conditions of the system and be able to predict changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions (and fluid chemistry) in response to fluid production (and injection). This paper discusses the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the natural state conditions of the Cerro Prieto field and compares computed and observed pressure and temperature/enthalpy changes for the 1973--1987 production period. 16 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Extensive geochemical studies in the geothermal field of Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manon, A.; Mazor, E.; Jimenez, M.; Sanchez, A.; Fausto, J.; Zenizo, C.

    1977-12-01

    Data collected during 12 years of operation of the chemical laboratory at Cerro Prieto are presented. These data include analyses of dissolved ions and gases in exploration and production wells and in thermal springs, as observed in repeatedly collected samples and measurements of wellhead and separator pressures, flow of steam and water and size of orifice, condition of well, etc., at the time of chemical sampling. The discussion in Part I is intended to illustrate graphically the geochemical pattern of the Cerro Prieto fluids, to search for ion correlations, and to provide a preliminary discussion of a small number of topics. The figures and tables in Part II provide the bulk of information in the report. (JGB)

  8. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  9. El bronce final y la Edad del Hierro en "Cerro del Berrueco" (Ávila-Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco FABIÁN GARCÍA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El Cerro del Berrueco es un monte-isla enclavado en las inmediaciones del Sistema Central y, más concretamente, de las Sierras de Gredos y Béjar, en el sector Sur-Occidental de la Meseta Norte. Corresponde una parte de él a la provincia de Avila y otra, más extensa, a la de Salamanca.

  10. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system as interpreted from vitrinite reflectance under isothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO); Pawlewicz, M.J.; Bostick, N.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Temperature estimates from reflectance data in the Cerro Prieto system correlate with modern temperature logs and temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry indicating that the temperature in the central portion of the Cerro Prieto System is now at its historical maximum. Isoreflectance lines formed by contouring vitrinite reflectance data for a given isothermal surface define an imaginary surface that indicates an apparent duration of heating in the system. The 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface has a complex dome-like form suggesting a localized heat source that has caused shallow heating in the central portion of this system. Isoreflectance lines relative to this 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface define a zone of low reflectance roughly corresponding to the crest of the isothermal surface. Comparison of these two surfaces suggest that the shallow heating in the central portion of Cerro Prieto is young relative to the heating (to 250/sup 0/C) on the system margins. Laboratory and theoretical models of hydrothermal convection cells suggest that the form of the observed 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface and the reflectance surface derived relative to it results from the convective rise of thermal fluids under the influence of a regional hydrodynamic gradient that induces a shift of the hydrothermal heating effects to the southwest.

  11. A review of the hydrogeologic-geochemical model for Cerro Prieto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Truesdell, A.H.; Halfman-Dooley, S. E.; Mañónm, A.

    1991-01-01

    With continued exploitation of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field, there is increasing evidence that the hydrogeologic model developed by Halfman and co-workers presents the basic features controlling the movement of geothermal fluids in the system. In mid-1987 the total installed capacity at Cerro Prieto reached 620 MWc, requiring a large rate of fluid production (more than 10,500 tonnes/hr of a brine-steam mixture; August 1988). This significant mass extraction has led to changes in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and in the chemistry of the produced fluids. Pressure drawdown has caused an increase in cold water recharge in the southern and western edges of the field, and local and general reservoir boiling in parts of the geothermal system. After reviewing the hydrogeologic and geochemical models of Cerro Prieto, the exploitation-induced cold water recharge and reservoir boiling (and plugging) observed in different areas of the field, are discussed and interpreted on the basis of these models and schematic flow models that describe the hydrogeology. ?? 1991.

  12. Relationship between water chemistry and sediment mineralogy in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N. (Univ. de Perpignan, France); Thompson, J.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical compositions of waters collected from the Cerro Prieto geothermal production wells and hydrothermal emanations are different. Compared to the Cerro Prieto well waters, the surficial waters generally contain significantly less potassium, slightly less calcium and chloride, and significantly more magnesium and sulfate. In comparison to the unaltered sediments, the changes in the mineralogy of the altered sediments appear to be controlled by the type of emanation (well, spring, mud pot, geyser, fumarole, or cold pool). However, an increase in quartz and potassium feldspar percentages seems to be characteristic of the majority of the sediments in contact with geothermal fluids. Preliminary attempts to model the chemical processes occurring in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field using chemical equilibrium calculations are reported. For this purpose the chemical compositions of thermal waters (well and surficial emanation) were used as input data to make calculations with SOLMNEQ and WATEQ2 computer programs. Then the theoretical mineral composition of altered sediments was predicted and compared to the mineralogy actually observed in the solid samples.

  13. Cytoprotective effect against mercury chloride and bioinsecticidal activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina E. Sobral-Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often utilized in genetic research, and in the last decades, it has become one of best organisms for studies of human diseases and toxicological research. Mercury chloride (HgCl2, the main representative of mercury compounds, is the target of numerous investigations, not only because of its intrinsic toxicity but also because it accounts for the toxicity of elemental mercury since the latter is converted to Hg+2 by oxidation. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Myrtaceae, known in Brazil as “jambolão”, is of great interest because of its medicinal applications, especially its leaves and fruits. The aim of this work was to characterize, by CG–MS, the chemical constituents of the essential oil of Eugenia jambolana and to evaluate its bioinsecticidal action in the Drosophila melanogaster model, as well as to determine the cytoprotective and chelating effect of the extract of E. jambolana. The results obtained here point to the potential of essential oils as a source in biological prospecting for bioinsecticides. Because of their biodegradability, essential oils can be important tools in the biological control of pests. The results demonstrated that the extract has an allelopathic effect on lettuce seeds and that its interaction with mercury chloride allows a greater growth of the radicle and plumule of Lactuta sativa seedlings, showing that this plant can provide an alternative solution to the problem of contamination by heavy metals, besides having cytoprotective potential and moderate chelating activity.

  14. Pharmacological basis for the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, A E; Baldini, O A; Amat, A G

    1999-07-01

    The rational basis for the use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive in Northeastern Argentina was assessed in normotensive rats. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous crude extract (ACE) decreased blood pressure (BP) of normotensive rats dose-dependently until 47.1 +/- 8.2% of control. The effective-dose 50 was 3.1 +/- 0.4 mg dried leaves/kg (d.l./kg) (yielding of ACE: 17% w/w). To determine the origin of hypotensive activity. Alpha-adrenergic antagonistic and vasorelaxant ACE activities were tested. The dose-response curve for phenylephrine on BP was inhibited non-competitively until 80% of its maximal effect (at 8 mg d.l. ACE/kg). Perfusion pressure (PP) of rat hindquarters (previously vasoconstricted by high-K+) was decreased by ACE in a concentration-dependent manner until -32.3 +/- 11.5% of tonic contraction at 1.2 g d.l. ACE/100 ml. In addition, A.C.E demonstrated diuretic activity at a dose (120 mg d.l./kg) higher than the hypotensive one. It was almost as potent as amiloride, but while amiloride induced loss of Na+ and saving of K+, ACE induced decrease in Na+ excretion. The results suggest that the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is mostly due to a hypotensive effect mediated by a direct vasodilating activity, and to a weak diuretic effect that could be related to an increase in renal blood flow.

  15. In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of endophytic fungi isolated from Eugenia jambolana Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manila; Yadav, Amita; Yadav, Jaya Parkash

    2014-09-01

    To elucidate the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fungi isolated from Eugenia jambolana by three different antioxidant assays. Twenty one different endophytic fungal extracts were screened for presence of various phytochemicals, TPC and in vitro antioxidant activity. TPC was tested by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent based assay. DPPH free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, and terpenes were the main phytochemicals presents in all 21 endophytes. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TPC in fungal extracts. There is 36% endophytic extracts having high phenolic content exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Chaetomium sp., Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus peyronelii and Aspergillus niger strain showed the highest antioxidant activity ranging from 50% to 80% having 58 mg/g to 60 mg/g GAE total phenolics. Ascorbic acid used as a standard showed 90% reducing potential. The results reveal that metabolites produced by endophytic fungi isolated from Eugenia jambolana can be a potential source of novel natural antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conserved lamin A protein expression in differentiated cells in the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidas, Ramamoorthy M; Raja, Subramanian Elaiya; Mydeen, Sheik Abdul Kader Nagoor Meeran; Samuel, Selvan Christyraj Johnson Retnaraj; Durairaj, Selvan Christyraj Jackson; Nino, Gopi D; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Vaithi, Arumugaswami; Sudhakar, Sivasubramaniam

    2015-09-01

    Lamin A is an intermediate filament protein found in most of the differentiated vertebrate cells but absent in stem cells. It shapes the skeletal frame structure beneath the inner nuclear membrane of the cell nucleus. As there are few studies of the expression of lamin A in invertebrates, in the present work, we have analyzed the sequence, immunochemical conservation and expression pattern of lamin A protein in the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, a model organism for tissue regeneration. The expression of lamin A has been confirmed in E. eugeniae by immunoblot. Its localization in the nuclear membrane has been observed by immunohistochemistry using two different rabbit anti-sera raised against human lamin A peptides, which are located at the C-terminus of the lamin A protein. These two antibodies detected 70 kDa lamin A protein in mice and a single 65 kDa protein in the earthworm. The Oct-4 positive undifferentiated blastemal tissues of regenerating earthworm do not express lamin A, while the Oct-4 negative differentiated cells express lamin A. This pattern was also confirmed in the earthworm prostate gland. The present study is the first evidence for the immunochemical identification of lamin A and Oct-4 in the earthworm. Along with the partial sequence obtained from the earthworm genome, the present results suggest that lamin A protein and its expression pattern is conserved from the earthworm to humans. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  17. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the ornamental Eugenia myrtifolia L. plants for coping with NaCl stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José-Ramón; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Álvarez, Sara; Fernández-García, Nieves; Sanchez-Blanco, María Jesús; Hernández, José Antonio

    2015-10-01

    We studied the response of Eugenia myrtifolia L. plants, an ornamental shrub native to tropical and subtropical areas, to salt stress in order to facilitate the use of these plants in Mediterranean areas for landscaping. E. myrtifolia plants implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. Furthermore, the post-recovery period seems to be detected by Eugenia plants as a new stress situation. Different physiological and biochemical changes in Eugenia myrtifolia L. plants after being subjected to NaCl stress for up to 30 days (Phase I) and after recovery from salinity (Phase II) were studied. Eugenia plants proved to be tolerant to NaCl concentrations between 44 and 88 mM, displaying a series of adaptative mechanisms to cope with salt-stress, including the accumulation of toxic ions in roots. Plants increased their root/shoot ratio and decreased their leaf area, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance in order to limit water loss. In addition, they displayed different strategies to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the limited accumulation of toxic ions in leaves, increase in chlorophyll content, changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, leaf anatomy and antioxidant defence mechanisms. Anatomical modifications in leaves, including an increase in palisade parenchyma and intercellular spaces and decrease in spongy parenchyma, served to facilitate CO2 diffusion in a situation of reduced stomatal aperture. Salinity produced oxidative stress in Eugenia plants as evidenced by oxidative stress parameters values and a reduction in APX and ASC levels. Nevertheless, SOD and GSH contents increased. The post-recovery period is detected as a new stress situation, as observed through effects on plant growth and alterations in chlorophyll fluorescence and oxidative stress parameters.

  18. Activity of in vitro forms of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on cariogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovito, Vanessa C; Freires, Irlan A; Almeida, Leopoldina F D; Moura, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo D; Paulo, Marçal Q; Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557) and Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469). Five dentifrices were used: D1: containing hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D2: containing fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D3: containing triclosan and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L; D4: containing triclosan, fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D5: positive control (Colgate Total 12). To determine the antibacterial activity, the technique used was the minimum inhibitory concentration by the diffusion method in solid culture medium. At the concentration 0.05 g/mL, the best results were achieved with D1 (18 mm) and D4 (24 mm) on L.casei, and with D3 (19 mm) on S. oralis. The dentifrices D3 and D4 were found to have greater activity on the Streptococcus oralis, while D4 and D1 were found to have greater activity on Lactobaccilus casei. It is concluded that dentifrices with Eugenia uniflora L. have antimicrobial activity, suggesting that clinical trials should be conducted.

  19. Areas to explore surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Areas para exploracion en los alrededores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Exploration plays an important role in tapping underground natural resources-whether water, oil, natural gas or minerals. Exploratory data allow us to learn reservoir conditions, increasing probable reserves and reservoir life span. Around the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, and in the Mexicali Valley in general, exploration had almost stopped but recently was resumed by the Studies Division of Comision Federal de ELectricidad (CFE)'s Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos. The division sent technical personnel to structurally map the northern and eastern portions of Laguna Salada. The paper offers a general outline of the main zones undergoing exploratory studies-studies perhaps culminating in siting exploratory wells to locate more geothermal resources (and ultimately producing them using binary power plants). CFE also wants to site injection wells west of the current production zone, and this is covered, as well. All activities are meant to increase the productive lifespan of the geothermal reservoir. [Spanish] Cuando se trata de la explotacion de recursos naturales del subsuelo, sea agua, gas, petroleo o minerales, la exploracion juega un papel muy importante, ya que permite conocer las condiciones del yacimiento que pudieran llevar a incrementar las reservas de los recursos explotados y extender su vida util. En las zonas aledanas al campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y en general en el Valle de Mexicali, la exploracion estaba practicamente detenida habiendose reactivado a raiz de que la Subgerencia de Estudios de la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) envio personal para realizar mapeos estructurales en las porciones norte y oriente de la Laguna Salada. Este trabajo presenta un panorama general de las areas prioritarias para realizar estudios exploratorios y poder programar, con mas bases, pozos exploratorios enfocados a localizar mas recursos geotermicos, inclusive para generar energia por medio

  20. Basic aspects of the Cerro Prieto reservoir water recharge; Aspectos basicos de la recarga de agua al reservorio de Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located 30 km South of Mexicali City, Baja California, has at present an installed capacity of 620 MW in geothermal power plants, that operating with endogenous steam, make use of the underground energy by means of deep wells, from which about 80 million cubic meters per year of high enthalpy water and steam mixture are extracted. During the exploitation physical an chemical changes in the hydrothermal fluids discharged by the wells have been detected, which shows, among other things, an elevated water recharge, located towards the West area of the field and a low recharge in the part of the east zone area. For this reason the hot brine waste re-injection is recommended, (previously treated to eliminate the silica excess) to thermally an hydraulically recharge the reservoir in that part of the field. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, situado a 30 km al sur de la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, cuenta actualmente, despues de 18 anos en explotacion, con 620 MW de capacidad instalada en plantas geotermoelectricas que, operando con vapor endogeno, aprovechan la energia del subsuelo mediante pozos profundos de los que se extraen alrededor de 80 millones de metros cubicos por ano de una mezcla de agua vapor de elevada entalpia. Durante la explotacion se han percibido cambios fisicos y quimicos en los fluidos hidrotermales descargados por los pozos, lo que indica, entre otras cosas, una recarga elevada de agua localizada hacia el poniente del campo y una recarga baja en una zona de la parte oriental. Por ello se recomienda la reinyeccion de salmuera geotermica caliente de desecho (previamente tratada para eliminar el exceso de silice) para recargar termica e hidraulicamente el reservorio en esa parte del campo.

  1. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxic activities of Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Rolón, Miriam; Vega, Celeste; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, being considered a public health problem. An alternative to combat this pathogen is the use of natural products isolated from fruits such as Eugenia uniflora, a plant used by traditional communities as food and medicine due to its antimicrobial and biological activities. Ethanolic extract from E. uniflora was used to evaluate in vitro anti-epimastigote and cytotoxic activity. This is the first record of anti-Trypanosoma activity of E. uniflora, demonstrating that a concentration presenting 50% of activity (EC(50)) was 62.76 μg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤ 1024 μg/mL. Our results indicate that E. uniflora could be a source of plant-derived natural products with anti-epimastigote activity with low toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. a-glucosidase Inhibitors From Paraguayan Natural Medicine, Ñangapiry, The Leaves Of Eugenia Uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, T; Kasai, M; Hayashi, T; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y; Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y

    2000-01-01

    The water-soluble extract from a Paraguayan natural medicine, Nangapiry, the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), which has been used as an antidiabetic agent, was found to show inhibitory activities on the increase of plasma glucose level in the sucrose tolerance test (STT) conducted with mice. The portion adsorbed on a cation exchange resin was also found to inhibit a-glucosidases. From the active portion, two new active compounds named uniflorines A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ) and known (+)-(3a, 4a, 5ß)-1-methylpiperidine-3, 4, 5-triol ( 3 ) were isolated. The structures of uniflorines A and B were determined as (-)-(1S, 2R, 6S, 7R, 8R, 8aR)-1,2,6,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine and (+)-(1S, 2R, 5R, 7R, 8S, 8aS)-1,2,5,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine by spectral means, respectively.

  3. Microencapsulation of Eugenia uniflora L. juice by spray drying using fructans with different degrees of polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Basurto, R I; Rubio-Ibarra, M E; Ragazzo-Sanchez, J A; Beristain, C I; Jiménez-Fernández, M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to microencapsulate pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) juice by spray drying, using High Performance Agave Fructans (HPAF) and High Degree of Polymerisation Agave Fructans (HDPAF) and maltodextrin (MD), respectively, as the wall materials. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the capsules during storage at various temperatures were evaluated. The microparticles developed using fructans HPAF and HDPAF, exhibited similar physicochemical and flow properties to those presented by the microparticles prepared with MD. The highest yield and concentration of anthocyanins after drying and during storage were found for a 1:6 core:wall material ratio. The total color change was a good indicator of the microcapsule stability. This study showed that both fructans fraction possess similar encapsulating properties to MD and that the HDPAF were more efficacious than MD at protecting the antioxidants during drying and storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L.: antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli; Perin, Gelson; Jacob, Raquel Guimarães; Alves, Diego; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Nascente, Patricia da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian cherry tree) was evaluated for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The acute toxicity of the EO administered by oral route was also evaluated in mice. The EO exhibited antioxidant activity in the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays and reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney of mice. The EO also showed antimicrobial activity against two important pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and against two fungi of the Candida species, C. lipolytica and C. guilliermondii. Acute administration of the EO by the oral route did not cause lethality or toxicological effects in mice. These findings suggest that the EO of the leaves of E. uniflora may have the potential for use in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Hydrolysable Tannins and Flavonoid Glycosides Isolated from Eugenia uniflora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara A. C. Fortes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphytochemical investigation of Eugenia uniflora ’s leaf extract resulted in the isolation of eleven phenolic compounds: 2,3-di-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (1, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (2, gemin D (3, hippomanin A (4, oenothein B (5, eugeniflorin D 2 (6, camptothin A (7, afzelin (8, quercitrin (9, myricitrin, (10 and desmanthin-1 (11. These compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR, and TOF/MS. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 11 were isolated from this species for the first time. Ten isolates were evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC-Fluorecein assay . Dimeric tannins, oenothein B (5, eugeniflorin D 2 (6, and camptothin A (7 showed a remarkable radical scavenging capacity.

  6. Structure, fluorescence quenching and antioxidant activity of a carbohydrate polymer from Eugenia jambolana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ghosh, Debjani; Micard, Valérie; Sinha, Sharmistha; Chatterjee, Udipta R; Ray, Bimalendu

    2012-01-01

    Natural products provide an excellent source for novel antioxidants. Herein, we have studied the water-extracted carbohydrate polymer (WE) of Eugenia jambolana using chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. A 116 kDa arabinogalactan containing p-coumaric and ferulic acids in monomeric and dimeric forms has been isolated. Cellulase generated oligomeric fragments containing ester linked phenolic acids were also characterized. The antioxidant capacity of this carbohydrate polymer is comparable to butylated hydroxy anisole and butylated hydroxy toluene. Interaction of WE with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence quenching measurement. Conformational change of BSA at high carbohydrate polymer concentration was indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Flavonoids from Eugenia uniflora Leaves and Its Protective Effect against Murine Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattmann, Yanna D; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Malquevicz-Paiva, Simone M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, referred to as Pitanga cherry shrub, is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is cultivated in many countries and it is suitable for the production of juice, frozen pulp, and tea. Besides, it can be used as treatment for inflammatory diseases. We reported that a flavonoid-rich fraction (HE-Bu) obtained from leaves decreased the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The oral administration of HE-Bu reduced the late mortality rate by 30%, prevented neutrophil accumulation in lungs, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels, and markedly decreased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by ileum cells. Chemical investigation showed myricetin and quercetin rhamnosides as the major components of this fraction. The results showed that HE-Bu protected mice from sepsis and indicated that this edible plant produces compounds that could be considered as potential adjuvants for sepsis treatment.

  8. Chemical characterisation of the constituents of Eugenia protenta McVaugh and leishmanicidal activity of dimethylxanthoxylin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarges, Flávio N; Cascaes, Márcia M; Moraes, Lienne S; Guilhon, Giselle M S P; Silva, Edilene O; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Andrade, Eloisa H A; Rodrigues, Ana Paula D; Costa, Brenda F; Figueiredo, Rayssa N M

    2017-12-06

    The chemical study of Eugenia protenta McVaugh extracts performed by classical and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques and spectral methods has led to the identification of known triterpenoids, flavonoids and an acetophenone derivative (dimethylxanthoxylin). The effect of dimethylxanthoxylin on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was evaluated against the promastigotes forms after 96 h of treatment. Dimethylxanthoxylin reduced 57 and 59% of the promastigotes growth when treated with 50 and 100 μg/mL solutions, respectively (IC50 117.35 μg/mL or 52.3 μM). Cytotoxicity experiments using MTT assays showed that this substance did not promote cell death after 24 h of treatment. Dimethylxanthoxylin was active on the promastigotes and could be a promising agent for treating leishmaniasis.

  9. Voltammetric and spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant activity of Eugenia dysenterica DC leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, Silva Elton; Garcia, Rezende Stefani; Moreira, Béda Roanna C Clícia; Pagliarini, Balest Aiessa; Cabral, Reis Bruna; Dâmaris, Silveira; de Souza, Gil Eric

    2016-03-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC (cagaiteira) is a native tree from Cerrado biome. Cagaita fruits are known and consumed in natura, mainly by inhabitants from Cerrado. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of leaves of this plant. For this evaluation we used four methods, the reduction of phosphomolybdenum, scanning by hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical scavenging assay and determination of electrochemical parameters by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that all extracts from leaves of this species have significant antioxidant potential, following the order: crude ethanol extract CEE) >crude aqueous extract (CAE) >crude hexane extract (CHE). The voltammetric approaches were also applied in order to evaluate the redox behavior of the hydrophilic extracts, as well as of their sub-extracts. Thus, the results suggest the presence of catechol-like polyphenols, which were confirmed by chromatography and phytochemical methods. Voltammetric analysis showed to be a reliable and fast method to determine redox behavior of E. dysenterica extracts.

  10. A study on the effect of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrot, Antony V.; Justin, C.; Padmanaban, S.; Burman, Ujjala

    2017-02-01

    Most look into the benefits of the nanoparticles, but keeping aside the benefits; this study focuses on the impacts of nanoparticles on living systems. Improper disposal of nanoparticles into the environment is a subject of pollution or nano-pollution which in turn affects the flora and fauna in the ecosystem, particularly soil ecosystem. Thus, this study was done to understand the impacts of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm— Eudrilus eugeniae, a soil-dependent organism which acquires food and nutrition from decaying matters. The chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Earthworms were allowed to interact with different concentrations of synthesized nanoparticles and the effect of the nanoparticles was analysed by studying the phenotypic changes followed by histology and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analyses.

  11. Identification of microRNAs from Eugenia uniflora by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Frank; Almerão, Mauricio P; Körbes, Ana P; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs or miRNAs are small non-coding regulatory RNAs that play important functions in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNAs for degradation or inhibiting protein translation. Eugenia uniflora is a plant native to tropical America with pharmacological and ecological importance, and there have been no previous studies concerning its gene expression and regulation. To date, no miRNAs have been reported in Myrtaceae species. Small RNA and RNA-seq libraries were constructed to identify miRNAs and pre-miRNAs in Eugenia uniflora. Solexa technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library, and the data obtained were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. From 14,489,131 small RNA clean reads, we obtained 1,852,722 mature miRNA sequences representing 45 conserved families that have been identified in other plant species. Further analysis using contigs assembled from RNA-seq allowed the prediction of secondary structures of 25 known and 17 novel pre-miRNAs. The expression of twenty-seven identified miRNAs was also validated using RT-PCR assays. Potential targets were predicted for the most abundant mature miRNAs in the identified pre-miRNAs based on sequence homology. This study is the first large scale identification of miRNAs and their potential targets from a species of the Myrtaceae family without genomic sequence resources. Our study provides more information about the evolutionary conservation of the regulatory network of miRNAs in plants and highlights species-specific miRNAs.

  12. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m - t s = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

  13. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam as a natural sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Garcia

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Jambolão (java plum, Eugenia jambolana Lam, was used as a natural sensitizer of a wide band-gap semiconductor (TiO2 in photoelectrochemical solar cells. The natural dye, adsorbed onto the semiconductor surface, absorbs visible light and promotes electron transfer across the dye/semiconductor interface. Photogenerated current and voltage as high as 2.3 mA and 711 mV, respectively, were obtained and effective conversion of visible light into electricity was achieved. The use of a natural product as the semiconductor sensitizer enables a faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmentally friendly solar cells.O extrato de Jambolão, Eugenia jambolana Lam, foi utilizado como um sensibilizador natural de um semicondutor com separação grande de bandas (TiO2 nas células solares fotoeletroquímica. O corante natural, adsorvido na superfície do semicondutor, absorve luz visível e promove transferência eletrônica na interface corante/semicondutor. A corrente e o potencial fotogerados tão altos como 2,3 mA e 711 mV, respectivamente, foram obtidos observando-se conversão eficiente de luz visível em eletricidade. O uso de um produto natural como o sensibilizador de semicondutor possibilita uma produção mais rápida e simples de células solares mais baratas que não agridem o meio ambiente.

  14. Archaeological fieldwork in the Bronze Age site of Cerro de la Encina (Monachil, Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Jiménez, Gonzalo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New archaeological fieldwork has been carried out from November 2003 to May 2004 in the Bronze Age site of Cerro de la Encina, due to the interest of the regional government of Andalusia in displaying the settlement for visitors. The aim of this fieldwork has been the systematic excavation of a large settlement area partially known thanks to the excavations developed at the beginning of 1980s. A first toccupation period belonging to the Argaric Culture has been documented, highlighting specially the funerary ritual characterized by individual inhumations located below dwellings. After a gap in the occupation of the settlement a new social group belonging to the Late Bronze Age Culture of Southeast of Spain inhabits the Cerro de la Encina.

    El interés de la Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Andalucía por la musealización del yacimiento del Cerro de la Encina ha motivado el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones arqueológicas cuya primera fase se ha desarrollado entre Noviembre de 2003 y Mayo de 2004. Los trabajos han consistido en la excavación sistemática de un área de poblado de grandes dimensiones parcialmente conocida por las investigaciones realizadas a principios de los años 80. Los resultados han sido del máximo interés documentándose un primer momento de ocupación perteneciente a la Cultura de El Argar en el que destaca su espectacular registro funerario integrado dentro de las áreas de habitación. Tras un periodo de abandono del yacimiento se produce una nueva ocupación correspondiente a una comunidad del Bronce Final del Sureste.

  15. Vitrinite reflectance geothermometry and apparent heating duration in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.E.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measured in immersion oil (Ro) on kerogen extracted from hydrothermally altered mudstones in borehole M-84 at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field exhibit an increase in mean reflectance (Ro) from 0.12 per cent at 0.24 km depth to 4.1 per cent at 1.7 km depth. Downhole temperatures measured over this interval increase from about 60?? to 340??C. These Ro data plotted against temperature fall along an exponential curve with a coefficient of determination of about 0.8. Other boreholes sampled in the field show similar relationships. A regression curve calculated for temperature and Ro in borehole M-105 correctly predicts temperatures in other boreholes within the central portion of the geothermal system. The correlation between the reflectance values and logged temperature, together with consistent temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry, indicates that changes in Ro are an accurate and sensitive recorder of the maximum temperature attained. Therefore, vitrinite reflectance can be used in this geothermal system to predict the undisturbed temperature in a geothermal borehole during drilling before it regains thermal equilibrium. Although existing theoretical functions which relate Ro to temperature and duration of heating are inaccurate, empirical temperature-Ro curves are still useful for geothermometry. A comparison of temperature-Ro regression curves derived from nine boreholes within the Cerro Prieto system suggests that heating across the central portion of the field occurred penecontemporaneously, but varies near margins. Boreholes M-93 and M-94 appear to have cooled from their maximum temperatures, whereas M-3 and Prian-1 have only recently been heated. Comparison of the temperature-Ro data from the Salton Sea, California, geothermal system indicates that the duration of heating has been longer there than at the Cerro Prieto field. ?? 1981.

  16. Cerro Papayo: an astronomical, calendrical and traditional landmark in Ancient Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Trejo, J.; Aguilera, T.; Montero García, I. A.

    Cerro Papayo is a peculiar formed hill (almost perfect semisphere, 3,630 m) situated at the east side of the Valley of Mexico. According to surface reconnaissance there is on its cusp a prehispanic site and a modern shrine dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe. Its striking appearance and its unobstructed visibility from anyplace in the Valley were used, since preclassic up to postclassic periods, to mark at sunrise the moment of precise astronomical, calendrical and traditional events. The present work shows observational evidence from Cuicuilco, the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan and Tepeyacac.

  17. Procesos de karstificacion actual en el area del Cerro de la Oliva (Patones, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuezva, S.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cerro de la Oliva karst is one of the best examples in this type of morphodynamic systems located in the Sistema Central Mountains. The study of the processes of current karstification evidences new data on the beginning of the karst in this area and the mechanisms of its recent reactivation, providing with data on the genesis and development of singular endokarstic processes both in the northwest and southeast sides of the Sistema Central. We have observed that karstification affects specifically to dolomitic materials taking place by means of dedolomitization processes favoured by the dissolution of overlaying gypsiferous materials. This mechanism, at the moment active, is very similar to the one that gave origin to the karstic systems developed to both sides of the Sistema Central, implying that the first stages of cretacic limestones karstification of Cerro de la Oliva took place at the end of early Pleistocene, being these materials still covered for palaeogene gypsum and clays.El karst del Cerro de la Oliva constituye uno de los mejores ejemplos de este tipo de sistemas morfodinámicos en el Sistema Central. El estudio de los procesos de karstificación actuales evidencia nuevos datos sobre el inicio de la karstificación en esta zona y los mecanismos de su reciente reactivación, aportando datos sobre la génesis y desarrollo de procesos endokársticos singulares en las vertientes noroeste y sureste del Sistema Central. Se ha observado que la karstificación afecta preferentemente a los materiales dolomíticos y se produce por un proceso de dedolomitización favorecido por la disolución de materiales yesíferos suprayacentes. Este mecanismo, actualmente activo, es muy similar al que dio origen a los sistemas kársticos desarrollados a uno y otro lado del Sistema Central, implicando que el desarrollo de las primeras etapas de karstificación de los materiales cretácicos del Cerro de la Oliva se produjo estando estos materiales

  18. Cestodos de quirópteros del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En septiembre 2006, en el Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, departamento de Tumbes, Perú; 39 individuos de murciélagos, pertenecientes a 16 especies fueron capturados. El análisis parasitológico determino que solo dos individuos de las especies Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostomidae y Noctilio leporinus (Noctilionidae estaban parasitados. Los cestodos fueron colectados del intestino delgado e identificados como Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982 (Anoplocephalidae y Vampirolepis sp. (Hymenolepididae. Atriotaenia hastati es un nuevo registro para el Perú y Vampirolepis sp. es registrado por primera vez en Tumbes y en un nuevo huésped, Noctilio leporinus.

  19. Two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections in the Cerro Prieto region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, R.; Martinez, M.

    1981-01-01

    Using a finite-difference program (Dey, 1976) for two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained by different measuring arrays, four apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained at Cerro Prieto with a Schlumberger array by CFE personnel were modeled (Razo, 1978). Using geologic (Puente and de la Pena, 1978) and lithologic (Diaz, et al., 1981) data from the geothermal region, models were obtained which show clearly that, for the actual resistivity present in the zone, the information contained in the measured pseudosections is primarily due to the near-surface structure and does not show either the presence of the geothermal reservoir or the granitic basement which underlies it.

  20. Seasonal variation in the phenol content of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Variação sazonal nos teores de fenóis de folhas de Eugenia uniflora L

    OpenAIRE

    R.M Santos; M.S Oliveira; P.H Ferri; S.C Santos

    2011-01-01

    Hydrolysable tannins, total phenols and flavonoids in Eugenia uniflora leaves were monthly analysed for one year. The results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, cloudiness and mean temperature) through chemometric methods. Principal component analysis revealed high levels of hydrolysable tannins in the rainy season, whereas flavonoids were mainly produced in the dry season. These facts suggest that climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in...

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil of Eugenia candolleana DC., Myrtaceae, on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana G. Guimarães

    Full Text Available Eugenia candolleana DC. (Myrtaceae, commonly known as "murta" or "murtinha", is a plant species without any chemical or pharmacological study described in the literature. It has been popularly used for the treatment of pain and fever. This report aimed to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of Eugenia candolleana DC. (EOEc in rodents. Following intraperitoneal injection, EOEc (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg reduced the number of writhes significantly in a writhing test and the number of paw licks during phase two of formalin test (p < 0.001. However, administration of EOEc did not alter the time of reaction in hot plate test. Furthermore, EOEc inhibited (p < 0.01 the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. These results indicate antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of EOEc probably mediated via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis or other peripherally pathway.

  2. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Flavonoids in Herbal Material, Crude Extract, and Fractions from Leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rhayanne T. M.; Bezerra, Isabelle C. F.; Ferreira, Magda R. A.; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2017-01-01

    Background: The traditional use of Eugenia uniflora L. (?Pitanga?) is reported due to several properties, which have often been related to its flavonoid content. Objective: The aim was to evaluate analytical procedures for quantification of total flavonoids content (TFCs) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry in the herbal material (HM), crude extract (CE), and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora. Materials and Methods: The method for quantification of flavonoids after complexati...

  3. Constituintes químicos e atividade antioxidante de folhas e galhos de Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Junior,Almir Ribeiro de; Gomes,Geovany Amorim; Ferreira,Rafaela Oliveira; Carvalho,Mário Geraldo de

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Eugenia copacabanensis allowed for the isolation and identification of following compounds: β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-glucoside, eight triterpenes, (mixture of α- and β-amyrins, ursolic acid, 30-hydroxy-ursolic acid, betulin, friedelin, friedelan-3,4-lactone, and taraxerol), a mixture of three sesquiterpenes, (clovandiol, globulol, and viridiflorol), three flavonoids (kaempferol-3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside, an...

  4. Chemical and biological study of essential oils from Eugenia pruniformis cambess., an endemic species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    RICARDO D.D.G. ALBUQUERQUE; Tietbohl, Luis A. C.; Caio P. Fernandes; Couteiro, Pedro P.; Eiriz, Débora N.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Silva Filho, Moacélio V.; Gutemberg G. Alves; Bachinski, Róber; Rocha, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia pruniformis Cambess. is an endemic species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Essential oils from leaves and fruits from this species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS/CG-FID. In all, 25 compounds were identified, with predominance of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in both plant parts. The major compounds were β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene D, δ- cadinene and α-copaene. Antioxidant activity was performed for essential oil from leaves using ORAC method, s...

  5. Fenologia de cagaiteira (Eugenia dysenterica DC. no Estado de Goiás Cagaiteira (Eugenia dysenterica DC. phenology in Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Regina Barboza de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento fenológico de cagaiteiras (Eugenia dysenterica DC., nativas e cultivadas do cerrado de Goiás. As cagaiteiras cultivadas encontram-se implantadas na área experimental da Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, da Universidade Federal de Goiás (EA/UFG, em Goiânia-GO, e a população nativa localizada no município de Senador Canedo-GO. Os dados climatológicos foram obtidos da Estação Evaporimétrica da EA/UFG. Foram estudadas as fenofases de folhação, floração e frutificação da cagaiteira no período de janeiro de 2004 a novembro de 2005. As cagaiteiras, nas duas condições (cultivadas e nativas, apresentaram o mesmo comportamento em relação às variáveis estudadas. Observou-se que a folhação das cagaiteiras ocorrem durante todo o ano e em intensidade no período de renovação das folhas, nos meses de setembro a outubro. Já o florescimento foi sincrônico e abundante. A frutificação foi menor em plantas mais novas, enquanto o desenvolvimento e a maturação dos frutos ocorrem entre 30 a 40 dias da antese das flores, coincidindo com o período chuvoso. As plantas mais velhas apresentam maior produção de cagaita nas duas épocas avaliadas.The objective of this research was to accompany and to register the phenological behavior of the cagaiteira (Eugenia dysenterica DC., relating the frequency of the phenophases in four E. dysenterica populations to the climate conditions of the studied period. Three of those populations are located at the Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Goiás (EA/UFG, in Goiânia, Goiás State (Brazil. A fourth population comprises native E. dysenterica plants, located in the municipality of Senador Canedo, Goiás State. Climatological data were obtained from the first class station at EA/UFG. The studied cagaiteira populations presented the same behavior of the appraised phenophases. The cagaiteira leafing

  6. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  7. La estratigrafía del Cerro de la Campana (Yecla, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Sánchez Meseguer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucha es la información existente sobre la Edad del Bronce peninsular, especialmente la que se refiere al sureste. Sin embargo, el altiplano murciano ofrece un escaso número de yacimientos excavados y estudiados, y que, en nuestra opinión y la de otros investigadores, no pueden ser considerados sensu stricto integrados en la cultura de El Argar. Con este trabajo intentamos rellenar —al menos en parte— esa laguna informativa, aportando una exposición de las características generales del Cerro de la Campana (Yecla,Murcia, especialmente de su arquitectura y su estratigrafía, así como cuestiones relativas a la cronología del yacimiento que abarca, al menos, gran parte del II milenio a. C.There is abundant information concerning the Bronze Age in Iberian Peninsula,mainly focused on the southeastern region. However, the murcian high plateau gives an scarce number of excavated and studied sites which, moreover, can not be considered sensu stricto integrated in the culture of Algar. This paper tries to fill, at least partially, that informative gap, by providing an exposition of the general features of Cerro de la Campana (Yecla,Murcia, especially centering on its architecture and stratigraphy, aswell as issues related to the chronology of the site (it dates fromthe IImillenium B.C.

  8. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez C, R. Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Antropologia, Apdo. Postal 555 Suc. C, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas C, M. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Av. Industrias 101-A, Fracc. Talleres, 78494 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Speakman, R. J. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, 20746 Maryland (United States); Glascock, M. D. [Reactor Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211 Missouri (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  9. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.

    1983-12-15

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  10. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt. The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degrees} C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3--5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  11. Amporfu, Eugenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Efficiency then suggests that the government invest in innovative technologies to minimize the cost of investigation. CONCLUSION. When it is too costly for a government to collect revenue, mandated cost shifting as a means of providing health services to the poor can be less wasteful than using the tax system. This paper ...

  12. Armazenamento e germinação de sementes de uvaia Eugenia uvalha Cambess Storage and germination of Eugenia uvalha cambess seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se testar o tempo e temperatura de armazenagem e tratamentos pré-germinativos na germinação de sementes de uvaia (Eugenia uvalha Cambess. As sementes foram separadas em lotes de 100 unidades, que foram pesadas e, em seguida, armazenadas em temperatura ambiente (30±2ºC e em geladeira (13± 2ºC, sendo acondicionadas em frascos de plástico com tampa rosqueada. No início do experimento e a cada 30 dias (30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, as sementes foram imersas por 30 minutos em água quente ou GA 125 mg.L-1 e GA 250 mg. L-1 por doze horas, e aquelas sem nenhum tratamento serviram como testemunha; em seguida, foram semeadas em recipiente contendo terra + areia (1:1 como substrato. Foram avaliados a percentagem de emergência e o índice de velocidade de emergência. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 2 (temperaturas de armazenamento x 4 (tratamentos pré-germinativos x 4 (períodos de armazenamento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. As sementes armazenadas em refrigeração apresentaram, em geral, maior percentagem e índice de velocidade de emergência. As sementes de uvaia recém-colhidas não emergiram até os 200 dias de observação. Sob armazenamento à temperatura ambiente, houve menor emergência (32,14% que aquelas sob refrigeração (40,37%. Quanto aos períodos de armazenamento, a maior emergência foi observada nas sementes armazenadas por 60 dias sob refrigeração (65,56% e 90 dias sob temperatura ambiente (52,03%. GA 125 mg.L-1, sob refrigeração, e GA 250 mg.L-1, sob temperatura ambiente, foram os tratamentos pré-germinativos com maior emergência. O índice de velocidade de emergência foi maior nas sementes armazenadas sob refrigeração, e aos 60 dias (0,099, esse índice foi maior, comparado com as sementes por 90 dias (0,069 sob temperatura ambiente. As sementes imersas em giberelina alcançaram o maior IVE (acima de 0

  13. Geohydrologic conditions of the shallow aquifer in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field zone; Condiciones geohidrologicas del acuifero somero en la zona del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Gonzalez, Rogelio [CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    Based on geohydrologic information reported by Comision Nacional del Agua, Comision Federal de Electricidad and several academic institutions, we have performed an analysis to establish in general terms, the past and present behavior of the shallow aquifer in the Cerro Prieto geothermal zone (CPGZ). The main features of the aquifer, derived from the interpretation of the results obtained with several disciplines, are as follows: The shallow aquifer in CPGZ is part of the regional hydrologic system of the Mexicali valley basin. The basin is filled with unconsolidated delta deposits interbedded with alluvial sediments from the Sierra Cucapa, which forms an impervious boundary. Because the lack of information about the hydraulic properties of the sediments, just possible ranges of values were obtained for the hydraulic conductivity and storativity corresponding to three deposit environments: a) delta flood plain facies, b) estuarine or lagoon environment facies, c) distal alluvial fan facies. [Spanish] Con base en la informacion geohidrologica de la Comision Nacional del Agua, la Comision Federal de Electricidad e instituciones academicas, se realizo un analisis para establecer las condiciones geohidrologicas y el panorama general del comportamiento historico y actual del acuifero somero en la zona del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP). De la interpretacion e integracion de los resultados obtenidos de las diferentes disciplinas utilizadas en el desarrollo del estudio, se derivan las siguientes conclusiones: El acuifero somero en la zona del CGCP forma parte del acuifero regional del valle de Mexicali. La secuencia litologica en el area de estudio esta constituida por sedimentos no consolidados de origen deltaico interdigitados con sedimentos aluviales provenientes de la Sierra Cucapa, que sirve como frontera impermeable. La informacion sobre las propiedades hidraulicas de los materiales en el area de interes es limitada, por lo cual solo se determinan los

  14. Presence of cross flow in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Presencia de flujo cruzado en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    During the development of Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, exploitation has increased gradually, causing a continuous drop in pressure to almost 100 bars in the central and eastern parts of the field. This has occurred despite the high natural recharge induced by the reservoir exploitation and helped by the high permeability of the reservoir and the wide availability of natural recharge of low-temperature water in the vicinity. The strata above the production zones have significantly lower temperatures than these zones, but due to the particular characteristics of the reservoir, do not have pressure drops. As the pressure of producing strata declines, the hydraulic pressure differential between them and the overlying strata increases. Thus in recent years the phenomenon of cross flow occurs with greater frequency and severity. In this paper, this phenomenon is analyzed, detailing the specific mechanisms favoring it and identifying the stage (drilling or workover) in which it commonly occurs. Rigorous supervision during these stages is crucial to identifying cross flow and to taking necessary measures to save the well. Cross flow cases are presented at different stages in the history of a well: during drilling, repair, before and during the stimulation, and during production. [Spanish] Durante el desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, la explotacion se ha incrementado en forma gradual provocando una continua caida de presion, que en las porciones central y oriente ha sido de casi 100 bars. Esto ha ocurrido a pesar de la enorme recarga natural inducida por la explotacion, favorecida por la alta permeabilidad del yacimiento y la gran disponibilidad de recarga natural de agua de baja temperatura en los alrededores del mismo. Los estratos ubicados encima de las zonas productoras presentan temperaturas significativamente menores que estos, pero debido a las caracteristicas particulares del yacimiento, no han presentado abatimiento en su presion. En la

  15. Topical antiinflammatory activity and chemical composition of the epicuticular wax from the leaves of Eugenia beaurepaireana (Myrtaceae

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    Michele Debiasi Alberton Magina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the topical antiinflammatory effect of epicuticular wax from leaves of Eugenia beaurepaireana, it was tested in mice croton oil-induced inflammation. Our findings show that topical application of Eugenia beaurepaireana epicuticular wax was significantly active in inhibiting both oedema (Inhibitory dose 50 % (ID50 = 0.31 (0.26 - 0.39 mg.ear -1, inhibition = 79 ± 6 % and tissue myeloperoxidase activity (indicative of polymorphonuclear leukocytes influx (ID50 =0.34 (0.20 - 0.41 mg.ear -1, inhibition = 77 ± 4 % in mice ear treated with croton oil. Two main compounds were detected on epicuticular wax of E. beaurepaireana. These compounds were identified as α- and β-amyrin by flame ionization detection (GC-FID and spectroscopic methods (IR, NMR ¹H and 13C. In conclusion, the results indicate a topical antiinflammatory activity for the Eugenia specie studied and, that, at least in part, α- and β-amyrin are responsible for this activity.A atividade antiinflamatória tópica da cera epicuticular das folhas de Eugenia beaurepaireana foi avaliada pelo modelo do edema de orelha induzido pelo óleo de cróton em camundongos. Os resultados do estudo mostram que a aplicação tópica da cera epicuticular de Eugenia beaurepaireana inibiu significativamente a formação do edema (Dose inibitória 50 % (DI50 = 0,31 (0,26 - 0,39 mg.orelha-1, inibição = 79 ± 6 % e a atividade da mieloperoxidase tissular (indicativo do influxo de leucócitos polimorfonucleares (DI50 =0,34 (0,20 - 0,41 mg.orelha-1, inibição = 77 ± 4 % em camundongos tratados com o óleo de cróton. Dois compostos majoritários foram detectados e isolados da cera epicuticular de E. beaurepaireana. Estes compostos foram identificados como os triterpenos α-amirina e β-amirina, através de técnicas cromatográficas (CG-FID e espectroscópicas (IV, RMN ¹H e 13C. Em conclusão, os resultados indicam que a espécie E. beaurepaireana apresenta um efeito antiinflamatório t

  16. The evolutionary history of Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx (Myrtaceae) corroborates historically stable areas in the southern Atlantic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Fernanda Mazine, Fiorella; Forest, Félix; Leandro Bueno, Marcelo; Renato Stehmann, João; Lucas, Eve J

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx Nied. includes 14 species endemic to the Neotropics, mostly distributed in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Here the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group is presented, and this phylogeny is used as the basis to evaluate the recent infrageneric classification in Eugenia sensu lato (s.l.) to test the history of the evolution of traits in the group and test hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. A total of 42 taxa were sampled, of which 14 were Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx for one nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-rpl32 and trnQ-rps16). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood. Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx is paraphyletic and the two clades recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Cerrado and south-eastern species and a difference in the composition of species from north-eastern and south-eastern Atlantic forest. Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for Eugenia s.l. within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics. Furthermore, valuable insight is offered into diversification and biome shifts of plant species in the highly environmentally impacted Atlantic forest of South America. Evidence is presented that climate stability in the south-eastern Atlantic forest during the Quaternary contributed to the

  17. Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the reservoir to produce steam at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento para producir vapor en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez; Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-01-15

    Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir for steam production are defined, taking into account the minimal acceptable steam production at the surface, considering a rank of mixed-enthalpies for different well-depths, and allowing proper assessments for the impacts of the changes in fluid reservoir pressure and enthalpy. Factors able to influence steam production are discussed. They have to be considered when deciding whether or not to drill or repair a well in a particular area of the reservoir. These evaluations become much more relevant by considering the huge thermodynamic changes that have occurred at the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir from its development, starting in 1973, which has lead to abandoning some steam producing areas in the field. [Spanish] Las condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, para producir vapor se determinan tomando en cuenta la minima produccion de vapor aceptable en superficie, considerando un rango de entalpias de la mezcla y para diferentes profundidades de pozos, lo que permite valorar adecuadamente el impacto de la evolucion de la presion y entalpia del fluido en el yacimiento. Se discuten los factores que pueden afectar la produccion de vapor, los cuales se deben tomar en cuenta para determinar la conveniencia o no de perforar o reparar un pozo en determinada zona del yacimiento. Estas evaluaciones adquieren gran relevancia al considerar los enormes cambios termodinamicos que ha presentado el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, como resultado de su explotacion iniciada en 1973, lo que ha llevado a abandonar algunas zonas del campo para la produccion de vapor. Palabras Clave: Cerro Prieto, entalpia, evaluacion de yacimientos, politicas de explotacion, presion, produccion de vapor.

  18. Educación ambiental y desarrollo sostenible. El caso de los cerros Orientales de Bogotá, Colombia

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    Fabio Alberto Garzón Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evidenciar la problemática de los cerros Orientales de Bogotá como una red de problemas ecológicos, sociales, económicos, políticos y culturales que imposibilitan la puesta en marcha de programas de conservación que permitan garantizar la vida en todas sus manifestaciones. Para ello, se utilizará una metodología sintética mediante la cual se relacionan hechos aparentemente aislados y se formula una teoría que unifica los diversos elementos. Se recomienda para la conservación de los dichos cerros implementar un tipo de gobierno que genere un desarrollo sostenible con justicia social, que tenga en cuenta el desconocimiento ambiental, social y cultural de los cerros y que implemente un modelo de conservación que integre a los ciudadanos en la generación de alternativas de vida y desarrollo en torno a la recuperación de los cerros Orientales y su uso sostenible.

  19. Extension of the Cerro Prieto field and zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal possibilities in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca L, H.L.; de la Pena L, A.; Puente C, I.; Diaz C, E.

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns the possible extension of the Cerro Prieto field and identification of other zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal development potential by assessing the structural geologic conditions in relation to the regional tectonic framework and the integration of geologic and geophysical surveys carried out at Cerro Prieto. This study is based on data obtained from the wells drilled to date and the available geological and geophysical information. With this information, a geologic model of the field is developed as a general description of the geometry of what might be the geothermal reservoir of the Cerro Prieto field. In areas with geothermal potential within the Mexicali Valley, the location of irrigation wells with anomalous temperatures was taken as a point of departure for subsequent studies. Based on this initial information, gravity and magnetic surveys were made, followed by seismic reflection and refraction surveys and the drilling of 1200-m-deep multiple-use wells. Based on the results of the final integration of these studies with the geology of the region, it is suggested that the following areas should be explored further: east of Cerro Prieto, Tulecheck, Riito, Aeropuerto-Algodones, and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora.

  20. Microfaunal evidence of age and depositional environments of the Cerro Prieto section (Plio-Pleistocene), Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingle, J.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Microfossils including benthic and planktic foraminifera, ostracodes, calcareous algae, fish skeletal material, and fragments of pelecypods were found in 14 core samples from depths of 185 to 1952 m in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, providing evidence of both the age and depositional history of sediments comprising the 3000-m-thick Pliocene and Pleistocene section in this area. Ostracodes of brackish water and marine origin constitute the most common microfossils present in this sequence occurring in 8 samples; in situ littoral and neritic species of benthic foraminifera occur in 5 samples with planktic species present in 2 samples. Distributional patterns of ostracodes and foraminifera together with previously analyzed lithofacies (Lyons and van de Kamp, 1980) indicate that the Cerro Prieto section represents an intertonguing complex of alluvial, deltaic, estuarine, and shallow marine environments deposited along the front of the Colorado River delta as it prograded across the Salton Trough during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Foraminiferal evidence indicates that a sand and shale unit commonly present at depths between 700 and 1100 m represents a significant mid-Pleistocene marine incursion in the Cerro Prieto area. Tentative correlation of the Cerro Prieto section with the well dated Palm Springs Formation of the Imperial Valley, California area suggests that the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary occurs at a depth of approximately 2000 m in the area of well M-93. Reworked specimens of Cretaceous foraminifera and fragments of the Cretaceous pelecypod Inoceramus were found in five samples further substantiating the Colorado Plateau provenance of a significant portion of the Colorado River deltaic sediments in the Cerro Prieto area.

  1. Eugenia e educação no Brasil do século XX: entrevista com Jerry Dávila

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    Jerry Dávila

    Full Text Available Resumo Brasilianista e especialista nas relações entre eugenia, raça e educação, o historiador e diretor do Lemann Institute, Jerry Dávila, compartilha nesta entrevista algumas de suas experiências como estudioso desses temas. Seu livro Diploma de brancura, que teve grande repercussão e circulação entre os pesquisadores brasileiros, examina as relações raciais e eugênicas na educação brasileira entre 1917 e 1945. O entrevistado destaca os desafios em torno das pesquisas sobre eugenia na atualidade, suas impressões ao participar do seminário “História da eugenia: ampliando perspectivas”, realizado pela Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz em 2015, e seus recentes interesses de pesquisa.

  2. Results of the latest transient well pressure tests at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril G, A.; Vargas G, C.

    1981-01-01

    The equipment used in the interference and two-rate flow tests carried out at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field during 1980 are described. The results of two interference tests are presented, one between wells M-110 and M-104, and the other between wells M-7 and Q-757. The data was interpreted using type curve matching analysis. Results of two-rate flow tests carried out in wells M-102 and M-7 are also discussed. A technique for making two-rate flow tests is proposed. This approach, which attempts to avoid the uncertainty of present flow-rate measurements, makes use of devices for direct measurements of separated water and steam. Conclusions based on the above interpretations and recommendations for future tests are presented.

  3. Changing fluvial styles in volcaniclastic successions: A cretaceous example from the Cerro Barcino Formation, Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umazano, A. Martín; Krause, J. Marcelo; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Perez, Mariano; Visconti, Graciela; Melchor, Ricardo N.

    2017-08-01

    The Cretaceous Puesto La Paloma (PLPM) and Cerro Castaño (CCM) members (Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut Group) are pyroclastic-rich, alluvial successions deposited in the Somuncurá-Cañadón Asfalto Basin during sag and endorheic conditions. The PLPM comprises sheet-like tuffaceous sandstone strata, whereas the overlying CCM includes sheet-to ribbon-channel sandstone bodies intercalated within tuffaceous and fine-grained sediments. In this context, the goals of this contribution were: i) to make a detailed documentation of the contrasting sedimentary palaeonvironments; and ii) to infer the allocyclic controls that governed the sedimentation of both units. The study area is located in the western sector of the basin, where six localities, which were studied. Six facies associations were defined including ash-falls, sheet-floods, shallow lakes, aeolian, fluvial channel-belts, and reworked debris-flows. We defined four stratigraphic intervals for the studied sections, denominated 1 to 4 in chronological order of deposition, which increase their thicknesses toward the Puesto Mesa-Cerro León site. The interval 1 (18-42 m thick) corresponds to the PLPM and includes numerous pedogenized sheet-flood deposits, carbonate-rich lacustrine, aeolian sandy facies, and ash-fall beds. The interval 1 is interpreted as an ephemeral and unconfined alluvial system that interacted with aeolian dunes and dry interdune zones. The interval 2 (20-47 m thick) represents the lower part of the CCM. It shows an alternation of fluvial channel-belt deposits and vegetated floodplain facies with sediments originated from sheet-floods, lakes, and few ash-falls and debris-flows. The mean palaeoflow was toward E-SE, except in the northernmost locality where the drainage was towards SW. Proportion of channel-belt bodies ranges from 10 to 36%, reaching higher values in the northern part of the study area, where they are also thicker. The interval 2 represents a permanent, meandering or locally low

  4. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegetation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, Randy G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2004-12-15

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE.

  5. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

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    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  6. BESO échelle spectroscopy of solar-type stars at Cerro Armazones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.; Seifert, W.; Stahl, O.

    2011-03-01

    The Bochum Échelle Spectroscopic Observer BESO is a fibre-fed high-resolution spectrograph for the 1.5-m Hexapod Telescope at the Cerro Armazones Observatory in the Atacama desert in Chile. Here we report on the first BESO observations and model atmosphere analyses of solar-type stars secured in 2010 April. The quality of the data is first tested with a reflected sunlight spectrum as well as the standard G-type subgiant 70 Vir. We then investigate the bright and supposedly single F-type star ξ Gem and present the spectroscopic evidence that instead favours an equal-mass binary. We present also the first composite synthetic modelling of the G-type visual binary HR 3430 and discuss the spectroscopic observations that identify this as a triple system. We conclude with another triple, the famous and very nearby α Cen, and the basic stellar parameters of its inner, solar-type visual binary.

  7. MOVIMIENTOS DE LADERA Y PLANEAMIENTO URBANÍSTICO: EL CONFLICTO DEL CERRO DEL OPE, ARCHENA (MURCIA

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    María Dolores Gómez Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desprendimientos son un proceso natural que afecta, de forma generalizada en el Valle de Ricote, a las laderas del tipo cantil-talud. Su peligrosidad radica en que los bloques desprendidos del escarpe ruedan con facilidad, talud abajo, cuando son descalzados por efecto de la escorrentía superfi cial o desestabilizados por movimientos sísmicos. El planeamiento urbanístico se convierte en factor inductor del riesgo al clasifi car como urbanizables y urbanos suelos que, por su ubicación en pie de ladera, deberían excluirse de cualquier proceso urbanizador. Este es el caso de Archena en el entorno inmediato del cerro del Ope.

  8. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, E.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He and 40Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water that penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic He and 40Ar formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 - 30%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 - 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 - 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as C1 or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range. ?? 1984.

  9. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  10. Comments on some of the drilling and completion problems in Cerro Prieto geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, B.; Sanchez G, G.

    1981-01-01

    From 1960 to the present, 85 wells with a total drilling length exceeding 160,000 m have been constructed at Cerro Prieto, a modest figure compared to an oil field. This activity took place in five stages, each characterized by changes and modifications required by various drilling and well-completion problems. Initially, the technical procedures followed were similar to those used in the oil industry. However, several problems emerged as a result of the relatively high temperatures found in the geothermal reservoir. The various problems that have been encountered can be considered to be related to drilling fluids, cements and cementing operations, lithology, geothermal fluid characteristics, and casings and their accessories. As the importance of high temperatures and the characteristics of the geothermal reservoir fluids were better understood, the criteria were modified to optimize well-completion operations, and satisfactory results have been achieved to date.

  11. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazor, E. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  12. Eugenia dysenterica Mart. Ex DC. (cagaita: planta brasileira com potencial terapêutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Márcia MAZUTI SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil possui uma das maiores diversidades florísticas do mundo, com vários biomas de características diversas. Esses biomas são uma rica fonte de espécies vegetais utilizadas pelos habitantes locais como alimento e/ou para fins medicinais. Em 2006 foi publicada a Politica Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos (PNPMF que estabeleceu diretrizes de atuação do Governo Federal na área, com o objetivo de fomentar o desenvolvimento industrial e tecnológico e estimular o uso sustentável da biodiversidade nacional. O Programa Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos, por sua vez, estabeleceu as ações dos diversos parceiros, para garantir o acesso, o desenvolvimento tecnológio e o uso de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos de forma segura, eficaz e com qualidade. Eugenia dysenterica Mart ex DC é uma espécie brasileira encontrada no bioma Cerrado e utilizada como alimento e para fins medicinais. Assim, no sentido de contribuir para a PNPMF, foi elaborada uma monografia mostrando os avanços nos estudos sobre essa espécie, potencialmente útil para no desenvolvimento de fitoterápico genuinamente nacional.

  13. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels

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    SILVANA P.Q. SCALON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and photosynthetic metabolism of “uvaia” seedlings (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. on different substrates and water regimes. The seeds were sown in tubes of 50 x 190 mm in the following substrates: Sand (S, Latosol + Sand (L + S (1:1, Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S1 + PL ( 1:1:0.5, Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S2 + PL (1:2:0.5, Latosol + Bioplant® (L + B (1:1, and the water levels assessed were 50, 75 and 100% of water retention capacity. At 60, 90, 120 and 150 days the seedlings were evaluated according to their chlorophyll index, leaf area (cm2 and Dickson Quality Index (DQI and at 150 days their internal concentration of carbon (mol m–2 s–1, stomatal conductance (mol m–2 s–1, transpiration rate (mmol m–2 s–1, photosynthesis (µmol m–2 s–1 and efficiency of water use (µmol de CO2 / mmol de H2O. Until their 150th days, the seedlings had higher quality and photosynthetic metabolism when cultured with substrates containing latosol + sand + poultry litter on the two variations assessed and water retention capacity of 50%.

  14. Purification of a lectin from Eugenia uniflora L. seeds and its potential antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M D L; Andrade, C A S; Santos-Magalhães, N S; Coelho, L C B B; Teixeira, J A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M G; Correia, M T S

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the antimicrobial properties of a purified lectin from Eugenia uniflora L. seeds. The E. uniflora lectin (EuniSL) was isolated from the seed extract and purified by ion-exchange chromatography in DEAE-Sephadex with a purification factor of 11.68. The purified lectin showed a single band on denaturing electrophoresis, with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. EuniSL agglutinated rabbit and human erythrocytes with a higher specificity for rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutination was not inhibited by the tested carbohydrates but glycoproteins exerted a strong inhibitory action. The lectin proved to be thermo resistant with the highest stability at pH 6.5 and divalent ions did not affect its activity. EuniSL demonstrated a remarkable nonselective antibacterial activity. EuniSL strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp. with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.5 microg ml(-1), and moderately inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus sp. and Escherichia coli with a MIC of 16.5 microg ml(-1). EuniSL was found to be effective against bacteria. The strong antibacterial activity of the studied lectin indicates a high potential for clinical microbiology and therapeutic applications.

  15. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract on activated hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Parisi, Mariana M; Martins, Leo A M; Terra, Silvia R; Borojevic, Radovan; Vizzotto, Márcia; Perry, Marcos L S; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Guma, Fátima T C R

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phenolic compounds in fruit- and vegetable-rich diets has attracted researchers' attention due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract on cell proliferation, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death and cell cycle in murine activated hepatic stellate cells (GRX). Cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was significantly decreased on cells treated with 50 and 100 µg ml(-1) of purple pitanga extract for 48 and 72 h, and the percentage of dead cell stained with 7-amino-actinomycin D was significantly higher in treated cells. The reduction of cell proliferation was dose dependent, and we also observed alterations on cell cycle progression. At all times studied, GRX cells treated with 50 and 100 µg ml(-1) of purple pitanga showed a significant reduction in cellular mitochondrial content as well as a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, our results indicated that purple pitanga extract induces early and late apoptosis/necrosis and necrotic death in GRX cells. This is the first report describing the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and apoptotic activity for E. uniflora fruits in hepatic stellate cells. The present study provides a foundation for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis, and more studies will be carried to elucidate this effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Variation in the carotenoid composition of the lycopene-rich Brazilian fruit Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Ornella M; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2008-12-01

    The indigenous pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is now marketed and commercially processed in Brazil. In the present work, the carotenoids of the pitanga fruit from two states and at two stages of ripening, as well as of processed pitanga products (frozen pulp and juice, the brands being designated as A, B and C) commercialized in Campinas, São Paulo, were determined by HPLC. As compared to ripe pitanga from Medianeira, Paraná, those from Campinas had significantly higher (all-E)-lycopene (14.0 vs. 71.1 microg/g), (13Z)-lycopene (1.1 vs. 5.0 microg/g) and (all-E)-gamma-carotene (1.6 vs. 3.8 microg/g) levels. Significant increases in most of the carotenoids occurred from the partially ripe to the ripe fruits, with (all-E)-lycopene doubling its concentration in fruits from both states. Pitanga was found to be one of the richest fruit sources of carotenoids, particularly lycopene, but the processed products had much lower lycopene content. The mean (all-E)-lycopene concentration was 16.6 microg/g for frozen pulp brand A, 23.0 microg/g for bottled juice brand B and 25.6 microg/g for bottled juice brand C. Optimization of processing is therefore needed to guarantee better retention of this important carotenoid.

  17. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant capacity of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L.

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    Milena Bagetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain more information about the physicochemical properties, composition, and antioxidant activity of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L., particularly fruits from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Pitanga with different flesh colors (purple, red, and orange from tree selections cultivated at Embrapa Clima Temperado (RS-Brazil were analyzed. Only slight differences were observed in the quality parameters and in the proximate and fatty acid compositions among the fruits studied. The extracts from purple-fleshed pitanga had the highest total phenolic and anthocyanin contents along with the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP assays of methanolic pitanga extracts was highly correlated with the total phenolic content, but in ethanolic extracts, the anthocyanin content was correlated only with the FRAP antioxidant capacity. Orange fleshed pitanga had higher β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene levels than those of the red fruit, which had higher lycopene content. The results indicate that the purple-fleshed pitanga, cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul, is a rich source of phenolic compounds and has high antioxidant capacity. The red and orange-fleshed pitanga, on the other hand, are rich sources of carotenoids.

  18. Improving effects of the extracts from Eugenia uniflora on hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in mice.

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    Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y; Okada, M; Hayashi, T; Kasai, M; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y

    1999-12-15

    EtOH (70%) extracts from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora were separated into six fractions with different polarity and molecular size, i.e. NP-1-NP-6. In an oral glucose tolerance test, NP-1 and 4 inhibited the increase in plasma glucose level. However, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, such an inhibitory effect was not seen. Thus, the effects of NP-1 and 4 were apparently due to the inhibition of glucose absorption from the intestine. In a sucrose tolerance test, all fractions inhibited the increase in plasma glucose level. In an oral corn oil tolerance test, NP-3 and 4 showed an inhibitory effect on the increase in plasma triglycerides level. On the other hand, NP-3, 4, 5 and 6 inhibited maltase and sucrase activities and all fractions except for NP-1 showed an inhibitory effect on lipase activity dose-dependently. The inhibition of the increase in plasma glucose level by NP-3, 4, 5 and 6 in the oral sucrose tolerance test and the inhibition of the increase in plasma triglycerides by NP-3 and 4 in the oral corn oil tolerance test were apparently due to the inhibition of the decomposition of carbohydrates and fats in the intestine, respectively.

  19. Pharmacological effects of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) aqueous crude extract on rat's heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Alicia E; Sarubbio, Marisol Gracía

    2002-06-01

    The effect of aqueous crude extract (ACE) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was studied on rat's perfused ventricles. This plant is used in South American traditional medicine as an antihypertensive and we already demonstrated previously its hypotensive properties. In this paper, maximal left intraventriclular pressure (P) of rat's hearts beating at 0.2 Hz firstly increased to 162.1+/-11.1% of basal value during 1-3 min of perfusing ACE 0.6%. Maximum rate of contraction (+P) also increased to duplicating +P/P ratio. Both types of effect were significantly decreased by either propranolol 0.35 microM, and pre-treatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg), suggesting that they were caused by a compound that releases cathecolamines with beta-adrenergic action. Nevertheless, after 20 min of perfusing ACE, ventricles decreased P to about 50% of their basal value, suggesting a negative-inotropic compound present in the extract. The perfusion of 1.2% ACE decreased P in a pressure-[Ca](o) curve (0.5-2 mM) in a non-competitive manner, suggesting that an irreversible Ca-blocking compound is also present in the extract. In summary, E. uniflora ACE has a dual effect on the heart related to its hypotensive action and is probably responsible for the therapeutic or adverse effects in patients under cardiac risk.

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE LEISHMANICIDA IN VITRO DE EUGENIA UNIFLORA

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    Elaine Gimenez Guimarães

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As leishmanioses são um conjunto de doenças causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, transmitidas por meio de hábitos hematófagos de fêmeas de dípteros infectados, pertencentes à subfamília Phlebotominae. É uma doença negligenciada e de grande relevância devido sua incidência e letalidade quando não tratada. O tratamento das leishmanioses é um obstáculo, devido à alta toxidade e efeitos adversos causados pelos fármacos disponíveis. Neste sentido, as plantas medicinais têm ganhado grande destaque na busca por fármacos que possam apresentar menos efeitos colaterais. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar atividade leishmanicida do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Eugenia uniflora na espécie Leishmania amazonensis. Os valores de IC50 foram de 1,99 µg/mL, 1,64 µg/mL e 1,39 µg/mL nos tempos de 24, 48 e 72 horas, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que o extrato testado possui significativa atividade leishmanicida.

  1. Morpho-anatomy of the leaf and stem of Eugenia pyriformis

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    Lorene Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia pyriformis Cambess., known as uvaia, is a species of Myrtaceae native to Brazil. Its leaves are used in folk medicine to treat gout because they possess the property of inhibiting xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in the conversion of xanthine into uric acid. The objective of this work was to study the leaf and stem morpho-anatomy of E. pyriformis, in order to contribute to what is known about the Brazilian flora, and this medicinal plant and potential vegetal drug. Samples of mature leaves and young stems were fixed and sectioned by freehand, or embedded in glycol methacrylate and sectioned with a microtome, and then stained. In addition, microchemical tests and scanning electron microscopy were performed. The leaf is simple, symmetric, elliptic-lanceolate, with an acute apex and base, and an entire margin. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with a moderately thick cuticle. The stomata are anomocytic and inserted at the same level as the adjacent cells. Unicellular non-glandular trichomes are abundant on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral. In transverse section, the midrib is plano-convex and the petiole is circular, and both of these structures have a single bicollateral vascular bundle. In the stem, the vascular cylinder consists of external phloem, xylem and internal phloem, traversed by narrow rays. Phenolic compounds, druses and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are also present in the leaf and stem.

  2. Atividade inseticida de Eugenia uniflora L. e Melia azedarach L. sobre Atta laevigata Smith

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    Paulo Henrique Jung

    Full Text Available As formigas cortadeiras estão entre os principais insetos pragas das florestas plantadas brasileiras, causando danos econômicos desde a implantação até a sua colheita. Em razão das questões ambientais e da exigência da certificação florestal, métodos alternativos estão sendo desenvolvidos para o controle do gênero Atta. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L. e cinamomo (Melia azedarach L. sobre soldados de Atta laevigatta Smith. Para tal, a partir de folhas, foram obtidos extratos pelos processos de decocção, infusão, maceração, extrato alcoólico e extração de óleo essencial, em diferentes concentrações. O óleo essencial de E. uniflora, nas concentrações de 1,25, 2,5 e 5%, apresentou potencial inseticida sobre soldados de A. laevigata, quando comparado às demais formas de obtenção. O extrato alcoólico de M. azedarach, a 10%, também apresentou potencial inseticida, podendo estes extratos serem testados em práticas de campo.

  3. Augmentation of catecholamine release elicited by an Eugenia punicifolia extract in chromaffin cells

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    Ricardo de Pascual

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth DC., Myrtaceae, are used in Amazon region of Brazil to treat diarrhea and stomach disturbances, and as hypoglycemic medicine. We have recently shown that an aqueous extract of E. punicifolia augmented cholinergic neurotransmission in a rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. In this study, we investigated the effects of an E. punicifolia dichloromethane extract (EPEX in a neuronal model of cholinergic neurotransmission, the bovine adrenal chromaffin cell. EPEX augmented the release of catecholamine triggered by acetylcholine (ACh pulses but did not enhance ACh-evoked inward currents, which were inhibited by 30%. Since EPEX did not cause a blockade of acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase, it seems that EPEX is not directly activating the cholinergic system. EPEX also augmented K+-elicited secretion without enhancing the whole-cell inward calcium current. This novel and potent effect of EPEX in enhancing exocytosis might help to identify the active component responsible for augmenting exocytosis. When elucidated, the molecular structure of this active principle could serve as a template to synthesise novel compounds to regulate the exocytotic release of neurotransmitters.

  4. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future.

  5. ESTUDO FITOQUÍMICO E ANTIMICROBIANO DAS FOLHAS DE EUGENIA ASTRINGENS CAMBESS. (MYRTACEAE

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    Bruna Carminate

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre plantas medicinais simboliza muitas vezes o único recurso terapêutico de muitas comunidades e grupos étnicos. A tradição popular é a origem de valiosos conhecimentos acerca das plantas, muitas das observações populares sobre a utilização de plantas medicinais contribuem, de forma relevante, para a divulgação das virtudes terapêuticas vegetais. A E. astringens é uma espécie que apresenta casca e folhas aromáticas, adstringentes, anti-reumáticas e diuréticas. Apesar do uso medicinal já relatado, não existem muitos estudos quanto a atividade antimicrobiana. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a realização da triagem fitoquímica e a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Eugenia astringens Cambess. Foram encontrados taninos, fenóis, catequinas e ácidos orgânicos e o extrato apresentou atividade antibacteriana para todas as 8 cepas testadas.

  6. Analysis of Flavonoids from Eugenia uniflora Leaves and Its Protective Effect against Murine Sepsis

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    Yanna D. Rattmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora, referred to as Pitanga cherry shrub, is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is cultivated in many countries and it is suitable for the production of juice, frozen pulp, and tea. Besides, it can be used as treatment for inflammatory diseases. We reported that a flavonoid-rich fraction (HE-Bu obtained from leaves decreased the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The oral administration of HE-Bu reduced the late mortality rate by 30%, prevented neutrophil accumulation in lungs, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels, and markedly decreased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by ileum cells. Chemical investigation showed myricetin and quercetin rhamnosides as the major components of this fraction. The results showed that HE-Bu protected mice from sepsis and indicated that this edible plant produces compounds that could be considered as potential adjuvants for sepsis treatment.

  7. Influence of foliar nutrients on phenol levels in leaves of Eugenia uniflora

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    Rosa M. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, leaves contain high amounts of phenolic compounds which are responsible for several pharmacological activities. In order to evaluate the phenolics seasonal variation leaves were analysed on a monthly basis during the period of two years for the contents of hydrolysable tannins, total phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe. Results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature by Principal Component and ClusterAnalysis which allowed four groups to be distinguished with respect to the age of the leaves and the content of some metals. Young leaves were characterised by high levels of Zn and nitrogen whereas old leaves contained high levels of Fe and calcium, and both groups had moderate amounts of phenolics. Adult leaves were divided in two groups and results revealed that while one group had the highest levels of all phenols and lowest amounts of Mn and Cu, the other showed opposite quantities. The Canonical Correlation Analysis confirmed a highly significant negative correlation between phenol contents and Mn and Cu. These facts suggested that flavonoids and tannins production depends of the amounts of foliar nutrients, Cu and Mn in particular, which are cofactors of enzymes involved in phenol degradation and lignin biosynthesis. This knowledge can improve this specie cultivation in order to enhance the phenolic compounds concentration.

  8. Influence of foliar nutrients on phenol levels in leaves of Eugenia uniflora

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    Rosa M. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, leaves contain high amounts of phenolic compounds which are responsible for several pharmacological activities. In order to evaluate the phenolics seasonal variation leaves were analysed on a monthly basis during the period of two years for the contents of hydrolysable tannins, total phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe. Results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature by Principal Component and ClusterAnalysis which allowed four groups to be distinguished with respect to the age of the leaves and the content of some metals. Young leaves were characterised by high levels of Zn and nitrogen whereas old leaves contained high levels of Fe and calcium, and both groups had moderate amounts of phenolics. Adult leaves were divided in two groups and results revealed that while one group had the highest levels of all phenols and lowest amounts of Mn and Cu, the other showed opposite quantities. The Canonical Correlation Analysis confirmed a highly significant negative correlation between phenol contents and Mn and Cu. These facts suggested that flavonoids and tannins production depends of the amounts of foliar nutrients, Cu and Mn in particular, which are cofactors of enzymes involved in phenol degradation and lignin biosynthesis. This knowledge can improve this specie cultivation in order to enhance the phenolic compounds concentration.

  9. Bioactive Formylated Flavonoids from Eugenia rigida: Isolation, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Mohamed A; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Hetta, Mona H; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Mohammed, Rabab; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Coleman, Christina; Fronczek, Frank R; Ferreira, Daneel; Muhammad, Ilias

    2016-09-23

    Two new flavonoids, rac-6-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (1) and 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-3'-methylchalcone (2), together with five known derivatives, rac-8-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (3), 4',6'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-3'-methyldihydrochalcone (4), rac-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methylflavanone (5), 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxy-5'-methyldihydrochalcone (6), and 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (7), were isolated from the leaves of Eugenia rigida. The individual (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of 1 and 3, together with the corresponding formylated flavones 8 (6-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and 9 (8-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavone), as well as 2',4',6'-trihydroxychalcone (10), 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxychalcone (11), and the corresponding 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (7) and 2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (12), were synthesized. The structures of the isolated and synthetic compounds were established via NMR, HRESIMS, and electronic circular dichroism data. In addition, the structures of 3, 5, and 8 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography. The isolated and synthetic flavonoids were evaluated for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against a panel of microorganisms and solid tumor cell lines.

  10. Spray drying of Eugenia dysenterica extract: effects of in-process parameters on product quality

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    Renê O. Couto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 2³ full factorial design was used to assess the impact of spraying air flow rate (30-50 L/min, drying air inlet temperature (90-150 ºC and extract feed rate (4-6 g/min on the quality of Eugenia dysenterica DC., Myrtaceae, spray-dried extracts. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to analyze the significance of the effects of process factors on product quality and to obtain fitted equations to predict dry powder properties. Powder yields were satisfactory, ranging from 34.64 to 63.92%. The dried products showed moisture contents and water activities below 5% and 0.5, respectively. The recuperation ratios of total polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids ranged from 88.66 to 99.07%, 70.38 to 81.87% and 74.51 to 98.68%, respectively. Additionally, in some conditions the parameters related to dry product’s flowability and compressibility varied over a range acceptable for pharmaceutical purposes. RSM proved that studied factors significantly affected most of the quality indicators at different levels. The spray drying technology is an attractive and promising alternative for the development of intermediate phytopharmaceutical products of E. dysenterica.

  11. Identification of Ellagitannins and Flavonoids from Eugenia brasilienses Lam. (Grumixama) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

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    Teixeira, Luciane de Lira; Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto

    2015-06-10

    The grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), also known as Brazilian cherry, is a fruit native to Brazil. This study identified the flavonoids in the flesh and seeds and ellagitannin in the flesh of purple and yellow varieties. The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of these fruits were also evaluated. Anthocyanins and flavonols were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (32-180 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (13-41 mg 100 g(-1) FW), respectively. The major flavonoids identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin aglycone. Furthermore, ellagitannins were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (82-243 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (92 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and seeds (2220-2905 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW). The ellagitannin profiles of both varieties were first characterized in which pedunculagin isomers, strictinin isomers, and ellagic acid galloyl hexoside were the major ellagitannins identified. In summary, both varieties of the grumixama fruit as well as the seeds could be good sources of bioactive compounds, mainly ellagitannins.

  12. Spray drying of Eugenia dysenterica extract: effects of in-process parameters on product quality

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    Renê O. Couto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2³ full factorial design was used to assess the impact of spraying air flow rate (30-50 L/min, drying air inlet temperature (90-150 ºC and extract feed rate (4-6 g/min on the quality of Eugenia dysenterica DC., Myrtaceae, spray-dried extracts. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to analyze the significance of the effects of process factors on product quality and to obtain fitted equations to predict dry powder properties. Powder yields were satisfactory, ranging from 34.64 to 63.92%. The dried products showed moisture contents and water activities below 5% and 0.5, respectively. The recuperation ratios of total polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids ranged from 88.66 to 99.07%, 70.38 to 81.87% and 74.51 to 98.68%, respectively. Additionally, in some conditions the parameters related to dry product’s flowability and compressibility varied over a range acceptable for pharmaceutical purposes. RSM proved that studied factors significantly affected most of the quality indicators at different levels. The spray drying technology is an attractive and promising alternative for the development of intermediate phytopharmaceutical products of E. dysenterica.

  13. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

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    Ravi, Kasiappan; Rajasekaran, Subbaih; Subramanian, Sorimuthu

    2005-09-01

    Abnormalities in lipid profile are one of the most common complications in diabetes mellitus, which is found in about 40% of diabetics. In the present study, anti-hyperlipidemic efficacy of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel (EJs-kernel) was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the efficacy was compared with standard hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide. The effect of oral administration of ethanolic extract of EJs-kernel (100 mg/kg body weight) was examined on the levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids in the plasma, liver and kidney tissues of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight)-induced diabetic rats. The plasma lipoproteins and tissues fatty acid composition were also monitored. STZ-induced diabetic rats, showed significant increase in the levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids which were considerably restored to near normal in EJs-kernel or glibenclamide treated animals. The plasma lipoproteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL-cholesterol) and fatty acid composition were altered in STZ-induced diabetic rats and these levels were also reverted back to near normalcy by EJs-kernel or glibenclamide treatment. It may be concluded that, EJs-kernel possesses hypolipidemic effect, which may be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and triterpenoids in the extract. The hypolipidemic effect mediated by EJs-kernel may also be anticipated to have biological significance and provide a scientific rationale for the use of EJs-kernel as an anti-diabetic plant.

  14. Anti-quorum sensing activity of phenolic extract from Eugenia brasiliensis (Brazilian cherry

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    Adeline Conceição RODRIGUES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of phenolic extracts from grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis, also known as Brazilian cherry, in concentrations that did not interfere with bacterial growth. The pulp phenolic compounds were extracted by using solid phage extraction in a mini-collumn C18 and quantified by spectrophotometry. The anti-quorum sensing activity was evaluated by testing the inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum and by evaluating the swarming motility in Aeromonas hydrophila and Serratia marcescens, both phenotypes regulated by quorum sensing. The phenolic extract strongly inhibited the production of violacein in C. violaceum, reducing its production in comparison with a control with no extract. No inhibition of growth was observed at the concentrations tested for quorum sensing inhibition. Confirming the quorum sensing inhibition phenotype, the extract was also able to inhibit swarming motility in S. marcescens and in A. hydrophila, although in the later the effect was marginal. Overall, these results indicate that phenolic extract from E. brasiliensis presents quorum sensing inhibitory activity most likely due to the presence of fruit phenolics which have been implicated as quorum sensing inhibitors in Gram negative bacteria.

  15. In vitro antibacterial potential of Eugenia jambolana seed extracts against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Pal, Nishith Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2012-06-20

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible in vitro antibacterial potential of extracts of Eugenia jambolana seeds against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. Agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assay methods were used for antibacterial susceptibility testing. Kill-kinetics study was done to know the rate and extent of bacterial killing. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography were performed by colour tests to characterize the putative compounds responsible for this antibacterial activity. Cytotoxic potential was evaluated on human erythrocytes by haemolytic assay method and acute oral toxicity study was done in mice. The plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against all the test isolates. Further, ethyl acetate fraction obtained from fractionation of most active ethanol extract showed maximum antibacterial effect against all the test isolates. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography of ethyl acetate fraction revealed that phenolics were the major active phytoconstituents. Ethyl acetate fraction also demonstrated no haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes and no gross behavioural changes as well as toxic symptoms were observed in mice at recommended dosage level. The results provide justification for the use of E. jambolana in folk medicine to treat various infectious diseases and may contribute to the development of novel antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections caused by these drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A preliminary study of the acaricidal activity of clove oil, Eugenia caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahakittikun, Vanna; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Foongladda, Sooporn; Boitano, John Joseph; Wangapai, Teerapong; Ninsanit, Prapakorn

    2014-03-01

    The search for more eco-friendly acaricides has prompted testing of medicinal plants from botanical sources. To evaluate the eradication of house dust mites (HDM), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, by direct contact using the essential clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus). A pilot study was initiated to determine the killing power of clove oil. Synthetic fibers were immersed in 2% clove oil for 30 min, dried in a hot air oven at 60°C for 2 hrs after which 0.5 gm of HDMs were exposed to these coated fibers placed in the Siriraj Chamber (SC). Two additional long-term methods were employed. Ten mites were placed in the SC and 10 μl of clove oil was pipetted or sprayed onto them. These latter two procedures were each carried out for 3 consecutive days at 0, 1, 3 and 6 months. The solutions antimicrobial and antifungal properties were evaluated by exposing common bacteria and fungi to sterile filter disks impregnated with the mixture, and after overnight incubation, the disc diffusion method on nutrient agar was used. Ethyl alcohol served as the placebo. 99% and 81%, respectively, while the placebo mortality was Clove oil is a promising agent for killing dust mites with a potential use in dust-mite laden mattresses. Spraying diminishes in efficiency after 3 months.

  17. Bioconversion of herbal industry waste into vermicompost using an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

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    Kumari, Mamta; Kumar, Sudhir; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Ravikanth, K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bioconversion of industrial herbal waste to vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermibeds were made using a mixture of herbal waste and cowdung (1 : 1) in comparison with the use of cowdung alone as substrate, resulting in vermicomposts 1 and 2, respectively. Different parameters were studied and it was observed that the nutrient profile of vermicompost 1 strongly influenced the growth of pea (Pisum sativum) and marigold plant (Tagetus erectus). The dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots, number of flowers, total yield in terms of fruit showed significant increase with vermicompost 1. Furthermore, vermicompost 1 (herbal waste and cow dung as substrate) resulted in a significant reduction in TOC by 58% in comparison with vermicompost 2 (cowdung as substrate). The C : N ratio was less than 20 in vermicompost 1 as well as in vermicompost 2, which indicated an advanced degree of stabilization and mineralization. The ability of earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermibed fed with the herbal waste indicates the sustainability and efficiency of a heterogeneous kind of organic waste. The results of the study suggested that bulk industrial herbal waste can be utilized as a substrate for vermicomposting and this can be proposed as an alternative for waste disposal in a clean green manner, promoting the concept of organic farming.

  18. Dr Eugenia Rose Aylmer Cooper (1898-1991): Manchester's renowned female anatomist and neurohistologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeve, David R

    2016-11-01

    Having excelled in histology, Dr Eugenia Cooper, following graduation in medicine in Manchester, embarked on a career spanning 44 years in anatomy and histology at Manchester University. Her inimitable character was readily remembered by those she had taught. She was the first female graduate to gain an MD with gold medal for her thesis on the histology of the endocrine organs. However, her main study was the development of the human brainstem from the early weeks of gestation, which remains the basis for anatomical understanding today. More controversial was her theory on circulation and absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid. On retiring as Reader in Histology, she expressed disappointment at not being appointed a professor, which she considered was due to her gender. Possibly to compensate for this, she had studied law as an additional interest. She continued in research for a further 10 years in reproductive pharmacology. After retirement she donated her medals to the University, three to be awarded in medicine and histology, which have now lapsed, but the medals in computer science and music continue to be important rewards. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Electrolytic treatment and biosurfactants applied to the conservation of Eugenia uniflora fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme DILARRI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microorganisms are the primary responsible for food poisoning and food spoilage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different fruit washing methods with tap water, electrolyzed water and rhamnolipids solution produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, in order to inhibit microbial growth. The tested organism was Eugenia uniflora. The fruits were washed and periodically inoculated into culture media to evaluate and count the colonies on the fruit surface. It was also observed the deterioration level of the fruits after each treatment. The results showed that treatment with rhamnolipids were the most efficient, inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. The electrolyzed water proved to be very efficient in bacterial inhibition at the initial time, but in the final time it did not present any inhibitory effect. The electrolyzed water was also not effective in eliminating fungus. Washing with tap water was the less efficient treatment of all. The only treatment that showed an increased durability has been with rhamnolipids, increasing shelf life by up to two days. Thus rhamnolipids are the most recommended method for fruits sanitation.

  20. In-vitro evaluation of anti-trichomonal activities of Eugenia uniflora leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibikunle, Gabriel Femi; Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Famuyiwa, Funmilayo Gladys; Aladesanmi, Adetunji Joseph; Adewunmi, Clement Oladapo

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, used ethnomedically in some tropical countries as an anti-infective, has shown anti-malarial and anti-trypanocidal activities. Therefore using bioactivity guided fractionation, anti-trichomonal activity of E. uniflora leaf was investigated. Anti-trichomonal activities of leaf methanol extract and its fractions against Trichomonas gallinae as well as their cytotoxicities using an in vitro haemaglutination assay were determined. Anti-trichomonacidal activities of the extract improved on purification up to a stage. Subfractions E(2-5) had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 4.77 - 5.28, 18.49 - 25.00 and 4.53 - 5.18, 18.32 - 19.07 µg/ml at 24 and 48 hrs, respectively that were better than those of metronidazole. Further purification of E(2-5) led to loss of activity suggesting that the active components were probably working synergistically and additively. Demonstration of low haemaglutination titre values of 0.00 - 5.33 by methanolic extract and its partition fractions suggested their low toxicity profile. The established safety of the leaf indicated that its anti-trichomonal activity was not due to non-specific cytotoxicity, hence could be used in ethnomedicine as an anti-trichomonal agent.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Physiological performance of cagaita seeds (Eugenia dysenterica DC. Subjected to drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Abadia da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the imbibition curve and evaluate the effects of ‘reducing the water content of cagaita seeds (Eugenia dysenterica DC., using the radiographic image analysis technique. To this end, three assays were carried out: seed imbibition curve and root protrusion were determined in assay 1. Seeds in silica gel were oven dried for to 72 h and were then analyzed for water content and vigor in assay 2. Seeds were dried up to certain levels of the water content and were evaluated by radiographic imaging analysis in assay 3. A rapid mass gain was observed in the first 60 imbibition hours and the root protrusion reached 94.4% after 192 imbibition hours. Cagaita seeds did not tolerate drying periods longer than 24 h, which corroborates the recalcitrant behavior of the seeds of these species. The analysis of the radiographic image obtained by an X-ray test allowed the establishment of a direct relation between the increased free space area within the seed and the decrease in the seedling emergence. The drying process altered the internal morphology of the seed and such changes directly influenced the development of the seedlings.

  3. In Vivo Effects of Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica, DC. Leaf Extracts on Diarrhea Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia dysenterica is a plant typically found in the Cerrado biome and commonly used in popular medicine due to its pharmacological properties, which include antidiarrheal, skin healing, and antimicrobial activities. The effects of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract and infusion of E. dysenterica leaves on intestinal motility and antidiarrheal activity were evaluated using ricin oil-induced diarrhea in rats. At doses of 400 and 800 mg⋅Kg−1, the ethanolic extract decreased intestinal motility while the other extracts showed no significant effects. Moreover, serum levels of chloride, magnesium, and phosphorus were also measured in rats. Histopathologic and enzymatic analyses were also performed to investigate any toxic effect. Animals treated with infusion, ethanolic extract, ricin oil, and loperamide presented morphological alterations in the small intestine, such as mucosa lesion, epithelial layer damage, and partial loss and/or morphological change of villi. Furthermore, the liver showed congestion and hydropic degeneration. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase increased significantly in all treatments, but none rose above reference values. In summary, our results suggest that compounds present in leaves of E. dysenterica may have therapeutic benefits on recovery from diarrhea despite their toxic effects.

  4. Variations in desiccation tolerance in seeds of Eugenia pyriformis: dispersal at different stages of maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Vicente Lamarca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eugenia pyriformis Cambess., known locally as uvaieira, a species of fruit-bearing tree with both pharmacological and gastronomic potential, has seeds which are sensitive to desiccation. The aim of this study was to analyse whether the degree of tolerance to desiccation of uvaieira seeds depends on the stage of maturation of the seeds at shedding. This, in turn, depends on the environmental conditions in which the seeds develop, including the accumulation of degree-days and rainfall in the period. Seeds were collected from the ripe fruit of parent plants located in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, submitted to drying and analysed for water content and germination. A completely randomised design was used in a 20 x 3 factorial scheme (source of material x level of drying. The degree of desiccation tolerance differs between region and period of collection, even for the same parent plant when the seeds are collected in different years. The water and thermal conditions of the environment during seed development modify the maturation cycle, the physiological quality and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In uvaieira seeds, desiccation tolerance depends on the physiological maturity of the seeds at the time of dispersal, which is associated with the environmental conditions.

  5. In Vivo Effects of Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica, DC.) Leaf Extracts on Diarrhea Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T. B.; Silva, O. N.; Silva, L. P.; Rocha, T. L.; Grossi-de-Sá, M. F.; Franco, O. L.; Leonardecz, E.

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia dysenterica is a plant typically found in the Cerrado biome and commonly used in popular medicine due to its pharmacological properties, which include antidiarrheal, skin healing, and antimicrobial activities. The effects of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract and infusion of E. dysenterica leaves on intestinal motility and antidiarrheal activity were evaluated using ricin oil-induced diarrhea in rats. At doses of 400 and 800 mg·Kg−1, the ethanolic extract decreased intestinal motility while the other extracts showed no significant effects. Moreover, serum levels of chloride, magnesium, and phosphorus were also measured in rats. Histopathologic and enzymatic analyses were also performed to investigate any toxic effect. Animals treated with infusion, ethanolic extract, ricin oil, and loperamide presented morphological alterations in the small intestine, such as mucosa lesion, epithelial layer damage, and partial loss and/or morphological change of villi. Furthermore, the liver showed congestion and hydropic degeneration. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase increased significantly in all treatments, but none rose above reference values. In summary, our results suggest that compounds present in leaves of E. dysenterica may have therapeutic benefits on recovery from diarrhea despite their toxic effects. PMID:20953423

  6. Simultaneous observations of the phase-locked 2 day wave at Adelaide, Cerro Pachon, and Darwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Gelinas, L. J.; MacKinnon, A.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Franke, S. J.; Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.

    2015-03-01

    The Southern Hemisphere summer 2 day wave (TDW) is the most dramatic large-scale event of the upper mesosphere. The winds accelerate over ~1 week, may attain > 70 m/s, and are often accompanied by a near disappearance of the diurnal tide and stabilization of the period close to 48 h. We denote this as the phase-locked 2 day wave (PL/TDW). We have examined airglow and meteor radar (MR) wind data from the Andes Lidar Observatory (Cerro Pachon, Chile:30°S, 289.3°E), MR data from Darwin (12.5°S, 131°E) and airglow and medium frequency radar data from the University of Adelaide (34.7°S, 138.6°E) for the behavior of the TDW during the austral summers of 2010, 2012, and 2013. The Cerro Pachon and Adelaide sites are located at similar latitudes separated in longitude by about 120°. We find a remarkable coincidence between the TDW oscillations at Chile and Adelaide for the period January-February 2010. The oscillations are nearly in phase in terms of local time and the minima and maxima repeat at nearly the same local time from cycle to cycle consistent with a phase-locked wave number 3 TDW. Data for this and other years (including Darwin) show that the amplitude of the diurnal tide decreases when the TDW is largest and that this occurs when the period is close to 48 h. These observations support the proposal that the PL/TDW is a subharmonic parametric instability wherein the diurnal tide transfers energy to a TDW that is resonant at nearly 48 h.

  7. La necrópolis medieval del Cerro de la Horca de Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Taboada, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological excavation of part of a medieval necropolis at the Cerro de la Horca (Toledo has provided new information regarding burial traditions in Toledo. One formal aspect is common to the broad range of graves that have been brought to light, namely the pit that was dug for the burial, being of considerable depth in a number of cases. Because little is known of the funerary practices in Toledo during the Middle Ages and hardly any objects have been recovered in the excavation, it is difficult to identify the religious community to which it belonged. Whereas the location of Muslim and Christian cemeteries have been known through documentary and archaeological sources, only popular traditions quoted so far the Jewish necropolis, its location remaining thus a mystery.

    La excavación arqueológica desarrollada en un sector del Cerro de La Horca ha permitido conocer aspectos inéditos del ritual de enterramiento medieval en Toledo. Se ha documentado una amplia tipología de tumbas con un único elemento constructivo común para todas ellas, la excavación previa de una fosa que, en numerosos casos, alcanza gran profundidad. El desconocimiento sobre el mundo funerario medieval toledano y la falta de materiales arqueológicos representativos en esta necrópolis han obligado a reflexionar sobre la comunidad religiosa a la que pertenecen estos enterramientos. Por fuentes históricas y excavaciones previas, conocemos la localización de necrópolis musulmanas y cristianas. La localización de la(s judía(s había sido, al menos hasta ahora, una incógnita.

  8. Prospecção da atividade anti-inflamatória de Eugenia leitonii D. Legrand, uma fruta nativa Brasileira : Prospection of the anti-inflamatory activity of Eugenia leitonii D. Legrand, a Brazilian native fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Josy Goldoni Lazarini

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: Na busca por substâncias alternativas com atividade biológica, as espécies frutíferas nativas do Brasil demonstram potencial funcional, devido principalmente à presença de compostos fenólicos como flavonoides e antocianinas que apresentam em sua composição. Estudos realizados pelo nosso grupo de pesquisa relataram partes (semente, folha e polpa) das espécies de Eugenia (E. brasiliensis, E. uniflora, E. leitonii e E. myrcianthes) exibiram atividades antioxidante e anti-inflamatória. Em...

  9. Frugivoria por aves em Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) em ambientes antropizados na região de Sorocaba–SP. Frugivory by birds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) at anthropic environment in Sorocaba–SP region

    OpenAIRE

    Nayara Francine LAMBERTI; Regina Yuri Hashimoto MIURA; Bruna Gonçalves da SILVA

    2012-01-01

    As aves, assim como toda fauna consumidora de frutos possuem grande importância no processo de dispersão de sementes. O declínio de suas populações pode gerar consequências para a reprodução e para o crescimento populacional dessas plantas zoocóricas, se a dispersão não for adequada ou se a quantidade de sementes dispersas for insuficiente. A espécie Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae), nativa do Brasil, é popularmente conhecida como pitangueira. Possui frutos globosos e sulcados, apresentando cores...

  10. Seismic activity at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Area (Mexico) from August 1994 to December 1995, and its relationship with tectonics and fluid exploitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabriol, H; Munguía, L

    1997-01-01

    A continuous monitoring of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was carried out from August 1994 to December 1995 to investigate the seismicity of tectonic origin and the seismicity triggered by exploitation activities...

  11. María Eugenia Dengo Obregón: mujer de lectura, educación y cultura...

    OpenAIRE

    Jóse Pablo Eduarte Salazar

    2008-01-01

    El artículo es una semblanza de la Licenciada María Eugenia Dengo Obregón viuda de Vargas que recorre la vida y las obras de esta dama en su faceta personal, profesional, pública y más recien-temente, como exponente de la cultura costarricense. Este documento es un sentido homenaje a la figura de esta incansable mujer, que con su lectura y escritura ha logrado dejar un legado en la educación costarri-cense, como profesora, decana, vicerrectora, ministra y ex ministra de educación pública. La ...

  12. The determination of antioxidant activity of Brazil-cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves extract using FRAP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Maulida, Ika Rahma; Muhaimin

    2017-12-01

    Brazil-cherry leaves (Eugenia uniflora L.) have antioxidant activity because they contain phenolic and flavonoids compounds. The aim of the study was to obtain antioxidant activity using FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) method. Brazil-cherry leaves were extracted using soxhlet method by ethanol 70%. The free radical activity absorbance was measured with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 711 nm and the total value of antioxidant activity was calculated based on the data absorbance. The results showed that Brazil-cherry leaves have the antioxidant activity with the value 2.493mgAAE/g extract.

  13. Eugenia stipitata McVaugh (Myrtaceae: food resource for frugivorous flies in the state of Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Sabrine Martins Souza-Adaime

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the infestation of fruits of Eugenia stipitata McVaugh (Myrtaceae by fruit flies in the state of Amapá, Brazil. There was 95% infestation of the green and ripe fruits. However, infestation (puparia/fruit was higher in ripe fruits than green fruits. Four species of Tephritidae and four species of Lonchaeidae were obtained. Bactrocera carambolae (Tephritidae predominated in ripe fruits. There was no difference in infestation by Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae between green and ripe fruits.

  14. Corrosion in pipelines and well casings at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Corrosion en tuberias de linea y de revestimiento de pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A.; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Raygoza Flores, Joaquin; Mora Perez, Othon [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: carlos.miranda02@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    In the area called Poligono Hidalgo, inside the Cerro Prieto IV zone in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, corrosion has occurred in the last few years on well casings and pipelines used for geothermal fluids. Corrosion test results are presented here for pipes, type API L-80 and ASTM A-53 grade B, which were subjected to condensate from wells 403 and 424. These wells have thrown corroded material from their respective casings. With these data we pinpoint corrosive conditions in this field area and determine which pipes are adequate to case wells in similar chemical, production conditions to minimize adverse effects and extend the life of the well, allowing more efficient exploitation of the deepest production zones in the reservoir. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, dentro del area del Poligono Hidalgo en el sector conocido como Cerro Prieto IV, algunos pozos han presentado en los ultimos anos desgastes en sus tuberias de revestimiento y en las tuberias de linea para el transporte del fluido geotermico. Se presentan resultados de pruebas de corrosion con tuberias tipo API L-80 y ASTM A-53 grado B al ser sometidas al condensado de los pozos 403 y 424, los cuales han estado arrojando material de sus respectivas tuberias de revestimiento. Con estos datos se pretende conocer las condiciones corrosivas de esa zona del campo y determinar cual seria la tuberia ideal a utilizar en pozos con condiciones quimicas de produccion semejantes a fin de minimizar este efecto adverso y prolongar la vida de los pozos, a la vez que se permita la explotacion eficiente de las zonas productoras mas profundas del yacimiento.

  15. Late-stage magmatic to deuteric/metasomatic accessory minerals from the Cerro Boggiani agpaitic complex (Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Renzulli, Alberto; Ridolfi, Filippo; Enrich, Gaston E. R.; Gomes, Celso B.; De Min, Angelo; Azzone, Rogério G.; Ruberti, Excelso

    2016-11-01

    This work describes rare accessory minerals in volcanic and subvolcanic silica-undersaturated peralkaline and agpaitic rocks from the Permo-Triassic Cerro Boggiani complex (Eastern Paraguay) in the Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province. These accessory phases consist of various minerals including Th-U oxides/silicates, Nb-oxide, REE-Sr-Ba bearing carbonates-fluorcarbonates-phosphates-silicates and Zr-Na rich silicates. They form a late-stage magmatic to deuteric/metasomatic assemblage in agpaitic nepheline syenites and phonolite dykes/lava flows made of sodalite, analcime, albite, fluorite, calcite, ilmenite-pyrophanite, titanite and zircon. It is inferred that carbonatitic fluids rich in F, Na and REE percolated into the subvolcanic system and metasomatically interacted with the Cerro Boggiani peralkaline and agpaitic silicate melts at the thermal boundary layers of the magma chamber, during and shortly after their late-stage magmatic crystallization and hydrothermal deuteric alteration.

  16. Relationshipe Between Self-potential Anomalies and Hydraulic Flow In A Geothermal System: Application To Cerro-prieto, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, G.; Revil, A.; Pessel, M.

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is located in the alluvial plain of the Mexicali Valley, northern Baja California, Mexico, at about 35 km southeast of the city of Mexicali. The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is one of several high temperature water-dominated geothermal fields within the Salton Trough. We analyze here the self-potential distri- bution at the ground surface in order to determine the pattern of fluid flow in te sub- surface of this geothermal field. Various methods of analysis of self-potential anoma- lies are employed to reach this purpose. We use density probability tomography of monopolar and dipolar electrical sources and an Euler-type analysis. The hydraulic flow pattern found in this geothermal field is in agreement with that detemined from the heat flux inside the structure.

  17. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Edwards, Danielle L; Chiari, Ylenia; Garrick, Ryan C; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Glaberman, Scott; Tapia, Washington; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  18. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Poulakakis

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp. is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  19. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-10-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast cells. Protective ability of flavonoid-enriched (FE) fraction of clove was studied against UV-B induced cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 antioxidant response element (Nrf2 ARE) pathway. FE fraction showed a significant antioxidant potential. Pretreatment of cells with FE fraction (10-40 μg/ml) reversed the effects of UV-B induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The present study demonstrated for the first time that the FE fraction from clove could confer UV-B protection probably through the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which included the down-regulation of Nrf2 and HO-1. These findings suggested that the flavonoids from clove could potentially be considered as UV-B protectants and can be explored further for its topical application to the area of the skin requiring protection. Pretreatment of human dermal fibroblast with flavonoid-enriched fraction of Eugenia caryophylata attenuated effects of ultraviolet-B radiationsIt also conferred protection through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response pathway and increased tolerance of cells against oxidative stressFlavonoid-enriched fraction can be explored further for topical application to the skin as a

  20. Quorum Quenching and Microbial Control through Phenolic Extract of Eugenia Uniflora Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Adeline Conceição; Zola, Flávia Guimarães; Ávila Oliveira, Brígida D'; Sacramento, Nayara Thais Barbosa; da Silva, Elis Regina; Bertoldi, Michele Corrêa; Taylor, Jason Guy; Pinto, Uelinton Manoel

    2016-10-01

    We describe the characterization of the centesimal composition, mineral and phenolic content of Eugenia uniflora fruit and the determination of the antioxidant, antimicrobial and quorum quenching activities of the pulp phenolic extract. Centesimal composition was determined according to standard methods; trace elements were measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The phenolic compounds were extracted by solid-phase chromatography and quantified by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 3 different methods. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against a panel of foodborne microorganisms and antiquorum sensing activity in Chromobacterium violaceum was performed by measuring inhibition of quorum sensing dependent violacein production. The centesimal composition (per 100 g of pulp) was as follows: protein 3.68 ± 0.21 g, lipids 0.02 ± 0.03 g, carbohydrates 10.31 g and fiber 2.06 g. Trace elements (mg/g of pulp) were determined as: K 0.90, Ca 3.36, Fe 0.60, Zn 0.17, Cl 0.56, Cr 0.06, Ni 0.04, and Cu 0.07. The pulp is a source of phenolic compounds and presents antioxidant activity similar to other berries. The fruit phenolic extract inhibited all tested bacteria. We also found that the fruit phenolic extract at low subinhibitory concentrations inhibited up to 96% of violacein production in C. violaceum, likely due to the fruit's phenolic content. This study shows the contribution of E. uniflora phenolic compounds to the antioxidant, antimicrobial and the newly discovered quorum quenching activity, all of which could be used by the food and pharmaceutical industries to develop new functional products. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Comparison of the interfacial properties of Eugenia uniflora and Triticum vulgaris lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cesar A S; Oliveira, Maria D L; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S; Correia, Maria T S; de Melo, Celso P

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the interfacial and dielectric properties of EuniSL, a recently purified lectin obtained from seeds of Eugenia uniflora (EuniSL), through surface pressure (Pi) and surface potential (DeltaV) measurements of its floating monolayers at the 2.0

  2. Eugenia uniflora Dentifrice for Treating Gingivitis in Children: Antibacterial Assay and Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovito, Vanessa de Carvalho; Freires, Irlan Almeida; Ferreira, Danilo Augusto de Holanda; Paulo, Marçal de Queiroz; Castro, Ricardo Dias de

    2016-01-01

    School-age children are frequently at high risk for the onset of biofilm-dependent conditions, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing Eugenia uniflora Linn. (Surinam cherry) extract versus a triclosan-based comparator in treating gingivitis in children aged 10-12 years. The in vitro antibacterial potential of the dentifrice was tested against oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei). Then a phase-II clinical trial was conducted with 50 subjects aged 10-12 years, with clinical signs of gingivitis. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=25) and control group (n=25), in which participants used the experimental dentifrice and a triclosan-based fluoridated dentifrice (Colgate Total 12(r)), respectively. Clinical examinations assessed the presence of gingivitis (primary outcome) and biofilm accumulation (secondary outcome) using the Gingival-Bleeding Index (GBI) and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and after seven days of tooth brushing 3x/day. The data were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test (GBI) and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney (OHI-S), with p≤0.05. The experimental dentifrice showed efficient antibacterial activity in vitro. In the clinical trial, a significant reduction in gingival bleeding was observed in both experimental and control groups (puniflora dentifrice showed anti-gingivitis properties in children aged 10-12 years. Thus, it may be a potentially efficient and safe product to be used alternatively in preventive dental practice.

  3. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DE Eugenia uniflora L. (MYRTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonias Almeida Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora, pertencente à família Myrtaceae, é uma espécie arbórea, nativa do Bioma Mata Atlântica e conhecida no Brasil como pitangueira. É uma planta de frutos comestíveis, o chá das folhas tem aplicação na medicina popular como hipotensor, antigota, estomáquico e hipoglicemiante. Explorada pelas indústrias alimentícias, cosméticas e medicinais, é alvo de contínuos estudos em relação à composição química do óleo essencial. Este trabalho é uma prospecção e tem como objetivos mapear as pesquisas patenteadas referentes à pitangueira. A prospecção foi realizada com base nos pedidos de patentes depositadas no European Patent Office (EPO, na World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, no United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO e no Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil (INPI com coleta de dados nos meses de agosto e setembro de 2015. USPTO foi a base de dados que apresentou o maior número de pedidos patentes e o INPI apresentou um número pouco expressivo envolvendo a E. uniflora. No período de 2006 a 2015 observou-se, de modo geral, um aumento no número de pedido de patentes, verificou-se ainda que os Estados Unidos é o maior detentor de patentes, com destaque para as seções A (Necessidades Humanas e C (Química; Metalurgia da classificação internacional de patentes.

  4. Tratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria da Silva Mendes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata é uma fruteira nativa com grande potencial agroindustrial. Suas sementes são intolerantes ao dessecamento e apresentam dormência, o que dificulta sua propagação. O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as características de germinação das sementes de araçá-boi submetidas a diferentes tratamentos pré-germinativos: retirada parcial do tegumento, lixiviação e fracionamento. A germinação das sementes intactas e com retirada parcial do tegumento foi realizada em dois ambientes: casa de vegetação e viveiro telado com sombrite de 50%. Para a lixiviação, as sementes foram colocadas em balde e submetidas à lixiviação, em água corrente, por até 90 dias, com intervalos de 10 dias. O fracionamento das sementes foi realizado de acordo com a posição da zona meristemática de protrusão da raiz e parte aérea (fracionamento transversal e longitudinal. A retirada parcial do tegumento das sementes de araçá-boi diminui o tempo médio de germinação de 91 para 48 dias, com 100% de emergência. As sementes de araçá-boi mantidas submersas em água corrente por até 50 dias mantêm a viabilidade e o vigor. As frações de sementes que apresentam a protuberância meristemática formam plântulas normais, com as mesmas características de germinação das sementes intactas, porém os diferentes tipos de fracionamento não aceleraram nem uniformizaram a germinação das sementes.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-12-01

    Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. [Myrtaceae]) essential oil (CEO) has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, few studies have focused on its topical use. We investigated the biological activity of a commercially available CEO in a human skin disease model. We evaluated the effect of CEO on 17 protein biomarkers that play critical roles in inflammation and tissue remodelling in a validated human dermal fibroblast system, which was designed to model chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Four concentrations of CEO (0.011, 0.0037, 0.0012, and 0.00041%, v/v) were studied. The effect of 0.011% CEO on genome-wide gene expression was also evaluated. CEO at a concentration of 0.011% showed robust antiproliferative effects on human dermal fibroblasts. It significantly inhibited the increased production of several proinflammatory biomarkers such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by γ interferon (MIG). CEO also significantly inhibited tissue remodelling protein molecules, namely, collagen-I, collagen-III, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2). Furthermore, it significantly modulated global gene expression and altered signalling pathways critical for inflammation, tissue remodelling, and cancer signalling processes. CEO significantly inhibited VCAM-1 and collagen III at both protein and gene expression levels. This study provides important evidence of CEO-induced anti-inflammatory and tissue remodelling activity in human dermal fibroblasts. This study also supports the anticancer properties of CEO and its major active component eugenol.

  6. A regenerative route for Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae through in vitro germination and micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Diniz da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora is a tree species native from Central and South America, largely employed in the popular medicine, in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries and also consumed in natura. Aiming to provide plant material with high sanity and genetic uniformity for the establishment of commercial plantations, we developed a protocol for seeds disinfestation, in vitro germination and in vitro propagation of this species through organogenesis. Fruits of E. uniflora were obtained from wild trees growing in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil. Seeds were disinfested using ethanol 70% (10 min and NaOCl 1.25% (10 or 25 min. Shoot apexes and nodal segments of non-contaminated plantlets were cultivated in verification medium AS30 during 20 days, posteriorly in ½MS medium supplemented with sucrose, IBA and BAP during 45 days and acclimatized in greenhouse. Disinfesting seeds with ethanol 70% (10 min and NaOCl 1.25% (25 min allowed germination with significantly lower contamination (2.0% and production of healthy explants for the micropropagation. No difference concerning size and contamination was observed for the propagation using shoot apexes or nodal segments as explant. Acclimatized plants revealed normal phenotype and healthy appearance. This regenerative route can be applied for mass clonal propagation from seeds of cross-pollinated or self-pollinated selected trees aiming the establishment of commercial plantations of E. uniflora and other Myrtaceae species.

  7. Oxygen isotope exchange in rocks and minerals from the Cerro Prieto geothermal system: Indicators of temperature distribution and fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.E.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions have been measured in drill cuttings and core samples from more than 40 wells ranging in depth to more than 3.5 km in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Profiles of isotopic ratios versus sampling depths provide information on the three-dimensional distribution of temperature and fluid flow. These parameters also indicate variations in the history of hydrothermal processes in different areas of the geothermal field.

  8. ANALYSIS OF RECHARGE COOLDOWN AT THE WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CERRO PRIETO I GEOTHERMAL FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Lam, S.; Hunsbedt, A.; Esquer, C.; Marquez, R.; Hernandez, L. Cobo, J.

    1985-01-22

    Extensive study of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field has provided much geologic and thermodynamic data of its structurally-complex, liquid-dominated reservoir. Several of the studies investigated the resource characteristics of fluid and energy flow. An early report by Mercado (1975) showed that the heat source for the part of the reservoir under development, now called Cerro Prieto I (CPI), originated in the eastern part of the field. Subsequent studies confirmed the flow of hot water from the east. A summary of several experimental and numerical studies of fluid and energy transport in the field was given by Lippmann and Bodvarsson (1983). The hydrogeologic model of Halfman et al. (1982) shows hot-water flow from the east divided into a shallow (alpha) aquifer at about 120Om and a deeper (beta) aquifer at about 170Om depth. A cross section along an east-west direction shows a central upflow to the two aquifers and uncertain geology beyond the western border of the field near well M-9. It also shows a fault dividing the line of border wells at M-29 from the inner wells at M-25 to the east. The hydrogeology of the field was described by Sanchez and de la Pena (1981) as an alluvial unit from the surface to about 700 m over the production zone and a shale-sandstone unit comprising an upper, shallow (alpha) aquifer bounded below by a basement horst overlying a deeper (beta) aquifer. To date, much of the cumulative production at Cerro Prieto I has been from the alpha aquifer. Piezometric level measurements over the first 5 years of operation showed a decline in the western zone beyond the production wells. Over the 10-year period of continuous production, a significant temperature decline has been observed along the westernmost line of wells. Several investigations of the recharge characteristics of the field have been reported. Mercado (1975) and Elders et al. (1984) indicated a flow of cold groundwater from the east. Mercado also noted that cold water was entering

  9. Efficient, highly enantioselective synthesis of selina-1,3, 7(11)-trien-8-one, a major component of the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, A; Patin, A; Greene, A E

    2000-09-01

    The first synthesis of selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (1), a major constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, has been accomplished, with excellent stereo- and regiocontrol, in eight steps and in 12% overall yield from the known octalone derivative 2a.

  10. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia – IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Snow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen new endemic species of the genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae are proposed from Madagascar, including: E. andapae N. Snow, E. barriei N. Snow, E. bemangidiensis N. Snow, E. calciscopulorum N. Snow, E. delicatissima N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson, E. echinulata N. Snow, E. gandhii N. Snow, E. hazonjia N. Snow, E. iantarensis N. Snow, E. malcomberi N. Snow, E. manomboensis N. Snow, E. obovatifolia N. Snow, E. ranomafana N. Snow & D. Turk, E. ravelonarivoi N. Snow & Callm., E. razakamalalae N. Snow & Callm., E. tiampoka N. Snow & Callm., and E. wilsoniana N. Snow, and one new combination, Eugenia richardii (Blume N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson is provided. Detailed descriptions, information on distribution and ecology, distribution maps, vernacular names (where known, digital images of types, comparisons to morphologically similar species. Preliminary assessment of IUCN risk of extinction and conservation recommendations are provided, including Vulnerable (4 species, Endangered (2 species, and Critically Endangered (4 species. Lectotpyes are designated for Eugenia hovarum H. Perrier, Eugenia nompa H. Perrier, and E. scottii H. Perrier respectively.

  11. Dimensión sociopolítica y religiosa de la Capacocha del Cerro Aconcagua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available DIMENTION SOCIO-POLITIQUE ET RELIGIEUSE DE LA CAPACOCHA DE L'ACONCAGUA. Sur un contrefort de l’Aconcagua un groupe d’andinistes a trouvé une sépulture ayant les caractéristiques d’une capacocha. Dans cet essai nous étudierons et commenterons quelques éléments qui la composent, spécialement des petites figures en métal et mullu avec leurs tenues, en prenant comme référence les informations coloniales et les données de l’archéologie. Parmi les sujets traités nous trouverons : la présence de Huayna Capac au Chili, l’alliance entre Chinchaysuyu et Collasuyu sous la domination inca, les chemins rituels, l’oracle et le maintien du souvenir de l’ancien dieu Con. En un contrafuerte del cerro Aconcagua, un grupo de andinistas encontró un entierro que reúne las condiciones que lo definen como una capacocha. En este ensayo se estudian y comentan algunos de los elementos que la componen -especialmente las figuritas de metal y mullu con sus atuendos- tomando como referencia las noticias coloniales y los datos arqueológicos. Entre los temas tratados tenemos: la presencia de Huayna Capac en Chile la alianza entre Chinchaysuyu y Collasuyu bajo el dominio incaico los caminos rituales el oráculo y la supervivencia del recuerdo del antiguo dios Con. SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS DIMENSION OF THE CAPACOCHA OF THE CERRO ACONCAGUA. In a secondary mountain range of the Aconcagua Mt., a group of mountain-climbers found an interment possessing the attributes of a capacocha. In this essay some of the elements composing it namely the small metal and mullu figures with their garments, drawing on colonial documents and archaeological data, are studied and commented upon. Among the subjects considered the following: the presence of Huayna Capac in Chile, the coalition between Chinchaysuyu and Collasuyu under the Inca empire, the ritual roads, the oracle and the survival of the memories of the ancient god Con.

  12. NATUREZA HUMANA VERSUS APERFEIÇOAMENTO? UMA CRÍTICA AOS ARGUMENTOS DE HABERMAS CONTRA A EUGENIA POSITIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Dias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é criticar os argumentos bioconservadores de Jürgen Habermas contra a eugenia positiva (aperfeiçoamento humano. Em suma, ele sustenta a tese de que a natureza humana seria fundamento das ideias centrais que consubstanciariam a correta compreensão normativa das relações humanas. Assim, para ele, a biotecnociência deveria restringir-se à esfera da eugenia negativa (terapia, apresentando, contudo, argumentos que nos parecem amplamente questionáveis. Anteriormente, todavia, abordamos o debate em torno da noção de pós-humanidade, uma vez que o estágio pós-humano é considerado como uma consequência incontornável das biotécnicas de aperfeiçoamento humano, perfazendo um dos pontos fulcrais da discórdia dos bioconservadores com os transumanistas. Após isto, então, abordamos a perspectiva habermasiana, a fim de mostrar seus problemas.

  13. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  14. Numerical Studies of the Heat and Mass Transport in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M. J.; Bodavarsson, G. S.

    1983-06-01

    Numerical simulation techniques are employed in studies of the natural flow of heat and mass through the Cerro Prieto reservoir, Mexico and of the effects of exploitation on the field's behavior. The reservoir model is a two-dimensional vertical east to west-southwest cross section, which is based on a recent hydrogeologic model of this geothermal system. The numerical code MULKOM is used in the simulation studies. The steady state pressure and temperature distributions are computed and compared against observed preproduction pressures and temperatures; a reasonable match is obtained. A natural hot water recharge rate of about 1×10-2 kg/s per meter of field length (measured in a north-south direction) is obtained. The model is then used to simulate the behavior of the field during the 1973-1978 production period. The response of the model to fluid extraction agrees to what has been observed in the field or postulated by other authors. There is a decrease in temperatures and pressures in the produced region. No extensive two-phase zone develops in the reservoir because of the strong fluid recharge. Most of the fluid recharging the system comes from colder regions located above and west of the produced reservoir.

  15. Intersecting faults and sandstone stratigraphy at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonder Haar, S.; Howard, J.H.

    1980-02-01

    The northwest-southeast trending Cerro Prieto fault is part of a major regional lineament that extends into Sonaro and has characteristics of both a wrench fault and an oceanic transform fault. The distribution of lithologies and temperature within the field was studied by comparing data from well cuttings, cores, well logs, and geochemical analyses. Across the earliest developed portion of the field, in particular along a 1.25-km northeast-southwest section from well M-9 to M-10, interesting correlations emerge that indicate a relationship among lithology, microfracturing, and temperature distribution. In the upper portion of Reservoir A of this stratigraphic section, between 1200 and 1400 m, the percentage of sandstones ranges from 20 to 55. Temperatures are 225/sup 0/ to 275/sup 0/C based on well logs, calcite isotope maxima, and Na-K-Ca indices. The study shows that an isothermal high in this vicinity corresponds to the lowest total percentage of sandstones. Scanning electron microphotographs of well cores and cuttings from sandstone and shale units reveal clogging, mineral dissolution, and mineral precipitation along microfractures. The working hypothesis is that these sandy shale and siltstone facies are most amenable to increased microfracturing and, in turn, such microfracturing allows for higher temperature fluid to rise to shallower depths in the reservoir.

  16. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  17. Statistics of atmospheric turbulence at Cerro Pachon using the GeMS profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Neichel, Benoit; Béchet, Clémentine; Guzmán, Dani; Guesalaga, Andrés.

    2014-08-01

    The knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence profile directly above the telescope using the telemetry from wide-field Adaptive Optics (AO) measurements can be extremely useful for the optimization of the correction in the new generation of AO systems. For this purpose, two techniques have been recently implemented at the Gemini South MCAO System (GeMS); both based on the SLODAR method. The first technique uses a matrix inversion approach of the slopes covariance matrices and the second deconvolves the cross-correlation functions between all combinations of slopes using the auto-correlation responses. The deconvolution approach has proved to be more reliable that the one based on matrices inversion, so we use it for estimating the profiles from on-sky telemetry gathered over three years (2012 - 2014), obtaining statistical parameters of the turbulence at Cerro Pachón. These results are summarized in this article. Particular attention is paid to the occurrence of turbulence in the dome of the Gemini South telescope.

  18. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  19. Model for the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto led to the development of a qualitative model for fluid flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. This one-dimensional model assumes that the heat source was a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compilation of various information of the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1 cm thick sections across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion were considered as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculations of heat transfer. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4 km wide emplaced at a depth of 5 km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system.

  20. The Final Days of Paracas in Cerro del Gentil, Chincha Valley, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400–200 BCE) sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an “abandonment ceremony” or “termination ritual” during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100) involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society. PMID:27144824

  1. Geochemical study of products associated with spontaneous oxidation of coal in the Cerro Pelado Formation, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.; Marquez, G.; Alejandre, F.J.; Del Rio, J.J.; Hurtado, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this research work is a geochemical, mineralogical, and textural characterization of spontaneously smouldered coal-derived products in northwestern Venezuela (Cerro Pelado Formation, some 10 km from Pedregal city). Several solid samples were collected from this formation, six of unweathering coal, another six of resulting unmelted rocks forming on a surface coal bed, and the last four of mineralizations found accumulating around gas vents. The fresh coal and the unmelted material were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and proximate techniques. Products such as magnetite and chabazite-K were identified in the alteration rocks. Likewise, both materials were also studied in order to determine the mobilization of 17 elements into the environment; such elements were analysed through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy on extracts obtained by a sequential extraction method. The studied elements are classified as highly mobile (Na, Ni,...), nearly immobile (Ti, P) and partially mobile (Mg, Fe, K, ...). In regards to mineralizations around fumaroles associated with smoldering coal seams, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses have revealed the presence of salammoniac, mascagnite and other solid combustion compounds formed by reaction of gas emitted from coal oxidation, in addition to previously non-reported sulfur-rich by-products associated with gas fissures, particularly ammonium thiosulfate. Relatively high concentrations of several aromatic compounds were detected in the gas collected at the studied coal outcrop, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, butanes, among others.

  2. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, N.L.; D'Amore, F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas compositions of Cerro Prieto wells in 1977 reflected strong boiling in the reservoir around wells M-20 and M-25. This boiling zone appeared to be collapsing in 1982 when a number of wells in this area of the field were shut-in. In 1977 and 1982, gas compositions also showed boiling zones corresponding to faults H and L postulated by Halfman et al. (1982). Four gas geothermometers were applied, based on reservoir equilibria and calculated fugacities. The Fisher - Tropsch reaction predicted high temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate slowly, whereas the H2S reaction predicted low temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate rapidly. Hydrogen and NH3 reactions were intermediate. Like gas compositions, the geothermometers reflected reservoir processes, such as boiling. Surface gas compositions are related to well compositions, but contain large concentrations of N2 originating from air dissolved in groundwater. The groundwater appears to originate in the east and flow over the production field before mixing with reservoir gases near the surface. ?? 1984.

  3. Preliminary isotopic studies of fluids from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Rye, R.O.; Pearson, F.J.; Olson, E.R.; Nehring, N.L.; Whelan, J.F.; Huebner, M.A.; Coplen, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary isotopic studies of Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids and earlier studies of Mexicali Valley ground waters suggest local recharge of the geothermal system from the area immediately to the west. Oxygen isotope exchange of water with reservoir rock minerals at temperatures increasing with depth has produced fluids with oxygen-18 contents increasing with depth, and pressure drawdown in the southeastern part of the field has allowed lower oxygen-18 fluids to invade the production aquifer from above. The contents of tritium and carbon-14 in the fluid suggest only that the age of the fluid is between 50 and 10,000 years. The isotopic compositions of carbon and sulfur are consistent with a magmatic origin of these elements but a mixed sedimentary-organic origin appears more likely for carbon and is also possible for sulfur. Investigations of the isotopic compositions of geothermal and cold ground waters continue and are being expanded as fluids become available and as separation and analysis methods are improved. ?? 1979.

  4. Polygenetic nature of a rhyolitic dome and implications for hazard assessment: Cerro Pizarro volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Núñez, G.; Riggs, N. R.

    2008-04-01

    Rhyolitic domes are commonly regarded as monogenetic volcanoes associated with single, brief eruptions, in contrast to andesitic or dacitic domes that usually show a complex evolution including alternating long periods of growth and explosive destruction. Rhyolitic domes are characterized by short-lived successions of pyroclastic and effusive activity associated with a series of discrete eruptive events that apparently last on the order of years to decades or perhaps up to centuries. Cerro Pizarro, a rhyolitic dome in the eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt, is a relatively small (~ 1.1 km 3), isolated volcano that shows aspects of polygenetic volcanism including long-term repose periods (~ 50-80 ky) between eruptions, chemical variations over time, and a complex evolution of alternating explosive and effusive eruptions, including a cryptodome phase, a sector-collapse event and prolonged erosional processes. This eruptive behavior provides new insights into how rhyolite domes may evolve, in contrast to the traditional models of rhyolitic domes as short-lived, monogenetic systems. A protracted, complex evolution bears important implications for hazard assessment if reactivation of an apparently extinct rhyolitic dome must be seriously considered.

  5. Extracción y medida de peroxidasa en pulpa de arazá (Eugenia stipitata MC Vaugh Extraction and activity of peroxidase in arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh pulp fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique for both extraction and activity measurement of peroxidase extracted from arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh is described. Peroxidase from arazá pulp fruit was extracted using a combination of protein precipitation with acetone and extraction with 50 mM sodium buffer phosphate (pH 6.0. Optimum activity using guaiacol as H-donor was obtained at pH from 5.0 to 6.5, temperature from 60 to 75 °C, H2O2 between 10 to 15 mM and guaiacol from 80 to 160 mM. Thermal inactivation showed a first-order inactivation kinetic. Reactivation was observed when extracts were heated at 80 °C and afterwards incubated at 25 °C.

  6. Criteria to determine the depth of the production interval in wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Criterios para determinar la profundidad del intervalo productor en pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vivar, Jesus Saul de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesus.deleon@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Ways to select the depth of the production interval or to complete wells in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have changed during the development of the field. From 1961 when drilling began to the middle of 2005, a total of 325 wells were drilled. The paper compares the approaches used in the past with those of the last ten years. The Cerro Prieto system has been classified as being of liquid-dominated and high-temperature. Today, after 33 years of commercial exploitation, it has experienced a series of thermal and geochemical fluid changes making it necessary to modify the ways to select the depth of the well production intervals, according to the observed behavior of the reservoir. The new criteria include the thermal approach, the geological approach, the geochemical approach and a comparative approach with neighboring wells. If most of these criteria are interpreted correctly, the success of a well is ensured. [Spanish] Los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor o la terminacion de los pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto han cambiado durante el desarrollo del mismo. De 1961, cuando se perforaron los primeros pozos, hasta mediados del 2005 se han perforado un total de 325 pozos. En el presente articulo se hara una breve revision de cuales han sido los criterios usados en el pasado y los que se han venido empleando en los ultimos diez anos. El yacimiento de Cerro Prieto ha sido clasificado como de liquido dominante, de alta temperatura, pero actualmente, despues de 33 anos de explotacion comercial, ha sufrido una serie de cambios termicos y geoquimicos en sus fluidos, por lo que ha sido necesario modificar los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor de los pozos de acuerdo al comportamiento observado en el yacimiento. Los criterios actuales se dividen en cuatro: 1. Criterio termico, 2. Criterio geologico, 3. Criterio geoquimico y 4. Criterio comparativo de los pozos vecinos. Cuando la mayoria de estos

  7. Update of the basement model of the Cerro Prieto, B. C., geothermal field, Mexico; Actualizacion del modelo del basamento en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, Macario [Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    With the aim to actualize the basement model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, a gravity interpretation has been held. We modeled in 2.5 D, nine profiles traced over the Bouguer anomaly map. Well data concerning lithology and density changes were used to fit the gravity models. Results of this work confirm that the geometry of the basement of Cerro Prieto, corresponds to a structural sequence. From west to east it starts as a big depression, continues with a strong uplift of the basement in the middle sector and finally deepens eastward in steps. The basement model proposed in the present work, defines a similar trend to that established by Fonseca y Razo (1980), but there are differences in basement depth in some areas. In the present model we interpret basement depths between 200 and 400 m deeper than in previous models to the south and northwest of the actual exploitation zone. [Spanish] Con el fin de actualizar el modelo del basamento en el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, se realizo una reinterpretacion gravimetrica, modelando en 2.5 D, 9 perfiles trazados sobre el mapa de anomalia de Bouguer. Utilizando la informacion litologica obtenida a traves de numerosas perforaciones profundas, se hicieron coincidir, dentro de los mofelos gravimetricos, las principales variaciones litologicas con cambios en la densidad. Los resultados de este trabajo reiteran que la geometria del basamento del Campo de Cerro Prieto, vista de W a E, corresponde con una secuencia estructural que se inicia con una gran depresion en el W, continua con un fuerte levantamiento y finalmente se extiende con una tendencia a profundizarse hacia el E de forma escalonada. El modelo de basamento derivado del presente trabajo, define una tendencia muy similar al modelo de basamento establecido (Fonseca y Razo, 1980), pero difiere en cuanto a la profundidad en algunos sectores del campo. En el actual trabajo se interpreta una profundidad entre 200 y 400 m mayor hacia el sur y noroeste de la

  8. Evolution of the CP-I sector of the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, BC, and exploitation alternatives; Evolucion del sector CP-I del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y alternativas de explotacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    After 35 years of exploitation of the CP-I (Cerro Prieto I) sector of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, its thermal conditions have been declined substantially; the number of production wells is reduced and exploitation has been abandoned in some zones. However with a binary cycle, it is still possible to generate electricity from the remaining reservoir energy. To do so, one needs to know a detailed reservoir history of the sector, identifying the best potential strata to be assessed. In this paper, the CP-I reservoir evolution is presented and its exploitation and main reservoir characteristics -which play important roles- are identified. The CP-I zones offering the best conditions for binary cycle exploitation are identified. Exploiting partially abandoned reservoir sections is crucial for the future of the field. If such sections can be made to produce, this will help reduce the progressive steam-production decline in the occurring since production began. The production decline had been mitigated by a large area available for drilling replacement production wells, but such an area is limited now, due to the vast number of operating wells. [Spanish] Despues de 35 anos de explotacion del yacimiento en el sector de CP-I (Cerro Prieto I) del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, sus condiciones termicas han declinado considerablemente, por lo que el numero de pozos productores ha disminuido, dejando algunas zonas abandonadas a la explotacion. Sin embargo, aun es posible aprovechar la energia que contiene este sector del yacimiento para la generacion de electricidad mediante ciclo binario. Para ello primeramente se debe conocer en detalle cual ha sido la evolucion del yacimiento en este sector, identificando los estratos de mejor potencial para evaluarlos posteriormente. En este estudio se presenta la evolucion del yacimiento de CP-I como respuesta a su explotacion, identificando las principales caracteristicas del yacimiento que determinan su comportamiento. Asi

  9. Subduction and exhumation structures preserved in Cerro del Almirez HP metaserpentinites (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2014-05-01

    The Cerro del Almirez massif (Nevado-Filábride Complex, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) is composed of antigorite serpentinite and chlorite harzburgite separated by a thin reaction front in a paleo-subduction setting. Structural analysis of ultramafic lithologies and metasedimentary host rocks provides information on the tectonic evolution of this massif during prograde metamorphism in a subduction zone and during subsequent exhumation. Here we report for the first time HP structures related to a subduction event underwent by ultramafic rocks of the Nevado-Filábride Complex. The oldest subduction-related structures are preserved in Atg-serpentinites: a penetrative S1 foliation and associated L1 stretching lineation were formed in a non-coaxial regime with a top-to-the-W sense of shearing. This planar linear fabric is crosscut by olivine ± Ti-clinohumite veins formed during the prograde breakdown of brucite and pre-metamorphic clinopyroxene at temperatures ranging from 465 to 500 ºC [1]. Veins occur as a system of decimetric long joints, some of them hybrid open and sheared veins with associated drag folds. They recorded embrittlement processes due to the release of 6% vol. H2O of the rock. S1 foliation can, however, be simultaneous with or be overgrown by olivine and/or tremolite porphyroblasts, product of the prograde reaction Di + Atg → Fo + Tr + H2O, which occurred at T > 600 ºC and P = 1.7-1.9 GPa [1]. Generation of S1/L1 fabric was followed by static annealing at ca. 680 ºC and 1.6-1.9 GPa [2]. The S1/L1 fabric in Atg-serpentinite is crosscut by the Atg-out isograd and overgrown by the Atg-serpentinite dehydration products that gave place to Chl-harzburgite. Peak metamorphic conditions of the Chl-harzburgite assemblage reached 680-710 ºC and 1.6-1.9 GPa [3]. Prograde Chl-harzburgite is crosscut by sets of conjugate zones associated to grain-size reduction of olivine grains [3]. These grain size reduction zones are interpreted as brittle structures

  10. Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteller, A.; Christen, M.; Villalba, R.; Martínez, H.; Stöckli, V.; Leiva, J. C.; Bartelt, P.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1) to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2) to highlight the potential of textit{Nothofagus pumilio} tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.

  11. Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casteller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1 to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2 to highlight the potential of Nothofagus pumilio tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.

  12. Mexicali aquifer and its relation with the Colorado river and the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Reyes-Lopez, J. A.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Lazaro-Mancilla, O.

    2008-05-01

    Until some years ago the Colorado River has been the main recharge source of the Mexicali and the Imperial Valley aquifers. River discharge interruption after the constructions of dams upstream (i.e. Parker, Davis and Hoover) and the creation of great irrigation systems in both Valleys have modified their dynamics. Currently, the distribution of water recharge is the network of irrigation and drainage channels that distribute water to more than 500.000 ha. The chemical quality of the recharge water also has changed because the irrigation run-off water has become more mineralized. On the other hand, the intense steam exploitation of the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has inverted the flow direction from the Volcano Lagoon area that until the 60s constituted the discharge zone of the aquifer and the geothermal reservoir. In this work, changes in the aquifer water recharge regime, the phreatic level and the water chemical quality are analyzed. It was found that after the reduction of the annual water extraction from aquifer up to 750X106 m3, the static levels have reached a dynamic balance that could be altered if water seepage from the irrigation channels, specially from the All American Channel, is reduced. The total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration has increased from 1000 ppm in 1970 to 1800 ppm in 2005. The water of recent infiltration, the gradual cooling of the shallowest strata of the geothermal reservoir, and the almost total disappearance of the hydrothermal surface manifestations are evidences of groundwater flow inversion. The new source of groundwater recharge due to seepage of evaporation disposal geothermal brine pond is documented. This pond incorporates water with a very different chemical composition to the groundwater system. Therefore, mineralization of the shallow aquifer layers and the soil contamination process are identified. It was concluded that the aquifer hydrodynamics in the Valley of Mexicali depends on the irrigation system more

  13. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  14. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

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    P. Ginot

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  15. Influence of different extraction methods on the yield and linalool content of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhiane, Mário S; Rissato, Sandra R; Chierice, Gilberto O; Almeida, Marcos V; Silva, Letícia C

    2006-09-15

    This work has been developed using a sylvestral fruit tree, native to the Brazilian forest, the Eugenia uniflora L., one of the Mirtaceae family. The main goal of the analytical study was focused on extraction methods themselves. The method development pointed to the Clevenger extraction as the best yield in relation to SFE and Soxhlet. The SFE method presented a good yield but showed a big amount of components in the final extract, demonstrating low selectivity. The essential oil extracted was analyzed by GC/FID showing a large range of polarity and boiling point compounds, where linalool, a widely used compound, was identified. Furthermore, an analytical solid phase extraction method was used to clean it up and obtain separated classes of compounds that were fractionated and studied by GC/FID and GC/MS.

  16. Antinociceptive and hypothermic evaluation of the leaf essential oil and isolated terpenoids from Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Lima, Cleverton Kleiton F; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Rezende, Claudia M

    2009-10-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), known as Brazilian cherry tree, is a fruity tree spread all over Brazil used in popular medicine to treat inflammations, rheumatic pain and fever, as hypoglycemic, diuretic and has been widely used in the cosmetics industry. The present study discusses the chemical composition, the antinociceptive and hypothermic profile of the essential oil of pitangueira leaves. The chemical composition was evaluated by GC-MS and the main constituent of the oil was characterized, after isolation, as a mixture of atractylone (1) and 3-furanoeudesmene (2). The essential oil, its pentane fraction and the isolated mixture of sesquiterpenes (1 and 2), given orally, significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions, increased the latency time in hot plate test and showed a hypothermic effect. The results suggest that the responsible for the antinociceptive and hypothermic effect were the isolated furanosesquiterpenes. These findings provided additional pharmacological information and may contribute for the use of Brazilian cherry tree as a phytomedicine.

  17. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  18. Constituintes químicos e atividade antioxidante de folhas e galhos de Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Ribeiro de Carvalho Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Eugenia copacabanensis allowed for the isolation and identification of following compounds: β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-glucoside, eight triterpenes, (mixture of α- and β-amyrins, ursolic acid, 30-hydroxy-ursolic acid, betulin, friedelin, friedelan-3,4-lactone, and taraxerol, a mixture of three sesquiterpenes, (clovandiol, globulol, and viridiflorol, three flavonoids (kaempferol-3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside, and quercetin, and a mixture of four coumaroyl esters (octacosanyl, heptacosanyl, hexacosanyl, and tetracosanyl coumarates. The structures of these compounds were assigned based on comparison with literature data and spectroscopic analysis, including analysis by two-dimensional NMR techniques. Total phenolic content and total flavonoids were evaluated. Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts and fractions were measured by the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl free radical scavenging assay.

  19. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoid rich extract from Eugenia jambolana seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavna; Balomajumder, Chandrajeet; Roy, Partha

    2008-07-01

    The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoid rich extract obtained from seeds of Eugenia jambolana (EJ) was analyzed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and peak blood glucose level within 60 min of glucose tolerance test (GTT) in mild and severe diabetic (MD and SD respectively) rats. Different biochemical parameters like glycogen biosynthesis, glucose homeostatic enzyme (glucose-6-phosphatase, hexokinase) activities demonstrated significant (pflavonoids also stimulated 16% increase in insulin release in vitro from pancreatic islets. The hypolipidemic action after this extract supplementation was confirmed by significant (pflavonoid rich extract from EJ plant has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects which can help the cure and management of diabetes.

  20. María Eugenia Dengo Obregón: mujer de lectura, educación y cultura...

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    Jóse Pablo Eduarte Salazar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es una semblanza de la Licenciada María Eugenia Dengo Obregón viuda de Vargas que recorre la vida y las obras de esta dama en su faceta personal, profesional, pública y más recien-temente, como exponente de la cultura costarricense. Este documento es un sentido homenaje a la figura de esta incansable mujer, que con su lectura y escritura ha logrado dejar un legado en la educación costarri-cense, como profesora, decana, vicerrectora, ministra y ex ministra de educación pública. La Licda. Dengo Obregón fue galardonada con el premio nacional de Cultura “Magón 2007” otorgado por el Ministerio de Cultura y Juventud de la República de Costa Rica a sus 82 años de edad. Honor al que honor merece.

  1. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Guido; Pinton, Annamaria; Cianfarra, Paola; Baez, Walter; Chiodi, Agostina; Viramonte, José; Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous springs. This study presents new stratigraphic and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field, together with the analysis from remote sensed image analysis of morphostructural evidences associated with the structural framework and active tectonics. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field. Away from the main tectonic features, such as at the Cerro Tuzgle field, the less developed network of faults and fractures allows only a moderate upwelling of geothermal fluids and a mixing between hot and shallow cold waters. The integration of field-based and remote-sensing analyses at the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar area proved to be effective in approaching the prospection of remote geothermal fields, and in defining the conceptual model for geothermal circulation.

  2. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, M.A. (DSIR, Wellington, New Zealand); Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapor. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapor zone has formed.

  3. Diverse subaerial and sublacustrine hot spring settings of the Cerro Negro epithermal system (Jurassic, Deseado Massif), Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2012-06-01

    The Late Jurassic (~ 150 Ma) Cerro Negro volcanic-epithermal-geothermal system (~ 15 km2 area), Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina, includes two inferred volcanic emission centers characterized by rhyolitic domes linked along NW-SE regional faults that are associated with deeper level Au/Ag mineralization to the NW, and with shallow epithermal quartz veins and mainly travertine surface hot spring manifestations to the SE. Some travertines are silica-replaced, and siliceous and mixed silica-carbonate geothermal deposits also are found. Five hot spring-related facies associations were mapped in detail, which show morphological and textural similarities to Pleistocene-Recent geothermal deposits at Yellowstone National Park (U.S.A.), the Kenya Rift Valley, and elsewhere. They are interpreted to represent subaerial travertine fissure ridge/mound deposits (low-flow spring discharge) and apron terraces (high-flow spring discharge), as well as mixed silica-carbonate lake margin and shallow lake terrace vent-conduit tubes, stromatolitic mounds, and volcano-shaped cones. The nearly 200 mapped fossil vent-associated deposits at Cerro Negro are on a geographical and numerical scale comparable with subaerial and sublacustrine hydrothermal vents at Mammoth Hot Springs, and affiliated with Yellowstone Lake, respectively. Overall, the Cerro Negro geothermal system yields paleoenvironmentally significant textural details of variable quality, owing to both the differential preservation potential of particular subaerial versus subaqueous facies, as well as to the timing and extent of carbonate diagenesis and silica replacement of some deposits. For example, the western fault associated with the Eureka epithermal quartz vein facilitated early silicification of the travertine deposits in the SE volcanic emission center, thereby preserving high-quality, microbial macro- and micro-textures of this silica-replaced "pseudosinter." Cerro Negro provides an opportunity to reconstruct

  4. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, M.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow, western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapour. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapour zone has formed. ?? 1984.

  5. Changes in steam production due to the reservoir conditions in Cerro Prieto, Baja California; Cambios en la produccion de vapor debido a las condiciones del yacimiento en Cerro Prieto, Baja California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Cardenas, Ramon; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco H. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@gfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    In more than 35 years of exploitation, thermodynamic conditions have changed in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. The effects are analyzed of the changes to the reservoir and their consequences to steam production in different field zones. For steam production, the most important features of reservoir fluids are enthalpies and pressures. The evolution of these features is presented in an enthalpy-pressure diagram. Here it can be seen that some reservoir zones have almost reached abandonment conditions. [Spanish] En mas de 35 anos de explotacion el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto ha experimentado cambios en sus condiciones termodinamicas. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de esos cambios del yacimiento y su repercusion en la produccion de vapor para las diferentes zonas en las que se ha dividido el campo. Las propiedades mas importantes del fluido en el yacimiento para la produccion de vapor son su entalpia y su presion, por lo que se presenta la evolucion de esas propiedades en un diagrama de presion-entalpia, en el que se observa que hay zonas del yacimiento que estan proximas a alcanzar condiciones de abandono.

  6. El adoratorio del cerro El Potro: Arqueología de alta montaña en la cordillera de Copiapó, norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano,Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Se exponen los resultados del reconocimiento arqueológico de las nacientes del río Los Helados y del cerro El Potro, en el valle de Copiapó. El objetivo principal fue constatar evidencias descritas para la zona que dieran cuenta de una huaca prehispánica, como también definir la orientación orográfica de la arquitectura del centro metalúrgico Viña del Cerro. Los resultados sugieren que existieron prácticas culturales vinculadas con la tradición andina de adorar a las montañas, que incluyeron ...

  7. EVALSO, a high-bandwidth communication infrastructure to efficiently connect the ESO Paranal and the Cerro Armazones Observatories to Europe: demonstration activities and start of operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Roland; Comeron, Fernando; Chini, Rolf; Filippi, Giorgio; Emerson, Jim; Kuijken, Konrad; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Wright, Andrew; Zampieri, Stefano; Liello, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    EVALSO (Enabling Virtual Access to Latin-American Southern Observatories) is an international consortium of nine astronomical organizations, and research network operators, part-funded under the European Commission FP7, to create and exploit high-speed bandwidth connections to the observatories of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones in Chile. The communication infrastructure was delivered in November 2010 and this paper reports on the initial results of the project and the demonstrations of its capabilities, including the possibilities that the new infrastructure opens up in the geographically distributed operation of the observatories.

  8. Pinus Culminicola Andresen y Beaman y sus asociaciones en la ladera sur del cerro La Viga, Coahuila

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Sánchez Silva; José López García; José Manuel Espinoza Rdz.

    1990-01-01

    Pinus culminicola was described in 1961 with samples from the Cerro Potosí, State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The species was reported in the Sierras La Marta in 1962, and San Antonio de las Alazanas in 1975, State of Coahuila, indicating that there were not pure associations. In 1979 the species was colected in the Sierra La Viga, Coahuila, at 3 300 m, without data on environmental conditions in which it grows. The distribution of  P. culminicola is restricted to the south slope of the Cerro La V...

  9. Efecto del choque térmico de arazá (Eugenia stipitata Me Vaugh sobre la tolerancia al frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez Cuenca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Los frutos de arazá (Eugenia stipitata fueron cosechados en su madurez fisiológica y calentados a 50 °C durante O, 10, 20 ó 30 min antes de ser refrigerados a 7 °C durante 14 días y maduración complementaria a 25 °C durante 3 días.

  10. Evaluation of the Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia Uniflora Lineau e Psidium Sobraleanum Proença & Landrum Against Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina E. Sobral-Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of antioxidant activity has been an important issue considering its importance in human health. Recent studies show that the use of plants in the form of juices or teas as sources of natural antioxidants with low risk can be used as an aid to the treatment of various diseases. Material and Methods: Evaluation of the antioxidant potential in vitro, extracts of Eugenia uniflora and Psidium sobraleanum, as well as the quantification of phenols and flavonoids present in the extracts. Results: Findings showed a better antioxidant activity for the extract of Eugenia uniflora. In the TBARS test with egg phospholipids, extracts presented a reduction in the basal levels in the lipid peroxidation process; and when the Fe2 + extract was inducted, Psidium sobraleanum proved to be more efficient.. Conclusions: These tests proved that the extracts of leaves of the species Eugenia uniflora and Psidium sobraleanum present antioxidant activity which is directly related to phenolic substances produced in its secondary metabolism.

  11. Summary of a Gas Transport Tracer Test in the Deep Cerros Del Rio Basalts, Mesita del Buey, Los Alamos NM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ortiz, John Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, Larry Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snyder, Emily Elisabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Here we describe results from a tracer test in the Cerros del Rio basalt beneath Mesita del Buey, Technical Area 54 (TA-54) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). This report follows from plans outlined in our previous Tracer Test Work Plan (LANL 2016). These activities were conducted by LANL to further characterize subsurface properties of the Cerros del Rio basalts at Material Disposal Area (MDA) L (Figure 1.1-1). The work presented follows from the “Interim Measures Work Plan for Soil-Vapor Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Material Disposal Area L, Technical Area 54, Revision 1,” submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in September 2014 (LANL 2014). Remediation of the MDA L vapor plume by soil-vapor extraction (SVE) is recommended as part of the final remedy in the “Corrective Measures Evaluation Report for Material Disposal Area L, Solid Waste Management Unit 54-006, at Technical Area 54, Revision 2” to meet a remedial action objective of preventing groundwater from being impacted above a regulatory standard by the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to groundwater through soil vapor (LANL 2011).

  12. ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE PASSIVE CO-TREATMENT AT CERRO RICO DE POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide environmental problem. The passive co-treatment of AMD with municipal waste water (MWW is a cost effective approach that uses nutrients in MWW in order to treat high concentrations of metals and sulfate found in AMD. Cerro Rico de Potosí in Bolivia is one of the biggest mining cities in the world, and it is constantly facing problems with AMD. The goal of this study was to determine the reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and other metals found in an AMD discharge from Cerro Rico by a three-stage reactor system. The AMD had a pH of 3.58 and acidity of 1080 mg/L as CaCO3 equivalent containing 12, 68, 17 and 550 mg/L of dissolved Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn respectively. The reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn were 1.43, 2.09, 0.01, and 0.10 d-1, respectively.

  13. Gases in steam from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells with a discussion of steam/gas ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, N.L.; Fausto, L.J.J.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a joint USGS-CFE geochemical study of Cerro Prieto, steam samples were collected for gas analyses in April, 1977. Analyses of the major gas components of the steam were made by wet chemistry (for H2O,CO2,H2S and NH3) and by gas chromatography (He,H2,Ar,O2,N2 and hydrocarbons). The hydrocarbon gases in Cerro Prieto steam closely resemble hydrocarbons in steam from Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California which, although they are vapor-dominated rather than hot-water geothermal systems, also have sedimentary aquifer rocks. These sedimentary geothermal hydrocarbons are characterized by the presence of branched C4-6 compounds and a lack of unsaturated compounds other than benzene. Relatively large amounts of benzene may be characteristic of high-temperature geothermal systems. All hydrocarbons in these gases other than methane most probably originate from the thermal metamorphosis of organic matter contained in the sediments. ?? 1979.

  14. Pinus Culminicola Andresen y Beaman y sus asociaciones en la ladera sur del cerro La Viga, Coahuila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Sánchez Silva

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus culminicola was described in 1961 with samples from the Cerro Potosí, State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The species was reported in the Sierras La Marta in 1962, and San Antonio de las Alazanas in 1975, State of Coahuila, indicating that there were not pure associations. In 1979 the species was colected in the Sierra La Viga, Coahuila, at 3 300 m, without data on environmental conditions in which it grows. The distribution of  P. culminicola is restricted to the south slope of the Cerro La Viga. The associations identified and described in this paper are: (1 Scrub of Quercus rugosa – Quercus durifolia – Cercocarpus montanus with elements of P. culminicola; (2 Pinus montezumae–Pseudotsuga macrolepisy with elements of P. culminicola, Quercus spp. and Arbutus xalapensis (3 P. culminicola– Quercus rugosa (both of them as shrubs; (4 P. montezumac–P. macrolepis–Pinus ayacahuite–P. culminicola; (5 pure scrub of P. culminicola; (6 P. culminicola– Dasylirion tezanum (sometimes with Arctostaphylos pungens and Quercus spp., shrublike; (7 Pinus hartwegii–P. culminicola; (8 P. hartwegii with elements of P. macrolepis and P. culminicola; and (9 induced prairie. There are differences in dominance of the species in accordance to the particular characteristics of each place, with presence of herbaceous from high altitudes. The altitude at which these associations occur, varies from 2 900 m to 3 700 m, although isolated elements of P. culminicola–were found at 2 700 m.

  15. Sulphur-Rich Melt At Upper Crustal Levels At Cerro La Torta, Central Andes: Evidence From Melt Inclusions Assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatelli, C.; Godoy, B.; Alvear, B.; Moncada, D.

    2016-12-01

    Central Andes present some of the biggest and most important porphyry copper ore deposits in the world. Porphyry copper ore formation is related to precipitation of ore minerals from sulphur and chlorine-rich fluids. Genesis of these deposits occurred 4 km below surface, while mineralized fluids are released by magmatic melts located between 5 and 15 km depth (Sillitoe, 2010). Cerro La Torta is part of a cluster of mineral present. Melt Inclusions size ranges from 10-40 µm, suggesting an intermediate cooling rate (Roedder 1979). Out hypothesis is that during cooling, Group I MIA is trapped as result of a metal sulfur-rich event, leading to the suggestion that sulphide-bearing MIAs from Cerro La Torta are the evidence of mineralized magmas ponding at shallow crustal levels. Furthermore, the presence of MIAs in the mush-type magmas related to the APMB implies that such systems are suitable to porphyry copper ore generation. Roedder, 1979. The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks. 15-57 Sillitoe, 2010. Econ. Geol. 105:3-41 Tierney et al., 2016. Geology 44:683-686. doi:10.1130/G37968.1Ward et al., 2014. Earth Planet Sci Letters 404:43-54

  16. Geochemical study of products associated with spontaneous oxidation of coal in the Cerro Pelado Formation, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M.; Márquez, G.; Alejandre, F. J.; Del Río, J. J.; Hurtado, A.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this research work is a geochemical, mineralogical, and textural characterization of spontaneously smouldered coal-derived products in northwestern Venezuela (Cerro Pelado Formation, some 10 km from Pedregal city). Several solid samples were collected from this formation, six of unweathering coal, an other six of resulting unmelted rocks forming on a surface coal bed, and the last four of mineralizations found accumulating around gas vents. The fresh coal and the unmelted material were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and proximate techniques. Products such as magnetite and chabazite-K were identified in the alteration rocks. Likewise, both materials were also studied in order to determine the mobilization of 17 elements into the environment; such elements were analysed through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy on extracts obtained by a sequential extraction method: each sample was firstly extracted with MilliQ water and then the resultant residue was washed. This and the subsequently resulting residues are extracted according to the mentioned procedure by using, respectively, ammonium acetate, chlorhydric acid, peroxide and chlorhydric acid, nitric acid and fluorhydric acid, and nitric acid. The studied elements are classified as highly mobile (Na, Ni, ...), nearly immobile (Ti, P) and partially mobile (Mg, Fe, K, ...). In regards to mineralizations around fumaroles associated with smoldering coal seams, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses have revealed the presence of salammoniac, mascagnite and other solid combustion compounds formed by reaction of gas emitted from coal oxidation, in addition to previously non-reported sulfur-rich by-products associated with gas fissures, particularly ammonium thiosulfate, a phase first obtained only synthetically in the laboratory. Another objective of the research was to collect and analyse gases escaping from surficial vents

  17. Analysis and simulatin of rock avalanche sequence in the Cerro Caquilluco landslide (Tacna, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Valbuzzi, Elena; Hermanns, Reginald L.

    2014-05-01

    The Cerro Caquilluco (Tacna, Peru) rock avalanche complex has a total volume of about 15 km3 and a length of 43 km, extending from 3900 m a.s.l to 530 m a.s.l.. Based on geomorphological interpretation and lithological evidences, we reconstructed a possible rock-avalanches sequence consisting of at least nine major events. For each event, we calculated the mobilized volumes through the comparison of pre- and post-failure morphology. We argue that the first rock avalanche event corresponds to the Cerrillos Negros rock avalanche, characterized by a distal tongue shaped lobe, 11 km long, 3 km wide and 25 to 60 m thick (rough volume estimate 1.15 km3), deposited along the piedmont surface (average slope: 2° ). The reconstruction of pristine pre-failure morphology was accomplished by mimicking the preserved morphology close to the source area, and by removing the deposited volumes from the rock avalanche path. For this, we made the hypothesis that the old paleosurface was already eroded by valleys progressively moving upstream during a wetter climate, as suggested by Hoke et al (2007) for similar conditions in northern Chile. The reconstruction of the pre-event morphology required several attempts to fit the eroded and the deposited volumes. Finally, a total mobilized volume of about 10.2 km2 was obtained for this event. For the successive scenarios of slide retrogression, we used the morphologies obtained by previous scenarios as pre-failure morphologies, and we calculated, by difference with current topography, the lobe volumes. The volumes of single rock avalanche episodes decrease from the first to the last event, roughly following a power-law decay. This behavior is comparable to that described by Utili and Crosta (2011) for retrogressive instabilities in rocky cliffs. The rock-avalanche events have been simulated, to verify the different scenarios in terms of spreading area and maximum runout, by using SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) and Finite Element codes

  18. Essential oil composition of fruit colour varieties of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Composição dos óleos essenciais de variedades de coloração de frutos de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto H. Moreno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. is a variable species concerning fruit colour, with three recognized varieties. However, the definition of varieties is not easy for Myrtaceae species and not widely accepted. Two fruit colour varieties (purple and yellow of E. brasiliensis had their essential oil composition analysed in order to give support to the existence of varieties for this species. Although, the major components in the leaf oil are the same monoterpenes for both varieties, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 1,8-cineol, the purple fruit variety accumulates more oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.9% than the one with yellow fruits (3.8%. The major differences occurred in purple fruits that present as major components caryophyllene oxide (22.2% and alpha-cadinol (10.4%, not found in the leaf oil, and the yellow fruit oil presented a similar composition as observed for the leaves. These fruit colour varieties of E. brasilensis can be considered as two distinct chemotypes, since the sesquiterpene pathway is more operant in the purple variety than in the yellow one, in which monoterpenes are mainly accumulated.A espécie Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. apresenta a coloração dos frutos variável, sendo reconhecidas três variedades. Entretanto, a definição de variedades não é fácil para espécies de Myrtaceae e também não é amplamente aceita. Duas variedades de Eugenia brasiliensis, baseado na cor dos frutos (roxos e amarelos, tiveram a composição de seus óleos essenciais analisadas com a finalidade de obter indícios de variedade botânica para esta espécie. Embora, os componentes principais nos óleos das folhas fossem os mesmos monoterpenos para ambas as variedades, alfa-pineno, beta-pineno e 1,8-cineol, a variedade com frutos roxos acumulou maior quantidade de sesquiterpenos oxigenados (33,9% do que aquela com frutos amarelos (3,8%. As diferenças principais ocorreram nos frutos roxos que apresentaram como componente principal o óxido de cariofileno

  19. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, 1 Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005. An integrated analysis of DInSAR, levelingand geological data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarychikhina, O; Glowacka, E; Mellors, R; Vidal, F S

    2011-03-03

    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994- 1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve the understanding of temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the spatial pattern of the subsidence as well as changes in rate are highly correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  20. El sistema de yacimientos de mamíferos miocenos del Cerro de los Batallones, Cuenca de Madrid: estado actual y perspectivas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, J.; Pozo, M.; Silva, P.G.; Domingo, M.S.; López-Antoñanzas, R.; Álvarez Sierra, A.; Antón, M.; Martín Escorza, C.; Quiralte, V.; Salesa, M.J.; Sánchez, I.M.; Azanza, B.; Calvo, J.P.; Carrasco, P.; García-Paredes, I.; Knoll, F.; Hernández Fernández, M.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Merino, L.; Meulen, van der A.J.; Montoya, P.; Peigné, S.; Peláez-Campomanes, P.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Turner, A.; Abella, J.; Alcalde, G.M.; Andrés, M.; DeMiguel, D.; Cantalapiedra, J.L.; Fraile, S.; García Yelo, B.A.; Gómez Cano, A.R.; López Guerrero, P.; Oliver Pérez, A.; Siliceo, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Cerro de los Batallones (Los Batallones Butte) is located in the central-northern area of the Madrid Basin, central Spain. Nine vertebrates localities containing a large variety of mammals of Upper Vallesian Age (Late Miocene) have been found associated with the sediments forming the butte. From

  1. An integrated model for the natural flow regime in the Cerro Prieto hydrothermal system based upon petrological and isotope geochemical criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Hoagland, J..

    1981-01-01

    Studies of cuttings and cores at Cerro Prieto have now been extended to more than 50 boreholes. The aims of this petrological and isotopic work are to determine the shape of the reservoir, its physical properties, and its temperature distribution and flow regime before the steam field was produced.

  2. Antibacterial activity and antibiotic modulating potential of the essential oil obtained from Eugenia jambolana in association with led lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nara L F; Aquino, Pedro E A; Júnior, José G A S; Cristo, Janyketchuly S; Vieira Filho, Marcos A; Moura, Flávio F; Ferreira, Najla M N; Silva, Maria K N; Nascimento, Eloiza M; Correia, Fabrina M A; Cunha, Francisco A B; Boligon, Aline A; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Matias, Edinardo F F; Guedes, Maria I F

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial resistance has risen as an important health problem with impact on the pharmaceutical industry because many antibiotics have become ineffective, which has affected their commercialization. The Brazilian biodiversity is marked by a vast variety of natural products with significant therapeutic potential, which could bring new perspectives in the treatment of infections caused by resistant microorganisms. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of the essential oil obtained from Eugenia jambolana (EjEO) using the method of microdilution method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The modulatory effect of this oil on antibiotic activity was determined using both the broth microdilution and gaseous contact methods. The antibacterial effect of the association of the gaseous contact and the use of a LED unit with red and blue lights was also determined. The chemical components of the EjEO were characterized by HPLC, which revealed the presence of α-pinene as a major constituent. The EjEO presented a MIC≥128μg/mL against S. aureus and ≥1024μg/mL against E. coli. The combination of the EjEO with antibiotics presented synergism against E. coli and antagonism against S. aureus. An antagonistic effect was obtained from the association of EjEO with amikacin and erythromycin by the method of gaseous contact. On the other hand, the association of EjEO with ciprofloxacin presented a synergistic effect against S. aureus and E. coli exposed to LED lights. A similar effect was observed in the association of the EjEO with norfloxacin presented synergism against S. aureus in the same conditions. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the essential oil obtained from Eugenia jambolana interfere with the action of antibiotics against bacteria exposed to LED lights. Thus, further researches are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects, which could open new perspectives in the development of new

  3. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH•, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed synergistic effect over alpha-glucosidase and peroxyl radicals.Total phenolic

  4. Excesso de ferro sobre o crescimento e a composição mineral em Eugenia uniflora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gládis de Oliveira Jucoski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O ferro, embora micronutriente essencial, quando em excesso pode causar redução no crescimento e, consequentemente, na produtividade das plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a absorção, o acúmulo, a distribuição do Fe e suas consequências sobre o crescimento e composição mineral de plantas jovens de Eugenia uniflora L.. As plantas foram expostas às concentrações de Fe 0,045 (controle, 1,0 e 2,0 mM, aplicado na forma de FeEDTA, em solução nutritiva de Hoagland, pH 5,0, durante 15; 30 e 45 dias e, então, foram avaliados o número de folhas, a altura da parte aérea, o comprimento da raiz primária, a massa seca de raízes, caule e folhas e os teores de clorofila, carotenóides totais e minerais. Plantas expostas aos tratamentos com Fe 1,0 e 2,0 mM apresentaram aumento nos teores deste elemento em folhas, caule e raízes em relação às plantas-controle, especialmente aos 45 dias de exposição. Sob esta condição, as plantas exibiram sintomatologia típica de toxidez de Fe, caracterizada por bronzeamento foliar, escurecimento das raízes, redução no número de folhas, na altura da parte aérea, no comprimento da raiz principal, na produção de massa seca e nos teores de pigmentos cloroplastídicos. O excesso de Fe modificou a partição da biomassa e promoveu redução nos teores de P, Zn, Cu e Mn, especialmente nas raízes. Além de um efeito direto do Fe em excesso, a desordem nutricional resultante pode estar associada aos efeitos restritivos sobre o crescimento vegetativo inicial das plantas de Eugenia uniflora L..

  5. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Flavonoids in Herbal Material, Crude Extract, and Fractions from Leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rhayanne T M; Bezerra, Isabelle C F; Ferreira, Magda R A; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2017-01-01

    The traditional use of Eugenia uniflora L. ("Pitanga") is reported due to several properties, which have often been related to its flavonoid content. The aim was to evaluate analytical procedures for quantification of total flavonoids content (TFCs) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry in the herbal material (HM), crude extract (CE), and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora. The method for quantification of flavonoids after complexation with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was evaluated: amount of sample (0.25-1.5 g); solvent (40%-80% ethanol); reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2.5%-7.5%). The procedures by direct dilution (DD) and after acid hydrolysis (AH) were used and validated for HM and CE and applied to the aqueous fraction (AqF), hexane fraction, and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF). The ideal conditions of analysis were ethanol 80% as solvent; 0.5 g of sample; λmax of 408 (DD) and 425 nm (AH); 25 min after addition of AlCl3 5%. The procedures validated for standards and samples showed linearity (R2 > 0.99) with limit of detection and limit of quantification between 0.01 and 0.17 mg/mL (rutin and quercetin); and 0.03 and 0.09 mg/mL (quercetin), for DD and AH, respectively. The procedures were accurate (detect, practice, and repair 90%), and stable under robustness conditions (luminosity, storage, reagents, and equipment). The TFCs in AqF and EAF were 0.65 g% and 17.72 g%, calculated as rutin. UV-Vis methods for quantification of TFC in HM, CE, and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora were suitably validated. Regarding the analysis of fractions, the EAF achieved enrichment of about nine times in the content of flavonoids. The total flavonoids content (TFCs) of herbal material, crude extract, and fractions from Eugenia uniflora can be quantified by ultraviolet-visibleThe spectrophotometric methods (direct dilution and acid hydrolysis) were reproducible and able to quantify TFC in raw material and derivatives from leaves of E. uniflora

  6. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Materials and Methods: Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. Results: E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH•, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Conclusion: Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. SUMMARY Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed

  7. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento in vitro de Eugenia involucrata DC.: influência do tipo de explante e do meio nutritivo

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    Diego Pascoal Golle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985092Apresentando diversas características de interesse nos setores da silvicultura, fruticultura, meio ambiente e medicinal, Eugenia involucrata DC. (Myrtaceae é uma espécie florestal nativa de vários Estados brasileiros. Considerada a dificuldade da propagação por sementes, que são recalcitrantes, perdendo rapidamente sua viabilidade após a colheita, este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do uso de segmentos apicais e nodais cultivados em diferentes meios nutritivos no estabelecimento e no desenvolvimento in vitro desta espécie. Segmentos apicais e nodais coletados em plantas de três anos de idade, mantidas em casa de vegetação, foram inoculados nos meios nutritivos MS, ½ MS e WPM. Em um primeiro momento, adicionaram-se aos meios de cultura 1 μM de ANA e 5 μM de TDZ e, após, os explantes foram transferidos para frascos contendo os respectivos meios nutritivos frescos, na ausência de reguladores de crescimento, mas com o acréscimo de 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado, sendo cultivados por 30 dias adicionais. Os meios ½ MS e WPM são adequados para o estabelecimento e o desenvolvimento in vitro a partir do cultivo de segmentos nodais, enquanto que, com segmentos apicais, é apropriado o meio ½ MS. O meio ½ MS possibilitou os melhores índices de enraizamento nos explantes, juntamente com o meio WPM. O estabelecimento e o enraizamento in vitro foram promovidos pelo cultivo de segmentos apicais e nodais de Eugenia involucrata DC. Os meios nutritivos ½ MS e WPM são apropriados para o cultivo in vitro de segmentos nodais de E. involucrata, recomendando-se o meio ½ MS pela economia e praticidade. Para segmentos apicais, o uso do meio de cultura ½ MS é mais adequado que o dos meios MS e WPM.

  8. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Flavonoids in Herbal Material, Crude Extract, and Fractions from Leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rhayanne T. M.; Bezerra, Isabelle C. F.; Ferreira, Magda R. A.; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2017-01-01

    Background: The traditional use of Eugenia uniflora L. (“Pitanga”) is reported due to several properties, which have often been related to its flavonoid content. Objective: The aim was to evaluate analytical procedures for quantification of total flavonoids content (TFCs) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry in the herbal material (HM), crude extract (CE), and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora. Materials and Methods: The method for quantification of flavonoids after complexation with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was evaluated: amount of sample (0.25–1.5 g); solvent (40%–80% ethanol); reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2.5%–7.5%). The procedures by direct dilution (DD) and after acid hydrolysis (AH) were used and validated for HM and CE and applied to the aqueous fraction (AqF), hexane fraction, and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF). Results: The ideal conditions of analysis were ethanol 80% as solvent; 0.5 g of sample; λmax of 408 (DD) and 425 nm (AH); 25 min after addition of AlCl3 5%. The procedures validated for standards and samples showed linearity (R2 > 0.99) with limit of detection and limit of quantification between 0.01 and 0.17 mg/mL (rutin and quercetin); and 0.03 and 0.09 mg/mL (quercetin), for DD and AH, respectively. The procedures were accurate (detect, practice, and repair 90%), and stable under robustness conditions (luminosity, storage, reagents, and equipment). The TFCs in AqF and EAF were 0.65 g% and 17.72 g%, calculated as rutin. Conclusions: UV-Vis methods for quantification of TFC in HM, CE, and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora were suitably validated. Regarding the analysis of fractions, the EAF achieved enrichment of about nine times in the content of flavonoids. SUMMARY The total flavonoids content (TFCs) of herbal material, crude extract, and fractions from Eugenia uniflora can be quantified by ultraviolet-visibleThe spectrophotometric methods (direct dilution and acid hydrolysis) were reproducible and able to

  9. Los granitos peraluminosos de las Sierras de Vinquis, Cerro Negro y Zapata (Sierras Pampeanas, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina

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    Medina, M. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The studied plutons are close to several batholiths of this region, as Sierra de Mazán and other, but with some mineralogical peculiarities. The magmatic cordierite, common in proximate places, is scarce, as sillimanite, while the andalusite is very rare, with few tourmaline. Fluorite and allanite are also typical accasories only in the granites of the Sierra de Zapata. All plutons are peraluminous of potassic tendency, with cortical affinity.The interpretation of the geochemical values distinguishes between granites of different maturity, emplaced under a predominant influence of active margin for Cerro Negro and Vinquis, while the batholith of Zapata has, below these concepts, a marked feature of within plate.The mineralogical associations suggest that the granites of Cerro Negro and Vinquis were emplaced to pressures of 2 kb or less and temperature of 650º C, while the granites of Zapata had done under conditions of lesser pressure, between 1.5 and 2.0 kb and lower temperature, 600-650º C.A grandes rasgos, los plutones estudiados tienen semejanzas con otros del entorno regional, tal como los de la Sierra de Mazán, pero con peculiaridades mineralógicas. La cordierita magmática, que en lugares próximos es muy abundante, es aquí escasa, al igual que la sillimanita, mientras que la andalucita es muy rara y la turmalina poco frecuente. La fluorita y allanita son accesorios comunes y de cierta abundancia sólo en los granitos de la Sierra de Zapata.Todos los plutones son peralumínicos y de tendencia potásica, con neta afinidad cortical. El estudio estadístico de datos geoquímicos seleccionados, permite diferenciar agrupaciones que tienen un reflejo satisfactorio en los plutones caracterizados, por encima de las variaciones de facies. La interpretación de los valores geoquímicos distingue granitos de desigual madurez, emplazados bajo una influencia predominante de margen activo o intraplaca de características continentales, en

  10. Hydraulic model of the steam-lines network of the Cerro Prieto, B.C., geothermal field; Modelo hidraulico de la red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaices, E; Garcia, A; Martinez J I; Ovando, R; Cecenas, M; Hernandez A F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: salaices@iie.org.mx; Canchola, I; Mora, O; Miranda, C; Herandez, M; Lopez, S; Murillo, I [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    The steam-line network of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is composed of 184 wells, and 162 of the wells are integrated and connected by pipes. Thirteen power units, with an installed electrical capacity of 720 MW, are fed by that network. The network length is 120 km, including pipes of several diameters with branches and interconnections. The extension and complexity of the steam-line system make it difficult to analyze the transport and supply of steam to the power plants. For that it was necessary to have a tool capable of analyzing the system and the performance of the network as a whole, as well as the direction and flow volumes in each part of the system. In this paper, a hydraulic model of the Cerro Prieto steam-line network is presented. The model can determine the performance of the whole network by quantifying the pressure drops, flows and heat losses of the components. The model analyses the consequences of changes in operating conditions, steam production, maintenance activities and design (such as the integration of new wells). The model was developed using PIPEPHASE 9.0, a numeric simulator of multi-phase flow in steady state with heat transfer. It is used to model systems and pipe networks for steam- and condensate-transport. [Spanish] La red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto esta compuesta por un conjunto de 184 pozos, de los cuales 162 son pozos integrados, interconectados entre si a traves de una red de tuberias. Por medio de esta red se alimentan 13 unidades generadoras de electricidad con una capacidad total instalada de 720 MWe. La red tiene una longitud aproximada de 120 kilometros y esta compuesta por tuberias de diferentes diametros, ramales, interconexiones, etc. La complejidad y extension del sistema de vaporductos hace muy dificil el analisis del transporte y suministro de vapor a las plantas generadoras. Lo anterior creo la necesidad de contar con una herramienta que ayudara en el analisis del sistema con el fin de

  11. Noise reduction in steam-vent points at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Reduccion del ruido en puntos de desfogue en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: carlos.miranda02@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    Steam silencers have been placed on the power units regulation system of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, but not where the steam-pipes vent high-pressure steam (rupture disks). Moreover, the power-unit silencers are large and their abilities to reduce noise depend on an external, uncontrollable factor: pores sizes in the volcanic rocks they are made of. Thus a compact, economic and relatively easy to construct metallic silencer was designed to be used at several points of dry-steam venting to minimize the noise. The design was based on orifice-plate equations and a prototype was constructed and tested. It proved capable of reducing noise by 30 decibels for atmospheric discharges of primary steam at operating pressures. The size of the silencer can be adjusted to the particular needs of each vent case. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto solo existen silenciadores de vapor en el sistema de regulacion de las plantas generadoras, pero no en los sitios de desfogue de vapor a alta presion en los vaporductos (discos de ruptura). Ademas, los silenciadores de las plantas son muy robustos y su capacidad de reduccion del ruido depende de un factor externo no controlable, como es el tamano del poro de la roca volcanica con el que estan construidos. Por lo tanto, se diseno un silenciador metalico compacto, economico y relativamente facil de fabricar, para utilizarse en diversos puntos de descarga de vapor seco a fin de minimizar el ruido. El diseno se realizo con base en las ecuaciones de la placa de orificio. Se construyo un prototipo cuyas pruebas demostraron que es capaz de reducir el ruido hasta en 30 decibeles, al descargar desde la presion de operacion de vapor primario hacia la presion atmosferica. Las dimensiones del silenciador pueden ajustarse a las necesidades particulares de cada caso de desfogue.

  12. Cost model for geothermal wells applied to the Cerro Prieto geothermal field case, BC Abstract; Modelo de costeo de pozos geotermicos aplicado para el caso del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca Serrano, Jaime M.E [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: jaime.vaca@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    A project for drilling geothermal wells to produce electrical energy can be defined as a sequence of plans to get steam or geothermal fluids to satisfy a previously known demand, and, under the best possible conditions, to obtain payment. This paper presents a cost model for nine wells drilled at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in 2005 and 2006 to supply steam to the power plants operating in the field. The cost model is based on the well cost, the initial steam production, the annual decline of steam, the drilling schedule and the break-even point for each well. The model shows the cost of steam by the ton and the sale price needed to determine the discount rate and the investment return time. [Spanish] Un proyecto de perforacion de pozos geotermicos puede definirse como una secuencia o sucesion de planes para obtener vapor o fluidos geotermicos destinados a satisfacer una demanda previamente determinada, que se emplearan principalmente para generar energia electrica, bajo las mejores condiciones para obtener un pago. Este trabajo presenta un modelo de costeo para nueve pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, que fueron perforados entre 2005 y 2006 como parte del suministro de vapor para las plantas generadoras que operan en este campo. El modelo de costeo se basa en el costo por pozo, la produccion inicial de vapor, la declinacion anual de vapor, los intereses de las obras de perforacion y el punto de equilibrio para cada pozo. Los resultados permiten conocer el costo de la tonelada de vapor y el precio de venta para determinar la tasa de descuento y el tiempo de retorno de la inversion.

  13. Tornos de alfarero protohistóricos del Cerro de las Cabezas (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real = Protohistoric potter’s wheels in the Iberian archaeological site ‘Cerro de las Cabezas’ (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Fernández Maroto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El yacimiento ibérico del “Cerro de las Cabezas” ha proporcionado cuatro piezas líticas que identificamos como pertenecientes a tornos de alfarero. Este oppidum ya ha sido puesto de manifiesto como un centro productor y difusor de cerámica ibérica. A través del análisis e interpretación de estas piezas y de las referencias obtenidas en otros yacimientos de la Península Ibérica y del Próximo Oriente, hemos podido confirmar que dos de estas piezas corresponden a un mismo torno, por lo que podemos considerar esta circunstancia como excepcional, dado que hasta el momento, en la Península Ibérica solo se tienen noticias de hallazgos de piezas descontextualizadas y dispersas. Nos encontramos así, con el primer torno  protohistórico completo adscrito a una cronología en torno al siglo III a.C.The Iberian archaeological site ‘Cerro de las Cabezas’ has provided four stone pieces that we identify as belonging to potter’s wheels. This oppidum has been revealed as a producer and spreading centre of Iberian pottery. Through the analysis and interpretation of these pieces, as well as the references obtained from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and the Middle East, we are able to confirm that two of these findings correspond to the same potter’s wheel. As a result, we could take into account this fact as an exceptional circumstance, because, so far, we only know about some scattered pieces taken out of context in the Iberian Peninsula. Consequently, we have maybe found the first complete protohistoric slow potter’s wheel dating from around the third century BC.

  14. A eugenia brasileira e suas conexões internacionais: uma análise a partir das controvérsias entre Renato Kehl e Edgard Roquette-Pinto, 1920-1930

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    Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza

    Full Text Available Resumo Analiso conexões e diálogos internacionais que envolveram a eugenia brasileira nas primeiras décadas do século XX. Partindo dos projetos eugênicos e das controvérsias entre Renato Kehl e Edgard Roquette-Pinto, duas lideranças do movimento eugênico brasileiro, investigo o contato deles com os movimentos eugênicos de países como EUA, Alemanha, Inglaterra, Suécia e Noruega. Meu interesse é demonstrar que as conexões desses pesquisadores com a chamada “linha dominante” do pensamento eugênico foram mais amplas e difusas do que o imaginado inicialmente. O resultado foi a conformação da eugenia brasileira em diferentes sentidos, o que ampliou a circulação internacional de ideias e extrapolou as fronteiras da “eugenia latina”.

  15. Results of the first order leveling surveys in the Mexicali Valley and at the Cerro Prieto field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained from the third leveling survey carried out by the Direccion General de Geografia del Territorio Nacional (previously DETENAL) during November and December 1979 are presented. Calculations of the changes in field elevation and plots showing comparisons of the 1977, 1978, and 1979 surveys are also presented. Results from a second order leveling survey performed to ascertain the extent of ground motion resulting from the 8 June 1980 earthquake are presented. This magnitude ML = 6.7 earthquake with epicenter located 15 km southeast of the Guadalupe Victoria village, caused fissures on the surface, the formation of small sand volcanos, and the ejection of ground water in the vicinity of the Cerro Prieto field. This leveling survey was carried out between benchmark BN-10067 at the intersection of the Solfatara canal and the Sonora-Baja California railroad, and benchmark BN-10055 located at the Delta station.

  16. Curie point depth from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data from Cerro Prieto geothermal area, Baja California, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Cardeña, J. M.; Campos-Enriquez, J. O.

    2008-10-01

    Using aeromagnetic data acquired in the area from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, we estimated the depth to the Curie point isotherm, interpreted as the base of the magnetic sources, following statistical spectral-based techniques. According to our results the Curie point isotherm is located at a depths ranging from 14 to 17 km. Our result is somewhat deeper than that obtained previously based only in 2-D and 3-D forward modeling of previous low-quality data. However, our results are supported by independent information comprising geothermal gradients, seismicity distribution in the crust, and gravity determined crustal thickness. Our results imply a high thermal gradient (ranging between 33 and 38 °C/km) and high heat flow (of about 100 mW/m 2) for the study area. The thermal regime for the area is inferred to be similar to that from the Salton trough.

  17. The ash deposits of the 4200 BP Cerro Blanco eruption: the largest Holocene eruption of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Saavedra, Julio; Perez-Torrado, Francisco-Jose; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Lobo, Agustin; Rejas, Marta; Gallardo, Juan-Fernando; Osterrieth, Margarita; Carrizo, Julieta; Esteban, Graciela; Martinez, Luis-Dante; Gil, Raul-Andres; Ratto, Norma; Baez, Walter

    2015-04-01

    We present new data about a major eruption -spreading approx. 110 km3 ashes over 440.000 km2- long thought to have occurred around 4200 years ago in the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex (CBVC) in the Central Andes of NW Argentina (Southern Puna, 26°45' S, 67°45' W). This eruption may be the biggest during the past five millennia in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and possibly one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the world. Discrimination and correlation of pyroclastic deposits of this eruption of Cerro Blanco was conducted comparing samples of proximal (domes, pyroclastic flow and fall deposits) with distal ash fall deposits (up to 400 km from de vent). They have been characterized using optical and electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, particle-size distribution by laser diffraction and electron microprobe and HR-ICP-MS with laser ablation for major and trace element composition of glass, feldspars and biotite. New and published 14C ages were calibrated using Bayesian statistics. An one-at-a-time inversion method was used to reconstruct the eruption conditions using the Tephra2 code (Bonadonna et al. 2010, https://vhub.org/resources/tephra2). This method allowed setting the main features of the eruption that explains the field observations in terms of thickness and grain size distributions of the ash fall deposit. The main arguments that justify the correlation are four: 1) Compositional coincidence for glass, feldspars, and biotite in proximal and distal materials; 2) Stratigraphic and geomorphological relationships, including structure and thickness variation of the distal deposits; 3) Geochronological consistency, matching proximal and distal ages; and 4) Geographical distribution of correlated outcrops in relation to the eruption centre at the coordinates of Cerro Blanco. With a magnitude of 7.0 and a volcanic explosivity index or VEI 7, this eruption of ~4200 BP at Cerro Blanco is the largest in the last five millennia known in the Central

  18. Notes on the ecology of Phyllodactylus reissi (Phyllodactylidae: Sauria in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru

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    Juan Carlos Jordán Arizmendi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some basics aspects on the ecology of the nocturnal gecko Phyllodactylus reissi from Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru are described. This species used rock boulders (57,4% and trees (31,9% as microhabitats primarily, exhibiting a nocturnal activity pattern, with a peak between 2100-2200 hours, remaining active until midnight. Body temperature (mean 24,4 ºC was correlated with both air and substrate temperature, with the last variable affecting in higher degree (47% the body temperature of this species. The slightly high body temperature of Phyllodactylus reissi, compared to other Phyllodactylus geckos, could be related to nocturnal microhabitat use and diurnal retreat site selection. More studies on lizard ecology from this endangered ecosystem are needed.

  19. Estudio de la líqueno flora encontrada en el Cerro de Quininí, Tibacuy, Cundinamarca

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    Hormaza Francisco

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realizó un muestreo de la liquen o flora del cerro de Quininí, Tibacuy, Cundinamarca para estudiar las características morfológicas externas de los géneros de líquenes encontrados en el. A su vez se hizo la revisión bibliográfica acerca de dichos géneros, datando así la riqueza de líquenes en la zona con 8 géneros en total y con respecto al papel de bioindicadores se mostró el grado de intervención para el lugar.

  20. Constraining the Paleogene of South America: Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimate proxy records from Cerro Bayo (Provincia de Salta, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, E.; Cotton, J. M.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    Records of rapid climatic and ecological shifts in the past are crucial for understanding global systems and for predicting future impacts of climate change. Transient and broad scale hyperthermal events during the Paleogene, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), have been studied extensively through both marine records and a significant terrestrial record from North America. Despite this, little evidence exists from the climatic and ecological histories of other major landmasses, which limits the effectiveness of global climate response predictions. Here we present an integrated paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the early Paleogene from a site in central South America (Cerro Bayo, Argentina), including a new magnetostratigraphic age model, pedological and sedimentological interpretation, whole rock geochemical climate proxies, isotopic environmental proxies, and microfloral assemblages. Cerro Bayo is a 235-meter terrestrial section that exposes the Tunal, Mealla, and Maiz Gordo Formations, and based on magnetostratigraphic interpolation spans roughly 58—50 Mya, including both the PETM and EECO events. These formations are composed primarily of reddish sandstone and siltstone, much of which exhibits features characteristic of a moderate degree of pedogenesis (i.e., Inceptisols and Alfisols). High-resolution climate proxies derived from paleosol geochemical compositions highlight rapid increases in mean annual temperature (>5°C) and precipitation (>300 mm yr-1) during the PETM, as well as more gradual increasing temperature and precipitation trends leading up to the EECO. Carbon isotope stratigraphy through the section also indicates a sizable negative excursion (~4‰) during the PETM, and generally positive isotopic trends during the early Eocene. Phytolith biostratigraphy also details changes in local vegetation composition during climatic events that corresponds to similar patterns seen in terrestrial

  1. Los marsupiales (Mammalia del Mioceno Superior de la Formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

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    Visconti, G.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the most complete South American marsupial association of Huayquerian Age (late Miocene. Specimens were recovered from several new localities of central and northern La Pampa province (central Argentina, at levels assignable to Cerro Azul Fm.: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco, and Laguna Chillhué. Loessoid sediments studied from this formation are indicative of lacustrine deposits overlaid by eolian levels bearing evidences of pedogenesis. A study of these levels at each one of the new localities led to their correlation in an integrated profile of Cerro Azul Fm. This formation corresponds to «Epecuén Fm.», at least in Salinas Grandes de Hidalgo, and probably also to the upper levels of Arroyo Chasicá Fm. The studied marsupials are representative of almost all major lineages (orders of South American Neogene marsupials. The marmosine didelphid Zygolestes tatei sp. nov. differs from the type species of the genus in its larger size, unreduced third lower premolar, and in the less reduction of the metaconid in the last lower molar. Another marmosine, Thylamys pinei sp. nov., differs from other Marmosini in the twinning of the para- and metaconid in the lower molars, and in the wider talonid of the m4. The Monodelphini marmosines Thylatheridium hudsoni y T. dolgopolae are abundant in several localities of this formation; their study confirms close affinities between this genus and Monodelphis. The didelphines Hyperdidelphys pattersoni and an indeterminate species of Lutreolina are also represented by a few specimens. A mandibular fragment including part of the last molar may represent the oldest record of a Sparassocynidae in central Argentina. The Borhyaenidae and Thylacosmilidae (Sparassodonta are also recorded by a few, fragmentary specimens. Pliolestes venetus sp. nov. (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae differs from the type species of the genus in its smaller size and in the larger, less displaced metaconid in the

  2. Volcanismo máfico terciario de la Puna jujeña, los Cerros Negros de Jama.

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    Caffe, Pablo, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary mafic volcanism of the Jujuy Puna, the Cerros Negros de Jama. The Cerros Negros de Jama (23°29’ S – 66°56’ W monogenetic volcanoes belong to a group of eruptive centers that are representative of the most mafic magmatism in the northern Puna during the Cenozoic. They comprise scoria cones and associated lava flows erupted during coeval strombolian and effusive volcanic activity.Aphyric to microporphyritic skeletal textures and microphenocryst assemblages dominated by olivine and/or orthopyroxene suggest inexistent or short residence times in supracrustal magma chambers, as well as magma temperatures higher than 1000º C and near to water saturation conditions. The frequent occurrence of magmatic quartz xenocrysts with different degrees of reaction suggests assimilation of silicic magmas/igneous rocks under variable P-T conditions. A combination of large ascent rates and strong turbulence, together with an overheating of the magmas would have been crucial for this in-route contamination process.The Jama volcanic rocks are basaltic andesites and andesites to trachyandesites which belong to the high-K calcalkaline series. The observed geochemical signature is typical of continental arc magmas, showing negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and P, La/Ta > 30 and Ba/Nb > 25. Two main groups of rocks with different evolution patterns can be distinguished from major and trace element diagrams. Different concentrations of some elements at intermediate degrees of evolution point to variable degrees of incompatibility for them, which in turn may have been caused by magma evolution at different depths from the same or different primary magmas.

  3. Una fosa-vertedero de época vettona en el Cerro de la Mesa (Alcolea de Tajo, Toledo

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    Chapa Brunet, Teresa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of pits filled with earth, ashes, pottery fragments and fauna, usually known as ash pits, rubbish pits or dumps, has been recognized on many Second Iron Age settlements of the Spanish Northern Plateau, generally linked with Vaccean and Vettonian groups. However, its distribution should be extended to the west of the Southern Plateau and eastern Extremadura, as evidenced by the example of the Cerro de la Mesa village and indications coming from other western sites. We offer here a detailed study of part of a rubbish pit where certain domestic remains were withdrawn in connection with a new project of urbanisation of the Vettonian village held on the transition from the 3rd to the 2nd centuries BC.La existencia de fosas rellenas con tierra, cenizas, fragmentos cerámicos y fauna denominadas genéricamente como cenizales, basureros o vertederos, es un hecho bien conocido en la Meseta Norte durante la Segunda Edad del Hierro, vinculándose con los grupos Vacceos y Vettones. Sin embargo, su distribución debe ampliarse al occidente de la Meseta Sur y oriente extremeño, como se evidencia tanto en el Cerro de la Mesa como a través de indicios documentados en otros yacimientos más occidentales. Se presenta aquí un detallado estudio de un sector de la fosa que actuó como vertedero para la retirada de ciertos restos domésticos con ocasión de la reurbanización en profundidad del poblado vettón que tuvo lugar en la transición del siglo III al II a.C.

  4. Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) standardized extract: a potential pharmacological tool to diet-induced metabolic syndrome damage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pathise Souto; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Bona, Natália Pontes; Soares, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira; Cardoso, Juliane de Souza; Vasconcellos, Flávia Aleixo; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli; Vizzotto, Marcia; Silva, Luísa Mariano Cerqueira da; Grecco, Fabiane Borelli; Gamaro, Giovana Duzzo; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Lencina, Claiton Leoneti; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Stefanello, Francieli Moro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) extract on metabolic status, as well as on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in an animal model of metabolic syndrome induced by a highly palatable diet (HPD). Rats were treated for 150days and divided into 4 experimental groups: standard chow (SC) and water orally, SC and E. uniflora extract (200mg/kg daily, p.o), HPD and water orally, HPD and extract. Our data showed that HPD caused glucose intolerance, increased visceral fat, weight gain, as well as serum glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol; however, E. uniflora prevented these alterations. The extract decreased lipid peroxidation and prevented the reduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum of animals submitted to HPD. We observed a HPD-induced reduction of thiol content in these cerebral structures. The extract prevented increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the prefrontal cortex caused by HPD and the increase in immobility time observed in the forced swim test. Regarding chemical composition, LC/MS analysis showed the presence of nine anthocyanins as the major compounds. In conclusion, E. uniflora extract showed benefits against metabolic alterations caused by HPD, as well as exhibited antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Cytotoxic and antioxidative potentials of ethanolic extract of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) leaves on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Matias, Edinardo Fagner Ferreira; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Sanmi, Adekunle Adeniran; Boligon, Aline Augusti; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Posser, Thaís; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia uniflora is used in the Brazilian folk medicine to treat intestinal disorders and hypertension. However, scanty information exist on its potential toxicity to human, and little is known on its antioxidant activity in biological system. Hence, we investigated for the first time the potential toxic effects of ethanolic extract (EtOH) of E. uniflora (EEEU) in human leukocytes and erythrocytes, as well as its influence on membrane erythrocytes osmotic fragility. In addition, EEEU was chemically characterized and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated. We found that EEEU (1-480μg/mL) caused neither cytotoxicity nor DNA damage evaluated by Trypan blue and Comet assay, respectively. EEEU (1-480μg/mL) did not have any effect on membrane erythrocytes fragility. In addition, EEEU inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain and liver homogenates, and scavenged the DPPH radical. EEEU presented some polyphenolic compounds with high content such as quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, luteolin and ellagic acid, which may be at least in part responsible for its beneficial effects. Our results suggest that consumption of EEEU at relatively higher concentrations may not result in toxicity. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies should be conducted to ascertain its safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Clusia hilariana and Eugenia uniflora as bioindicators of atmospheric pollutants emitted by an iron pelletizing factory in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; Pereira, Tiago Augusto Rodrigues; Castro, Letícia Nalon; Silva, Eduardo Chagas; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate if the pollution emitted by the pelletizing factory causes visual symptoms and/or anatomical changes in exposed Eugenia uniflora and Clusia hilariana, in active biomonitoring, at different distances from a pelletizing factory. We characterize the symptomatology, anatomical, and histochemistry alterations induced in the two species. There was no difference in the symptomatology in relation to the different distances of the emitting source. The foliar symptoms found in C. hilariana were chlorosis, necrosis, and foliar abscission and, in E. uniflora, were observed necrosis punctuais, purple spots in the leaves, and increase in the emission of new leaves completely purplish. The two species presented formation of a cicatrization tissue. E. uniflora presented reduction in the thickness of leaf. In C. hilariana, it was visualized hyperplasia of the cells and the adaxial epidermis did not appear collapsed due to thick cuticle and cuticular flanges. Leaves of C. hilariana showed positive staining for iron, protein, starch, and phenolic compounds. E. uniflora showed positive staining for total phenolic compounds and starch. Micromorphologically, there was accumulation of particulate matter on the leaf surface, obstruction of the stomata, and scaling of the epicuticular wax in both species. It was concluded that the visual and anatomical symptoms were efficient in the diagnosis of the stress factor. C. hilariana and E. uniflora showed to be good bioindicators of the atmospheric pollutants emitted by the pelletizing factory.

  7. Liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.): characterization of aqueous dispersions and lyophilized formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, P A; Yokota, D; Foglio, M A; Rodrigues, R A F; Pinho, S C

    2010-01-01

    Multilamellar liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves were produced by dry film hydration. Gas chromatography demonstrated the compounds found in the essential oil were effectively incorporated in the aqueous dispersions of liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed the incorporation of the essential oil did not cause phase separation in the membrane structure; the gel-liquid crystalline transition temperature (main transition) remained the same despite the higher heterogeneity indicated by the transition peak broadening. Different cryoprotectors (sucrose and trehalose) were added to the liposomal formulations to be tested in their ability to protect the liposomal structure during the lyophilization. The morphological aspect of the lyophilized powders analysed by scanning electron microscopy showed significant differences among the samples with and without cryoprotectors. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the cryoprotectors interacted effectively with the polar heads of phospholipids in the bilayer. In terms of water absorption, trehalose was identified as a much more effective protector agent against it than sucrose. The cryoprotectors showed different degrees of effectiveness of preservation of the liposomal structure when the rehydration assays of lyophilized liposomes were carried out, as particle size measurements indicated a moderate process of fusion when the formulations with sucrose were rehydrated.

  8. Estudo comparativo do óleo essencial de Eugenia punicifolia (HBK DC. de diferentes localidades de Pernambuco

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    R.N. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial obtido por hidrodestilação das folhas de Eugenia punicifolia, coletados a partir de duas regiões de Matas Serranas do Estado de Pernambuco (Serra Negra e Brejo da Madre de Deus, foi analisado por CG/EM. O monoterpeno oxigenado, linalol (SN: 44,0%, BMD: 61,2%, foi o componente principal do óleo de ambas amostras. Cerca de 66,2% da constituição dos voláteis da amostra proveniente de SN e 74,2% de BMD referem-se aos monoterpenos oxigenados, enquanto 33,6% da amostra de SN e 20,5% de BMD são sesquiterpenos oxigenados, sendo o b-cariofileno o mais abundante (SN: 22,7%, BMD: 16,2%. Com exceção do a-cadinol, presente apenas no óleo proveniente do Brejo da Madre de Deus, a constituição química de ambas as amostras foi à mesma, variando apenas o percentual relativo de seus constituintes.

  9. De novo assembly of Eugenia uniflora L. transcriptome and identification of genes from the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Frank; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Margis, Rogerio

    2014-12-01

    Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is of particular interest due to its medicinal properties that are attributed to specialized metabolites with known biological activities. Among these molecules, terpenoids are the most abundant in essential oils that are found in the leaves and represent compounds with potential pharmacological benefits. The terpene diversity observed in Myrtaceae is determined by the activity of different members of the terpene synthase and oxidosqualene cyclase families. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transcripts from E. uniflora leaves and to annotation to identify the genes potentially involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway and terpene diversity. In total, 72,742 unigenes with a mean length of 1048bp were identified. Of these, 43,631 and 36,289 were annotated with the NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. The gene ontology categorized the sequences into 53 functional groups. A metabolic pathway analysis with KEGG revealed 8,625 unigenes assigned to 141 metabolic pathways and 40 unigenes predicted to be associated with the biosynthesis of terpenoids. Furthermore, we identified four putative full-length terpene synthase genes involved in sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes biosynthesis, and three putative full-length oxidosqualene cyclase genes involved in the triterpenes biosynthesis. The expression of these genes was validated in different E. uniflora tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antidiabetic Activity of Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System from Bay Leaves (Eugenia polyantha Wight) Ethyl Acetate Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihapsara, F.; Harini, M.; Widiyani, T.; Artanti, A. N.; Ani, I. L.

    2017-02-01

    Insulin resistance is caused by inability of target tissues to insulin response. Bay leaves (Eugenia polyantha Wight) fraction or extract have been used for the treatment of antidibetic mellitus type-2 resistance insulin (ADMRI) but it has low solubility and bioavailability. To overcome these problems, ethyl acetate fraction of bay leaves was formulated into self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) using Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) as a carrier oil. This study aims to produce nanoherbal medicine, determine effect of nanoherbal preparation derived from bay leaves as an anti-ADMRI. The results showed that the optimum SNEDDS formula was tween 80 : PEG 400 : Virgin Coconut Oil (30% : 60% : 10%) in 5 mL. It has emulsification time 13.00 seconds with the average of droplet size value 84.5 nanometer and zeta potential value ± 0.2 mV. Morphological observation showed the nanoemulsion particles has spherical shaped and stable in different pH media. Hypoglycaemic effect of single dose metformin, SNEDDS, combination a-half dose of SNEEDS with metformin value is 28.3%; 15.6%; 34.6% respectively.

  11. Elaboration and Characterization of Apple Nectars Supplemented with Araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata Mac Vaugh—Myrtaceae

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    Tatiana Ferrari Baldini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are known as sources of nutritionally important phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, and Brazilian biodiversity may be hiding many underexplored fruits with potential health benefits. In this study, we formulated a fruit-based beverage by supplementing known amounts of freeze-dried araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata (FD to a commercial apple nectar in order to evaluate the impact in terms of nutritional (level of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity and sensory parameters. The best acceptance was evidenced for the apple nectar supplemented with 1 g/L of FD, while no statistically significant changes were obtained for non-supplemented apple nectar and apple nectar supplemented with 5 or 10 g/L FD. Lower acceptances for apple nectars supplemented with 15, 20 or 30 g/L FD were suggested to be caused by an increase in acidity. In general, total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (DPPH, TEAC and ORAC increased with the supplementation level, although not always a statistically significant difference was observed. When compared to control (non-supplemented, the apple nectar supplemented with 10 g/L FD presented a significant increase in total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (except for ORAC assay, and therefore this level of supplementation was considered ideal, considering both nutritional and sensory properties.

  12. On the concept of eugenics: preliminaries to a critical appraisal Sobre o conceito de eugenia: preliminares à uma avaliação crítica

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    Demetrio Neri

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's main issue is linked to what can be foreseen as the increasing capability of medical genetics to modify the genetic composition of the human species through direct interventions in the human genome for medical and non-medical purposes, i.e., the 'risk' of a resurgence of eugenics. In current discussions on the topic (briefly presented in the first section, the 'phantom of eugenics' is raised several times, but there is a great deal of confusion on what counts as eugenics, partly because of broad conceptual disagreement over the notion itself. Furthermore, according to some scholars there is no hope of overcoming this unsatisfactory conceptual uncertainty. Partly challenging this opinion, the second and third sections of this paper attempt to identify some basic features which could be seen as intrinsically linked to the notion of eugenics, with the aim of reducing the range of conceptual disagreement as a preliminary step in bringing into focus what exactly is wrong with practicing eugenics. The subsequent sections deal with the substantive issue of whether or not to practice eugenics from the point of view of the interest of future generations in the human species' genetic composition. The main moral arguments for and against eugenics are examined from the point of view of our obligations towards future generations, and the conclusion is in favor of a cautious 'open-door' position.O ponto principal desse artigo está vinculado ao que pode ser antevisto como a crescente capacidade da genética médica de modificar a espécie humana por meio de intervenções diretas no genoma humano com propósitos médicos e não médicos, isto é, o risco do ressurgimento da eugenia. Nas atuais discussões sobre o tópico, o fantasma da eugenia é levantado diversas vezes, mas há grande confusão no que se refere ao que é considerado como eugenia, particularmente em razão da ampla discordância sobre a noção em si. Procura-se identificar

  13. Configuration of the mudstones, gray- and coffee-colored shale lithologic units, zones of silica and epidote, and their relation to the tectonics of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo R, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Based on well cuttings, five lithological units have been recognized within the area of what is now the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. These five units are described. Differences in origin, mineralogy, grading, color, compaction, etc., are shown.

  14. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-06-17

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  15. Antidiabetic and antiulcer effects of extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in mild diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Aditi; Bhawani, G; Agarwal, P K; Goel, Shalini; Singh, A; Goel, R K

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes has been reported to increase propensity to peptic ulceration through its effect both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors. Seeds of Eugenia jambolana (EJ) have been reported to have both antidiabetic as well as ulcer protective effects. The present study evaluates the antidiabetic effects of ethanolic extract of dried seed kernel of Eugenia jambolana (EJE) and its comparative effect on gastric ulceration and acid-pepsin secretion with standard antisecretory FL-blocker. Ranitidine and antidiabetic glibenclamide with a premise that Eugenia jambolana may show better ulcer healing effects by promoting defensive or reducing offensive mucosal factors in mild diabetes (MD) rats. MD was produced in adult rats by administration of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, ip). EJE was given orally in the doses of 100-400 mg/kg for 10 days and in the dose of 200 mg/kg for 30 days respectively to study its dose- and time-dependent effects on various diabetic parameters like blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, insulin level and glycosylated hemoglobin. For ulcer protective and gastric secretion studies, EJE (200 mg/kg) was given orally for 10 days against 2 h cold restraint stress (CRS)-, 4 h pylorus ligation (PL), aspirin (ASP, 200 mg/kg, 4 h)--and 95% ethanol (EtOH, 1 ml/200 g, 1 h)-induced gastric ulcers and offensive acid-pepsin secretion after 4 h PL with co-occurring MD in rats. EJE showed dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose level in MD rats. Blood glucose level remained stable in mild diabetic rats from 3rd day onwards after streptozotocin administration (taken as 1st day for treatment) and EJE (200 mg/kg) showed anti-hyperglycemic effect on 10th day of its administration. Further, EJE in the above dose also decreased cholesterol level with little or no effect on triglycerides level and reversed the decrease and increase in insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin level near to the normal level as observed alter 30 days treatment in MD rats. MD rats

  16. A Logical Analysis of Existential Dependence and Some Other Ontological Concepts—A Comment to Some Ideas of Eugenia Ginsberg-Blaustein

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    Marek Magdziak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with several problems concerning notion of existential dependence and ontological notions of existence, necessity and fusion. Following some ideas of Eugenia Ginsberg-Blaustein, the notions are treated in reference to objects, in relation to the concepts of state of affairs and subject of state of affairs. It provides an axiomatic characterization of these concepts within the framework of a multi-modal propositional logic and then presents a semantic analysis of these concepts. The semantics are a slight modification to the standard relational semantics for normal modal propositional logic.

  17. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil.

  18. Composição química e variação sazonal dos óleos essenciais de Eugenia pyriformis (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanello, Maria É.A.; Wisniewski Jr., Alberto; Simionatto, Edésio L.; Cervi, Armando C.

    2009-01-01

    A composição química dos óleos essenciais obtidos por hidrodestilação de folhas (coletadas entre outubro/2005 e dezembro/2006), flores e frutos de Eugenia pyriformis Camb. (Myrtaceae), foi analisada por CG e CG/EM. Os óleos foram caracterizados pela presença de monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos em quantidades variáveis durante o ano. Nos óleos das folhas os principais componentes foram β-pineno, limoneno, 1,8-cineol e óxido de cariofileno. O teor destes compostos mostrou grande variação sazo...

  19. María Eugenia Dengo Obregón: mujer de lectura, educación y cultura…

    OpenAIRE

    Eduarte Salazar, José Pablo

    2008-01-01

    The article is a biographical sketch of the Licda. Maria Eugenia Dengo Obregón widow of Vargas, who crosses their life and works in their personal facet, professional, public and, more recently, like exponent of the Costa Rican culture. It is a tribute to the figure of this untiring woman, who with her reading and writing has managed to leave a legacy in the Costa Rican education, like professor, Dean, Vicerectora, Minister and ex- Minister of Public Education of Costa Rica. The L...

  20. Biologia floral e da polinização de quatro espécies de Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae Floral and pollination biology of four species of Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae

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    André Luiz Gomes da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora, E. punicifolia, E. neonitida e E. rotundifolia são espécies perenes, geralmente de porte arbustivo, que ocorrem na restinga do Parque Natural Municipal de Grumari, região oeste do Município do Rio de Janeiro. Possuem inflorescências racemosas com flores pediceladas inseridas nas axilas foliares. Suas flores são andróginas, polistêmones, do tipo Papaver, generalistas, com grãos de pólen como único recurso floral sendo enquadradas dentro da categoria de "flores-pólen". O estigma é seco, diminuto e formado por papilas delgadas. A antese é diurna, as flores duram apenas um dia e são visitadas por uma ampla variedade de insetos, incluindo himenópteros, dípteros, coleópteros e neurópteros, totalizando 29 espécies. As abelhas são os visitantes mais comuns e, dentre elas, Apis mellifera L., espécie introduzida pela ação humana, é a mais freqüente e abundante, sendo considerada o polinizador efetivo das espécies aqui estudadas. A floração é anual e em massa. E. uniflora floresce de agosto a outubro, com frutificação de setembro a novembro. E. neonitida floresce do final de agosto até início de dezembro, com frutificação de outubro até início de janeiro. E. punicifolia floresceu por duas vezes no ano de 2003, sendo a primeira florada entre os meses de junho e julho, frutificando no mês de agosto e a segunda, entre os meses de setembro e outubro, frutificando entre novembro e dezembro e no ano de 2004, floriu apenas no mês de agosto e frutificou entre outubro e dezembro. E. rotundifolia floresceu no mês de março, com frutificação de maio a junho.Eugenia uniflora, E. punicifolia, E. neonitida and E. rotundifolia are perennial species, usually shrubs, occurring in the restinga of Grumari Natural Municipal Park west of Rio de Janeiro. They have racemose inflorescences with pedicellate flowers inserted in the leaf axils. The flowers are androgynous, polystemonous, of the Papaver type, and

  1. GERMINAÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE PITANGUEIRA (Eugenia uniflora L. SOB CONDIÇÕES DE SOMBREAMENTO GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF Eugenia uniflora L. SEEDLINGS UNDER SHADE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVANA DE PAULA QUINTÃO SCALON

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a capacidade germinativa das sementes de pitanga e o crescimento das mudas sob condições de sombreamento. O experimento foi conduzido na Área de Pesquisa Experimental da UNIGRAN -- Dourados-MS. O teste de germinação foi realizado com 300 sementes, sendo avaliados a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência. Aos três meses após a emergência, o experimento de crescimento das mudas foi instalado em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três tratamentos (sombrite 50% e 70% de luz e a pleno sol, em 4 repetições de 15 mudas por tratamento. Quando as mudas apresentavam 4; 5; 6 e 7 meses de idade, foram avaliados a altura e o diâmetro de caule, e ao final do ensaio, foram avaliados o peso seco total das mudas (g, a área foliar (dm², a razão de peso foliar - RPF (g/g e o peso específico de folhas - PEF (g/dm². A pitangueira é uma espécie de fácil propagação por sementes, apresentando 65,7% de germinação e índice de velocidade de emergência de 3,34 , sendo que as sementes iniciaram o processo de germinação aos 23 dias após a semeadura. As mudas cresceram melhor sob condição de luz plena, onde apresentaram maior altura, diâmetro de caule, peso seco e área foliar.The objectives of this work were to evaluate germination capacity of Eugenia uniflora L. seeds and the growth of seedlings under shade conditions. The experiment was carried out at Experimental Research Area of the UNIGRAN -- Dourados, MS. Germination test was done with 300 seeds and germination percentage and emergence speed index were evaluated. At the third month after emergence, the seedling growth experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three treatment (50% and 70% of sunlight and at full sunlight with four replications of 15 seedlings each treatment. When seedlings presented 4, 5, 6 and 7 months of age, height and stem diameter were evaluated and at the final of the

  2. Análise estrutural de folhas de Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae coletadas em ambientes rural e urbano, SP, Brasil Leaf anatomy of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae in urban and rural environments, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Edenise Segala Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo verificar se plantas de Eugenia uniflora que crescem na cidade de São Paulo, diferem quanto à estrutura foliar, de exemplares encontrados em área rural, isenta de poluentes aéreos urbanos. Foram avaliadas, comparativamente, as dimensões da folha e, em microscopia de luz, a espessura dos tecidos foliares, a densidade de estômatos e de cristais da espécie, coletada em área rural e em dois pontos da cidade de São Paulo: canteiro central da Avenida dos Bandeirantes, com tráfego veicular intenso, portanto com alta carga de poluentes primários, e no Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI submetido a altas concentrações de poluentes secundários. Buscaram-se variações que possam ser decorrentes da poluição urbana. As folhas coletadas no meio urbano mostraram menores dimensões, menor espessura do mesofilo, maior densidade estomática e maior quantidade de cristais. A espessura do parênquima lacunoso sofreu redução, quando se comparam as plantas do ambiente rural e urbano; observou-se a menor espessura nas folhas submetidas a poluentes secundários. Não foram observadas variações qualitativas entre as folhas dos três locais avaliados. Considerando que folhas coletadas no meio urbano variaram menos entre si, quando comparadas àquelas de área rural, acredita-se que a poluição aérea da cidade possa ser responsável, pelo menos em parte, pelas variações observadas. Exposições padronizadas, em ambiente monitorado, devem ser realizadas para comprovar tal hipótese.The aim of this study was to compare leaves of Eugenia uniflora from the city of São Paulo with leaves of plants from a rural site. Leaf size, tissue thickness, and stomatal and crystal density of E. uniflora growing at two sites in the city of São Paulo were investigated by light microscopy and compared with samples from a rural area. The level and types of air pollutants varied at the urban sites. Primary pollutants were present

  3. Crescimento e sobrevivência de mudas de cagaiteira (Eugenia dysenterica DC nas condições do cerrado Growth and survival of cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC plants in tropical savanas

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    ELI REGINA BARBOZA DE SOUZA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Muitas frutíferas do cerrado apresentam potencial para a exploração econômica e, dentre elas, a cagaiteira destaca-se pelas suas diversas utilidades, sendo os seus frutos consumidos in natura ou na forma de sucos, sorvetes, licores e geléias, tornando-se, assim, de interesse realizar pesquisas com esta espécie. Neste trabalho, mudas de cagaiteira (Eugenia dysenterica DC produzidas em tubetes com diferentes volumes (50 cm³, 120 cm³ e 228 cm³ e três tipos de substratos {solo + terriço de mata + vermiculita (1:1:2; solo + terriço de mata + vermiculita (1:1:2 + 1g de termofosfato Yoorin por litro de substrato; e substrato comercial Plantmax} foram plantadas no campo e avaliadas quanto ao crescimento em altura e diâmetro e percentagem de sobrevivência. O delineamento adotado foi o de blocos completos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, utilizando-se de cinco repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Verificou-se que as mudas produzidas a partir do substrato solo + terriço de mata + vermiculita, com e sem adubação química, apresentaram maior crescimento em altura e em diâmetro, em todas as épocas de avaliação. As mudas obtidas em tubetes contendo diferentes tipos e volumes de substrato apresentaram taxas de sobrevivência entre 76% e 100%, aos 540 dias após o plantio no campo. O crescimento em altura e em diâmetro foi lento, atingindo os valores médios de 46,267 cm e 0,637 cm, respectivamente, aos 540 dias. Esse diâmetro pode ser considerado adequado para a realização da enxertia nesta espécie.Many cerrado (tropical savannahs fruits have potential for economic exploitation. The cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC can be ingested in natura or like juices, ice cream, licor or jams. In this work, cagaita shoots from three tube-like plastic containers (50 cm³, 120 cm³ and 228cm³ and three rooting media types {soil + forest humus + vermiculite (1:1:2; soil + forest humus + vermiculite (1:1:2 + yoorin termophosphate 1g

  4. Composición, estructura y diversidad del cerro El Águila, Michoacán, México Composition, structure and diversity of the cerro El Águila, Michoacán, Mexico

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    Luis Eduardo Zacarias-Eslava

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la composición, estructura y diversidad de la vegetación presente en el cerro El Águila, Michoacán. Se reconocieron fisonómicamente 5 tipos de vegetación y en cada uno se establecieron 16 parcelas circulares de 400 m² (3.2 ha para censar los individuos leñosos ≥ 10 cm d.a.p., con una parcela anidada de 100 m² (0.8 ha para los individuos entre 2.5 y 9.9 cm d.a.p. El muestreo incluyó 46 especies agrupadas en 33 géneros y 21 familias. Los bosques tropical caducifolio y de Quercus deserticola tuvieron los valores más bajos de altura promedio ( 11 m y área basal (> 40 m²/ha. La diversidad fue mayor en el bosque tropical caducifolio (S=23 y α =5.4 y menor en el de Quercus-Pinus (S= 13 y α= 2.71. En general, los tipos de vegetación mostraron diferentes especies dominantes y una alta diversidad beta. La composición y estructura de estas comunidades puede asociarse a cambios en altitud y a la perturbación por actividades humanas. No obstante, la zona de estudio aún presenta áreas en buen estado de conservación, particularmente los bosques templados hacia las zonas con mayor altitud, por lo que se sugiere que en un futuro cercano sea incluida dentro de alguna categoría de protección estatal.This study describes composition, structure and diversity of vegetation in the Cerro El Águila, Michoacán. Five plant communities were recognized and for each one all woody individuals ≥10 cm DBH were tallied in sixteen 400 m² circular plots, whereas individuals between 2.5 and 9.9 cm DBH were measured in a 100 m² circular sub-plot centered within each larger plot. A total of 46 species, 33 genera and 21 families were recorded. The tropical deciduous forest and Quercus deserticola forest had low values of mean plant height ( 11 m and basal area (> 40 m²/ha. Diversity was greater in the tropical deciduous forest (S= 23 and α= 5.4, respectively and lower in the oak-pine forest (S= 13 and α= 2.71. All communities displayed

  5. Grado de discapacidad en pacientes hemipléjicos del "Policlínico Docente Universitario del Cerro" Evaluation of disability in hemiplegic patients from Cerro university teaching polyclinic

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    Abel Estévez Perera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hemiplejía como consecuencia de un ictus constituye una importante causa de discapacidad. La continuidad y calidad en el proceso rehabilitador supone mejores perspectivas en el pronóstico de los pacientes. Objetivo: evaluar el grado de discapacidad en los pacientes hemipléjicos del área de salud del Policlínico Docente Universitario del Cerro. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal en los pacientes que acudieron consecutivamente al área de rehabilitación del citado policlínico, desde septiembre de 2009 hasta julio de 2011. La muestra estuvo constituida por 124 hemipléjicos por enfermedad cerebrovascular mayores de 15 años, los cuales fueron evaluados con la Escala de Discapacidad de Rosetón. Se excluyeron los enfermos con afasia sensorial o mixta y aquellos que se negaron a participar. Resultados: en 84 (67,8 % pacientes se encontró independencia para la orientación y predominó la semidependencia para el desplazamiento y las necesidades físicas. Para la higiene personal, 48 (38,7 % pacientes resultaron ser dependientes. La falta de motivación para ocupar el tiempo libre se encontró en 92 (74,2 % pacientes, casi siempre por dificultades en la convivencia y en las relaciones familiares. Conclusiones: el grado de discapacidad de los pacientes hemipléjicos evaluados viene dado por la semidependencia en el desplazamiento y las necesidades físicas y la dependencia para el autocuidado. Las dificultades en la convivencia y las relaciones familiares interfieren en la motivación del paciente para ocupar el tiempo libre.Introduction: hemiplegia is an important cause of disability as a result of a stroke. The persistence and quality of the rehabilitative process lead to better results in the patient prognosis. Objective: to evaluate the extent of disability in hemiplegic patients from the health area under "Cerro" university teaching polyclinics. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in

  6. O gênero Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae na planície de alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná, Brasil The genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae on the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil

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    Mariza Barion Romagnolo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento das espécies de Eugenia L. da planície alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná (22º40' a 22º55'S e 53º10' a 53º40'W. Esta área localiza-se no domínio da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e apresenta formações ripárias ao longo do rio Paraná, de suas ilhas e de seus tributários. As espécies registradas foram: Eugenia egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O. Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart. e E. uniflora L. Os meses que apresentaram o maior número de espécies em floração e frutificação foram respectivamente, setembro e novembro. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis e E. repanda apresentam ampla distribuição na área, enquanto que E. ramboi e E. sulcata foram encontradas somente na margem esquerda do rio Paraná. É fornecida uma chave para a identificação das espécies, acompanhada de ilustrações e descrições das mesmas, além de informações sobre o período de floração, frutificação e distribuição na área estudada.A floristic survey of Eugenia L. species of the Upper Paraná River floodplain in Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil (22º40'-22º55'S; 53º10'-53º40'W is presented. The study area is covered by Seasonal Semideciduous Forest, with riparian formations along the Paraná River and its islands and tributaries. The following species were identified: E. egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O.Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart., and E. uniflora L. The greatest number of species in flower or fruit was detected in September and November, respectively. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis and E. repanda are widely distributed in the study area, whereas E. ramboi and E. sulcata were observed only

  7. Mineralogy of the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ) in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, B.C., Mexico; Mineralogia de la zona mineralizada de silice-epidota (ZMSE) del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Georgina; Aragon, Alfonso; Portugal, Enrique; Arellano; Victor M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: gim@iie.org.mx; Leon, Jesus de; Alvarez, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    The distribution of hydrothermal minerals, mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion data were taken from drill cuttings from the production zone of wells all over the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The production zone has been termed the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ), and is located in the deep part of the gray shale where thick layers of sandstone are found. Common mineral assemblages show three temperature ranges in the SEMZ: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius and 250-300 degrees Celsius. The first range is characterized by clays, calcite and quartz; the second by quartz, epidote, chlorite and mica, and the third by epidote, amphibole, illite and chlorite. The study of fluid inclusions in authigenic grain quartz has shown two-phase fluid inclusions (liquid + vapor) of different salinities. A wide range exists of homogenization temperatures (Th) and for some wells there is a good agreement between Th and direct temperature measurements. [Spanish] Se determino la distribucion de minerales hidrotermales y las asociaciones parageneticas y se realizo el estudio microtermometrico de inclusiones fluidas a partir de recortes de perforacion de pozos de las distintas areas del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto. Las muestras de recortes y nucleos de perforacion estudiados provienen de la zona de produccion a la que se le ha denominado Zona Mineralizada de Silice-Epidota (ZMSE), que se encuentra en la parte profunda de la lutita gris con importantes horizontes de areniscas. En esta zona las asociaciones parageneticas mas comunes han mostrado tres intervalos de temperatura para la ZMSE: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius, 250-300 degrees Celsius. El primer intervalo esta caracterizado principalmente por arcillas, calcita y cuarzo; el segundo por cuarzo, epidota, clorita y micas, y el tercero por epidota, anfiboles, illita y clorita. El estudio de inclusiones fluidas en fragmentos de cuarzo autigenico mostro la presencia de inclusiones de dos fases

  8. Geological and production analyses focused on exploration of the eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis geologico-productivo enfocado a la exploracion de la parte oriental del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    The eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), known as Poligono Nuevo Leon, is an area with proven geothermal resources, as confirmed by seven directional wells located toward the east and by vertical well M-200 located inside the polygon. Well M-200 was drilled in 1984 and has produced about 4 million tons of steam to date. It is integrated into the CP-2 sector, producing 68 t/h of steam. Presently the eastern part of CGCP, representing 25% of the total field area, is producing over half of the steam for the entire field. In the last few years, the steam has come only after increasing the number of production wells located in the eastern zone of CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), where pressure, enthalpy and temperature conditions are better than in other parts of the field. However in the long term it will be necessary to incorporate Poligono Nuevo Leon into the productive area to expand the productive life of CGCP. This paper includes a geological analysis, plus models for steam production, temperature and enthalpy for Poligono Nuevo Leon. [Spanish] La parte oriental del Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), conocida como Poligono Nuevo Leon, representa una area potencial con recursos geotermicos comprobados, lo que demuestran siete pozos direccionales que se han perforado hacia el este, asi como el pozo vertical M-200, localizado dentro del poligono. El pozo M-200 se perforo en 1984 y ha producido a la fecha alrededor de 4 millones de toneladas de vapor, estando integrado al sector CP-2 una produccion de 68 t/h de vapor. Actualmente la parte oriental del CGCP, que representa el 25% del area total del campo, produce mas de la mitad del total de vapor del campo. El suministro de vapor en los ultimos anos se ha logrado cubrir aumentando el numero de pozos en operacion localizados en la zona oriente del CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), ya que es aqui donde hay condiciones de presion, entalpia y temperatura del yacimiento que son mejores que en otras areas del campo

  9. Two-phase characteristics of the feeding fluid of Cerro Prieto IV wells (Mexico) obtained by gas equilibrium; Caracteristicas bifasicas del fluido de alimentacion de pozos de Cerro Prieto IV (Mexico), obtenidas por equilibrio gaseoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan-Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano-Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal-Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); De Leon-Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The gas composition of fluids produced by CP IV geothermal wells from the Cerro Prieto field was studied in order to identify different types of fluids entering the wells by estimating their temperature and excess steam. A method based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H2S equilibrium with pyrite-pyrrhotite as mineral buffer (FTHSH3) was used. The results for the reservoir natural state indicated the presence of fluids with heterogeneous reservoir temperature (between 275 and 310 degrees Celsius) and excess steam values, which were found from negative (boiled liquid that has lost steam when flowing to the well) to one (steam phase with zero liquid saturation). The study for individual wells in which boiling processes were identified, showed that through time, the feeding fluids consist of a two-phase mixture with different liquid/steam proportions. Also, the results suggested that a steam phase could occur at CP IV which is added to the feeding fluid, depending on the operation conditions of the wells. The origin of this steam could be the boiling of the deeper liquid due to a pressure drop. [Spanish] Se estudio la composicion gaseosa de los fluidos producidos por pozos geotermicos del sector CP IV del campo de Cerro Prieto para tratar de distinguir aportes de fluidos diferentes mediante la estimacion de su temperatura de yacimiento y del exceso de vapor. Se utilizo un metodo de equilibrio gaseoso basado en la reaccion de Fischer Tropsch y el equilibrio combinado pirita-pirrotita (FT-HSH3). Los resultados obtenidos indican que en el estado inicial del yacimiento existen fluidos que muestran heterogeneidad en los valores de temperatura de yacimiento (entre 275 y 310 grados Celsius), asi como en el exceso de vapor con valores desde negativos (liquido que despues de ebullir ha perdido vapor en su trayecto hacia el pozo) hasta uno (vapor con cero saturacion de liquido). El estudio individual de los pozos con fenomenos de ebullicion muestra que a traves del tiempo

  10. Studies for recovering injection capacity in wells of the Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal field; Estudios para recuperar la capacidad de aceptacion en pozos inyectores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Rosales, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: julio.alvarez@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    As in geothermal fields around the world, at Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, former exploratory and production wells are used to inject residual brine. Since the 1980s, studies and activities have been carried out to find ways to recharge the reservoir and dispose of brine without harming the environment or underground aquifers. These include infiltration and cold-and-hot injection. Some of the studies are presented here, including analyses of litho-facies; core samples; pressure, temperature and spinner logs; well tests and injection rates-plus some studies on the shallow aquifer. All have been useful in fulfilling requirements made by environmental authorities. Because injection rates constantly decrease due to formation damage, it is proposed an additional technique be used to reduce such damages and prolong the lifetime of cold-and-hot injection wells-while ensuring the environment and shallow aquifers are not affected. [Spanish] Al igual que en diversos campos geotermicos en el mundo, en el de Cerro Prieto, Baja California se han utilizado tanto pozos inyectores perforados ex profeso como antiguos pozos exploratorios y productores para inyectar el fluido residual al subsuelo. Desde la decada de los 80 se han realizado diversos estudios y acciones en ese campo geotermico para recargar al yacimiento y para disponer del fluido residual, sin ocasionar danos al ambiente ni a los cuerpos hidricos del subsuelo, que van desde la infiltracion hasta la inyeccion en frio y en caliente. Este articulo presenta los diferentes estudios realizados con ese objetivo en el campo, incluyendo el analisis de litofacies, de nucleos de formacion, de registros de presion, temperatura y spinner, las pruebas en pozos y analisis de tasas de aceptacion, asi como los efectuados en el acuifero superficial. Todos ellos han sido de utilidad para atender los requerimientos de las autoridades ambientales. Finalmente, y en virtud de que las tasas de aceptacion de los pozos

  11. Óleos essenciais de espécies de Eugenia do Cerrado : composições químicas sazonais, modificações químicas no β-cariofileno e avaliação da atividade acaricida

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Paulo Henrique Silva

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho investigou a composição química dos óleos essenciais (OE) das folhas das espécies Eugenia langsdorffii (ELA), Eugenia dysenterica (EDY) e Eugenia lutescens (ELU) coletados nos períodos chuvoso (PC) e seco (PS) dos anos de 2012 e 2014. Os OE foram extraídos por hidrodestilação e os rendimentos percentuais observados para EDY e ELU, foram muito semelhantes nos dois anos/períodos de coleta e os melhores rendimentos foram observados em PC. Ao contrário, foi observada uma grand...

  12. Cerro Grande Fire Impact to Water Quality and Stream Flow near Los Alamos National Laboratory: Results of Four Years of Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.M. Gallaher; R.J. Koch

    2004-09-15

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned about 7400 acres of mixed conifer forest on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and much of the 10,000 acres of mountainside draining onto LANL was severely burned. The resulting burned landscapes raised concerns of increased storm runoff and transport of contaminants by runoff in the canyons traversing LANL. The first storms after the fire produced runoff peaks that were more than 200 times greater than prefire levels. Total runoff volume for the year 2000 increased 50% over prefire years, despite a decline in total precipitation of 13% below normal and a general decrease in the number of monsoonal thunderstorms. The majority of runoff in 2000 occurred in the canyons at LANL south of Pueblo Canyon (70%), where the highest runoff volume occurred in Water Canyon and the peak discharge occurred in Pajarito Canyon. This report describes the observed effects of the Cerro Grande fire and related environmental impacts to watersheds at and near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the first four runoff seasons after the fire, from 2000 through 2003. Spatial and temporal trends in radiological and chemical constituents that were identified as being associated with the Cerro Grande fire and those that were identified as being associated with historic LANL discharges are evaluated with regard to impacts to the Rio Grande and area reservoirs downstream of LANL. The results of environmental sampling performed by LANL, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) after the Cerro Grande fire are included in the evaluation. Effects are described for storm runoff, baseflow, stream sediments, and area regional reservoir sediment.

  13. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno

    2008-07-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  14. Multiple approaches to understanding the taxonomic status of an enigmatic new scorpion species of the genus Tityus (Buthidae) from the biogeographic island of Paraje Tres Cerros (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilardi, Renzo S.; Cajade, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Martín J.; Ceccarelli, F. Sara; Mola, Liliana M.

    2017-01-01

    Tityus curupi n. sp., belonging to the bolivianus complex, is described from the biogeographically distinct area of Paraje Tres Cerros in north-eastern Argentina. We also present a molecular species delimitation analysis between Tityus curupi n. sp. and its sister species Tityus uruguayensis Borelli 1901 to confirm species integrity. Furthermore, a cytogenetic analysis is presented for these two species which contain different multivalent associations in meiosis, as a consequence of chromosome rearrangements, and the highest chromosome numbers in the genus. PMID:28746406

  15. Autophagy induced by purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract triggered a cooperative effect on inducing the hepatic stellate cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Martins, Leo A M; Parisi, Mariana M; Vieira, Moema Queiroz; Terra, Silvia R; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia M; Borojevic, Radovan; Vizzotto, Márcia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the major source of collagen I in liver fibrosis. Eugenia uniflora L. is a tree species that is widely distributed in South America. E. uniflora L. fruit-popularly known as pitanga-has been shown to exert beneficial properties. Autophagy contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival under stress situation, but it has also been suggested to be an alternative cell death pathway. Mitochondria play a pivotal role on signaling cell death. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria is an important cell defense mechanism against organelle-mediated cell death signaling. We previously found that purple pitanga extract induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle arrest, and death by apoptosis and necrosis in GRX cells, a well-established activated HSC line. We evaluated the effects of 72-h treatment with crescent concentrations of purple pitanga extract (5 to 100 μg/mL) on triggering autophagy in GRX cells, as this is an important mechanism to cells under cytotoxic conditions. We found that all treated cells presented an increase in the mRNA expression of autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7). Concomitantly, flow cytometry and ultrastructural analysis of treated cells revealed an increase of autophagosomes/autolysosomes that consequentially led to an increased mitophagy. As purple pitanga extract was previously found to be broadly cytotoxic to GRX cells, we postulated that autophagy contributes to this scenario, where cell death seems to be an inevitable fate. Altogether, the effectiveness on inducing activated HSC death can make purple pitanga extract a good candidate on treating liver fibrosis.

  16. Effect of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora, a tree native to the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, D J; Faria, M V; da Silva, P R

    2012-12-06

    Habitat fragmentation, caused by the expansion of agriculture in natural areas, may be one of the strongest impacts humans have on the ecosystem. These changes can decrease the number of individuals in a population, leading to endogamy. In allogamous species, endogamy can have a negative effect on reproductive capacity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora L., a tree species native to the Atlantic Forest. We analyzed 4 populations, 3 of which were connected by forest corridors and 1 of which was isolated by agricultural fields on all sides. For microsporogenesis analysis, 9000 meiocytes representing all stages of meiosis were evaluated. To perform the pollen viability test, we evaluated 152,000 pollen grains. Microsporogenesis was stable in plants from populations that were connected by forest corridors (abnormalities, less than 6%), while microsporogenesis in plants from the isolated population showed a higher level of abnormalities (13-29%). Average pollen viability was found to be more than 93% in the non-isolated populations and 82.62% in the isolated population. The χ(2) test showed that, in the isolated population, the meiotic index was significantly lower than that in the non-isolated populations (P = 0.03). The analysis of variance for the percentage of viable pollen grains confirmed the significant difference between the isolated and non-isolated populations. Our data show that forest fragmentation has a direct effect on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in E. uniflora and can directly influence the reproductive capacity of isolated populations of this species.

  17. Transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides induced by oenothein B, a potential antifungal agent from the Brazilian Cerrado plant Eugenia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambuzzi-Carvalho, Patrícia Fernanda; Tomazett, Patrícia Kott; Santos, Suzana Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Martins, Wellington Santos; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Pereira, Maristela

    2013-10-12

    The compound oenothein B (OenB), which is isolated from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian Cerrado plant, interferes with Paracoccidioides yeast cell morphology and inhibits 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation, which is involved in cell wall synthesis. In this work we examined the gene expression changes in Paracoccidioides yeast cells following OenB treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. We constructed differential gene expression libraries using Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) of Paracoccidioides yeast cells treated with OenB for 90 and 180 min. Treatment for 90 min resulted in the identification of 463 up-regulated expressed sequences tags (ESTs) and 104 down-regulated ESTs. For the 180 min treatment 301 up-regulated ESTs and 143 down-regulated were identified. Genes involved in the cell wall biosynthesis, such as GLN1, KRE6 and FKS1, were found to be regulated by OenB. Infection experiments in macrophages corroborated the in vitro results. Fluorescence microscopy showed increased levels of chitin in cells treated with OenB. The carbohydrate polymer content of the cell wall of the fungus was also evaluated, and the results corroborated with the transcriptional data. Several other genes, such as those involved in a variety of important cellular processes (i.e., membrane maintenance, stress and virulence) were found to be up-regulated in response to OenB treatment. The exposure of Paracoccidioides to OenB resulted in a complex altered gene expression profile. Some of the changes may represent specific adaptive responses to this compound in this important pathogenic fungus.

  18. Chemical Profiling of the Essential Oils of Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium samarangense and Eugenia uniflora and Their Discrimination Using Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeh, Mansour; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Krstin, Sonja; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The essential oil compositions of the leaves of three related Myrtaceae species, namely Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium samarangense and Eugenia uniflora, were investigated using GLC/MS and GLC/FID. Altogether, 125 compounds were identified: α-Selinene (13.85%), β-caryophyllene (12.72%) and β-selinene constitute the most abundant constituents in S. aqueum. Germacrene D (21.62%) represents the major compound in S. samarangense whereas in E. uniflora, spathulenol (15.80%) represents the predominant component. Multivariate chemometric analyses were used to discriminate the essential oils using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) based on the chromatographic results. The antimicrobial activity of the popularly used E. uniflora essential oil was assessed using broth microdilution method against six Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungi. The oil showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis exhibiting MIC and MMC of 0.63 mg/ml. The cytotoxic activity of E. uniflora essential oil was investigated against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei) and MCF-7 cancer cell line using MTT assay. It showed moderate activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 76.40 μg/ml. On the other hand, T. brucei was highly susceptible to E. uniflora essential oil with IC50 of 11.20 μg/ml, and a selectivity index of 6.82. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) exerts chemopreventive effects against hexavalent chromium-induced damage in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Renato Ivan de; Mattos Alvarenga, Cátia Belo; Ávila, Paulo Henrique Marcelino de; Moreira, Roger Cardoso; Arruda, Andréa Fernandes; Fernandes, Thaís de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Bruna Dos Santos; Andrade, Wanessa Machado; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Paula, José Realino de; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2016-11-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) has been widely used in the folk medicine and it presents phytochemicals constituents associated to antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of E. dysenterica leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EDE) in vitro and in vivo using AMJ2-C11 cells and Swiss mice exposed to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], respectively. AMJ2-C11 cells were pretreated with EDE and exposed to Cr(VI) to evaluate cytotoxicity and the pathways involved in the chemopreventive effects of the extract. Mice were daily pretreated with EDE and then exposed to Cr(VI). Survival analysis, histopathological examination and determination of Cr levels in biological tissues were carried out. In vitro studies showed that pretreatment of the AMJ2-C11 cells with EDE protected against the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by Cr(VI). Consequently, the pretreatment with EDE reduced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis triggered by Cr(VI), probably by a marked antioxidant and chelating activities demonstrated by EDE. Regarding in vivo studies, pretreatment for 10 days with EDE increased survival of the mice exposed to Cr(VI). In addition, EDE prevented liver and kidney pathological damages, in parallel with reduction in chromium levels found in these organs and plasma. EDE also showed a marked antioxidant potential associated with the presence of polyphenols, especially flavonoids and tannins, as confirmed by HPLC-PDA. The study showed that EDE protects against Cr(VI)-induced damage in vitro and in vivo supporting further studies for the development of therapeutic products applied to prevent the damage induced by toxic metals, especially Cr(VI).

  20. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth by Eugenia jambolana, Musa paradisiaca, and Coccinia indica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Harsha Raj; Ghosh, Debidas; Banerjee, Rita; Salimath, Bharathi P

    2017-12-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis and evasion of apoptosis are hallmarks of cancer. Accordingly, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic therapies are effective strategies for cancer treatment. Medicinal plants, namely, Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae), and Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae), have not been greatly investigated for their anticancer potential. We investigated the anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic efficacy of ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (NB) extracts of E. jambolana (seeds), EA extracts of M. paradisiaca (roots) and C. indica (leaves) with respect to mammary neoplasia. Effect of extracts (2-200 μg/mL) on cytotoxicity and MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis were evaluated by MTT, 3[H]thymidine uptake and EC tube formation assays, respectively. In vivo tumour proliferation, VEGF secretion and angiogenesis were assessed using the Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) model followed by rat corneal micro-pocket and chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Apoptosis induction was assessed by morphological and cell cycle analysis. EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca exhibited the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 25 and 60 μg/mL), inhibited cell proliferation (up to 81%), and tube formation (83% and 76%). In vivo treatment reduced body weight (50%); cell number (16.5- and 14.7-fold), secreted VEGF (∼90%), neoangiogenesis in rat cornea (2.5- and 1.5-fold) and CAM (3- and 1.6-fold) besides EAT cells accumulation in sub-G1 phase (20% and 18.38%), respectively. Considering the potent anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic properties, lead molecules from EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca can be developed into anticancer drugs.

  1. Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction ofEugenia unifloraon Proteins Global Expression during Morphogenesis inCandida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P; de Azevedo, Matheus F; Ferreira, Magda R A; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Milan, Eveline P; Soares, Luiz A L; Rocha, Keyla B F; Uchôa, Adriana F; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J S; Fusco Almeida, Ana M; Chaves, Guilherme M

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is able to switch from yeast to hyphal growth and this is an essential step for tissue invasion and establishment of infection. Due to the limited drug arsenal used to treat fungal infections and the constant emergence of resistant strains, it is important to search for new therapeutic candidates. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate by proteomic analysis the role of a natural product ( Eugenia uniflora ) in impairing hypha formation in C. albicans . We also tested the potential action of E. uniflora to prevent and treat oral candidiasis induced in a murine model of oral infection and the ability of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to phagocytize C. albicans cells treated with the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract. We found that this fraction greatly reduced hypha formation after morphogenesis induction in the presence of serum. Besides, several proteins were differentially expressed in cells treated with the fraction. Surprisingly, the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced phagocytosis in C. albicans (Mean 120.36 ± 36.71 yeasts/100 PMNs vs. 44.68 ± 19.84 yeasts/100 PMNs). Oral candidiasis was attenuated when C. albicans cells were either pre-incubated in the presence of E. uniflora or when the fraction was applied to the surface of the oral cavity after infection. These results were consistent with the reduction in CFU counts (2.36 vs. 1.85 Log10 CFU/ml) and attenuation of tissue damage observed with histopathological analysis of animals belonging to treated group. We also observed shorter true hyphae by direct examination and histopathological analysis, when cells were treated with the referred natural product. The E. uniflora ethyl acetate fraction was non-toxic to human cells. E. uniflora may act on essential proteins mainly related to cellular structure, reducing the capacity of filamentation and attenuating infection in a murine model, without causing any toxic effect on human cells, suggesting that it may be a future

  2. O abajurú (Chrysobalanus icaco L. e Eugenia rotundifolia Casar. comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Inês Machline Silva

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as prováveis razões de introdução e comercialização de uma espécie de uso medicinal em um mercado popular urbano na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - o Mercado de Madureira. Durante os anos de 2005 e 2006 aplicaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas a 15 erveiros obtendo-se o freelist das espécies consideradas como mais comercializadas (97 a partir do qual se calculou o índice de saliência, que para o abajurú (Eugenia rotundifolia Casar, foi elevado. A espécie conhecida na literatura e comercializada como abajurú é Chysobalanus icaco L., que apresenta propriedades hipoglicemiantes comprovadas por pesquisas farmacológicas e é utilizada pela população para este fim; no entanto, verificou-se, nesse mercado, a venda quase exclusiva de E. rotundifolia, com esse nome popular e mesma propriedade. Até o momento não existem dados farmacológicos para essa espécie. Ambas são nativas e ocorrem, predominantemente, nas restingas litorâneas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A atribuição da atividade hipoglicemiante a E. rotundifolia pode indicar uma correlação, por parte dos erveiros, com a farmacologia de outras espécies de Myrtaceae. Questões relacionadas à fiscalização ambiental bem como desconhecimento e coleta equivocada podem também estar envolvidos nesse processo.

  3. Evaluación Integral del Riesgo Volcánico del Cerro Machín, Colombia

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    Leonel Vega Mora

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Cerro Machín (VCM se encuentra situado en la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Por la composición química, magnitud y extensión de sus erupciones pasadas se reconoce como un volcán explosivo de gran potencial de daño, cuya actividad futura podría afectar intensamente y durante mucho tiempo (meses hasta años una región estratégica para la economía del país, que cubre áreas pertenecientes a los departamentos de Tolima, Quindío, Valle del Cauca y Cundinamarca, en las cuales habitan cerca de un millón de personas (INGEOMINAS, 2002. Este artículo muestra la metodología y resultados del estudio de “Evaluación Integral del Riesgo del Cerro Machín – Colombia”, realizado durante 2009 por el Grupo PIGA de Investigación en Política, Información y Gestión Ambiental de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, tomando como punto de partida el estudio de “Evaluación de la Amenaza Volcánica Potencial del Cerro Machín” adelantado en el 2002 por el Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería – INGEOMINAS. En consecuencia, se genera y ajusta una nueva ecuación para la determinación del riesgo, basada en la valoración de índices de amenaza intrínseca e índices de vulnerabilidad, los primeros en función del grado de intensidad, duración, extensión y acumulación de las amenazas, y los segundos, en función del grado de exposición espacial y temporal de los elementos (sociales, económicos, institucionales y ecosistémicos y de su capacidad de respuesta intrínseca y extrínseca ante las amenazas (Vega, 2005. Con estas ecuaciones y mediante el uso de sistemas de información geográfica (SIG, se realiza para cada escenario de análisis considerado la modelación geoespacial del riesgo a nivel de cada píxel cartográfico del área territorial de estudio. En esta modelación se integra toda la información territorial del área en estudio, lo que permite obtener, de acuerdo con el

  4. Geographic Information System (GIS) Emergency Support for the May 2000 Cerro Grande Wildfire, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R.Mynard; G.N.Keating; P.M.Rich; D.R. Bleakly

    2003-05-01

    In May 2000 the Cerro Grande wildfire swept through Los Alamos, New Mexico, burning approximately 17,400 ha (43,000 acres) and causing evacuation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the communities of Los Alamos and White Rock. An integral part of emergency response during the fire was the use of geographic information system (GIS) technology, which continues to be used in support of post-fire restoration and environmental monitoring. During the fire Laboratory GIS staff and volunteers from other organizations worked to produce maps and provide support for emergency managers, including at an emergency GIS facility in Santa Fe. Subsequent to the fire, Laboratory GIS teams supported the multiagency Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) team to provide GIS data and maps for planning mitigation efforts. The GIS teams continue to help researchers, operations personnel, and managers deal with the tremendous changes caused by the fire. Much of the work is under the auspices of the Cerro Grande Rehabilitation Project (CGRP) to promote recovery from fire damage, improve information exchange, enhance emergency management, and conduct mitigation activities. GIS efforts during the fire provided important lessons about institutional matters, working relationships, and emergency preparedness. These lessons include the importance of (1) an integrated framework for assessing natural and human hazards in a landscape context; (2) a strong GIS capability for emergency response; (3) coordinated emergency plans for GIS operations; (4) a method for employees to report their whereabouts and receive authoritative information during an evacuation; (5) GIS data that are complete, backed-up, and available during an emergency; (6) adaptation of GIS to the circumstances of the emergency; (7) better coordination in the GIS community; (8) better integration of GIS into LANL operations; and (9) a central data warehouse for data and metadata. These lessons are important for planning

  5. Nutrient Status of Vermicompost of Urban Green Waste Processed by Three Earthworm Species—Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pattnaik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major nutrient status of vermicompost of vegetable market waste (MW and floral waste (FW processed by three species of earthworms namely, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. Their physical parameters—temperature, moisture, pH, and electrical conductivity—were also recorded. The nutrients—nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium—increased in the vermicompost and compost while the organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios decreased as the composting process progressed from 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The nutrient statuses of vermicomposts of all earthworm species produced from both the wastes were more than that of the compost and that of their respective substrates. Moreover, the vermicompost produced by E. eugeniae possessed higher nutrient contents than that of E. fetida, P. excavatus, and compost. The MW showed higher nutrient contents than the FW. Thus, vermicomposting is the paramount approach of nutrient recovery of urban green waste.

  6. Variação intraespecífica do lenho de Eugenia uniflora L. em duas diferentes fitofisionomias do complexo vegetacional atlântico

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    Priscila Alves Marques

    Full Text Available Myrtaceae está entre as principais famílias lenhosas da Floresta Atlântica, destacando-se Eugenia L. como o gênero de maior riqueza de espécies na família. Eugenia uniflora L. apresenta grande representatividade em áreas de restinga, seu ambiente natural, e é amplamente cultivada em outras regiões em função da sua importância econômica. Este estudo investigou a anatomia do lenho de E. uniflora, crescendo em duas fitofisionomias do complexo vegetacional atlântico no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dezesseis parâmetros anatômicos foram analisados e revelaram que os elementos celulares dos indivíduos de restinga apresentam maior frequência e são mais curtos e mais largos, e os raios mais baixos e largos do que os dos indivíduos crescendo na Floresta Ombrófila Densa. Os resultados mostraram como as condições ambientais influenciam a estrutura anatômica da madeira e indicam variações intraespecíficas da espécie e de seus mecanismos de adaptação e de sobrevivência no complexo Mata Atlântica.

  7. Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity.

  8. Changes in fungal population of fly ash and vinasse mixture during vermicomposting by Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida: documentation of cellulase isozymes in vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-06-01

    Fly ash (FA) and vinasse (VN), two industrial wastes, are generated in huge amounts and cause serious hazards to the environment. In this experiment, different proportions of these two wastes were used as food for two epigeic earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae) to standardize the recycling technique of these two wastes and to study their effect on fungal especially cellulolytic fungal population, cellulase activity and their isozyme pattern, chitin content and microbial biomass of waste mixture during vermicomposting. Increasing VN proportion from 25% to 50% or even higher, counts of both fungi and cellulolytic fungi in waste mixtures were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased during vermicomposting. Higher cellulase activity in treatments having 50% or more vinasse might be attributed to the significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher concentration of group I isozyme while concentrations of other isozymes (group II and III) of cellulase were statistically at par. Higher chitin content in vinasse-enriched treatments suggested that fungal biomass and fungi-to-microbial biomass ratio in these treatments were also increased due to vermicomposting. Results revealed that Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida had comparable effect on FA and VN mixture during vermicomposting. Periodical analysis of above-mentioned biochemical and microbial properties and nutrient content of final vermicompost samples indicated that equal proportion (1:1, w/w) of FA and VN is probably the optimum composition to obtain best quality vermicompost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Addition of schelita residue from the mine in Cerro Cora Bodo / RN in the composition of ceramic materials; Adicao de residuo de scheelita da mina Bodo em Cerro Cora/RN na composicao de materiais ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.B.D. de; Souza, M. M. de; Farias, D.S.U. de; Lima, T.C. de; Nobrega, L.F.P. de M. [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil); Mendes, L.B., E-mail: anabeatriz.d.a@outlook.com [Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa do Rio Grande do Norte (FAPERN), Natal RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Mining activities produce mineral waste that can degrade the environment. The waste generated by companies is not reused due to the fact they fail to present an application for it that proves to be economically viable. Seeking the reuse of mineral waste and reduce the environmental impacts, this work addresses the chemical characterization by x-ray fluorescence (FRX), of the processing of scheelite reject at Bodo mine in Cerro Cora-RN. For the procedure, the sample was collected, grounded and sieved to #200, and then characterized to evaluate its chemical composition and its potential to be incorporated into materials. Besides the characterization, a water absorption test and also a bending test were performed to analyze the power and tension of the material. The result of the analysis indicated that the sample researched presents a greater concentration of SiO{sub 2} to be used as a structuring element in ceramic mass, but in the traditional formulation, it will only be added 10% of the reject in its formulation, because besides the SiO{sub 2} in the sample analyzed other elements that act with fluxes were found. It was also observed the material has low water absorption, but the reject reached low strength and breakdown voltage. We concluded that the reject of scheelite presents great potential, and therefore, further tests can be conducted to analyze the possibility of being added as raw material for the formulation of other materials like cement. (author)

  10. A preliminary interpretation of gas composition in the CP IV sector wells, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor M; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Perez Hernandez, Alfredo; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio; Leon Vivar, Jesus de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General Cerro Prieto, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    To increase the electrical generation capacity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field from 620 MW to 720 MW, the Cerro Prieto IV (CP IV) sector of the field was developed in the NE portion of the exploited field. Fourteen new wells have been drilled there since 2000. The wells in CP IV zone produce two-phase fluids at wellhead with heterogeneous steam fraction characteristics: at the central zone and towards the NW, the wells are liquid-dominated while those towards the E and S produce a relatively high steam fraction. This work studies the gas compositions of produced fluids to obtain reservoir parameters such as temperature and steam fraction and identify different sources of fluids in the wells. A method was used based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H{sub 2}S equilibria with pyrite-pyrrhotite as a mineral buffer (FT-HSH3). The results for the natural state showed the presence of fluids with reservoir temperatures from 275 to 310 degrees Celsius and excess steam values from -1 to 50%. Data are aligned in a FT-HSH3 trend, suggesting that the well discharges consist of a mixture in different proportions of the two end members. One seems to be a liquid with a temperature of over 300 degrees Celsius with negative or negligible excess steam. The other seems to be a two-phase fluid with a temperature of about 275 degrees Celsius and an excess steam fraction of about 0.5. According to the data for single wells and depending on the production conditions of the wells, reservoir fluid mixtures could occur in different proportions of liquid and steam. Data for 2005 that included wells drilled after 2000 suggest the presence of a steam phase in the reservoir. The steam could be generated with the boiling of deep reservoir fluid from a pressure drop. The mixing trend obtained for the natural state was also seen for 2005 data but lower temperatures (from 265 to 295 degrees Celsius) were obtained compared with those for natural conditions. The entry of lower

  11. MUSGOS (BRYOPHYTA DEL PARQUE NACIONAL ÁVILA, SECTORES CERRO EL ÁVILA – LAGUNAZO, VENEZUELA

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    Morales Thalia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 29 familias, 74 géneros y 111 especies de musgos para los sectores CerroEl Ávila y Lagunazo, Parque Nacional El Ávila en Caracas, Venezuela. Las familiasPottiaceae, Dicranaceae y Fissidentaceae fueron las más ricas en géneros y especies.A lo largo las seis localidades estudiadas la mayor riqueza de musgos se encontró a1700 m de altura. Del total de especies inventariadas el 60 % corresponden al hábitoacrocárpico, el 43% de los taxones se ubicaron en el sustrato terrestre y la forma devida cespitosa corta (Cc fue la más representativa, con él 44.7% de las especies demusgo. Se adicionan cinco especies a la fl ora muscícola de Venezuela: Rhodobryumroseum (Hedw. Limpr., Pilopogon tiquipayae Herzog, Taxiphyllum taxirameum(Mitt. M. Fleisch., Leskea plumaria Mitt., Bryoerythrophyllum campylocarpum(Müll. Hal. H.A. Crum. Se citan también 22 nuevos registros a la briofl ora de laregión de la Cordillera de la Costa.

  12. Babel en la mina. El campamento minero como modelo de asentamiento en el mundo industrializado: Cerro Muriano (Córdoba.

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    Cano Sanchiz, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El campamento minero contemporáneo es un tipo de asentamiento muy concreto, configurado bajo unos cánones que, con matices, suelen repetirse a escala internacional. Se trata de un lugar de convergencia, de fricción de clases. También, de un espacio heterogéneo desde el punto de vista cultural donde, sin embargo, el grupo humano formado por los obreros suele aparecer cohesionado por unas circunstancias comunes. Estas características se acentúan allí donde la inversión procede de un país distinto al de la mina. Hablamos, muchas veces, de territorios ocupados en el marco de una actividad económica de corte colonialista. Estas páginas recogen un análisis arqueológico del asentamiento surgido en torno a las minas de Cerro Muriano (Córdoba durante su explotación inglesa a principios del siglo XX. El ejemplo seleccionado nos sirve para ilustrar cómo fueron aquellos campamentos, muchos de los cuales sobrevivieron a la desaparición de la actividad minera y evolucionaron hacia núcleos de población consolidados, como es el caso.

  13. Effects of pressure drawdown and recovery on the Cerro Prieto beta reservoir in the CP-III area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H. [Truesdell (Alfred H.), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lippmann, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The production characteristics of wells in the northwestern Cerro Prieto III area changed greatly when the Cp-III power plant went on line in 1986. Fluid extraction in the field more than doubled and reservoir-wide boiling started immediately, greatly increasing the enthalpy of produced fluids. Some well fluids showed a decrease in chloride due to adiabatic steam condensation in the well and separator, and others were enriched in chloride due to boiling. As reservoir drawdown increased, entrance of cooler and more dilute groundwaters into the reservoir became evident (i.e., condensation stopped, and there was a decrease in enthalpy and chloride in produced fluids). Although some groundwater inflow was from the leaky western margin of the reservoir, the majority is in the northeast, inferred to be local and downward, possibly through more permeable zones associated with the normal fault H. This natural recharge and some reinjection have slowed and possibly reversed pressure drawdown throughout CP-III. Enthalpy has decreased and liquid saturation has increased as the steam-rich zone in the upper part of the reservoir has either disappeared or become thinner.

  14. Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barranco, C.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Although marine caves are priority conservation areas according to the Directive 92/43/CEE of the European Community, there is a lack of studies dealing with their soft-bottom communities. For a case study, we selected the Cerro Gordo cave at 15 m depth. Three different zones were defined: a semi-dark 25-m long entrance area, a dark intermediate area of 35 m, and the final zone at 90 m from the entrance. Sediment samples were taken from these zones as well as from outside the cave (control) by SCUBA diving. Six rectangular cores of 10 × 250 cm2 were collected in each site for macrofaunal study, and three more replicates were taken to analyze physico-chemical parameters. The granulometry showed a clear gradient from medium sands outside the cave to silt and clay in the inner zone. Measurements of the crustacean assemblages showed that the number of species and abundance were significantly higher outside the cave (30-40 species, >4,000 ind m-2) than inside (5-10 species, mediterranea and Monoculodes packardi. This is the first description of soft-bottom crustacean communities from submarine caves of southern Spain.

  15. EMPLEO DEL PROGRAMA VOLCFLOW PARA SIMULAR FLUJOS PIROCLÁSTICOS DEL VOLCÁN CERRO MACHÍN, TOLIMA, COLOMBIA

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    Elsa Adriana Cárdenas Quiroga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de simular futuros flujos piroclásticos que podría producir el Volcán Cerro Machín, ubicado en la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Esta simulación se realizó con el programa VolcFlow desarrollado por el Laboratorio de Magmas y Volcanes de la Universidad Blaise Pascal, Francia, diseñado especialmente para modelar el comportamiento de este tipo de productos volcánicos, ya que está basado en las características reológicas de esos flujos. Se comparan las áreas que serían potencialmente afectadas por una erupción de ese tipo y los espesores del material que se depositaría con resultados obtenidos de simulaciones realizadas con un Model Builder desarrollado en ARC GIS por el Grupo de Investigación Geomática Aplicada de la Universidad Militar Nueva Granada en Colombia, obteniéndose resultados similares.

  16. Variabilidade genética de Eugenia uniflora L. em remanescentes florestais em diferentes estádios sucessionais

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    Roberto Valmorbida Aguiar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão da diversidade genética fornece elementos básicos sobre a dinâmica e funcionamento de populações, auxiliando na conservação e uso sustentável das espécies. Supõe-se que populações sucessionais precoces poderiam ser geneticamente mais diferenciadas do que populações sucessionais mais tardias. Visando testar esta hipótese, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a variabilidade genética de populações de Eugenia uniflora L. em manchas florestais em diferentes estádios sucessionais. Foram selecionadas duas áreas em diferentes estádios de sucessão, sendo a primeira em estádio inicial e a segunda em estádio avançado. A área de estudo apresenta um remanescente florestal em transição de Floresta Ombrófila Mista e Floresta Estacional Semidecídua. Por meio da técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA e análise multivariada, a diversidade gênica esperada e a porcentagem de loci polimórficos foram estimadas, além da similaridade genética entre as populações de cada mancha florestal e a diversidade de cada área por meio do índice de diversidade de Simpson. Os resultados indicaram 79% de loci polimórficos para a área em estádio avançado e 70% para a área em estádio inicial de sucessão. A similaridade genética entre pares de indivíduos variou entre 0,55 e 0,86 na área em estádio inicial de sucessão e entre 0,45 e 0,78 para a área em estádio avançado. Não houve diferenças significativas entre a diversidade das duas áreas (P = 89. Um escalonamento multidimensional não-métrico indicou menor distância genética entre os indivíduos da área em estádio inicial. Da mesma forma, uma análise de similaridade - ANOSIM indicou separação entre os indivíduos das duas áreas.

  17. Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Eugenia uniflora on Proteins Global Expression during Morphogenesis in Candida albicans

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    Walicyranison P. Silva-Rocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is able to switch from yeast to hyphal growth and this is an essential step for tissue invasion and establishment of infection. Due to the limited drug arsenal used to treat fungal infections and the constant emergence of resistant strains, it is important to search for new therapeutic candidates. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate by proteomic analysis the role of a natural product (Eugenia uniflora in impairing hypha formation in C. albicans. We also tested the potential action of E. uniflora to prevent and treat oral candidiasis induced in a murine model of oral infection and the ability of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to phagocytize C. albicans cells treated with the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract. We found that this fraction greatly reduced hypha formation after morphogenesis induction in the presence of serum. Besides, several proteins were differentially expressed in cells treated with the fraction. Surprisingly, the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced phagocytosis in C. albicans (Mean 120.36 ± 36.71 yeasts/100 PMNs vs. 44.68 ± 19.84 yeasts/100 PMNs. Oral candidiasis was attenuated when C. albicans cells were either pre-incubated in the presence of E. uniflora or when the fraction was applied to the surface of the oral cavity after infection. These results were consistent with the reduction in CFU counts (2.36 vs. 1.85 Log10 CFU/ml and attenuation of tissue damage observed with histopathological analysis of animals belonging to treated group. We also observed shorter true hyphae by direct examination and histopathological analysis, when cells were treated with the referred natural product. The E. uniflora ethyl acetate fraction was non-toxic to human cells. E. uniflora may act on essential proteins mainly related to cellular structure, reducing the capacity of filamentation and attenuating infection in a murine model, without causing any toxic effect on human cells, suggesting that it may be a

  18. CARACTERIZAÇÃO ANATÔMICA E HISTOQUÍMICA DAS FOLHAS DE EUGENIA UNIFLORA L.

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    Rafaela Damasceno Sá

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L., popularmente conhecida como pitangueira, é uma importante frutífera muito utilizada na medicina tradicional brasileira para o tratamento de diarreia e disenteria, gripe, parasitas intestinais, febre, hipertensão e como calmante e diurético. Devido ao seu amplo interesse popular e com o intuito de ampliar as informações farmacobotânicas da espécie, este trabalho tem como objetivo realizar a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica das folhas de E. uniflora. Foram confeccionadas e analisadas em microscópico de luz lâminas semipermanentes contendo secções transversais de pecíolo e lâmina foliar, além de secções paradérmicas de lâmina foliar. Realizou-se também testes histoquímicos em secções transversais de lâmina foliar A análise microscópica permitiu a identificação de estruturas importantes na diagnose da espécie: cavidades secretoras no pecíolo e na lâmina foliar; cristais prismáticos no floema do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar, bem como no mesofilo e nas células parenquimáticas e colenquimáticas da nervura central; drusas estão presentes apenas no parênquima do pecíolo e no mesofilo, parênquima e colênquima da lâmina foliar; presença de cutícula espessa no pecíolo e na lâmina foliar; feixes vasculares bicolaterais e mesofilo dorsiventral, com parênquima paliçádico bisseriado. Através da histoquímica evidenciou-se na lâmina foliar a presença de compostos fenólicos, taninos, lignina, compostos lipofílicos, óleos essenciais, triterpenos e esteroides e cristais de oxalato de cálcio. Os resultados apresentados são úteis para a identificação correta da espécie.

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE PRODUCTION OF BEVERAGES: THE TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY FROM THE PRODUCTION OF AGUARDENTE DE CAGAITA (EUGENIA DYSENTERICA

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    K. B. Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversity in the types of vegetation, Brazil is the second largest biome Cerrado, occupying 25% of the country, surpassed only by the Amazon. In Minas Gerais, the Brazilian state has about 10.3% of its area the Cerrado vegetation, covering mainly areas of the Upper and Middle Jequitinhonha. The flora of the cerrado has several fruit species with high potential for agricultural use, which are traditionally used by local people, and the fruits have high levels of sugars, proteins and minerals. Among the great diversity of plants and fruits present in the cerrado is the Eugenia dysenterica, popularly known as cagaita. The fruit is globular yellow color when ripe, slightly acid and can reach up to 4 cm long and up to 5 cm diameter. The work here exposed was led initially to a survey of state schools that have high school in the city of Sete Lagoas-MG. After this survey was chosen for the project development a nearby school of the Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei (UFSJ-CSL for viability of the project and in which direction proved to be very available. 3rd year high school classes were chosen, totaling 55 students, selecting the students who had greater knowledge of the concepts studied and shown interest. Various activities with students have been developed, one of which is the application of a questionnaire in the first meeting, which enabled us to identify where the problems thereof. a booklet with texts followed fixation exercises and illustrative images on each topic worked in class and the students images developing the proposed project activities was developed. This study aimed to use a fruit of the Cerrado, cagaita to perform fermentation and subsequent distillation, to promote ownership of the concepts of chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology in high school students. Through the questionnaire at the end of the project, it was possible to assess the relevance of their work and the impact on the training of students. The study

  20. Analysis of productive evolution of well M-19A, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis de la evolucion productiva del pozo M-19A del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Marco H; Romero-Rios, Francisco [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-07-15

    Well M-19A has been the most productive in the Cerro Prieto field, producing around 40 million tons of fluid. The well went on line in February 1975 and was in continuous operation until June 2006. Monthly measurements for over 30 years of operating conditions and chemical and isotopic analyses of the fluids allow identification of the most significant processes occurring in the zone where the well is located. Three dominant recharge types have been identified, each lasting about 10 years. They are a) a recharge of fluids of lower temperature than the production fluids, even though the chemical and isotopic compositions are similar; b) a recharge of lower-temperature fluids with diluted chemical and isotopic compositions; and c) a progressive recharge of reinjected water with a higher chloride concentration and heavy isotopic composition. The production and reinjection rates for over 30 years of production history in the M-19A well zone allow for speculation of a reservoir pressure recovery, which is confirmed with a calculation using production data from well M-19A. The evolution of the reservoir pressure in the zone contrasts with the rest of the reservoir, where a constant pressure drop is observed, particularly toward the central and eastern parts of the field. [Spanish] El pozo M-19A ha sido el mas productivo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, alcanzando una extraccion de mas de 40 millones de toneladas de fluido. Fue integrado a produccion en febrero de 1975 y hasta junio de 2006 ha permanecido en produccion en forma continua. Las mediciones mensuales de sus condiciones operativas y los analisis quimicos e isotopicos del agua producida permiten identificar los procesos mas significativos que han ocurrido a lo largo de esos mas de 30 anos en la zona donde se localiza el pozo. Se han identificado tres tipos de recarga dominantes que se presentan durante un periodo cercano a 10 anos cada uno, los cuales son: a) una recarga de fluidos de menor temperatura

  1. Valores de presión arterial en escolares sanos de una escuela primaria del municipio Cerro Arterial pressure values in healthy students from a primary school of Cerro municipality

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    Roberto Francisco Corredera Guerra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hipertensión constituye un notable problema de salud en el ámbito mundial que determina una importante causa de morbilidad, en la que están involucrados factores genéticos y ambientales. La presión arterial en la infancia aumenta progresivamente a lo largo de los años, y es una importante variable a considerar. OBJETIVO: caracterizar el comportamiento de algunas variables cardiovasculares y nutricionales en escolares supuestamente sanos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo de cohorte transversal, en el que fueron estudiados escolares supuestamente sanos de una escuela primaria del municipio Cerro, en Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido desde el 1ro. de diciembre de 2006 al 28 de febrero de 2007. El universo estuvo constituido por 358 niños de ambos sexos entre 5 y 11 años de edad. Las variables estudiadas fueron: presión arterial sistólica, presión arterial diastólica, presión arterial media, frecuencia cardiaca, peso, talla e índice de masa corporal. RESULTADOS: los resultados muestran cifras de presión arterial sistólica entre 77 y 104 mmHg, valores de presión arterial diastólica entre 43 a 64 mmHg, mientras que los valores de presión arterial media oscilan en un intervalo de 57 a 72 mmHg. La frecuencia cardiaca fue mayor en escolares de menor edad con respecto a los de mayor edad. El peso, la talla y el índice de masa corporal se incrementan con la edad. CONCLUSIONES: se concluye que los valores de presión arterial sistólica, diastólica y media en escolares de ambos sexos se incrementan con la edad, no así los de frecuencia cardiaca, cuya tendencia es a disminuir a medida que la edad aumenta. Los valores que corresponden al índice de masa corporal se elevan con la edad.INTRODUCTION: hypertension is a marked health problem at world scale determining significant causes of morbidity, in which are involved genetic and environmental factors. Infantile arterial pressure

  2. Valores de peso y talla según la edad. Estudio realizado en niños escolares del municipio Cerro Weight and height significance related to age. Study carried out in school children from Cerro municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Francisco Corredera Guerra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el crecimiento longitudinal del niño es un proceso biológico complejo, resultado de múltiples interacciones entre factores endógenos y exógenos. Es, sin dudas, el resultado de la conjunción de factores genéticos y ambientales que afectan a las primeras edades de la vida, y que acontecen en forma continuada y dinámica desde la concepción a la madurez. OBJETIVOS: caracterizar el crecimiento en escolares de edades comprendidas entre los 5 y los 11 años, de la escuela primaria "Braulio Coroneaux", del municipio Cerro. Para lograrlo se pretenden determinar los valores del peso y de la talla según sexo y grupo etario, así como identificar las escalas de percentiles del peso y la talla correspondientes a cada grupo etario estudiado. MÉTODOS: estudio de tipo descriptivo de cohorte transversal en niños supuestamente sanos en el período comprendido del 1º de diciembre de 2006 al 28 de febrero de 2007. El universo estuvo constituido por 358 niños, de ellos se estudiaron 351. Dimensiones antropométricas utilizadas: peso y talla. Se identificaron teniendo en cuenta los criterios de cada dimensión. RESULTADOS: los valores de peso para la edad y talla para la edad reflejaron promedios superiores, diferentes a los reportados por los niños de igual sexo y edad según las tablas cubanas de crecimiento y desarrollo. Los valores de peso y talla para la edad predominaron en el sexo masculino en ambos grupos etarios. CONCLUSIONES: más del 50 % de la muestra en ambos grupos etarios se correspondió con una talla dentro de límites normales. En ambos grupos y en ambos sexos, las escalas de percentiles identificadas en la población de referencia se orientaron hacia los percentiles superiores.INTRODUCTION: child longitudinal growing is a complex biological process as a result of multiple interactions between endogenous and exogenous factors. Undoubtedly, is result of genetic and environmental factors combination affecting the first

  3. PATRONES DE CONSUMO FINAL DE CÉRVIDOS EN EL PARANÁ MEDIO: EL CASO DEL SITIO CERRO AGUARÁ / Cervids final consumption patterns in middle Paraná River: the case of Cerro Aguará archaeological site

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    Leonardo Mucciolo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cérvidos fueron amplia y regularmente explotados por los cazadores-recolectores que habitaron la macroregión del Paraná-Plata durante el Holoceno tardío. En la cuenca media del Paraná, sin embargo, muy pocos estudios han enfocado sobre las estrategias empleadas para su obtención, procesamiento y consumo. Teniendo en cuenta esto, el objetivo de este trabajo es explorar dichos aspectos a partir del análisis de los conjuntos de cérvidos provenientes del sitio arqueológico Cerro Aguará, localizado en el departamento General Obligado (provincia de Santa Fe. La perspectiva seleccionada propone al consumo como factor preponderante en la configuración del registro zooarqueológico dentro del continuum de actividades que componen la explotación faunística. Desde esta perspectiva, y tomando en consideración que las carcasas de los cérvidos proveen distintos tipos de recursos alimenticios con diferentes costos de extracción (carne, médula y grasa ósea, se evalúan diferentes indicadores para establecer si existió diferente intensidad en su procesamiento. Los resultados indican que las dos especies de cérvidos identificadas en el sitio, Blastocerus dichotomus y Ozotoceros bezoarticus, ocuparon un rol preponderante en la dieta, aunque las carcasas del primero fueron empleadas más intensivamente probablemente en correlación con su mayor disponibilidad de nutrientes internos, tales como la médula y posiblemente la grasa ósea.  Abstract  Cervids were wide and regularly exploited by several Late Holocene hunter-gatherers inhabiting Paraná Plata macroregion. In the middle Paraná river, however, few research has been made on strategies involving their procurement, processing and consumption. The purpose of this article is to explore those aspects from the analysis of cervid assemblages of Cerro Aguará archaeological site (General Obligado, Santa Fe province. The selected perspective proposes final consumption as one of the most

  4. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en un área de salud del policlínico Cerro Behavior of bronchial asthma in a health area of the "Cerro" polyclinic

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    Marlene Álvarez Carmenate

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en pediatría y una de las principales causas de consulta. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento del asma bronquial como problema de salud. Métodos: trabajo descriptivo, prospectivo, de corte longitudinal, en 309 niños con edades comprendidas entre 0 y 19 años con el diagnóstico de asma bronquial, atendidos en los 15 consultorios médicos del grupo básico de trabajo A del policlínico universitario "Cerro", en el período comprendido entre el 1º de enero de 2007 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007. Método empírico para la obtención de los datos clínicos epidemiológicos, y como técnica, la encuesta a través de un cuestionario. Resultados: 148 pacientes (48 % se encontraban entre 10 y 14 años, 175 (56,6 % del sexo masculino, 136 (44 % fueron clasificados como persistentes ligeros, 140 (58 % presentaron rinitis y 57 (24 % dermatitis. Había fumadores en las viviendas de 303 pacientes (98 %, hacinamiento en 290 casos (94 % y el polvo en el hogar 284 (92 %. Conclusiones: predominio en el grupo de edades de 10 a 14 años, sexo masculino. En cuanto a la severidad de la enfermedad predominó la forma persistente ligera, las manifestaciones atópicas más frecuentes fueron la rinitis y la dermatitis, los principales factores de riesgo fueron el humo del tabaco, el polvo en el hogar y el hacinamiento, y el tratamiento de elección fue el de la crisis. Se observó la falta de organización y unidad de criterios para el enfoque integral de la política intercrisis o de sostén en la atención de los pacientes.Introduction: bronchial asthma is the more frequent chronic disease in Pediatrics and one of the major causes of consultation. Objective: to describe the behavior of bronchial asthma as a health problem. Methods: a longitudinal, prospective and descriptive study was conducted in 309 children aged between 0 and 19 diagnosed with bronchial asthmas seen in the 15 medical

  5. In vitro Antiproliferative Effect of Earthworm Coelomic Fluid of Eudrilus Eugeniae, Eisenia Foetida, and Perionyx Excavatus on Squamous Cell Carcinoma-9 Cell Line: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Dominic; Rao, Roopa S.; Anbu, Jayaraman; Chidambara Murthy, K. N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) has shown proven antiproliferative effect against breast, liver, gastrointestinal, and brain cancer, but it is least explored in oral cancer. The present in vitro study is an attempt to investigate the antiproliferative activity of ECF on oral cancer cell line squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-9. Materials and Methods: ECF was collected from the species Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) stored at −80°C. Percentage inhibition of ECF on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cells in vitro was recorded at 24 h. Protein estimation was done using Bradford protein assay validated by the biuret method. Cytotoxicity was tested at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/ml concentrations by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in SCC-9 cells in vitro. GraphPad Prism 7.0 software was used to calculate the inhibitory concentration (IC50). Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference between samples. Results: The test samples EE, EF, and PE inhibited the growth of SCC-9 cells significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 values were found to be 4.6, 44.69, and 5.27 μg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative effect was found to be variable among the three earthworm species with EE showing the most promising effect followed by PE and EF. Conclusion: Establishing the antiproliferative effect of ECF on oral cancer cells could be an initial step toward drug development and future anticancer research. The preliminary investigation has shown that ECF has a promising antiproliferative effect on oral cancer cells in vitro. SUMMARY The present pilot study evaluated the in vitro antiproliferative effect of earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) of Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cell line. The ECF inhibitory activity was promising at inhibitory concentration values of 4.6, 44.69, and 5.27 μg/ml, respectively

  6. Determinación de la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá y Myrcyaria dubia HBK (camu-camu

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    Littman Gonzáles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinó diariamente la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá  y Myrcyaria dubia  HBK (camu-camu a temperaturas de 10, 20 y 28°C, utilizando un respirómetro construido en el laboratorio. Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh, mostró un comportamiento climatérico, debido a su elevada tasa respiratoria y la presencia de picos climatéricos que coincidieron con el inicio de la maduración sensorial. Las tasas respiratorias registradas en los picos climatéricos fueron de 91,87 mgCO2/kg.h a los 21 días de almacenamiento a 10°C, 116,82 mgCO2/kg.h a los 7 días de almacenamiento a 20°C y 125,74 mgCO2/kg.h a los 5 días de almacenamiento a 28°C, respectivamente. Fue establecido que Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh a bajas temperaturas presenta menores tasas de respiración, prolongando de esta manera su vida comercial  a 10°C  hasta 3 semanas acompañado de óptimas características organolépticas, mientras que a temperaturas más altas como 20 y 28°C la vida comercial del producto desciende a 7 y 5 días respectivamente. Del mismo modo fue estudiado Myrcyaria dubia HBK el cual mostró un comportamiento no climatérico con bajas tasas de producción de CO2 con tendencia decreciente en el tiempo y ausencia de picos climatéricos. Cuando fue sometido a una temperatura de 10°C, la tasa de respiración alcanzó 12 mgCO2/kg.h, a los 20 días. El almacenamiento a mayores temperaturas como 20 y 28°C produjo un incremento en la tasa respiratoria de más del 200% alcanzando valores de 47 y 51 mgCO2/kg.h al 10° y 7° día respectivamente.

  7. Determinación de la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá y Myrcyaria dubia HBK (camu-camu

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    Littman Gonzáles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinó diariamente la tasa respiratoria de Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh (arazá y Myrcyaria dubia HBK (camu-camu a temperaturas de 10, 20 y 28°C, utilizando un respirómetro construido en el laboratorio. Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh, mostró un comportamiento climatérico, debido a su elevada tasa respiratoria y la presencia de picos climatéricos que coincidieron con el inicio de la maduración sensorial. Las tasas respiratorias registradas en los picos climatéricos fueron de 91,87 mgCO2/kg.h a los 21 días de almacenamiento a 10°C, 116,82 mgCO2/kg.h a los 7 días de almacenamiento a 20°C y 125,74 mgCO2/kg.h a los 5 días de almacenamiento a 28°C, respectivamente. Fue establecido que Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh a bajas temperaturas presenta menores tasas de respiración, prolongando de esta manera su vida comercial a 10°C hasta 3 semanas acompañado de óptimas características organolépticas, mientras que a temperaturas más altas como 20 y 28°C la vida comercial del producto desciende a 7 y 5 días respectivamente. Del mismo modo fue estudiado Myrcyaria dubia HBK el cual mostró un comportamiento no climatérico con bajas tasas de producción de CO2 con tendencia decreciente en el tiempo y ausencia de picos climatéricos. Cuando fue sometido a una temperatura de 10°C, la tasa de respiración alcanzó 12 mgCO2/kg.h, a los 20 días. El almacenamiento a mayores temperaturas como 20 y 28°C produjo un incremento en la tasa respiratoria de más del 200% alcanzando valores de 47 y 51 mgCO2/kg.h al 10° y 7° día respectivamente.

  8. Diferentes composições com substratos orgânicos na produção de mudas de Eugenia uniflora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licielo Romero Vieira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p43 A utilização de substratos formulados com resíduos da agroindústria, tais como a fibra de coco, a serragem e a casca de arroz carbonizada, é uma das alternativas sustentáveis visando a diminuir os custos de produção de mudas de espécies vegetais. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a utilização de diferentes substratos na obtenção de mudas de Eugenia uniflora L. de alta qualidade. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal do Pampa (Unipampa – Campus São Gabriel-RS, com semeadura diretamente em tubetes de polipropileno de 200 cm3, testando diferentes substratos (50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% de casca de arroz; substrato comercial Plantmax®; 50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% de fibra de casca de coco; e 50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% de serragem. A cada três dias foram avaliados o número de plântulas emergidas e, após 180 dias, as seguintes características morfológicas foram analisadas: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro do coleto, número de folhas, massa fresca radicular e total, massa seca da parte aérea, radicular e total e o índice de qualidade de Dickson. Os resultados indicam que todos os substratos foram adequados à emergência de Eugenia uniflora, mas aquele com 50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% de serragem proporcionou um atraso na emergência dessa Myrtaceae; além disso, os substratos com 50% de substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% casca de arroz e 50% substrato comercial Plantmax® + 50% fibra de casca de coco mostraram-se satisfatórios para o crescimento de mudas de Eugenia uniflora.

  9. Comentario al libro "Los mil abrazos de Morfeo" de la Académica Eugenia Guzmán Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Señor Presidente, Señores Académicos:


    Permítame, Señor Presidente, expresar a Usted y a la Junta Directiva de la Academia Nacional de Medicina mi profundo agradecimiento por la distinción de que he sido objeto al designárseme para hacer el comentario de orden al libro «Los Mil Abrazos de Morfeo», del que es autora la distinguida Académica y Profesora Titular del Departamento de Psicología de la Universidad Nacional, doña Eugenia Guzmán Cervantes, quien esta noche lo ha presentado con brillantez, erudición y amenidad ante los señores Académicos y el distinguido Auditorio que nos acompaña.

    La obra es el resultado de largos años de estudio y de trabajo de su autora en los campos de la neuropsicología clínica, la neurofisiología del sueño y sus diferentes patologías, la psicopatología de la conducta y los aspectos biológicos del comportamiento, y de su interés por incursionar en el área de los ritmos biológicos y sus implicaciones en la industria y el transporte aéreo, para compensar, según confiesa, su frustración al no haber podido ser piloto de pruebas.

    Esta ambición de Eugenia, frustrada en buena hora, le ha permitido llegar a alturas aún mayores que las que hubiera podido alcanzar como aviadora, al entregar a la comunidad científica este espléndido libro de casi trescientas páginas, treinta de las cuales corresponden a referencias bibliográficas, en las que actualiza los conocimientos que se tienen sobre el dormir y el soñar, discute con autoridad las diversas teorías formuladas sobre estas materias, analiza con propiedad los datos aportados por la ciencia en los últimos años y expone además, sus personales y bien sedimentadas opiniones sobre tan fascinantes temas.

    Por tratarse de asuntos que han inquietado a la humanidad desde tiempo inmemorial, es lógico que la autora se refiera a tres dioses de la mitología griega: Morfeo, el dios

  10. Columnar jointing in vapor-phase-altered, non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, Paycuqui, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.; Lesti, Chiara; Cas, Ray A.F.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Viramonte, Jose G.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Giordano, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition was 3.0 × 10−3–8.5 × 10−2°C/min (depending on the experimental data used for comparison). Alternatively, if the deposit was emplaced above the glass transition temperature, conductive cooling alone was insufficient to prevent welding. Crack patterns (average, 4.5 sides to each polygon) and column diameters (average, 75 cm) are consistent with relatively rapid cooling, where advective heat loss due to vapor fluxing increases cooling over simple conductive heat transfer. The presence of regularly spaced, complex radiating joint patterns is consistent with fumarolic gas rise, where volatiles originated in the valley-confined drainage system below. Joint spacing is a proxy for cooling rates and is controlled by depositional thickness/valley width. We suggest that the formation of joints in high-temperature, non-welded deposits is aided by the presence of underlying external water, where vapor transfer causes crystallization in pore spaces, densifies the deposit, and helps prevent welding.

  11. The life cycle of instability features measured from the Andes Lidar Observatory over Cerro Pachon on 24 March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. H.; Wan, K.; Gelinas, L. J.; Fritts, D. C.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Rudy, R. J.; Liu, A. Z.; Franke, S. J.; Vargas, F. A.; Pautet, P. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Swenson, G. R.

    2014-07-01

    The Aerospace Corporation's Nightglow Imager (ANI) observes nighttime OH emission (near 1.6 μm) every 2 s over an approximate 73° field of view. ANI had previously been used to study instability features seen over Maui. Here we describe observations of instabilities seen from 5 to 8 UT on 24 March 2012 over Cerro Pachon, Chile, and compare them with previous results from Maui, with theory, and with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). The atmosphere had reduced stability because of the large negative temperature gradients measured by a Na lidar. Thus, regions of dynamical and convective instabilities are expected to form, depending on the value of the Richardson number. Bright primary instabilities are formed with a horizontal wavelength near 9 km and showed the subsequent formation of secondary instabilities, rarely seen over Maui, consistent with the primaries being dynamical instabilities. The ratio of the primary to secondary horizontal wavelength was greater over Chile than over Maui. After dissipation of the instabilities, smaller-scale features appeared with sizes in the buoyancy subrange between 1.5 and 6 km. Their size spectra were consistent with the model of Weinstock (1978) if the turbulence is considered to be increasing. The DNS results produce secondary instabilities with sizes comparable to what is seen in the images although their spectra are somewhat steeper than is observed. However, the DNS results also show that after the complete decay of the primary features, scale sizes considerably smaller than 1 km are produced and these cannot be seen by the ANI instrument.

  12. Síndrome de Burnout en estudiantes internos durante su estancia por el Hospital Pediátrico del Cerro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Acosta-Torres

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la presencia del síndrome de Burnout en su orientación unidimensional entre los estudiantes internos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina durante su rotación por Pediatría. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo mediante la aplicación de la Escala Unidimensional del Burnout Estudiantil de Barraza Macías a una muestra de 230 alumnos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina, durante su rotación por el Hospital Docente Pediátrico del Cerro, previo consentimiento informado; se indagó la presencia del mismo, sus características y se relacionó la entidad con las variables de la edad y el sexo de los estudiantes. Una vez obtenidos los datos, éstos se almacenaron en una página Excel y se procesaron por el programa XLSTAT 9, mediante la aplicación del método porcentual y el estadígrafo X2, con una significación de p < 0,05. Resultados: Se observó una incidencia del síndrome de Burnout con un nivel leve (83,91% y moderado (13,42% en la población estudiada. Su predominio se identificó en el sexo femenino, con significación estadística e independiente de la edad. Conclusiones: Los alumnos internos en su rotación por la asignatura de Pediatría se encuentran afectados en su mayoría por el síndrome de Burnout en un nivel leve, observándose dependencia del mismo en relación con el sexo femenino.

  13. The evolution of a mid-crustal thermal aureole at Cerro Toro, Sierra de Famatina, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasino, P. H.; Casquet, C.; Larrovere, M. A.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Galindo, C.; Dahlquist, J. A.; Baldo, E. G.; Rapela, C. W.

    2014-03-01

    A more than 12 km wide sheeted tonalite complex in western Sierra de Famatina, NW Argentina, was emplaced at middle crust levels (ca. 5 kbar), coeval with regional metamorphism during an early phase of the Ordovician Famatinian orogeny (ca. 480 Ma). Advective heat from the tonalite complex caused a rise in the host regional temperatures (≤ 700 °C) by a maximum of ca. 100 °C, developing an aureole (~ 3 km wide) parallel to the igneous contact. This was accompanied by significant melting (ca. 40%) of the host rocks that hybridized to a variable extent with the tonalitic magmas. Three metamorphic zones were distinguished in a cross-section through the aureole: (1) an external zone consisting of metatexitic gneisses, amphibolites and minor tonalites, (2) an intermediate zone formed by screens of highly melted gneisses, amphibolites and metagabbros lying between tonalite and newly formed leucogranitoid and hybrid rock sheets, and (3) an internal zone formed almost exclusively of massive tonalite and minor hybrid rocks. Incongruent melting of biotite in gneisses of the intermediate zone produced peritectic cordierite and garnet. Hybrids resulting from variable mixing of anatectic granitoids and tonalite magma developed in the innermost part of the aureole at 750-800 °C. Increased water activity within this zone eventually promoted increased melting of plagioclase + quartz in the gneisses. Leucogranitoid magmas formed in part by extraction from the hybrid magmas led to heterogeneity of the Sr-isotope composition. The Cerro Toro contact aureole shows that assimilation of metasedimentary rocks through partial melting can play an important role during emplacement of tonalitic magmas at mid-crustal levels.

  14. A new approach for quantifying furanodiene and curzerene: a case study on the essential oils of Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae (pitangueira leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, which grows in the Brazilian savannah, was studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Furanodiene (1.2% was thermally rearranged to curzerene (85.1% to produce a combined content of 86.3%. GC analysis carried out under mild conditions (with a constant temperature of 100 ºC showed that the furanodiene concentration was three-fold greater than the curzerene concentration, i.e., the essential oil contained 64.7% furanodiene and 21.6% curzerene. Germacrene B also rearranged to γ-elemene and the concentration of both was 2.3%. Special care should be taken when conventional gas chromatography analysis is used for quantifying compounds that can rearrange at high temperatures.

  15. The long-term resistance mechanisms, critical irrigation threshold and relief capacity shown by Eugenia myrtifolia plants in response to saline reclaimed water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Hernández, José Antonio; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-01-01

    to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied. The RW...... water potential, the relative water content of leaves, leaf stomatal conductance, the leaf photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency and accumulated evapotranspiration in order to limit water loss; and 4) changes in the antioxidant defence mechanisms. These different responses induced oxidative stress......Salts present in irrigation water are serious problems for commercial horticulture, particularly in semi-arid regions. Reclaimed water (RW) typically contains, among others elements, high levels of salts, boron and heavy metal. Phytotoxic ion accumulation in the substrate has been linked...

  16. Chemical and biological evaluation of essential oils from two species of Myrtaceae - Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, João Henrique G; Souza, Elisângela Dutra; Mariane, Bruna; Pascon, Renata; Vallim, Marcelo A; Martins, Roberto Carlos C; Baroli, Adriana A; Carvalho, Bianca A; Soares, Marisi G; dos Santos, Roberta T; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2011-11-25

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from leaves of two Myrtaceae species-Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS as well as determination of Kovatz indexes indicated atractylone (26.78%) and curzerene (17.96%) as major constituents of E. uniflora oil and α-cadinol (19.15%), apiole (11.15%) and cubenol (5.43%) as main components in P. trunciflora oil. Both essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria. E. uniflora and P. trunciflora essential oils were active towards two Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus equi and Staphylococcus epidermis. In addition, biological activity of both essential oils was detected for pathogenic yeasts of the genus Candida and Cryptococcus. E. uniflora was active towards all yeast tested and exhibited interesting minimal inhibitory concentrations (0.11 to 3.75 mg/mL) across a broad spectrum of activity.

  17. Standardized flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract retards in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thouaojam, Menaka C; Sankhari, Jayantha M; Jain, Mahendra; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present inventory evaluates anti-atherogenic potential of flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract (EJSE) against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, foam cell formation, and atherogenic (ATH) diet-induced experimental atherosclerosis in rats. EJSE was able to prevent in vitro LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. Also, EJSE supplementation to ATH rats significantly minimized increment in serum markers of LDL oxidation. The ex vivo oxidation indices were also minimized in LDL of EJSE-treated animals. Microscopic evaluation of thoracic aorta of ATH + EJSE rats recorded minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, accumulation of lipid laden macrophages, calcium deposition, and expression of cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin). This is the first scientific report that demonstrates anti-atherogenic potential of EJSE and warrants further evaluation at clinical level.

  18. Sun-drying diminishes the antioxidative potentials of leaves of Eugenia uniflora against formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced in homogenates of rat brain and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kade, Ige Joseph; Ibukun, Emmanuel Oluwafemi; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2008-08-01

    Extracts from leaves of Pitanga cherry (Eugenia uniflora) are considered to be effective against many diseases, and are therefore used in popular traditional medicines. In the present study, the antioxidative effect of sun-dried (PCS) and air-dried (PCA) ethanolic extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves were investigated. The antioxidant effects were tested by measuring the ability of both PCS and PCA to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) induced by prooxidant agents such as iron (II) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in rat brain and liver tissues. The results showed that while PCA significantly (Pphenolic content of the PCS was significantly (Pphenolics in plants largely contributed to the antioxidative potency of plants, we conclude that air-drying should be employed in the preparation of extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves before it is administered empirically as a traditional medicament, and hence this study serves a public awareness to traditional medical practitioners.

  19. Evolución, cultura y complejidad. La humanidad que se hace a sí misma (Eugenia Ramírez Goicoechea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Gómez Soriano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El último libro de la antropóloga y profesora de la UNED Eugenia Ramírez Goicoechea es un intento por dar una visión compleja de la hominización “o humanización” alejada de la idea algo estática con la que frecuentemente se representa este proceso. Por el contrario, Ramírez Goicoechea defiende una visión mucho más rica, en la que se ponen en juego numerosos elementos biológicos, psicológicos, sociales y culturales.Basta con que echemos un vistazo al sugerente índice de este libro para darnos cuenta de que nos encontramos ante una obra sumamente ambiciosa, tanto por la cantidad y el tipo de contenidos que trata de abarcar como por la perspectiva a través de la cual intenta hacerlo.

  20. Observations of a Breakdown of a Mountain Wave Near 84 km Altitude Over Cerro Pachon Chile from the Andes Lidar Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. H.; Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, S. M.; Franke, S. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain waves are produced by flow over orography. They propagate almost vertically, and are characterized by nearly zero velocity phase speed. The altitude to which they typically propagate is not well documented. They are thought to mainly dissipate by absorption in a critical layer although large-amplitude wave breakdown is also thought to occur. There have been almost no direct observations of the breakdown of mountain waves in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The region over Cerro Pachon Chile (a 2715 meter mountain in the Andes where large astronomical telescopes are located) is especially favorable to the production of mountain waves. In 2009 Smith and colleagues reported on the first observations of such waves propagating into the mesopause region (85 to 95 km) from El Leoncito Argentina, where waves over Cerro Pachon could be seen using airglow observations. The Aerospace Corporation's Nightglow Imager (ANI) is located at the Andes Lidar Observatory near the crest of Cerro Pachon. ANI observes nighttime OH emission (near 1.6 microns) every 2 seconds over an approximate 73 degree field of view. ANI had previously been used to the breakdown of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability features not associated with a specific gravity wave. Here we present OH airglow observations, originating near 84 km, from 22 UT to 3 UT on 8/9 July 2012 that show the breakdown of a mountain wave into instability features that subsequently dissipate into turbulence. These multi-hour observations provide the most detailed images to date of the breakdown of a mountain wave. The causes for, and the results of, the breakdown of this mountain wave are discussed.

  1. The geological and structural evolution of the Cerro Tuzgle Quaternary stratovolcano in the back-arc region of the Central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, G.; Cogliati, S.; Baez, W.; Arnosio, M.; Bustos, E.; Viramonte, J.; Groppelli, G.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our paper is to contribute to a better knowledge of the volcanism in the back-arc region of the Central Andes and its relationships with the basement geology, the stress field and the tectonic evolution, by studying in detail the stratigraphy and the structure of the Quaternary Cerro Tuzgle stratovolcano in the Puna Plateau. Field mapping and remote sensing analysis reveal the stratigraphic architecture, the geological evolution and the volcanotectonic interactions in the Cerro Tuzgle area. For the first time in a volcano of the Puna Plateau, synthemic units bounded by unconformity surfaces have been defined, unrevealing the temporal and spatial relationships between constructive and destructive phases of the volcano history. Our study indicates that after the emplacement of a small ignimbrite deposit and of few scattered lava domes, the central Cerro Tuzgle volcano built up throughout three distinct phases of edifice construction. The first of these constructive phases ended with a previously unreported destructive event, consisting of ≈ 0.5 km3, catastrophic sector collapse of the volcanic edifice, whose stratigraphic position and main characteristics have been identified. The study suggests that the regional stress regime and the topography of the substrata are the main non-magmatic factors controlling the constructive and destructive phases of the volcano, including the directions of magmatic intrusions, faulting and gravitational sector failure of the volcano. The integration of synthemic stratigraphy and volcanotectonic analysis in the study of volcanic edifices showed to be an effective methodological approach for the understanding of the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Puna Plateau.

  2. Maturação fisiológica e coleta de sementes de Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga, Santa Maria, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Luciana de Avila

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este estudo teve como objetivo acompanhar a maturação fisiológica, seus parâmetros indicadores e identificar o momento adequado para a coleta de sementes de Eugenia uniflora, avaliando também a incidência de fungos em frutos e sementes. A pesquisa foi realizada de agosto a outubro de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. A coleta dos frutos e sementes ocorreu semanalmente, partindo de três árvores matrizes, com início aos 7 dias após a antese (DAA e término aos 77 DAA. As variáveis observadas foram: altura, diâmetro, peso verde e sanidade de frutos e sementes e teor de umidade, massa seca e germinação das sementes. Identificou-se que a época adequada para a coleta das sementes, no período e local de estudo, ocorreu entre 56 e 63 DAA, quando os frutos apresentavam coloração vermelha e as sementes elevada germinação. Nesse período, o tamanho e o peso de frutos e sementes atingiram seus valores máximos e o teor de umidade e matéria seca das sementes mostraram tendência à estabilização. Os gêneros fúngicos Cladosporium sp. e Alternaria sp.  apresentaram as maiores taxas de incidência nos frutos e nas sementes e podem influenciar o armazenamento e a germinação das sementes de mudas de Eugenia uniflora.

  3. Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time.

  4. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: egpereira@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  5. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; de Oliveira, Jamylla Mirck Guerra; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ -elemene (14.25%), and trans- β -elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04  μ g·mL(-1)) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92  μ g·mL(-1)) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400  μ g·mL(-1)); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50  μ g·mL(-1). While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity.

  6. Incidencia de ataque cerebrovascular en el departamento de Cerro Largo, Uruguay. Diagnóstico de situación previo al desarrollo de una Unidad de ACV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ricagni Zabalveytia

    2016-04-01

    La incidencia de ACV, global y por naturaleza, fue similar a otros estudios nacionales e internacionales. Este estudio mostró una realidad epidemiológica y clínica con margen para el impacto de políticas de prevención primaria, y un comportamiento de la población en cuanto a la consulta precoz favorable para la instrumentación y desarrollo de una Unidad de ACV y el uso de trombolíticos en el departamento de Cerro Largo.

  7. Catálogo de la flora vascular del Cerro del Toruño (Comarca de Los Alcores, Alcalá de Guadaíra, Sevilla)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre Alsina, A.; Martín Bravo, S.; Jiménez Mejías, P.

    2013-01-01

    Situado en la comarca de Los Alcores, el Cerro del Toruño es un cabezo calcarenítico incluido en el área metropolitana de Sevilla. Se encuentra protegido por la normativa provincial por el valor y naturalidad de su vegetación. El objetivo del presente estudio es la catalogación de su flora y su puesta en valor como reducto de vegetación natural en un paisaje fuertemente antropizado. Se han inventariado un total de 351 especies, 324 de ellas autóctonas, de las que tres están recogidas en la li...

  8. Jurassic tetrapods and flora of Cañadón Asfalto Formation in Cerro Cóndor area, Chubut Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio H. Escapa; Juliana Sterli; Diego Pol; Laura Nicoli

    2008-01-01

    The plant and tetrapod fossil record of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Middle to Late Jurassic) found in Cerro Cóndor area (Chubut Province) is summarized here. The flora is dominated by conifers (Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae sensu lato) but also includes ferns and equisetaleans. The tetrapod fauna is composed of dinosaur taxa described in the 70's as well as other remains recently described and other vertebrate groups such as amphibians, turtles, and mammals. The amphibian remains have been i...

  9. FENOLOGÍA DE CUATRO ESPECIES DE CACTÁCEAS DEL CERRO UMARCATA. VALLE DEL RÍO CHILLÓN. CANTA-LIMA. PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Bullón, Natali; Jardín Botánico “Octavio Velarde Núñez”. Departamento Académico de Biología, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Ceroni-Stuva, Aldo; Jardín Botánico “Octavio Velarde Núñez”. Departamento Académico de Biología, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú. Apartado postal: 12-056, Perú.; Castro-Cepero, Viviana; Jardín Botánico “Octavio Velarde Núñez”. Departamento Académico de Biología, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú. Apartado postal: 12-056, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Se estudiaron cuatro especies de cactáceas: Esposta melanostele, Haageocereus pseudomelanostele subsp. aureispinus, Melocactus peruvianus y Neoraimondia arequipensis subsp. roseiflora, presentes en el ecosistema árido Cerro Umarcata, Valle del Río Chillón, Canta- Lima. Se encontraron dos fenofases, floración y fructificación con ocho estadios fenológicos entre Octubre 2006 y Setiembre 2007. Para la fenofase de floración, los estadios fenológicos Flor Marchita y Botón Abortado fueron dominante...

  10. Gaseous equilibrium in sector CP IV of the Cerro Prieto, B.C. Mexico geothermal field; Equilibrio gaseoso en el sector CP IV del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); De Leon Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Cerro Prieto, Cerro Prieto, B. C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Sector CP IV is located in the NE portion of the Cerrro Prieto geothermal field. The wells of this zone produce two-phase fluids, with different characteristics as far as their steam fraction content; in the central part and towards the NW the fluids are of dominant liquid type whereas towards the E and the S, the fluid contains a relatively higher steam fraction. The results of gaseous equilibrium FT- HSH3 showed that the fluids in the deposit are at temperatures between 275 Celsius degrees and 310 Celsius degrees and contain steam fractions between 0.01 and 0.5. The data found for the natural state are aligned in a tendency defined in the diagram FT- HSH3, that suggest the wells receive different proportions from preexisting steam in the deposit, which are mixed with the liquid phase to produce the observed discharges. The present data, besides showing the presence of deposit steam, also indicates the entrance of lower temperature fluid in the central part of sector CP IV. [Spanish] El sector CP IV se localiza en la porcion NE del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto. Los pozos de esta zona producen fluidos bifasicos, con diferentes caracteristicas en cuanto a su contenido de fraccion de vapor: en la parte central y hacia el NW los fluidos son de tipo liquido dominante mientras que hacia el E y hacia el S, el fluido contiene una fraccion relativamente alta de vapor. Los resultados de equilibrio gaseoso FT-HSH3 mostraron que los fluidos en el yacimiento se encuentran a temperaturas de entre 275 grados Celsius y 310 grados Celsius y contienen fracciones de vapor de entre -.01 y .5. Los datos hallados para el estado natural se alinean en una tendencia definida en el diagrama FT-HSH3, que sugiere que los pozos reciben diferentes proporciones de vapor pre-existente en el yacimiento, que se mezclan con fase liquida para producir las descargas que se observan. Los datos actuales, ademas de mostrar la presencia de vapor de yacimiento, tambien indican la entrada de fluidos de

  11. Piperantha:inovasi Terapi Kombinasi Ekstrak Daun Salam (Eugenia Polyantha) dan Sirih Merah (Piper Crocatum) terhadap Peningkatan Aktivitas Fas/fas-l pada Regresi Pertumbuhan Kanker Serviks secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Wicaksono, Firman Mulyo; Sari, Desie Suci Permata; Sekti, Beta Herilla; Sari, Yitania; Natalia, Ellen; Lyrawati, Diana; Febriyanti, Alifia Putri

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated Eugenia polyantha and Piper crocatum leaves alone and in combination for their anti-cancer properties on HeLa cells. The extraction method by using soxhlet and maceration. The phytochemical constituents of extract were evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analysis. The anti-cancer property and mechanism of the extract were evaluated by its effect on cell viability and apoptosis. Total flavonoids content was higher in maceration than soxhlet extracts. Single ex...

  12. Anchoring the landscape: human utilization of the Cerro Gavilán 2 rockshelter, Middle Orinoco, from the Early Holocene to the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Scaramelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Initial archaeological investigations at Cerro Gavilán 2, a rockshelter located in the Bolívar State of Venezuela, reveal evidence for human activity that spans the Early Holocene to the present. This report summarizes the information obtained through surface collection, limited excavation, and documentation of the surface features and rock art in the cave. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C analysis established dates from excavated strata that range between 9250 ± 60 BP to 3440 ± 40 BP, and are associated with a unifacial flake technology and charred faunal and floral remains, whereas surface remains span the known ceramic sequence for the area. Rock art corresponds to distinctive superimposed styles that indicate continual repainting of the cave through time, serving to anchor the site to the landscape for multiple societies inhabiting the region. It is suggested that the shelter may have fulfilled different functions over time and a sequence of seasonal residential, ritual, and funerary activities is proposed. The rich cultural context found in Cerro Gavilán 2 contributes to advances in Amazonian archaeology that are redefining our knowledge of early developments and the complexity of human/environmental interactions in tropical America.

  13. TECNOLOGÍA Y SUBSISTENCIA EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CERRO TAPERA VÁZQUEZ (PARQUE NACIONAL PRE-DELTA, REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Bonomo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the studies carried out on ceramic and bone materials recorded at Cerro Tapera Vázquez site (Argentinean Northeast are presented. Taxonomic, anatomic and taphonomic studies of bone assemblages and technological-decorative analysis and refitting of pottery were undertaken. The site is located on a mound next to El Ceibo Creek, where 16 m2 were excavated in 2008. Abundant smooth, incised and modeled pottery (handles and zoomorphic appendages and numerous bones remains of Myocastor coypus (most frequent taxon, Blastocerus dichotomus, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Cavia aperea, Leopardus geoffroyi, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, birds and fish (Siluriformes and Characiformes were recorded. Except Cavia aperea rodent and Dusicyon gimnocercus fox, all taxa show evidence of anthropic modification (cut marks, fresh fractures and burning. Two radiocarbon dates were obtained: 650 and 520 yrs. BP. The results reached in this study lead to the conclusion that the pre-Hispanic populations that occupied Cerro Tapera Vázquez by the end of the Late Holocene were riverine canoe peoples, with complex ceramic technology and subsistence based on hunting of coypu, capybara and cervids, fishing and small-scale horticulture.

  14. ANALISIS DEL CO-TRATAMIENTO PASIVO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES MUNICIPALES Y DRENAJE ACIDO DE MINAS EN CERRO RICO DE POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El drenaje acido de minas (DAM es un problema a nivel mundial. El co-tratamiento pasivo de DAM con aguas residuales municipales (ARM es una manera efectiva y de bajo costo que utiliza los nutrientes de ARM para tratar las concentraciones de metales y sulfato en DAM. Cerro Rico de Potosí, Bolivia es una de las grandes ciudades mineras en el mundo que tiene muchos problemas con el DAM. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar velocidades de reacción de Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, y otros metales en DAM provenientes de un flujo de agua en Cerro Rico usando un sistema reactor de tres etapas. El DAM tenía un pH de 3.58, acidez de 1080 mg/L equivalente a CaCO3 conteniendo concentraciones de 12, 68, 17, y 550 mg/L de Al, Fe, Mn y Zn respectivamente. Las velocidades de reacción de Al, Fe, Mn y Zn fueron de 1.43, 2.09, 0.01 y 0.10 d-1, respectivamente.

  15. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gerardo; Soto, Alejandra; Alfaro, Willy

    2012-03-01

    Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant) and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads), and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon). Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of captured

  16. The ~ 2500 yr B.P. Chicoral non-cohesive debris flow from Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, H. F.; Hurtado, B. O.; Cortés, G. P.; Macías, J. L.; Cepeda, H.

    2008-04-01

    Cerro Machín Volcano (CMV) is located in the central part of the Colombian Andes (2750 m asl), 150 km southwest of Bogotá. It is considered the most dangerous active volcano of Colombia. CMV has experienced at least six major explosive eruptions during the last 5000 years. These eruptions have emplaced many types of pyroclastic deposits with associated lahars that have traveled more than 100 km. One of these lahars is called Chicoral Debris Flow Deposit (DFD2). This deposit is exposed as discontinuous terraces (3-20 m thick) along the Coello and Magdalena rivers up to 109 km from the source. The DFD2 covers a minimum area of 62 km 2 and has a minimum volume of 0.57 km 3. It comprises two dacite-rich volcaniclastic units. Grain-size analysis reveals that the matrix content and sorting increase with distance while the average grain size decreases. The clay content of the DFD2 matrix is approximately 1%, thus categorizing it as a non-cohesive debris flow. Radiocarbon dates obtained from underlying and overlying paleosols yielded ages of 2505 + 65 and 1640 + 45 yr B.P., respectively. These dates suggest that DFD2 is related to the ~ 2600 yr B.P. El Guaico eruption of CMV. This eruption produced a block-and-ash flow that filled and blocked the Toche River up to 5 km from the volcano. Subsequent remobilization of this loose material by runoff water generated a massive debris flow that traveled 91 km along the Toche and Coello rivers and continued across the Espinal Alluvial Fan debouching into the Magdalena River where it continued another 18 km prior to its transformation into a sediment-laden flow. Because the last eruption of the volcano occurred ca. 900 years ago, no historic activity of CMV is known among inhabitants of the region. Hence the region has developed without awareness of volcanic hazards. Therefore an assessment of volcanic hazards is essential for understanding and evaluating the vulnerability and risk to which people are exposed in case of a future

  17. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  18. Recycling of water, carbon, and sulfur during subduction of serpentinites: A stable isotope study of Cerro del Almirez, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeffrey C.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Turchyn, Alexandra; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez Pugnaire, María Teresa; Marchesi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We use the concentrations and isotope compositions of water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinites and their dehydration products to trace the cycling of volatiles during subduction. Antigorite serpentinites from the Cerro del Almirez complex, Spain, contain 9–12 wt.% H2O and 910 ± 730 ppm sulfur, and have bulk δ18O values of 8.6 ± 0.4‰, δD = − 54 ± 5‰, and δ34S = 5.0‰, consistent with serpentinization at temperatures of ~ 200 °C by seawater hydrothermal fluids in a seafloor setting. The serpentinites were dehydrated to chlorite–harzburgite (olivine + orthopyroxene + chlorite) at 700 °C and 1.6–1.9 GPa during subduction metamorphism, resulting in loss of water, and sulfur. The chlorite–harzburgites contain 5.7 ± 1.9 wt.% H2O, and have bulk δ18O = 8.0 ± 0.9‰, and δD = − 77 ± 11‰. The rocks contain 650 ± 620 ppm sulfur having δ34S = 1.2‰. Dehydration of serpentinite resulted in loss of 5 wt.% H2O having δ18O = 8–10‰ and δD = − 27 to − 65‰, and loss of 260 ppm sulfur as sulfate, having δ34S = 14.5‰. The contents and δ13C of total carbon in the two rock types overlap, with a broad trend of decreasing carbon contents and δ13C from ~ 1300 to 200 ppm and − 9.6 to − 20.2‰. This reflects mixing between reduced carbon in the rocks (210 ppm, δ13C ≈ − 26‰) and seawater-derived carbonate (δ13C ≈ − 1‰). Our results indicate: 1) Serpentinized oceanic peridotites carry significant amounts of isotopically fractionated water, carbon and sulfur into subduction zones; 2) Subduction of serpentinites to high P and T results in loss of water, and sulfur, which can induce melting and contribute to 18O, D, and 34S enrichments and oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge; and 3) Isotopically fractionated water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinite dehydration products are recycled deeper into the mantle where they can contribute to isotope heterogeneities and may be significant for volatile budgets of the deep Earth.

  19. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  20. Subsurface imaging in a sector of Cerro Prieto transform fault near to pull-apart basin, Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico, based on crooked lines 2D seismic reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Agüero, M. A.; González-Escobar, M.; Arregui, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the transition zone between San Andres continental transformation system and the coupled transform faults system and rifting of Gulf of California is located the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin delimitated by Imperial fault (northeast) and Cerro Prieto fault (CPF) (southwest), this last, is the limit west of Cerro Prieto geothermic field (CPGF). Crooked lines 2D seismic reflection, covering a portion near the intersection of CPF and CPGF are processed and interpreted. The seismic data were obtained in the early 80's by Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). By decades, technical and investigation works in Cerro Prieto geothermic field and its vicinity had mapped faults at several depths but do not stablish a clear limit where this faults and CPF interact due the complex hydrothermal effects imaging the subsurface. The profiles showing the presence of a zone of uplift effect due to CPF. Considering the proximity of the profiles to CPF, it is surprising almost total absence of faults. A strong reflector around 2 km of depth, it is present in all profiles. This seismic reflector is considered a layer of shale, result of the correlation with a well located in the same region.

  1. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basting, Rosanna T; Nishijima, Catarine M; Lopes, Juliana A; Santos, Raquel C; Lucena Périco, Larissa; Laufer, Stefan; Bauer, Silke; Costa, Miriam F; Santos, Lourdes C; Rocha, Lúcia R M; Vilegas, Wagner; Santos, Adair R S; Dos Santos, Catarina; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A

    2014-11-18

    An ethnopharmacological survey indicated that leaves from Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. (Myrtaceae) are popularly used as a natural therapeutic agent to treat pain and inflammation. The overall objective of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Eugenia punicifolia (HEEP) in rodents. The antinociceptive effects of HEEP were evaluated in mice after oral administration in chemical (formalin and glutamate) and thermal (hot-plate) tests. We evaluated the involvement of the glutamatergic, opioidergic and nitrergic pathways in the antinociception of HEEP and the effect of HEEP on the inhibition of p38α MAPK. The anti-inflammatory effect of HEEP was evaluated in mice and rats using xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema, respectively. Furthermore, the gastroprotective effect of HEEP was evaluated in rats with acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol or indomethacin. Finally, we performed a phytochemical analysis of HEEP. The oral administration of HEEP (125, 250 and 500mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin-induced licking, and HEEP (250mg/kg, p.o.) also significantly inhibited the nociception caused by glutamate. The antinociceptive effects of HEEP were significantly reversed by l-arginine (500mg/kg, i.p.) but not by naloxone (1mg/kg, i.p.) in the formalin test. HEEP did not affect animal motor performance in the rotarod model. In addition, HEEP also increased the paw withdraw latency in the hot-plate test. HEEP significantly inhibited ear edema induced by xylene (64%) and paw edema induced by carrageenan (50%) compared to the control group. Furthermore, HEEP (3-30mg/mL) also inhibited the phosphorylation of p38α MAPK by approximately 90%. In addition, HEEP (125, 250 and 500mg/kg, p.o.) protected the rats against ethanol (88.4-99.8%) and indomethacin (53-72.3%) and increased the mucus levels

  2. Analysis of two catalogues of seismicity at the Cerro Prieto geothermal area (Baja California) from 1988 to 1995, relationship with reinjection; Analisis de dos catalogos de sismicidad en el area geotermica de Cerro Prieto (Baja California) de 1988 a 1995, relacion con la reinyeccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabriol, Hubert [Centro de Investigacion y de Ensenanza Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ensenada (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    In order to study the effects of fluid reinjection in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, started in 1989, seismicity recorded in this area and included in the USGS-Caltech (California Technology) (US) and the Red Sismologica del Noreste de Mexico (RESNOM) of the Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Ensenanza Superior (CICESE, Mexico) catalogues is reviewed since 1988. The precision of determination of epicenters is compared with the location of moderate events recorded by a local array, setup around Cerro Prieto since August 1994. We note a bias in both catalogues, as events located by USGS-Caltech are shifted between 5 to 10 km towards south and events of RESNOM are shifted between 4 to 8 km towards northeast. That limits the use of these catalogues for precise studies of reinjection effects in the geothermal field. Seismic activity is low until 1991 and increases afterwards, particularly in 1993 and 1995. Comparison of USGS-Caltech catalogue with changes in reinjection flow rates show at beginning of 1995 only one example of short-range effect between reinjection and seismicity (but using the epicenter determination of the local network) and possibly several medium-range effects (between 6 and 8 months). In that case, the flow rate increase corresponding to the beginning of winter, could be followed by one or more events of magnitude ranging from Ml=3 to Ml=4 during midsummer. Taking into account the tectonic context of the area, it is also possible that those event could be associated either to Cerro Prieto fault or to the spreading center source of the thermal anomaly. The continuous monitoring with a local network will allow to precise those preliminary results, obtained with regional networks. [Espanol] Como parte del estudio sobre los efectos de la reinyeccion de fluido en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, iniciado en 1989, se analiza de manera critica la sismicidad registrada en el area y reportada en los catalogos de USGS-Caltech (Tecnologico de

  3. Mapping the edge of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, New Mexico: a piece of the puzzle to understanding a potential geothermal resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, L.; Gallegos, M.; Goebel, M.; Murphy, B. S.; Smith, J.; Soto, D.; Swiatlowski, J.; Volk, C.; Welch, M.; Feucht, D. W.; Hollingshaus, B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; McPhee, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field located west of Santa Fe, New Mexico spans the southwestern part of the Espanola Basin with the Rio Grande to the west. Underlying the volcanics are the Santa Fe Group sediments, which contain the Ancha Formation, an important aquifer in the region. High temperature gradients in water wells reveal a potential geothermal prospect. In 2012 the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program acquired transient electromagnetic (TEM), audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity and ground magnetic data to determine the buried eastern margin of the volcanic field and the connectivity related to the underlying sediments. The roughly EW 5-km long transect was sited from USGS aeromagnetic data to cross the boundary of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. TEM data collected at ten stations, at 200-400 m spacing, along the transect employed an in-loop configuration with a square 100 m x 100 m transmitter loop and both a Zonge receiver coil and a 5 m square receiver loop. The 5 m loop allowed for the recovery of early-time data that was saturated when using the Zonge coil. AMT data were acquired at eight stations, at 400-500 m spacing, using the Geometric Stratagem system recording from 92 kHz to 10 Hz; a horizontal magnetic dipole transmitter was used to augment low signal strength at around 1 kHz. Gravity data along the profile were acquired using CG-3 and CG-5 Scintrex gravimeters with a station interval >250 m. Magnetic data were acquired with a Geometrics Cesium vapor G-858 magnetometer for about 3500 m along the profile at a 0.5 second sampling rate. Two volcanic flows interbedded with Ancha Formation and overlying Santa Fe Group sediments were identified in both the TEM and AMT modeling. High surface resistivity zones (>300 ohm-m) with depths ranging from ~100 to 300 m define the volcanic flows and correspond to high densities (2.3 to 2.55 g/cm3), while low resistivity zones (<30 ohm-m) correspond to lower densities (~2.1 g/cm3). High

  4. LA ARQUITECTURA DE TIERRA Y LAS OCUPACIONES HUMANAS EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CERRO PUÑAY, CANTÓN CHUNCHI, PROVINCIA DE CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR (Earth Architecture and Human Occupations at Cerro Puñay Archaeological Site, Chunchi Canton, Chimborazo Province, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jadán V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se refiere a la arquitectura de tierra del sitio arqueológico Cerro Puñay, ubicado al sur de la provincia de Chimborazo. Algunos perfiles estratigráficos de diferentes partes del cerro demuestran que existen cambios relacionados con la estructura del sitio: un reforzamiento de talud en la cima central, arqueosedimentos en ciertos sectores, nivelación de las cimas, construcción de terrazas, entre otras modificaciones. Aunque hay evidencias de ocupación desde el Formativo Tardío con la cultura narrío (2000-1600 a. C., las edificaciones se iniciaron con la sociedad cañari (500-1460 d. C.. Por otra parte, el sitio evidencia una reconstrucción y utilización por parte de la sociedad inca (1460-1533 d. C.. ENGLISH: This article refers to the land architecture of the Cerro Puñay archaeological site, located to the south of the province of Chimborazo. Some stratigraphic profiles, from different parts of the hill, show that there are changes related to the structure of the site: a reinforcement of slope in the central summit, archaeological sediments in certain sectors, leveling of the tops, and construction of terraces, among other modifications. Although there is evidence of occupation from the Late Formative with the Narrío culture (2000–1600 BC, the construction started with the Cañari society (500–1460 AD. On the other hand, the site shows evidence of a reconstruction and use by the Inca society (1460–1533 AD.

  5. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  6. Jurassic tetrapods and flora of Cañadón Asfalto Formation in Cerro Cóndor area, Chubut Province Flora y tetrápodos del Jurásico de la Formación Cañadón Asfalto en el área de Cerro Cóndor, provincia de Chubut

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio H. Escapa; Juliana Sterli; Diego Pol; Laura Nicoli

    2008-01-01

    The plant and tetrapod fossil record of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Middle to Late Jurassic) found in Cerro Cóndor area (Chubut Province) is summarized here. The flora is dominated by conifers (Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae sensu lato) but also includes ferns and equisetaleans. The tetrapod fauna is composed of dinosaur taxa described in the 70's as well as other remains recently described and other vertebrate groups such as amphibians, turtles, and mammals. The amphibian remains have been i...

  7. Procesos históricos y ambientales en Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí, México, 1948-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Martínez Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el municipio Cerro de San Pedro enfatizan la continuidad ambiental aparente que estimula la minería; sin embargo, esta lectura subvalora otras dinámicas que ocurren en la zona. Con base en observaciones directas de trabajo en campo, para realizar análisis de coberturas vegetales, entrevistas con los habitantes de la zona, revisión de cartografía e investigación de archivo, el presente trabajo muestra procesos como la explotación de recursos vegetales y el pastoreo, como actividades económicas paralelas a las labores mineras, y que no habían sido tratados hasta ahora.

  8. Construcciones y cementerios del período Intermedio Tardío en el cerro Ñañañique (departamento de Piura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Après un abandon de plus d'un millénaire, le site de Cerro Ñañañique est réoccupé sans doute à partir du Xème siècle de notre ère. Les fouilles réalisées ont permis de reconnaître l'existence d'un ensemble monumental, composé de terrasses artificielles, et d'un complexe de bâtiments et structures couvrant tout le sommet du cerro. De petites constructions furent édifiées sur le bas versant Est et au moins cinq cimetières sont connus dans les environs immédiats. L'ensemble de ces vestiges prouve le maintien d'une occupation du secteur jusqu'à la fin de la période préhispanique. L'article est centré sur l'analyse de quatorze contextes funéraires provenant d'un des cimetières de cette époque. Y sont décrits les positions, orientations et associations des différents corps exhumés ainsi que le mobilier funéraire associé. Une comparaison avec les traditions voisines connues permet de confirmer certaines similitudes et en particulier les relations étroites avec les zones méridionales. Después de un abandono de más de un milenio, el sitio de Cerro Ñañañique se reocupó, posiblemente desde el siglo X d.c. Las excavaciones realizadas permitieron reconocer la existencia de un conjunto monumental compuesto de terrazas artificiales y de un complejo de edificios y estructuras que cubre toda la cumbre del cerro. Pequeñas construcciones fueron también edificadas en la parte baja de la vertiente este y hubo, por lo menos, cinco cementerios a proximidad. El conjunto de estos vestigios comprueba la permanencia de una ocupación del sector hasta el final de la época prehispánica. El artículo está centrado en el análisis de catorce contextos funerarios de aquella época. Se describen la posición, la orientación y las asociaciones de los varios cuerpos exhumados, así como el material funerario asociado. Una comparación con las tradiciones vecinas permite confirmar ciertas semejanzas y particularmente las relaciones

  9. Approaching viscosity control: electrical heating of extra heavy oil as alternative to diluent injection in down hole in Cerro Negro Field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Manuel [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Electrical heating is a method used to enhance oil recovery in extra heavy oil reservoirs. This method can be used when diluent injection or other methods are not able to reduce oil viscosity sufficiently or when problems of product quality or quantity arise. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of electrical heating, individually and simultaneously with injection of diluents. For this purpose, simulations were undertaken in one well with integrated electrical heating and diluent injection in Cerro Negro Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela. Results have shown that the application of both methods together is more profitable than the application of electrical heating alone. This paper demonstrated that the use of electrical heating and diluent injection combined is a valid alternative to diluent injection alone, reducing production loss.

  10. El plutón de cerro azul y su relación con los orígenes del Istmo de Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    De Destro, Tisla

    2004-01-01

    El Plutón de Cerro Azul tiene estrecha relación con los orígenes del Istmo de Panamá y con el "eslabón ístmico" centroamericano. Actualmente el tema es de interés para la comunidad científica internacional y en consecuencia para los interesados en el desarrollo del turismo científico en Panamá. La Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá (U.T.P), en la década de los 80, investigó algunos aspectos de éste cuerpo geológico y con éste ensayo retoma el tema. Se presenta la ubica...

  11. Duration of Gravity Waves in OH Airglow Layer Observed by an All-sky Airglow Imager at Maui and Cerro Pachón

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B.; Liu, A. Z.; Gardner, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    OH airglow layer has a typical FWHM of ~7 km centered at ~87 km altitude. Observations from airglow imaging have shown that gravity waves exist most of the time in this layer. The duration or lifespan of wave events has important implications for gravity wave parameterization. In this study, persistent wave events are isolated from long-term airglow measurements from Maui, HI(20.7°N, 156.3°W) and Cerro Pachón, Chile(30.2°S, 70.7°W) by restricting the consecutive wave's parameters within certain threshold. The probably distribution of the duration of wave events is found be exponentially distributed and the exponents are different at these two different sites. Explanations for such distributions are proposed based on the wave breaking or wave propagation through the airglow layer.

  12. Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of basaltic flows of the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, F.; Budahn, J.R.; Peters, L.; Unruh, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic compositions of basaltic flows erupted from the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra volcanic centres in central New Mexico indicate that each of these lavas had unique origins and that the predominant mantle involved in their production was an ocean-island basalt type. The basalts from Cat Hills (0.11 Ma) and Cat Mesa (3.0 Ma) are similar in major and trace element composition, but differences in MgO contents and Pb isotopic values are attributed to a small involvement of a lower crustal component in the genesis of the Cat Mesa rocks. The Cerro Verde rock is comparable in age (0.32 Ma) to the Cat Hills lavas, but it is more radiogenic in Sr and Nd, has higher MgO contents, and has a lower La/Yb ratio. This composition is explained by the melting of an enriched mantle source, but the involvement of another crustal component cannot be disregarded. The Wind Mesa rock is characterized by similar age (4.01 Ma) and MgO contents, but it has enriched rare-earth element contents compared with the Cat Mesa samples. These are attributed to a difference in the degree of partial melting of the Cat Mesa source. The Mesita Negra rock (8.11 Ma) has distinctive geochemical and isotopic compositions that suggest a different enriched mantle and that large amounts of a crustal component were involved in generating this magma. These data imply a temporal shift in magma source regions and crustal involvement, and have been previously proposed for Rio Grande rift lavas. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  13. El Cerro de los Santos: paisaje, negociación social y ritualidad entre el mundo ibérico y el hispano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Cardiel, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian shrine of Cerro de los Santos is located next to one of the main roads in the Southeast of the Meseta, in the middle of an area without any town of some entity. This paper aims to highlight its status as a shrine of passage, i.e. as a sacred, safe point where voyagers could rest overnight under the protection of the god. The creation of a statio by the Romans in such a place and its dedication to the goddess Pales provide more circumstantial evidence for this theory. Furthermore, some domestic material contexts can be defined, probably connected with this activity, and clearly different from the well-known ritual contexts of the shrine.La ubicación del santuario ibérico del Cerro de los Santos junto a una de las principales vías de comunicación del sureste meseteño y en el centro de una comarca desprovista de núcleos urbanos de cierta entidad permite subrayar en este artículo su uso continuado como santuario de paso, lugar sacro y seguro al que los caminantes podrían acogerse para pernoctar bajo la protección de la divinidad. La creación de una statio en el enclave en época romana y su dedicación a la diosa Pales no son sino argumentos ulteriores en este sentido. Se identifican además contextos materiales domésticos, distintos de los espacios de culto bien conocidos del santuario, relacionables con esta otra actividad.

  14. Entre el sueño del proyecto y la lógica del lugar. La arquitectura imposible de los cerros de Valparaíso

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    Pablo M. Millán-Millán

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Valparaíso es el resultado de la unión de dos ciudades en una: la ciudad vertical de los cerros y la ciudad horizontal del Plan –parte plana–. Esta doble naturaleza ha ido configurando una dualidad obligada a convivir y a establecer un continuo diálogo, acabando en la mayoría de los casos en conflicto. Si por un lado está la ciudad global y ortogonal como resultado de la ocupación europea, por otro lado estará la ciudad onírica agarrada a los acantilados ajena a cualquier orden preestablecido. Cada una de estas dos ciudades irá materializando su propia arquitectura: una real y estandarizada, propia de cualquier periferia de ciudad, y otra imposible. Será esta segunda la que vaya evolucionando en un intento continuo de adaptación y será el propio lugar el encargado de rechazar cualquier construcción que no le sea propia. Esta dicotomía quedará plasmada en numerosos proyectos que nunca verán la luz. El objetivo del artículo será mostrar, a partir de numerosos proyectos inéditos descubiertos en Valparaíso, cómo la arquitectura pensada para los cerros nunca llegó a construirse y fue dando paso a unas construcciones a medio camino entre lo real y lo imaginario, entre la lógica y el sueño.

  15. EFEITOS DO EXTRATO DE Eugenia uniflora SOBRE OS PARÂMETROS HEMATOLÓGICOS E PRESSÃO ARTERIAL DE RATOS HIPERTENSOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemia Aparecida Partelli Mariani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Eugenia uniflora é uma planta amplamente encontrada no Brasil, utilizada popularmente para tratar diversos distúrbios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do extrato de suas folhas sobre parâmetros hematológicos e pressão arterial de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controle e tratados com extrato nas doses de 100mg/kg e 200mg/kg. O tratamento foi diário, via gavagem, por 28 dias. O sangue dos animais foi coletado semanalmente, para a contagem global e diferencial de leucócitos e ao final do tratamento, os animais foram anestesiados e foi realizada cateterização da artéria carótida para medida de pressão arterial sistólica, diastólica, média e frequência cardíaca. O extrato não alterou os parâmetros hematológicos e não reduziu a frequência cardíaca dos SHR, porém observou-se uma tendência à redução. Ao passo que, diminuiu a pressão arterial sistólica, diastólica e média, sugerindo um efeito anti-hipertensivo.

  16. Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oils from Two Species of Myrtaceae — Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg Kausel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi G. Soares

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from leaves of two Myrtaceae species–Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg Kausel–were determined. Analysis by GC/MS as well as determination of Kovatz indexes indicated atractylone (26.78% and curzerene (17.96% as major constituents of E. uniflora oil and α-cadinol (19.15%, apiole (11.15% and cubenol (5.43% as main components in P. trunciflora oil. Both essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria. E. uniflora and P. trunciflora essential oils were active towards two Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus equi and Staphylococcus epidermis. In addition, biological activity of both essential oils was detected for pathogenic yeasts of the genus Candida and Cryptococcus. E. uniflora was active towards all yeast tested and exhibited interesting minimal inhibitory concentrations (0.11 to 3.75 mg/mL across a broad spectrum of activity.

  17. Solvent-free microwave extraction coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction of essential oils from flower of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Zhu, Xiaonan; Gao, Yan; Wang, Liying; Wang, Jian; Wu, Liwei; Song, Daqian

    2010-09-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction was developed for extracting the essential oils from Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. Carbonyl iron powders were mixed with the sample to extract essential oils from the dried plant materials and single-drop solvent was used to simultaneously extract essential oils from the headspace. The single-drop of decane was suspended from the tip of a microsyringe and exposed to the headspace above the sample. After the extraction was finished, the single-drop was injected into gas chromatographic system and analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of the experimental parameters, including microwave power, microwave irradiation time, the ratio of carbonyl iron powder to sample, extraction solvent, single-drop volume and extraction time, were investigated. Sixteen compounds in the essential oils of E. caryophyllata T. were obtained and identified. The constituents of essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation and solvent-free microwave extraction-headspace single-drop microextraction were not obviously different. Compared with hydro-distillation, the proposed method required shorter extraction time and less amount of the sample.

  18. Aspectos agronómicos sobre el cultivo del arazá (eugenia stipitata me vaugh Frutal promisorio de la amazonia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevedo Garcia Enrique

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio del manejo agronómico del cultivo del arazá (Eugenia slipitata Mc. Vaugh en la Amazonia colombiana y una revisión del manejo del arazá en la Amazonia del Brasil y Perú. Se concluye que esta es una especie en vía de domesticación que puede ser cultivada en otras regiones de Colombia y que podría ser un sustituto para los cultivos ilícitos. Si somos hábiles en logra establecer el cultivo del arazá. En reglones con características ecológicas adecuadas para esta especie en corto tiempo, obtendremos un fruto para el consumo humano y su usa extensivo en Colombia.

  19. Protective role of Brassica olerecea and Eugenia jambolana extracts against H₂O₂ induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Pandya, Apurv V; Shah, Nancy H

    2012-08-01

    This study assesses the efficacy of anthocyanin rich Brassica olerecea leaves (ARCE) and flavonoid rich Eugenia jambolana seed (EJSE) extracts as possible cardioprotective agents against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. Presence of ARCE or EJSE resulted in a superior cell viability and cell integrity as revealed by cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase release assays and acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining of control and H(2)O(2) treated H9C2 cells. These extracts were also able to reduce the impact of H(2)O(2) induced lipid peroxidation and depletion of intracellular glutathione. Also, there was an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species following ARCE or EJSE treatments. These results suggest that ARCE and EJSE are capable of cardioprotective activity due to the high number of anthocyanins and flavonoids in them that are instrumental in lowering intracellular oxidative stress, preventing depletion of cellular antioxidants and improving cell viability.

  20. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of the central nervous system activity of the ethanolic extract of Eugenia clarensis Britton & P.Wilson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia TM. Nguyen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Eugenia clarensis Britton & P. Wilson is an endangered plant endemic of central region of Cuba. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of ethanolic leaf extract of E. clarensis and evaluate its central nervous system (CNS activity. Methods: The dried powder of leaves of E. clarensis was exhaustively extracted with ethanol by maceration. This extract underwent preliminary phytochemical analysis and these results were corroborated by the thin layer chromatographic technique. CNS effects were investigated in NMRI mice at doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg using Irwin test, curiosity tests and traction. Results: Phytochemical screening suggested the presence of phenols, tannins, triterpenoids, sterols, flavonoids, coumarins, quinones, resins and reducing sugar. The oral administration of this extract, in Irwin test, produced slight reduction in spontaneous motor activity and muscle tone in mice at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg, moreover, it exhibited diuretic activity. In addiction this extract at dose 800 mg/kg decreased number of times which mice introduced its head into holes in comparison with the negative control. In the traction test, the mice treated with the extract showed a non-significant failure in traction at all doses tested. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the extract in higher doses has exerts a weak sedative and non-effect about the motor coordination. The results obtained in the preliminary phytochemical testing thus suggest that the ethanolic leaf extract of E. clarensis contains some metabolites, which may be responsible of sedative action.

  1. In vitro safety and efficacy evaluations of a complex botanical mixture of Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae): Prospects for developing a new dermocosmetic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Larissa Cleres; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Veloso, Danillo Fabrini Maciel Costa; Pedrosa, Tatiana Nascimento; Lima, Emerson Silva; do Couto, Renê Oliveira; Lima, Eliana Martins; Batista, Aline Carvalho; de Paula, José Realino; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2017-12-01

    In the context of developing a new natural product-based cosmetic, the in vitro efficacy and safety evaluations of a complex botanical mixture based on Eugenia dysenterica leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EDE) (2.5-1000μg/mL) were carried out. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated the presence of the tannin (ellagic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin and gallic acid) which characterize the EDE as a polyphenol-rich mixture. Using HFF-1 fibroblasts, it was shown that EDE promoted cell regeneration after UVA exposure. It also led to the inhibition of the collagenase, elastase and tyrosinase enzymes, which are involved in skin-related disorders. In terms of toxicological evaluation, the EDE was classified as non-phototoxic through the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test (OECD N° 432, 2004) and non-eye irritant by Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (OECD N° 437, 2013) assay, in conjunction with corneal histomorphometric analysis. Furthermore, the EDE has no skin sensitization potential as demonstrated by a two-out-of-three prediction model [protein-binding/haptenization (OECD N° 442C, 2015), keratinocyte and dendritic cell activations]. In addition, it was shown that the EDE seems to be non-genotoxic through the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (OECD N° 487, 2014) using HepG2 cells. When considered together, these findings support the use of EDE botanical mixture in cosmetic/pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of phenolic profile by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and anti-inflammatory activity of crude hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo A. Siebert

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., Myrtaceae, is used in folk medicine for anti-inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and rheumatism. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and phenolic profile of the crude hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from E. brasiliensis leaves. Crude hydroalcoholic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in comparison to standard phenolic compounds. The anti-inflammatory activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (1, 10 and 25 mg kg-1 and the ethyl acetate fraction (10, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 was evaluated in a swiss mouse model of acute pleurisy induced by carrageenan, being the total cell count, exudation and analysis of nitrite/nitrate the inflammation parameters. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis revealed apigenin, catechin, galangin, isoquercetin, myricetin, quercetin and rutin. Crude hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were effective in inhibiting cell migration in all tested doses. Crude hydroalcoholic extract was effective in inhibiting exudation only at the 10 mg kg-1 dose; ethyl acetate fraction was effective in all tested doses. Results for nitrite/nitrate levels reveals that only the ethyl acetate fraction was effective at the tested doses. This is the first report of the presence of isoquercetin, galangin and apigenin in this species. Results from the phytochemical analysis enhance the chemical knowledge of this species. In the future, together with more studies, validation of its popular use in inflammatory diseases is possible.

  3. Metabolite Fingerprinting of Eugenia jambolana Fruit Pulp Extracts using NMR, HPLC-PDA-MS, GC-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS/MS Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ram Jee; Gupta, Ramesh C; Bansal, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2015-06-01

    Eugenia jambolana, commonly known as 'jamun' or Indian blackberry, is an important source of bioactive compounds. All parts of the plant like stem bark, leaves, flower, fruit pulp and seeds are traditionally used for many diseases. Metabolite profiling in medicinally important plants is critical to resolve the problems associated with standardization and quality control. Metabolite profiling of the fruit pulp of Jamun was performed by NMR, HPLC, MS, GC-MS and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. These hyphenated techniques helped in the identification of 68 chemically-diverse metabolites of the fruit pulp. These include anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, sugars, phenolics and volatile compounds. Five extracts of fruit pulp were prepared i.e. hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and aqueous methanolic. Twenty-five metabolites identified and quantified in the n-butanol and aqueous-methanolic extracts of ripe jamun fruit by qNMR. LC-PDA-MS and MALDI-TOF spectrometry helped in deciphering thirty-nine metabolites out of which thirteen were quantified.

  4. Effect of the crude extract of Eugenia uniflora in morphogenesis and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes in Candida albicans from the oral cavity of kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; de Brito Lemos, Vitor Luiz; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzisnki, Terezinha Inês Estivalet; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2015-02-05

    Candida albicans is a diploid yeast that in some circumstances may cause oral or oropharyngeal infections. Yeasts virulence factors contribute for both the maintenance of colonizing strains in addition to damage and cause tissue invasion, thus the establishment of infection occurs. The limited arsenal of antifungal drugs for the treatment of candidiasis turn the investigation of natural products mandatory for the discovery of new targets for antifungal drug development. Therefore, tropical countries emerge as important providers of natural products with potential antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to investigate morphogenesis and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (phospholipase and proteinase) in the presence of the CE of Eugenia uniflora. The isolates were tested for their ability to form hyphae in both solid and liquid media under three different conditions: YPD + 20% FBS, Spider medium and GlcNac and the ability to secrete phospholipase and proteinase in the presence of 2000 μg/mL of E. uniflora. The CE of E. uniflora inhibited hypha formation in both liquid and solid media tested. It also impaired hydrolytic enzymes production. This was the first study to describe the interaction of a natural product with the full expression of three different factors in C. albicans. E. uniflora may be an alternative therapeutic for oral candidiasis in the future.

  5. Coloração do Fruto e Substrato na Emergência e no Crescimento de Plantas de Eugenia calycina Cambess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristiene de Freitas Borges

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência da coloração dos frutos na emergência e no crescimento das plantas de Eugenia calycina Cambess (pitangueira-do-cerrado, assim como de substratos com diferentes proporções de material orgânico e estruturante. Três experimentos foram instalados: o primeiro de emergência; o segundo de crescimento de plantas constituídos de sementes provenientes de frutos verdes, alaranjados/avermelhados, vermelho-claros e vermelho-escuros; e o terceiro comparou cinco misturas de Bioplant® suplementado com Vermiculita® e com pó-de-coco no crescimento das plantas, ambos nas proporções de 20% e 40%. A coloração do fruto não influenciou a capacidade de emergência, tempo (início, médio e final, velocidade e sincronia de emergência das plântulas de E. calycina. O crescimento das plantas até 270 dias de cultivo foi independente da coloração do fruto. A Vermiculita® e o pó-de-coco suplementados ao Bioplant® não afetaram o crescimento das plantas até os 120 dias de cultivo.

  6. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of extract and fractions of Eugenia jambolana root bark and isolation of phytoconstituents

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    Santanu Saha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia jambolana Lam., Myrtaceae, is a widely distributed and traditionally well known plant in India. The root bark of the plant was extracted with ethanol and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether fraction, chloroform fraction, n-butanol fraction and methanol fraction. The extract and fractions of the plant material were evaluated for the antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced nociception test, and anti-inflammatory activity was screened by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet induced granuloma formation and adjuvant induced arthritis in rat models. The test materials showed the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect in dose dependent manner and the petroleum ether fraction was found to be most potent among the test materials. At 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. dose petroleum ether fraction significantly inhibited 54.28% writhing response and 73.77% formalin induced nociception in mice. The fraction with same dose showed significant 79.31% inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, 57.78% anti-proliferative effect and 77.93% inhibition of adjuvant induced arthritis. The bioactive petroleum ether fraction was then subjected to column chromatography which led to isolate three compounds, namely, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and lupeol. These compounds were characterized and identified by IR, ¹H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy.

  7. Analysis of the automation and control of the well production conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Analisis de la automatizacion y del control de las condiciones de produccion de los pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo Zamora, Isaac [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); Ocampo Diaz, Juan de Dios [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); De la Pena Reyna, Gilberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    Through 31 years of development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, the number of wells in operation and the distances between them has been increasing. Now there are 150 wells producing a mixture of water and steam at different ratios, depending on the reservoir characteristics (pressure, temperature, depth, etc.) and the operation conditions in the superficial installations (obstructions in the orifice plates diameter, separator pressures, etc.). Therefore, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has started a pilot plan to handle the automation and control of the operating conditions of production wells, and to install a data production acquisition system. The initial results of the system are in this paper. [Spanish] A traves de los 31 anos de desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto el numero de pozos en operacion asi como la distancia entre ellos se ha estado incrementando. Ahora hay mas de 150 pozos produciendo una cantidad de mezcla de agua y vapor a diferentes rangos, dependiendo de las caracteristicas del yacimiento (presion, temperatura, profundidad, etc.) y de las condiciones de operacion de las instalaciones superficiales (diametros de placas de orificio obstruidos, presion de los separadores, etc.). Como resultado la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) ha dado inicio a un plan de pruebas para llevar a cabo la automatizacion y control de las condiciones de operacion de los pozos productores, e instalar un sistema con equipos para recoleccion de datos del campo, cuyos primeros resultados se presentan en este articulo.

  8. Arquivo de Antropologia Física do Museu Nacional: fontes para a história da eugenia no Brasil The National Museum's physical anthropology archive: sources on the history of eugenics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta um conjunto de fontes documentais que integram o Arquivo de Antropologia Física, de responsabilidade do Setor de Antropologia Biológica do Museu Nacional/UFRJ. O arquivo contém importante documentação sobre o Primeiro Congresso Brasileiro de Eugenia, realizado em 1929, no Rio de Janeiro, em comemoração ao centenário da Academia Nacional de Medicina. Além de originais dos trabalhos apresentados no evento - alguns inéditos -, constam também nesse arquivo documentos reunidos pela secretaria do Congresso, como convocações para a sua realização, ficha dos inscritos, correspondências, recortes de jornais e revistas com artigos sobre eugenia, bem como moções, relatórios e atas finais, constituindo acervo fundamental para a compreensão da história da eugenia no Brasil.The article presents a set of documental sources that are part of the physical anthropology archive administered by the National Museum's biological anthropology sector (UFRJ. The archive holds important documentation on the first Brazilian congress of eugenics, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1929, in celebration of the National Academy of Medicine centennial. In addition to the originals of papers presented at the event (some unpublished, the archive also contains a series of documents compiled by the congress organizers, including announcements of the event, attendee registrations, correspondence, newspaper and magazine clippings of articles on eugenics, as well as motions, reports, and final minutes, all of which makes this collection invaluable in understanding the history of eugenics in Brazil.

  9. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DO USO DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DE CRAVO-DA-ÍNDIA (Eugenia caryophyllata) E DO EUGENOL NA FORMULAÇÃO DE PRODUTOS PARA HIGIENE PESSOAL, ALIMENTOS E MEDICAMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Filho, José Elias da Silva; IFPE; Rodrigues, Sofia Suely Ferreira Brandão; IFPE

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção tecnológica visando conhecer o uso do óleo essencial de cravo-da-índia (Eugenia caryophyllata) e do eugenol, seu constituinte majoritário, na formulação de produtos para higiene pessoal, alimentos e medicamentos. A metodologia consistiu numa busca, mediante o uso de palavras-chave e outros parâmetros prospectivos, nos bancos de patentes virtuais ESPACENET e INPI. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o eugenol ainda se encontr...

  10. Eugenia e literatura no Brasil: apropriação da ciência e do pensamento social dos eugenistas pelos escritores brasileiros de ficção científica (1922 a 1949)

    OpenAIRE

    Smaniotto, Edgar Indalecio [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo contribuir para as pesquisas referentes ao movimento científico e social conhecido como eugenia, a partir da análise de obras brasileiras de ficção científica publicadas na primeira metade do século XX, particularmente entre os anos de 1922 a 1949. A partir de algumas obras representativas, segundo a crítica especializada da época, buscamos verificar a forma com que o pensamento eugênico foi incorporado às narrativas de ficção científica, dando forma à represent...

  11. Utilización de aguas regeneradas para el riego de dos especies de la familia de las mirtáceas (Myrtus Communis L. y Eugenia Myrtifolia L.

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Motos, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    [ESP] La investigación realizada evalúa la posibilidad de la reutilización de aguas residuales de distinta calidad, que previamente han sido depuradas (ARD), para el riego de dos especies de la familia de las Mirtáceas (Myrtus communis L. y Eugenia myrtifolia L.) empleadas con usos y fines ornamentales. Las aguas utilizadas en este trabajo tienen una composición que varía estacionalmente ya que presentan orígenes distintos, aunque tienen en común que son aguas más o menos salinas: ARD1 (CE = ...

  12. Desarrollo de Montelíbano y Unión Matoso a partir de la explotación de Cerro Matoso S.A (2005-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Rendón Arango, María Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo estudiaremos la explotación minera que realiza Cerro Matoso S.A en el sur del departamento de Córdoba a través del método cualitativo de investigación, basado en revisión de fuentes oficiales, entrevistas estructuradas y no estructuradas, como también en libros y fuentes académicas. Mediante este enfoque se pretende ver de qué manera ha influido la explotación de Cerro Matoso S.A en el desarrollo de los municipios Montelíbano y La Unión Matoso en el departamento de Córdoba, ya...

  13. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician-Silurian times

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Wegmann; U. Riller; F. D. Hongn; Johannes Glodny; Onno Oncken

    2008-01-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NWArgentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relat...

  14. Eugenia negativa e positiva: significados e contradições Eugenesia negativa y positiva: significados y contradicciones Negative and positive eugenics: meanings and contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Denise Mai

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A prática da eugenia constitui importante tema de debate associado aos atuais avanços biogenéticos. Considerando que a centralidade da eugenia é a preocupação com a saúde e constituição das futuras gerações, e que a utilização de meios e conhecimentos científicos em prol do nascimento de uma criança física e mentalmente saudável pode ser considerada uma ação eugênica, pretende-se, nesse texto, analisar significados e contradições das ações eugenistas negativas e positivas, construídos concomitantes aos avanços técnico-científicos do século XX. Conclui-se que os significados transitam, respectivamente, em torno de limitar ou estimular a reprodução humana, no início do século, até prevenir doenças ou melhorar características físicas e mentais, na atualidade. Implementando ações, produziram-se contradições, como a discriminação e eliminação de muitas pessoas frente a um ideal de homem, à biologização de fatores eminentemente sociais, à defesa da pretensa neutralidade científica e ao uso indiscriminado do direito de escolha reprodutiva.La práctica de la eugenesia es un importante tema de debate, ligado a los avances biogenéticos actuales. Considerando que la cuestión central de la eugenesia es la preocupación con la salud y la constitución de las futuras generaciones y que la utilización de medios y conocimientos científicos en función del nacimiento de un niño física y mentalmente saludable puede ser considerada una acción eugenésica, en este texto se pretende analizar los significados y contradicciones de las acciones eugenésicas negativas y positivas, construidos concomitantes a los avances técnico-científicos del siglo XX. Se concluye que los significados giran, respectivamente, en torno de limitar o estimular la reproducción humana, al comienzo del siglo, hasta prevenir enfermedades o mejorar características físicas y mentales, en la actualidad. Implementando acciones, se

  15. Origin and evolution of mineralizing fluids and exploration of the Cerro Quema Au-Cu deposit (Azuero Peninsula, Panama) from a fluid inclusion and stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Isaac; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Merce; Canals, Angels; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Gras, David; Johnson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Cerro Quema is a high sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu deposit with a measured, indicated and inferred resource of 35.98 Mt. @ 0.77 g/t Au containing 893,600 oz. Au (including 183,930 oz. Au equiv. of Cu ore). It is characterized by a large hydrothermal alteration zone which is interpreted to represent the lithocap of a porphyry system. The innermost zone of the lithocap is constituted by vuggy quartz with advanced argillic alteration locally developed on its margin, enclosed by a well-developed zone of argillic alteration, grading to an external halo of propylitic alteration. The mineralization occurs in the form of disseminations and microveinlets of pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, tennantite, and trace sphalerite, crosscut by quartz, barite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena veins.Microthermometric analyses of two phase (L + V) secondary fluid inclusions in igneous quartz phenocrysts in vuggy quartz and advanced argillically altered samples indicate low temperature (140–216 °C) and low salinity (0.5–4.8 wt% NaCl eq.) fluids, with hotter and more saline fluids identified in the east half of the deposit (Cerro Quema area).Stable isotope analyses (S, O, H) were performed on mineralization and alteration minerals, including pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, alunite, barite, kaolinite, dickite and vuggy quartz. The range of δ34S of sulfides is from − 4.8 to − 12.7‰, whereas δ34S of sulfates range from 14.1 to 17.4‰. The estimated δ34SΣS of the hydrothermal fluid is − 0.5‰. Within the advanced argillic altered zone the δ34S values of sulfides and sulfates are interpreted to reflect isotopic equilibrium at temperatures of ~ 240 °C. The δ18O values of vuggy quartz range from 9.0 to 17.5‰, and the δ18O values estimated for the vuggy quartz-forming fluid range from − 2.3 to 3.0‰, indicating that it precipitated from mixing of magmatic fluids with surficial fluids. The δ18O of kaolinite ranges from 12.7 to 18.1‰ and

  16. Mineralized breccia clasts: a window into hidden porphyry-type mineralization underlying the epithermal polymetallic deposit of Cerro de Pasco (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottier, Bertrand; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Casanova, Vincent; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Wälle, Markus; Fontboté, Lluís

    2018-01-01

    Cerro de Pasco (Peru) is known for its large epithermal polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Bi) mineralization emplaced at shallow level, a few hundred meters below the paleo-surface, at the border of a large diatreme-dome complex. Porphyry-style veins crosscutting hornfels and magmatic rock clasts are found in the diatreme breccia and in quartz-monzonite porphyry dikes. Such mineralized veins in clasts allow investigation of high-temperature porphyry-style mineralization developed in the deep portions of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Quartz in porphyry-style veins contains silicate melt inclusions as well as fluid and solid mineral inclusions. Two types of high-temperature (> 600 °C) quartz-molybdenite-(chalcopyrite)-(pyrite) veins are found in the clasts. Early, thin (1-2 mm), and sinuous HT1 veins are crosscut by slightly thicker (up to 2 cm) and more regular HT2 veins. The HT1 vein quartz hosts CO2- and sulfur-rich high-density vapor inclusions. Two subtypes of the HT1 veins have been defined, based on the nature of mineral inclusions hosted in quartz: (i) HT1bt veins with inclusions of K-feldspar, biotite, rutile, and minor titanite and (ii) HT1px veins with inclusions of actinolite, augite, titanite, apatite, and minor rutile. Using an emplacement depth of the veins of between 2 and 3 km (500 to 800 bar), derived from the diatreme breccia architecture and the supposed erosion preceding the diatreme formation, multiple mineral thermobarometers are applied. The data indicate that HT1 veins were formed at temperatures > 700 °C. HT2 veins host assemblages of polyphase brine inclusions, generally coexisting with low-density vapor-rich inclusions, trapped at temperatures around 600 °C. Rhyolitic silicate melt inclusions found in both HT1 and HT2 veins represent melt droplets transported by the ascending hydrothermal fluids. LA-ICP-MS analyses reveal a chemical evolution coherent with the crystallization of an evolved rhyolitic melt. Quartz from both HT1 and HT2 veins

  17. Preparation of greek yogurt of buffalo milk and influence of addition of sour cherry syrup (Eugenia uniflora L. on the content of ascorbic acid and anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elivaldo Nunes Modesto Junior

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sour cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. has phenolic compounds with antioxidant, hypoglycemic and anti-rheumatic actions, it used in stomach disorders and as antihypertensive agent. Buffalo milk exhibits excellent nutritional quality, with a high protein content of 25.55% as its main characteristic, with more essential amino acids than cow milk. The aim of this study was to develop a greek yogurt with buffalo milk with addition of distinct concentrations of sour cherry syrup (10, 20 and 30% w/w, on the content of ascorbic acid and anthocyanins in the final product. The fruits were collected in the municipality of Salvaterra and taken to the laboratory where they were sanitized and washed for use in yogurt. The yogurts were obtained with buffalo milk, sugar and milk powder. Sour cherry fruits, buffalo milk and yogurt prepared were assessed their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. Fruits had a great ratio of total soluble solids/total titratable acidity and found high levels of ascorbic acid and anthocyanins 124.08 mg/100g e 179.27 m Eqg Cyanidin-3-glycoside/100g respectively, and buffalo milk had good physicalchemical characteristics and it was within the microbiological standards. The increase in concentration of sour cherry syrup in the buffalo greek yogurt elevated significantly contents of ascorbic acid and anthocyanins, demonstrating the feasibility of producing new products with aggregate nutritional characteristics for insertion into new markets, in addition to good acceptance being the formulations with 10, 20 e 30% with 87, 89 e 89% of acceptance by tasters.

  18. Analysis of the role of nitric oxide in the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora in the rat thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazlawik, E; Da Silva, M A; Peters, R R; Correia, J F; Farias, M R; Calixto, J B; Ribeiro-Do-Valle, R M

    1997-04-01

    This study has evaluated the possible role played by the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the vasorelaxant action of the hydroalcoholic extract from Eugenia uniflora, and fractions from the extract, in rings of rat thoracic aorta. The addition of an increasing cumulative concentration of hydroalcoholic extract from E. uniflora (1-300 micrograms mL-1) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation response in intact endothelium-thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (30-100 nM). The IC50 value, with its respective confidence limit, and the maximum relaxation (Rmax) were 7.02 (4.77-10.00) micrograms mL-1 and 83.94 +/- 3.04%, respectively. The removal of the endothelium completely abolished these responses. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 30 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), inhibited the relaxation (Rmax) to -10.43 +/- 7.81% and -3.69 +/- 2.62%, respectively. In addition, L-arginine (1 mM), but not D-arginine (1 mM), completely reversed inhibition by L-NOARG. Methylene blue (30 microM), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the relaxation induced by the extract to 14.60 +/- 7.40%. These data indicate that in the rat thoracic aorta the hydroalcoholic extract, and its fractions, from the leaves of E. uniflora have graded and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects.

  19. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial potential and modification of antibiotic activity of the Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil in association with led lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nara L F; Aquino, Pedro E A; Júnior, José G A S; Cristo, Janyketchuly S; Vieira Filho, Marcos A; Moura, Flávio F; Ferreira, Najla M N; Silva, Maria K N; Nascimento, Eloiza M; Correia, Fabrina M A; Cunha, Francisco A B; Boligon, Aline A; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Matias, Edinardo F F; Guedes, Maria I F

    2017-09-01

    Due to the great biodiversity of its flora, Brazil provides combat tools against bacterial resistance with the utilization of natural products with vegetable origin. Therefore, the present study had as its objective to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the Eugenia uniflora essential oil (EuEO) in vitro, as well as to analyze the modulatory effect of the oil against antibiotics by gaseous contact and to compare them when associated with a LED apparatus. The chemical components were characterised by gas chromatography which revealed the presence of the isoflurane-germacrene, considered the major component (61.69%). The MIC obtained from the EuEO was ≥256 μg/mL for S. aureus and ≥1024 μg/mL for E. coli. When combined with antibiotics, the EuEO presented synergism reducing the MIC when associated, with the exception of gentamicin against E. coli, where an antagonistic effect was observed. The was an interference of the EuEO over the activity of ciprofloxacin when associated with red and blue LED lights, increasing the inhibition halos against S. aureus and E. coli. Norfloxacin presented similar results to ciprofloxacin against S. aureus bacteria. When combined, norfloxacin and the EuEO presented synergism against S. aureus, which did not occur in the combination with ciprofloxacin. Interference occurred only with blue light for E. coli. Thus, it was observed that the EuEO causes changes in the activity of antibiotics, the same occurring with the use of LED lights, without significant differences in the association of the oil and the lights with the antibiotics tested. Further research is needed to elucidate the modulatory effects of the EuEO, as well as its association with LED lights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigação fitoquímica e avaliação da atividade antioxidante de extratos foliares de Eugenia dysenterica DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. P. Malheiros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado é uma enorme fonte de espécies vegetais que desempenham importante papel na produção de compostos bioativos. Nesse contexto, destaca-se Eugenia dysenterica, espécie utilizada pela população local para fins medicinais e alimentícios. Apesar desta relevância, não há relatos na literatura dos compostos secundários presentes nas folhas das espécies encontradas no Oeste da Bahia. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar fitoquimicamente extratos etanólico, hidroalcoólico e aquoso das folhas de E. dysenterica, bem como determinar o potencial antioxidante dos mesmos. Para a detecção das principais classes de compostos secundários, os extratos foram submetidos aos testes qualitativos que resultam na alteração da coloração característicos para cada classe. Na determinação do teor de fenóis totais foi utilizado o método com reagente Folin Ciocalteau. O potencial antioxidante foi estudado frente à capacidade de sequestro do radical 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH. Em todos os extratos, verificou-se as mesmas classes de compostos: fenóis, taninos hidrolisáveis, flavonóis, esteróides livres e saponinas. O extrato aquoso, porém, apresentou um teor de fenóis totais inferior em comparação aos demais extratos. Todos os extratos demonstraram atividade antioxidante. As classes de compostos secundários detectados e o potencial antioxidante obervado fazem com que E. dysenterica seja promissora para estudos com atividades biológicas.

  1. EFEITO DE FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES E DA ADUBAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Eugenia uniflora L., PRODUZIDAS EM DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMANTA JAQUELINE DALANHOL

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs, da adubação e da composição do substrato no crescimento de mudas de Eugenia uniflora. As sementes foram germinadas em vermiculita média e repicadas para tubetes (100 cm3 contendo substratos à base de vermicomposto e casca de arroz carbonizada e, como controle, utilizou-se do substrato comercial à base de casca de pínus. Estes substratos foram testados com e sem inoculação micorrízica, adicionada ao substrato, como também se testaram a presença e a ausência de adubação de cobertura. Foram analisadas as propriedades físico-químicas dos substratos formulados. Avaliaram-se a altura, o diâmetro do colo, a agregação das raízes ao substrato, a biomassa seca aérea, a biomassa seca radicial e foram determinados a relação entre altura e diâmetro do colo e o índice de qualidade de Dickson. A inoculação com FMAs não influenciou no crescimento das mudas, enquanto a interação entre substratos e adubação foi significativa para a maioria das variáveis. A ausência de resposta aos FMAs foi, provavelmente, devido às altas concentrações de fósforo nestes substratos. Concluiu-se que o substrato à base de vermicomposto e casca de arroz carbonizada, na proporção de 20/80, pode ser utilizado na produção de mudas desta espécie.

  2. Eugenia calycina Cambess extracts and their fractions: Their antimicrobial activity and the identification of major polar compounds using electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Morais, Sandra R; Bara, Maria T F; Conceição, Edemilson C; Paula, José R; Carvalho, Thays C; Vaz, Boniek G; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Rezende, Maria H

    2014-10-01

    Eugenia calycina, which is described as "red pitanga or pitanga cherry of cerrado," is widely distributed in the Cerrado area of Brazil. Its leaf and bark extracts are used in folk medicine for many applications. In this study, the compositions of the major polar compounds of the bark and leaf extracts and their fractions were obtained from a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water. They were then evaluated using electrospray ionization negative FT-ICR mass spectrometry (ESI(-) FT-ICR MS), which revealed a large number of oxygen-containing compounds, such as flavonoids, terpenes, tanins, steroids, and fat acids. The biological activity of these extracts towards several bacterial and fungal strains was then evaluated. The highest activity was found using aqueous fractions, in which the ESI(-) FT-ICR MS analysis revealed compounds with a high content of oxygen (e.g., glycosed flavonoids, tannins, and polyphenolic compounds) against Cryptococcus sp. D (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=15.62μg/mL). Strong activity was also found using the hexanic fractions-in which the ESI(-) FT-ICR MS analysis revealed that the compounds contained a decreased amount of oxygen (e.g., fat acids and steroids)-towards Cryptococcus gatti L48, Cryptococcus neoformans L3 (MIC=31.2μg/mL), and Cryptococcus sp. D (MIC=62.5μg/mL). Therefore, antimicrobial assays using the bark/leaf extracts of E. calycina present prospects for the research of active substances that may be used for the treatment of cryptococcosis, a disease that is common in immunosuppressed patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diabetic therapeutic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Musa paradisiaca and seeds of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, D K; Ghosh, Debidas; Bhat, B; Talwar, S K; Jaggi, M; Mukherjee, R

    2009-11-01

    The folklore medicine of primitive people has been greatly appreciated for centuries. Many researchers study the curative efficiency and mode of action of various medicinal plants. Serum glucose level, lipid profile, glucose tolerance, hepatic and muscle glycogen contents as well as the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase recovered significantly after oral administration of ethyl acetate fractions of Eugenia jambolana (E. jambolana) or Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in separate (E. jambolana L.: 200 mg/kg of body weight and M. paradisiaca: 100 mg/kg of body weight) or combined form for 90 days (twice a day through gavage) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The loss in body weight of diabetic animals was reversed and serum levels of insulin as well as C-peptide, which were found to be reduced in diabetic rats, increased significantly after oral administration of the fractions. A histological study of the rats' pancreas revealed that after 90 days of oral treatment with the plant fractions in separate or combined form, the size and volume of pancreatic islets in diabetic treated rats increased significantly compared with the diabetic control group. Treatment of diabetic rats with the combined dose (300 mg/kg of body weight) of plant fractions (200 mg E. jambolana and 100 mg M. paradisiaca) was found to be more effective than treatment with the individual fraction. The doses of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca selected for this study are the optimum antihyperglycemic doses of the plant fractions, which were determined after conducting a dose-dependent study at various dose levels (50-500 mg/kg) in our pilot experiments. The plant fractions were found to be free from metabolic toxicity. Through HPTLC finger printing, three different compounds were noted in the ethyl acetate fraction of E. jambolana L. and eight different compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of M. paradisiaca L. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All

  4. The long-term resistance mechanisms, critical irrigation threshold and relief capacity shown by Eugenia myrtifolia plants in response to saline reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Hernández, José Antonio; Álvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Salts present in irrigation water are serious problems for commercial horticulture, particularly in semi-arid regions. Reclaimed water (RW) typically contains, among others elements, high levels of salts, boron and heavy metal. Phytotoxic ion accumulation in the substrate has been linked to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied. The RW with the highest electric conductivity (RW3, EC = 6.96 dS m-1) provoked a number of responses to salinity in these plants, including: 1) accumulation and extrusion of phytotoxic ions in roots; 2) a decrease in the shoot/root ratio, leaf area, number of leaves; 3) a decrease in root hydraulic conductivity, leaf water potential, the relative water content of leaves, leaf stomatal conductance, the leaf photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency and accumulated evapotranspiration in order to limit water loss; and 4) changes in the antioxidant defence mechanisms. These different responses induced oxidative stress, which can explain the damage caused in the membranes, leading to the death of RW3 plants during the relief period. The behaviour observed in RW2 plants was slightly better compared with RW3 plants, although at the end of the experiment about 55% of the RW2 plants also died, however RW containing low salinity level (RW1, EC = 2.97 dS m-1) can be effective for plant irrigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Estudio de los fundentes utilizados en la metalurgia del cobre en Cerro Muriano (Córdoba durante el período Romano Altoimperial

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    Criado, A. J.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available There are no doubts that Hispania was, under the Roman Empire, the most profitable and abundant in resources of all the mining districts exploded by Rome -Hispania, Galia, Danubian Provinces, Dacia, Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and North Africa-. Plinius gives the same data and hands many more in the passages dedicated to the mining and the working of the metals in his Natural History. Of all the many mining places that this author refers, the exploiting in copper at Cerro Muriano presents the main interest; of this he says that it was of an unbeatable quality, used, among other applications, to manufacture the very famous "Copper of Campania". The utilization of fusing agents, adapted to the process of copper obtainment, is fundamental for obtaining this high quality. The addition of these fusing agents was very important for the control of the work parameters and to reach the required temperatures. The high purity of the obtained copper shows a very close knowledge of the phenomena involved in the process.

    Durante el Imperio Romano, de todos los distritos mineros explotados por Roma -Hispania, Galia, las provincias danubianas, Dacia, Grecia, Asia Menor, Siria, Egipto y el Norte de África-, sin duda el más rentable y más abundante en recursos era Hispania. Plinio facilita muchos datos en los pasajes dedicados a la minería y el trabajo de los metales en su Historia Natural. Entre los muchos lugares mineros que este autor cita, nos interesa ahora la explotación de cobre en Cerro Muriano, del cual dice que era de una calidad inmejorable, utilizado, entre otras aplicaciones, para fabricar el famosísimo cobre de Campania. Para poder obtener esta elevada calidad, es fundamental la utilización de fundentes adecuados en el proceso de obtención de cobre. La adición de estos fundentes era vital para controlar los parámetros de trabajo y alcanzar las temperaturas requeridas. La elevada pureza del cobre obtenido demuestra un

  6. Estudio metalográfico de la calidad del cobre producido en las fundiciones de Cerro Muriano (Córdoba durante el Período Romano Altoimperial

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    Calabrés, R.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The copper obtaining process depends on a great quantity of variables and presents complex controlling. The mentioned obtaining process was well known since the Roman Age. The knowledge of copper of the casting process was higher than expected, taking account of the studies with first melting copper samples localized at an archaeological deposit in Cerro Muriano (Córdoba, Spain and dated at the 1st Century B.C. and 1st Century A.C. The existence of a cellular and dendritic-cellular solidification in the studied samples, together with other realized analysis, show a production of copper with high purity. Present work allows to conclude that the three basic processes on copper casting (roasting, smelting, slagging and conversion were well known. This knowledge was due to the experience, although they did not know the chemical and physical phenomena.

    El proceso de obtención de un cobre, más o menos puro, depende de gran cantidad de variables y es difícil de controlar. Antes de la romanización, dicho proceso de obtención ya era conocido. Utilizando cobres de primera fusión localizados en un yacimiento arqueológico sito en Cerro Muriano (Córdoba datados en los siglos I a.C. y I d.C., se ha determinado que sus elaboradores tenían un conocimiento del proceso de fundición de cobre superior al esperado. La existencia de una solidificación celular y celular dendrítica en las muestras estudiadas, así como los análisis realizados, indican una producción de cobre de alta pureza. El estudio permite concluir que, en época romana, ya se conocían los tres procesos básicos de la obtención de cobre: tostación, fusión y escorificación y conversión. Dicho proceso era conocido gracias a la gran experiencia acumulada, aunque estos metalurgistas desconocían las causas que originaban los resultados finales obtenidos.

  7. A Conceptual Model to Link Anomalously High Temperature Gradients in the Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field to Regional Flow in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, E. J.; Keller, S. N.; McCullough, K. R.; Watters, J.; Weitering, B.; Wilce, A. M.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.; Pellerin, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature-depth well data along with electromagnetic (EM) data were collected by students of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) 2015 field season in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico. The data from this year, in addition to data acquired since 2013, were used to construct a conceptual east-west cross-section of the Espanola Basin and the adjacent highlands in order to evaluate the regional flow system. Vertical geothermal gradients from several monitoring wells were measured using a thermistor. Anomalously warm geothermal gradients were mapped in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field in the basin just east of the Rio Grande. Temperature gradients are up to 70℃/km, while the background geothermal gradients in the Rio Grande rift zone generally show 28℃-35℃/km. This anomaly extends to the Buckman well field, which supplies water to the city of Santa Fe. Overpumping of this well field has led to subsidence in the past. However, discharge temperature plots indicate that the temperature gradients of the Buckman field may be rebounding as pumping is reduced. Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in the vicinity of three monitoring wells. TEM and AMT methods complement each other with the former having depths of investigation of less than ten to hundreds of meters and AMT having depths of investigation comparable to the wells deeper than 500m. These datasets were used collectively to image the subsurface stratigraphy and, more specifically, the hydrogeology related to shallow aquifers. The EM data collected at these wells showed a trend indicating a shallow aquifer with a shallower resistive layer of approximately 100 ohm-m at 70-100 meters depth. Beneath this resistive layer we resolved a more conductive, clay-rich layer of 10 ohm-m. These resistivity profiles compliment the electrical logs provided by Jet West, which indicate shallower sandstone interbedded with silt on top of more silt-dominant layers. Our

  8. Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, R.F.; Rockwell, B.W.; Haire, S.L.; King, T.V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4??m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected over the Cerro Grande fire, to map post-fire surface cover into 10 classes, including ash, soil minerals, scorched conifer trees, and green vegetation. The Cerro Grande fire occurred near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The AVIRIS data were collected September 3, 2000. The surface cover map revealed complex patterns of ash, iron oxide minerals, and clay minerals in areas of complete combustion. Scorched conifer trees, which retained dry needles heated by the fire but not fully combusted by the flames, were found to cover much of the post-fire landscape. These scorched trees were found in narrow zones at the edges of completely burned areas. A surface cover map was also made using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data, collected September 5, 2000, and a maximum likelihood, supervised classification. When compared to AVIRIS, the Landsat classification grossly overestimated cover by dry conifer and ash classes and severely underestimated soil and green vegetation cover. In a comparison of AVIRIS surface cover to the Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) map of burn severity, the BAER high burn severity areas did not capture the variable patterns of post-fire surface cover by ash, soil, and scorched conifer trees seen in the AVIRIS map. The BAER map, derived from air photos, also did not capture the distribution of scorched trees that were observed in the AVIRIS map. Similarly, the moderate severity class of Landsat-derived burn severity maps generated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) calculation

  9. Mecanismo de inserción del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay en el Parque Tecnológico Industrial del Cerro

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    Laura Márquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, teniendo en cuenta su misión: "Impulsar el desarrollo sustentable del país y su inserción internacional a través de la innovación y transferencia de soluciones de valor, en servicios analíticos, metrológicos, tecnológicos, de gestión y evaluación de la conformidad de a cuerdo a la normativa aplicable", está trabajando en el apoyo a las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas del país. Como estrategia para contribuir al logro de la misión, se ha iniciado una política de descentralización, eligiendo zonas de actividad con requerimientos similares, en cuanto a las necesidades de mejora de la competitividad de las empresas. En la zona de Montevideo llamada el Cerro, el gobierno municipal gestiona un Parque Tecnológico Industrial, PTIC, apoyando y alojando en su predio, 58 empresas. Este Parque se puede ver como un conglomerado de empresas, en una misma zona, con necesidades similares. El mecanismo de inserción del LATU en el PTIC, ha contado con una herramienta fundamental que es la instalación de una oficina en el propio Parque, cuyo objetivo principal es facilitar y asegurar la contribución del LATU al desarrollo y competitividad de las mipymes allí agrupadas.AbstractAttending to the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU's mission, to promote the sustainable development of the country and its international insertion through innovation and transfer of valuable solutions, it is working on support for micro, small and medium companies. As a management strategy to achieve the mission, a policy of decentralization, approaching to the enterprises, it's being implemented. In this context, it has been developed a methodology for insertion in the Industrial Technological Park of Cerro, PTIC. This park, which is managed by the municipal government, agglomerates a group of companies, in the same area with similar needs. The LATU's mechanism of insertion in the PTIC, has counted on with a

  10. Distribución de las principales causas de morbilidad por ingresos domiciliarios en el municipio Cerro durante el año 2000

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    Migdalia Rafaela Reyes Sigarreta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un estudio, aplicando el método descriptivo cualitativo con una muestra representativa de las áreas de salud del municipio Cerro, de los ingresos en el domicilio de los pacientes adultos y niños en el año 2000 para determinar las causas de morbilidad y su distribución por cada área de salud. Para la recogida de información se utilizó como técnica fundamental la recolección de datos en formularios, utilizando como fuentes de información la hoja de trabajo de los médicos de los policlínicos y el registro de ingreso domiciliario. Los datos se analizan utilizando el tanto por ciento como medida de frecuencia y se presentan en tablas estadísticas. Se encontró que el mayor número de ingresos por área de salud correspondió al Policlínico "Antonio Maceo", tanto en adultos como en niños, y los meses de mayor ingreso en las áreas se corresponden con los meses de cambios climáticos, lo que se relaciona con las principales causas de morbilidad (las enfermedades respiratorias, las diarreicas y la hipertensión arterial.A descriptive qualitative study was carried out with a representative sample from the home care services given in the health areas of Cerro municipality to children and adults in the year 2000 to determine the morbidity causes and their distribution by health areas. For gathering information, the fundamental technique used was data collection in questionnaires and the worksheet of physicians working in various polyclinics and the home care service register as sources of information. The data analysis used percentage as a measure of frequency and such information was shown in statistical tables. It was found that the higher number of home care services by health area corresponded to "Antonio Maceo" polyclinics both in children and adults, and the time when more home care services were provided in the health areas was the months of climatic changes, which was related to the main causes of morbidity (respiratory

  11. Las mineralizaciones de barita de Cerro del Hierro (Sevilla. Características mineralógicas y geoquímica

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    Galán Huertos, E.

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Different barite deposits (stratabound, vein and karstic types are occurring in the Lower Cambrian carbonatic materials of the Cerro del Hierro, Sevilla (Ossa-Morena Zone. Calcite, hematite, goethite and minor chalcopyrite are common associated minerals, with limonite and malachite as alterations. The content of barite can be as high as 98 %. There is a close relationship between barite type and Sr content (vein 34S ranges between 32,7 ‰ (stratiform barites and 20,7 ‰ (epigenetic barites. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio for the epigenetic barites oscillates between 0.70873 and 0.71112 which could be the result of the infiuence of different mineralization solutions. A primary origin for the stratabound barites is proposed, in relation with the diagenesis of the limestones occurred during the Lower Cambrian. Epigenetic barites were formed after the Hercynian Orogenesis by remobilization of the stratiform ores, with Ba and Sr supplied from the lixiviation of the host rocks. The last process could be much more important for the karstic barite formation.En los materiales carbonatados del Cámbrico inferior del Cerro del Hierro (Zona de Ossa-Morena existen diversos tipos de mineralizaciones de barita (estratoligadas, filonianas y kársticas. La barita está acompañada de calcita, hematites, goethita, y calcopirita accesoria, y limonitas y malaquita como fases tardías de alteración, y presenta una gran pureza química [ > 98% SO4(Ba,Sr]. Existe una relación entre la tipología de la barita y el contenido en Sr, en el sentido de filonianas 34S en las baritas oscila entre 32,7 ‰ para las estratoligadas y 20,7 ‰ para las epigenéticas. Las razones 87Sr/86Sr determinadas sobre baritas epigenéticas varían entre 0.70873 y 0.71112, lo que puede interpretarse como consecuencia de la participación de diversos tipos de soluciones mineralizantes. Se propone un origen primario de las baritas estratoligadas, en relación con la diagénesis de los

  12. ANÁLISIS DE MACRORRESTOS VEGETALES EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO LOS TRES CERROS 1 (ISLA LAS MORAS, VICTORIA, ENTRE RÍOS / Macroremains plant analysis on the Tres Cerros 1 archaeological site (Las Moras island, Victoria, Entre Ríos.

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    María de los Milagros Colobig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es la primera aproximación al estudio de macrorrestos botánicos en el sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (isla Las Moras, Victoria, Entre Ríos. Estos restos fueron recuperados mediante la técnica de flotación manual. A partir del material extraído, se exploró el rol de los recursos vegetales y su importancia en la subsistencia en los grupos humanos que habitaron el Delta Superior del río Paraná durante el Holoceno tardío. Se identificaron cinco familias: Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Poaceae (Maideae y Oryzoideae y Amaranthaceae. Los estudios permitieron estimar que a partir de 700 ARCP hubo un incremento en la abundancia y variabilidad de recursos vegetales utilizados con respecto a períodos anteriores. La presencia de elementos oryzoides, y graminoides (específicamente Maideae evidenció la existencia de vegetales silvestres y domesticados, aportando nuevos registros sobre el aprovechamiento, manejo y cultivo de las plantas en el área de estudio en el Holoceno tardío.   Abstract  This paper entails the first approach to macrobotanical remains obtained from Los Tres Cerros 1 (Isla Las Moras, Victoria, Entre Ríos. The remains were recovered by means of manual flotation technique. The extracted material allowed us to explore the role played by vegetable resources role and their importance to the subsistence of human populations of Upper Paraná Delta during the late Holocene. Five botanical families were recognized: Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Poaceae (Maideae and Ehrhartoideae and Amaranthaceae. Studies estimate that from 700 RCYBP, there was an increase in the abundance and variability of plant resources used, as compared to previous periods. The presence of oryzoides and graminoid elements (specifically Maideae showed the presence of wild and domesticated plants, providing new records on the use of plants in the area studied, in the late Holocene.

  13. Observations of the Breakdown of Mountain Waves Over the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon on 8/9 July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. H.; Fritts, D. C.; Wang, L.; Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Smith, S.; Franke, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Although mountain waves (MWs) are thought to be a ubiquitous feature of the wintertime southern Andes stratosphere, it was not known whether these waves propagated up to the mesopause region until Smith et al. (2009) confirmed their presence via airglow observations. The new Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon in Chile provided the opportunity for a further study of these waves. Since MWs have near-zero phase speed, and zero wind lines often occur in the winter upper mesosphere (80 to 100 km altitude) region due to the reversal of the zonal mean and tidal wind, MW breakdown may routinely occur at these altitudes. Here we report on very high spatial/temporal resolution observations of the initiation of MW breakdown in the mesopause region. Because the waves are nearly stationary, the breakdown process was observed over several hours; a much longer interval than has previously been observed for any gravity wave breakdown. During the breakdown process observations were made of initial horseshoe-shaped vortices, leading to successive vortex rings, as is also commonly seen in Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of idealized and multiscale gravity wave breaking. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) structures were also observed to form. Comparing the structure of observed KHI with the results of existing DNS allowed an estimate of the turbulent kinematic viscosity. This viscosity was found to be around 25 m2/s, a value larger than the nominal viscosity that is used in models.

  14. Estudios bioarqueológicos en el sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (Delta Superior del río Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina

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    Clara Scabuzzo

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de los estudios bioarqueológicos efectuados en la serie de esqueletos humanos del sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (departamento de Victoria, Entre Ríos, Argentina, una estructura antropogénica monticular ocupada entre ca. 1227 y 560 años AP por cazadores, recolectores, pescadores y horticultores, asignados a la entidad arqueológica Goya-Malabrigo. Las investigaciones bioarqueológicas se enfocaron en determinar la estructura sexo-etaria de la muestra, estudiar las lesiones óseas y analizar las prácticas mortuorias. De acuerdo a estos estudios, en el sitio se enterraron al menos 16 individuos de distintos grupos etarios y ambos sexos. La variabilidad de modos de disponer a los muertos incluye entierros primarios, secundarios y elementos óseos dispersos. Algunos huesos presentaban termoalteración y ocre sobre la superficie. Se discuten estas evidencias a nivel regional con otros sitios del Delta del Paraná con presencia de esqueletos humanos asignados a la entidad Goya-Malabrigo.

  15. Cambios en la comunidad de Pinus culminicola Andersen & Beaman en el Cerro Potosí, N.L. México

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    Rubén Sánchez Silva

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la cima del Cerro Potosí, N.L., acerca de Pinus culminicola Andresen & Beaman, especie endémica del norte de la Sierra Madre Oriental, que hasta 1960 cubría 106 ha, mientras que en 1970 esta superficie había disminuido a 70 ha debido a que el resto fue destruido por el fuego. Mediante el análisis de fotografías aéreas y trabajo de campo se determino la distribución y la estructura florística de las asociaciones vegetales del área, caracterizándose sus condiciones ambientales. Aunque se detecto que existe cierta regeneración de P. culminicola, ésta es insuficiente para contrarrestar las alte­raciones causadas por la actual y creciente presión antrópica; de lo anterior se desprende la necesidad de decretar dicha zona como área protegida, de modo que se garantice su efectiva conservación.

  16. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

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    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  17. SIMULACIÓN DE FLUJOS PIROCLÁSTICOS DEL VOLCÁN CERRO MACHÍN, COLOMBIA, MEDIANTE LA APLICACIÓN DE HERRAMIENTAS DE ARCGIS©

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    Elsa Adriana Cárdenas Quiroga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerro Machín es un volcán activo, caracterizado en el pasado por erupciones explosivas de tipo pliniano y ubicado en un sector de gran importancia económica. Desde la década de los noventa se han desarrollado varios modelos de simulación para determinar el área que podría resultar afectada en una nueva erupción, pero estos modelos se basan en programas con variables predeterminadas que no son fácilmente modificables. Por tanto, se diseñó una aplicación del modelo de simulación Model Builder de las herramientas del software ArcGIS© para facilitar el proceso de análisis de los flujos piroclásticos expulsados por ese volcán en tres eventos eruptivos identificados y modelados previamente, con el objetivo de crear una aplicación fácilmente adaptable a cambios en las variables de simulación y que pudiera ser empleada también para modelar otros volcanes. Los resultados obtenidos resultan compatibles y similares a los obtenidos en simulaciones previas, lo que indica que la aplicación desarrollada es funcional.

  18. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment indexes of Eugenia uniflora L. in response to changes in light intensity and soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Marcelo S; Schaffer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The interactive effects of changing light intensity and soil flooding on the photosynthetic performance of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) seedlings in containers were examined. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) the photosynthetic apparatus of shade-adapted leaves can be rapidly acclimated to high light after transfer from shade to full sun, and (ii) photosynthetic acclimation to changing light intensity may be influenced by soil flooding. Seedlings cultivated in a shade house (40% of full sun, approximately 12 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1)) for 6 months were transferred to full sun (20-40 mol m(-2) day(-1)) or shade (30% of full sun, approximately 8 mol m(-2) day(-1)) and subjected to soil flooding for 23 days or not flooded. Chlorophyll content index (CCI), chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf weight per area (LWA), photosynthetic light-response curves and leaf reflectance indexes were measured during soil flooding and after plants were unflooded. The CCI values increased throughout the experiment in leaves of shaded plants and decreased in leaves of plants transferred to full sun. There were no significant interactions between light intensity and flooding treatments for most of the variables analyzed, with the exception of Fv/Fm 22 days after plants were flooded and 5 days after flooded plants were unflooded. The light environment significantly affected LWA, and light environment and soil flooding significantly affected the light-saturated gross CO(2) assimilation rate expressed on area and dry weight bases (A(max-area) and A(max-wt), respectively), stomatal conductance of water vapor (g(ssat)) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/g(s)). Five days after flooded plants were unflooded, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI) were significantly higher in shade than in sun leaves. Thirty days after transferring plants from the shade house to the light treatment, LWA was 30% higher in sun than in shade leaves, and A

  19. Armazenamento de sementes de cerejas-do-mato (Eugenia involucrata DC. submetidas ao recobrimento com biofilmes e embalagem a vácuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luis Alegretti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruteiras como Eugenia involucrata ainda continuam inexploradas, necessitando-se de informações técnicas que incentivem o agricultor a utilizá-las. O método de propagação por sementes é o normalmente adotado; porém, elas devem ser imediatamente semeadas, pois corre-se o risco de perda de sua viabilidade com o armazenamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o hidrocondicionamento e as técnicas de conservação (vácuo e biofilme, durante armazenamento, aos cinco e aos 30 dias, de sementes de cerejeira-do-mato. O trabalho foi realizado na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - Câmpus Dois Vizinhos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em fatorial 2 × 4 × 2 (pré-hidrocondicionamento x técnica de armazenamento x tempo de armazenamento, com quatro repetições, de 50 sementes por unidade experimental. As sementes extraídas foram separadas em dois lotes, sendo um submetido ao pré-hidrocondicionamento, em água destilada, durante 24 horas, e, outro, não. Sementes hidrocondicionadas, ou não, foram submetidas a quatro técnicas de armazenamento, sendo, estas, a embalagem plástica a vácuo, o revestimento com biofilme de fécula de mandioca (3% m/v, a embalagem plástica a vácuo + biofilme de fécula de mandioca e sem tratamento (controle. Posteriormente, as sementes foram mantidas em câmara fria, em temperatura de 5 ºC e UR 85%, durante cinco e 30 dias. Aos 110 dias após a semeadura, avaliou-se a percentagem de germinação, o índice de velocidade de emergência e a massa da matéria seca total das plântulas. Para o armazenamento das sementes de cerejeira-do-mato, devem-se utilizar técnicas a vácuo, isoladamente, ou com revestimento de biofilme.

  20. Aislamiento de hongos solubilizadores de fosfatos de la rizósfera de Arazá (Eugenia stipitata, Myrtaceae Isolation of phosphate solubilizer fungi from Araza rhizosphere

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    Valencia Hernando

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Arazá (Eugenia stipitataMcVaugh, es una planta originaria de la región amazónica,que ha sido descrita como especie promisoria ya que su fruto comestible presentaexcelentes posibilidades de comercialización (Quevedo, 1995. El frutal muestra unaelevada productividad aún en suelos con muy bajo contenido de fósforo. La presenciade microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos podría contribuir a aumentar la dispo-nibilidad de este macroelemento. Dado que no se han publicado estudios al respecto,durante esta investigación se realizó el aislamiento y la caracterización de hongos so-lubilizadores a partir de 12 muestras de suelo en cultivos de Arazá, procedentes de 2Unidades Fisiográficas (paisajes del departamento del Guaviare (Colombia, utilizandoel método de lavado de suelo. Se obtuvieron 18 aislamientos de hongos a partir de1.152 agregados de suelo, los cuales demostraron capacidad de solubilizar fosfato nodisponible, procedente de 2 fuentes diferentes (hidrogenofosfato de calcio y fosfato dehierro III hidratados. Los principales solubilizadores del fosfato de calcio fueron Trichodermaaureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus, Trichodermacepa 1 y Trichodermacepa 2 y para el fosfatode hierro: Aspergillus oryzae, Paecilomycescepa 3, Gongronella butleriy Fusarium oxysporum.Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region which has been describedas a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995. This plant has highproductivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphatesolubilizazing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability.In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungiprocessed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were Araza is cultivated attwo regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizingphosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most importat species that solubilized phosphate from

  1. Eugenia e Fundação Rockefeller no Brasil: a saúde como proposta de regeneração nacional Eugenics and the Rockefeller Foundation in Brazil: health as an instrument of national regeneration

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    Elisabete Kobayashi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, a Fundação Rockefeller atuou de modo decisivo na implementação de ações voltadas para a saúde pública no Brasil, especialmente naquilo denominado de movimento sanitarista. Nesse mesmo período, a eugenia brasileira era equivalente ao sanitarismo, onde defendia-se a máxima de que "sanear era eugenizar". Vários trabalhos discutem o movimento sanitário, a questão da saúde pública no Brasil, a Fundação Rockefeller, a eugenia e seus ativistas. Entretanto, é escassa a discussão a respeito da Rockefeller e o movimento eugenista brasileiro. É necessário alertar que embora nos deparemos com questões ligadas à raça, teorias sobre genética ou evolução, este trabalho não tem como objetivo analisar tais assuntos com profundidade. O que buscamos construir foi o cenário no qual a eugenia de maneira geral, e a brasileira, especificamente, se desenrolou trazendo à tona as posturas de alguns eugenistas brasileiros.In the first decades of the twentieth century, the work of the Rockefeller Foundation was decisive for the implementation of public health initiatives in Brazil, especially in the so-called public health movement. At that time, Brazilian eugenics was the same as public health, as expressed in the maxim "to sanitize is to eugenize". There are several studies discussing the public health movement, the issue of public health in Brazil, the Rockefeller Foundation, eugenics and its supporters. However, there is little discussion on the relationship between the Rockefeller Foundation and the Brazilian eugenics movement. It is worth to mention that although there are issues related to race, and theories on genetics and evolution, this work does not intend to examine these issues in depth. The aim was to recreate the scenario in which eugenics in general, and particularly in the Brazilian case, was developed, exposing the positions of some of the Brazilian eugenicists.

  2. Eugenesia: Un análisis histórico y una posible propuesta Eugenia: Uma análise histórica e uma possível proposta Eugenics: A historical analysis and a possible proposal

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    Fabiola Villela Cortés

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La eugenesia es un tema abordado, entre otros, por historiadores, filósofos, médicos, bioeticistas, por distintas razones. La idea de mejorar la raza humana siempre ha estado presente en la historia de la civilización, también han sido objeto de comentarios el intento de consolidarla como una ciencia, la presencia de movimientos eugenésicos en varios países del mundo, el holocausto nazi y, finalmente, el resurgimiento de la eugenesia a raíz de la decodificación del genoma humano. Nuestro objetivo es dar un repaso por los movimientos eugenésicos que tuvieron lugar a mediados del siglo XX, el resurgimiento de la eugenesia y los adelantos con los que contamos actualmente.A eugenia é um tema abordado, entre outros, por historiadores, filósofos, médicos, bioeticistas, e por diferentes razões. A ideia de melhorar a raça humana sempre tem estado presente na história da civilização. Também tem sido objeto de comentários a intenção de consolidá-la como uma ciência a presença de movimentos eugênicos em vários países do mundo, o holocausto nazista e, finalmente, o ressurgimento da eugenia na raíz da decodificação do genoma humano. Nosso objetivo é dar um repasso pelos movimentos eugênicos que tiveram lugar em meados do século XX, o ressurgimento da eugenia e os avanços com os quais contamos atualmente.Eugenics is a topic treated for several reasons by, among others, historians, philosophers, physicians, bioethicists. The idea to improve human race always has been present in the history of civilization, to try to consolidate it as a science also has been the object of commentaries, the presence of eugenic organizations in several countries, the nazi holocaust and finally, the eugenic resurgence since the human genome sequencing. Our objective is to review eugenic movements in the mid twentieth century, eugenic resurgence and current advancements.

  3. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, Susan P. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the

  4. Perfil infectológico de poblaciones mapuche de Cerro Policía y Aguada Guzmán de la provincia de Río Negro

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    Rey, Jorge Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro trabajo analiza la prevalencia de marcadores de algunas infecciones que afectan las poblaciones mapuche de Cerro Policía (CP y Aguada Guzmán (AG en la Prov. de Río Negro. Los estudios incluídos son: determinación de anticuerpos anti-Treponema pallidum, anti-Trypanosoma cruzii, anti-Echinococcus granulosus, antígeno de superficie de la Hepatitis B (HBsAg, anticuerpos contra el core de la Hepatitis B (anti-HBc, anticuerpos contra el virus de la Hepatitis A (anti-HAV. Se estudiaron 160 muestras en CP y 83 en AG. Los resultados muestran alta prevalencia para anti-HAV en CP (89.2% y en AG (77.1% y para hidatidosis (10.6% y 9.6% respectivamente. Se hallaron valores nulos o bajos para sífilis (CP: 0.0 % y AG:2.4%. La prevalencia para Chagas fue del 10% en CP y 0.0% en AG. Los datos para Hepatitis B fueron nulos o bajos: HBsAg (CP:0.0% y AG:1.2% y anti-HBc(CP:0.6% y AG:0.0%. Los resultados indican que, aún estando estas dos poblaciones tan próximas muestran diferencias en los perfiles de los marcadores serológicos estudiados. Al comparar las tasas de prevalencia con las de otras poblaciones de América, cada una presenta un perfil diferente que depende de la población y del agente infeccioso considerado.

  5. LOS “CUERNOS DE LA CONSAGRACIÓN” EN EL CERRO DE LA ENCANTADA: CRONOLOGÍA DE UN SÍMBOLO

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    José Luis Sánchez Meseguer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde su aparición en 1978, el ejemplar de “cuernos de la consagración” de El Cerro de La Encantada (Granátula de Calatrava, Ciudad Real, España es sin duda el elemento de ese yacimiento del Bronce de La Mancha que más incógnitas plantea y que más dificultades presenta al interpretar el significado de su presencia en tierras tan occidentales, y especialmente tan en el interior de la Península Ibérica. Sus características y su semejanza con los ejemplares localizados en El Oficio, yacimiento almeriense correspondiente a la cultura de El Argar, su contexto arqueológico y cultural, sus paralelos y su cronología, testimonian una relación entre la Península Ibérica y el Mediterráneo Oriental durante la Edad del Bronce, concretamente a mediados del II milenio A.C. y en época premicénica, cuyo carácter necesariamente trascendió lo meramente“comercial”; no se trata de un elemento mueble sino arquitectónico, sin antecedentes conocidos en el III Milenio A.C. peninsular, que pone de manifiesto que su existencia no puede ser el resultado de un intercambio/comercio/regalo de materias primas o de objetos, sino de la presencia en tierras manchegas de una ideología que debió llegar hasta aquí en la mente de gentes que la guardaban en la memoria de su bagaje cultural.

  6. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  7. Evaluación del estado de conservación de las microcuencas pertenecientes a los Cerros Orientales de Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Arévalo Santos Carolina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en colaboración con la Alcaldía Municipal de Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia, con el fin de
    aproximarnos al estado de conservación de las microcuencas localizadas sobre la cota de altitud 2.600-3.200 msnm, en las veredas de Yerbabuena y Fusca, donde se identificaron cuatro microcuencas de interés: Mana- Yerbabuena, Coseteja, Fusca y Honda-Pan de Azúcar. El documento final se presenta como un instrumento para el conocimiento de los cerros Orientales de Chía a una escala municipal, cuyo enfoque establece los diferentes tipos de cobertura de vegetación existentes como indicador del estado actual de las microcuencas y evidencia situaciones críticas que pueden propiciar su total degradación. Los resultados permiten concluir que los procesos de transformación son bastante intensos, debido básicamente a la acción antrópica que ha hecho de los procesos urbanísticos el factor de amenaza más significativo, que ha conducido a la pérdida acelerada de la vegetación, apertura de vías de acceso, uso inadecuado de las fuentes hídricas etc. El producto principal de este  análisis es la generación de un mapa de áreas de interés ambiental que proponemos deben ser proyectadas ya sea
    para fines de conservación, restauración, recuperación y áreas cuyo manejo de conflictos debe ser prioridad. La
    importancia de establecer el estado de conservación deriva de la necesidad de proporcionar bases para el desarrollo de planes de manejo ambiental.

  8. Large rock avalanches in southern Perù: the Cerro Caquilluco - Cerrillos Negros rock slide - avalanche (Tacna, Tomasiri, Perù)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; Hermanns, R. L.; Murillo, P. V.

    2012-04-01

    The Andean bent which coincides with the Peruvian-Chilean border region is characterised by one of the largest relief contrasts on earth with depth of the subduction trench ranging from 5000 to 6000 m below sea level and mountain tops ranging from 5500 to 6300 m a.s.l.. The western flank of the Andes is subdivided in 4 major geologic zones (i.e. Coastal Cordillera, longitudinal Basin or depression, the Precordillera or western escarpment and western Cordillera). Local relief contrasts are also pronounced due to the incision of deep canyons into several million old uplifted surfaces, preserved because of the extremely dry climate with precipitation averaging a few mm and less per year. The Lluta collapse (minimum age of 2.5 Ma; volume 26 km3) is one of the largest non-volcanic non-marine landslides on Earth and has been mapped in that area (Wörner et al., 2002). Systematic mapping in northern Chile and Southern Peru has revealed that this is not the only gigantic landslide in the area but that further landslides of similar size occurred in the area, located both along the canyon slopes and along the western escarpment of the Cordillera. This suggests that landsliding has been a major factor in controlling erosion. This contribution describes first results on mapping a giant landslide complex in southern Perù called the Cerro Caquilluco - Cerrillos Negros Tomasiri rock slide - avalanche complex. The systematic mapping we have carried out in the area is presented in a further contribution to this conference. The Cerro Caquilluco - Cerrillos Negros Tomasiri rock slide - avalanche complex affected the upper part of a SW dipping paleosurface (8° to 9°) cut by a disconnected and regular primitive drainage network organized in a series of SW trending parallel valleys. This network developed within the lower Miocene pinkish tuffaceous deposits of the Huaylillas formation, whereas the main landslide scarp lies within the conglomerates of the Upper Moquegua formation

  9. Análise tecidual e celular das brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. tratadas com extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. - Myrtaceae Tissue and cell analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L. gill treated with crude ethanol extract and fractions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Fiuza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae é uma planta que ocorre no bioma Cerrado e é utilizada popularmente no tratamento de diarréias, inflamações, hiperglicemia e hipertensão. Estudos prévios revelaram atividade antimicrobiana da E. uniflora in vitro. Tendo em vista o uso popular, este trabalho objetivou avaliar as possíveis atividades celulares e teciduais sistêmicas do extrato bruto e das frações das folhas dessa planta em brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. (tilápia nilótica. Para isso, o extrato etanólico e as frações das folhas dessa planta foram administrados no peixe, por via oral, adicionadas à ração. Após um período de 24 horas, os peixes foram sacrificados e o segundo arco branquial de cada peixe foi dissecado, fixado em formalina neutra, desidratado, incluído em parafina e cortado. Nas análises histológicas, utilizaram-se tricômico de Masson e hematoxilina e eosina (HE. Pelas análises qualitativas na microscopia de luz, concluiu-se que o extrato etanólico bruto e as frações das folhas da E. uniflora apresentaram efeito sistêmico nas tilápias nilóticas atingindo as brânquias. As ações tóxicas como destacamento e descamação do epitélio respiratório e hiperplasia das células do epitélio interlamelar, foram mais pronunciadas nas tilápias que ingeriram maiores concentrações. Este trabalho colaborou para identificar o efeito vasodilatador dessa planta, e contribuiu para estabelecer a tilápia nilótica como sistema-modelo para testes com princípios ativos de plantas. Espera-se, com esses testes, viabilizar o uso de plantas como medicamentos para tratamentos de peixes, a manutenção da saúde de animais em cultivo intensivo e extensivo, a partir do qual se possibilite emprego alternativo aos medicamentos sintéticos.Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae is a plant found in the Cerrado biome and traditionally used in the treatment of diarrheas, inflammations, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Previous studies

  10. Limites térmicos para a germinação em função da origem de sementes de espécies de Eugenia (Myrtaceae nativas do Brasil Thermal requirements for the seeds of Brazilian species of Eugenia (Myrtaceae according to their origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Vicente Lamarca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A germinação das sementes é dependente de numerosos fatores abióticos, dentre os quais a temperatura figura entre os principais. No presente estudo analisou-se o comportamento germinativo de sementes de E. brasiliensis, E. involucrata, E. pyriformis e E. uniflora em resposta a diferentes condições de luz e temperatura, incluindo-se o cálculo da soma térmica durante o desenvolvimento e maturação das sementes. Os resultados demonstraram que a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas normais ocorreram adequadamente na faixa de 20 ºC a 30 ºC. Nessa faixa, as sementes foram indiferentes à luz e à alternância de temperatura para a germinação. Especifi camente para Eugenia pyriformis, avaliaram-se temperaturas superiores a 30 ºC e inferiores a 20 ºC, verifi cando-se que as sementes germinaram na faixa térmica de 10 ºC a 35 ºC, mas não a 5 ºC e a 40 ºC; os maiores valores de germinação e de IVG foram observados a 25 ºC e 30 ºC. Ficou evidente que a secagem modifica os limites e exigências térmicas para a germinação das sementes de E. pyriformis, uma vez que os maiores níveis de desidratação resultaram em maiores prejuízos à germinação fora da faixa térmica ótima. As sementes de E. pyriformis coletadas em Lavras, MG, que receberam maior quantidade de graus-dia durante o desenvolvimento e a maturação, apresentaram melhor desempenho em relação às sementes coletadas em Campinas, SP e em São Paulo, SP.Seed germination is dependent on several abiotic factors including temperature. In this study, we analyzed the germination of seeds of Eugenia brasiliensis, E. involucrata, E. pyriformis and E. uniflora in response to diff erent conditions of light and temperature. Seeds of all species showed high germination values from 20 to 30 ºC. Germination of seeds of E. Pyriformis was also evaluated at temperatures higher than 30 ºC and lower than 20 ºC. The germination and the normal seedling

  11. Development and Validation of a HPLC-UV Method for the Evaluation of Ellagic Acid in Liquid Extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae Leaves and Its Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization

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    Paulo Isaac Dias Assunção

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC-UV method has been developed and validated for the quantification of ellagic acid (EA in ethanol extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae leaves. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE optimization was performed using a Box Behnken design (33 combined with response surface methodology to study the effects of the ethanol concentration (%, w/w, extraction time (minutes, and temperature (°C on the EA concentration. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield of EA by UAE was 26.0 μg mL−1 when using 44% (w/w ethanol as the solvent, 22 minutes as the extraction time, and 59°C as the extraction temperature. The concentration of EA in relation to the predicted value was 93.7%  ±  0.4. UAE showed a strong potential for EA extraction.

  12. Development and Validation of a HPLC-UV Method for the Evaluation of Ellagic Acid in Liquid Extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) Leaves and Its Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Paulo Isaac Dias; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; de Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano

    2017-01-01

    A simple HPLC-UV method has been developed and validated for the quantification of ellagic acid (EA) in ethanol extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) leaves. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) optimization was performed using a Box Behnken design (33) combined with response surface methodology to study the effects of the ethanol concentration (%, w/w), extraction time (minutes), and temperature (°C) on the EA concentration. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield of EA by UAE was 26.0 μg mL-1 when using 44% (w/w) ethanol as the solvent, 22 minutes as the extraction time, and 59°C as the extraction temperature. The concentration of EA in relation to the predicted value was 93.7%  ±  0.4. UAE showed a strong potential for EA extraction.

  13. Estudo da extraÃÃo do Ãleo de pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) vermelha e roxa empregando os solventes CO2 e n - propano em altas pressÃes

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Braga da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Das folhas de pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) Ã possÃvel extrair um Ãleo que tem sido bastante utilizado industrialmente, principalmente nos segmentos cosmÃticos e farmacÃuticos. As extraÃÃes deste Ãleo utilizando os mÃtodos convencionais geralmente causam a degradaÃÃo tÃrmica de seus componentes, e uma alternativa interessante tem sido a utilizaÃÃo da tecnologia de extraÃÃo supercrÃtica com solventes orgÃnicos. Para avaliar melhor as vantagens da extraÃÃo em pressÃes elevadas do Ãleo das folha...

  14. Efecto del escaldado, de la velocidad de congelación y de descongelación sobre la calidad de la pulpa congelada de arazá (eugenia stipitata mc vaught)

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, Elizabeth; Restrepo, Luz Patricia; Narváez, Carlos Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto del escaldado y de las velocidades de congelación y descongelación sobre el contenido de ácido ascórbico, la capacidad de retención de líquidos, algunas propiedades relacionadas con textura y la acidez de la pulpa congelada de arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaught). Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos antes y después de 15 días de congelación de la pulpa. Se encontró que el escaldado durante 7 min en combinación con la congelación rápida y la descongelación lenta, of...

  15. Efecto del escaldado, de la velocidad de congelación y de descongelación sobre la calidad de la pulpa congelada de arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaught)

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Elizabeth; Restrepo Luz Patricia; Narváez Carlos Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto del escaldado y de las velocidades de congelación y descongelación sobre el contenido de ácido ascórbico, la capacidad de retención de líquidos, algunas propiedades relacionadas con textura y la acidez de la pulpa congelada de arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaught). Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos antes y después de 15 días de congelación de la pulpa. Se encontró que el escaldado durante 7 min en combinación con la congelación...

  16. Influencia de los parámetros climáticos, soportado en tecnología de información y comunicación, determina un microclima apropiado del invernadero - Cerro de Pasco

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa, José

    2016-01-01

    Se analiza la influencia de los parámetros climáticos, como la temperatura y humedad relativa ambiental, soportado en las tecnología de información y comunicación (Tic’s), determina un microclima apropiado, templado seco, dentro del invernadero en la Comunidad Urbana de Champamarca - Cerro de Pasco, año 2012. La información procedió de los equipos tecnológicos instalados en los puntos de monitoreo tanto interno como externo del invernadero. Los resultados muestran la necesidad del empleo de l...

  17. Caracterización geotécnica y análisis de la estabilidad de los macizos rocosos del camino de acceso al Cerro San Bernardo, Ciudad de salta

    OpenAIRE

    Cerusico, Luciana; Marcuzzi, Jorge Juan

    2011-01-01

    p. 29-44 En este trabajo se describe la caracterización geotécnica de los afloramientos rocosos que conforman los taludes del camino de acceso a la cumbre del cerro San Bernardo, y se evalúa su inestabilidad para producir potenciales deslizamientos. El análisis de la estabilidad de un talud rocoso no es una tarea sencilla, y requiere de un cuidadoso análisis de campo, para interpretar y comprender la importancia de los factores geoambientales que pueden favorecer los procesos de inestabili...

  18. Heat losses estimation associated with the physical state of the thermal insulation of pipes vaporductos network in Cerro Prieto geothermal field; Estimacion de perdidas de calor asociadas al estado fisico del aislamiento termico de las tuberias de la red de vaporductos del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovando Castelar, Rosember; Martinez Estrella, Juan Ignacio; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx; jime@iie.org.mx; aggarcia@iie.org.mx; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Miranda Herrera, Carlos; Jacobo Galvan, Paul [Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF) steam transportation network is constituted by 140 km of pipes with diameters ranging from 8 to 48 inches, which transport the steam of 165 producing wells to 13 power plants which have a total installed capacity of 720 MWe. Originally, the pipes are thermally insulated with a mineral wool or fiber glass layer and an external aluminum or iron cover. Due to the insulation material has been exposed to weather conditions during the field operation it shows nowadays different grades of wear-out, or even it is lacking in some parts of the network, causing higher heat losses from the pipes to the environment. In this work, the magnitude of the heat losses related with the present condition of the thermal insulation throughout the pipeline network is assessed. This involved determining the longitude and diameter, as well as the insulation condition of each single pipeline section, and the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients for the different thermal insulation conditions defined for this study. [Spanish] La red de transporte de vapor del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto (CGCP) esta constituida por aproximadamente 140 km de tuberias de 8 a 48 pulgadas de diametro, las cuales conducen el vapor producido por 165 pozos hacia 13 plantas generadoras, cuya capacidad instalada es de 720 MWe. Originalmente, estas tuberias son aisladas termicamente con una capa de 2 pulgadas de material aislante a base de lana mineral o fibra de vidrio, y una proteccion exterior de aluminio o hierro. Debido principalmente al impacto de las condiciones meteorologicas durante el tiempo de operacion del campo, en algunas porciones de la red el aislante presenta actualmente distintos grados de deterioro, o incluso se encuentra ausente, lo cual se traduce en una mayor perdida de calor desde las tuberias hacia el medio ambiente. En el presente trabajo se evalua la magnitud de las perdidas de calor asociadas al estado fisico del aislamiento termico de las

  19. Hydrothermal alteration zones and present reservoir conditions: an approach to define production zones at the eastern portion of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Zonas de alteracion hidrotermal y condiciones actuales del yacimiento: un enfoque para determinar zonas productoras al oriente del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Hernandez, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: juan.camacho02@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Geological factors are as essential for locating new wells as they are for defining the production zones of these wells. At the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), one of the most important geological factors is identification of the hydrothermal alteration zones (ZAH). These are divided into silica and epidote mineralogical zones (ZMSE), without CaCO{sub 3}, and silica and epidote mineralogical transition zones (ZTMSE), with CaCO{sub 3}. It has been observed that the continuous variation of reservoir thermodynamic conditions (temperature, pressure and enthalpy) is due mainly to the exploitation of geothermal resources. The presence of new thermodynamic conditions recorded at the reservoir has led to the re-location of production wells originally located during the drilling campaign of 2004 to 2006. At the geological sections on the eastern part of the CGCP, adjustments made to the well completions lie on the limits between the ZMSE and ZTMSE zones. In turn, this is related to the current, superior, thermodynamic reservoir conditions. Based on this, a new geologic approach is proposed to define possible production zones for new wells, relating the ZAH zones to current thermodynamic reservoir conditions. [Spanish] Los factores geologicos son determinantes, tanto para establecer nuevos sitios de perforacion como para determinar el intervalo productor de un pozo nuevo. En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP) una de los factores mas importantes es la determinacion de las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal (ZAH) que se dividen en dos: zona mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZMSE), sin presencia de CaCO{sub 3}, y zona de transicion mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZTMSE), con presencia de CaCO{sub 3}. Por otra parte, tambien se ha constatado que la continua variacion de las condiciones termodinamicas del yacimiento (temperatura, presion y entalpia) es originada en buena medida por la explotacion del recurso geotermico. La ocurrencia de nuevas condiciones

  20. Aplicação de cromatografia centrífuga de contra-corrente na purificação de ácido ursólico das folhas de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Frighetto

    Full Text Available Os ácidos triterpênicos são metabólitos comuns na família Myrtaceae, especialmente no gênero Eugenia. O ácido ursólico foi descrito como um dos principais constituintes, nas folhas de Eugenia brasiliensis, coletada no Sudoeste do Brasil. Uma partição prévia, por solventes, do extrato etanólico ou do extrato clorofórmico de E. brasiliensis, seguida por uma purificação por cromatografia de contra-corrente de alta velocidade (CCCAV, conduziu ao isolamento do ácido ursólico com alto grau de pureza (> 97%. Esta substância, também foi isolada por cromatografia convencional de coluna aberta (rendimento de 0.22% a partir do extrato etanólico, e caracterizada por 13C-RMN, GC-EM e co-injeção com padrão comercial em CG-DIC, na forma do éster metílico. A técnica de CCCAV, usualmente usada para triterpenos glicosilados, foi aqui aplicada para a aglicona. As fases móvel e estacionária, no experimento de CCCAV, foram geradas pela mistura de n-hexano : acetato de etila : metanol : água, na proporção 10:5:2,5:1. A seleção do sistema de solventes (fases estacionária e móvel foi determinada pela máxima distribuição eqüitativa do ácido ursólico em ambas as fases, medida por densitometria e monitorada por cromatografia em camada delgada, CCD, usando-se ácido ursólico comercial como referência.

  1. EFEITO DA TEMPERATURA E DO USO DE EMBALAGEM NA CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA DE FRUTOS DE CAGAITA (Eugenia dysentericaDC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA DE OLIVEIRA CARNEIRO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaiteira destaca-se entre as espécies nativas do Cerrado por produzir frutos de sabor agradável, os quais podem ser consumidos tanto in natura quanto processados na forma de doces, compotas e geleias. Apesar do potencial econômico, é uma planta pouco explorada, principalmente devido à baixa durabilidade dos frutos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da embalagem e da temperatura sobre a conservação pós-colheita de frutos de E. dysenterica. Para isto, os frutos de cagaita foram coletados no estádio verde-maduro, ainda ligados à planta-mãe, e levados ao Laboratório de Botânica da Universidade Federal da Bahia, onde foram selecionados quanto à integridade física, ausência de danos mecânicos epatogênicos. Após lavagem em água corrente, os frutos foram secos e acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, cobertas por filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC de 10 micras, perfurados e sem perfuração, e em bandejas sem revestimento de PVC. A perfuração foi realizada visando a maior circulação de ar dentro das embalagens. Em seguida, foram armazenados em duas temperaturas, 5 e 25ºC. Para a avaliação da durabilidade dos frutos, foram realizadas avaliações diárias das características físicas e químicas, incluindo coloração, firmeza, pH, perda de massa, altura e diâmetro. O metabolismo de carboidratos também foi avaliado por meio da quantificação dos açúcares solúveis. Os frutos da cagaita apresentaram durabilidade de 5 dias, independentemente dos tratamentos utilizados, sendo que os submetidos à refrigeração apresentaram sintomas de injúria por frio, alteração da coloração e firmeza (25%, redução de pH e do consumo de carboidratos. Já em frutos mantidos a 25ºC, houve amarelecimento completo, perda de firmeza, aumento do pH e maior consumo de carboidratos. Verificou-se que o uso de embalagens, praticamente, não promoveu efeitos ben

  2. El límite sur de la necrópolis medieval judía del Cerro de la Horca (Toledo y el problema del contacto con otros cementerios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Taboada, Arturo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological excavation of a plot on 25 General Villalba St. has allowed for the identification of what could have been part the southern end of the Medieval Jewish Cemetery of the Cerro de la Horca, an area characterized by the presence of three different rite cemeteries: the aforementioned Je-wish cemetery, a Muslim Taifa Period cemetery linked to the Madrid road, and a Christian cemetery associated to the San Eugenio hermitage. In addition, the lack of lucillos (brick half-barrelled vaults and the presence of side covacha (rock-cut and terraced tombs contributes to a more complete knowledge of both the burial typology known for this cemetery, and its evolution and development.La excavación de un solar localizado en el número 25 de la calle General Villalba ha permitido identificar lo que pudo configurar parte del límite sur del cementerio judío medieval del Cerro de la Horca, en una zona caracterizada por la convergencia de cementerios de diferentes religiones: el ya mencionado judío, un segundo musulmán de época Taifa asociado al camino de Madrid y un tercero cristiano, dependiente de la ermita de San Eugenio. Además, la ausencia de lucillos y la presencia de tumbas en covacha lateral y escalonadas vienen a completar tanto la tipología de enterramientos conocida para este cementerio como su evolución y desarrollo.

  3. The flow dynamics of an extremely large volume pyroclastic flow, the 2.08-Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, NW Argentina, and comparison with other flow types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cas, Ray A.F.; Wright, Heather M.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Lesti, Chiara; Porreca, Massimiliano; Giordano, Guido; Viramonte, Jose G.

    2011-01-01

    The 2.08-Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite (CGI) represents a >630-km3 dense rock equivalent (VEI 8) eruption from the long-lived Cerro Galán magma system (∼6 Ma). It is a crystal-rich (35–60%), pumice (explain the contemporaneous maintenance of high particle concentration, high sedimentation rate at the depositional boundary layer and a high level of mobility, it is also proposed that the flow(s) was continuously supplied at a high mass feeding rate. It is also proposed that internal gas pressure within the flow, directed downwards onto the substrate over which the flow was passing, reduced the friction between the flow and the substrate and also enhanced its mobility. The pervasive sub-horizontal fabric of aligned pumice, lithic and even biotite crystals indicates a consistent horizontal shear force existed during transport and deposition in the basal granular flow, consistent with the existence of a laminar, shearing, granular flow regime during the final stages of transport and deposition.

  4. Vigilancia de la salud pública después de una erupción volcánica: lecciones aprendidas en Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malilay Josephine

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La erupción del volcán Cerro Negro cerca de León, Nicaragua, el 9 de abril de 1992 lanzó alrededor de 1,7 millones de toneladas de ceniza en una zona de 200 km². Se efectuó una evaluación inicial de los efectos en la salud de cerca de 300 000 residentes, con los datos normalmente obtenidos mediante el sistema nacional de vigilancia epidemiológica. Se determinó que el número de consultas a los establecimientos de atención de salud por diarrea e infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA aumentó en las dos comunidades estudiadas, una dentro de la zona del desastre y otra en sus cercanías. En particular, las consultas por diarrea aguda fueron casi 6,0 veces más numerosas que antes de la erupción en ambas comunidades y las consultas por IRA, 3,6 veces más frecuentes en Malpaisillo (la comunidad cercana a la zona del desastre y 6,0 veces más frecuentes en Telica (la comunidad situada dentro de esa zona. Casi todas fueron consultas por enfermedad en lactantes y niños menores de 5 años. El aumento de la tasa de morbilidad por diarrea, que frecuentemente se produce después de las erupciones volcánicas, exige que se investiguen detalladamente el tipo y la calidad del abastecimiento de agua después de una acumulación cuantiosa de ceniza. Es preciso examinar con mayor detenimiento los problemas respiratorios asociados con la ceniza para determinar el espectro de esas enfermedades y el momento en que se presentan en lactantes y otros subgrupos especiales de la población. Los datos acopiados por medio de la vigilancia pasiva sobre las condiciones de salud antes y después de una erupción pueden emplearse para detectar la morbilida