Sample records for eudet beam telescope

  1. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I


    Ahigh resolution(σ< 2 μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. EUDET was a coordinated detector R&D programme for the future International Linear Collider providing test beam infrastructure to detector R&D groups. The telescope consists of six sensor planes with a pixel pitch of either 18.4 μm or 10 μmand canbe operated insidea solenoidal magnetic fieldofupto1.2T.Ageneral purpose cooling, positioning, data acquisition (DAQ) and offine data analysis tools are available for the users. The excellent resolution, readout rate andDAQintegration capabilities made the telescopea primary beam tests tool also for several CERN based experiments. In this report the performance of the final telescope is presented. The plans for an even more flexible telescope with three differentpixel technologies(ATLASPixel, Mimosa,Timepix) withinthenew European detector infrastructure project AIDA are presented.

  2. Performance of the EUDET-type beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, H; Bulgheroni, A.; Claus, G.; Corrin, E.; Cussans, D.G.; Dreyling-Eschweiler, J.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Goffe, M.; Gregor, I.M.; Haas, D.; Muhl, C.; Perrey, H.; Peschke, R.; Roloff, P.; Rubinskiy, I.; Winter, M.


    Test beam measurements at the test beam facilities of DESY have been conducted to characterise the performance of the EUDET-type beam telescopes originally developed within the EUDET project. The beam telescopes are equipped with six sensor planes using MIMOSA26 monolithic active pixel devices. A programmable Trigger Logic Unit provides trigger logic and time stamp information on particle passage. Both data acquisition framework and offline reconstruction software packages are available. User devices are easily integrable into the data acquisition framework via predefined interfaces. The biased residual distribution is studied as a function of the beam energy, plane spacing and sensor threshold. Its width at the two centre pixel planes using all six planes for tracking in a 6 GeV electron/positron-beam is measured to be $(2.88\\,\\pm\\,0.08)\\,\\upmu\\meter$. Iterative track fits using the formalism of General Broken Lines are performed to estimate the intrinsic resolution of the individual pixel planes. The mean i...

  3. Performance of the EUDET-type beam telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Hendrik; Spannagel, Simon; Behr, Joerg; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Gregor, Ingrid Maria; Muhl, Carsten; Perrey, Hanno; Peschke, Richard; Roloff, Philipp; Rubinskiy, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Bulgheroni, Antonio [INFN, Milano (Italy); EC - Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany); Claus, Gilles; Goffe, Mathieu; Winter, Marc [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Corrin, Emlyn; Haas, Daniel [University of Geneva, DPNC, Geneva (Switzerland); Cussans, David [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)


    Test beam measurements at the test beam facilities of DESY have been conducted to characterise the performance of the EUDET-type beam telescopes originally developed within the EUDET project. The beam telescopes are equipped with six sensor planes using MIMOSA 26 monolithic active pixel devices. A programmable Trigger Logic Unit provides trigger logic and time stamp information on particle passage. Both data acquisition framework and offline reconstruction software packages are available. User devices are easily integrable into the data acquisition framework via predefined interfaces. The biased residual distribution is studied as a function of the beam energy, plane spacing and sensor threshold. Its standard deviation at the two centre pixel planes using all six planes for tracking in a 6 GeV electron/positron-beam is measured to be (2.88 ± 0.08) μm. Iterative track fits using the formalism of General Broken Lines are performed to estimate the intrinsic resolution of the individual pixel planes. The mean intrinsic resolution over the six sensors used is found to be (3.24 ± 0.09) μm. With a 5 GeV electron/positron beam, the track resolution halfway between the two inner pixel planes using an equidistant plane spacing of 20 mm is estimated to (1.83 ± 0.03) μm assuming the measured intrinsic resolution. Towards lower beam energies the track resolution deteriorates due to increasing multiple scattering. Threshold studies show an optimal working point of the MIMOSA 26 sensors at a sensor threshold of between five and six times their RMS noise. Measurements at different plane spacings are used to calibrate the amount of multiple scattering in the material traversed and allow for corrections to the predicted angular scattering for electron beams. (orig.)

  4. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Perrey, Hanno


    A high resolution ($\\sigma 2 \\sim \\mu$) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. The telescope consists of six sensor planes using Mimosa26 MAPS with a pixel pitch of $18.4 \\mu$ and thinned down to $50 \\mu$. The excellent resolution, readout rate and DAQ integration capabilities made the telescope a primary test beam tool for many groups including several CERN based experiments. Within the new European detector infrastructure project AIDA the test beam telescope will be further extended in terms of cooling infrastructure, readout speed and precision. In order to provide a system optimized for the different requirements by the user community, a combination of various pixel technologies is foreseen. In this report the design of this even more flexible telescope with three different pixel technologies (TimePix, Mimosa, ATLAS FE-I4) will be presented. First test beam results with the HitOR signal provided by the FE-I4 integrated into the trigger...

  5. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I


    A high resolution (σ∼2μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. The telescope consists of six monolithic active pixel sensor planes (Mimosa26) with a pixel pitch of 18.4 \\mu m and thinned down to 50 \\mu m. The excellent resolution, readout rate and DAQ integration capabilities made the telescope a primary test beam tool for many groups including several CERN based experiments. Within the European detector infrastructure project AIDA the test beam telescope is being further extended in terms of cooling and powering infrastructure, read-out speed, area of acceptance, and precision. In order to provide a system optimized for the different requirements by the user community a combination of various state-of-the-art pixel technologies is foreseen. Furthermore, new central dead-time-free trigger logic unit (TLU) has been developed to provide LHC-speed response with one-trigger-per-particle operating mode and a synchronous clock for all conn...

  6. Jets at high Q{sup 2} at HERA and test beam measurements with the EUDET pixel telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, Joerg


    In this thesis the measurement of inclusive dijet and trijet cross sections in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA is presented. The kinematic phase space of the measurement was defined by 1258 GeV and -1<{eta}{sub LAB}{sup jet}<2.5, where the first quantity is the transverse jet energy in the Breit frame and the latter the jet pseudorapidity in the laboratory frame. For the selection of dijet (trijet) events it was required that at least the two (three) highest-transverse-energy jets have exceeded the transverse-energy threshold. Additionally, the invariant dijet mass of the two highest-transverse-energy jets in the event was required to be greater than 20 GeV. The measurements were compared to fixed-order NLO QCD calculations as implemented in the NLOJET++ program. The agreement in shape and normalisation between theory and the measurement was good. The ratio, R{sub 3/2}, between the cross sections for trijet and dijet production was determined as a function of the average transverse jet energy in the Breit frame, E{sub T,B}{sup jet}, in intervals of Q{sup 2}. The quantity R{sub 3/2} was utilised for an extraction of the strong coupling, {alpha}{sub s}, with partially reduced systematic uncertainties. The extracted value was in agreement with the world average value of {alpha}{sub s}. In a second part, test-beam measurements were performed with the EUDET pixel telescope. During the work for this thesis, the online-monitoring software was improved, the MIMOSA 26 sensors were integrated into the offline analysis software and

  7. Design and Characterisation of a Fast Architecture Providing Zero Suppressed Digital Output Integrated in a High Resolution CMOS Pixel Sensor for the STAR Vertex Detector and the EUDET Beam Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hu-guo, C


    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) have demonstrated their strong potential for tracking devices, particularly for flavour tagging. They are foreseen to equip several vertex detectors and beam telescopes. Most applications require high read-out speed, imposing sensors to feature digital output with integrated zero suppression. The most recent development of MAPS at IPHC and IRFU addressing this issue will be reviewed. An architecture will be presented, combining a pixel array, column-level discriminators and zero suppression circuits. Each pixel features a preamplifier and a correlated double sampling (CDS) micro-circuit reducing the temporal and fixed pattern noises. The sensor is fully programmable and can be monitored. It will equip experimental apparatus starting data taking in 2009/2010.

  8. Characterisation of the ATLAS ITK strips front-end chip and development of EUDAQ 2.0 for the EUDET-style pixel telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, Richard


    As part of the ATLAS phase-II upgrade a new, all-silicon tracker will be built. The new tracker will consist of silicon pixel sensors and silicon microstrip sensors. For the readout of the microstrip sensor a new readout chip was designed; the so called ATLAS Binary Converter 130 (ABC130) which is based on a 130 nm CMOS technology. The chip consists of an analog Front End built up of 256 channels, each with a preamplifier and a discriminator for converting the analog sensor readout into a binary response. The preamplifier of the ABC130 was designed to have a gain of 90-95 (mV)/(fC). First laboratory measurements with the built-in control circuits have shown a gain of <75 (mV)/(fC). In the course of this thesis a test beam campaign was undertaken to measure the gain in an unbiased system under realistic conditions. The obtained gain varied from ∼90 (mV)/(fC) to ∼100 (mV)/(fC). With this, the values obtained by the test beam campaign are within the specifications. In order to perform the test beam campaign with optimal efficiency, a complete overhaul of the data acquisition framework used for the EUDET type test beam telescopes was necessary. The new version is called EUDAQ 2.0. It is designed to accommodate devices with different integration times such as LHC-type devices with an integration time of only 25 ns, and devices with long integration times such as the MIMOSA26 with an integration time of 114.5 μs. To accomplish this a new synchronization algorithm has been developed. It gives the user full flexibility on the means of synchronizing their own data stream with the system. Beyond this, EUDAQ 2.0 also allows user specific encoding and decoding of data packets. This enables the user to minimize the data overhead and to shift more computation time to the offline stage. To reduce the network overhead EUDAQ 2.0 allows the user to store data locally. The merging is then postponed to the offline stage.

  9. The Datura Pixel Beam Telescope - Setup and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Rubinskiy, Igor; Perrey, Hanno [DESY (Germany)


    The Datura pixel telescope is an upgraded version of the original Eudet beam telescope. It consists of six planes of Mimosa 26 monolithic active pixel sensors, mounted on two lever arms with three planes each. The sensor positioning is flexible and there is the possibility of including a central device under test (DUT). With the telescope, a pointing precision of under 3 μm at the DUT can be achieved. Cooling of sensors and DUT, positioning and read-out infrastructure are included. The telescope provides a flexible and general purpose testing environment for various sensor technologies. In this talk telescope resolution measurements at the low energy DESY e{sup +}/e{sup -} test beam are presented.

  10. Simulation and Track Reconstruction for Beam Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman


    Beam telescopes are an important tool to test new detectors under development in a particle beam. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, its predicted position on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them do not account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framework along with the General Broken ...

  11. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  12. Data acquisition in the EUDET project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The goal of the EUDET project is the development and construction of infrastructure to permit detector R & D for the international linear collider (ILC) with larger scale prototypes. It encompasses major detector components: the vertex detector, the tracker and the calorimeters. We describe here the status and plans of the ...

  13. Simulation and track reconstruction for beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman


    Beam telescopes are used for testing new detectors under development. Sensors are placed and a particle beam is passed through them. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, it’s predicted hits on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them don’t account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framew...

  14. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stellar Imager, an ultraviolet, sparse-aperture telescope, was one of the fifteen Vision Missions chosen for a study completed last year. Stellar Imager will...

  15. A deflection, buckling and stress investigation into telescopic cantilever beams


    Abraham, Jeevan George


    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The telescoping cantilever beam structure is applied in many different engineering sectors to achieve weight/space optimisation for structural integrity. There has been limited theory and analysis in the public domain of the stresses and deflections involved when applying a load to such a structure. This thesis proposes (a) The Tip Reaction Model, which adapts classical mechanics to predict...

  16. Variations in the modal characteristics of a telescopically deploying beam (United States)

    Amos, Anthony K.


    The equations of motion for a two-segment deploying telescopic beam are derived through application of Lagrange's equation. The outer tube of the beam is fixed at one end and the inner tube slides freely relative to the fixed segment. The resulting nonlinear, non-autonomous set of equations is linearized and simplified to the standard Euler-Bernoulli partial differential equations for an elastic beam by freezing the deployment process at various stages of deployment, and examining the small amplitude and natural modes of vibration of the resulting configuration. Application of the natural boundary conditions and compatibility of motion relations for the two segments in their common region of overlap leads to a transcendental characteristic equation in the frequency parameter Beta(L). Numerical solution of the equation for the characteristic roots determines the modal frequencies, and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained from the general solution of the Euler-Bernoulli equation tailored to the natural boundary conditions. Sample results of modal frequencies and shapes are presented for various stages of deployment and discussed. It is shown that for all intermediate stages of deployment (between 0 and 100 percent) the spectral distribution is drastically altered by the appearance of regions of very closely spaced modal frequencies. The sources of this modal agglomeration are explored.

  17. Fine Calibration of Detector Positions by Tracks in Helsinki Silicon Beam Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkinen, A M


    An efficient algorithm is presented to perform fine calibration of detector positions in a beam telescope. Data from Helsinki Silicon Beam Telescope ( SiBT) are used to demonstrate the performance of the algorithm. The intrinsic alignment precision obtained is better than 1 micrometer in location and about 20 micro-radians in orientation. The algorithm is described in detail and results on performance are presented. Connection to the CMS Tracker alignment problem by tracks is discussed.

  18. Beam Test of Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Elliott D


    A beam test of GLAST (Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope) components was performed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in October, 1997. These beam test components were simple versions of the planned light hardware. Results on the performance of the tracker, calorimeter, and anticoincidence charged particle veto are presented.

  19. Results from the beam test of the engineering model of the GLAST large area telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto e Silva, E. do E-mail:; Anthony, P.; Arnold, R.; Arrighi, H.; Bloom, E.; Baughman, B.; Bogart, J.; Bosted, P.; Bumala, B.; Chekhtman, A.; Cotton, N.; Crider, A.; Dobbs-Dixon, I.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Dubois, R.; Engovatov, D.; Espigat, P.; Evans, J.L.; Fieguth, T.; Flath, D.; Frigaard, M.; Giebels, B.; Gillespie, S.; Godfrey, G.; Grove, J.E.; Handa, T.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hernando, J.; Hicks, M.; Hirayama, M.; Johnson, W.N.; Johnson, R.; Kamae, T.; Kroeger, W.; Lauben, D.; Lin, Y.C.; Lindner, T.; Michelson, P.; Moiseev, A.; Nikolaou, M.; Nolan, P.; Odian, A.; Ohsugi, T.; Ormes, J.; Paliaga, G.; Parkinson, P. Saz; Phlips, B.; Ritz, S.; Rock, S.; Russel, J.J.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Silvis, J.; Szalata, Z.; Terrier, R.; Thompson, D.J.; Tournear, D.M.; Waite, A.P.; Wallace, J.; Williams, S.; Williamson, R.; Winker, G


    This paper describes the results of a beam test using the Engineering Model of the GLAST Large Area Telescope, which was installed in a beam of positrons, hadrons and tagged photons at SLAC. The performance of the four subsystems, Anti Coincidence Detector, Silicon Tracker, Calorimeter and Data Acquisition will be described.

  20. Results from the Beam Test of the Engineering Model of the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    do Couto e Silva, Eduardo


    This paper describes the results of a beam test using the Engineering Model of the GLAST Large Area Telescope, which was installed in a beam of positrons, hadrons and tagged photons at SLAC. The performance of the four subsystems, Anti Coincidence Detector, Silicon Tracker, Calorimeter and Data Acquisition will be described.

  1. Silicon telescope for prototype sensor characterisation using particle beam and cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Fu, Jinlin


    We present the design and the performance of a silicon strip telescope that we have built and recently used as reference tracking system for prototype sensor characterisation. The telescope was operated on beam at the CERN SPS and also using cosmic rays in the laboratory. We will describe the data acquisition system, based on a custom electronic board that we have developed, and the online monitoring system to control the quality of the data in real time.

  2. The standing wave phenomenon in radio telescopes - Frequency modulation of the WSRT primary beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, A.; Braun, R.

    Context. Inadequacies in the knowledge of the primary beam response of current interferometric arrays often form a limitation to the image fidelity, particularly when "mosaicing" over multiple telescope pointings. Aims. We hope to overcome these limitations by constructing a frequency-resolved,

  3. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva


    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  4. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Beam Measurements and the Microwave Brightness Temperatures of Uranus and Saturn (United States)

    Hasselfield, Matthew; Moodley, Kavilan; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gallardo, Patricio; Gralla, Megan B.; hide


    We describe the measurement of the beam profiles and window functions for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which operated from 2007 to 2010 with kilopixel bolometer arrays centered at 148, 218, and 277 GHz. Maps of Saturn are used to measure the beam shape in each array and for each season of observations. Radial profiles are transformed to Fourier space in a way that preserves the spatial correlations in the beam uncertainty to derive window functions relevant for angular power spectrum analysis. Several corrections are applied to the resulting beam transforms, including an empirical correction measured from the final cosmic microwave background (CMB) survey maps to account for the effects of mild pointing variation and alignment errors. Observations of Uranus made regularly throughout each observing season are used to measure the effects of atmospheric opacity and to monitor deviations in telescope focus over the season. Using the WMAP-based calibration of the ACT maps to the CMB blackbody, we obtain precise measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Uranus and Saturn disks at effective frequencies of 149 and 219 GHz. For Uranus we obtain thermodynamic brightness temperatures T(149/U) = 106.7 +/- 2.2 K and T(219/U) = 100.1 +/- 3.1 K. For Saturn, we model the effects of the ring opacity and emission using a simple model and obtain resulting (unobscured) disk temperatures of T(149/S) = 137.3 +/- 3.2 K and T(219/S) = 137.3 +/- 4.7 K.

  5. An Architecture Proposal for the ILC Test Beam Silicon Telescope at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turqueti, M.A.; /Fermilab


    The requirements for an ILC Test Beam silicon telescope system are foreseen to be very stringent. Resolution, noise, and throughput must be carefully managed in order to provide a useful instrument for the high energy physics community to develop detector technologies for the ILC. Since the ILC Test Beam is meant to test a wide variety of different detectors, it must employ universally accepted software techniques, hardware standards and protocols as well as easy integration of hardware and software with the various clients using the system. In this paper, we describe an open modular architecture to achieve these goals, including an analysis of the entire chain of software and hardware needed to meet the requirements.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Nolta, Michael R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Marsden, Danica; Schmitt, Benjamin L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dünner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Fowler, Joseph W.; Niemack, Michael D. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Gralla, Megan B.; Marriage, Tobias A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Page, Lyman A. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Partridge, Bruce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); and others


    We describe the measurement of the beam profiles and window functions for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which operated from 2007 to 2010 with kilopixel bolometer arrays centered at 148, 218, and 277 GHz. Maps of Saturn are used to measure the beam shape in each array and for each season of observations. Radial profiles are transformed to Fourier space in a way that preserves the spatial correlations in the beam uncertainty to derive window functions relevant for angular power spectrum analysis. Several corrections are applied to the resulting beam transforms, including an empirical correction measured from the final cosmic microwave background (CMB) survey maps to account for the effects of mild pointing variation and alignment errors. Observations of Uranus made regularly throughout each observing season are used to measure the effects of atmospheric opacity and to monitor deviations in telescope focus over the season. Using the WMAP-based calibration of the ACT maps to the CMB blackbody, we obtain precise measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Uranus and Saturn disks at effective frequencies of 149 and 219 GHz. For Uranus we obtain thermodynamic brightness temperatures T{sub U}{sup 149}= 106.7 ± 2.2 K and T{sub U}{sup 219}= 100.1 ± 3.1 K. For Saturn, we model the effects of the ring opacity and emission using a simple model and obtain resulting (unobscured) disk temperatures of T{sub S}{sup 149}= 137.3 ± 3.2 K and T{sub S}{sup 219}= 137.3 ± 4.7 K.

  7. The integration of DEPFET into ILC software frame work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furletova, Julia [Bonn University, Bonn (Germany)


    The DEPFET collaboration has a significant presence in the EUDET (European Detector group) program for a future International Linear Collider (ILC). Within the EUDET one of the project has a task to provide test beam Telescope infrastructure. During a test run at CERN in 2008 and 2009, DEPFET was the first Detector Under Test (DUT) user of the EUDET Telescope, commissioning the user interfaces of this infrastructure. In this presentation the current status of the integration of DEPFET into EUDET Telescope analysis frame work used by the international ILC community (based on LCIO, Gear, Marlin, EUTelescope and other packages) and also the foreseen future improvements of a DEPFET related software are presented.

  8. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): Beam Profiles and First SZ Cluster Maps (United States)

    Hincks, A. D.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; hide


    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is currently observing the cosmic microwave background with arcminute resolution at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz, In this paper, we present ACT's first results. Data have been analyzed using a maximum-likelihood map-making method which uses B-splines to model and remove the atmospheric signal. It has been used to make high-precision beam maps from which we determine the experiment's window functions, This beam information directly impacts all subsequent analyses of the data. We also used the method to map a sample of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Ze1'dovich (SZ) effect, and show five clusters previously detected with X-ray or SZ observations, We provide integrated Compton-y measurements for each cluster. Of particular interest is our detection of the z = 0.44 component of A3128 and our current non-detection of the low-redshift part, providing strong evidence that the further cluster is more massive as suggested by X-ray measurements. This is a compelling example of the redshift-independent mass selection of the SZ effect.

  9. Three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography using a facet prism telescope and MEMS mirror for improved transversal resolution (United States)

    Haindl, R.; Trasischker, W.; Baumann, B.; Pircher, M.; Hitzenberger, C. K.


    An improved three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography system was developed. It utilizes a custom-made three-facet prism telescope to improve the transversal resolution at the sample. Furthermore, a two-axis gimbal-less MEMS mirror is used to minimize off-pivot beam movement at the pupil of the eye, enabling circular scanning for in vivo retinal measurements. We demonstrate the system's abilities for in vitro circular scanning to measure absolute flow and to reconstruct the full velocity vector on a bifurcation flow phantom. Moreover, in vivo retinal measurements using circular scanning around vessel bifurcations of healthy human volunteers were performed. Measurements of the absolute mean flow and its orientation are in good agreement with the expected values for in vitro measurements. For in vivo measurements, the in- and outflow of blood for retinal vessel bifurcations show an excellent agreement, demonstrating the reliability of the technique.

  10. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Sace Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Ion Beam Analysis of Subtle Impactor Traces (United States)

    Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V. V.; Colaux, J. L.; Kearsley, A. T.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; hide


    Recognition of origin for particles responsible for impact damage on spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) relies upon postflight analysis of returned materials. A unique opportunity arose in 2009 with collection of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) from HST by shuttle mission STS-125. A preliminary optical survey confirmed that there were hundreds of impact features on the radiator surface. Following extensive discussion between NASA, ESA, NHM and IBC, a collaborative research program was initiated, employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ion beam analysis (IBA) to determine the nature of the impacting grains. Even though some WFPC2 impact features are large, and easily seen without the use of a microscope, impactor remnants may be hard to find.

  11. Implementation of a configurable FE-I4 trigger plane for the AIDA telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermann, Theresa; Marinas, Carlos; Huegging, Fabian; Backhaus, Malte; Luetticke, Florian; Krueger, Hans; Schwartzkopff, Fabian; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)


    To evaluate the performance of detector prototypes belonging to different sensor technologies, a fast read-out reference device (AIDA telescope) with excellent resolution and modular configuration is required. The successful development of a telescope with these characteristics was part of the EUDET project, currently continued within the framework of the AIDA activity. The addition of a FE-I4-based reference plane to the existing telescope configuration allows the implementation of a user-defined region-of-interest trigger window, tunable to match the area defined by the device under test (DUT). Such a flexible setup is implemented and the proof of principle is demonstrated while operating a DEPFET pixel sensor as DUT in between the two telescope arms. Results are shown in the talk.

  12. WE-D-BRF-04: Experimental Investigations On Ion Radiography with Beam Scanning Using a Range Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, I; Magallanes, L [Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig Maximilian University Munich (Germany); Marcelos, T [Ludwig Maximilian University Munich (Germany); Takechi, M; Voss, B [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, GermanyGermany (Germany); Brons, S [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, O [Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Parodi, K [Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Purpose: Ion beams exhibit a finite range and an inverted depth-dose profile, the Bragg peak. These favorable properties allow superior tumordose conformality, but introduce sensitivity to range uncertainties. Hence, imaging techniques play an increasingly important role to support the treatment planning and the in-vivo monitoring of the actual ion beam treatment. Methods: This work presents the experimental investigations carried out to address the feasibility of ion transmission imaging at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy center using an active raster scanning beam delivery system and a prototype range telescope set-up based on a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPIC) interleaved with 3 mm absorber plates of PMMA. Results: An extensive characterization of the set-up in terms of beam parameters and settings of the read-out electronics was performed and results will be presented. A data processing method to increase the range resolution (MIRR) of the PPIC stack was developed. In this approach, the position of the maximum of the Bragg curve is deduced from the ratio of measured signals in adjacent PPIC channels. MIRR evaluation is based on Bragg curves obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and validated with experimental data acquired with the PPIC stack using ion beams. MIRR was applied to the carbon ion radiography of an anthropomorphic Alderson head phantom yielding a resolution of 0.8 mm water equivalent thickness (WET) compared to the nominal value of 3.495 mm WET given by the thickness of the absorber slabs in the PPIC stack. An absolute comparison of the Alderson phantom carbon ion transmitted image with an X-ray digitally reconstructed radiography, both converted into WET, will also be shown. Conclusion: The obtained results are very promising and motivate further developments of the system towards an eventual clinical use.This work is supported by the German Research Foundation and the German Academic Exchange Service. This work is supported by the

  13. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.


    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several

  14. SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolney, D; Mayers, G; Newcomer, M; Bollinger, D; Desai, N; Maughan, R; Solberg, T; Hollebeek, R [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Weiss, D [Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Meekins, E [James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA (United States)


    Purpose: While the energy of therapeutic proton beams can be adjusted to penetrate to any given depth in water, range uncertainties arise in patients due in part to imprecise knowledge of the stopping power of protons in human tissues [1]. Proton radiography is one approach to reduce the beam range uncertainty [2], thereby allowing for a reduction in treatment margins and dose escalation. Methods: The authors have adapted a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (“Micromegas”) for proton therapy beams and have demonstrated fine spatial and time resolution of magnetically scanned proton pencil beams, as well as wide dynamic range for dosimetry [3]. The authors have constructed a prototype imaging system comprised of 5 Micromegas layers. Proton radiographs were obtained downstream of solid water assemblies. The position-sensitive monitor chambers in the IBA proton delivery nozzle provide the beam entrance position. Results: Our technique achieves spatial resolution as low as 300 µm and water-equivalent thickness (WET) resolution as good as 0.02% (60 µm out of 31 cm total thickness). The dose delivered to the patient is kept below 2 cGy. The spatial resolution as a function of sample rate and number of delivered protons is found to be near the theoretical Cramer-Rao lower bound. By extrapolating the CR bound, we argue that the imaging dose could be further lowered to 1 mGy, while still achieving submillimeter spatial resolution, by achievable instrumentation and beam delivery modifications. Conclusion: For proton radiography, high spatial and WET resolution can be achieved, with minimal additional dose to patient, by using magnetically scanned proton pencil beams and Micromegas detectors.

  15. X-ray study of a SODART flight telescope using the expanded beam x-ray optics beamline at the Daresbury synchrotron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P. K.


    The on- and off-axis imaging properties of the first of two SODART flight telescopes have been studied using the expanded beam x-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. From on- axis measurements the encircled power distribution and the point spread function at three energies 6.627 keV, 8.837 ke......V, and 11.046 keV have been measured using a one dimensional position sensitive detector. The data have been used to calculate the half power diameter (HPD) for three different SODART focal plane detectors, the high energy proportional counter (HEPC), the low energy proportional counter (LEPC) and the 19...... to contribute to the HPD by approximately 10%. If 33% of the geometric telescope area near the edges of the quadrants are covered a reduction of 10% of the HPD can be obtained. On- and off-axis images generated from the one dimensional intensity distribution are presented. Finally the data have been used...

  16. X-ray study of a test quadrant of the SODART telescopes using the expanded beam x-ray optics facility at the Daresbury synchrotron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.


    The imaging properties of a test model of the SODART telescopes have been studied using an expanded beam X-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. The encircled power and the point spread function at three energies 6.627 keV, 8.837 keV and 11.046 keV have been measured using 1D and 2D position...... sensitive detectors. The data have been used to calculate the Half Power Diameter (HPD) for three different SODART focal plane detectors. The High Energy Proportional Counter (HEPC), the Low Energy Proportional Counter (LEPC) and the 19 element solid state array detector (SIXA). At 6.627 keV and 8.837 ke......V the HPD is 2.5 - 3.0 arcmin for all detectors whereas it is somewhat larger at 11.046 keV for HEPC and LEPC but essentially unchanged for SIXA. Finally, the data are used to point to improvements that can be introduced during the manufacture of the flight telescopes....

  17. Space Telescope. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  18. Holographic telescope (United States)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.


    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  19. Measurement of charm and beauty-production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and test beam studies of ATLAS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libov, Vladyslav


    A measurement of charm and beauty production in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA is presented. The analysis is based on the data sample collected by the ZEUS detector in the period from 2003 to 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 354 pb{sup -1}. The kinematic region of the measurement is given by 54.2(5) GeV for charm (beauty) and -1.6<{eta}{sup jet}<2.2 for both charm and beauty, where E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet, respectively. The significance of the decay length and the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with the secondary vertex are used as discriminating variables to distinguish between signal and background. Differential cross sections of jet production in charm and beauty events as a function of Q{sup 2}, y, E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are measured. Results are compared to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) predictions from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the fixed flavour number scheme. Good agreement between data and theory is observed. Contributions of the charm and beauty production to the inclusive proton structure function, F{sup cbar} {sup c}{sub 2} and F{sup b} {sup anti} {sup b}{sub 2}, are determined by extrapolating the double differential cross sections using NLO QCD predictions. Contributions to the test beam program for the Insertable B-Layer upgrade project of the ATLAS pixel detector are discussed. The test beam data analysis software package EUTelescope was extended, which allowed an efficient analysis of ATLAS pixel sensors. The USBPix DAQ system was integrated into the EUDET telescope allowing test beam

  20. Implementation of configurable FEI4 trigger plane for the AIDA telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Obermann, T; Hügging, F; Krüger, H; Lütticke, F; Marinas, C; Wermes, N


    Tracking detectors in particle physics experiments allow a precise reconstruction of particle tracks close to the interaction point and the identification of primary and secondary decay vertices. In order to evaluate the performance of detector prototypes for future particle physics experiments — at hadron colliders (e.g. HL-LHC), flavour factories (e.g. SuperKEKB) or a future lepton collider (e.g. ILC) — under realistic conditions, a fast readout reference device, a telescope, with excellent resolution and modular configuration, is required. The successful development of a telescope with these characteristics was part of the EU-project EUDET, which is continued within the framework of the AIDA activity. One key addition to the telescope within AIDA is the implementation of at least one new reference plane dedicated to provide an adjustable geometry. This plane is realized with a hybrid pixel detector consisting of a sensor bump bonded to the ATLAS pixel readout chip FE-I4. Its masking capability allows t...

  1. SNAP telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.


    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  2. Space Telescopes (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.


    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  3. Space Telescopes (United States)


    Proc 6317:OT1–OT9 Serlemitsos PJ, Jahota L, Soong Y (plus 14 authors) (1995) The X-ray telescope on board ASCA. Pub Astron Soc Jap 47:105–114...Serlemitsos PJ, Soong Y, Chan K-W (plus 31 authors) (2007) The X-ray telescope on board Suzaku. Pub Astron Soc Jap 59:9–21 Shimizu T (2004) Solar-B solar

  4. Everyday Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Pranshu; Kumar, Pratik; Yelikar, Anjali; Soni, Kanchan; T, Vineeth Krishna


    We have developed an affordable, portable college level radio telescope for amateur radio astronomy which can be used to provide hands-on experience with the fundamentals of a radio telescope and an insight into the realm of radio astronomy. With our set-up one can measure brightness temperature and flux of the Sun at 11.2 GHz and calculate the beam width of the antenna. The set-up uses commercially available satellite television receiving system and parabolic dish antenna. We report the detection of point sources like Saturn and extended sources like the galactic arm of the Milky way. We have also developed python pipeline, which are available for free download, for data acquisition and visualization.

  5. T10 Beam Studies & Beam Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Michael Georges; Van Dijk, Maarten; CERN. Geneva. EN Department


    In order to test detector components before their installation in actual experiments, one uses test beams in which one can control particle typ, momentum and size to high degree. For this project the focus of a secondary beam at T10 in the East Area at CERN was analysed using an AZALEA telescope from DESY.

  6. Ashra Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA): Combined Imaging Observation of Astroparticles — For Clear Identification of Cosmic Accelerators and Fundamental Physics Using Cosmic Beams (United States)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kifune, Tadashi

    In VHEPA (very high energy particle astronomy) 2014 workshop, focused on the next generation explorers for the origin of cosmic rays, held in Kashiwa, Japan, reviewing and discussions were presented on the status of the observation of GeV-TeV photons, TeV-PeV neutrinos, EeV-ZeV hadrons, test of interaction models with Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and theoretical aspects of astrophysics. The acceleration sites of hadrons, i.e., sources of PeV-EeV cosmic rays, should exist in the universe within the GZK-horizon even in the remotest case. We also affirmed that the hadron acceleration mechanism correlates with cosmic ray composition so that it is important to investigate the acceleration mechanism in relevance to the composition survey at PeV-EeV energy. We regard that LHC and astrophysics theories are ready to be used to probe into hadron acceleration mechanism in the universe. Recently, IceCube has reported detection of three events of neutrinos with energies around 1 PeV and additional events at lower energies, which significantly deviate from the expected level of background events. It is necessary to observe GeV-TeV photon, EeV-ZeV hadron and TeV-PeV neutrino all together, in order to understand hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the PeV-EeV energy region. It is required to make a step further toward exploring the PeV-EeV universe with high accuracy and high statistics observations for both neutrinos and gamma rays simultaneously, by using the instrument such as Ashra Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA). Wide and fine survey of gamma-rays and neutrinos with simultaneously detecting Cherenkov and fluorescence light with NTA will guide us to a new intriguing stage of recognizing astronomical objects and non-thermal phenomena in ultra-high energy region, in addition, new aspect about the fundamental concepts of physics beyond our presently limited understanding; the longstanding problem of cosmic ray origin, the radiation mechanism of gamma-rays, neutrino and

  7. Development of ΔE-E telescope ERDA with 40 MeV {sup 35}Cl{sup 7+} beam at MALT in the University of Tokyo optimized for analysis of metal oxynitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, I.; Nagashima, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hirose, Y. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuzaki, H. [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Sekiba, D., E-mail: [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tandem Accelerator Complex, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)


    We have developed a compact ΔE-E telescope elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) system, for the first time at Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem Accelerator (MALT) in the University of Tokyo, which consists of a gas ionization chamber and solid state detector (SSD) for the quantitative analysis of light elements. The gas ionization chamber is designed to identify the recoils of O and N from metal oxynitrides thin films irradiated with 40 MeV {sup 35}Cl{sup 7+}. The length of the electrodes along the beam direction is 50 mm optimized to sufficiently separate energy loss of O and N recoils in P10 gas at 6.0 × 10{sup 3} Pa. The performance of the gas ionization chamber was examined by comparing the ERDA results on the SrTaO{sub 2}N thin films with semi-empirical simulation and the chemical compositions previously determined by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). We also confirmed availability of the gas ionization chamber for identifying not only the recoils of O and N but also those of lithium, carbon and fluorine.

  8. LISA telescope spacer design investigations (United States)

    Sanjuan, Josep; Mueller, Guido; Livas, Jeffrey; Preston, Alix; Arsenovic, Petar; Castellucci, Kevin; Generie, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Stebbins, Robin

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based gravitational wave observa-tory with the goal of observing Gravitational Waves (GWs) from astronomical sources in a frequency range from 30 µHz to 0.1 Hz. The detection of GWs at such low frequency requires measurements of distances at the pico-meter level between bodies separated by 5 million kilo-meters. The LISA mission consists of three identical spacecraft (SC) separated by 5 × 106 km forming an equilateral triangle. Each SC contains two optical assemblies and two vacuum en-closures housing one proof mass (PM) in geodesic (free fall) motion each. The two assemblies on one SC are each pointing towards an identical assembly on each of the other two SC to form a non-equal arm interferometer. The measurement of the GW strain is done by measuring the change in the length of the optical path between the PMs of one arm relative to the other arms caused by the pass of a GW. An important element of the Interferometric Measurement System (IMS) is the telescope which, on one hand, gathers the light coming from the far SC (˜100 pW) and, on the other hand, expands and collimates the small outgoing beam ( 1 W) and sends it to the far SC. Due to the very demanding sensitivity requirements care must be taken in the design and validation of the telescope not to degrade the IMS performance. For instance, the diameter of the telescope sets the the shot noise of the IMS and depends critically on the diameter of the primary and the divergence angle of the outgoing beam. As the telescope is rather fast telescope, the divergence angle is a critical function of the overall separation between the primary and secondary. Any long term changes of the distance of more than a a few micro-meter would be detrimental to the LISA mission. Similarly challenging are the requirements on the in-band path-length noise for the telescope which has to be kept below 1 pm Hz-1/2 in the LISA band. Different configurations (on-axis/off axis

  9. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes


    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F.


    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D imag...

  10. Determination of the Effective Areas of the Decameter Radio Telescopes (United States)

    Rashkovskiy, S. L.; Shepelev, V. A.; Inyutin, G. A.; Vashchshin, R. V.

    A method of a calibration of arrays of the URAN radio telescopes is presented. A number of powerful discrete radio sources located on different declinations were observed with the radio telescopes to obtain dependence of their normalized affective area from a beam orientation. Absolute value of the effective area of each antenna was found by observations of the calibrator 3C405.

  11. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans


    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  12. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J.


    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  13. A Zero Suppression Micro-Circuit for Binary Readout CMOS Monolithic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Himmi, A; Torheim, O; Hu-Guo, C; Winter, A


    The EUDET-JRA1 beam telescope and the STAR vertex detector upgrade will be equipped with CMOS pixel sensors allowing to provide high density tracking adapted to intense particle beams. The EUDET sensor Mimosa26, is designed and fabricated in a CMOS-0.35μm Opto process. Its architecture is based on a matrix of 1152x576 pixels, 1152 column-level Analogue-to-Digital Conversion (ADC) by discriminators and a zero suppression circuitry. This paper focused on the data sparsification architecture, allowing a data compression factor between from 10 and 1000, depending on the hit density per frame. It can be extended to the final sensor for the STAR upgrade.

  14. Tilt-Sensitivity Analysis for Space Telescopes (United States)

    Papalexandris, Miltiadis; Waluschka, Eugene


    A report discusses a computational-simulation study of phase-front propagation in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in which space telescopes would transmit and receive metrological laser beams along 5-Gm interferometer arms. The main objective of the study was to determine the sensitivity of the average phase of a beam with respect to fluctuations in pointing of the beam. The simulations account for the effects of obscurations by a secondary mirror and its supporting struts in a telescope, and for the effects of optical imperfections (especially tilt) of a telescope. A significant innovation introduced in this study is a methodology, applicable to space telescopes in general, for predicting the effects of optical imperfections. This methodology involves a Monte Carlo simulation in which one generates many random wavefront distortions and studies their effects through computational simulations of propagation. Then one performs a statistical analysis of the results of the simulations and computes the functional relations among such important design parameters as the sizes of distortions and the mean value and the variance of the loss of performance. These functional relations provide information regarding position and orientation tolerances relevant to design and operation.

  15. A flat array large telescope concept for use on the moon, earth, and in space (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.


    An astronomical optical telescope concept is described which can provide very large collecting areas, of order 1000 sq m. This is an order of magnitude larger than the new generation of telescopes now being designed and built. Multiple gimballed flat mirrors direct the beams from a celestial source into a single telescope of the same aperture as each flat mirror. Multiple images of the same source are formed at the telescope focal plane. A beam combiner collects these images and superimposes them into a single image, onto a detector or spectrograph aperture. This telescope could be used on the earth, the moon, or in space.

  16. Beam-beam instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.


    The subject of beam-beam instability has been studied since the invention of the colliding beam storage rings. Today, with several colliding beam storage rings in operation, it is not yet fully understood and remains an outstanding problem for the storage ring designers. No doubt that good progress has been made over the years, but what we have at present is still rather primitive. It is perhaps possible to divide the beam-beam subject into two areas: one on luminosity optimization and another on the dynamics of the beam-beam interaction. The former area concerns mostly the design and operational features of a colliding beam storage ring, while the later concentrates on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction. Although both areas are of interest, our emphasis is on the second area only. In particular, we are most interested in the various possible mechanisms that cause the beam-beam instability.

  17. beam-beam interaction

    CERN Multimedia


    The Beam 1 (represented in blue) and the Beam 2 (represented in red) are colliding with an angle at the Interaction Point (IP). The angle is needed to avoid unwanted multiple collisions along the interaction region. Despite of the separation introduced by the angle, the two beams interact via their electromagnetic field, the so called "beam-beam" interaction.

  18. Data acquisition in the EUDET project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Together with the TPC field cage, a general purpose readout system to be used with different end-plate technologies will be provided. The design of this readout is based on existing technologies, namely the ALTRO chip developed for the ALICE experiment [5], which can provide the required high number of channels at low ...

  19. Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT) (United States)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.


    NEAT (Nearby Exo ]Earths Astrometric Telescope) is a modest sized (1m diameter telescope) It will be capable of searching approx 100 nearby stars down to 1 Mearth planets in the habitable zone, and 200 @ 5 Mearth, 1AU. The concept addresses the major issues for ultra -precise astrometry: (1) Photon noise (0.5 deg dia field of view) (2) Optical errors (beam walk) with long focal length telescope (3) Focal plane errors , with laser metrology of the focal plane (4) PSF centroiding errors with measurement of the "True" PSF instead of using a "guess " of the true PSF, and correction for intra pixel QE non-uniformities. Technology "close" to complete. Focal plane geometry to 2e-5 pixels and centroiding to approx 4e -5 pixels.

  20. Japanese radio telescopes (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    Japanese principal radio telescopes available for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are overviewed, and their characteristics and performances are summarized. Three fixed stations, Usuda, Nobeyama, and Kashima, and one 5-m mobile station use a hydrogen master-frequency standard, while other stations use an ultrastable X'tal oscillator locked to a cesium frequency standard. The 64-m telescope in Usuda developed for tracking satellites of deep-space missions is outlined, as well as the Kashima 34-m telescope covering a frequency range from 300 MHz to 49 GHz with 11 receivers. Attention is given to the Nobeyama 45-m telescope as a major telescope in Japan working in an international mm-VLBI network.

  1. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip


    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  2. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S


    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  3. Gemini telescope structure design (United States)

    Raybould, Keith; Gillett, Paul E.; Hatton, Peter; Pentland, Gordon; Sheehan, Mike; Warner, Mark


    The Gemini project is an international collaboration to design, fabricate, and assemble two 8 M telescopes, one on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the other on Cerro Pachon in Chile. The telescopes will be national facilities designed to meet the Gemini Science Requirements (GSR), a document developed by the Gemini Science Committee (GSC) and the national project scientists. The Gemini telescope group, based on Tucson, has developed a telescope structure to meet the GSR. This paper describes the science requirements that have technically driven the design, and the features that have been incorporated to meet these requirements. This is followed by a brief description of the telescope design. Finally, analyses that have been performed and development programs that have been undertaken are described briefly. Only the designs that have been performed by the Gemini Telescope Structure, Building and Enclosure Group are presented here; control, optical systems, acquisition and guiding, active and adaptive optics, Cassegrain rotator and instrumentation issues are designed and managed by others and will not be discussed here, except for a brief description of the telescope configurations to aid subsequent discussions.

  4. Telescopic vision contact lens (United States)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.


    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope (United States)


    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  6. Ritchey-Chretien Telescope (United States)

    Rosin, S.; Amon, M. (Inventor)


    A Ritchey-Chretien telescope is described which was designed to respond to images located off the optical axis by using two transparent flat plates positioned in the ray path of the image. The flat plates have a tilt angle relative to the ray path to compensate for astigmatism introduced by the telescope. The tilt angle of the plates is directly proportional to the off axis angle of the image. The plates have opposite inclination angles relative to the ray paths. A detector which is responsive to the optical image as transmitted through the plates is positioned approximately on the sagittal focus of the telescope.

  7. Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since it is not possible to predict when a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) occurs, the follow-up ground telescopes must be distributed as uniform as possible all over the...

  8. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis (United States)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)


    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  9. Eclipse telescope design factors (United States)

    Hull, Tony; Trauger, John T.; Macenka, Steven A.; Moody, Dwight; Olarte, Guillermo; Sepulveda, Cesar; Tsuha, Walter; Cohen, David


    Very high contrast imagery, required for exoplanet image acquisition, imposes significantly different criteria upon telescope architecture than do the requirements imposed upon most spaceborne telescopes. For the Eclipse Mission, the fundamental figure-of-merit is a stellar contrast, or brightness reduction ratio, reaching a factor of 10-9 or better at star-planet distances as close as the 4th Airy ring. Factors necessary to achieve such contrast ratios are both irrelevant and largely ignored in contemporary telescope design. Although contemporary telescoeps now meet Hubble Space Telescope performance at substantially lower mass and cost than HST, control of mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, crucial to coronagraphy, has not been emphasized. Accordingly, roughness at MSF has advanced little since HST. Fortunately, HST primary mirror smoothness would nearly satisfy Eclipse requirements, although other aspects of HST are undesirable for stellar coronagraphy. Conversely, the narrow field required for Eclipse eases other drivers of traditional telescope design. A systematic approach to telescope definition, with primary and sub-tier figures-of-merit, will be discussed in the context of the Eclipse Mission.

  10. Novel optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging. (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Sun, Jianfeng; Hu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Liren


    We propose a new method called modified optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging technique for encryption and decryption of remote objects. An image or object can be optically encrypted on the fly by Fresnel telescope scanning system together with an encryption key. For image decryption, the encrypted signals are received and processed with an optical coherent heterodyne detection system. The proposed method has strong performance through use of secure Fresnel telescope scanning with orthogonal polarized beams and efficient all-optical information processing. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experimental results.

  11. Telescopes in education (United States)

    Yessayian, Rick

    Imagine sitting in your classroom with your students and controlling a Research Grade 24 inch telescope. You control where it points, you control the duration of the exposure of a high grade CCD camera, and you control all of this within your school day, on a camera half way around the globe, in real time. You can hear the telescope moving, talk to the operator sitting atop historic Mt. Wilson Observatory in California. You might be looking at comets, asteroids, galaxies, nebulas or a host of other interesting celestial objects. Perhaps you have students that are up to a real challenge -- doing real science! Students in our program have contributed the discovery of a new variable star, to the Pluto Express project, to the search for supernovas, and the collection of images of intersecting galaxies. These are among the many possible projects you might choose from. The age and ability of your students are taken into account when you choose your project. Students from Kindergarten through Grade 12 have participated in this free program. A new robotic telescope was added at Mount Wilson in 1999. The telescope is a Celestron 14" SCT mounted on a Bisque Paramount GT-1100 with an Apogee AP-7 CCD camera (512X512 pixels). In the Spring of 2001, we duplicated the 14" robotic telescope configuration and placed it at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile (operated by the Carnegie Observatories). I installed the system in late September, 2001, and we began testing. The system requires one more upgrade and some hardware adjustments, which I will complete in June, 2002. We duplicated another 14" robotic telescope, and sent it to Brisbane Australia in January, 2002. The grand opening of the telescope will be in August 2002.

  12. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (United States)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team


    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.″03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.″1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  13. Robotic and Survey Telescopes (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  14. The Travelling Telescope (United States)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan


    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  15. Radio Telescope Reflectors (United States)

    Baars, Jacob W. M.; Kärcher, Hans J.


    This book demonstrates how progress in radio astronomy is intimately linked to the development of reflector antennas of increasing size and precision. The authors describe the design and construction of major radio telescopes as those in Dwingeloo, Jodrell Bank, Parkes, Effelsberg and Green Bank since 1950 up to the present as well as millimeter wavelength telescopes as the 30m MRT of IRAM in Spain, the 50m LMT in Mexico and the ALMA submillimeter instrument. The advances in methods of structural design and coping with environmental influences (wind, temperature, gravity) as well as application of new materials are explained in a non-mathematical, descriptive and graphical way along with the story of the telescopes. Emphasis is placed on the interplay between astronomical and electromagnetic requirements and structural, mechanical and control solutions. A chapter on management aspects of large telescope projects closes the book. The authors address a readership with interest in the progress of engineering solutions applied to the development of radio telescope reflectors and ground station antennas for satellite communication and space research. The book will also be of interest to historians of science and engineering with an inclination to astronomy.

  16. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.


    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  17. The Giant Magellan Telescope adaptive optics program (United States)

    Bouchez, Antonin H.; Acton, D. Scott; Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bennet, Francis; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Brusa-Zappellini, Guido; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Codona, Johanan L.; Conan, Rodolphe; Connors, Thomas; Durney, Oliver; Espeland, Brady; Esposito, Simone; Fini, Luca; Gardhouse, Rusty; Gauron, Thomas M.; Hart, Michael; Hinz, Philip M.; Kanneganti, Srikrishna; Kibblewhite, Edward J.; Knox, Russell P.; McLeod, Brian A.; McMahon, Thomas; Montoya, Manny; Norton, Timothy J.; Ordway, Mark P.; d'Orgeville, Celine; Parcell, Simon; Piatrou, Piotr K.; Pinna, Enrico; Price, Ian; Puglisi, Alfio; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Roll, John B.; Trancho, Gelys; Uhlendorf, Kristina; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; van Dam, Marcos A.; Weaver, David; Xompero, Marco


    The Giant Magellan Telescope adaptive optics system will be an integral part of the telescope, providing laser guide star generation, wavefront sensing, and wavefront correction to most of the currently envisioned instruments. The system will provide three observing modes: Natural Guidestar AO (NGSAO), Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), and Ground Layer AO (GLAO). Every AO observing mode will use the telescope’s segmented adaptive secondary mirror to deliver a corrected beam directly to the instruments. High-order wavefront sensing for the NGSAO and LTAO modes is provided by a set of wavefront sensors replicated for each instrument and fed by visible light reflected off the cryostat window. An infrared natural guidestar wavefront sensor with open-loop AO correction is also required to sense tip-tilt, focus, segment piston, and dynamic calibration errors in the LTAO mode. GLAO mode wavefront sensing is provided by laser guidestars over a ~5 arcminute field of view, and natural guidestars over wider fields. A laser guidestar facility will project 120 W of 589 nm laser light in 6 beacons from the periphery of the primary mirror. An off-axis phasing camera and primary and secondary mirror metrology systems will ensure that the telescope optics remain phased. We describe the system requirements, overall architecture, and innovative solutions found to the challenges presented by high-order AO on a segmented extremely large telescope. Further details may be found in specific papers on each of the observing modes and major subsystems.

  18. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R


    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  19. Corot telescope (COROTEL) (United States)

    Viard, Thierry; Mathieu, Jean-Claude; Fer, Yann; Bouzou, Nathalie; Spalinger, Etienne; Chataigner, Bruno; Bodin, Pierre; Magnan, Alain; Baglin, Annie


    COROTEL is the telescope of the COROT Satellite which aims at measuring stellar flux variations very accurately. To perform this mission, COROTEL has to be very well protected against straylight (from Sun and Earth) and must be very stable with time. Thanks to its high experience in this field, Alcatel Alenia Space has proposed, manufactured and tested an original telescope concept associated with a high baffling performance. Since its delivery to LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS) the telescope has passed successfully the qualification tests at instrument level performed by CNES. Now, the instrument is mounted on a Proteus platform and should be launched end of 2006. The satellite should bring to scientific community for the first time precious data coming from stars and their possible companions.

  20. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Vassigh, Kenny; Bendek, Selman; Young, Zion W; Lynch, Dana H.


    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide strawman mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible andor UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST.

  1. GTK beam test 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Vostinic, Snezana


    The GTK is in operation at NA62 since 2014 and is among the few silicon pixel detectors performing 4D tracking. This summer, a beam test was conducted to study the phenomena determining the detector time resolution. The project described here contributed to the beam test preparation, data taking and data analyses. One of the main goals of the test was to understand the weight field contribution to the detector time resolution. This field is distorting the signal pulse shape at the edge of the pixel. Hence, to study this effect, the position of the hits inside the pixel has to be determined. An external telescope was therefore used for this purpose.

  2. Nanolaminate Membranes as Cylindrical Telescope Reflectors (United States)

    Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Hickey, Gregory; Lih, Shyh-Shiu Lih


    A document discusses a proposal to use axially stretched metal nanolaminate membranes as lightweight parabolic cylindrical reflectors in the Dual Anamorphic Reflector Telescope (DART) - a planned spaceborne telescope in which the cylindrical reflectors would be arranged to obtain a point focus. The discussion brings together a combination of concepts reported separately in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most relevant being "Nanolaminate Mirrors With Integral Figure-Control Actuators" NPO -30221, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 90; and "Reflectors Made From Membranes Stretched Between Beams" NPO -30571, Vol. 33, No. 10 (October 2009), page 11a. The engineering issues receiving the greatest emphasis in the instant document are (1) the change in curvature associated with the Poisson contraction of a stretched nanolaminate reflector membrane and (2) the feasibility of using patches of poly(vinylidene fluoride) on the rear membrane surface as piezoelectric actuators to correct the surface figure for the effect of Poisson contraction and other shape errors.

  3. Far Sidelobes Measurement of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (United States)

    Duenner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio; Wollack, Ed; Henriquez, Fernando; Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos


    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6m telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) simultaneously at 145GHz, 220 GHz and 280 GHz. Its off-axis Gregorian design is intended to minimize and control the off-axis sidelobe response, which is critical for scientific purposes. The expected sidelobe level for this kind of design is less than -50 dB and can be challenging to measure. Here we present a measurement of the 145 GHz far sidelobes of ACT done on the near-field of the telescope. We used a 1 mW microwave source placed 13 meters away from the telescope and a chopper wheel to produce a varying signal that could be detected by the camera for different orientations of the telescope. The source feed was designed to produce a wide beam profile. Given that the coupling is expected to be dominated by diffraction over the telescope shielding structure, when combined with a measurements of the main beam far field response, these measurement can be used to validate elements of optical design and constrain the level of spurious coupling at large angles. Our results show that the diffractive coupling beyond the ground screen is consistently below -75 dB, satisfying the design expectations.

  4. The Liverpool Telescope (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, Neil R.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Steele, I. A.; Tomlinson, M. D.


    The Liverpool Telescope (LT) is a fully robotic 2m optical telescope at a world-class observatory site. It runs autonomously without direct human control either on site or remotely. It is not operated primarily for a single science project, but rather is a common-user facility, time allocated by an open, peer-review process and conducting a variety of optical and IR imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric programs. This paper describes some of aspects of the site infrastructure and instrument suite designed specifically to support robust and reliable unsupervised operations. Aside from the telescope hardware, the other aspect of robotic operations is the mechanisms whereby users interact with the telescope and its automated scheduler. We describe how these have been implemented for the LT. Observing routinely since 2004, the LT has demonstrated it is possible to operate a large, common-user robotic observatory. Making the most of the flexibility afforded by fully robotic operations, development continues in collaboration with both observers and other observatories to develop observing modes to enable new science across the broad discipline of time-domain astrophysics.

  5. Exploring Galileo's Telescope (United States)

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra


    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  6. Taiwan Automated Telescope Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean-Yi Chou


    can be operated either interactively or fully automatically. In the interactive mode, it can be controlled through the Internet. In the fully automatic mode, the telescope operates with preset parameters without any human care, including taking dark frames and flat frames. The network can also be used for studies that require continuous observations for selected objects.

  7. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview (United States)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael


    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  8. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  9. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System (United States)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.


    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  10. The Timepix3 Telescope for LHCb Upgrade RD 1 measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, Daniel Martin


    The Timepix3 telescope is a high rate, data driven beam telescope created for LHCb upgrade studies, such as sensor performance for prototypes of the vertex locator (VELO) upgrade. When testing VELO prototypes the readout is identical to the telescope, and additionally, a simple way to integrate triggers from other detectors is also provided, allowing tracks to be synchronised offline with other devices under test. Examples of LHCb upgrade detectors which have been qualified with the Timepix3 telescope are the Upstream Tracker (UT), Scintillating Fibres (SciFi), Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH), and Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light (TORCH). The telescope was installed in the SPS North hall at CERN. It consists of 8 planes with 300 μ m p-on-n silicon sensors read out by Timepix3 ASICs. Tracks measured with the telescope have excellent temporal ( ∼ 1 ns) and spatial resolution ( 2 μ m). The telescope has been operated with a rate of tracks written to disk up to 5 MHz - limited only by conditions at ...

  11. LAST: Laser Array Space Telescope (United States)

    Madajian, Jonathan A.; Cohen, Alexander; Hwang, Rebecca; Bishman, Chase; Reyes, Rachel; Bautista, Miguel; Tsukamoto, Ryan; Pon, Brandon; Vanmali, Dylan; Xu, Xu; Rommelfanger, Nicholas; Ho, Ian; Lin, Lucas; Prazak, Michael; Ruehl, Patrick; Brashears, Travis; Rupert, Nic; Lubin, Philip


    A phased array operates by modulating the phases of several signals, allowing electronic control over the locations that these signals interfere constructively or destructively, allowing the beam to be steered. A space-based laser phased array, called the Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation (DE-STAR) has previously been posited by our group for a number of uses, from planetary defense to relativistic propulsion of small probes. Here we propose using the same basic system topology as a receiver rather than a transmitter. All of the components in the system, excluding the laser, are bidirectional. Rather than each elements transmitting laser light, they would instead receive light, which will then be combined to create an interference pattern that can be imaged onto a focal plane. The Laser Array Space Telescope (LAST) uses most of the same components and metrology as DE-STAR and could thus be integrated into a singular system, allowing both transmit and receive modes. This paper discusses the possible applications of this system from laser communications to astrophysics.

  12. Test-beam with Python

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The talk will show the current implementation of the software tool developed by Silab (Bonn) and Oxford University to analyze test beam data with Mimosa telescope. Data collected from the telescope are merged with hits recorded on pixel detectors with a FE-I4 chips, the official read-out chip of the Atlas Pixel Detector. The software tool used to collect data, pyBAR, is developed with Python as well. The test-beam analysis tool parses the data-sets, recreates the tracks, aligns the telescope planes and allows to investigate the detectors spatial properties with high resolution. This has just allowed to study the properties of brand new devices that stand as possible candidate to replace the current pixel detector in Atlas.

  13. Galileo's wondrous telescope (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin


    If you need reminding of just how wrong the great and the good can be, take a trip to the Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy. The museum is staging an exhibition entitled "Galileo's telescope - the instrument that changed the world" to mark the 400th anniversary this year of Galileo Galilei's revolutionary astronomical discoveries, which were made possible by the invention of the telescope. At the start of the 17th century, astronomers assumed that all the planets and the stars in the heavens had been identified and that there was nothing new for them to discover, as the exhibition's curator, Giorgio Strano, points out. "No-one could have imagined what wondrous new things were about to be revealed by an instrument created by inserting two eyeglass lenses into the ends of a tube," he adds.

  14. The Bionic Telescope (United States)

    Woolf, Neville


    Four hundred years after children in a spectacle makers workshop accidentally discovered the telescope, the development of this device has been a continuous replacement of the ``natural'' by the deliberate. The human eye is gone. The lens is gone. The tube is gone. The dome is on the verge of going. The size of the optics are ceasing to be set by transportation limits. Adaptive optics are preferred to stable optics. We deliberately break the Lagrange invariant. We focus on lasers instead of stars, and natural observing environments are being replaced by adaptive environments. The goals for the new ground based telescope encompass the oldest and newest ideas, to find signs of life elsewhere, and to find how all the universe developed.

  15. Calibrating the Athena telescope (United States)

    de Bruijne, J.; Guainazzi, M.; den Herder, J.; Bavdaz, M.; Burwitz, V.; Ferrando, P.; Lumb, D.; Natalucci, L.; Pajot, F.; Pareschi, G.


    Athena is ESA's upcoming X-ray mission, currently set for launch in 2028. With two nationally-funded, state-of-the-art instruments (a high-resolution spectrograph named X-IFU and a wide-field imager named WFI), and a telescope collecting area of 1.4-2 m^2 at 1 keV, the calibration of the spacecraft is a challenge in itself. This poster presents the current (spring 2017) plan of how to calibrate the Athena telescope. It is based on a hybrid approach, using bulk manufacturing and integration data as well as dedicated calibration measurements combined with a refined software model to simulate the full response of the optics.

  16. [Galileo and his telescope]. (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph


    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Telescopic Mechanism for Truss Structure Bridge Inspection Vehicle Under Pedestrian Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Sui

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear dynamic analysis of an axially moving telescopic mechanism for truss structure bridge inspection vehicle under pedestrian excitation is carried out. A biomechanically inspired inverted-pendulum model is utilized to simplify the pedestrian. The nonlinear equations of motion for the beam-pedestrian system are derived using the Hamilton's principle. The equations are transformed into two ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin's method at the first two orders. The solutions to the equations are acquired by using the Newmark-β method associated with the Newton-Raphson method. The time-dependent feature of the eigenfunctions for the two beams are taken into consideration in the solutions. Accordingly, the equations of motion for a simplified system, in which the pedestrian is regarded as moving cart, are given. In the numerical examples, dynamic responses of the telescopic mechanism in eight conditions of different beam-telescoping and pedestrian-moving directions are simulated. Comparisons between the vibrations of the beams under pedestrian excitation and corresponding moving cart are carried out to investigate the influence of the pedestrian excitation on the telescopic mechanism. The results show that the displacement of the telescopic mechanism under pedestrian excitation is smaller than that under moving cart especially when the pedestrian approaches the beams end. Additionally, compared with moving cart, the pedestrian excitation can effectively strengthen the vibration when the beam extension is small or when the pedestrian is close to the beams end.

  18. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.


    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  19. SOAR Telescope Progress Report (United States)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.


    The 4.3m SOAR telescope is fully funded and under construction. A partnership between the country of Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, SOAR is being designed for high-quality imaging and imaging spectroscopy in the optical and near-IR over a field of view up to 12' diameter. US astronomers outside MSU and UNC will access 30% of the observing time through the standard NOAO TAC process. The telescope is being designed to support remote and synoptic observations. First light is scheduled for July 2002 at Cerro Pachon in Chile, a site with median seeing of 2/3" at 500 nm. The telescope will be operated by CTIO. Corning Inc. has fused the mirror blanks from boules of ULE glass. RSI in Richardson, Texas and Raytheon Optical Systems Inc. in Danbury, Conn. are designing and will fabricate the mount and active optics systems, respectively. The mount supports an instrument payload in excess of 5000 kg, at 2 Nasmyth locations and 3 bent Cass. ports. The mount and facility building have space for a laser to generate an artificial AO guide star. LabVIEW running under the Linux OS on compactPCI hardware has been adopted to control all telescope, detector, and instrument systems. The primary mirror is 10 cm thick and will be mounted on 120 electro-mechanical actuators to maintain its ideal optical figure at all elevations. The position of the light-weighted secondary mirror is adjusted to maintain collimation through use of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The tertiary mirror feeds instruments and also jitters at up to 50 Hz to compensate for telescope shake and atmosphere wavefront tilt. The dome is a steel framework, with fiberglass panels. Air in the observing volume will be exchanged with that outside every few minutes by using large fans under computer control. All systems will be assembled and checked at the manufacturer's facility, then shipped to Chile. A short integration period is planned, and limited science

  20. The Planck Telescope reflectors (United States)

    Stute, Thomas


    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  1. Is Your Telescope Tweeting? (United States)

    Atkinson, Nancy


    Half of the world's population today was born after the Apollo Moon landings. The best way to reach this generation and get them excited about today's space exploration and astronomy news and events is through online social media, which are technologies that allow anyone to communicate with everyone. Twitter is a growing popular social media tool that uses short, 140 character "Tweets" to quickly and concisely convey updates on what you "are doing." With the right combination of information, personality and fun, telescopes and spacecraft are using Twitter for public outreach, providing important status updates while making the public feel like they are part of the mission.

  2. Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Construction: Progress Report (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R.; McMullin, J.; Keil, S.; Goode, P.; Knoelker, M.; Kuhn, J.; Rosner, R.; ATST Team


    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) on Haleakala will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world’s leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun’s output. The ATST will provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve magnetic features at their intrinsic scales. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of five state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coude laboratory facility. Photopheric and chromospheric magnetometry is part of the key mission of four of these instruments. Coronal magnetometry and spectroscopy will be performed by two of these instruments at infrared wavelengths. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. Site construction is expected to begin in April 2012. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. A robust instrument program has been established and all instruments have passed preliminary design reviews or critical design reviews. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the project status of the telescope and discussion of the approach to integrating instruments into the facility. The National Science Foundation (NSF) through the National Solar Observatory (NSO) funds the ATST Project. The NSO is operated under a cooperative agreement between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) and NSF.

  3. Revisiting the Effectiveness of Large Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev


    distortions in the optical path, which includes, actually, a laser resonator, a channel for transportation of powerful laser radiation with beam-deflecting mirrors to form the telescope with a compound main mirror;- forming the efficiency criteria of adaptive optical systems;- multi-loop system for adaptive correction of distortions.The paper discusses test results of transporting powerful laser radiation in the horizontal pathway and shows visual appearance of forming optical system of the test complex bench.It is convincingly proved that the use of offered postulates in development or modernization of optical complexes ensures the minimum level of residual distortions and the overall performance of adaptive optics.The offered postulates of adaptive correction of radiation wave-front and a positive experience of their use in full-scale optical complexes will substantially reduce terms and costs in creating effective aids to watch remote objects, as well as to form and supply the energy to the space objects for its various use such as power supply, communication, fight against space debris, ensuring asteroid safety, etc.It is possible to draw a conclusion that the state of domestic optical science, its potential in creation of adaptive means to provide formation and transportation of powerful laser radiation, and results of theoretical and pilot studies, encourage a reasonable hope for future creating a multi-purpose highly effective large-size optic-electronic facility.

  4. Polaris Tracking Telescope (United States)

    Ritchie, Justin; Castelaz, M.; Cline, D. J.


    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC has been imaging 5 degrees of the sky surrounding Polaris since 2004 using a wide-angle lens and CCD camera. The images are used for differential photometry and to measure the variation in brightness of the Polaris itself. To enhance the quality of the measurements of Polaris a special robotic telescope mount was built to accommodate a narrow field-of-view telescope that focuses on Polaris alone. The movement of Polaris is a circle about 1 degree in radius every 24 hours which is 1 arcsecond every 8 seconds of clock time. The design team had to consider that the polar axis is on a 19-year cycle due to the changing lunar gravitational attractions upon the earth's equatorial bulge. There are several components to this effect. The lunar component amplitude is +/-9 arcseconds towards the ecliptic pole with a period of 18.6 years. The solar component is +/- 1.2 arcseconds over 0.5 years; there is a 'fortnightly nutation' of +/- 0.1 arcseconds per 5 days; there is also a seasonal variation caused by the movement of airm asses of +/- 0.18 arcseconds per year. Utilizing two CCD cameras, the SBIG STV and the SBIG ST7 we can capture the image of Polaris by following the path of the star in the sky with linear actuators set to the coordinates of its circular path.

  5. Magellan Telescopes operations 2008 (United States)

    Osip, David J.; Phillips, Mark M.; Palunas, Povilas; Perez, Frank; Leroy, M.


    The twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes have been in routine operations at the Las Campanas Observatory in the Chilean Andes since 2001 and 2002 respectively. The telescopes are owned and operated by Carnegie for the benefit of the Magellan consortium members (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Harvard University, the University of Arizona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan). This paper provides an up to date review of the scientific, technical, and administrative structure of the 'Magellan Model' for observatory operations. With a modest operations budget and a reasonably small staff, the observatory is operated in the "classical" mode, wherein the visiting observer is a key member of the operations team. Under this model, all instrumentation is supplied entirely by the consortium members and the various instrument teams continue to play a critical support role beyond initial deployment and commissioning activities. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Magellan operations model and suggest lessons learned and changes implemented as we continue to evolve an organizational structure that can efficiently deliver a high scientific return for the investment of the partners.

  6. Origins Space Telescope (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team


    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  7. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  8. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes (United States)


    :// at the Copenhagen University Observatory. Complete, regularly updated lightcurves with all published measurements, also from other observatories, may be found at another webpage in Milan at . This may happen if the explosion emits radiation in a beam which is pointed towards the Earth. Such beams are predicted by some models for the production of gamma-ray bursts. They are also favoured by many astronomers, because they can overcome the fundamental problem that gamma-ray bursts simply produce too much energy. If the energy is not emitted equally in all directions ("isotropically"), but rather in a preferred one along a beam, less energy is needed to produce the observed phenomenon. Such a break has been observed before, but this time it occurred at a very favourable moment, when the source was still relatively bright so that high-quality spectroscopic and multi-colour information could be obtained with the ESO telescopes. Together, these observations may provide an answer to the question whether beams exist in gamma-ray bursts and thus further help us to understand the as yet unknown cause of these mysterious explosions. Latest News ESO PR Photo 22g/99 ESO PR Photo 22g/99 [Normal - JPEG: 453 x 585 pix - 304k] Caption to PR Photo 22g/99 : V(isual) image of the sky field around GRB 990510 (here denoted "OT"), as obtained with the VLT ANTU telescope and FORS1 on May 18 UT during a 20 min exposure in 0.9 arcsec seeing conditions. The reproduction is in false colours to better show differences in intensity. North is up and east is left. Further photometric and spectroscopic observations with the ESO VLT, performed by Klaus Beuermann, Frederic Hessman and Klaus Reinsch of the Göttingen group of the FORS instrument team (Germany), have revealed the character of some of the objects that are seen close to the image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 (also referred to as the "Optical Transient" - OT). Two objects to the North

  9. Why Space Telescopes Are Amazing (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.


    One of humanity's best ideas has been to put telescopes in space. The dark stillness of space allows telescopes to perform much better than they can on even the darkest and clearest of Earth's mountaintops. In addition, from space we can detect colors of light, like X-rays and gamma rays, that are blocked by the Earth's atmosphere I'll talk about NASA's team of great observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory} and how they've worked together to answer key questions: When did the stars form? Is there really dark matter? Is the universe really expanding ever faster and faster?

  10. The metagenomic telescope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Szalkai

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair; next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis; and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms.

  11. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  12. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope (United States)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji


    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  13. beta* leveling with telescopic ATS squeeze (MD 2410)

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Jorg; Hostettler, Michi; Pojer, Mirko; Ponce, Laurette; Tydecks, Tobias; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    Luminosity leveling by beta* is the baseline operational scenario of HL-LHC, and this leveling technique may be used in 2018 or during run~3 depending on the beam parameters and beta* range. During this MD beta*leveling was commissioned successfully for the first time with the telescopic squeeze over the beta* range of 40 cm to 30 cm. A novel beta* leveling controls technique based on a modification of the LSA trim was also tested during the MD.

  14. The Timepix Telescope for High Performance Particle Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Akiba, Kazuyoshi; van Beuzekom, Martin; van Beveren, Vincent; Borghi, Silvia; Boterenbrood, Henk; Buytaert, Jan; Collins, Paula; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dumps, Raphael; Eklund, Lars; Esperante, Daniel; Gallas, Abraham; Gordon, Hamish; van der Heijden, Bas; Hombach, Christoph; Hynds, Daniel; John, Malcolm; Leflat, Alexander; Li, Yi Ming; Longstaff, Ian; Morton, Alexander; Nakatsuka, Noritsugu; Nomerotski, Andre; Parkes, Chris; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Plackett, Richard; Reid, Matthew M; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Schindler, Heinrich; Szumlak, Tomasz; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Velthuis, Jaap; Wysokinski, Michal


    The Timepix particle tracking telescope has been developed as part of the LHCb VELO Upgrade project, supported by the Medipix Collaboration and the AIDA framework. It is a primary piece of infrastructure for the VELO Upgrade project and is being used for the development of new sensors and front end technologies for several upcoming LHC trackers and vertexing systems. The telescope is designed around the dual capability of the Timepix ASICs to provide information about either the deposited charge or the timing information from tracks traversing the 14 x 14mm matrix of 55 x 55 um pixels. The rate of reconstructed tracks available is optimised by taking advantage of the shutter driven readout architecture of the Timepix chip, operated with existing readout systems. Results of tests conducted in the SPS North Area beam facility at CERN show that the telescope typically provides reconstructed track rates during the beam spills of between 3.5 and 7.5 kHz, depending on beam conditions. The tracks are time stamped wi...

  15. Space Telescope Systems Description Handbook (United States)

    Carter, R. E.


    The objective of the Space Telescope Project is to orbit a high quality optical 2.4-meter telescope system by the Space Shuttle for use by the astronomical community in conjunction with NASA. The scientific objectives of the Space Telescope are to determine the constitution, physical characteristics, and dynamics of celestial bodies; the nature of processes which occur in the extreme physical conditions existing in stellar objects; the history and evolution of the universe; and whether the laws of nature are universal in the space-time continuum. Like ground-based telescopes, the Space Telescope was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of utilizing a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic will allow the Space Telescope to be effectively used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs for an international user community and hence making contributions to man's needs. By using the Space Shuttle to provide scientific instrument upgrading and subsystems maintenance, the useful and effective operational lifetime of the Space Telescope will be extended to a decade or more.

  16. A demonstration device for cosmic rays telescopes (United States)

    Esposito, Salvatore


    We describe a hands-on accurate demonstrator for cosmic rays realized by six high school students. The main aim is to show the relevance and the functioning of the principal parts of a cosmic ray telescope (muon detector), with the help of two large sized wooden artefacts. The first one points out how cosmic rays can be tracked in a muon telescope, while the other one shows the key avalanche process of electronic ionization that effectively allows muon detection through a photomultiplier. Incoming cosmic rays are visualized in terms of laser beams, whose 3D trajectory is highlighted by turning on LEDs on two orthogonal matrices. Instead the avalanche ionization process is demonstrated through the avalanche falling off glass marbles on an inclined plane, finally turning on a LED. A pictured poster accompanying the demonstrator is as effective in assisting cosmic ray demonstration and its detection. The success of the demonstrator has been fully proven by the general public during a science festival, in which the corresponding project won the Honorable Mention in a dedicated competition.

  17. Holographic beam mapping of the CHIME pathfinder array (United States)

    Berger, Philippe; Newburgh, Laura B.; Amiri, Mandana; Bandura, Kevin; Cliche, Jean-François; Connor, Liam; Deng, Meiling; Denman, Nolan; Dobbs, Matt; Fandino, Mateus; Gilbert, Adam J.; Good, Deborah; Halpern, Mark; Hanna, David; Hincks, Adam D.; Hinshaw, Gary; Höfer, Carolin; Johnson, Andre M.; Landecker, Tom L.; Masui, Kiyoshi W.; Mena Parra, Juan; Oppermann, Niels; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Recnik, Andre; Robishaw, Timothy; Shaw, J. Richard; Siegel, Seth; Sigurdson, Kris; Smith, Kendrick; Storer, Emilie; Tretyakov, Ian; Van Gassen, Kwinten; Vanderlinde, Keith; Wiebe, Donald


    The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Pathfinder radio telescope is currently surveying the northern hemisphere between 400 and 800 MHz. By mapping the large scale structure of neutral hydrogen through its redshifted 21 cm line emission between z 0.8-2.5 CHIME will contribute to our understanding of Dark Energy. Bright astrophysical foregrounds must be separated from the neutral hydrogen signal, a task which requires precise characterization of the polarized telescope beams. Using the DRAO John A. Galt 26 m telescope, we have developed a holography instrument and technique for mapping the CHIME Pathfinder beams. We report the status of the instrument and initial results of this effort.

  18. The James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Mather, John C.


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) by deploying a large cooled infrared telescope around the Sun-Earth Lagrange point L2. With a 6 m aperture and three instruments covering the wavelength range from 0.6 to 28 microns, it will provide sensitivities orders of magnitude better than any other facilities. It is intended to observe the light from the first galaxies and the first supernovae, the assembly of galaxies, and the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems. In this talk I will review the scientific objectives and the ability of the system to meet them. I will close with a summary of possible future IR space missions, ranging from the far IR to planet-finding coronagraphs and interferometers

  19. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL


    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  20. Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U


    As soon as the first particles emerge from an ion source, the source characteristics need to be determined. The total beam intensity, the transverse particle distributions, the beam divergence and emittance as well as the longitudinal parameters of the beam must be measured. This chapter provides an overview of typical measurement methods and the instruments used, and shows the results obtained.

  1. The origins of the telescope


    van Helden, A.; Dupré, S.; van Gent, R.; Zuidervaart, H.J.


    The origins of the telescope have been debated since the instrument’s appearance in the Hague in 1608. Civic and national pride has led local dignitaries, popular writers, and scholars to present sharply divergent histories over the years, crediting a variety of people and places with the invention. Drawing on newly discovered documents, re-examined records, and tests of early lenses and telescopes, this fascinating study proposes a new and convincing account of the origins of the instrument ...

  2. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration (United States)


    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  3. The Large Binocular Telescope Project (United States)

    Hill, J. M.


    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in late fall 1995 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia. Construction

  4. Large Scale Cleaning Telescope Mirrors with Electron Beams Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cleaning Lenses and Mirrored Surfaces with Electrons tasks include: Development of Fractal Wand Geometries; Vacuum Chamber testing of Fractal Wand...

  5. Large Scale Cleaning Telescope Mirrors with Electron Beams Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cleaning Lenses and Mirrored Surfaces with Electrons tasks include: Development of Fractal Wand Geometries; Vacuum Chamber testing for Fractal Wand Prototypes;...

  6. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics" (United States)

    Ross, Paul


    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  7. Absolute energy calibration of the Telescope Array fluorescence detector with an electron linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin B.K.


    Full Text Available The Electron Light Source(ELS is a new light source for the absolute energy calibration of cosmic ray Fluorescence Detector(FD telescopes. The ELS is a compact electron linear accelerator with a typical output of 109 electrons per pulse at 40 MeV. We fire the electron beam vertically into the air 100 m in front of the telescope. The electron beam excites the gases of the atmosphere in the same way as the charged particles of the cosmic ray induced extensive air shower. The gases give off the same light with the same wavelength dependence. The light passes through a small amount of atmosphere and is collected by the same mirror and camera with their wavelength dependence. In this way we can use the electron beam from ELS to make an end-to-end calibration of the telescope. In September 2010, we began operation of the ELS and the FD telescopes observed the fluorescence photons from the air shower which was generated by the electron beam. In this article, we will reort the status of analysis of the absolute energy calibration with data which was taken in September 2010, and beam monitor study in November 2011.

  8. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings (United States)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian


    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  9. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: Science Drivers and Construction Status (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas; Berger, Thomas; McMullin, Joseph; Keil, Stephen; Goode, Phil; Knoelker, Michael; Kuhn, Jeff; Rosner, Robert; Casini, Roberto; Lin, Haosheng; Woeger, Friedrich; von der Luehe, Oskar; Tritschler, Alexandra; Atst Team


    The 4-meter Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) currently under construction on the 3000 meter peak of Haleakala on Maui, Hawaii will be the world's most powerful solar telescope and the leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism. The solar atmosphere is permeated by a 'magnetic carpet' that constantly reweaves itself to control solar irradiance and its effects on Earth's climate, the solar wind, and space weather phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections. Precise measurement of solar magnetic fields requires a large-aperture solar telescope capable of resolving a few tens of kilometers on the solar surface. With its 4 meter aperture, the ATST will for the first time resolve magnetic structure at the intrinsic scales of plasma convection and turbulence. The ATST's ability to perform accurate and precise spectroscopic and polarimetric measurements of magnetic fields in all layers of the solar atmosphere, including accurate mapping of the elusive coronal magnetic fields, will be transformative in advancing our understanding of the magnetic solar atmosphere. The ATST will utilize the Sun as an important astro- and plasma-physics "laboratory" demonstrating key aspects of omnipresent cosmic magnetic fields. The ATST construction effort is led by the US National Solar Observatory. State-of-the-art instrumentation will be constructed by US and international partner institutions. The technical challenges the ATST is facing are numerous and include the design of the off-axis main telescope, the development of a high order adaptive optics system that delivers a corrected beam to the instrument laboratory, effective handling of the solar heat load on optical and structural elements, and minimizing scattered light to enable observations of the faint corona. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. Site

  10. The Timepix Telescope for high performance particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, K. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ronning, P. [CERN, The European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Beuzekom, M. van; Beveren, V. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borghi, S. [University of Manchester, Manchester, Lancashire (United Kingdom); Boterenbrood, H. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buytaert, J.; Collins, P. [CERN, The European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Dosil Suárez, A. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Dumps, R. [CERN, The European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Eklund, L. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Esperante, D.; Gallas, A. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gordon, H. [University of Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Heijden, B. van der [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hombach, C. [University of Manchester, Manchester, Lancashire (United Kingdom); Hynds, D. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); John, M. [University of Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Leflat, A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Li, Y. [University of Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); and others


    The Timepix particle tracking telescope has been developed as part of the LHCb VELO Upgrade project, supported by the Medipix Collaboration and the AIDA framework. It is a primary piece of infrastructure for the VELO Upgrade project and is being used for the development of new sensors and front end technologies for several upcoming LHC trackers and vertexing systems. The telescope is designed around the dual capability of the Timepix ASICs to provide information about either the deposited charge or the timing information from tracks traversing the 14×14 mm matrix of 55×55μm pixels. The rate of reconstructed tracks available is optimised by taking advantage of the shutter driver readout architecture of the Timepix chip, operated with existing readout systems. Results of tests conducted in the SPS North Area beam facility at CERN show that the telescope typically provides reconstructed track rates during the beam spills of between 3.5 and 7.5 kHz, depending on beam conditions. The tracks are time stamped with 1 ns resolution with an efficiency of above 98% and provide a pointing resolution at the centre of the telescope of ∼1.6μm. By dropping the time stamping requirement the rate can be increased to ∼15kHz, at the expense of a small increase in background. The telescope infrastructure provides CO{sub 2} cooling and a flexible mechanical interface to the device under test, and has been used for a wide range of measurements during the 2011–2012 data taking campaigns. -- Highlights: • We provide a technical description of the Timepix Telescope for particle tracking applications. • We demonstrate the spatial and timing resolution to be 2μm and 1 ns respectively. • The maximum particle rate is 7.5 kHz with highly resolved timing and spacing. • The maximum particle rate is 15 kHz with only highly resolved spacing. • We briefly describe the software and tracking algorithms used to achieve this.

  11. Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E


    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '2 Beam Dynamics' with the content: 2 Beam Dynamics 2.1 Linear Transverse Beam Dynamics 2.2 Coupling 2.3 Liouville's Theorem 2.4 Momentum Dependent Transverse Motion 2.5 Longitudinal Motion

  12. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope - A Progress Report. (United States)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Goode, P. R.; Knoelker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Rosner, R.; ATST Team


    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The ATST will provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve magnetic features at their intrinsic scales. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of five state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coude laboratory facility. Photopheric and chromospheric magnetometry is part of the key mission of four of these instruments. Coronal magnetometry and spectroscopy will be performed by two of these instruments at infrared wavelengths. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. Site construction is expected to begin in the first half of 2012. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. A robust instrument program has been established and all instruments have passed preliminary design reviews or critical design reviews. A brief summary of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the project status of the telescope and discussion of the approach to integrating instruments into the facility.

  13. Design optimization of Cassegrain telescope for remote explosive trace detection (United States)

    Bhavsar, Kaushalkumar; Eseller, K. E.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna


    The past three years have seen a global increase in explosive-based terror attacks. The widespread use of improvised explosives and anti-personnel landmines have caused thousands of civilian casualties across the world. Current scenario of globalized civilization threat from terror drives the need to improve the performance and capabilities of standoff explosive trace detection devices to be able to anticipate the threat from a safe distance to prevent explosions and save human lives. In recent years, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging approach for material or elemental investigations. All the principle elements on the surface are detectable in a single measurement using LIBS and hence, a standoff LIBS based method has been used to remotely detect explosive traces from several to tens of metres distance. The most important component of LIBS based standoff explosive trace detection system is the telescope which enables remote identification of chemical constituents of the explosives. However, in a compact LIBS system where Cassegrain telescope serves the purpose of laser beam delivery and light collection, need a design optimization of the telescope system. This paper reports design optimization of a Cassegrain telescope to detect explosives remotely for LIBS system. A design optimization of Schmidt corrector plate was carried out for Nd:YAG laser. Effect of different design parameters was investigated to eliminate spherical aberration in the system. Effect of different laser wavelengths on the Schmidt corrector design was also investigated for the standoff LIBS system.

  14. Trick or Treat and Telescopes (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Schmude, Richard W.


    Based on an activity that DPS member Richard Schmude Jr. has been doing for years, with over 5000 children reached, DPS initiated in 2016 a pilot program entitled “Trick-or-Treat and Telescopes.” DPS encouraged its members to put out their telescopes during trick-or-treat time on Halloween, in their own lawns or in a neighbor’s lawn with better viewing (or more traffic). The program will be continued in 2017. This year should offer good viewing with a waxing gibbous moon and Saturn visible. The program was also advertised though the Night Sky Network, a consortium of astronomy clubs. The following website gives advice and connections to resources. acknowledged.

  15. The Large Space Telescope program. (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.


    The 1980's should see the establishment of the first major observatory in space. This observatory will contain a long-lifetime reflecting telescope of about 120 inches clear aperture. Advantages of an orbiting telescope include the elimination of astronomical seeing effects and improvements in resolving power. The small images and darker sky will permit low-dispersion spectrographs to avoid more of the contaminating background. The crispness of the images also has potential for very efficient high-dispersion spectroscopy. A further advantage lies in the accessibility of all the sky and nearly around-the-clock observing.

  16. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.


    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  17. Radiation length imaging with high-resolution telescopes (United States)

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B.; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C.; Lütticke, F.


    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length X/X0 profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D images of the radiation length of thin planar objects. At the heart of the X/X0 imaging is a spatially resolved measurement of the scattering angles of particles traversing the object under study. The main challenges are the alignment of the reference telescope and the calibration of its angular resolution. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of X/X0 imaging, a test beam experiment has been conducted. The devices under test were two mechanical prototype modules of the Belle II vertex detector. A data sample of 100 million tracks at 4 GeV has been collected, which is sufficient to resolve complex material profiles on the 30 μm scale.

  18. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U


    The instrumentation measuring beam parameters constitutes an important part of any particle accelerator. These lectures aim at giving an overview of detection and measurement techniques without going too much into details of implementation. Instruments for linear accelerators, transfer lines, and small synchrotrons are described with an emphasis on opportunities and problems specific to low-energy particle beams.

  19. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U


    Most beam measurements are based on the electro-magnetic interaction of fields induced by the beam with their environment. Beam current transformers as well as beam position monitors are based on this principle. The signals induced in the sensors must be amplified and shaped before they are converted into numerical values. These values are further treated numerically in order to extract meaningful machine parameter measurements. The lecture introduces the architecture of an instrument and shows where in the treatment chain digital signal analysis can be introduced. Then the use of digital signal processing is presented using tune measurements, orbit and trajectory measurements as well as beam loss detection and longitudinal phase space tomography as examples. The hardware as well as the treatment algorithms and their implementation on Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented.

  20. The origins of the telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072210524; Dupré, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/23478055X; van Gent, R.; Zuidervaart, H.J.


    The origins of the telescope have been debated since the instrument’s appearance in the Hague in 1608. Civic and national pride has led local dignitaries, popular writers, and scholars to present sharply divergent histories over the years, crediting a variety of people and places with the invention.

  1. Monster telescope hunts blue planets

    CERN Multimedia

    Leake, J


    BRITAIN is to back a project to build the world's biggest telescope - so powerful that it could see life-bearing planets in other solar systems. It will need the largest mirror ever built at about 100 metres in diameter (1/2 page).

  2. Overdenture dengan Pegangan Telescopic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Santoso


    Full Text Available Kaitan presisi merupakan alat retensi mekanis yang menghubungkan antara satu atau lebih pegangan gigi tiruan, yang bertujuan untuk menambah retensi dan/atau stabilisasi. Kaitan presisi dapat digunakan secara luas pada gigi tiruan cekat, gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan, overdenture, implant untuk retensi overdenture, dan protesa maksilo fasial. Overdenture dengan kaitan presisi dapat membantu dalam pembagian beban kunyah, meminimalkan trauma pada gigi pegangan dan jaringan lunak, meminimalkan resorbsi tulang, dan meningkatkan estetik dan pengucapan suara. Salah satu jenis dari kaitan presisi adalah telescopic crown, terdiri dari 2 macam mahkota, yaitu mahkota primer yang melekat secara permanen pada gigi penyangga, dan mahkota sekunder yang melekat pada gigi tiruan. Tujuan pemaparan kasus ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang rehabilitasi pasien edentulous sebagian rahang atas dengan telescopic crown..  Pasien wanita berusia 45 tahun datang ke klinik prostodonsia RSGM Prof.Soedomo dengan keluhan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Pasien kehilangan gigi 11 12 15 16 17 21 22 24 25 26 dan 27 yang diindikasikan untuk pembuatan overdenture gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan (GTS kerangka logam dengan pegangan telescopic crown pada gigi 13 dan 14 dengan sistem parallel-sided crown. Tahap-tahap pembuatan telescopic crown yaitu mencetak model study dengan catatan gigit pendahuluan. Perawatan saluran dilakukan pada akar gigi 13, dilanjutkan pemasangan pasak fiber serta rewalling dinding bukal. Gigi 13 dan 14 dilakukan preparasi mahkota penuh, dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan model kerja untuk coping primer dan kerangka logam dengan metode double impression. Coping primer disementasi pada gigi penyangga, dilanjutkan pasang coba coping sekunder beserta kerangka logam. Selanjutnya dilakukan pencatatan gigit, pencetakan model kerja, penyusunan gigi dan pasang coba penyusunan gigi pada pasien. Prosedur dilanjutkan dengan proses di laboratorium, serta insersi pada

  3. NEAT: A Microarcsec Astrometric Telescope (United States)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.


    NEAT, Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope is a medium-small telescope (is) approximately 1m in diameter that is designed to make ultra precise (is) less than 1 uas (microarcsec) astrometric measurements of nearby stars in a (is) approximately 1hr observation. Four major error sources prevent normal space telescopes from obtaining accuracies close to 1 uas. Even with a small 1m telescope, photon noise is usually not a problem for the bright nearby target stars. But in general, the reference stars are much fainter. Typically a field of view of (is) approximately 0.5 deg dia is needed to obtain enough bright reference stars. The NEAT concept uses a very simple but unusual design to avoid optically induced astrometric errors. The third source of error is the accuracy and stability of the focal plane. A 1uas error over a (is) approximately 2000 arcsec field of view implies the focal plane is accurate or at least stable to 5 parts in 10(exp 10) over the lifetime of the mission ( (is) approximately 5yrs). The 4th class of error has to do with our knowledge of the PSF and how that PSF is sampled by an imperfect detector. A Nyquist sampled focal plane would have (is) greater than 2 pixels per lambda/D, and centroiding to 1uas means centroiding to 10-5 pixels. This paper describes the mission concept, and an overview of the technology needed to perform 1uas astrometry with a small telescope, and how we overcome problems 1 and 2. A companion paper will describe the technical progress we've made in solving problems 3 and 4.

  4. Suite of experiments in beam H3

    CERN Document Server


    The H3 beam runs from bottom to top, in the middle of the photo. On its left preparation is going on for WA10 in beam H5, on its right, behind the concrete wall, the S3 beam runs to BEBC. The H3 beam first meets the IKAR target of the experiment WA9 (right, bottom corner) then crosses the polarized hydrogen target of experiment WA6 sitting inside the large green magnet (centre, also visible the yellow support of the recoil chamber telescope). Finally the beam reaches WA11 and the Goliath magnet (under the white passerelle). The WA9 (left) and the WA5/11 (right) huts stand on top of the photo, the WA6 stands at the right, centre. The three experiments were running in alternance.

  5. Art concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)


    Art concept of the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit above the earth with a Space Shuttle approaching and an astronaut performing an extravehicular activity (EVA) (30462); Art concept of the Hubble Space Telescope with the interior design exposed (30463).

  6. The estimation of background production by cosmic rays in high-energy gamma ray telescopes (United States)

    Edwards, H. L.; Nolan, P. L.; Lin, Y. C.; Koch, D. G.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hughes, E. B.


    A calculational method of estimating instrumental background in high-energy gamma-ray telescopes, using the hadronic Monte Carlo code FLUKA87, is presented. The method is applied to the SAS-2 and EGRET telescope designs and is also used to explore the level of background to be expected for alternative configurations of the proposed GRITS telescope, which adapts the external fuel tank of a Space Shuttle as a gamma-ray telescope with a very large collecting area. The background produced in proton-beam tests of EGRET is much less than the predicted level. This discrepancy appears to be due to the FLUKA87 inability to transport evaporation nucleons. It is predicted that the background in EGRET will be no more than 4-10 percent of the extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation.

  7. Effect of Quartic Phase Optical Aberration on Laser Beam Quality (United States)

    Bencheikh, A.; Bouafia, M.; Boubetra, Dj.


    Laser beam quality is related to the aberration effect. Quartic phase aberration, more commonly known as spherical aberration, can result from aberrated optical components such as beam expanding telescopes, focusing or collimating lenses, or other conventional optical elements; from thermal focusing or thermal blooming in high power laser windows, lenses, amplifier rods, optical isolators, and other absorbing media. In general any kind of quartic aberration will lead to increased far field beam spread, degraded laser beam focusability and increased values of the beam quality. Currently, a well established quality parameter for laser beams is the M2 factor. This paper presents a new mathematical set for the spherical aberration coefficient C4 of Gaussian beams. The main idea comes from the estimation of the laser beam quality factor M2 given by Siegman. We show that this coefficient concerns only the case of geometrical optics.

  8. The Next Generation Space Telescope (United States)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.


    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  9. CFRP lightweight structures for extremely large telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J.


    Telescope structures are traditionally built out of steel. To improve the possibility of realizing the ambitious extremely large telescopes, materials with a higher specific stiffness and a lower coefficient of thermal expansion are needed. An important possibility is Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plas...... Plastic (CFRP). The advantages of using CFRP for the secondary mirror support structure of the European overwhelmingly large telescope are discussed....

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions. (United States)

    Villard, Ray


    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  11. The Principles of Astronomical Telescope Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Jingquan


    Presents a summary of the author's twenty five years of experience in telescope design. This work provides a general introduction to various aspects of telescope design. It discusses the theory behind telescope design. It covers Radio, Infrared, Optical, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray wavelengths

  12. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia


    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  13. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von


    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  14. Diffractive X-ray Telescopes


    Skinner, Gerald K


    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted space- time in the immediate vicinity of the super...

  15. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at

  16. Building the Green Bank Telescope (United States)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.


    In a previous presentation, I reported on how the freak collapse of the NRAO 300-ft transit radio telescope led to the inclusion of $75 million for a new radio telescope in the 1989 Congressional Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act. But, this was only the beginning. NRAO was faced with challenging specifications and an unworkable schedule, but there was no design and no project team. Only one bid was even close to the Congressional appropriation. In an attempt to meet the unrealistic antenna delivery date, the contractor started construction of the foundation and fabrication of antenna members before the design was finished, leading to retrofits, redesign, and multiple delays. The antenna contractor was twice sold to other companies leading to further delays and cost escalation. In order to recoup their mounting losses, the new owners sued NRAO for $29 million for claimed design changes, and NRAO countersued demanding to be reimbursed for added project management costs and lost scientific data resulting from the seven-year delay in the completion of the telescope. Legal fees and a small net award in favor of the contractor left NRAO and the NSF with a nine million dollar bill which NSF handled by an innovative accounting adjustment.

  17. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope (United States)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.; Werner, M. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Soifer, B. T.; Levine, D. A.; Romana, E. A.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at

  18. Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 February from 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber on 20, 21, 23, 24 February, TH Auditorium, bldg 4 - 3-006, on 22 February Deep Space Telescopes G. BIGNAMI / CNRS, Toulouse, F & Univ. di Pavia, I The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo's telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro...

  19. HARPS3 for a roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope (United States)

    Thompson, Samantha J.; Queloz, Didier; Baraffe, Isabelle; Brake, Martyn; Dolgopolov, Andrey; Fisher, Martin; Fleury, Michel; Geelhoed, Joost; Hall, Richard; González Hernández, Jonay I.; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramón; Naylor, Tim; Pepe, Francesco; Piskunov, Nikolai; Rebolo, Rafael; Sander, Louis; Ségransan, Damien; Seneta, Eugene; Sing, David; Snellen, Ignas; Snik, Frans; Spronck, Julien; Stempels, Eric; Sun, Xiaowei; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Young, John


    We present a description of a new instrument development, HARPS3, planned to be installed on an upgraded and roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope by end-2018. HARPS3 will be a high resolution (R≃115,000) echelle spectrograph with a wavelength range from 380-690 nm. It is being built as part of the Terra Hunting Experiment - a future 10- year radial velocity measurement programme to discover Earth-like exoplanets. The instrument design is based on the successful HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6m ESO telescope and HARPS-N on the TNG telescope. The main changes to the design in HARPS3 will be: a customised fibre adapter at the Cassegrain focus providing a stabilised beam feed and on-sky fibre diameter ≍1:4 arcsec, the implementation of a new continuous ow cryostat to keep the CCD temperature very stable, detailed characterisation of the HARPS3 CCD to map the effective pixel positions and thus provide an improved accuracy wavelength solution, an optimised integrated polarimeter and the instrument integrated into a robotic operation. The robotic operation will optimise our programme which requires our target stars to be measured on a nightly basis. We present an overview of the entire project, including a description of our anticipated robotic operation.

  20. All-Sky Interferometry with Spherical Harmonic Transit Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.Richard [Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Sigurdson, Kris [British Columbia U.; Pen, Ue-Li [Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Stebbins, Albert [Fermilab; Sitwell, Michael [British Columbia U.


    In this paper we describe the spherical harmonic transit telescope, a novel formalism for the analysis of transit radio telescopes. This all-sky approach bypasses the curved sky complications of traditional interferometry and so is particularly well suited to the analysis of wide-field radio interferometers. It enables compact and computationally efficient representations of the data and its statistics that allow new ways of approaching important problems like map-making and foreground removal. In particular, we show how it enables the use of the Karhunen-Loeve transform as a highly effective foreground filter, suppressing realistic foreground residuals for our fiducial example by at least a factor twenty below the 21cm signal even in highly contaminated regions of the sky. This is despite the presence of the angle-frequency mode mixing inherent in real-world instruments with frequency-dependent beams. We show, using Fisher forecasting, that foreground cleaning has little effect on power spectrum constraints compared to hypothetical foreground-free measurements. Beyond providing a natural real-world data analysis framework for 21cm telescopes now under construction and future experiments, this formalism allows accurate power spectrum forecasts to be made that include the interplay of design constraints and realistic experimental systematics with twenty-first century 21cm science.

  1. CALISTO: the Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Bradford, Matt; Dragovan, Mark; Paine, Chris; Satter, Celeste; Langer, Bill; Yorke, Harold; Huffenberger, Kevin; Benford, Dominic; Lester, Dan


    CALISTO, the Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory, will enable extraordinarily high sensitivity far-infrared continuum and moderate (R ~ 1000) resolution spectroscopic observations at wavelengths from ~30µm to ~300 μm - the wavelengths between those accessible by JWST and future ground based facilities. CALISTO's observations will provide vital information about a wide range of important astronomical questions including (1) the first stars and initial heavy element production in the universe; (2) structures in the universe traced by H2 emission; (3) the evolution of galaxies and the star formation within them (4) the formation of planetary systems through observations of protostellar and debris disks; (5) the outermost portions of our solar system through observations of Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) and the Oort cloud. With optics cooled to below 5 K, the photon fluctuations from the astronomical background (Zodiacal, Galactic, and extragalactic) exceed those from the telescope. Detectors with a noise equivalent power below that set by the background will make possible astronomical-background-limited sensitivity through the submillimeter/far-infrared region. CALISTO builds on studies for the SAFIR (Single Aperture Far Infrared) telescope mission, employing a 4m x 6m off-axis Gregorian telescope which has a simple deployment using an Atlas V launch vehicle. The unblocked telescope with a cold stop has minimal sidelobes and scattering. The clean beam will allow astronomical background limited observations over a large fraction of the sky, which is what is required to achieve CALISTO's exciting science goals. The maximum angular resolution varies from 1.2" at 30 µm to 12" at 300 μm. The 5σ 1 hr detectable fluxes are ▵S(dν/ν = 1.0) = 2.2x10-20 Wm-2, and ▵S(dν/ν = 0.001) = 6.2x10-22 Wm-2. The 8 beams per source confusion limit at 70 μm is estimated to be 5 μJy. We discuss CALISTO optics, performance, instrument complement

  2. Pulsar science with the Five hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (United States)

    Smits, R.; Lorimer, D. R.; Kramer, M.; Manchester, R.; Stappers, B.; Jin, C. J.; Nan, R. D.; Li, D.


    With a collecting area of 70 000 m^2, the Five hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) will allow for great advances in pulsar astronomy. We have performed simulations to estimate the number of previously unknown pulsars FAST will find with its 19-beam or possibly 100-beam receivers for different survey strategies. With the 19-beam receiver, a total of 5200 previously unknown pulsars could be discovered in the Galactic plane, including about 460 millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Such a survey would take just over 200 days with eight hours survey time per day. We also estimate that, with about 80 six-hour days, a survey of M 31 and M 33 could yield 50-100 extra-Galactic pulsars. A 19-beam receiver would produce just under 500 MB of data per second and requires about 9 tera-ops to perform the major part of a real time analysis. We also simulate the logistics of high-precision timing of MSPs with FAST. Timing of the 50 brightest MSPs to a signal-to-noise of 500 would take about 24 h per epoch.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission (United States)


    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  4. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3697 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa Slide 2 ? CSIR 2011 Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator...

  5. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4467 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... 2011 Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator design and experimental setup ? Results ? Conclusions ? Future work Slide 3 ? CSIR 2011...

  6. Cooling strategies and thermal analysis of a module of the NA60 silicon tracking telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Vila-Nova-Goncalves, L


    This note reports on the thermal studies performed on the silicon tracking telescope used in the NA60 experiment during the runs with the proton beam. To ensure adequate operating conditions, it is of the uppermost importance that the heat dissipated by the electronics doesn't provoke unacceptable temperatures on the telescope sensors. Furthermore, to prevent damages in the circuits, condensation should, as well, be avoided. After a brief description of the modules, the issues related to the cooling strategy are addressed. The model for the study, made using a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code, is then presented and the results and conclusions of the simulations will follow.

  7. The Green Bank Telescope: Transformational Science for the Next Decade. (United States)

    Wootten, Al; GBO Staff


    The Robert C Byrd Green Bank Telescope has met its design goal of providing high-quality observations at 115 GHz. The accurate small beam of the telescope at high frequencies is leveraged by deployment of multi beam receivers. An overview is presented. Observers now have access to the new, 16-pixel, 3-mm Argus receiver, which is providing high-dynamic range images over wide fields for the multitude of spectral lines between 85 and 115 GHz. The successful performance of Argus, and its modular design, demonstrates that receivers with many more pixels could be built for the GBT. A 12 x 12 array of the Argus design would have mapping speeds about nine times faster than Argus without suffering any degradation in performance for the outer pixels in the array. The Observatory plans to build the next-generation Argus instrument (Argus+) with 144-pixels, a footprint 5'x5', and 7" resolution at 110 GHz. The project will be a collaboration between the Green Bank Observatory and university groups, who will supply key components. The key science drivers for Argus+ are studies of molecular filaments in the Milky Way, studies of molecular clouds in nearby galaxies, and the observations of rapidly evolving solar system objects. Observers also have access to MUSTANG-2, a 223-feedhorn bolometer camera which was commissioned on the GBT in spring 2016, and was offered for observations on a shared risk basis, in collaboration with the instrument team, in the 2018A GBO proposal call. Several features distinguish it from its predecessor, MUSTANG: A new, microstrip-coupled detector design yields higher sensitivity and less susceptibility to environmental microphonics. Detectors are feedhorn coupled, with the sum of two linear polarizations measured by a single TES per feed. The instantaneous field of view is 4 arcminutes (vs 42 arcseconds for MUSTANG) The receiver design incorporates a tilted refrigerator and receiver rotator, resulting in much lower dependence of cooling performance on

  8. Optomechanical and thermal design of the Multi-Application Solar Telescope for USO (United States)

    Denis, Stefan; Coucke, Pierre; Gabriel, Eric; Delrez, Christophe; Venkatakrishnan, Parameshwaran


    The Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) is a 50 cm diameter class telescope to be installed on the Udaipur Solar Observatory's Island on the Lake Fatehsagar in Udaipur, India. It is dedicated to solar observation. The telescope is designed, manufactured, assembled and installed on-site by the belgian company AMOS SA for the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO), an academic division of the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in India. Despite its limited size, the telescope is expected to be competitive with respect to worldwide large and costly projects thanks to its versatility regarding science goals and also thanks to its demanding optomechanical and thermal specification. This paper describes the optomechanical and thermal design of this telescope and presents solutions adopted by AMOS to meet the specific requirements. The optical configuration of the telescope is based on an afocal off-axis gregorian combination integrated on an Alt.-Az. mechanical mount, with a suite of flat folding mirrors to provide the required stationary collimated beam.

  9. GPU-based online track reconstruction for the MuPix-telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzesik, Carsten [JGU, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: Mu3e-Collaboration


    The MuPix telescope is a beam telescope consisting of High Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS). This type of sensor is going to be used for the Mu3e experiment, which is aiming to measure the lepton flavor violating decay μ→ eee with an ultimate sensitivity of 10{sup -16}. This sensitivity requires a high muon decay rate in the order of 1 GHz leading to a data rate of about 1 TBit/s for the whole detector. This needs to be reduced by a factor 1000 using online event selection algorithms on Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) before passing the data to the storage. A test setup for the MuPix sensors and parts of the Mu3e tracking detector readout is realized in a four plane telescope. The telescope can also be used to show the usability of an online track reconstruction using GPUs. As a result the telescope can provide online information about efficiencies of a device under test or the alignment of the telescope itself. This talk discusses the implementation of the GPU based track reconstruction and shows some results from recent testbeam campaigns.

  10. Grazing-incidence telescope-spectrograph for space solar-imaging spectroscopy. (United States)

    Poletto, L; Tondello, G


    The design of a stigmatic grazing-incidence instrument for space applications to solar-imaging spectroscopy is presented. It consists of a double telescope and a spectrograph: Telescope I consists of a single cylindrical mirror with parabolic section, focusing the radiation on the entrance slit of the spectrograph in the spectral dispersion plane; telescope II consists of two cylindrical mirrors with aspherical section in a Wolter configuration, focusing the radiation on the spectrograph focal plane in the direction perpendicular to the spectral dispersion plane. The spectrograph consists of a grazing-incidence spherical variable-line-spaced grating with flat-field properties. Telescope II is crossed with respect to the grating and telescope I; i.e., it is mounted with its tangential planes coincident with the grating equatorial plane. The spectrum is acquired by a detector mounted at near-normal incidence with respect to the direction of the exit beam. The spectral resolution is also preserved for off-axis angles. The effective collecting area of the instrument can be preserved by adoption of a nested configuration for telescope II without degradation of the spectral resolution.

  11. Merz telescopes a global heritage worth preserving

    CERN Document Server


    This book comprises a fascinating collection of contributions on the Merz telescopes in Italy that collectively offer the first survey on historical large refracting telescopes in the country, drawing on original documents and photographs. It opens with a general introduction on the importance of Merz telescopes in the history of astronomy and analyses of the local and international contexts in which the telescopes were made. After examination of an example of the interaction between the maker and the astronomer in the construction and maintenance of these refractors, the history of the Merz telescopes at the main Italian observatories in the nineteenth century is described in detail. Expert testimony is also provided on how these telescopes were successfully used until the second half of the twentieth century for research purposes, thus proving their excellent optical qualities.

  12. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia


    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  13. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.


    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  14. Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Mooney, Marc E


    The course of pathological gambling (PG) in women has been described as having a later age of initiation but a shorter time to problematic gambling ("telescoped"). This study examined evidence for telescoping and its relationship with comorbidities. Seventy-one treatment-seeking individuals with PG...... underwent a diagnostic interview to examine gambling behaviors, age at initiation of gambling, and time from initiation to meeting criteria for PG. The women had a higher mean age at gambling initiation compared with that of the men (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [13.0] years, compared with 22.4 [7.9] years; p = 0.......0003) and a significantly shorter time from initiation of gambling to meeting the criteria for PG (8.33 [8.7] years compared with 11.97 [9.1] years; p = 0.0476) after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. This study presents evidence for a gender-specific course of PG unrelated to psychiatric comorbidities...

  15. Large aperture diffractive space telescope (United States)

    Hyde, Roderick A.


    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  16. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team


    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  17. Design of Galilean-type telescope systems. (United States)

    Menchaca, C; Malacara, D


    In this paper we present the design of three Galilean-type telescope systems with magnifications of 2.2x, 4x, and 5x. These systems are free of the large weight and length as well as the reduced field of view, which are frequent undesirable properties of Galilean telescopes. These designs have a moderate field of view and a short length, with reasonably good aberration correction, and may be used as binocular telescopes or magnifiers with a large working distance.

  18. Trading order for degree in creative telescoping (United States)

    Chen, Shaoshi; Kauers, Manuel


    We analyze the differential equations produced by the method of creative telescoping applied to a hyperexponential term in two variables. We show that equations of low order have high degree, and that higher order equations have lower degree. More precisely, we derive degree bounding formulas which allow to estimate the degree of the output equations from creative telescoping as a function of the order. As an application, we show how the knowledge of these formulas can be used to improve, at least in principle, the performance of creative telescoping implementations, and we deduce bounds on the asymptotic complexity of creative telescoping for hyperexponential terms. PMID:26538804

  19. eSTAR: a distributed telescope network (United States)

    Steele, Iain A.; Naylor, Tim; Allan, Alisdair; Etherton, Jason; Mottram, C. J.


    The e-STAR (e-Science Telescopes for Astronomical Research) project uses GRID techniques to develop the software infrastructure for a global network of robotic telescopes. The basic architecture is based around Intelligent Agents which request data from Discovery Nodes that may be telescopes or databases. Communication is based on a development of the XML RTML language secured using the Globus I/O library, with status serving provided via LDAP. We describe the system architecture and protocols devised to give a distributed approach to telescope scheduling, as well as giving details of the implementation of prototype Intelligent Agent and Discovery Node systems.

  20. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal (United States)


    [Preview - JPEG: 537 x 400 pix - 31k] [Normal - JPEG: 1074 x 800 pix - 555k] [HiRes - JPEG: 3000 x 2235 pix - 6.0M] ESO PR Photo 07d/05 ESO PR Photo 07d/05 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 550 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1099 pix - 946k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2414 x 3316 pix - 11.0M] Captions: ESO PR Photo 07b/05 shows VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes 1 and 2 (AT1 and AT2) in the early evening light, with the spherical domes opened and ready for observations. In ESO PR Photo 07c/05, the same scene is repeated later in the evening, with three of the large telescope enclosures in the background. This photo and ESO PR Photo 07c/05 which is a time-exposure with AT1 and AT2 under the beautiful night sky with the southern Milky Way band were obtained by ESO staff member Frédéric Gomté. However, most of the time the large telescopes are used for other research purposes. They are therefore only available for interferometric observations during a limited number of nights every year. Thus, in order to exploit the VLTI each night and to achieve the full potential of this unique setup, some other (smaller), dedicated telescopes were included into the overall VLT concept. These telescopes, known as the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), are mounted on tracks and can be placed at precisely defined "parking" observing positions on the observatory platform. From these positions, their light beams are fed into the same common focal point via a complex system of reflecting mirrors mounted in an underground system of tunnels. The Auxiliary Telescopes are real technological jewels. They are placed in ultra-compact enclosures, complete with all necessary electronics, an air conditioning system and cooling liquid for thermal control, compressed air for enclosure seals, a hydraulic plant for opening the dome shells, etc. Each AT is also fitted with a transporter that lifts the telescope and relocates it from one station to another. It moves around with its own housing on the top of Paranal, almost like a snail

  1. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald K.


    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  2. Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Unsolved Problems in Stellar Evolution


    This timely volume reviews recent progress in our understanding of all aspects of stellar structure and evolution, with special emphasis on currently unsolved problems. It covers every stage in the life of a star, from birth to death, as well as the fundamental processes that affect stellar evolution. Each chapter is written by a leading world expert, based on presentations at an international conference held at the Space Telescope Science Institute. A complete understanding of stellar evolution is important in its own right, constituting a vital piece in the more general puzzle of understanding how galaxies form and evolve. This volume presents the most comprehensive and up-to-date survey available of this crucial topic in astrophysics.

  3. Can Radio Telescopes Find Axions? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    axions. Now scientists Katharine Kelley and Peter Quinn at ICRAR, University of Western Australia, have explored how we might use next-generation radio telescopes to search for photons that were created by axions interacting with the magnetic fields of our galaxy.Hope for Next-Gen TelescopesPotential axion coupling strengths vs. mass (click for a closer look). The axion mass is thought to lie between a eV and a meV; two theoretical models are shown with dashed lines. The plot shows the sensitivity of the upcoming SKA and its precursors, ASKAP and MEERKAT. [KelleyQuinn 2017]By using a simple galactic halo model and reasonable assumptions for the central galactic magnetic field even taking into account the time dependence of the field Kelley and Quinn estimate the radio-frequency power density that we would observe at Earth from axions being converted to photons within the Milky Ways magnetic field.The authors then compare this signature to the detection capabilities of upcoming radio telescope arrays. They show that the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and its precursors should have the capability to detect signs of axions across large parts of parameter space.Kelley and Quinn conclude that theres good cause for optimism about future radio telescopes ability to detect axions. And if we did succeed in making a detection, it would be a triumph for both particle physics and astrophysics, finally providing an explanation for the universes dark matter.CitationKatharine Kelley and P. J. Quinn 2017 ApJL 845 L4. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa808d

  4. Proxy magnetometry with the Dutch Open Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.


    Superb movies from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma have proven the validity of the open concept of this innovative telescope for high-resolution imaging of the solar atmosphere. A five- camera speckle-burst registration system is being installed that should permit consistent and

  5. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.


    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the

  6. Solar Magnetometry with the dutch open telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Zalm, E.B.J. van der


    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) has become op- erational at the Roque de los Muchachos Observa- tory on La Palma. The rst image sequences taken with this innovative telescope demonstrate its capa- bility for tomographic high-resolution imaging of the magnetic topology of the solar atmosphere up

  7. Reverse Galilean telescopic spectacles in unilateral aphakia. (United States)

    Krefman, R A


    Minimizing aniseikonia in unilateral aphakia is often a difficult task. A case is presented in which a patient preferred a reverse Galilean telescopic spectacle of his own design to a contact lens. The design of the spectacles and the patient's visual performance with them are described. A reverse Galilean telescopic spectacle should not be excluded from the therapeutic alternatives in unilateral aphakia.

  8. Herschel SPIRE FTS telescope model correction (United States)

    Hopwood, Rosalind; Fulton, Trevor; Polehampton, Edward T.; Valtchanov, Ivan; Benielli, Dominique; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Marchili, Nicola; Pearson, Chris P.; Swinyard, Bruce M.


    Emission from the Herschel telescope is the dominant source of radiation for the majority of SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations, despite the exceptionally low emissivity of the primary and secondary mirrors. Accurate modelling and removal of the telescope contribution is, therefore, an important and challenging aspect of FTS calibration and data reduction pipeline. A dust-contaminated telescope model with time invariant mirror emissivity was adopted before the Herschel launch. However, measured FTS spectra show a clear evolution of the telescope contribution over the mission and strong need for a correction to the standard telescope model in order to reduce residual background (of up to 7 Jy) in the final data products. Systematic changes in observations of dark sky, taken over the course of the mission, provide a measure of the evolution between observed telescope emission and the telescope model. These dark sky observations have been used to derive a time dependent correction to the telescope emissivity that reduces the systematic error in the continuum of the final FTS spectra to ˜0.35 Jy.

  9. A New Acquisition and Autoguiding Camera for the ANU 2·3 m Telescope (United States)

    McGregor, Peter J.; Conroy, Peter; van Harmelen, Jan; Bessell, Michael S.


    A new, direct CCD acquisition and autoguiding camera is in use on the ANU 2.3 m telescope Nasmyth foci. The camera is a model AP7 manufactured by Apogee Instruments Inc. and is controlled by the MaxIm CCD camera control and image processing software developed by Diffraction Ltd. The factors influencing our choice of this new camera are discussed, and its performance, operation, and commercial control software are described. The new camera allows stellar objects as faint as B = 21.5 to be acquired on the Double Beam Spectrograph slit in 1.4″ seeing. The camera has far superior performance to the Fairchild intensified CCD cameras that it replaces. The improved acquisition and guiding permitted by this camera has already allowed several new scientific programs to begin on the telescope, including the use of aperture plates with the Double Beam Spectrograph.

  10. Metrology System for a Large, Somewhat Flexible Telescope (United States)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Bartman, Randall; Cook, Walter; Craig, William


    A proposed metrology system would be incorporated into a proposed telescope that would include focusing optics on a rigid bench connected via a deployable mast to another rigid bench holding a focal-plane array of photon counting photodetectors. Deformations of the deployable mast would give rise to optical misalignments that would alter the directions (and, hence, locations) of incidence of photons on the focal plane. The metrology system would measure the relative displacement of the focusing- optics bench and the focal-plane array bench. The measurement data would be used in post-processing of the digitized photodetector outputs to compensate for the mast-deformation-induced changes in the locations of incidence of photons on the focal plane, thereby making it possible to determine the original directions of incidence of photons with greater accuracy. The proposed metrology system is designed specifically for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) a proposed spaceborne x-ray telescope. The basic principles of design and operation are also applicable to other large, somewhat flexible telescopes, both terrestrial and spaceborne. In the NuSTAR, the structural member connecting the optical bench and the photodetector array would be a 10-m-long deployable mast, and there is a requirement to keep errors in measured directions of incidence of photons below 10 arc seconds (3 sigma). The proposed system would include three diode lasers that would be mounted on the focusing-optics bench. For clarity, only one laser is shown in the figure, which is a greatly simplified schematic diagram of the system. Each laser would be aimed at a position-sensitive photodiode that would be mounted on the detector bench alongside the aforementioned telescope photodetector array. The diode lasers would operate at a wavelength of 830 nm, each at a power of 200 mW. Each laser beam would be focused to a spot of .1-mm diameter on the corresponding position-sensitive photodiode. To

  11. Using a laser tracker for active alignment on the Large Binocular Telescope (United States)

    Rakich, A.


    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) currently achieves collimation using a combination of collimation models and closed-loop active correction schemes. Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors with off-axis guide stars are used for Gregorian modes, and a closed-loop correction scheme is used for the prime-focus cameras. While in general this combination serves to produce alignment residuals well below a good seeing limit within a few minutes of obtaining a given target field, the uniquely asymmetrical structure of the LBT is prone to producing large deflections of the telescope optics when the ambient temperature is changing unusually rapidly. These deflections are difficult to model satisfactorily, and are an ongoing source of inefficiency in telescope operations. Furthermore, none of the current approaches to telescope collimation are particularly "piston aware"; a situation that needs to be improved on now that the LBT is commencing operations with the first of its beam combining instruments, LBTI. The laser tracker is a metrology instrument capable of automatically measuring optical element positions with better than 100 micron precision within a spherical volume of 30 m radius centered on the tracker head. With the ability to directly measure optics into position to this accuracy built into the Telescope Control System (TCS), the LBT would always be starting observations from a point of near-collimation, the component telescopes would be co-pointed, and the OPD would be well within the capture range of the beam combining instrument's internal phasing systems. This paper describes first results from engineering investigations into using the laser tracker to automatically align the optics on the LBT.

  12. Remote secure observing for the Faulkes Telescopes (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Steele, Iain A.; Marchant, Jonathan M.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Mucke-Herzberg, Dorothea


    Since the Faulkes Telescopes are to be used by a wide variety of audiences, both powerful engineering level and simple graphical interfaces exist giving complete remote and robotic control of the telescope over the internet. Security is extremely important to protect the health of both humans and equipment. Data integrity must also be carefully guarded for images being delivered directly into the classroom. The adopted network architecture is described along with the variety of security and intrusion detection software. We use a combination of SSL, proxies, IPSec, and both Linux iptables and Cisco IOS firewalls to ensure only authenticated and safe commands are sent to the telescopes. With an eye to a possible future global network of robotic telescopes, the system implemented is capable of scaling linearly to any moderate (of order ten) number of telescopes.

  13. Quiet sun observations by uran-2 and uran-3 decameter radio telescopes during the solar eclipse of august 1, 2008 (United States)

    Konovalenko, O. O.; Koshovyy, V. V.; Lozynskyy, A. B.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Shepelev, V. A.; Ivantyshyn, O. L.; Kharchenko, B. S.; Lozynskyy, R. A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Abranin, E. P.; Koval, A. A.


    Results of observations of the solar eclipse on August 1, 2008 using the decameter radio telescopes URAN-2 and URAN-3 are presented. The observations were made using a technique of scanning the passing source by a fixed beam antenna pattern. The decrease of the quiet Sun integral flux corresponds to theoretical estimates at decameter wavelengths.

  14. Design of the STAR-X Telescope (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.


    Top-level science goals of the Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) include: investigations of most violent explosions in the universe, study of growth of black holes across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats majority of baryons in the universe. To meet these goals, the field-of-view of the telescope should be about 1 square-degree, the angular resolution should be 5 arc-seconds or below across large part of the field-of-view. The on-axis effective area at 1 KeV should be about 2,000 sq cm. Payload cost and launch considerations limit the outer diameter, focal length, and mass to 1.3 meters, 5 meters, and 250 kilograms, respectively. Telescope design is based on a segmented meta-shell approach we have developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for the STAR-X telescope. The telescope shells are divided into 30-degree segments. Individual telescopes and meta-shells are nested inside each other to meet the effective area requirements in 0.5 - 6.0 KeV range. We consider Wolter-Schwarzschild, and Modified-Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks of the nested STAR-X telescope. These designs offer an excellent resolution over a large field of views. Nested telescopes are vulnerable to stray light problems. We have designed a multi-component baffle system to eliminate direct and single-reflection light paths inside the telescopes. Large number of internal and external baffle vane structures are required to prevent stray rays from reaching the focal plane. We have developed a simple ray-trace based tool to determine the dimensions and locations of the baffles. In this paper, we present the results of our trade studies, baffle design studies, and optical performance analyses of the STAR-X telescope.

  15. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights (United States)


    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  16. An afocal telescope configuration for the ESA ARIEL mission (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Focardi, Mauro; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Pascale, Enzo; Grella, Samuele; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Amiaux, Jérôme; Colomé Ferrer, Josep; Hunt, Thomas; Rataj, Miroslaw; Sierra-Roig, Carles; Ficai Veltroni, Iacopo; Eccleston, Paul; Micela, Giuseppina; Tinetti, Giovanna


    Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey (ARIEL) is a candidate as an M4 ESA mission to launch in 2026. During its 3.5 years of scientific operations, ARIEL will observe spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in the neighbourhood of the solar system. ARIEL aims to give a breakthrough in the observation of exoplanet atmospheres and understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far-away worlds. ARIEL is based on a 1 m class telescope feeding a collimated beam into two separate instrument modules: a spectrometer module covering the waveband between 1.95 and 7.8 μm and a combined fine guidance system/visible photometer/NIR spectrometer. The telescope configuration is a classic Cassegrain layout used with an eccentric pupil and coupled to a tertiary off-axis paraboloidal mirror. To constrain the thermo-mechanically induced optical aberrations, the primary mirror (M1) temperature will be monitored and finely tuned using an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. They will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ± 1 K by the telescope control unit (TCU). The TCU is a payload electronics subsystem also responsible for the thermal control of the spectrometer module detectors as well as the secondary mirror mechanism and IR calibration source management. The TCU, being a slave subsystem of the instrument control unit, will collect the housekeeping data from the monitored subsystems and will forward them to the master unit. The latter will run the application software, devoted to the main spectrometer management and to the scientific data on-board processing.

  17. An afocal telescope configuration for the ESA ARIEL mission (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Focardi, Mauro; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Pascale, Enzo; Grella, Samuele; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Amiaux, Jérôme; Colomé Ferrer, Josep; Hunt, Thomas; Rataj, Miroslaw; Sierra-Roig, Carles; Ficai Veltroni, Iacopo; Eccleston, Paul; Micela, Giuseppina; Tinetti, Giovanna


    Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey (ARIEL) is a candidate as an M4 ESA mission to launch in 2026. During its 3.5 years of scientific operations, ARIEL will observe spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in the neighbourhood of the solar system. ARIEL aims to give a breakthrough in the observation of exoplanet atmospheres and understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far-away worlds. ARIEL is based on a 1 m class telescope feeding a collimated beam into two separate instrument modules: a spectrometer module covering the waveband between 1.95 and 7.8 μm and a combined fine guidance system/visible photometer/NIR spectrometer. The telescope configuration is a classic Cassegrain layout used with an eccentric pupil and coupled to a tertiary off-axis paraboloidal mirror. To constrain the thermo-mechanically induced optical aberrations, the primary mirror (M1) temperature will be monitored and finely tuned using an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. They will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ± 1 K by the telescope control unit (TCU). The TCU is a payload electronics subsystem also responsible for the thermal control of the spectrometer module detectors as well as the secondary mirror mechanism and IR calibration source management. The TCU, being a slave subsystem of the instrument control unit, will collect the housekeeping data from the monitored subsystems and will forward them to the master unit. The latter will run the application software, devoted to the main spectrometer management and to the scientific data on-board processing.

  18. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia


    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  19. Parametric cost models for space telescopes (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtnay


    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  20. The earliest telescope preserved in Japan (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuko


    This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

  1. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney


    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  2. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (United States)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G.A.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, M.E.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Sandoval, A.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, M.A.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  3. The Origins Space Telescope (OST) (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes


    The Origins Space Telescope is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies to be submitted by NASA Headquarters to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The observatory will provide orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity over prior missions, in particular for spectroscopy, enabling breakthrough science across astrophysics. The observatory will cover a wavelength range between 5 μm and 600 μm in order to enable the study of the formation of proto-planetary disks, detection of bio-signatures from extra-solar planet's atmospheres, characterization of the first galaxies in the universe, and many more. The five instruments that are currently studied are two imaging far-infrared spectrometers using incoherent detectors, providing up to R 10^5 spectral resolution, one far-infrared infrared heterodyne instrument for even higher spectral resolving powers, one far-infrared continuum imager and polarimeter, plus a mid-infrared coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopy mode. I will describe the scientific and technical capabilities of the observatory with focus on the expected synergies with AtLAST.

  4. The Upgraded Tennessee State University 2m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (United States)

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Williamson, M. H.; Fekel, F. C.; Harrison, C.


    We recently have completed several upgrades to the Tennessee State University (TSU) 2m automatic spectroscopic telescope (AST), which is located at Fairborn Observatory, Washington Camp, Arizona. A new 4K x 4K Fairchild 486 CCD with 15 micron pixels, housed in a dewar cooled by a CryoTiger refrigeration system, has allowed us to substantially increase the wavelength coverage and greatly reduce the noise of our echelle spectra. A new beam splitter cube has increased the throughput of the system by about 1 magnitude. A recently built instrument head enables us to rapidly switch between commercial fibers of different diameters, allowing us to use different resolutions for different stars. Microlenses, attached to the ends of those fibers, have improved the f-ratio compatibility of the fibers and the spectrograph system. We discuss these enhancements and the resulting throughput improvements. The TSU 2m AST is available for joint projects with outside observers. As a robotic telescope dedicated to spectroscopic observations, the AST provides rare opportunities for observing programs that benefit from high cadences. In its previous incarnation it has participated in several photometric-spectroscopic observing campaigns such as the one completed in 2010 on the B8 supergiant Rigel. Simultaneous with MOST satellite photometry, the 2m AST obtained 442 spectra on 20 nights. This intensive series of spectroscopic observations plus somewhat less numerous spectra, taken for several years before the joint campaign, enabled the identification of Rigel's spectrum of pulsation frequencies.

  5. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)


    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  6. Advanced topographic laser altimeter system (ATLAS) receiver telescope assembly (RTA) and transmitter alignment and test (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Bolcar, Matthew; Chambers, John; Crane, Allen; Eegholm, Bente; Evans, Tyler; Hetherington, Samuel; Mentzell, Eric; Thompson, Patrick L.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Vaughnn, David


    The sole instrument on NASA's ICESat-2 spacecraft shown in Figure 1 will be the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS)1. The ATLAS is a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instrument; it measures the time of flight of the six transmitted laser beams to the Earth and back to determine altitude for geospatial mapping of global ice. The ATLAS laser beam is split into 6 main beams by a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) that are reflected off of the earth and imaged by an 800 mm diameter Receiver Telescope Assembly (RTA). The RTA is composed of a 2-mirror telescope and Aft Optics Assembly (AOA) that collects and focuses the light from the 6 probe beams into 6 science fibers. Each fiber optic has a field of view on the earth that subtends 83 micro Radians. The light collected by each fiber is detected by a photomultiplier and timing related to a master clock to determine time of flight and therefore distance. The collection of the light from the 6 laser spots projected to the ground allows for dense cross track sampling to provide for slope measurements of ice fields. NASA LIDAR instruments typically utilize telescopes that are not diffraction limited since they function as a light collector rather than imaging function. The more challenging requirements of the ATLAS instrument require better performance of the telescope at the ¼ wave level to provide for improved sampling and signal to noise. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) contracted the build of the telescope to General Dynamics (GD). GD fabricated and tested the flight and flight spare telescope and then integrated the government supplied AOA for testing of the RTA before and after vibration qualification. The RTA was then delivered to GSFC for independent verification and testing over expected thermal vacuum conditions. The testing at GSFC included a measurement of the RTA wavefront error and encircled energy in several orientations to determine the expected zero gravity figure, encircled

  7. Hundred metre virtual telescope captures unique detailed colour image (United States)


    A team of French astronomers has captured one of the sharpest colour images ever made. They observed the star T Leporis, which appears, on the sky, as small as a two-storey house on the Moon [1]. The image was taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), emulating a virtual telescope about 100 metres across and reveals a spherical molecular shell around an aged star. ESO PR Photo 06a/09 The star T Leporis as seen with VLTI ESO PR Photo 06b/09 The star T Leporis to scale ESO PR Photo 06c/09 A virtual 100-metre telescope ESO PR Photo 06d/09 The orbit of Theta1 Orionis C ESO PR Video 06a/09 Zoom-in onto T Leporis "This is one of the first images made using near-infrared interferometry," says lead author Jean-Baptiste Le Bouquin. Interferometry is a technique that combines the light from several telescopes, resulting in a vision as sharp as that of a giant telescope with a diameter equal to the largest separation between the telescopes used. Achieving this requires the VLTI system components to be positioned to an accuracy of a fraction of a micrometre over about 100 metres and maintained so throughout the observations -- a formidable technical challenge. When doing interferometry, astronomers must often content themselves with fringes, the characteristic pattern of dark and bright lines produced when two beams of light combine, from which they can model the physical properties of the object studied. But, if an object is observed on several runs with different combinations and configurations of telescopes, it is possible to put these results together to reconstruct an image of the object. This is what has now been done with ESO's VLTI, using the 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes. "We were able to construct an amazing image, and reveal the onion-like structure of the atmosphere of a giant star at a late stage of its life for the first time," says Antoine Mérand, member of the team. "Numerical models and indirect data have allowed us to imagine the

  8. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes (United States)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul


    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  9. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.


    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  10. An Overview of the Green Bank Telescope (United States)

    Srikanth, S.; Norrod, R.; King, L.; Parker, D.

    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) site in Green Bank, is to be the largest, fully-steerable telescope in the world. The GBT has a main reflector 100 mx100 m with unblocked aperture. The telescope will operate at prime focus in the 230 MHz-1200 MHz frequency range and at Gregorian focus in the 1.15 GHz to >100 GHz range. The performance of the GBT above 15 GHz will be enhanced by the use of an active surface and a metrology system. The location of the surface panels are to be measured and adjusted to minimize the surface error as measured from a best -fit paraboloid. Switching between prime focus and secondary focus operation, as well as selection of different receivers, will be achieved in a few minutes giving the telescope a rapid frequency agility.

  11. The ATHENA telescope and optics status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ayre, Mark


    The work on the definition and technological preparation of the ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) mission continues to progress. In parallel to the study of the accommodation of the telescope, many aspects of the X-ray optics are being evolved further. The optics technology...... chosen for ATHENA is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), which hinges on technology spin-in from the semiconductor industry, and uses a modular approach to produce large effective area lightweight telescope optics with a good angular resolution. Both system studies and the technology developments are guided...... by ESA and implemented in industry, with participation of institutional partners. In this paper an overview of the current status of the telescope optics accommodation and technology development activities is provided....

  12. The ATHENA telescope and optics status (United States)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ayre, Mark; Ferreira, Ivo; Shortt, Brian; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Collon, Maximilien; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barriere, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Zuknik, Karl-Heintz; Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis; Oliver, Paul; Seidel, André


    The work on the definition and technological preparation of the ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) mission continues to progress. In parallel to the study of the accommodation of the telescope, many aspects of the X-ray optics are being evolved further. The optics technology chosen for ATHENA is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), which hinges on technology spin-in from the semiconductor industry, and uses a modular approach to produce large effective area lightweight telescope optics with a good angular resolution. Both system studies and the technology developments are guided by ESA and implemented in industry, with participation of institutional partners. In this paper an overview of the current status of the telescope optics accommodation and technology development activities is provided.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Kriachko


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the way of overcoming one of the major problems of astronomy teaching methods in upper secondary school – organization of educational astronomical observations. Nowadays it became possible to perform such observations on remote access telescopes. By using up-to-date informational and communicational technologies, having an opportunity to work with robotic telescopes allows us to organize a unique cognitive and research oriented activities for students while conducting their specialized astronomical studies. Below here is given a brief description of the most significant robotic telescopes and the way of the usage of open remote access telescopic network which was created by professors and scientists of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA.

  14. Lightweight composite mirrors for telescopes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, steady and stiff mirrors are necessary to decrease cost of telescopes such as IXO and GenX used in special NASA missions. Low-density materials are...

  15. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James


    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  16. New infrared telescopic observation of Vesta (United States)

    Palomba, E.; D'Aversa, E.; Sato, T.; Longobardo, A.; Aoki, S.; Sindoni, G.; Oliva, F.


    In this work we present new telescopic observations of the Vesta asteroid made at the Subaru Telescope by using the COMICS IR spectrometer. We were able to obtain 5 different observations in 5 day, at two different epochs. The obtained spectra do not exhibit Reststrahlen bands and show only weak features attributable to the Christiansen peak and to the transparency feature compatible with a fine grain size regolith.

  17. Active optics for next generation space telescopes (United States)

    Costes, V.; Perret, L.; Laubier, D.; Delvit, J. M.; Imbert, C.; Cadiergues, L.; Faure, C.


    High resolution observation systems need bigger and bigger telescopes. The design of such telescopes is a key issue for the whole satellite. In order to improve the imaging resolution with minimum impact on the satellite, a big effort must be made to improve the telescope compactness. Compactness is also important for the agility of the satellite and for the size and cost of the launcher. This paper shows how compact a high resolution telescope can be. A diffraction limited telescope can be less than ten times shorter than its focal length. But the compactness impacts drastically the opto-mechanical sensitivity and the optical performances. Typically, a gain of a factor of 2 leads to a mechanical tolerance budget 6 times more difficult. The need to implement active optics for positioning requirements raises very quickly. Moreover, the capability to compensate shape defaults of the primary mirror is the way to simplify the mirror manufacture, to mitigate the development risks and to minimize the cost. The larger the primary mirror is, the more interesting it is to implement active optics for shape compensations. CNES is preparing next generation of earth observation satellite in the frame of OTOS (Observation de la Terre Optique Super-Résolue; High resolution earth observing optical system). OTOS is a technology program. In particular, optical technological developments and breadboards dedicated to active optics are on-going. The aim is to achieve TRL 5 to TRL6 for these new technologies and to validate the global performances of such an active telescope.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Airflow in Telescope Enclosures (United States)

    De Young, David S.


    Contemporary design of large telescopes requires optimization of the telescope environment in order to fully realize the capabilities of advanced mirror technology, telescope control, and instrumentation. Telescope enclosure design is a critical element in providing this optimized environment. Enclosures must protect the telescope while minimizing the local degradation of image quality, and the large cost of such structures requires that a successful design be in place before construction begins. In order to test various enclosure designs, three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamic calculations have been carried out to determine the flow of air within and around proposed enclosure configurations. Such calculations can test the effectiveness of dome venting, evaluate the dynamic pressures that cause possible deformation of primary mirror surfaces and structural windshake, and isolate sources of turbulent flow that may cause image degradation. Results are presented from a series of calculations that investigated characteristic flows in the Gemini 8-meter enclosure and around its associated primary mirror cell. In general the enclosure design is found to meet its overall design goals. Good dome venting is achieved under a variety of conditions, yet the telescope structure is kept in a low wind environment.

  19. Desing of a Laser Guide Star System for the Keck II Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, H.W.; Erbert, G.V.; Kuklo, T.; Thompson, G.R.; Wong, N.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Salmon, J.T.; Feldman, M.


    A laser guide star system similar to that deployed at the Lick Observatory has been designed for the Keck II 10 m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The subaperature size on the primary is comparable to that at Lick, and at the same observational wavelength centered about the K band, so that the average power requirements of the laser system are also comparable, at about 20 W. One major difference is that the seeing at Mauna Kea is about a factor of two better than at Lick so that the spot diameter requirements are smaller and this can give rise to reduced back scatter resulting from saturation effects in the sodium layer. To reduce the peak flux in the sodium layer and obtain a smaller spot diameter, the output beam diameter has been increased along with the repetition rate of the laser. As with the Lick laser system, a dye laser is pumped by a series of frequency doubled YAG lasers which are remotely located and coupled to the dye laser on the telescope by optical fibers. The laser system has a full set of beam control optics as well as launch telescope and safety systems. A computer system couples the laser system to the User Interface and Supervisory Control system of the main telescope. The laser system is due to be shipped to Keck during the fall of 1997 where it will be integrated with the telescope at Mauna Kea. The Adaptive Optics and Optics Bench systems will be integrated first and be ready for integration with the laser in the summer of 1998. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  20. Propagation-invariant beams with quantum pendulum spectra: from Bessel beams to Gaussian beam-beams. (United States)

    Dennis, Mark R; Ring, James D


    We describe a new class of propagation-invariant light beams with Fourier transform given by an eigenfunction of the quantum mechanical pendulum. These beams, whose spectra (restricted to a circle) are doubly periodic Mathieu functions in azimuth, depend on a field strength parameter. When the parameter is zero, pendulum beams are Bessel beams, and as the parameter approaches infinity, they resemble transversely propagating one-dimensional Gaussian wave packets (Gaussian beam-beams). Pendulum beams are the eigenfunctions of an operator that interpolates between the squared angular momentum operator and the linear momentum operator. The analysis reveals connections with Mathieu beams, and insight into the paraxial approximation.

  1. Five Years of SETI with the Allen Telescope Array: Lessons Learned (United States)

    Harp, Gerald


    We discuss recent observations at the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) supporting a wide ranging Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). The ATA supports observations over the frequency range 1-10 GHz with three simultaneous phased array beams used in an anticoincidence detector for false positive rejection. Here we summarize observational results over the years 2011-2015 covering multiple campaigns of exoplanet stars, the galactic plane, infrared excess targets, etc. Approximately 2 x 108 signals were identified and classified over more than 5000 hours of observation. From these results we consider various approaches to the rapid identification of human generated interference in the process of the search for a signal with origins outside the radius of the Moon's orbit. We conclude that the multi-beam technique is superb tool for answering the very difficult question of the direction of origin of signals. Data-based simulations of future instruments with more than 3 beams are compared.

  2. Beam propagation model for the laser hazard evaluations including optical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulmeister, K.; Althaus, S.; Grabner, U.; Vees, G. [ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH (Austria)


    A beam propagation model was developed to calculate the most hazardous position, the angular subtense of the apparent source, and the power that passes through a 7 mm representing the pupil of the eye for a Gaussian laser beam including the usage of magnifiers and telescopes. The results for the thermal retinal hazard are discussed and it is shown that for the telescope for most cases, at the most hazardous position, the beam waist can be treated as the apparent source, where the dependence and the regions are equivalent to those of the naked eye discussed elsewhere. For magnifying glasses, the beam is transformed in terms of beam waist diameter and divergence and consequently the dependencies and regions are also flipped. (orig.)

  3. SAAO's new robotic telescope and WiNCam (Wide-field Nasmyth Camera) (United States)

    Worters, Hannah L.; O'Connor, James E.; Carter, David B.; Loubser, Egan; Fourie, Pieter A.; Sickafoose, Amanda; Swanevelder, Pieter


    The South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) is designing and manufacturing a wide-field camera for use on two of its telescopes. The initial concept was of a Prime focus camera for the 74" telescope, an equatorial design made by Grubb Parsons, where it would employ a 61mmx61mm detector to cover a 23 arcmin diameter field of view. However, while in the design phase, SAAO embarked on the process of acquiring a bespoke 1-metre robotic alt-az telescope with a 43 arcmin field of view, which needs a homegrown instrument suite. The Prime focus camera design was thus adapted for use on either telescope, increasing the detector size to 92mmx92mm. Since the camera will be mounted on the Nasmyth port of the new telescope, it was dubbed WiNCam (Wide-field Nasmyth Camera). This paper describes both WiNCam and the new telescope. Producing an instrument that can be swapped between two very different telescopes poses some unique challenges. At the Nasmyth port of the alt-az telescope there is ample circumferential space, while on the 74 inch the available envelope is constrained by the optical footprint of the secondary, if further obscuration is to be avoided. This forces the design into a cylindrical volume of 600mm diameter x 250mm height. The back focal distance is tightly constrained on the new telescope, shoehorning the shutter, filter unit, guider mechanism, a 10mm thick window and a tip/tilt mechanism for the detector into 100mm depth. The iris shutter and filter wheel planned for prime focus could no longer be accommodated. Instead, a compact shutter with a thickness of less than 20mm has been designed in-house, using a sliding curtain mechanism to cover an aperture of 125mmx125mm, while the filter wheel has been replaced with 2 peripheral filter cartridges (6 filters each) and a gripper to move a filter into the beam. We intend using through-vacuum wall PCB technology across the cryostat vacuum interface, instead of traditional hermetic connector-based wiring. This

  4. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia


    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  5. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G


    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  6. Electron beam control for barely separated beams (United States)

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.


    A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.

  7. SST-GATE telescope: an innovative dual-mirror prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (United States)

    Dumas, Delphine; Huet, Jean-Michel; Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Laporte, Philippe; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Fasola, Gilles; Zech, Andreas; Rulten, Cameron; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon; Schmoll, Jurgen


    The Observatoire de Paris is involved in the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project by designing and constructing on the site of Meudon a Small Size Telescope prototype, named SST-GATE, in collaboration with the CHEC team (Compact High Energy Camera) which is providing the camera. The telescope structure is based on the Schwarzschild- Couder optical design which has never been adopted before in the design of a ground-based telescope. This concept allows a larger field of view and cheaper and smaller telescope and camera design with improved performance compared to the Davies-Cotton design traditionally used in very high energy gamma-ray telescopes. The SST-GATE telescope has been designed with the prime objectives of being light, versatile and simple to assemble with a minimal maintenance cost. This papers aims at reviewing the SST-GATE telescope structure from mechanics to optics along with the control command architecture; several innovative developments implemented within the design are discussed. Updates of the project status and perspectives are made.

  8. Polarimeters for the AGS polarized-proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabb, D.G.; Bonner, B.; Buchanan, J.


    This report describes the three polarimeters which will be used to measure the beam polarization at the AGS polarized beam facility. The beam polarization will be measured before injection into the AGS, during acceleration, and after extraction from the AGS. The 200-MeV polarimeter uses scintillation-counter telescopes to measure the asymmetry in p-carbon inclusive scattering. The internal polarimeter can measure the beam polarization at up to five selected times during acceleration. A continuously spooled nylon filament is swung into the beam at the appropriate time and the asymmetry in pp elastic scattering measured by two scintillation-counter telescopes. This is a relative polarimeter which can be calibrated by the absolute external polarimeter located in the D extracted-beam line. This polarimeter uses scintillation counters in two double-arm magnetic spectrometers to measure clearly the asymmetry in pp elastic scattering from a liquid hydrogen target. The specific features and operation of each polarimeter will be discussed.

  9. ESO Successfully Tests Automation of Telescope Operations (United States)


    This week astronomers at the European Southern Observatory have tested a novel approach of doing astronomy from the ground. Inaugurating a new era, the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla successfully performed a series of observations under automatic control by advanced computer software developed by the ESO Data Management Division (DMD) for use with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). This move has been made necessary by technological improvements in telescopes and the increasing competition among scientists for these valuable resources. Caption to ESO PR Photo 05/97 [JPG, 184k] This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 05/97 of the NTT. New telescopes produce more data Over the past few years, astronomical telescopes and the amount of data they produce have grown rapidly in size. With the advent of increasingly efficient, large digital cameras, the new telescopes with mirrors as large as 8 to 10 metres in diameter will deliver Gigabytes of valuable information each night. There is little doubt that scientific breakthroughs will be made with these telescopes and it should be no surprise that there is fierce competition for precious observing nights among the international astronomical community. Automated observations In order to make sure that the available observing time at the VLT will be used in the best and most efficient way, ESO has been developing advanced computer systems which will automatically schedule observations according to the scientific priorities of astronomers and the prevailing conditions of weather and equipment at the observatory. Once the astronomical data is gathered it is processed automatically at the telescope to provide the astronomer with immediately useful astronomical images and other pertinent information. No longer will the astronomer be required to spend weeks processing data into a form where results can be extracted. The continuous flow of astronomical data made possible with this system is

  10. Undergraduate Research with a Small Radio Telescope (United States)

    Fisher, P. L.; Williams, G. J.


    We describe the construction of a small radio telescope system at ULM and the role of radio astronomy in undergraduate education. The heart of the system is the Small Radio Telescope (SRT), which is a modified satellite TV antenna and custom receiver purchased from MIT Haystack Observatory. This telescope measures the brightness of many celestial objects at wavelengths near 21 cm. The system consists of various components to control dish movement, as well as perform analog to digital conversions allowing analysis of collected data. Undergraduate students have participated in the construction of the hardware and the task of interfacing the hardware to software on two GNU/Linux computer systems. The construction of the telescope and analysis of data allow the students to employ key concepts from mechanics, optics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics, as well as computer and electronics skills. We will report preliminary results of solar observations conducted with this instrument and with the MIT Haystack Observatory 37m radio telescope. This work was supported by Louisiana Board of Regents grant LEQSF-ENH-UG-16, NASA/LaSPACE LURA R109139 and ULM Development Foundation Grant 97317.

  11. Remote wireless control for LAMOST telescope (United States)

    Xu, Lingzhe; Xu, Xinqi


    The R and D of the Chinese 4-m ever-ambitious telescope, Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), has advanced towards a new stage, and first light is expected by the end of 2006. As one of national scientific and engineering projects the telescope will become national facility and accommodate maximum accessibility for public reach in general and for the astronomical community in particular. Thus remote or even robotic control of the telescope is put under careful exploration. With the rapid development of IT technology one of the fashions is the mobile telephone carried around by average people mainly for daily communication, and mobile notes application has become a real hit. This paper presents GSM based remote wireless application adapted to telescope control, which can be utilized for greatly enhancing LAMOST' accessibility. The novel technique has recently been developed in LAMOST control lab. Test has demonstrated successful execution of Monitor and Control (M and C) commands for LAMOST through remote wireless mobile. The hardware and software configuration with techniques involved for reliable and secure communication is outlined in this paper too.

  12. Habitable Exoplanet Imager Optical Telescope Concept Design (United States)

    Stahl, H Philip


    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of four missions under study for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Its goal is to directly image and spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable UV/Optical/Near-IR (UVOIR) telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-meter off-axis unobscured three-mirror-anastigmatic, diffraction limited at 400 nm with wavefront stability on the order of a few 10s of picometers. This paper summarizes the opto-mechanical design of the HabEx baseline optical telescope assembly, including a discussion of how science requirements drive the telescope's specifications, and presents analysis that the baseline telescope structure meets its specified tolerances.

  13. In-the-Spectacle-Lens Telescopic Device (United States)

    Peli, Eli; Vargas-Martín, Fernando


    Spectacle-mounted telescopic systems are prescribed for individuals with visual impairments. Bioptic telescopes are typically mounted toward the top of the spectacle lens (or above the frame) with the telescope eyepiece positioned above the wearer’s pupil. This allows the wearer to use up and down head tilt movements to quickly alternate between the unmagnified wide view (through the carrier lens) and the magnified narrow field-of-view (available through the eyepiece). Rejection of this visual aid has been attributed mainly to its appearance and to the limited field-of-view through the smaller Galilean designs. We designed a wide-field Keplerian telescope that is built completely within the spectacle lens. The design uses embedded mirrors inside the carrier lens for optical pathway folding and conventional lenses or curved mirrors for magnification power. The short height of the ocular, its position, and a small tilt of the ocular mirror enable the wearer to simultaneously view the magnified field above the unmagnified view of the uninterrupted horizontal field. These features improve the cosmetics and utility of the device. The in-the-lens design will allow the telescope to be mass-produced as a commodity ophthalmic lens blank that can be surfaced to include the wearer’s spectacle prescription. PMID:18601572

  14. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History (United States)

    Stocchi, M. P.


    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  15. Measurement System for the Green Bank Telescope (United States)

    Parker, D. H.; Srikanth, S.

    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) site in Green Bank, WV, was completed in June 2000. At the time of writing, the GBT is undergoing testing of the various systems and characterization of the actual structural modes. It is the largest, fully-steerable radio telescope in the world. The main reflector which is a solid-surface paraboloid has an unblocked 100-meter projected aperture. The telescope will operate at prime focus from 25 MHz to 1200 MHz and at Gregorian focus from 1.15 GHz to ≥ 100 GHz. It is a state-of-the-art instrument with an active surface to compensate for deformations of the primary reflector backup structure due to external loads. The GBT has a unique six-degree of freedom subreflector and a three-degree of freedom prime focus mount that allow realigning of the optics which is required as the telescope moves in elevation. A receiver turret that holds 8 secondary focus receivers will provide rapid frequency agility for the telescope. This paper describes the metrology system, based on laser rangefinders, that has been developed at NRAO for the realization of the active surface and precision pointing of the GBT.

  16. Telecommunication using muon beams (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.


    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  17. Nonparaxial abruptly autofocusing beams (United States)

    Penciu, Raluca-Sorina; Makris, Konstantinos G.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.


    We study nonparaxial autofocusing beams with pre-engineered trajectories. We consider the case of linearly polarized electric optical beams and examine their focusing properties such as contrast, beam width, and numerical aperture. Such beams are associated with larger intensity contrasts, can focus at smaller distances, and have smaller spot sizes as compared to the paraxial regime.

  18. ISR beam scrapers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Beam scrapers seen in the direction of the beam. The two horizontal scraper foils are near the centre of the beam pipe andthe two scrapers for protection of the vacuum chamber are further outside. In the lower part of the beam pipe is the vertical halo scraping blade.

  19. BTF measurements with beam-beam interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gorgen, P.; Fischer, W.


    We present considerations about the transverse beam transfer function (BTF) of beams under the influence of two effects: The strong-strong beam-beam effect and the influence of a Gaussian electron lens. The BTF are investigated using two methods: BTF excitation is simulated in a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The BTF model is verified using a known analytic expectation. Analytic expectations for BTF of beams under a stationary electron lens are derived by extending BTF from the formalism of Berg and Ruggiero. Finally we compare the analytic BTF results for a stationary Gaussian lens to both the PIC simulation for split tune conditions and to PIC simulations for a beam influenced by an electron lens. We conclude that the formalism represents the electron lens well and can be applied to a limited extend to the beam-beam effect under split tune conditions. The analytic formalism allows us to recover the strength of an electron lens by means of fitting and can give clues regarding the strength of the beam-beam effe...

  20. A Fiber-Optic Coupled Telescope for Water Vapor DIAL Receivers (United States)

    DeYoung, Russell J.; Lonn, Frederick


    A fiber-optic coupled telescope of low complexity was constructed and tested. The major loss mechanisms of the optical system have been characterized. Light collected by the receiver mirror is focused onto an optical fiber, and the output of the fiber is filtered by an interference filter and then focused onto an APD detector. This system was used in lidar field measurements with a 532-nm Nd:YAG laser beam. The results were encouraging. A numerical model used for calculation of the expected return signal agreed with the lidar return signal obtained. The assembled system was easy to align and operate and weighed about 8 kg for a 30 cm (12") mirror system. This weight is low enough to allow mounting of the fiber-optic telescope receiver system in a UAV. Furthermore, the good agreement between the numerical lidar model and the performance of the actual receiver system, suggests that this model may be used for estimation of the performance of this and other lidar systems in the future. Such telescopes are relatively easy to construct and align. The fiber optic cable allows easy placement of the optical detector in any position. These telescope systems should find widespread use in aircraft and space home DIAL water vapor receiver systems.

  1. New Concept of Hungarian Robotic Telescopes (United States)

    Hegedus, T.; Kiss, Z.; Biro, B.; Jager, Z.

    As the result of a longer innovation of a few Hungarian opto-mechanical and electronic small companies, a concept of fully robotic mounts has been formed some years ago. There are lots of Hungarian Automated Telescopes over the world (in Arizona, South Korea, Izrael and atop Mauna Kea, just below the famous Keck domes). These are cited as HAT telescopes (Bakos et al. 2002), and served thousands of large-frame time-series CCD images since 2004, and the working team found already 6 exoplanets, and a number of new variable stars, etc... The newest idea was to build a more robust robotic mount, hosting larger optics (D > 50 cm) for achieving much fainter celestial objects, than the HAT series (they are operating with Nikon teleobjective lenses) on a still relatively wide celestial area. The very first sample model is the BART-1, a 50cm f/6 telescope.

  2. Toward active x-ray telescopes II (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.


    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the observation time required to achieve a given sensitivity has decreased by eight orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope, culminating with the exquisite subarcsecond imaging performance of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (technologically challenging—requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes current progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  3. Perceptual image quality and telescope performance ranking (United States)

    Lentz, Joshua K.; Harvey, James E.; Marshall, Kenneth H.; Salg, Joseph; Houston, Joseph B.


    Launch Vehicle Imaging Telescopes (LVIT) are expensive, high quality devices intended for improving the safety of vehicle personnel, ground support, civilians, and physical assets during launch activities. If allowed to degrade from the combination of wear, environmental factors, and ineffective or inadequate maintenance, these devices lose their ability to provide adequate quality imagery to analysts to prevent catastrophic events such as the NASA Space Shuttle, Challenger, accident in 1986 and the Columbia disaster of 2003. A software tool incorporating aberrations and diffraction that was developed for maintenance evaluation and modeling of telescope imagery is presented. This tool provides MTF-based image quality metric outputs which are correlated to ascent imagery analysts' perception of image quality, allowing a prediction of usefulness of imagery which would be produced by a telescope under different simulated conditions.

  4. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: six years on (United States)

    Luckas, Paul


    Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences-from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface and educational philosophy, summarises achievements and lessons learned and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  5. Template analysis for the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Uta [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration


    The MAGIC telescopes are two 17-m-diameter Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes located on the Canary island of La Palma. They record the Cherenkov light from air showers induced by very high energy photons. The current data analysis uses a parametrization of the two shower images (including Hillas parameters) to determine the characteristics of the primary particle. I am implementing an advanced analysis method that compares shower images on a pixel basis with template images based on Monte Carlo simulations. To reduce the simulation effort the templates contain only pure shower images that are convolved with the telescope response later in the analysis. The primary particle parameters are reconstructed by maximizing the likelihood of the template. By using all the information available in the shower images, the performance of MAGIC is expected to improve. In this presentation I will explain the general idea of a template-based analysis and show the first results of the implementation.

  6. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M


    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  7. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  8. MROI Array telescopes: the relocatable enclosure domes (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Payne, I.


    The MROI - Magdalena Ridge Interferometer is a project which comprises an array of up to 10 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. EIE GROUP Srl, Venice - Italy, was awarded the contract for the design, the construction and the erection on site of the MROI by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The close-pack array of the MROI - including all 10 telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other - necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE). This innovative design enclosure incorporates a unique dome/observing aperture system to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). The main characteristics of this Relocatable Enclosure Dome are: a Light insulated Steel Structure with a dome made of composites materials (e.g. glass/carbon fibers, sandwich panels etc.), an aperture motorized system for observation, a series of louvers for ventilation, a series of electrical and plants installations and relevant auxiliary equipment. The first Enclosure Dome is now under construction and the completion of the mounting on site id envisaged by the end of 2016. The relocation system utilizes a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) capable of maneuvering between and around the enclosures, capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (30tons), with minimal impacts due to vibrations.

  9. Autonomous Dome for a Robotic Telescope (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Sengupta, A.; Ganesh, S.


    The Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50 cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu (Rajsthan, India). This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of the Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5 m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  10. DESTINY, The Dark Energy Space Telescope (United States)

    Pasquale, Bert A.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod


    We have proposed the development of a low-cost space telescope, Destiny, as a concept for the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission. Destiny is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared (0.85-1.7m) survey camera/spectrometer with a moderate flat-field field of view (FOV). Destiny will probe the properties of dark energy by obtaining a Hubble diagram based on Type Ia supernovae and a large-scale mass power spectrum derived from weak lensing distortions of field galaxies as a function of redshift.

  11. Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (WFAST) (United States)

    Nir, Guy; Ofek, Eran Oded; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Manulis, Ilan; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Diner, Oz; Rappaport, Michael


    The Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (W-FAST) is an experiment designed to explore variability on sub-second time scales. When completed it will consist of two robotic 55-cm f/2 Schmidt telescopes. The optics is capable of providing $\\sim0.5$" image quality over 23 deg$^2$. The focal plane will be equipped with fast readout, low read-noise sCMOS detectors. The first generation focal plane is expected to have 6.2 deg$^2$ field of view. WFAST is designed to study occultations by solar system objects (KBOs and Oort cloud objects), short time scale stellar variability, and high resolution imaging via proper coaddition.

  12. Status of the GroundBIRD Telescope (United States)

    Choi, J.; Génova-Santos, R.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Kanno, F.; Karatsu, K.; Kiuchi, K.; Koyano, R.; Kutsuma, H.; Lee, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Naruse, M.; Oguri, S.; Okada, T.; Otani, C.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.; Sekimoto, Y.; Suzuki, J.; Taino, T.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.; Won, E.; Yoshida, M.


    Our understanding of physics at very early Universe, as early as 10-35 s after the Big Bang, relies on the scenario known as the inflationary cosmology. Inflation predicts a particular polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background, known as the B-mode yet the strength of such polarization pattern is extremely weak. To search for the B-mode of the polarization in the cosmic microwave background, we are constructing an off-axis rotating telescope to mitigate systematic effects as well as to maximize the sky coverage of the observation. We will discuss the present status of the GroundBIRD telescope.

  13. Enclosure design for Thirty Meter Telescope (United States)

    Loewen, N.; Breckenridge, C.; Vasiljevic, A.


    The design of the calotte enclosure for the Thirty-Meter Telescope is currently in the preliminary design phase. Key aspects of the design include an efficient structural/mechanical form, repetition of components, modular construction, and operational efficiency. This paper includes an overall description of the enclosure design, as well as a description of the major structural and mechanical subsystems. The enclosure incorporates features that influence the thermal and aerodynamic environment of the telescope including ventilation openings and wind deflecting features. Other key considerations of the preliminary design include the constructability and maintainability of a dynamic structure of this scale at a remote mountain site.

  14. Telescope Pointing Based in Inertial Measurment Unit (United States)

    Vujičić, D.; Pavlović, R.; Cvetković, Z., Randjić, S.; Jagodić, D.


    In this paper we study the problem of how to determine the coordinates of a point a telescope is directed to on the basis of data obtained from a 9DOF sensor board. On the 9DOF sensor board there are three sensors: the gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetometer. By combining the data from all the three sensors one obtains the Eulerian angles in the system tied to the sensor board. The Eulerian angles are transformed into the horizontal and equatorial coordinates in order to obtain the point the telescope is directed to.

  15. Mirror Illumination and Spillover Measurements of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (United States)

    Gallardo, Patricio; Dunner, Rolando; Wollack, Ed; Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos


    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6 m telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) simultaneously at 145 GHz, 220GHz and 280GHz, The receiver in ACT, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera, features 1000 TES bolometers in each band, The detector performance depends critically on the total optical loading, requiring the spmover contributions from the optics to be minimal. This inspired the use of a cold Lyot stop to limit the illumination of the primary and the use of guard rings surrounding the primary and secondary reflectors. Here, we present a direct measurement of the illumination aperture for both reflectors and of the attenuation level outside the main optical path. We used a 145 GHz, 1 m W source and a chopper wheel to produce a time-varying signal with a broad heam proflle, We sampled the response of the camera for different locations of the source, placed in front and beside the primary and secondary mirrors. The aperture of the primary was measured to be 5,72 plus or minus 0,17m in diameter (95 plus or minus 3% of its geometrical size), while the aperture of the secondary yielded 2 plus or minus 0.12m in diameter. Both apertures are consistent with the optical design. Comparing to previous measurements of the beam solid angle from planet observations, we estimate an optical efficiency of 72.3 plus or minus 4,8%. We found that the attenuation outside the primary aperture was -16 plus or minus 2dB, which is below the theoretical expectations, and -22 plus or minus 1 dB outside the secondary aperture, which is consistent with simulations. These results motivated the extension of the baffles surrounding the secondary mirror, with the following reduction in detector optical loading from 2,24 pW to 188pW.

  16. Alignment-Insensitive Lower-Cost Telescope Architecture (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Hagopian, John; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe


    This architecture features an active wavefront sensing and control scheme along with methods for measuring the relative positions of the primary to aft optics, such as the secondary mirror, and should enable larger and cheaper telescope architectures needed for future applications. A wavefront source/sensor is placed at the center of curvature of the primary mirror. The system provides continuous light onto a primary mirror that is retro-reflected onto itself. This allows the wavefront controller to constantly update the positions of the primary mirror segments (or deformable mirror actuators). Another function of this innovation involves using a concave mirror on the back of the secondary mirror (or other aft optic) that has the same center-of-curvature location (in defocus) as the primary mirror. The two return beams can be aligned next to each other on a detector, or radially on top of each other. This provides a means with which to measure the relative position of the primary to the secondary (or other aft optics), thus allowing for the removal of misalignment of the center-of-curvature source/sensor (meaning it doesn't need precision placement) and also provides a means with which to monitor the relative alignment over time. This innovation does not require extremely good thermal stability on the primary mirror and can thus be used in any thermal environment and with cheaper materials. In addition to this, the architecture lets one phase (or align) the primary mirror independent of whether a star or scene is in the field. The segmented, spherical primary allows for cost-effective three-meter class (e.g. Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enabling 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions for low-Earth-orbit.

  17. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Misaligned Active Galactic Nuclei (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Celotti, A.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conrad, J.; Davis, D. S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grandi, P.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Malaguti, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Migliori, G.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nestoras, I.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.


    Analysis is presented for 15 months of data taken with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope for 11 non-blazar active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including seven FRI radio galaxies and four FRII radio sources consisting of two FRII radio galaxies and two steep spectrum radio quasars. The broad line FRI radio galaxy 3C 120 is reported here as a γ-ray source for the first time. The analysis is based on directional associations of LAT sources with radio sources in the 3CR, 3CRR, and MS4 (collectively referred to as 3C-MS) catalogs. Seven of the eleven LAT sources associated with 3C-MS radio sources have spectral indices larger than 2.3 and, except for the FRI radio galaxy NGC 1275 that shows possible spectral curvature, are well described by a power law. No evidence for time variability is found for any sources other than NGC 1275. The γ-ray luminosities of FRI radio galaxies are significantly smaller than those of the BL Lac objects detected by the LAT, whereas the γ-ray luminosities of the FRII sources are quite similar to those of FSRQs, which could reflect different beaming factors for the γ-ray emission. A core dominance (CD) study of the 3CRR sample indicates that sources closer to the jet axis are preferentially detected with the Fermi LAT, insofar as the γ-ray-detected misaligned AGNs have larger CD at a given average radio flux. The results are discussed in view of the AGN unification scenario.

  18. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.


    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  19. XMM telescope goes on show for the first time (United States)


    formed in an electrochemical bath. As each finished mirror was only about a millimetre thick, the Medio Lario team had to handle it with great care to avoid flexing, until it was glued into position among all the other mirrors, between wheel-like "spiders" fabricated by APCO in Switzerland. If the telescope is correctly made, all X-rays coming from a certain direction, and entering any part of any of the mirrors, should go to the same focus. The specification requires that any spread at the focus should be less than a millimetre. The optical quality is tested first in a special apparatus at LiŠge called FOCAL X, and then at the Panter X-ray facility at Neuried in Germany. "We take pride and satisfaction in helping to develop such remarkable telescopes," says Claude Jamar, director of CSL. "While others pioneered the methods of fabrication, here in LiŠge we had to invent novel ways of checking the performance. We use a wide beam of very short ultraviolet wavelengths to simulate X-rays, and verify the focus of each part of each XMM telescope." About the Centre Spatial de Liège As a laboratory unique in western Europe, CSL is run by the Université de Liège as one of ESA's coordinated test facilities.Optical instruments for space missions can be checked with high accuracy, under a high vacuum that simulates the airless conditions in space. ESA relies upon CSL for testing important optical components for many spacecraft. The long list includes the radiometer of the Meteosat weather satellite, the camera for Giotto which obtained unique pictures of Halley's Comet, and the telescopes of the Hipparcos star-fixing mission and the Infrared Space Observatory ISO. CSL was an early recruit to the Europe-wide teams of scientists and engineers who are creating the XMM spacecraft and its instruments. Other optical devices currently under evaluation by CSL include the experimental laser system SILEX for communication between satellites, and the ozone-monitoring GOMOS instrument for

  20. Design and Deployment of a Multichroic Polarimeter Array on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (United States)

    Datta, R.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Coughlin, K. P.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P.A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Henderson, S. W.; hide


    We present the design and the preliminary on-sky performance with respect to beams and pass bands of a multichroic polarimeter array covering the 90 and 146 GHz cosmic microwave background bands and its enabling broad-band optical system recently deployed on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The constituent pixels are feedhorn-coupled multichroic polarimeters fabricated at NIST. This array is coupled to the ACT telescope via a set of three silicon lenses incorporating novel broad-band metamaterial anti-reflection coatings. This receiver represents the first multichroic detector array deployed for a CMB experiment and paves the way for the extensive use of multichroic detectors and broad-band optical systems in the next generation of CMB experiments.

  1. Observing Pulsars with a Phased Array Feed at the Parkes Telescope (United States)

    Deng, X.; Chippendale, A. P.; Hobbs, G.; Johnston, S.; Dai, S.; George, D.; Kramer, M.; Karuppusamy, R.; Malenta, M.; Spitler, L.; Tzioumis, T.; Wieching, G.


    During 2016 February, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science and the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy installed, commissioned, and carried out science observations with a phased array feed receiver system on the 64-m diameter Parkes radio telescope. Here, we demonstrate that the phased array feed can be used for pulsar observations and we highlight some unique capabilities. We demonstrate that the pulse profiles obtained using the phased array feed can be calibrated and that multiple pulsars can be simultaneously observed. Significantly, we find that an intrinsic polarisation leakage of -31 dB can be achieved with a phased array feed beam offset from the centre of the field of view. We discuss the possibilities for using a phased array feed for future pulsar observations and for searching for fast radio bursts with the Parkes and Effelsberg telescopes.

  2. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz


    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  3. Development of a safe ground to space laser propagation system for the optical communications telescope laboratory (United States)

    Wu, Janet P.


    Furthering pursuits in high bandwidth communications to future NASA deep space and neat-Earth probes, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is building the Optical communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) atop Table Mountain in Southern California. This R&D optical antenna will be used to develop optical communication strategies for future optical ground stations. Initial experiments to be conducted include propagating high-powered, Q-switched laser beams to retro-reflecting satellites. Yet laser beam propagation from the ground to space is under the cognizance of various government agencies, namely: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (ISHA) that is responsible for protecting workforce personnel; the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) responsible for protecting pilots and aircraft; and the Laser Clearinghouse of Space Command responsible for protecting space assets. To ensure that laser beam propagation from the OCTL and future autonomously operated ground stations comply with the guidelines of these organizations, JPL is developing a multi-tiered safety system that will meet the coordination, monitoring, and reporting functions required by the agencies. At Tier 0, laser operators will meet OSHA safety standards for protection and access to the high power lasers area will be restricted and interlocked. Tier 1, the area defined from the telescope dome out to a range of 3.4-km, will utilize long wave infrared camera sensors to alert operators of at risk aircraft in the FAA controlled airspace. Tier 2, defined to extend from 3.4-km out to the aircraft service ceiling in FAA airspace, will detect at risk aircraft by radar. Lastly, beam propagation into space, defined as Tier 3, will require coordination with the Laser Clearinghouse. A detailed description of the four tiers is presented along with the design of the integrated monitoring and beam transmission control system.

  4. A beam expander facility for studying x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.


    The detailed study of the performance of full scale x-ray optics often requires the illumination of large areas. This paper describes a beam expander facility at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It combines monochromatization and beam expansion in one dimension. The beam expansion...... x-ray telescope will be studied, is described in detail. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....... is obtained from an extremely asymmetric reflection in a large single crystal of Si. An expansion of a factor of 50 was obtained in one dimension. The expanded beam of ~85 mm is limited only by the crystal size. The facility is installed in a 12-m-long hutch. A specific application, in which a high throughput...

  5. Choosing and Using a Refracting Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil


    The refracting telescope has a long and illustrious past. Here’s what the author says about early telescopes and today’s refractors: “Four centuries ago, a hitherto obscure Italian scientist turned a home-made spyglass towards the heavens. The lenses he used were awful by modern standards, inaccurately figured and filled with the scars of their perilous journey from the furnace to the finishing workshop. Yet, despite these imperfections, they allowed him to see what no one had ever seen before – a universe far more complex and dynamic than anyone had dared imagine. But they also proved endlessly useful in the humdrum of human affairs. For the first time ever, you could spy on your neighbor from a distance, or monitor the approach of a war-mongering army, thus deciding the fate of nations. “The refractor is without doubt the prince of telescopes. Compared with all other telescopic designs, the unobstructed view of the refractor enables it to capture the sharpest, highest contrast images and the wides...

  6. The Science and Art of Using Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip


    Explains how to select equipment that is at the 'next level', and describes how to use more advanced telescopes and accessories. This book includes a section on imaging and equipment that range from regular digital cameras, through web cams, to specialized chilled-chip CCD cameras

  7. Introduction to the Solar Space Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The design of the space solar telescope (SST) (phase B) has been completed. The manufacturing is under development. At the end of 2000, it will be assembled. The basic aspect will be introduced in this paper. Author Affiliations. G. Ai1 S. Jin1 S. Wang1 B. Ye1 S. Yang1. Beijing Astronomical Observatory / National ...

  8. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope (United States)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.


    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  9. The telescopic tourist's guide to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew


    Whether you’re interested in visiting Apollo landing sites or the locations of classic sci-fi movies, this is the tourist guide for you! This tourist guide has a twist – it is a guide to a whole different world, which you can visit from the comfort of your backyard with the aid of nothing more sophisticated than an inexpensive telescope. It tells you the best times to view the Moon, the most exciting sights to look out for, and the best equipment to use, allowing you to snap stunning photographs as well as view the sights with your own eyes. Have you ever been inspired by stunning images from the Hubble telescope, or the magic of sci-fi special effects, only to look through a small backyard telescope at the disappointing white dot of a planet or faint blur of a galaxy? Yet the Moon is different. Seen through even a relatively cheap telescope, it springs into life like a real place, with mountains and valleys and rugged craters. With a bit of imagination, you can even picture yourself as a sightseeing visi...

  10. Go-To Telescopes Under Suburban Skies

    CERN Document Server

    Monks, Neale


    For the last four centuries stargazers have turned their telescopes to the night skies to look at its wonders, but only in this age of computers has it become possible to let the telescope find for you the object you are looking for! So-called “go-to” telescopes are programmed with the locations of thousands of objects, including dazzling distant Suns, stunning neighboring galaxies, globular and open star clusters, the remnants of past supernovae, and many other breathtaking sights. This book does not tell you how to use your Go-to telescope. Your manual will help you do that. It tells you what to look for in the deep sky and why, and what equipment to best see it with. Organized broadly by what is best for viewing in the northern hemisphere in different seasons, Monks further divides the sights of each season into groupings such as “Showpiece Objects,” “Interesting Deep Sky Objects,” and “Obscure and Challenging Deep Sky Objects.” He also tells what objects are visible even in light-polluted ...

  11. Teaching a Course about the Space Telescope. (United States)

    Page, Thornton


    "Astronomy with the Space Telescope" is a course designed to show scientists/engineers how this instrument can make important advances in astrophysics, planetology, and geophysics. A description of the course (taught to 11 students working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and sample student paper on black holes are…

  12. FACT. Bokeh alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sebastian Achim [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund (Germany)


    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need fast and large imaging optics to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors are inexpensive, lightweight and offer good image quality. However, alignment of the mirror facets remains a challenge. A good alignment is crucial in IACT observations to separate gamma rays from hadronic cosmic rays. We present a simple, yet extendable method, to align segmented reflectors using their Bokeh. Bokeh alignment does not need a star or good weather nights but can be done anytime, even during the day. Bokeh alignment optimizes the facet orientations by comparing the segmented reflector's Bokeh to a predefined template. The Bokeh is observed using the out of focus image of a nearby point like light source in a distance of about ten times the focal lengths. We introduce Bokeh alignment on segmented reflectors and present its use on the First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) on Canary Island La Palma, as well as on the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype in Berlin Adlershof.

  13. Fusion of Telescopic and Doppler Radar Data (United States)

    Navara, M.; Matousek, M.; Drbohlav, O.


    We study the possibilities of observations of satellites at circular LEO orbits simultaneously by a telescope and a bistatic continuous-wave Doppler radar. Telescopic images allow for trajectory determination except for its distance (and hence height). Assuming a circular orbit, the height can be computed from the angular speed, but this is often impossible for LEO objects which do not remain in the field of view during the whole exposure time. To restore the missing information, we use Doppler radar data from a radio astronomy network, originally designed for detection of meteors. Using simulated perturbations of real radar data we studied their influence on the estimates of (i) permanent parameters of trajectory (orbital elements), (ii) instantaneous parameters of trajectory, (iii) distance and height estimates if the other parameters are given by the telescopic data. We derived recommendations for the optimal positions of the transmitter and receivers leading to the best resolution. We also discuss possible ways of improvement of this technique. Fusion results are shown on a suite of several matched radar and telescopic satellite fly-over data.

  14. HabEx space telescope optical system (United States)

    Martin, Stefan; Rud, Mayer; Scowen, Paul; Stern, Daniel; Nissen, Joel; Krist, John


    The HabEx study is defining a concept for a new space telescope with the primary mission of detecting and characterizing planetary systems around nearby stars. The telescope is designed specifically to operate with both a high contrast coronagraph and a starshade, enabling the direct optical detection of exoplanets as close as 70 mas from their star. The telescope will be equipped with cameras for exoplanetary system imaging and with spectrometers capable of characterizing exoplanet atmospheres. Gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane have spectral lines in the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum and may indicate biological activity. In addition to the study of exoplanets, HabEx enables general astrophysics with two dedicated instruments. One instrument is a camera enabling imaging on a 3 arc minute field of view in two bands stretching from the UV to the near infrared. The same instrument can also be operated as a multi-object spectrograph, with resolution of 2000. A second instrument will be a high resolution UV spectrograph operating from 120 nm with up to 60,0000 resolution. We discuss the preliminary designs of the telescope and the optical instruments for the observatory.

  15. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).


    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Camera Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (United States)

    Moncada, Roberto Jose


    With the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the very-high-energy gamma-ray universe, between 30 GeV and 300 TeV, will be probed at an unprecedented resolution, allowing deeper studies of known gamma-ray emitters and the possible discovery of new ones. This exciting project could also confirm the particle nature of dark matter by looking for the gamma rays produced by self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The telescopes will use the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) to record Cherenkov photons that are produced by the gamma-ray induced extensive air shower. One telescope design features dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics that allows the light to be finely focused on the high-resolution silicon photomultipliers of the camera modules starting from a 9.5-meter primary mirror. Each camera module will consist of a focal plane module and front-end electronics, and will have four TeV Array Readout with GSa/s Sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET) chips, giving them 64 parallel input channels. The TARGET chip has a self-trigger functionality for readout that can be used in higher logic across camera modules as well as across individual telescopes, which will each have 177 camera modules. There will be two sites, one in the northern and the other in the southern hemisphere, for full sky coverage, each spanning at least one square kilometer. A prototype SC telescope is currently under construction at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF award AST-1560016.

  17. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST) (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion


    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  18. Electron beam welding and beam positioning




    Programs for control of mutual movements of the welded parts and EB gun are written in the unified language ISO-7bit. Beam settings control uses electronic charts or optional languages, sometimes self-designed. Operator coordinates movements and beam settings manually.

  19. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V


    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope: Optical telescope assembly handbook. Version 1.0 (United States)

    Burrows, Chris


    The Hubble Space Telescope is described along with how its design affects the images produced at the Science Instruments. An overview is presented of the hardware. Details are presented of the focal plane, throughput of the telescope, and the point spread function (image of an unresolved point source). Some detailed simulations are available of this, which might be useful to observers in planning their observations and in reducing their data.

  1. Run II performance of luminosity and beam condition monitors at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)


    The BRIL (Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity) system of CMS consists of instrumentation to measure the luminosity online and offline, and to monitor the LHC beam conditions inside CMS. An accurate luminosity measurement is essential to the CMS physics program, and measurement of the beam background is necessary to ensure safe operation of CMS. Many of the BRIL subsystems have been upgraded and others have been added for LHC Run II to complement the existing measurements. The beam condition monitor (BCM) consists of several sets of diamond sensors used to measure online luminosity and beam background with a single-bunch-crossing resolution. The BCM also detects when beam conditions become unfavorable for CMS running and may trigger a beam abort to protect the detector. The beam halo monitor (BHM) uses quartz bars to measure the background of the incoming beams at larger radii. The pixel luminosity telescope (PLT) consists of telescopes of silicon sensors designed to provide a CMS online and offline luminosity measurement. In addition, the forward hadronic calorimeter (HF) delivers an independent luminosity measurement, making the whole system robust and allowing for cross-checks of the systematics. An overview of the performance during 2015 LHC running for the new/updated BRIL subsystems will be given, including the uncertainties of the luminosity measurements.

  2. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  3. NASA 3D Models: James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. The project is working to a 2018 launch date. The JWST will...

  4. The Origins Space Telescope — A NASA Decadal Mission Study (United States)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Origins Space Telescope STDT


    The Origins Space Telescope will discover or characterize exoplanets, the most distant galaxies, nearby galaxies and the Milky Way, and the outer reaches of our solar system. This talk will present the Origins Space Telescope Mission Concept 1.

  5. Scientific Performance Analysis of the SYZ Telescope Design versus the RC Telescope Design (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Cai, Zheng


    Recently, Su et al. propose an innovative design, referred as the “SYZ” design, for China’s new project of a 12 m optical-infrared telescope. The SYZ telescope design consists of three aspheric mirrors with non-zero power, including a relay mirror below the primary mirror. SYZ design yields a good imaging quality and has a relatively flat field curvature at Nasmyth focus. To evaluate the science-compatibility of this three-mirror telescope, in this paper, we thoroughly compare the performance of SYZ design with that of Ritchey–Chrétien (RC) design, a conventional two-mirror telescope design. Further, we propose the Observing Information Throughput (OIT) as a metric for quantitatively evaluating the telescopes’ science performance. We find that although a SYZ telescope yields a superb imaging quality over a large field of view, a two-mirror (RC) telescope design holds a higher overall throughput, a better diffraction-limited imaging quality in the central field of view (FOV < 5‧) which is better for the performance of extreme Adaptive Optics (AO), and a generally better scientific performance with a higher OIT value. D. Ma & Z. Cai contributed equally to this paper.

  6. Calibration and performance of the STAR Muon Telescope Detector using cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics (IHEP and USTC), USTC, Hefei 230026 (China); Huang, X.J., E-mail: [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Du, C.M. [Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Huang, B.C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ahammed, Z.; Banerjee, A. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, West Bengal 700064 (India); Bhattarari, P. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Biswas, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, West Bengal 700064 (India); Bowen, B. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Butterworth, J. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Carson, H. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chattopadhyay, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, West Bengal 700064 (India); Cebra, D. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Chen, H.F. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics (IHEP and USTC), USTC, Hefei 230026 (China); Cheng, J.P. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Codrington, M. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Eppley, G. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Flores, C. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Geurts, F. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); and others


    We report the timing and spatial resolution from the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) installed in the STAR experiment at RHIC. Cosmic ray muons traversing the STAR detector have an average transverse momentum of 6 GeV/c. Due to their very small multiple scattering, these cosmic muons provide an ideal tool to calibrate the detectors and measure their timing and spatial resolution. The values obtained were ∼100 ps and ∼1–2 cm. These values are comparable to those obtained from cosmic-ray bench tests and test beams.

  7. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.


    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  8. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  9. South African Student Constructed Indlebe Radio Telescope (United States)

    McGruder, Charles H.; MacPherson, Stuart; Janse Van Vuuren, Gary Peter


    The Indlebe Radio Telescope (IRT) is a small transit telescope with a 5 m diameter parabolic reflector working at 21 cm. It was completely constructed by South African (SA) students from the Durban University of Technology (DUT), where it is located. First light occurred on 28 July 2008, when the galactic center, Sagittarius A, was detected. As a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, staff members in the Department of Electronic Engineering at DUT in 2006 decided to have their students create a fully functional radio telescope by 2009. The specific project aims are to provide a visible project that could generate interest in science and technology in high school students and to provide a real world system for research in radio astronomy in general and an optimization of low noise radio frequency receiver systems in particular. These aims must be understood in terms of the SA’s government interests in radio astronomy. SA is a partner in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, has constructed the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT) and MeerKat, which is the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere. SA and its partners in Africa are investing in the construction of the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN), an array of radio telescopes throughout Africa as an extension of the existing global Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (VLBI). These projects will allow SA to make significant contributions to astronomy and enable astronomy to contribute to the scientific education and development goals of the country. The IRT sees on a daily basis the transit of Sag A. The transit time is influenced by precession, nutation, polar motion, aberration, celestial pole offset, proper motion, length of the terrestrial day and variable ionospheric refraction. Of these eight factors six are either predictable or measureable. To date neither celestial pole offset nor variable ionospheric refraction are predicable

  10. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  11. Eyes on the sky a spectrum of telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Graham-Smith, Francis


    Astronomy is experiencing a golden age, with a new generation of innovative telescopes yielding a flood of information on the Universe. This book traces the development of telescopes from Galileo to the present day, and explains the basic principles of telescopes that operate in different parts of electromagnetic spectrum.

  12. Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope Observations of Wolf–Rayet Dwarf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope (DFOT) is a 1.3 meter aperture optical telescope, recently installed at Devasthal, Nainital. We present here the first results using an H filter with this telescope on a Wolf–Rayet dwarf galaxy Mrk 996. The instrumental response and the H sensitivity obtained with the ...

  13. Searching Hubble Space Telescope Archives for Solar System Observations and Planned Improvements for James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Gosmeyer, C. M.; Brasseur, C.; Fleming, S.; Mutchler, M.


    We present tips and tools for searching Hubble Space Telescope archives for solar system observations. Additionally, we provide an overview of planned archive improvements for James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. The balloon-borne electron telescope with scintillating fibers (BETS)

    CERN Document Server

    Torii, S; Tateyama, N; Yoshida, K; Ouchi, Y; Yamagami, T; Saitô, Y; Murakami, H; Kobayashi, T; Komori, Y; Kasahara, K; Yuda, T; Nishimura, J


    we describe a new detector system developed for high-altitude balloon flights to observe the cosmic-ray electrons above 10 GeV. The balloon borne electron telescope with Scintillating (BETS) fibers instrument is an imaging calorimeter which is capable of selecting electrons against the large background of protons. The calorimeter is composed of a sandwich of scintillating optical-fiber belts and lead plates with a combination of three plastic scintillators for the shower trigger. The total thickness of lead is 40 mm (~7.1 r.l.) and the number of fiber belts is nine. In each belt, alternating layers are oriented in orthogonal (x and y) directions. Two sets of an intensified CCD camera are adopted for read-out of the scintillating fibers in the x and y direction, respectively. The accelerator beam tests were carried out to study the performance of detector for electrons in 1996 and for protons in 1997 at CERN-SPS. The instrument was successfully flown aboard high-altitude balloon in 1997 and 1998. It is demonst...

  15. Performance Evaluation of Irbene RT-16 Radio Telescope Receiving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleiders M.


    Full Text Available In the present paper, recent measurement results of refurbished Irbene RT-16 radio telescope receiving system performance are presented. The aim of the research is to evaluate characteristics of RT-16, which will allow carrying out necessary amplitude calibration in both single dish and VLBI observations, to improve the performance of existing system as well as to monitor, control and compare performance if possible changes in the receiving system will occur in future. The evaluated receiving system is 16 m Cassegrain antenna equipped with a cryogenic receiver with frequency range from 4.5 to 8.8 GHz, which is divided into four sub-bands. Multiple calibration sessions have been carried out by observing stable astronomical sources with known flux density by using in-house made total power registration backend. First, pointing offset calibration has been carried out and pointing model coefficients calculated and applied. Then, amplitude calibration, namely antenna sensitivity, calibration diode equivalent flux density and gain curve measurements have been carried out by observing calibration sources at different antenna elevations at each of the receiver sub-bands. Beam patterns have also been evaluated at different frequency bands. As a whole, acquired data will serve as a reference point for comparison in future performance evaluation of RT-16.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, G. R.; Richards, Jon; Tarter, Jill C.; Dreher, John; Jordan, Jane; Shostak, Seth; Smolek, Ken; Kilsdonk, Tom; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Wimberly, M. K. R.; Ross, John; Barott, W. C.; Ackermann, R. F.; Blair, Samantha [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)


    We report radio SETI observations on a large number of known exoplanets and other nearby star systems using the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). Observations were made over about 19000 hr from 2009 May to 2015 December. This search focused on narrowband radio signals from a set totaling 9293 stars, including 2015 exoplanet stars and Kepler objects of interest and an additional 65 whose planets may be close to their habitable zones. The ATA observations were made using multiple synthesized beams and an anticoincidence filter to help identify terrestrial radio interference. Stars were observed over frequencies from 1 to 9 GHz in multiple bands that avoid strong terrestrial communication frequencies. Data were processed in near-real time for narrowband (0.7–100 Hz) continuous and pulsed signals with transmitter/receiver relative accelerations from −0.3 to 0.3 m s{sup −2}. A total of 1.9 × 10{sup 8} unique signals requiring immediate follow-up were detected in observations covering more than 8 × 10{sup 6} star-MHz. We detected no persistent signals from extraterrestrial technology exceeding our frequency-dependent sensitivity threshold of 180–310 × 10{sup −26} W m{sup −2}.

  17. Halo formation from mismatched beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji


    In this paper, we report on the halo formation and emittance growth driven by a parametric resonance during mismatched beam-beam collisions. In the regime of the weak-strong beam-beam interaction, if two beams have the same machine tunes, on-axis head-on collisions between a mismatched strong beam and a weak beam will not cause the formation of halo. However, if the two beams collide with an initial offset, the beam-beam force from the mismatched strong beam can cause halo formation and emittance growth in the weak beam. Meanwhile, if two beams have different machine tunes, for opposite charged colliding beams, when the machine tune of the weak beam is smaller than that of strong beam, there is emittance growth in the weak beam. When the machine tune of the weak beam is larger than that of the strong beam, there is little emittance growth. In the regime of strong-strong beam-beam interaction, halo is formed in both beams even when the two beams collide head-on on the axis with equal machine tunes. This puts a strong requirement for a good beam match during the injection to colliders in order to avoid the emittance growth.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Green Bank Telescope observations of NGC 2403 (de Blok+, 2014) (United States)

    de Blok, W. J. G.; Keating, K. M.; Pisano, D. J.; Fraternali, F.; Walter, F.; Oosterloo, T.; Brinks, E.; Bigiel, F.; Leroy, A.


    We observed NGC 2403 with the Green Bank Telescopes in the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen, in 21 sessions between 29 May and 30 September 2009. The beam size of the observations is 8.7'. We include a FITS file containing the data-cube (pos-pos-vel) of the HI emission line of NGC 2403. We used equatorial coordinates for the spatial dimensions and VLSR for the spectral dimension. The pixel size is 1.75' in spatial dimension and the spectral resolution is 5.2km/s. All values are in Jy/beam. The data-cube spans an area of about 4x4 degrees (RAxDec) around the center of the maps at 07:35:29.9 +65:35:48.5 (EQ=J2000) and the velocity ranges from -895.6 to 1745.0km/s. (2 data files).

  19. Exploring the Universe with the Worldwide Telescope (United States)

    Fay, J. E.


    Microsoft Research WorldWide Telescope is a software platform for exploring the universe. Whether you are a researcher, student or just a casual explorer WorldWide Telescope uses cutting edge technology to take you anywhere in the universe and visualize data collected by science programs from across the globe, including NASA great observatories and planetary probes. WWT leverages technologies such as Virtual reality headsets, multi-channel full dome projection and HTML5/WebGL to bring the WWT experience to any device and any scale. We will discuss how to use WWT to browse previously curated data, as well as how to process and visualize your own data, using examples from NASA Mars missions.

  20. A rigorous algorithm for telescope pointing (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick T.


    A typical modern telescope control system points by first calculating the direction of the target in nominal mount coordinates and then applying small corrections to the demanded mount angles. The pointing refers to the rotation axis of the instrument mount, and rotator demands are calculated via parallactic angle. This simple approach works well enough when the corrections are small and the accuracy objectives are modest. However, a more rigorous approach can pay off, in the form of improved pointing, more accurate guide probe predictions, reduced residual field rotation and reliable world coordinate system information even when the detector is off-axis. In this paper I propose a rigorous vector/matrix algorithm for generating pointing predictions on an imperfect telescope, with support for autoguiding, field stabilization and world coordinate systems even in difficult cases such as Nasmyth and coude.

  1. A 25 m Live Optics Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardeberg, Arne; Andersen, Torben; Owner-Petersen, Mette


    A 25 m four mirror live optics telescope is studied. M1 is spherical with 141 segments and f/0.96. M1 is reimaged onto M4 also with 141 segments. Image FWHM is 20 arc min. A horseshoe solution with a simple azimuth platform is applied. M1 segments are supported by a fine...... meniscus form truss structure, tied to the horseshoe by a coarser mesh. A FEM with 10^4 dof was developed and applied. Live optics control M1 and M4 segments (the latter with potential high bandwidth). Correction signals in tilt, coma and defocus are traced. A correlation tracker and a lase guide star.......Key words: Very large telescopes - live optics - image quality - wind buffeting - end-to-end simulation model....

  2. Computerization of a telescope at secondary education (United States)

    García Santiago, A.; Martos Jumillas, J.


    The work we are presenting in this paper is the computerization of a refractor telescope on an EQ3 type equatorial mount through Arduino. The control of the mount is done via three different interfaces: Stellarium, an Android interface for mobile phones and a second interface for PC made with Processing. The aforementioned work was done by the authors with a double purpose: presenting the interest in astronomy in the Mathematics department, and the development of applications within the subject of Technology in 4th ESO. So, it is a collaborative project between both departments. Except for the telescope and the mount, all the resources we have used can be found in any high school: free software (Guadalinex v9), App Inventor and Processing.The project was carried out under the principle of reducing all possible costs given the economic possibilities of the institution.

  3. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor (United States)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael


    The Telescopio San Pedro Martir (TSPM) is a new ground-based optical telescope project, with a 6.5 meters honeycomb primary mirror, to be built in the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) located in Baja California, Mexico. The OAN-SPM has an altitude of 2830 meters above sea level; it is among the best location for astronomical observation in the world. It is located 1830 m higher than the atmospheric inversion layer with 70% of photometric nights, 80% of spectroscopic nights and a sky brightness up to 22 mag/arcsec2. The TSPM will be suitable for general science projects intended to improve the knowledge of the universe established on the Official Mexican Program for Science, Technology and Innovation 2014-2018. The telescope efforts are headed by two Mexican institutions in name of the Mexican astronomical community: the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. The telescope has been financially supported mainly by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT). It is under development by Mexican scientists and engineers from the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development. This development is supported by a Mexican-American scientific cooperation, through a partnership with the University of Arizona (UA), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation in charge of enclosure and building design. The TSPM will be designed to allow flexibility and possible upgrades in order to maximize resources. Its optical and mechanical designs are based upon those of the Magellan and MMT telescopes. The TSPM primary mirror and its cell will be provided by the INAOE and UA. The telescope will be optimized from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared wavelength range (0.35-2.5 m), but will allow observations up to 26μm. The TSPM will initially offer a f/5 Cassegrain focal station. Later, four folded Cassegrain and

  4. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.


    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...... and much better angular resolution in the 10 - 100 keV band, and (3) higher sensitivity for detecting gamma ray lines of known energy in the 100 keV to 1 MeV band. This paper emphasizes the mission aspects of the concept study such as the payload configuration and launch vehicle. An engineering team...... at the Marshall Space Center is participating in these two key aspects of the study....

  5. Apochromatic telescope without anomalous dispersion glasses (United States)

    Duplov, Roman


    In order to correct secondary longitudinal chromatic aberration in conventional refracting optical systems, it is necessary to use at least one optical material having anomalous partial dispersion. A novel lens system with correction of the secondary spectrum by using only normal glasses is presented. The lens system comprises three widely separated lens components; both second and third components are subaperture. The presented example of an apochromatic telescope demonstrates secondary spectrum correction with the use of only crown BK7 and flint F2, which are among the most inexpensive optical glasses available at the market. Two more similar designs are presented, both with the use of low-cost slightly anomalous dispersion glasses. These telescopes have a higher relative aperture and a smaller tertiary spectrum.

  6. The microchannel x-ray telescope status (United States)

    Götz, D.; Meuris, A.; Pinsard, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Tourrette, T.; Osborne, J. P.; Willingale, R.; Sykes, J. M.; Pearson, J. F.; Le Duigou, J. M.; Mercier, K.


    We present design status of the Microchannel X-ray Telescope, the focussing X-ray telescope on board the Sino- French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Bursts. Its optical design is based on square micro-pore optics (MPOs) in a Lobster-Eye configuration. The optics will be coupled to a low-noise pnCCD sensitive in the 0.2{10 keV energy range. With an expected point spread function of 4.5 arcmin (FWHM) and an estimated sensitivity adequate to detect all the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs, MXT will be able to provide error boxes smaller than 60 (90% c.l.) arc sec after five minutes of observation.

  7. Photonic Spectrograph for new Technology Telescope (PSTT) (United States)

    Jones, H. R. A.; PSTT Colaboration

    We outline a high stability precision infrared spectrograph intended for the New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. This spectrograph known as PSTT (Photonic Spectrograph for new Technology Telescope) is intended to incorporate a number of new technologies that have recently become available, e.g., reformatting photonic lanterns, broadband laser combs and 4k2 infrared arrays. Elements such as OH suppression and an integrated photonic spectrograph should also be considered. The intention is to deliver a high resolution infrared spectrograph that can deliver sub-m/s radial velocity precision to the ESO community. This will enable the opportunity to discover and characterise Earth-mass planets around nearby objects as well as follow-up on results from transit surveys from the ground and space.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope: A cosmic time machine (United States)

    Westphal, J. A.; Harms, R. J.; Brandt, J. C.; Bless, R. C.; Macchetto, F. D.; Jefferys, W. H.


    The mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is to explore the expanding and evolving universe. During the 3,000 operating hours every year for the next 15 years or more, the HST will be used to study: galaxies; pulsars; globular clusters; neighboring stars where planets may be forming; binary star systems; condensing gas clouds and their chemical composition; and the rings of Saturn and the swirling ultraviolet clouds of Venus. The major technical achievements - its nearly perfect mirrors, its precise guidance system of rate gyroscopes, reaction wheels, star trackers, and fine guidance sensors are briefly discussed. The scientific instruments on board HST are briefly described. The integration of the equipment and instruments is outlined. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has approved time for 162 observations from among 556 proposals. The mission operation and data flow are explained.

  9. Rare Events searches with Cherenkov Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doro Michele


    Full Text Available Ground-based Imaging Cherenkov Telescope Arrays observe the Cherenkov radiation emitted in extended atmospheric showers generated by cosmic gamma rays in the TeV regime. The rate of these events is normally overwhelmed by 2–3 orders of magnitude more abundant cosmic rays induced showers. A large fraction of these “back-ground” events is vetoed at the on-line trigger level, but a substantial fraction still goes through data acquisition system and is saved for the off-line reconstruction. What kind of information those events carry, normally rejected in the analysis? Is there the possibility that an exotic signature is hidden in those data? In the contribution, some science cases, and the problems related to the event reconstruction for the current and future generation of these telescopes will be discussed.

  10. Exponential beams of electromagnetic radiation


    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia


    We show that in addition to well known Bessel, Hermite-Gauss, and Laguerre-Gauss beams of electromagnetic radiation, one may also construct exponential beams. These beams are characterized by a fall-off in the transverse direction described by an exponential function of rho. Exponential beams, like Bessel beams, carry definite angular momentum and are periodic along the direction of propagation, but unlike Bessel beams they have a finite energy per unit beam length. The analysis of these beam...

  11. Time to Revisit the Heterogeneous Telescope Network (United States)

    Hessman, F. V.

    The "Heterogeneous Telescope Network" (HTN) was founded in 2005 as a loose collaboration of people somehow associated with robotic telescopes and/or projects interested in the transient universe. Other than being a very interesting forum for the exchange of ideas, the only lasting contribution of the HTN was a proposed protocol for the operation of a loose e-market for the exchange of telescope time (Allan et al. 2006; White & Allan 2007). Since the last formal meeting in 2007, the HTN has gone into a "Dornröschenschlaf" (a better word than "hibernation") : the players and interest are there, but the public visibility and activity is not. Although the participants knew and know that global networking is the way of the future for many types of science, various things have kept the HTN from taking the idea and actually implementing it: work on simply getting one's own system to work (e.g. myself), career paths of major players (e.g. Allan), dealing with the complexity of ones' own network (TALONS, RoboNet, LCO), and - most importantly - no common science driver big enough to push the participants to try it in earnest. Things have changed, however: robotic telescopes have become easier to create and operate, private networks have matured, large-scale consortia have become more common, event reporting using VOEvent has become the global standard and has a well-defined infrastructure, and large-scale sources of new objects and events are operating or will soon be operating (OGLE, CSS, Pan-STARRs, GAIA). I will review the scientific and sociological prospects for re-invigorating the HTN idea and invite discussion.

  12. Variable stars with the Kepler space telescope


    Molnár, László; Szabó, Róbert; Plachy, Emese


    The Kepler space telescope has revolutionised our knowledge about exoplanets and stars and is continuing to do so in the K2 mission. The exquisite photometric precision, together with the long, uninterrupted observations opened up a new way to investigate the structure and evolution of stars. Asteroseismology, the study of stellar oscillations, allowed us to investigate solar-like stars and to peer into the insides of red giants and massive stars. But many discoveries have been made about cla...

  13. Galileo Italian National Telescope and its instrumentation (United States)

    Barbieri, Cesare


    This paper gives an overview of the present status of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), a 3.5 m, active-optics telescope for the Italian community, whose initial characteristics were derived from those of the ESO NTT. For a more detailed description see e.g. in Barbieri et al. (1994). Its site is the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, in the Canary Island of La Palma, on the West side of the mountain, at an altitude of about 2360 m. Construction and erection activities, started in 1993, are nearing completion. The telescope structure has been installed inside the rotating dome. The three main mirrors have also been transported to the mountain and aluminized in the WHT plant. They will shortly be installed in the telescope. Three major subsystems still undergo intensive activity in Italy, namely testing of the M2 and M3 units, testing of the operational version of the control hardware and software, and construction of the two rotator adapters for the Nasmyth foci. First light instruments are also being built. Arm A of the telescope is reserved for the imaging section, composed by a visual camera, a near-IR camera, plus a common adaptive optics module. On the other arm B, a faint object spectrograph with long slit, atmospheric dispersion corrector, multiobject and imaging capabilities, will be mounted. A fixed high resolution spectrograph with optical derotation is also being designed. Attention has already been given to the archive of the data. It is planned to have first light before the end of 1996, and to start regular scientific operations after an adequate period of debugging and commissioning.

  14. The perfect machine. Building the Palomar telescope. (United States)

    Florence, R.

    The author's chronicle of the conception of the great 200-inch Palomar telescope is an inspiring account of the birth of big science and of America at its can-do apex. Countless scientists, engineers, administrators, and workmen - from Edwin Hubble, John D. Rockefeller, Elihu Root, and Andrew Carnegie, to unemployed laborers - come alive in this story of two decades of effort to create "the perfect machine".

  15. The high energy telescope on EXIST (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Skinner, G. K.; Gehrels, N.


    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed next generation multi-wavelength survey mission. The primary instrument is a High Energy telescope (HET) that conducts the deepest survey for Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), obscured-accreting and dormant Supermassive Black Holes and Transients of all varieties for immediate followup studies by the two secondary instruments: a Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) and an Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). EXIST will explore the early Universe using high redshift GRBs as cosmic probes and survey black holes on all scales. The HET is a coded aperture telescope employing a large array of imaging CZT detectors (4.5 m2, 0.6 mm pixel) and a hybrid Tungsten mask. We review the current HET concept which follows an intensive design revision by the HET imaging working group and the recent engineering studies in the Instrument and Mission Design Lab at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The HET will locate GRBs and transients quickly (<10-30 sec) and accurately (< 20") for rapid (< 1-3 min) onboard followup soft X-ray and optical/IR (0.3-2.2 μm) imaging and spectroscopy. The broad energy band (5-600 keV) and the wide field of view (~90° × 70&° at 10% coding fraction) are optimal for capturing GRBs, obscured AGNs and rare transients. The continuous scan of the entire sky every 3 hours will establish a finely-sampled long-term history of many X-ray sources, opening up new possibilities for variability studies.

  16. Australia Telescope National Facility Education Initiatives (United States)

    Hollow, Robert; Sim, H.


    As Australia's largest astronomical institution and a national facility the CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) plays an important role in supporting effective astronomy education and outreach around Australia. The dedicated Australia Telescope Outreach and Education website has a range of materials, some directly targeted to school syllabus requirements and receives over 330,000 visits annually. ATNF runs a series of astronomy education workshops for schoolteachers and also runs sessions at other teacher conferences and professional development events around Australia. Linkages with regional and state-based institutions such as planetaria and science centres ensure the dissemination of current research to outreach personnel and educators in an effective manner and provide them with astronomy education expertise. With the development of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) and potentially the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) in Australia there is increased focus for and support of astronomy education nationally. ATNF has been active in designing and implementing education projects that specifically link to ASKAP and SKA themes. These include the Wildflowers in the Sky: Astronomy for Mid West WA Schools and PULSE@Parkes. The first takes astronomers and educators to remote outback schools that have high Indigenous student populations; the second gives high school students the chance to control the Parkes radio telescope remotely to observe pulsars. ATNF staff also provide a key role in organizing and coordinating IYA2009 in Australia.

  17. Building the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.


    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  18. IAA RAS Radio Telescope Monitoring System (United States)

    Mikhailov, A.; Lavrov, A.


    Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAA RAS) has three identical radio telescopes, the receiving complex of which consists of five two-channel receivers of different bands, six cryogen systems, and additional devices: four local oscillators, phase calibration generators and IF commutator. The design, hardware and data communication protocol are described. The most convenient way to join the devices of the receiving complex into the common monitoring system is to use the interface which allows to connect numerous devices to the data bus. For the purpose of data communication regulation and to exclude conflicts, a data communication protocol has been designed, which operates with complex formatted data sequences. Formation of such sequences requires considerable data processing capability. That is provided by a microcontroller chip in each slave device. The test version of the software for the central computer has been developed in IAA RAS. We are developing the Mark IV FS software extension modules, which will allow us to control the receiving complex of the radio telescope by special SNAP commands from both operator input and schedule files. We are also developing procedures of automatic measurements of SEFD, system noise temperature and other parameters, available both in VLBI and single-dish modes of operation. The system described has been installed on all IAA RAS radio telescopes at "Svetloe", "Zelenchukskaya" and "Badary" observatories. It has proved to be working quite reliably and to show the perfonmance expected.

  19. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.


    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  20. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bowyer, J W; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hou, Z; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matsumura, T; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polegre, A M; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A


    This paper characterizes the effective beams,the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck HFI detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics,detectors,data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the CMB angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: (a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds;(b)the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic time response; and (c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determin...

  1. Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefore and evaluation thereof (United States)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.


    A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system. 27 figs.

  2. Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefor and evaluation thereof (United States)

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.; Romero, Louis A.


    A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system.

  3. 1608-2008: Clarifying the Anniversary of the Telescope (United States)

    Abrahams, Peter


    2008 will mark the quadricentennial of the telescope, a simple instrument with an ambiguous origin. It is possible that objects similar to telescopes existed many years before 1608, and very likely that telescopes were in use shortly before 1608. The question of the utility of these optical devices is unknown, but they were not likely to be reasonably functional. As an instrument is incrementally improved to the point of practicality, the date of 'invention' is difficult to define. 1608 is the year of the first telescope with associated unambiguous documentation surviving into the modern era. When Hans Lipperhey applied for a patent covering his telescope in October 1608, the proceedings became the earliest account of a telescope that can be dated with certainty and leave no question that it was a functional instrument. However, the patent application was denied, the rejection stating that the reason was prior art. More important is the circumstance that Lipperhey's telescope is the example that began the very rapid dissemination of telescopes. The instrument had been reported in diplomatic channels even before the patent application was filed, telescopes were fabricated elsewhere within weeks and in many locations within the year, and were exported around the globe to Japan within 5 years. In contrast, any previous telescopes were kept secret, or were inoperable prototypes, or were a proposal or design that was not fabricated. These predecessors had little or no effect on the course of history, as compared to Lipperhey's invention, which initiated the course of events that led to today's telescopes.

  4. Measuring Visual Double Stars with Robotic Telescopes (United States)

    Boyce, Pat; Boyce, Grady; Genet, Russell M.; Faisal Al-Zaben, Dewei Li, Yongyao Li, Aren Dennis, Zhixin Cao, Junyao Li, Steven Qu, Jeff Li, Michael Fene, Allen Priest, Stephen Priest, Rex Qiu, , and, Bill Riley


    The Astronomy Research Seminars introduce students to scientific research by carrying out the entire process: planning a scientific research project, writing a research proposal, gathering and analyzing observational data, drawing conclusions, and presenting the research results in a published paper and presentation.In 2015 Cuesta College and Russell Genet sponsored a new hybrid format for the seminar enabling distance learning. Boyce Research Initiatives and Education Foundation (BRIEF) conducted the course at The Army and Navy Academy (ANA) in Carlsbad, California, in the spring and fall of 2015.The course objective is to complete the research and publish the paper within one semester. Our program schedule called for observations to be performed within a two week period. Measurement of visual binary stars was chosen because sufficient observations could be made in just two evenings of good weather. We quickly learned that our location by the ocean did not provide reliable weather to use local telescopes.The iTelescope network of robotic telescopes located in Australia, Spain and the U.S. solved the problem. Reservations for these systems are booked online and include date, time, exposure and filters. The high quality telescopes range from 4" to 27" in size with excellent cameras. By watching the weather forecasts for the sites, we were able to schedule our observations within the two week time frame required.Timely and reliable data reduction was the next hurdle. The students were using widely varying equipment (PCs, MACs, tablets, smart phones) with incompatible software. After wasting time trying to be computer technicians, we settled a on standard set of software relying on Mirametrics' Mira Pro x64. We installed the software on an old laptop, downloaded the iTelescope data files, gave the students remote access using GoToMyPC.These efficiencies enabled us to meet the demanding one semester schedule and assure a better learning experience. We have been able to

  5. Classic Telescopes A Guide to Collecting, Restoring, and Using Telescopes of Yesteryear

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil


    Classic Telescopes explores the exciting world of telescopes past, as well as the possibilities involved in acquiring these instruments. What are classic telescopes? First, the book takes a look at the more traditional telescopes built by the great instrument makers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and the dynastic houses founded by the likes of John Dollond, Alvan Clark, Thomas Cooke & Sons and Carl Zeiss, plus some lesser-known luminaries, including John Brashear, John Calver, and Henry Fitz. Instruments constructed from the 1950s until as recently as the early 1990s are now also considered 'classic.' There is thus a very active market for buying and selling these 'modern' classics. The author examines some of the most talked about instruments on the amateur Internet forums, including the Unitron refractors, the Questar 90, a classic 6-inch reflector, the RV-6; a 3-inch F/15 achromat by Fullerscopes; the time-honored AstroScan Richfield reflector; and many, many more. Classic telescopes are of...

  6. Calibration and testing of a prototype of the JEM-EUSO telescope on Telescope Array site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunesada Y.


    Full Text Available Aim of the TA-EUSO project is to install a prototype of the JEM-EUSO telescope on the Telescope Array site in Black Rock Mesa, Utah and perform observation of natural and artificial ultraviolet light. The detector consists of one Photo Detector Module (PDM, identical to the 137 present on the JEM-EUSO focal surface. Each PDM is composed by 36 Hamamatsu multi-anode photomultipliers (64 channels per tube, for a total of 2304 channels. Front-End readout is performed by 36 ASICS, with trigger and readout tasks performed by two FPGA boards that send the data to a CPU and storage system. Two, 1 meter side square Fresnel lenses provide a field-of-view of 8 degrees. The telescope will be housed in a container located in front of the fluorescence detector of the Telescope Array collaboration, looking in the direction of the ELF (Electron Light Source and CLF (Central Laser Facility. Aim of the project is to calibrate the response function of the EUSO telescope with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of a shower of known intensity and distribution. An initial run of about six months starting from end 2012 is foreseen, during which we expect to observe, triggered by TA electronics, a few cosmic ray events which will be used to further refine the calibration of the EUSO-Ground with TA. Medium term plans include the increase of the number of PDM and therefore the field of view.

  7. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work (United States)


    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  8. The design of common aperture and multi-band optical system based on day light telescope (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Bo; Teng, Guoqi; Wang, Meng


    As the development of electro-optical weapon system, the technique of common path and multi-sensor are used popular, and becoming a trend. According to the requirement of miniaturization and lightweight for electro-optical stabilized sighting system, a day light telescope/television viewing-aim system/ laser ranger has been designed in this thesis, which has common aperture. Thus integration scheme of multi-band and common aperture has been adopted. A day light telescope has been presented, which magnification is 8, field of view is 6°, and distance of exit pupil is more than 20mm. For 1/3" CCD, television viewing-aim system which has 156mm focal length, has been completed. In addition, laser ranging system has been designed, with 10km raging distance. This paper outlines its principle which used day light telescope as optical reference of correcting the optical axis. Besides, by means of shared objective, reserved image with inverting prism and coating beam-splitting film on the inclined plane of the cube prism, the system has been applied to electro-optical weapon system, with high-resolution of imaging and high-precision ranging.

  9. Field diversity phase retrieval method for wavefront sensing in monolithic mirror space telescopes. (United States)

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Yue, Dan; Gu, Zhiyuan


    To guarantee the uniqueness of the solution for the wavefront phase, a series of intensity images with known phase diversities is usually needed in the current phase retrieval wavefront sensing methods. However, to obtain these intensity images with deliberately added diversity phases, some additional instruments (e.g., beam splitters) or operations (e.g., adjustment of the focus) are usually needed, which can pose a challenge for wavefront sensing in space telescopes. This paper proposes a new concept for retrieving the wavefront phase of monolithic mirror space telescopes with perturbations, where the intensity measurements with phase diversities are directly obtained from different field positions of one image, without the need for any additional instruments or operations. To realize this new concept, we present a modified phase diversity method to account for the unknown phase diversities between these intensity measurements based on an in-depth understanding of the net aberration fields induced by misalignments and figure errors. Relevant simulations for different cases are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method. Since in this method the phase diversities between different intensity measurements are mainly induced by the diversities in the field position, we call it the field diversity phase retrieval method. This work can present great facility for wavefront sensing in monolithic mirror space telescopes.

  10. The UTMOST: A Hybrid Digital Signal Processor Transforms the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (United States)

    Bailes, M.; Jameson, A.; Flynn, C.; Bateman, T.; Barr, E. D.; Bhandari, S.; Bunton, J. D.; Caleb, M.; Campbell-Wilson, D.; Farah, W.; Gaensler, B.; Green, A. J.; Hunstead, R. W.; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman; Murphy, Tara; O'Neill, M.; Osłowski, S.; Parthasarathy, A.; Ravi, V.; Rosado, P.; Temby, D.


    The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820-851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.

  11. Optimal design of beams (United States)

    Samala, Shivakumar

    Beams are basic structural components that are capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. Unlike Euler-Bernoulli beams, Timoshenko beams undergo both shear deformation and rotational effects, making it suitable for analyzing the behavior of thick or short beams, composite beams and beams that are subjected to high frequency excitation when their wave length becomes shorter. This thesis work focuses on optimal design of straight and tapered Timoshenko beams under static and dynamic constraints for rectangular and circular cross sections. In this work Timoshenko beam static and dynamic equations were studied. The finite element method was used for static and dynamic analysis of the beam. In finite element method to overcome the numerical problem in shear locking, cubic interpolation of displacement and an interdependent quadratic approximation of rotation has been considered. In order to optimize the weight of the beam with static and dynamic constraints three sets of optimizations were done. The design variables are length, cross sectional width and height, with objective function as mass, static deflection constraints were used. The second optimization set was using dynamic constraints and the last set was using both static and dynamic constraints.

  12. Resistance of steel beams with web openings and castellated beams


    Kovačič, Darko


    In Diploma demonstration of bending and shear resistance of steel beams with openings in web and for castellated beams is being presented. Dimensioning of such beams is performed in compliance with general rules by Eurocode for dimensioning of beams by considering speciality of beams with openings or by non-linear analysis with consideration of imperfections. For delimit of beams with openings from castellated beams, geometric criteria are being used. Further approach to the dimensioning of t...

  13. Beam-Based Alignment in CTF3 Test Beam Line


    Sterbini, G; Dӧbert, S; Marín, E.; Lillestol, RL; Schulte, D.; Adli, E.


    The CLIC linear collider is based on the two beams acceleration scheme. During acceleration of the colliding beams, the drive beam suffers a large build up on its energy spread. In order to efficiently transport such a beam, beam-based alignment techniques together with tight prealignment tolerances are crucial. To evaluate the performance of these steering algorithms, a beam-based steering campaign has been conducted at the Test Beam Line of the CLIC Test Facility. In the following we presen...

  14. Far Sidelobe Effects from Panel Gaps of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (United States)

    Fluxa, Pedro R.; Duenner, Rolando; Maurin, Loiec; Choi, Steve K.; Devlin, Mark J.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Shuay-Pwu, P. Ho; Koopman, Brian J.; Louis, Thibaut; Wollack, Edward J.


    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope is a 6 meter diameter CMB telescope located at 5200 meters in the Chilean desert. ACT has made arc-minute scale maps of the sky at 90 and 150 GHz which have led to precise measurements of the fine angular power spectrum of the CMB fluctuations in temperature and polarization. One of the goals of ACT is to search for the B-mode polarization signal from primordial gravity waves, and thus extending ACT's data analysis to larger angular scales. This goal introduces new challenges in the control of systematic effects, including better understanding of far sidelobe effects that might enter the power spectrum at degree angular scales. Here we study the effects of the gaps between panels of the ACT primary and secondary reflectors in the worst case scenario in which the gaps remain open. We produced numerical simulations of the optics using GRASP up to 8 degrees away from the main beam and simulated timestreams for observations with this beam using real pointing information from ACT data. Maps from these simulated timestreams showed leakage from the sidelobes, indicating that this effect must be taken into consideration at large angular scales.

  15. CANICA: The Cananea Near-Infrared Camera at the 2.1 m OAGH Telescope (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Hernández Utrera, O.; Vázquez, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; Carrasco, E.; Pedraza, J.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Escobedo, G.; Devaraj, R.; Luna, A.


    The Cananea near-infrared camera (CANICA) is an instrument commissioned at the 2.12 m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory (OAGH) located in Cananea, Sonora, México. CANICA operates in the near-infrared at multiple bands including J(1.24 μm), H(1.63 μm) and K' (2.12 μm) broad-bands. CANICA in located at the Ritchey-Chrétien focal plane of the telescope, reimaging the f/12 beam into f/6 beam. The detector is a 1024 × 1024 HgCdTe HAWAII array of 18.5 μm pixel size, covering a field of view of 5.5 × 5.5 arcmin2, for a plate scale of 0.32 arcsec/pixel. The camera is enclosed in a cryostat, cooled with liquid nitrogen to 77 K. The cryostat contains the collimator, two 15-position filter wheels, single fixed reimaging optics and the detector.

  16. First results of the Test-Bed Telescopes (TBT) project: Cebreros telescope commissioning (United States)

    Ocaña, Francisco; Ibarra, Aitor; Racero, Elena; Montero, Ángel; Doubek, Jirí; Ruiz, Vicente


    The TBT project is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme (GSTP), and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario within the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The goal of the project is to provide two fully robotic telescopes, which will serve as prototypes for development of a future network. The system consists of two telescopes, one in Spain and the second one in the Southern Hemisphere. The telescope is a fast astrograph with a large Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 x 2.5 square-degrees and a plate scale of 2.2 arcsec/pixel. The tube is mounted on a fast direct-drive mount moving with speed up to 20 degrees per second. The focal plane hosts a 2-port 4K x 4K back-illuminated CCD with readout speeds up to 1MHz per port. All these characteristics ensure good survey performance for transients and fast moving objects. Detection software and hardware are optimised for the detection of NEOs and objects in high Earth orbits (objects moving from 0.1-40 arcsec/second). Nominal exposures are in the range from 2 to 30 seconds, depending on the observational strategy. Part of the validation scenario involves the scheduling concept integrated in the robotic operations for both sensors. Every night it takes all the input needed and prepares a schedule following predefined rules allocating tasks for the telescopes. Telescopes are managed by RTS2 control software, that performs the real-time scheduling of the observation and manages all the devices at the observatory.1 At the end of the night the observing systems report astrometric positions and photometry of the objects detected. The first telescope was installed in Cebreros Satellite Tracking Station in mid-2015. It is currently in the commissioning phase and we present here the first results of the telescope. We evaluate the site characteristics and the performance of the TBT Cebreros

  17. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M


    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  18. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  19. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove


    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  20. Examining the angular resolution of the ASTRO-H's soft x-ray telescopes (United States)

    Sato, Toshiki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Mori, Hideyuki; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari


    The international x-ray observatory ASTRO-H was renamed "Hitomi" after launch. It covers a wide energy range from a few hundred eV to 600 keV. It is equipped with two soft x-ray telescopes (SXTs: SXT-I and SXT-S) for imaging the soft x-ray sky up to ˜12 keV, which focus an image onto the respective focal-plane detectors: CCD camera (SXI) and a calorimeter (SXS). The SXTs are fabricated in a quadrant unit. The angular resolution in half-power diameter (HPD) of each quadrant of the SXTs ranges between 1.1 and 1.4 arc min at 4.51 keV. It was also found that one quadrant has an energy dependence on the HPD. We examine the angular resolution with "spot scan" measurements. In order to understand the cause of imaging capability deterioration and to reflect it to the future telescope development, we carried out spot scan measurements, in which we illuminate all over the aperture of each quadrant with a square beam 8 mm on a side. Based on the scan results, we made "maps" of image blurring and a focus position. The former and the latter reflect figure error and positioning error, respectively, of the foils that are within the incident 8 mm×8 mm beam. As a result, we estimated those errors in a quadrant to be ˜0.9 to 1.0 and ˜0.6 to 0.9 arc min, respectively. We found that the larger the positioning error in a quadrant is, the larger its HPD is. The HPD map, which manifests the local image blurring, is very similar from quadrant to quadrant, but the map of the focus position is different from location to location in each telescope. It is also found that the difference in local performance causes energy dependence of the HPD.

  1. Examining the Angular Resolution of the Astro-H's Soft X-Ray Telescopes (United States)

    Sato, Toshiki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Mori, Hideyuki; hide


    The international x-ray observatory ASTRO-H was renamed Hitomi after launch. It covers a wide energy range from a few hundred eV to 600 keV. It is equipped with two soft x-ray telescopes (SXTs: SXT-I and SXT-S) for imaging the soft x-ray sky up to 12 keV, which focus an image onto the respective focal-plane detectors: CCD camera (SXI) and a calorimeter (SXS). The SXTs are fabricated in a quadrant unit. The angular resolution in half-power diameter (HPD) of each quadrant of the SXTs ranges between 1.1 and 1.4 arc min at 4.51 keV. It was also found that one quadrant has an energy dependence on the HPD. We examine the angular resolution with spot scan measurements. In order to understand the cause of imaging capability deterioration and to reflect it to the future telescope development, we carried out spot scan measurements, in which we illuminate all over the aperture of each quadrant with a square beam 8 mm on a side. Based on the scan results, we made maps of image blurring and a focus position. The former and the latter reflect figure error and positioning error, respectively, of the foils that are within the incident 8 mm x 8 mm beam. As a result, we estimated those errors in a quadrant to be approx. 0.9 to 1.0 and approx. 0.6 to 0.9 arc min, respectively. We found that the larger the positioning error in a quadrant is, the larger its HPD is. The HPD map, which manifests the local image blurring, is very similar from quadrant to quadrant, but the map of the focus position is different from location to location in each telescope. It is also found that the difference in local performance causes energy dependence of the HPD.

  2. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar


    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  3. The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope: The Final Archive (United States)

    Dixon, William V.; Blair, William P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Romelfanger, Mary L.


    The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) was a 0.9 m telescope and moderate-resolution (Delta)lambda equals 3 A) far-ultraviolet (820-1850 Å) spectrograph that flew twice on the space shuttle, in 1990 December (Astro-1, STS-35) and 1995 March (Astro-2, STS-67). The resulting spectra were originally archived in a nonstandard format that lacked important descriptive metadata. To increase their utility, we have modified the original datareduction software to produce a new and more user-friendly data product, a time-tagged photon list similar in format to the Intermediate Data Files (IDFs) produced by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer calibration pipeline. We have transferred all relevant pointing and instrument-status information from locally-archived science and engineering databases into new FITS header keywords for each data set. Using this new pipeline, we have reprocessed the entire HUT archive from both missions, producing a new set of calibrated spectral products in a modern FITS format that is fully compliant with Virtual Observatory requirements. For each exposure, we have generated quicklook plots of the fully-calibrated spectrum and associated pointing history information. Finally, we have retrieved from our archives HUT TV guider images, which provide information on aperture positioning relative to guide stars, and converted them into FITS-format image files. All of these new data products are available in the new HUT section of the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), along with historical and reference documents from both missions. In this article, we document the improved data-processing steps applied to the data and show examples of the new data products.

  4. ARTIP: Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Gyanchandani, Dolly; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gupta, Neeraj; Pathak, Vineet; Pande, Arti; Joshi, Unmesh


    The Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (ARTIP) automates the entire process of flagging, calibrating, and imaging for radio-interferometric data. ARTIP starts with raw data, i.e. a measurement set and goes through multiple stages, such as flux calibration, bandpass calibration, phase calibration, and imaging to generate continuum and spectral line images. Each stage can also be run independently. The pipeline provides continuous feedback to the user through various messages, charts and logs. It is written using standard python libraries and the CASA package. The pipeline can deal with datasets with multiple spectral windows and also multiple target sources which may have arbitrary combinations of flux/bandpass/phase calibrators.

  5. Astrobiology with Robotic Telescopes at CAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cuesta


    Full Text Available The key objectives of RTRCAB are the identification of new exoplanets and especially the characterization of the known exoplanets by observing photometric and systematic monitoring of their transits. These telescopes, equipped with advanced technology, optimized control programs, and optical and technical characteristics adequate for this purpose, are ideal to make the observations that are required to carry out these programs. The achievement of these goals is ensured by the existence of three separated geographical stations. In this sense, there are several planned missions that have the same objectives among their scientific goals, like Kepler, CoRoT, GAIA, and PLATO.

  6. Design Concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array


    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; ALLAN, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S.


    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV to 10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will con...

  7. Supernova Remnants with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragiulo M.


    Full Text Available The Large Area Telescope (LAT, on-board the Fermi satellite, proved to be, after 8 years of data taking, an excellent instrument to detect and observe Supernova Remnants (SNRs in a range of energies running from few hundred MeV up to few hundred GeV. It provides essential information on physical processes that occur at the source, involving both accelerated leptons and hadrons, in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the primary Cosmic Ray (CR acceleration. We show the latest results in the observation of Galactic SNRs by Fermi-LAT.

  8. "HUBBLE, the astronomer, the telescope, the results"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The fundamental discoveries made by Edwin Hubble in the first quarter of the last century will be presented. The space telescope bearing his name will be introduced, as well as the strategy put in place by NASA and the European Space Agency for its operation and its maintenance on-orbit. The personal experience of the speaker having participated in two of five servicing mission will be exposed and illustrated by pictures taken on-orbit. Finally, the main results obtained by the orbital observatory will be presented, in particular the ones related to the large scale structure of the Universe and its early history

  9. Planning, scheduling, and control for automatic telescopes (United States)

    Drummond, Mark; Swanson, Keith; Philips, Andy; Levinson, Rich; Bresina, John


    This paper presents an argument for the appropriateness of Entropy Reduction Engine (ERE) technology to the planning, scheduling, and control components of Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) management. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we give a brief summary of the planning and scheduling requirements for APTs. Following this, in section 3, we give an ERE project precis, couched primarily in terms of project objectives. Section 4 gives a sketch of the match-up between problem and technology, and section 5 outlines where we want to go with this work.

  10. Telescope stray light: early experience with SOFIA (United States)

    Waddell, Patrick; Becklin, Eric E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Vacca, William D.; Lachenmann, Michael


    Effective stray light control is a key requirement for wide dynamic range performance of scientific optical and infrared systems. SOFIA now has over 325 mission flights including extended southern hemisphere deployments; science campaigns using 7 different instrument configurations have been completed. The research observations accomplished on these missions indicate that the telescope and cavity designs are effective at suppressing stray light. Stray light performance impacts, such as optical surface contamination, from cavity environment conditions during mission flight cycles and while on-ground, have proved to be particularly benign. When compared with earlier estimates, far fewer large optics re-coatings are now anticipated, providing greater facility efficiency.

  11. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano


    The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key feature to model the processes leading to paroxysmal activity and, hence, to mitigate volcanic hazards. To pursue this aim, different geophysical techniques are utilized, that are sensitive to different properties of the rocks (elastic, electrical, density). In most cases, these techniques do not allow to achieve the spatial resolution needed to characterize the shallowest part of the plumbing system and may require dense measurements in active zones, implying a high level of risk. Volcano imaging through cosmic-ray muons is a promising technique that allows to overcome the above shortcomings. Muons constantly bombard the Earth's surface and can travel through large thicknesses of rock, with an energy loss depending on the amount of crossed matter. By measuring the absorption of muons through a solid body, one can deduce the density distribution inside the target. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with scintillation detectors. They are sensitive to noise sourced from (i) the accidental coincidence of vertical EM shower particles, (ii) the fake tracks initiated from horizontal high-energy electrons and low-energy muons (not crossing the target) and (iii) the flux of upward going muons. A possible alternative to scintillation detectors is given by Cherenkov telescopes. They exploit the Cherenkov light emitted when charged particles (like muons) travel through a dielectric medium, with velocity higher than the speed of light. Cherenkov detectors are not significantly affected by the above noise sources. Furthermore, contrarily to scintillator-based detectors, Cherenkov telescopes permit a measurement of the energy spectrum of the incident muon flux at the installation site, an issue that is indeed relevant for deducing the density distribution inside the target. In 2014, a prototype Cherenkov telescope was installed at the Astrophysical Observatory of Serra

  12. Galileo's Instruments of Credit Telescopes, Images, Secrecy

    CERN Document Server

    Biagioli, Mario


    In six short years, Galileo Galilei went from being a somewhat obscure mathematics professor running a student boarding house in Padua to a star in the court of Florence to the recipient of dangerous attention from the Inquisition for his support of Copernicanism. In that brief period, Galileo made a series of astronomical discoveries that reshaped the debate over the physical nature of the heavens: he deeply modified the practices and status of astronomy with the introduction of the telescope and pictorial evidence, proposed a radical reconfiguration of the relationship between theology and a

  13. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas


    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  14. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A


    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  15. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A


    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  16. Design of off-axial Gregory telescope design with freeform mirror corrector (United States)

    Bazhanov, Yu.; Vlakhko, V.


    In this paper a well-known approach is used for calculation of off-axis three-mirror telescope. It includes usage of conic cross-sections properties, each of the sections forming a stigmatic image. To create a compact optical system, a flat mirror aberration corrector is introduced, which is at later stage transformed into a free-form surface in order to compensate field aberrations. Similarly, one can introduce such a corrector in finalized layout for its further optimization and getting a suitable form, including the conversion of multimirrors axial optical system into decentered one. As an example, off-axial Gregory telescope embodiment is used for infrared waveband region, due to the fact that, unlike the Cassegrain telescope, it provides a real exit pupil, and usage of the mirror corrector brings several advantages. Firstly, this feature may be used to include cold stop or adaptive mirror in the exit pupil, wherein corrector is introduced into a converging beam before the focus of the first mirror. Secondly, when placing corrector in the exit pupil of the optical system it is possible to eliminate high and low order aberrations of center point, which in turn improves optical system f-number, and minimize field aberrations. As another example, off-axial Ritchey-Chretien telescope embodiment is used as a good fit for visible region systems. Analysis and calculation results of optical systems with free-form correctors with surfaces, defined by Power polynomial series are presented in this paper. Advantages of different freeform surfaces usage depends on optical system layouts specifics.

  17. A new Recoil Proton Telescope for energy and fluence measurement of fast neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, Lena; Bachaalany, Mario [IRSN / LMDN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete nucleaire / Laboratoire de Metrologie et de dosimetrie des neutrons), Cadarache Bat.159, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Husson, Daniel; Higueret, Stephane [IPHC / RaMsEs (Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien / Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales), 23 rue du loess - BP28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 2, (France)


    The spectrometer ATHENA (Accurate Telescope for High Energy Neutron metrology Applications), is being developed at the IRSN / LMDN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete nucleaire / Laboratoire de Metrologie et de dosimetrie des neutrons) and aims at characterizing energy and fluence of fast neutron fields. The detector is a Recoil Proton Telescope and measures neutron fields in the range of 5 to 20 MeV. This telescope is intended to become a primary standard for both energy and fluence measurements. The neutron detection is achieved by a polyethylene radiator for n-p conversion, three 50{sub m} thick silicon sensors that use CMOS technology for the proton tracking and a 3 mm thick silicon diode to measure the residual proton energy. This first prototype used CMOS sensors called MIMOSTAR, initially developed for heavy ion physics. The use of CMOS sensors and silicon diode increases the intrinsic efficiency of the detector by a factor of ten compared with conventional designs. The first prototype has already been done and was a successful study giving the results it offered in terms of energy and fluence measurements. For mono energetic beams going from 5 to 19 MeV, the telescope offered an energy resolution between 5 and 11% and fluence difference going from 5 to 7% compared to other home standards. A second and final prototype of the detector is being designed. It will hold upgraded CMOS sensors called FastPixN. These CMOS sensors are supposed to run 400 times faster than the older version and therefore give the telescope the ability to support neutron flux in the order of 107 to 108cm{sup 2}:s{sup 1}. The first prototypes results showed that a 50 m pixel size is enough for a precise scattering angle reconstruction. Simulations using MCNPX and GEANT4 are already in place for further improvements. A DeltaE diode will replace the third CMOS sensor and will be installed right before the silicon diode for a better recoil proton selection. The final prototype with

  18. Operating performance of the gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope: An end-to-end Schwarzschild–Couder telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dournaux, J.L., E-mail: [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); De Franco, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Laporte, P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); White, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Greenshaw, T. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, P.O. Box 147, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Sol, H. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Abchiche, A. [CNRS, Division technique DT-INSU, 1 Place Aristide Briand, 92190 Meudon (France); Allan, D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Amans, J.P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Armstrong, T.P. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Balzer, A.; Berge, D. [GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); and others


    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) consortium aims to build the next-generation ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray observatory. The array will feature different sizes of telescopes allowing it to cover a wide gamma-ray energy band from about 20 GeV to above 100 TeV. The highest energies, above 5 TeV, will be covered by a large number of Small-Sized Telescopes (SSTs) with a field-of-view of around 9°. The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope (GCT), based on Schwarzschild–Couder dual-mirror optics, is one of the three proposed SST designs. The GCT is described in this contribution and the first images of Cherenkov showers obtained using the telescope and its camera are presented. These were obtained in November 2015 in Meudon, France.

  19. Development of telescope control system for the 50cm telescope of UC Observatory Santa Martina (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Reveco, Johnny; Vanzi, Leonardo; Fernández, Jose M.; Escarate, Pedro; Suc, Vincent


    The main telescope of the UC Observatory Santa Martina is a 50cm optical telescope donated by ESO to Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. During the past years the telescope has been refurbished and used as the main facility for testing and validating new instruments under construction by the center of Astro-Engineering UC. As part of this work, the need to develop a more efficient and flexible control system arises. The new distributed control system has been developed on top of Internet Communication Engine (ICE), a framework developed by Zeroc Inc. This framework features a lightweight but powerful and flexible inter-process communication infrastructure and provides binding to classic and modern programming languages, such as, C/C++, java, c#, ruby-rail, objective c, etc. The result of this work shows ICE as a real alternative for CORBA and other de-facto distribute programming framework. Classical control software architecture has been chosen and comprises an observation control system (OCS), the orchestrator of the observation, which controls the telescope control system (TCS), and detector control system (DCS). The real-time control and monitoring system is deployed and running over ARM based single board computers. Other features such as logging and configuration services have been developed as well. Inter-operation with other main astronomical control frameworks are foreseen in order achieve a smooth integration of instruments when they will be integrated in the main observatories in the north of Chile

  20. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow


    Commercially-made astronomical telescopes are better and less expensive than ever before, and their optical and mechanical performance can be superb. When a good-quality telescope fails to perform as well as it might, the reason is quite probably that it needs a little care and attention! Here is a complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters. Here, too, are details of choosing new and used optics and accessories, along with enhancements you can make to extend their versatility and useful lifetime. This book is for you. Really. Looking after an astronomical telescope isn't only for the experts - although there are some things that only an expert should attempt - and every serious amateur astronomer will find invaluable information here, gleaned from ...

  1. Polarizing a stored proton beam by spin-flip?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oellers, Dieter Gerd Christian


    The present thesis discusses the extraction of the electron-proton spin-flip cross-section. The experimental setup, the data analysis and the results are pictured in detail. The proton is described by a QCD-based parton model. In leading twist three functions are needed. The quark distribution, the helicity distribution and the transversity distribution. While the first two are well-known, the transversity distribution is largely unknown. A self-sufficient measurement of the transversity is possible in double polarized proton-antiproton scattering. This rises the need of a polarized antiproton beam. So far spin filtering is the only tested method to produce a polarized proton beam, which may be capable to hold also for antiprotons. In-situ polarization build-up of a stored beam either by selective removal or by spin-flip of a spin-(1)/(2) beam is mathematically described. A high spin-flip cross-section would create an effective method to produce a polarized antiproton beam by polarized positrons. Prompted by conflicting calculations, a measurement of the spin-flip cross-section in low-energy electron-proton scattering was carried out. This experiment uses the electron beam of the electron cooler at COSY as an electron target. The depolarization of the stored proton beam is detected. An overview of the experiment is followed by detailed descriptions of the cycle setup, of the electron target and the ANKE silicon tracking telescopes acting as a beam polarimeter. Elastic protondeuteron scattering is the analyzing reaction. The event selection is depicted and the beam polarization is calculated. Upper limits of the two electron-proton spin-flip cross-sections {sigma} {sub parallel} and {sigma} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} are deduced using the likelihood method. (orig.)

  2. Robotic telescopes and their use as an educational tool (United States)

    Cuesta, L.


    Robotic telescopes are new tools that are changing many aspects of the way we do astronomy. The use of this type of telescope has been quickly adopted in some of the most prolific fields of this science, including searches for extrasolar planets. In this particular field, robotic telescopes have demonstrated an efficiency and agility that would hardly have been obtained with conventional telescopes. In addition to the typical scientific uses, robotic telescopes are being used as fundamental pieces in the practical education of astronomy. Numerous institutes and museums have begun to develop their own robotic telescopes to bring astronomy into the classroom; as a way to understand the Universe that surrounds us. By establishing collaborations between institutes in different countries observations can be made in the classroom without a change in school schedules, which has an enormous benefit to the education community.

  3. Undergraduate Education with the WIYN 0.9-m Telescope (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.


    Several models have been explored at Indiana University Bloomington for undergraduate student engagement in astronomy using the WIYN 0.9-m telescope at Kitt Peak. These models include individual student research projects using the telescope, student observations as part of an observational techniques course for majors, and enrichment activities for non-science majors in general education courses. Where possible, we arrange for students to travel to the telescope. More often, we are able to use simple online tools such as Skype and VNC viewers to give students an authentic observing experience. Experiences with the telescope motivate students to learn basic content in astronomy, including the celestial sphere, the electromagnetic spectrum, telescopes and detectors, the variety of astronomical objects, date reduction processes, image analysis, and color image creation and appreciation. The WIYN 0.9-m telescope is an essential tool for our program at all levels of undergraduate education

  4. The reflective surface of the MAGIC telescope (United States)

    Doro, M.; Bastieri, D.; Biland, A.; Dazzi, F.; Font, L.; Garczarczyk, M.; Ghigo, M.; Giro, E.; Goebel, F.; Kosyra, R.; Lorenz, E.; Mariotti, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Peruzzo, L.; Pareschi, G.; Zapatero, J.


    The atmospheric Cherenkov telescope MAGIC for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy is operating since late 2003 on the Canary island of La Palma. Its 17 m diameter mirror is composed of 964 square all-aluminum mirrors of ˜0.5m side, making up a parabola of 236 m2 area. Each mirror is composed of a sandwich of two thin aluminum layers interspaced by a honeycomb structure that ensures rigidity, high temperature conductivity and low weight. The surface of each raw blank is diamond milled to provide high reflectivity and a slightly different focal length to fit the overall parabolic shape of the reflector. We report about the stability and performance of the surface exposed to the atmosphere for over 3 years. For the construction of the clone of the first telescope, dubbed MAGIC II, major improvements of the design and performance of the reflective surface were required. Given the good experience with aluminum mirrors, a similar assembly was tested, but the area was increased to 1 m2, which allowed to skip the inter-alignment of four mirrors within a panel and to reduce substantially the weight. The increased rigidity of the mirror unit resulted in an improved focussing quality. In addition, a second class of mirrors will be installed in the outermost part of the reflector, namely glass mirrors obtained by cold-slumping replica technique. Details on the construction of both type MAGIC II new mirrors and the 17 m reflector will be presented.

  5. Using ISS to develop telescope technology (United States)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.


    Future space telescope missions concepts have introduced new technologies such as precision formation flight, optical metrology, and segmented mirrors. These new technologies require demonstration and validation prior to deployment in final missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Darwin. Ground based demonstrations do not provide the precision necessary to obtain a high level of confidence in the technology; precursor free flyer space missions suffer from the same problems as the final missions. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of the International Space Station as an intermediate research environment where these technologies can be developed, demonstrated, and validated. The ISS provides special resources, such as human presence, communications, power, and a benign atmosphere which directly reduce the major challenges of space technology maturation: risk, complexity, cost, remote operations, and visibility. Successful design of experiments for use aboard the space station, by enabling iterative research and supporting multiple scientists, can further reduce the effects of these challenges of space technology maturation. This paper presents results of five previous MIT Space Systems Laboratory experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, MIR, and the ISS to illustrate successful technology maturation aboard these facilities.

  6. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurio M.


    Full Text Available ANTARES is the largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere, running in its final configuration since 2008. After the discovery of a cosmic neutrino diffuse flux by the IceCube detector, the search for its origin has become a key mission in high-energy astrophysics. The ANTARES sensitivity is large enough to constrain the origin of the IceCube excess from regions extended up to 0.2 sr in the Southern sky. The Southern sky has been studied searching for point-like objects, for extended regions of emission (as the Galactic plane and for signal from transient objects selected through multimessenger observations. Upper limits are presented assuming different spectral indexes for the energy spectrum of neutrino sources. In addition, ANTARES provides results on studies of the sky in combination with different multimessenger experiments, on atmospheric neutrinos, on the searches for rare particles in the cosmic radiation (such as magnetic monopoles and nuclearites, and on Earth and Sea science. Particularly relevant are the searches for Dark Matter: the limits obtained for the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section overcome that of existing direct-detection experiments. The recent results, widely discussed in dedicated presentations during the 7th edition of the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope Workshop (VLVνT-2015, are highlighted in this paper.

  7. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (United States)

    Guainazzi, Matteo


    Athena (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is a next generation X-ray observatory currently under study by ESA for launch in 2028. Athena is designed to address the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme, which addresses two key questions: 1) How did ordinary matter evolve into the large scale structures we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe. To address these topics Athena employs an innovative X-ray telescope based on Silicon Pore Optics technology to deliver extremely light weight and high throughput, while retaining excellent angular resolution. The mirror can be adjusted to focus onto one of two focal place instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) which provides spatially-resolved, high resolution spectroscopy, and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which provides spectral imaging over a large field of view, as well as high time resolution and count rate tolerance. Athena is currently in Phase A and the study status will be reviewed, along with the scientific motivations behind the mission.

  8. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; hide


    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  9. Simulators, Remote Labs and Robotic Telescopes (United States)

    Folhas, Alvaro


    There is an increasing gap between students of the twenty-first century and the teaching methodology still stuck in the past century. The myriad stimuli that involve our students, immediate consumption of information, and the availability of resources, should cast the teacher in search methodologies that encourage the student to learn. The simulators, virtual laboratories and remote controlled robotic equipment are examples of high didactic potential resources, created by scientific organizations and universities, to be used in education, providing a direct interaction with science and motivating our students to a future career in science. It is up to us to take advantage of that work, and those resources, to light the sparkle in the eyes of our students. In Astronomy Club I've developed with high school students some practical projects in science, using, over the web, the robotic telescopes through which the students are studying and photographing deep sky objects; or the European network of radio telescope, measuring the speed of the arms of our galaxy in our galactic dance, their temperatures showing where it is more likely to form new stars. Students use these tools, engaging in their own knowledge construction, and forego their Friday afternoons without a hurry to go home for the weekend. That's the spirit we want for the school.

  10. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Roderick Allen


    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  11. Data analysis challenges for the Einstein Telescope (United States)

    Bosi, Leone; Porter, Edward K.


    The Einstein Telescope is a proposed third generation gravitational wave detector that will operate in the region of 1 Hz to a few kHz. As well as the inspiral of compact binaries composed of neutron stars or black holes, the lower frequency cut-off of the detector will open the window to a number of new sources. These will include the end stage of inspirals, plus merger and ringdown of intermediate mass black holes, where the masses of the component bodies are on the order of a few hundred solar masses. There is also the possibility of observing intermediate mass ratio inspirals, where a stellar mass compact object inspirals into a black hole which is a few hundred to a few thousand times more massive. In this article, we investigate some of the data analysis challenges for the Einstein Telescope such as the effects of increased source number, the need for more accurate waveform models and the some of the computational issues that a data analysis strategy might face.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array Damper (United States)

    Maly, J. R.; Pendleton, S. C.; Salmanoff, J.; Blount, G. J.; Mathews, K.


    This paper describes the design of a solar array damper that will be built into each of two new solar arrays to be installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during Servicing Mission 3. On this mission, currently scheduled for August, 2000, two "rigid" solar array wings will replace the "flexible" wings currently providing power for HST. Dynamic interaction of these wings with the telescope spacecraft can affect the Pointing Control System. The damper, which is integral to the mast of the solar array, suppresses the fundamental bending modes of the deployed wings at 1.2 Hz (in-plane) and 1.6 Hz (out-of-plane). With the flight version of the damper, modal damping of 2.3% of critical is expected over the temperature range of -4 C to 23 C with a peak damping level of 3.9%. The unique damper design is a combination of a titanium spring and viscoelastic-shear-lap dashpot. The damper was designed using a system finite element model of the solar array wing and measured viscoelastic material properties. Direct complex stiffness (DCS) testing was performed to characterize the frequency- and temperature-dependent behavior of the damping prior to fixed-base modal testing of the wing at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC).

  13. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Cebrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J.N.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Struder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas, K.


    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  14. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator- NB38 -Space Telescope (United States)


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Pictured is MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) that served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown are astronauts Bruce McCandless and Sharnon Lucid being fitted for their space suits prior to entering the NBS to begin training on the space telescope axial scientific instrument changeout.

  15. The High Energy Telescope for STEREO (United States)

    von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Reames, D. V.; Baker, R.; Hawk, J.; Nolan, J. T.; Ryan, L.; Shuman, S.; Wortman, K. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cook, W. R.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.


    The IMPACT investigation for the STEREO Mission includes a complement of Solar Energetic Particle instruments on each of the two STEREO spacecraft. Of these instruments, the High Energy Telescopes (HETs) provide the highest energy measurements. This paper describes the HETs in detail, including the scientific objectives, the sensors, the overall mechanical and electrical design, and the on-board software. The HETs are designed to measure the abundances and energy spectra of electrons, protons, He, and heavier nuclei up to Fe in interplanetary space. For protons and He that stop in the HET, the kinetic energy range corresponds to ˜13 to 40 MeV/n. Protons that do not stop in the telescope (referred to as penetrating protons) are measured up to ˜100 MeV/n, as are penetrating He. For stopping He, the individual isotopes 3He and 4He can be distinguished. Stopping electrons are measured in the energy range ˜0.7 6 MeV.

  16. Performance of New and Upgraded Detectors for Luminosity and Beam Condition Measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn


    The beam monitoring and luminosity systems of the CMS experiment are enhanced by several new and upgraded sub-detectors to match the challenges of the LHC operation and physics program at increased energy and higher luminosity. A dedicated pixelated luminosity telescope is installed for a fast and precise luminosity measurement. This detector measures coincidences between several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. An upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using single crystalline diamond sensors. It is equipped with a dedicated front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background, thus serving as online luminosity measurement. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cerenkov light from fused silica to provide direction sensitivity and excellent time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles....

  17. Automated beam model optimization. (United States)

    Létourneau, Daniel; Sharpe, Michael B; Owrangi, Amir; Jaffray, David A


    The beam model in a three dimensional treatment planning system (TPS) defines virtually the mechanical and dosimetric characteristics of a treatment unit. The manual optimization of a beam model during commissioning can be a time consuming task due to its iterative nature. Furthermore, the quality of the beam model commissioning depends on the user's ability to manage multiple parameters and assess their impact on the agreement between measured and calculated dose. The objective of this work is to develop and validate the performance of an automated beam model optimization system (ABMOS) based on intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam measurements to improve beam model accuracy while streamlining the commissioning process. The ABMOS was developed to adjust selected TPS beam model parameters iteratively to maximize the agreement between measured and calculated 2D dose maps obtained for an IMRT beam pattern. A 2D diode array with high spatial resolution detectors was used to sample the entire IMRT beam pattern in a single dose measurement. The use of an IMRT beam pattern with large number of monitor units was selected to highlight the difference between planned and delivered dose and improve the signal to noise ratio in the low dose regions. ABMOS was applied to the optimization of a beam model for an Elekta Synergy S treatment unit. The optimized beam model was validated for two anatomical sites (25 paraspinal and 25 prostate cases) using two independent patient-specific IMRT quality control (QC) methods based on ion chamber and 2D diode array measurements, respectively. The conventional approach of comparing calculated and measured beam profiles and percent-depth dose curves was also used to assess improvement in beam model after ABMOS optimization. Elements of statistical process control were applied to the process of patient-specific QC performed with the ion chamber and the 2D array to complement the model comparison. After beam model optimization with

  18. First optical validation of a Schwarzschild Couder telescope: the ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov telescope (United States)

    Giro, E.; Canestrari, R.; Sironi, G.; Antolini, E.; Conconi, P.; Fermino, C. E.; Gargano, C.; Rodeghiero, G.; Russo, F.; Scuderi, S.; Tosti, G.; Vassiliev, V.; Pareschi, G.


    Context. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) represents the most advanced facility designed for Cherenkov Astronomy. ASTRI SST-2M has been developed as a demonstrator for the Small Size Telescope in the context of the upcoming CTA. Its main innovation consists in the optical layout which implements the Schwarzschild-Couder configuration and is fully validated for the first time. The ASTRI SST-2M optical system represents the first qualified example of a two-mirror telescope for Cherenkov Astronomy. This configuration permits us to (i) maintain high optical quality across a large field of view; (ii) demagnify the plate scale; and (iii) exploit new technological solutions for focal plane sensors. Aims: The goal of the paper is to present the optical qualification of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope. The qualification has been obtained measuring the point spread function (PSF) sizes generated in the focal plane at various distances from the optical axis. These values have been compared with the performances expected by design. Methods: After an introduction on Gamma-ray Astronomy from the ground, the optical design of ASTRI SST-2M and how it has been implemented is discussed. Moreover, the description of the set-up used to qualify the telescope over the full field of view is shown. Results: We report the results of the first-light optical qualification. The required specification of a flat PSF of 10 arcmin in a large field of view ( 10°) has been demonstrated. These results validate the design specifications, opening a new scenario for Cherenkov Gamma-ray Astronomy and, in particular, for the detection of high-energy (5-300 TeV) gamma rays and wide-field observations with CTA.

  19. Measuring Earth’s axial tilt with a telescope (United States)

    Suat Isildak, R.; Asuman Küçüközer, H.; Isik, Hakan


    In this study, a method to measure the Earth’s axial tilt is attempted by using a telescope. As a principal instrument, telescopes in astronomy courses are mostly to verify the astronomical objects in sky and not to make sense of astronomical events such as seasonal changes which is explained by the Earth’s axial tilt. This study outlines telescopic measurements to calculate the axial tilt at winter solstice.

  20. A Short and Personal History of the Spitzer Space Telescope


    Werner, Michael


    The Spitzer Space Telescope, born as the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and later the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (still SIRTF), was under discussion and development within NASA and the scientific community for more than 30 years prior to its launch in 2003. This brief history chronicles a few of the highlights and the lowlights of those 30 years from the authors personal perspective. A much more comprehensive history of SIRTF/Spitzer has been written by George Rieke (2006).

  1. Segmented Mirror Telescope Laboratory Ribbon-cutting Ceremony



    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Segmented Mirror Space Telescope (SMT) was developed by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) as a test bed for future imaging telescope technologies. The NRO, which designs, builds and operates the nation's reconnaissance satellites has completed development and testing of the telescope and has decided to transfer the test bed to the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to support academic research. NPS Has created a new lab fac...

  2. Indirect detection of Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope


    Ardid Miguel


    One of the main objectives of the ANTARES neutrino telescope is the search for neutrinos produced in self-annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles. The analysis for different sources of DM (Sun, Galactic Center, Earth, ...) or DM models (SUSY, Secluded) will be described and the results presented. The specific advantages of neutrino telescopes in general and of ANTARES in particular will be explained. As an example, the indirect search for DM towards the Sun performed by neutrino telescopes...

  3. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration (United States)


    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  4. Beam Injection into RHIC (United States)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.


    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  5. Durnin-Whitney beams (United States)

    de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Julián-Macías, Israel; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Rickenstorff-Parrao, Carolina; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa


    The aim of the present work is to define a Durnin-Whitney beam as a nondiffracting beam such that its associated caustic locally only has singularities of the fold and cusp types. Since the caustic is structurally stable then the intensity pattern of this beam is also stable and this property is what makes its definition and its theoretical and experimental study worthwhile. These properties are important in applications such as uniform optical drilling in waveguides and communications through weak turbulent atmosphere. We find that in accordance with Whitney's theorem on the stability of maps from a two-dimensional manifold to a two-dimensional manifold the phase g({{Φ }}), of the complex function A({{Φ }}) characterizing the beam, locally is given by g({{Φ }})=a{{Φ }} for a fold and g({{Φ }})=b{{{Φ }}}2 for a cusp. This result implies that the Bessel beam of order zero is not stable and that any other Bessel beam is stable because locally it has a caustic of fold type. Finally, we present an example of a Durnin-Whitney beam given by g({{Φ }})=m{{Φ }}+b{{{Φ }}}2, which is a natural generalization of the Bessel beam of order m with a singularity of cusp ridge type.

  6. Beam Diagnostics for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Heribert


    This introductory course aims at a reasonably complete coverage of beam diagnostic devices used in linear and circular accelerators and in primary beam lines. The weight is on the concepts and the indication of variants, while for technical details the reader is referred to the literature. The present updated version replaces those from previous General Accelerator Physics Courses.

  7. Detecting Bessel beams (United States)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Mhlanga, Thandeka; Ismail, Yaseera; Roux, Filippus S.; McLaren, Melanie; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew


    We propose a 2-dimensional method for Bessel Gaussian beam azimuthal and radial decomposition using digital holograms. We illustrate the reconstruction of a Bessel Gaussian beam after encountering an obstruction. From the measured decomposition we show the reconstruction of the amplitude, phase and azimuthal index of the field with high degree of accuracy.

  8. Laser Beam Scanning Device. (United States)

    metal mirror. Multiple thermocouple wires attached to the rear of the mirror provide temperature (and hence beam power) information at various points...on the mirror. Scanning is achieved by means of a selector switch which sequentially samples the thermocouple outputs. The thermocouple output voltages are measured and recorded as a function of laser beam power.

  9. Segmented X-Ray Optics for Future Space Telescopes (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.


    Lightweight and high resolution mirrors are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The slumped glass mirror technology in development at NASA GSFC aims to build X-ray mirror modules with an area to mass ratio of approx.17 sq cm/kg at 1 keV and a resolution of 10 arc-sec Half Power Diameter (HPD) or better at an affordable cost. As the technology nears the performance requirements, additional engineering effort is needed to ensure the modules are compatible with space-flight. This paper describes Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) designs for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and defines generic driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to advance technology readiness for mission implementation. The requirement to perform X-ray testing in a horizontal beam, based on the orientation of existing facilities, is particularly burdensome on the mirror technology, necessitating mechanical over-constraint of the mirror segments and stiffening of the modules in order to prevent self-weight deformation errors from dominating the measured performance. This requirement, in turn, drives the mass and complexity of the system while limiting the testable angular resolution. Design options for a vertical X-ray test facility alleviating these issues are explored. An alternate mirror and module design using kinematic constraint of the mirror segments, enabled by a vertical test facility, is proposed. The kinematic mounting concept has significant advantages including potential for higher angular resolution, simplified mirror integration, and relaxed thermal requirements. However, it presents new challenges including low vibration modes and imperfections in kinematic constraint. Implementation concepts overcoming these challenges are described along with preliminary test and analysis results demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting slumped glass mirror segments.

  10. Progress report on the Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope (United States)

    Richmond, Michael W.; Treffers, Richard R.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    The Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope is designed to measure the brightness not only of isolated stars, but ones located in crowded fields (open and globular clusters). Stars considerably fainter than those observed with automatic photoelectric telescopes will be accessible. It will be possible to study the morphology and brightness of extended objects such as comets. The aim is to broaden the very successful mode of automatic observations to new classes of objects. The telescope mount and mirror set are still under construction, and a backup telescope has been almost completely automated. The autoguider is working efficiently, and first test images have been taken.

  11. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.


    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  12. Standardization of direct drive servos in telescope applications (United States)

    Gutierrez, Pablo


    This paper explores the use of direct drive servos in telescopes applications in the quest of standardization key concepts that might push to more reliable and cheaper solutions for future complex motion systems. Considerations related to different PWM Frequencies, Motor Phasing, position feedback, CAN-bus interfaces, etc. A collection of data from the VLT experience is presented showing the particular needs of the modern telescope"s drives. Can an industry standard amplifier meet the telescope specifications, and therefore be easier to maintain and offer a cheaper solution?

  13. Shuttle orbiter with telescoping main propulsion unit and payload (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.


    An improved Space Shuttle with variable internal volume is provided. The Space Shuttle Orbiter includes a telescoping main propulsion unit. This main propulsion unit contains the main rocket engines and fuel tanks and telescopes into the Space Shuttle. A variable cavity is located between this unit and the crew compartment. Accordingly, the positioning of the telescoping main propulsion unit determines the volume of the variable cavity. Thus, the volume of the variable length of the entire Space Shuttle may be increased or decreased to achieve desired configurations for optimal storage. In one embodiment of the invention, the payload also telescopes within the variable cavity.

  14. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.


    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  15. Sheet electron beam tester (United States)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  16. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes


    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  17. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.


    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  18. Fourteenth Exotic Beam Summer School EBSS 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedenhoever, Ingo [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics


    The Fourteenth Annual Exotic Beam Summer School EBSS 2015 was held August 2nd - August 7th, 2015, and belongs to the series of summer programs aimed at educating future workforce in nuclear physics-related areas, mostly about the challenges of radioactive ion beam physics. Through these schools the research community will be able to exploit fully the opportunities created by the exotic beam facilities. These facilities in the US include CARIBU at ANL, the NSCL and the future FRIB laboratory as well as smaller-scale university laboratories. The skill set needed by the future workforce is very diverse and a fundamental understanding of theoretical, technical, computational and applied fields are all important. Therefore, the Exotic Beam Summer Schools follow a unique approach, in which the students not only receive lectures but also participate in hands-on activities. The lectures covered broad topics in both the experimental and theoretical physics of nuclei far from stability as well as radioactive ions production and applications. The afternoons provided opportunities for "hands-on" projects with experimental equipment and techniques useful in FRIB research. Five activities were performed in groups of eight students, rotating through the activities over the five afternoons of the school. The center of the activities was an experiment at the FSU tandem accelerator, measuring the angular distribution and cross section of the 12C(d,p)13C transfer reaction, measured with a silicon telescope in a scattering chamber. The experimental data were analyzed by performing a DWBA calculation with the program DWUCK, and the resulting spectroscopic factors were compared to a shell model calculation. The other activities included target preparation, digital gamma-spectroscopy and modern neutron detection methods.

  19. Beam monitoring at NA2

    CERN Multimedia


    Claus Goessling working on the beam Cerenkov counter of NA2. The muon beam enters from left the hall EHN2 and the last element of the beam transport. On background is the access door on the Jura side.

  20. The law of distribution of light beam direction fluctuations in telescopes. [normal density functions (United States)

    Divinskiy, M. L.; Kolchinskiy, I. G.


    The distribution of deviations from mean star trail directions was studied on the basis of 105 star trails. It was found that about 93% of the trails yield a distribution in agreement with the normal law. About 4% of the star trails agree with the Charlier distribution.

  1. Performance measurement of HARPO: A time projection chamber as a gamma-ray telescope and polarimeter (United States)

    Gros, P.; Amano, S.; Attié, D.; Baron, P.; Baudin, D.; Bernard, D.; Bruel, P.; Calvet, D.; Colas, P.; Daté, S.; Delbart, A.; Frotin, M.; Geerebaert, Y.; Giebels, B.; Götz, D.; Hashimoto, S.; Horan, D.; Kotaka, T.; Louzir, M.; Magniette, F.; Minamiyama, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Ohkuma, H.; Poilleux, P.; Semeniouk, I.; Sizun, P.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Yonamine, R.; Wang, S.


    We analyse the performance of a gas time projection chamber (TPC) as a high-performance gamma-ray telescope and polarimeter in the e+e- pair-creation regime. We use data collected at a gamma-ray beam of known polarisation. The TPC provides two orthogonal projections (x, z) and (y, z) of the tracks induced by each conversion in the gas volume. We use a simple vertex finder in which vertices and pseudo-tracks exiting from them are identified. We study the various contributions to the single-photon angular resolution using Monte Carlo simulations, compare them with the experimental data and find that they are in excellent agreement. The distribution of the azimuthal angle of pair conversions shows a bias due to the non-cylindrical-symmetric structure of the detector. This bias would average out for a long duration exposure on a space mission, but for this pencil-beam characterisation we have ensured its accurate simulation by a double systematics-control scheme, data taking with the detector rotated at several angles with respect to the beam polarisation direction and systematics control with a non-polarised beam. We measure, for the first time, the polarisation asymmetry of a linearly polarised gamma-ray beam in the low energy pair-creation regime. This sub-GeV energy range is critical for cosmic sources as their spectra are power laws which fall quickly as a function of increasing energy. This work could pave the way to extending polarised gamma-ray astronomy beyond the MeV energy regime.

  2. Beam Size Estimation from Luminosity Scans at the LHC During 2015 Proton Physics Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hostettler, Michael


    As a complementary method for measuring the beam size for high-intensity beams at 6.5 TeV flat-top energy, beam separation scans were done regularly at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during 2015 proton physics operation. The luminosities measured by the CMS experiment during the scans were used to derive the convoluted beam size and orbit offset bunch-by-bunch. This contribution will elaborate on the method used to derive plane-by-plane, bunch-by-bunch emittances from the scan data, including uncertainties and corrections. The measurements are then compared to beam size estimations from absolute luminosity, synchrotron light telescopes, and wire scanners. In particular, the evolution of the emittance over the course of several hours in collisions is studied and bunch-by-bunch differences are highlighted.

  3. Construction of a Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: status of the optical system


    Rousselle, J.; Byrum, K.; Cameron, R.; Connaughton, V.; Errando, M.; Guarino, V.; Humensky, T.; Jenke, P.; Kieda, D.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; Okumura, A.; Petrashyk, A; Vassiliev, V.


    We present the design and the status of procurement of the optical system of the prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT), for which construction is scheduled to begin in fall at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA. The Schwarzschild-Couder telescope is a candidate for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, which utilizes imaging atmospheric Cherenkov techniques to observe gamma rays in the energy range of 60Gev-60TeV. The pSCT novel ap...

  4. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081126; Klute, Markus; Medlock, Catherine Aiko


    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The x-y correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1%.

  5. Wanderings of the 'Simply Perfect' Burnham Telescope (United States)

    Lattis, James


    S.W. Burnham's 6-inch Clark refractor, in service from 1870, quickly became famous as a potent double star catcher. It was the instrument he used for the site survey of Lick Observatory in 1879. Sold to Washburn Observatory, it travelled to Caroline Island with Edward Holden to search for Vulcan during the total solar eclipse of May 1883. Back in Madison, it was used by George Comstock for his measurements of refraction and aberration. In the late 1950s it was used at the Knuijt Observatory in Appleton, Wisconsin. Travels and transformations of this famous telescope have spread its parts widely as astronomical relics, and it even remains in active service today.

  6. XSPECT telescopes on the SRG: optical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Polny, Josef; Christensen, Finn Erland


    The XSPECT, thin foil, multiply nested telescope on SRG has been designed to achieve a large effective area at energies between 6 and 15 keV. The design goal for the angular resolution is 2 arcmin (HPD). Results of foil figure error measurements are presented. A ray tracing analysis was performed...... including results of earlier scattering measurements and the foil determination. The results of the analysis are compared with test measurements with X rays and show that there is a larger spread in the PSF than the model can account for. The decrease in effective area due to scattering is estimated...... to be 30% when the photons that scatter more than 6 arcmin are regarded as lost. The vignetting at off-axis angles leads to an effective area at the edge of the FOV which is 15% of that of an on-axis source....

  7. Space Telescope - Eye on the universe (United States)

    Davies, J. K.


    The NASA Space Telescope, which is to be put into orbit by the Space Shuttle in 1985, is described with attention to the design characteristics and fabrication processes of its optics and the five scientific instruments that will be mounted at the focal plane, behind the primary mirror. The primary mirror is fabricated from Ultra Low Expansion Glass, weighed 907 kg as a blank and took three and a half years to grind and polish to a deviation of no more than 0.000025 mm from the ideal surface. The instruments carried are the Wide Field Planetary Camera, which employs CCD detectors, the Faint Object Camera, the Faint Object Spectrograph, for use at visible and UV wavelengths, the UV High Resolution Spectrograph for 1100-2300 A wavelengths, and the High Speed Photometer for the study of time-dependent brightness fluctuations.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Spacecraft Overview Briefing (United States)


    This Kennedy Space Center video release presents the third part of a press conference held at Goddard Space Flight Center on Jan. 13, 1994. The session is moderated by Randee Exler (News Chief, GSFC) and includes presentations by Ken Ledbetter (HST Program Manager, NASA Headquarters), Frank Cepollina (HST Project Manager for Flight Systems and Servicing, GSFC) and Joe Rothenberg (Director, HST Flight Projects, GSFC) that discuss pre-flight testing and training, on-orbit servicing, highlights, and the status of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A question and answer period follows the presentations, after which three short highlight videos are presented that include actual footage of on-orbit servicing, galactic images taken by the HST, and pre-flight preparation and construction.

  9. Current status of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann-Godo, M. [Physics Institute 4, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    The ANTARES collaboration is currently installing a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea close to the French coast at Toulon. The complete detector will consist of 900 photomultipliers arranged on 12 detector lines in 2500 m depth, thus instrumenting a volume of 0.01 km{sup 3} sea water as target material. The incident neutrinos are detected by collecting the Cherenkov light from charged secondary particles, which are emitted by neutrino interactions with the sea water or the rock of the sea bed beneath. By reconstructing the Cherenkov cone and therewith the direction of the incident neutrinos with high accuracy, the principal objective of ANTARES is the search for point sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos and dark matter. In this presentation, emphasis will be placed on the operation of the detector in the hostile deep sea environment and on the status of the project. Results of the first complete detector line will be shown.

  10. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) (United States)

    Bennett, David P.; Bally, John; Bond, I.; Cheng, Ed; Cook, Kem; Deming, Drake; Garnavich, P.; Griest, Kim; Jewitt, David; Kaiser, Nick; Lauer, Tod R.; Lunine, Jonathan; Luppino, Gerard; Mather, John C.; Minniti, Dante; Peale, Stanton J.; Rhie, Sun H.; Rhodes, Jason; Schneider, Jean; Sonneborn, George; Stevenson, Robert; Stubbs, Christopher; Tenerelli, Domenick; Woolf, Neville; Yock, Phillip


    The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) will observe a 2 square degree field in the Galactic bulge to search for extra-solar planets using a gravitational lensing technique. This gravitational lensing technique is the only method employing currently available technology that can detect Earth-mass planets at high signal-to-noise, and can measure the abundance of terrestrial planets as a function of Galactic position. GEST's sensitivity extends down to the mass of Mars, and it can detect hundreds of terrestrial planets with semi-major axes ranging from 0.7 AU to infinity. GEST will be the first truly comprehensive survey of the Galaxy for planets like those in our own Solar System.

  11. Hybrid analysis for the Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes B.T.


    Full Text Available The Telescope Array (TA experiment is the largest Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR hybrid detector which consists of three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs and 507 Surface Detectors (SDs. The coincidence events which observed both by FD and SD is referred as hybrid event. The geometry and energy of each extensive air shower observed by hybrid mode are reconstructed with much more accurate resolution than monocular reconstruction alone. The hybrid event candidates were searched for by comparison of the trigger times between FD and SD in the good weather days from May 2008 to September 2010. By this search, we found 1306 hybrid events for BR, 1051 events for LR and 905 events for MD. In this paper, the performance of the hybrid technique and the energy spectra measured by using hybrid events are presented.

  12. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  13. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry


    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  14. The servo control system of KDUST telescope (United States)

    Jian, Zhang; Du, Fujia


    The KDUST telescope would be installed in Antarctic Dome A, where is extremely cold, high, dry, but have a very stable, calm atmosphere for astronomical observation. According to project requirement, the position following error should be less than 1''. To achieve project target, a direct drive method is used in the project. Normal PID control algorithm is used in controller. It can meet the target in the room temperature. But the following error increased too significantly in the cryogenic environment. In this paper, the expert PID algorithm is applied to control system. The control parameter can be adjusted by amplitude and variation of following error. Experiment proved that expert PID has an obvious advantage in both start-up and tracking process under different temperature. Moreover expert PID also can improve the stability of whole system.

  15. Origins Space Telescope: Breaking the Confusion Limit (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team


    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s.OST will have a background-limited sensitivity for a background 27,000 times lower than the Herschel background caused by thermal emission from Herschel's warm telescope. For continuum observations the confusion limit in a diffraction-limited survey can be reached in very short integration times at longer far-infrared wavelengths. But the confusion limit can be pierced for both the nearest and the farthest objects to be observed by OST. For outer the Solar System the targets' motion across the sky will provide a clear signature in surveys repeated after an interval of days to months. This will provide a size-frequency distribution of TNOs that is not biased toward high albedo objects.For the distant Universe the first galaxies and the first metals will provide a third dimension of spectral information that can be measured with a long-slit, medium resolution spectrograph. This will allow 3Dmapping to measure source densities as a function of redshift. The continuum shape associated with sourcesat different redshifts can be derived from correlation analyses of these 3D maps.Fairly large sky areas can be scanned by moving the spacecraft at a constant angular rate perpendicular to the orientation of the long slit of the spectrograph, avoiding the high overhead of step-and-stare surveying with a large space observatory.We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at

  16. Origins Space Telescope: Cosmology and Reionization (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Origins Space Telescope


    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at core science goal of the OST mission is to study the the cosmological history of star, galaxy, and structure formation into the epoch of reionization (EoR). OST will probe the birth of galaxies through warm molecular hydrogen emission during the cosmic dark ages. Utilizing the unique power of the infrared fine-structure emission lines, OST will trace the rise of metals from the first galaxies until today. It will quantify the dust enrichment history of the Universe, uncover its composition and physical conditions, reveal the first cosmic sources of dust, and probe the properties of the earliest star formation. OST will provide a detailed astrophysical probe into the condition of the intergalactic medium at z > 6 and the galaxies which dominate the epoch of reionization.

  17. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold


    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  18. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope system safety (United States)

    Hubbard, Robert P.; Bulau, Scott E.; Shimko, Steve; Williams, Timothy R.


    System safety for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the joint responsibility of a Maui-based safety team and the Tucson-based systems engineering group. The DKIST project is committed to the philosophy of "Safety by Design". To that end the project has implemented an aggressive hazard analysis, risk assessment, and mitigation system. It was initially based on MIL-STD-882D, but has since been augmented in a way that lends itself to direct application to the design of our Global Interlock System (GIS). This was accomplished by adopting the American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems (ANSI/RIA R15.06) for all identified hazards that involve potential injury to personnel. In this paper we describe the details of our augmented hazard analysis system and its use by the project. Since most of the major hardware for the DKIST (e.g., the enclosure, and telescope mount assembly) has been designed and is being constructed by external contractors, the DKIST project has required our contractors to perform a uniform hazard analysis of their designs using our methods. This paper also describes the review and follow-up process implemented by the project that is applied to both internal and external subsystem designs. Our own weekly hazard analysis team meetings have now largely turned to system-level hazards and hazards related to specific tasks that will be encountered during integration, test, and commissioning and maintenance operations. Finally we discuss a few lessons learned, describing things we might do differently if we were starting over today.

  19. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)


    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  20. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven


    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  1. Experimental validation of the Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) scheme at the LHC (United States)

    Fartoukh, S.; Bruce, R.; Carlier, F.; Coello De Portugal, J.; Garcia-Tabares, A.; Maclean, E.; Malina, L.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Persson, T.; Pojer, M.; Ponce, L.; Redaelli, S.; Salvachua, B.; Skowronski, P.; Solfaroli, M.; Tomas, R.; Valuch, D.; Wegscheider, A.; Wenninger, J.


    The Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing scheme offers new techniques to deliver unprecedentedly small beam spot size at the interaction points of the ATLAS and CMS experiments of the LHC, while perfectly controlling the chromatic properties of the corresponding optics (linear and non-linear chromaticities, off-momentum beta-beating, spurious dispersion induced by the crossing bumps). The first series of beam tests with ATS optics were achieved during the LHC Run I (2011/2012) for a first validation of the basics of the scheme at small intensity. In 2016, a new generation of more performing ATS optics was developed and more extensively tested in the machine, still with probe beams for optics measurement and correction at β* = 10 cm, but also with a few nominal bunches to establish first collisions at nominal β* (40 cm) and beyond (33 cm), and to analysis the robustness of these optics in terms of collimation and machine protection. The paper will highlight the most relevant and conclusive results which were obtained during this second series of ATS tests.

  2. Beam wander due to optical turbulence in water (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Nootz, Gero A.; Matt, Silvia C.; Kanaev, Andrey V.; Jarosz, Ewa; Hou, Weilin W.


    Optical methods to communicate or sense in the ocean environment can be effected inhomogeneities in the index of refraction called optical turbulence. Beam wander introduced by optical turbulence is of particular interest for optical means relying on the propagation of a well-defined laser beam such as free space communication and laser line scan. Here we present a comprehensive study of beam propagation simulations, lab experiments, and field measurements of laser beams propagating through varying degrees of optical turbulence. For the computational part of the investigation a true end to end simulation was performed. Starting with a CFD simulation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection the temperature fields where converted to index of refraction phase screens which then where used to simulate the propagation of a focused Gaussian laser beam via the split-step Fourier method. Lab experiments where conducted using the same parameters as in the simulation using a good quality TEM00 beam and a CCD camera to record data. For the field experiments a Telescoping Ridged Underwater Sensor Structure (TRUSS) was equipped with a transmitter and a receiver capable of analyzing a multitude of laser beams simultaneously. The TRUSS was deployed in the Bahamas to record beam wander under weak optical turbulence conditions above and stronger optical turbulence conditions inside the thermocline. The data from the experimental and lab experiments are compared and the strength of the optical turbulence in terms of the structure parameter Cn2 are extracted. We also extract Cn2 from the TRUSS experiments and in doing so provide, for the first time, a quantitative estimate for the strength of optical turbulence in the ocean.

  3. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    Electron beam ion sources technology made significant progress since 1968 when this method of producing highly charged ions in a potential trap within electron beam was proposed by E. Donets. Better understanding of physical processes in EBIS, technological advances and better simulation tools determined significant progress in key EBIS parameters: electron beam current and current density, ion trap capacity, attainable charge states. Greatly increased the scope of EBIS and EBIT applications. An attempt is made to compile some of EBIS engineering problems and solutions and to demonstrate a present stage of understanding the processes and approaches to build a better EBIS.

  4. Beam instrumentation performance overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M


    The 2011 run has proven that LHC can operate safely and stably with higher bunch intensity and smaller transverse emittance than foreseen in the Technical Design Report. In this presentation the performance of the Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is discussed. The improvements to the system, those made during the last year and those expected to be done for 2012 run are presented. The status of the three types of devices measuring the transverse beam emittance, wire scanners (BWS), synchrotron radiation monitors (BSRT) and beam gas ionization monitors (BGI), are shown. The control room applications are reviewed and a set of improvements proposed by the operation team is presented.

  5. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.


    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  6. Status of the large-size telescope prototyping for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Excellence Cluster ' ' Universe' ' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany); Teshima, Masahiro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo (Japan); Schweizer, Thomas; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Wetteskind, Holger; Jablonski, Christopher; Reimann, Olaf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Lorenz, Eckart [ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)


    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory aims at increasing the sensitivity of ground-based gamma-ray (GeV/TeV energies) observatories by a factor >10 compared to current facilities, to extend the accessible gamma-ray energies from a few tens of GeV to a hundred TeV, and to improve on other parameters like the energy and angular resolution. Sensitivity at the lowest possible energies is important for a variety of key physics goals, like the observation of distant active galactic nuclei or gamma-ray bursts, but also for measuring pulsar cutoffs. For this aim, CTA will incorporate a number of central large-size telescopes (LSTs of 23 m diameter). In this presentation, design considerations and the status of the LST prototyping are reported.

  7. Okayama optical polarimetry and spectroscopy system (OOPS) III. Distributed control system of the 91 cm telescope. (United States)

    Yutani, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Kurakami, T.; Sasaki, T.

    Telescope control system of the 91 cm telescope at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory was renewed to be composed of a sequencer, which controls devices of the telescope, and an operational computer. Message-based communication was introduced to perform an organized and scheduled observation with the telescope, an autoguider, and an observing instrument OOPS, whose control computers are distributed in the telescope control network.

  8. Technical description of the Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope (United States)

    Treffers, Richard R.; Richmond, Michael W.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    The control system and computer configuration of the Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope (BAIT) are discussed. The system uses three IBM PCs to control the telescope, the CCD camera, and the autoguider, while a workstation running UNIX is the master control computer. The design of the camera back and autoguider is also discussed.

  9. Long term performance evaluation of the TACTIC imaging telescope ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The TeV atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with imaging camera (TACTIC) -ray telescope has been in operation at Mt. Abu, India since 2001 to study TeV -ray emission from celestial sources. During the last 10 years, apart from consistently detecting a steady signal from the Crab Nebula above ∼1.2 TeV energy, at a ...

  10. Solar Telescope Control with the CAN-Bus (United States)

    Pettauer, T. V.

    The real time behavior, error handling and its simplicity makes CAN a preferable bus protocol to interconnect the various modules of a tower telescope. A schematic description of the control bus for the Kanzelhöhe Vakuum Telescope is given.

  11. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification...

  12. STS-31: Hubble Space Telescope Lift to Vertical (United States)


    The footage shows the lifting of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to a vertical position in the Kennedy Space Center. HST is a 2.4-meter reflecting telescope that will be deployed in low-Earth orbit (600 kilometers) by the crew of the space shuttle Discovery (STS-31) on 25 April 1990.

  13. Lessons Learned from the Kepler Mission and Space Telescope Management (United States)

    Fanson, James


    This paper presents lessons learned over the course of several space telescope mission and instrument developments spanning two decades. These projects involved astronomical telescopes developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and were designed to further our understanding of the Universe. It is hoped that the lessons drawn from these experiences may be of use to future mission developers.

  14. Balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion


    Takahashi, Satoru; Group, for the Emulsion Gamma-ray Telescope


    By detecting the beginning of electron pairs with nuclear emulsion, precise gamma-ray direction and gamma-ray polarization can be detected. With recent advancement in emulsion scanning system, emulsion analyzing capability is becoming powerful. Now we are developing the balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion. Overview and status of our telescope is described.

  15. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Aronstein, David


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to an October 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST occurred in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing.

  16. The Polarization Optics for the European Solar Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, F.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304846228; Collados, M.; Feller, A.; Gelly, B. F.; Keller, C.U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824550; Kentischer, T. J.; López Ariste, A.; Pleier, O.; Snik, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832154; Socas-Navarro, H.


    EST, the European Solar Telescope, is a 4-m class solar telescope, which will be located at the Canary Islands. It is currently in the conceptual design phase as a European funded project. In order to fulfill the stringent requirements for polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy, the polarimetry has

  17. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy ...

  18. Leda Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, D


    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  19. New developments of the R&D silicon tracking for linear collider on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    end and readout chips in deep sub-micron CMOS technology are discussed. Combined tests with other sub-detectors are finally addressed. This test beam program is inserted in the framework of the EUDET European project. Keywords. New generation of silicon tracking; new sensors; large area tracking systems.

  20. New developments of the R & D silicon tracking for linear collider on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. New generation of silicon tracking; new sensors; large area tracking systems for international linear collider; deep sub-micron electronics. ... are discussed. Combined tests with other sub-detectors are finally addressed. This test beam program is inserted in the framework of the EUDET European project.

  1. An optics education program designed around experiments with small telescopes (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance E.; Dokter, Erin F. C.


    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory has led the development of a new telescope kit for kids as part of a strategic plan to interest young children in science. This telescope has been assembled by tens of thousands of children nationwide, who are now using this high-quality telescope to conduct optics experiments and to make astronomical observations. The Galileoscope telescope kit and its associated educational program are an outgrowth of the NSF sponsored "Hands-On Optics" (HOO) project, a collaboration of the SPIE, the Optical Society of America, and NOAO. This project developed optics kits and activities for upper elementary students and has reached over 20,000 middle school kids in afterschool programs. HOO is a highly flexible educational program and was featured as an exemplary informal science program by the National Science Teachers Association. Our new "Teaching with Telescopes" program builds on HOO, the Galileoscope and other successful optical education projects.

  2. Design of optical systems for large space telescopes (United States)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.


    On the basis of long-term experience of LOMO PLC in creating large optical systems for ground and space telescopes, with diameter of primary mirror from 1 to 6 meters, the following issues should be considered: principles of constructing optical systems for space telescopes and selecting their optimum design in respect of dimensions/mass and performance criteria; ensuring the fulfillment of image quality requirements in the process of manufacturing optical systems for controlling ground telescope elements in operating conditions; providing automatic adjustment of telescope secondary mirror, automatic focusing, interferometric control of image quality by means of stellar interferometer with radial shift and internal control with Gartman's test. Description of space telescope equipped with primary mirror of diameter 1.5 m, manufactured in LOMO PLC, is given.

  3. Implementation and Operation of a Robotic Telescope on Skynet (United States)

    Smith, Adam B.; Caton, Daniel B.; Hawkins, R. Lee


    We describe the implementation of a remotely operated telescope on the Skynet Robotic Telescope Network, a system developed and run by the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Our telescope, operated by Appalachian State University at its Dark Sky Observatory, runs robotically on this queue-scheduled system, automatically taking calibration images and acquiring program images, and responding to Internet commands to image the afterglow of accessible Gamma-Ray Burst events. We describe the process of implementing a Skynet-run telescope from our client-side view, and offer advice for others who might consider putting telescopes on Skynet. The implementation has proven very successful, obtaining over a hundred thousand images over the past six years, of various targets for research and educational purposes, and has responded to several GRB observation requests with several afterglow detections.

  4. Space telescopes capturing the rays of the electromagnetic spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil


    Space telescopes are among humankind’s greatest scientific achievements of the last fifty years. This book describes the instruments themselves and what they were designed to discover about the Solar System and distant stars. Exactly how these telescopes were built and launched and the data they provided is explored. Only certain kinds of radiation can penetrate our planet's atmosphere, which limits what we can observe. But with space telescopes all this changed. We now have the means to "see" beyond Earth using ultraviolet, microwave, and infrared rays, X-rays and gamma rays. In this book we meet the pioneers and the telescopes that were built around their ideas. This book looks at space telescopes not simply chronologically but also in order of the electromagnetic spectrum, making it possible to understand better why they were made.

  5. Receiving vectors of muon telescope of cosmic ray station "Novosibirsk" (United States)

    Yanchukovskiy, Valeriy; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Krimsky, Germogen; Kuzmenko, Vasiliy; Molchanov, Anton


    The method of receiving vectors allows us to determine cosmic ray anisotropy at each moment. Also, the method makes it possible to study fast anisotropy fluctuations related to the interplanetary medium dynamics. Receiving vectors have been calculated earlier for neutron monitors and muon telescopes. However, the most of muon telescopes of the network of cosmic ray stations for which calculations were made does not operate now. In recent years, new improved detectors appeared. Unfortunately, the use of them is limited because of absence of receiving coefficients. These detectors include the matrix telescope in Novosibirsk. Therefore, components of receiving vector for muon telescopes of observation cosmic ray station "Novosibirsk" have been defined. Besides, design features of the facility, its orientation, and directional diagram depending on zenith and azimuth angles were taken into account. Also, for the system of telescopes, we allowed for coupling coefficients found experimentally using the test detector.

  6. Optical Design for a Survey X-Ray Telescope (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.


    Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0-degree full field-of-view.

  7. Generalized beam quality factor of aberrated truncated Gaussian laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C


    Full Text Available The authors outline a theory for the calculation of the beam quality factor of an aberrated laser beam. They provide closed form equations that show that the beam quality factor of an aberrated Gaussian beam depends on all primary aberrations except...

  8. Single kick approximations for beam-beam deflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Koyama


    Full Text Available A six-dimensional symplectic beam-beam interaction map using finite discrete slices of a strong beam is extended to infinitesimal slices. The new map is calculated under the assumption of a longitudinal Gaussian distribution with approximations. A round Gaussian beam is simulated to demonstrate accuracies of the approximations.

  9. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  10. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tecker, F.


    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  11. HIRENASD Beam FEM (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains attempts to create BEAM FEM model. I have started a Blog to discuss this... please put your comments there and I will attempt to keep everything...

  12. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail:; Sartori, E. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)


    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  13. Test Beams and Polarized Fixed Target Beams at the NLC


    Keller, Lewis; Pitthan, Rainer; Rokni, Sayed; Thompson, Kathleen; Kolomenski, Yury


    A conceptual program to use NLC beams for test beams and fixed target physics is described. Primary undisrupted polarized beams would be the most simple to use, but for NLC, the disrupted beams are of good enough quality that they could also be used, after collimation of the low energy tails, for test beams and fixed target physics. Pertinent issues are: what is the compelling physics, what are the requirements on beams and running time, and what is the impact on colliding beam physics runni...

  14. Beam-beam diagnostics from closed-orbit distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kozanecki, W. [DAPNIA/SPP, CEN Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette, (FR)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  15. Optical Design of the STAR-X Telescope (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.


    Top-level science goals of the Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) include: investigations of most violent explosions in the universe, study of growth of black holes across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats majority of baryons in the universe. To meet these goals, the field-of-view of the telescope should be about 1 square-degree, the angular resolution should be 5 arc-seconds or below across large part of the field-of-view. The on-axis effective area at 1 KeV should be about 2,000 sq cm. Payload cost and launch considerations limit the outer diameter, focal length, and mass to 1.3 meters, 5 meters, and 250 kilograms, respectively. Telescope design is based on a segmented meta-shell approach we have developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for the STAR-X telescope. The telescope shells are divided into 30-degree segments. Individual telescopes and meta-shells are nested inside each other to meet the effective area requirements in 0.5 - 6.0 KeV range. We consider Wolter-Schwarzschild, and Modified-Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks of the nested STAR-X telescope. These designs offer an excellent resolution over a large field of views. Nested telescopes are vulnerable to stray light problems. We have designed a multi-component baffle system to eliminate direct and single-reflection light paths inside the telescopes. Large number of internal and external baffle vane structures are required to prevent stray rays from reaching the focal plane. We have developed a simple ray-trace based tool to determine the dimensions and locations of the baffles. In this paper, we present the results of our trade studies, baffle design studies, and optical performance analyses of the STAR-X telescope.

  16. The Aloha Telescope for K-12 STEM Education (United States)

    Sowell, James R.


    How does one bring night-time astronomical observations into the classroom? How does a teacher - during the school day - show students the craters on the Moon, the rings of Saturn, or the four Galilean moons of Jupiter? One of the greatest drawbacks to teaching Astronomy is the lack of real-time telescopic observations during the school day, and yet this is a very exciting time for astronomical discoveries. The solution is to access a telescope in a substantially different time zone where it is still night. This facility - the Aloha Telescope - on Maui has already been established by a partnership between Georgia Tech and the Air Force Research Lab. This robotic telescope's sole purpose is for K-12 education, as it is equipped with a video-camera and is operated remotely via high-speed internet connections. This facility and its outreach program allow east-coast teachers and, in turn, students to have local daytime access to - and direct control of - the telescope. When observing the Moon, teachers and students will move the telescope wherever they wish across the highly-magnified lunar surface (~ 5 arcminute FOV). This telescope will enable night-time astronomical observations to come alive as day-time activities and will be an important tool for STEM education and activities. The use of the Aloha Telescope requires minimal training and is free after registering for a date and time.Dr. Sowell has written specific telescopic exercises and surface feature tours appropriate for K-12 and college-level users. These exercises, and other aspects of the Aloha Telescope and program, are posted on the website at

  17. Beam-beam effects at the Fermilab Tevatron: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sen


    Full Text Available The Tevatron in Run II is operating with three trains of 12 bunches each. Long-range beam-beam interactions have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations of antiprotons. The dynamics due to the long-range beam-beam interactions depends on several beam parameters such as tunes, coupling, chromaticities, beam separations, intensities, and emittances. We have developed analytical tools to calculate, for example, amplitude dependent tune shifts and chromaticities, beam-beam induced coupling, and resonance driving terms. We report on these calculations and estimates of dynamic aperture and diffusion coefficients with long-term tracking. These theoretical results are compared with observations and used to predict performance at design values of beam parameters.

  18. Is LEP beam-beam limited at its highest energy?

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, D; Meddahi, Malika; Verdier, A


    The operation of LEP at 45.6 GeV was limited by beam-beam effects and the vertical beam-beam parameter xy never exceeded 0.045. At the highest energy of 94.5 GeV, the increased damping allows higher beam-beam parameters xy . Values above 0.07 in the vertical plane averaged over four experiments have been obtained frequently with peak values up to 0.075 in a single experiment. Although the maximum intensity in LEP is presently limited by technical considerations, some observations indicate that the beam-beam limit is close and the question of the maximum possible values can be raised. These observations are shown in this paper and possible consequences are presented. The optimum operation of LEP in the neighbourhood of the beam-beam limit is discussed.

  19. Beam Propagation Experimental Study. (United States)


    Kiuttu C. A. Ekdahl N. F. Roderick F49620-81-C-0016 B. A. Sabol L. A. Wright D. J. Sullivan______________ 3 P;ERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS...pulse * transmission through the atmosphere remain unresolved. The complexity of beam propagation physics and air chemistry makes the prediction of beam...higher front velocities than predicted by Eq. (27). Fessenden et al. 1 6 measured vf - 0.77 v in a detailed series of experiments utilizing the FX-25

  20. Electron Beam Materials Processing (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.


    In electron beam processing, a well-defined beam of relatively energetic electrons produced by a high voltage acceleration gap is used to transmit thermal energy into a material in a precise manner. This controlled deposition of heat is employed in a wide variety of industrial applications for precision cutting, drilling, and welding of materials as well as annealing, glazing, and surface hardening. This chapter will describe the equipment used and the most prominent industrial applications for this process.

  1. LHC First Beam 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Tuura, L


    The CMS Centre played a major part in the LHC First Beam Event on September 10th 2008: it was a central point for CMS, hosting journalists from all over the world and providing live link-ups to collaborating institutes as well as, of course, monitoring events as they happened at Point 5. It was also a venue for celebration as the beam completed circuits of the LHC in both directions, passing successfully through the detector (Courtesy of Lassi Tuura)

  2. Radio Telescopes Reveal Youngest Stellar Corpse (United States)


    Astronomers using a global combination of radio telescopes to study a stellar explosion some 30 million light-years from Earth have likely discovered either the youngest black hole or the youngest neutron star known in the Universe. Their discovery also marks the first time that a black hole or neutron star has been found associated with a supernova that has been seen to explode since the invention of the telescope nearly 400 years ago. M51 An artist's impression of Supernova 1986J. The newly discovered nebula around the black hole or neutron star in the center is shown in blue, and is in the center of the expanding, fragmented shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion, which is shown in red. CREDIT: Norbert Bartel and Michael F. Bietenholz, York University; Artist: G. Arguner (Click on image for larger version) Image Files Artist's Conception (above image, 836K) Galaxy and Supernova (47K) A VLA image (left) of the galaxy NGC 891, showing the bright supernova explosion below the galaxy's center. At right, a closer view of the supernova, made with a global array of radio telescopes. CREDIT: Miguel A. Perez-Torres, Antxon Alberdi and Lucas Lara, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia - CSIC, Spain, Jon Marcaide and Jose C. Guirado, Universidad de Valencia, Spain Franco Mantovani, IRA-CNR, Italy, Eduardo Ros, MPIfR, Germany, and Kurt W. Weiler, Naval Research Laboratory, USA Multi-Frequency Closeup View (201K) Blue and white area shows the nebula surrounding the black hole or neutron star lurking in the center of the supernova. This nebula is apparent at a higher radio frequency (15 GHz). The red and also the contours show the distorted, expanding shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion. This shell is seen at a lower radio frequency (5 GHz). CREDIT: Michael F. Bietenholz and Norbert Bartel, York University, Michael Rupen, NRAO, NRAO/AUI/NSF A supernova is the explosion of a massive star after it exhausts its supply of nuclear fuel and

  3. The ideal neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Mats


    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented....

  4. Fractional Airy beams. (United States)

    Khonina, S N; Ustinov, A V


    Airy beams possess a number of properties that ensure their multifunction and high relevance in many applications. This fact stimulates scientists to search for new modifications and generalizations of classical Airy beams. Several generalizations of the Airy functions are known, on the basis of both the modification of the differential equation and the variations in the integral representation. In this paper we propose and investigate a new type of Airy beams-fractional Airy beams (FrAiB). They are based on the generalization of the integral representation and are close to the Olver functions, but we are considering a wider range of the power-law dependence of the argument, including non-integer (fractional) values of the power. A theoretical and numerical analysis of the FrAiBs, as well as their symmetrized variants, was performed. The properties of FrAiBs, such as being non-diffracting and autofocusing, were numerically investigated by means of the fractional Fourier transform, describing the beam transformations by paraxial optical systems. We believe that new beams can be useful for laser manipulation techniques and lensless laser patterning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes von Borany


    Full Text Available In the Ion Beam Center (IBC, various set-ups – electrostatic accelerators, ion implanters, plasma-based ion implantation equipment, low-energy ion tools, an ion microscope etc. – are combined into a unique facility for research and applications using ion beams. Almost all ions from stable chemical nuclides are available in the ion energy range from 10 eV to about 60 MeV. In addition to broad beams, also focused (down to 1 nm and highly-charged (charge state up to 45+ ion beams, or ions extracted from a plasma can be provided. In total, the IBC operates more than 30 dedicated tools or beamline end-stations. The specific expertise of IBC is the modification and analysis of solids by energetic ions aimed to develop novel materials for information technology, electronics or energy systems. In addition, ion beam analysis techniques became of increasing importance for interdisciplinary fields like geochemistry, climate or environmental research and resources technology. Special add-on services offered ensure a successful realization of user experiments. Based on a long-term expertise, specific equipment and common commercial procedures, the IBC is strongly active in the use of ion beam techniques for industrial applications aimed to initiate valuable product innovation.

  6. Weld formation control at electron beam welding with beam oscillations


    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Koleva, Elena; Mladenov, Georgy; A. Shcherbakov


    Electron beam welding is used extensively to produce essential machine parts. The control of the basic beam parameters beam power or beam current at constant accelerating voltage, welding speed, current of focusing lens and distance between electron gun and welded sample surface is not enough to obtain at most of the regimes sound welds. Control of the focus position using analysis of the high frequency component of the current, collected by plasma, at periodic interactions on the beam (the o...

  7. Pixel-Tilecal-MDT Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    B. Di Girolamo

    A test with many expectations When an additional week of running (from September 11th to 18th) was allocated for the test-beam, it was decided to give priority to a combined run with the participation of the Pixel, Tilecal and MDT sub-detectors. The integration of these three sub-detectors was possible as they all use the baseline (DAQ-1/EF based) DAQ for test beams (as reported in a previous e-news). The tests and the addition of a common trigger and busy were organized in a short timescale by experts from the three sub-detectors and DAQ/EF. The expectations were many; both looking for problems and finding solutions. The setup The setup, shown in the figure, consisted of the Pixel telescope normally used during the sub-detector tests, two Tilecal barrel modules, two Tilecal extended barrel modules, and six MDT barrel chambers. This fully occupied a length of some 30 meters in the H8 line of the SPS North Area. Each sub-detector used their own specialized front-end electronics. The data collected by modu...

  8. Planetary polarisation measurements with small telescopes (United States)

    Masding, Philip; Rossi, Loic; Miles, Phil


    We have developed a method for measuring the linear polarisation of planets which is accessible to experienced amateur astronomers. The method requires a telescope with an aperture of about 20cm or more together with a linear polarising filter and a planetary imaging camera. Many suitable cameras are available and they can record uncompressed video at frame rates of 10 to 60 per second. Typically this rate will depend on the brightness of the source and size of the telescope. An ideal camera will be monochrome and is used with separate colour filters and a polarising filter. The method is to attach the colour and polarising filters to the camera and record a series of video clips. After recording each video clip the camera and filters are rotated by about 20 degrees until the total rotation is over 180 degrees. Each video clip is then stacked to produce a single low noise image. Most stacking software can sort the video frames according to quality, so the stack is based on a selected percentage of the best frames. There are several freeware stacking programs available which are primarily used for planetary imaging in general but are very suitable for polarisation. Original videos are mostly 8 bit but noise allows the combined stack to have a higher effective resolution and it is saved in 16 bit format. The stacked images are currently processed in Matlab, although the algorithms are being incorporated in Winjupos which is freeware. Results so far have been primarily for Jupiter, but we also have some data for Venus. The Matlab code is used to register the stacked frames (removing any camera rotation) and in the case of Jupiter, compensate for rotation of the planet during the video capture process. Accurate image registration is crucial for this method. A disk function is also applied to allow for the changing illumination angle as the planet rotates. A least squares function calculates the best fit cos squared curve for the variation of light at each point in the

  9. Feasibility of utilizing Cherenkov Telescope Array gamma-ray telescopes as free-space optical communication ground stations. (United States)

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vilera, Mariafernanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Cabrero, Juan Francisco


    The signals that will be received on Earth from deep-space probes in future implementations of free-space optical communication will be extremely weak, and new ground stations will have to be developed in order to support these links. This paper addresses the feasibility of using the technology developed in the gamma-ray telescopes that will make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory in the implementation of a new kind of ground station. Among the main advantages that these telescopes provide are the much larger apertures needed to overcome the power limitation that ground-based gamma-ray astronomy and optical communication both have. Also, the large number of big telescopes that will be built for CTA will make it possible to reduce costs by economy-scale production, enabling optical communications in the large telescopes that will be needed for future deep-space links.

  10. Performance of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. III - Optical characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Baker, Phillip C.; Hadaway, James B.; Johnson, R. B.; Peterson, Cynthia; Gabardi, David R.; Walker, Arthur B., Jr.; Lindblom, J. F.; Deforest, Craig; O'Neal, R. H.


    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), which is a sounding-rocket-borne observatory for investigating the sun in the soft X-ray/EUV and FUV regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum, utilizes single reflection multilayer coated Herschelian telescopes for wavelengths below 100 A, and five doubly reflecting multilayer coated Ritchey-Chretien and two Cassegrain telescopes for selected wavelengths in the EUV region between 100 and 1000 A. The paper discusses the interferometric alignment, testing, focusing, visible light testing, and optical performance characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes of MSSTA. A schematic diagram of the MSSTA Ritchey-Chretien telescope is presented together with diagrams of the system autocollimation testing.

  11. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams (United States)

    Aston, G.


    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  12. Results from a Prototype MAPS Sensor Telescope and Readout Systemwith Zero Suppression for the Heavy Flavor Tracker at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans G.; Rose, AndrewA.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Szelezniak, Michal A.; Thomas, James H.; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.


    We describe a three Mimostar-2 Monolithic Active PixelSensor (MAPS) sensor telescope prototype with an accompanying readoutsystem incorporating on-the-fly data sparsification. The system has beencharacterized and we report on the measured performance of the sensortelescope and readout system in beam tests conducted both at the AdvancedLight Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and inthe STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Thiseffort is part of the development and prototyping work that will lead toa vertex detector for the STAR experiment.

  13. FLUOR fibered beam combiner at the CHARA array (United States)

    Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Borde, Pascal J.; Merand, Antoine; Baudouin, Cyrille; Remond, Antonin; Perrin, Guy S.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; McAlister, Harold A.


    The fibered beam combiner FLUOR, which has provided high accuracy visibility measurements on the IOTA interferometer, is being moved to the CHARA array which provides five 1m telescopes on baselines ranging from 35 to 330m. The combination CHARA/FLUOR makes it possible for the first time to achieve sub-milliarcsecond resolution in the K band, with a dynamic range of 100 or more. We explore the scientific potential of CHARA/FLUOR, most notably in the domains of high contrast binaries and the characterization of Cepheid pulsations, and present some of the anticipated developements.

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields Program (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Borncamp, David; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Martlin, Catherine; Porterfield, Blair; Sunnquist, Ben; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Grogin, Norman A.; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Ogaz, Sara; Robberto, Massimo; Sembach, Kenneth; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt


    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The entire program has now completed successfully for all 6 clusters, namely Abell 2744, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223,. Each of these was observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, obtaining images in ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W) on both the main cluster and the parallel field in all cases. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth releases after the completion of each epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected drizzled mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The full set of resulting high-level science products and mosaics are publicly delivered to the community via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  15. Web-oriented interface for remotely access the Kiev Internet-telescope (United States)

    Kleshchonok, V.; Luk'yanyk, I.


    The partial revision of the Kiev internet-telescope was described in the article. The structure of the telescope and software and features its work. Methods of work with the telescope with help of remotely access were examined.

  16. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab


    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  17. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, K. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Artuso, M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Beveren, V. van; Beuzekom, M. van; Boterenbrood, H. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R. [CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Heijden, B. van der [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hombach, C. [University of Manchester, Manchester, Lancashire (United Kingdom); Hynds, D. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Hsu, D. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); John, M. [University of Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Koffeman, E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leflat, A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Li, Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Longstaff, I.; Morton, A. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Pérez Trigo, E. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Plackett, R. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); and others


    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100–200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  18. BOOMERanG: a scanning telescope for 10 arcminutes resolution CMB maps (United States)

    Masi, S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Artusa, R.; Bock, J. J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B. P.; de Bernardis, P.; de Troia, G.; Farese, P. C.; Giacometti, M.; Hristov, V. V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Martinis, L.; Mason, P. V.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Melchiorri, F.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C. B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Richards, P. L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J. E.; Scaramuzzi, F.


    The BOOMERanG experiment is a stratospheric balloon telescope intended to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy at angular scales between a few degrees and ten arcminutes. The experiment features a wide focal plane with 16 detectors in the frequency bands centered at 90, 150, 220, 400 GHz, with FWHM ranging between 18 and 10 arcmin. It will be flown on a long duration (7-14 days) flight circumnavigating Antarctica at the end of 1998. The instrument was flown with a reduced focal plane (6 detectors, 90 and 150 GHz bands, 25 to 15 arcmin FWHM) on a qualification flight from Texas, in August 1997. A wide (~300 deg2, i.e. about 5000 independent beams at 150 GHz) sky area was mapped in the constellations of Capricornus, Aquarius, Cetus, with very low foreground contamination. The instrument was calibrated using the CMB dipole and observations of Jupiter. The LDB version of the instrument has been qualified and shipped to Antarctica.

  19. Fine spectral structures in Jovian decametric radio emission observed by ground-based radio telescope. (United States)

    Panchenko, M.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.


    Jupiter with the largest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system emits intense coherent non-thermal radio emission in a wide frequency range. This emission is a result of a complicated interaction between the dynamic Jovian magnetosphere and energetic particles supplying the free energy from planetary rotation and the interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moons. Decametric radio emission (DAM) is the strongest component of Jovian radiation observed in a frequency range from few MHz up to 40 MHz. This emission is generated via cyclotron maser mechanism in sources located along Jovian magnetic field lines. Depending on the time scales the Jovian DAMexhibits different complex spectral structures. We present the observations of the Jovian decametric radio emission using the large ground-based radio telescope URAN- 2 (Poltava, Ukraine) operated in the decametric frequency range. This telescope is one of the largest low frequency telescopes in Europe equipped with high performance digital radio spectrometers. The antenna array of URAN-2 consists of 512 crossed dipoles with an effective area of 28 000m2 and beam pattern size of 3.5 x 7 deg. (at 25 MHz). The instrument enables continuous observations of the Jovian radio during long period of times. Jovian DAM was observed continuously since Sep. 2012 (depending on Jupiter visibility) with relatively high time-frequency resolution (4 kHz - 100ms) in the broad frequency range (8-32MHz). We have detected a big amount of the fine spectral structures in the dynamic spectra of DAM such as trains of S-bursts, quasi-continuous narrowband emission, narrow-band splitting events and zebra stripe-like patterns. We analyzed mainly the fine structures associated with non-Io controlled DAM. We discuss how the observed narrowband structures which most probably are related to the propagation of the decametric radiation in the Jupiter's ionosphere can be used to study the plasma parameters in the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  20. Astronomy with a Budget Telescope An Introduction to Practical Observing

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick


    If you had purchased an inexpensive astronomical telescope a few years ago, disappointment would have been almost guaranteed. In current Internet age, times have changed and most (but not quite all) telescopes have been used to favorable results. Sir Patrick Moore, working with John Watson, has surveyed and tested the best and the worst of today's budget-priced astronomical telescopes. This new edition of Astronomy with a Budget Telescope is the result of their efforts. This book will show you how to recognize the good from the bad in observational ware with essential hints and tips on what to look for when buying both new and used telescopes. Updated and expanded, this latest edition includes budgeting tips for the new generation of digital cameras and 'go-to' telescopes. It provides a step-by-step guide to setting up your telescope, and how to observe the Moon, Sun, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies. Inside you'll find full-page finder charts and full-color images showing you what each object should loo...

  1. Synergy of CETUS with Survey Telescopes of the 2020's (United States)

    Heap, Sara; and the CETUS Science Team


    There has been an explosion in wide-field telescopes conducting astrophysical surveys that will come to fruition in the 2020’s. These wide and deep telescopes will survey the sky at wavelengths ranging from gamma rays to radio waves. E-ROSITA will perform an all-sky X-ray survey with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Numerous telescopes on the ground and in space will observe electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave sources. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, LSST, will map the southern sky discovering billions of new galaxies and stars and detecting transient objects. Subaru’s Hyper Suprime Cam and Prime Focus Spectrograph will work to understand dark energy, and galaxy evolution at redshifts, z~1-2 using optical-IR spectra, and to carry out studies of stellar archeology. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, WFIRST, will conduct imaging and slitless spectroscopic surveys of the sky at near-IR wavelengths including nebular emission of H-alpha at redshifts up to z=2. The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and other radio telescopes will map a billion galaxies using the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen. We will show how CETUS’s near-UV and far-UV cameras and its near-UV multi-object spectrograph will work in synergy with these other survey telescopes.

  2. Innovative relocation system for enclosures for MROI array telescopes (United States)

    Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marchiori, G.; Mian, S.; Payne, I.; Pozzobon, M.


    Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) comprises an array of up to ten (10) 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes. Each of these ten telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which can be relocated, with the telescope inside, to any of 28 stations arranged in a "Y" configuration. These stations comprise fixed foundations with utility and data connections. There are four standard array configurations, the most compact of which one has less than 350 mm of space between the enclosures. This paper describes the relocation systems that were evaluated, including a rail based system, wheels or trolley fixed to the bottom of the enclosure, and various lifting mechanisms, all of which were analyzed to determine their performances related to the requirements. Eventually a relocation system utilizing a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) has been selected. The reachstacker is capable of manoeuvring between and around the enclosures, is capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (40tons), and can manoeuvre the enclosure with minimal vibrations. A rigorous testing procedure has been performed to determine the vibrations induced in a dummy load in order to guarantee the safety of optics that must remain on the nasmyth table during the relocation. Finally we describe the lifting system, constituted by hydraulic jacks and locating pins, designed to lift and lower the enclosure and telescope during the precise positioning of the telescopes in the various stations.

  3. LGS adaptive optics system with long-pulsed sodium laser on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope 2014-2016 observation campaign (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Min; Jiang, Changchun; Wei, Ling; Zheng, Wenjia; Li, Wenru; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Luchun; Jin, Kai; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Junwei; Wang, Pengyuan; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Donghong; Deng, Jijiang; Gao, Yang; Shen, Yu; Bian, Qi; Yao, Ji; Huang, Jiang; Dong, Ruoxi; Deng, Keran; Peng, Qinjun; Rao, Changhui; Xu, Zuyan; Zhang, Yudong


    During 2014-2016, the Laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system observation campaign has been carried out on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope. During the campaign, two generation LGS AO systems have been developed and installed. In 2014, a long-pulsed solid Sodium prototype laser with 20W@400Hz, a beam transfer optical (BTO) system, and a laser launch telescope (LLT) with 300mm diameter were mounted onto the telescope and moved with telescope azimuth journal. At the same time, a 37-elements compact LGS AO system had been mounted on the Bent-Cassegrain focus and got its first light on observing HIP43963 (mV= 8.18mv) and reached Sr=0.27 in J Band after LGS AO compensation. In 2016, the solid Sodium laser has been upgrade to stable 32W@800Hz while D2a plus D2b repumping is used to increase the photon return, and a totally new LGS AO system with 164-elements Deformable Mirror, Linux Real Time Controller, inner closed loop Tip/tilt mirror, Multiple-PMT tracking detector is established and installed on the telescope. And the throughput for the BTO/LLT is improved nearly 20%. The campaign process, the performance of the two LGS AO systems especially the latter one, the characteristics of the BTO/LLT system and the result are present in this paper.

  4. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losa Agustín Sánchez


    Full Text Available The ANTARES detector is an underwater neutrino telescope, the largest in the Northern Hemisphere and the first one ever built under the sea, located in the Mediterranean Sea 40 km off the Southern coast of France, at a depth of 2.5 km. It comprises 885 photomultiplier tubes distributed along twelve detection lines. The signal due to neutrinos is searched by reconstructing the tracks of secondary particles produced in the surroundings of the detector. The detector is in data taking with its final configuration since 2008. It is aimed at identifying the sources, either steady or flaring, of cosmic neutrinos, and is also suitable for detection of dark matter within the Sun and/or Galactic Centre. ANTARES can contribute in the confirmation of the cosmic neutrino flux observed by IceCube, being particularly competitive for the Galactic Centre, and in general for galactic sources, due its latitude and at lower energies and softer spectra due its configuration. Several multi-messenger analyses have been also attempted, including the search of coincidence signals of neutrinos with gravitational-waves. Additional topics include neutrino oscillations or the search of exotic particles, like nuclearites and magnetic monopoles. Results from the latest analyses are presented.

  5. Choosing and using a Dobsonian telescope

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil


    In the 1980’s, on the sidewalks of San Francisco, amateur astronomer John Dobson began showing throngs of people how to build and use large aperture scopes, often from scraps. The Dobsonian,‘Dobs,’ are now the best-selling large telescopes in the world. There are a great variety of different Dob styles, ranging from elaborate and decorative creations to simple mass market designs, and new models appear all the time. In this title, Neil English presents the ultimate guide to buying and using a commercial Dobsonian for recreational astronomy. He provides in-depth accounts of the various models (plus accessories) on the market – both economy and premium – together with describing the wealth of innovations that amateurs have made to their Dobs to optimize their performance in the field. Even after thirty years of innovation, the Dobsonian Revolution shows no signs of abating. Find out where the future lies for these large aperture ‘scopes and the exciting avenues John Dobson’s vision will take us ...

  6. Galileo and 400 Years of Telescopic Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Grego, Peter


    Imagine yourself living 400 years ago, right before the telescope was first used by Galileo to look up into the skies and find unforeseen wonders. You probably believed, with most of the known world, that Earth was at the center of the magnificent parade of planets and stars above you, and the Sun’s purpose in journeying across the sky was to give Earth daylight and warmth. Suddenly, though, your world is turned upside down. The Church, all powerful in its doctrines and teachings of the times, continues to support theories that don’t fit the facts presented by scientists. Scientists in their quest for truth must hide their findings or risk the harsh penalties imposed by the Church. We have gone from a comforting Earth-centered universe to a tiny floating spec in a gigantic cosmos, barely a comma in a lengthy treatise. And we have gone there in a blink of an eye. We may have lost our central position in the universe, but Grego and Mannion show us how much we have gained in understanding the universe around...

  7. VSiPMT for underwater neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarino, Giancarlo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Asmundis, Riccardo de [Istituto Nazionale di fisica Nucleare, sezione di Napoli, Complesso di Monte S. Angelo Ed. 6, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); De Rosa, Gianfranca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Maximiliano Mollo, Carlos [Istituto Nazionale di fisica Nucleare, sezione di Napoli, Complesso di Monte S. Angelo Ed. 6, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Vivolo, Daniele, E-mail: [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di fisica Nucleare, sezione di Napoli, Complesso di Monte S. Angelo Ed. 6, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy)


    Underwater neutrino telescopes are nowadays considered among the most important aims in the field of astroparticle physics. Their structure consists of a cubic-kilometer three-dimensional array of photosensitive devices aimed at the detection of the Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles produced by high energy neutrino interactions with the Earth. To date, a crucial role in this kind of experiments has been played by PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs), however they suffer from many drawbacks such as linearity-to-gain relationship and difficulty in single photon counting. The next generation of experiments will require further improvements in photon detectors performances, therefore alternatives to PMTs are currently under study. In particular the most promising development in this field is represented by the rapidly emerging CMOS p-n Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode technology (G-APD or SiPM), that will allow the detection of high-speed single photons with high gain and linearity. In order to overcome the limit of small sensitive surfaces we suggest an innovative design for a modern hybrid, high gain, silicon based Vacuum Silicon Photomultiplier Tube (VSiPMT) based on the combination of a SiPM with a hemispherical vacuum glass PMT standard envelope. In this work we describe the full SiPM characterization realized by our group and we present the results of our Geant4-based simulations of electron backscattering over the SiPM surface.

  8. No Telescoping Effect with Dual Tendon Vibration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bellan

    Full Text Available The tendon vibration illusion has been extensively used to manipulate the perceived position of one's own body part. However, findings from previous research do not seem conclusive sregarding the perceptual effect of the concurrent stimulation of both agonist and antagonist tendons over one joint. On the basis of recent data, it has been suggested that this paired stimulation generates an inconsistent signal about the limb position, which leads to a perceived shrinkage of the limb. However, this interesting effect has never been replicated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of a simultaneous and equal vibration of the biceps and triceps tendons on the perceived location of the hand. Experiment 1 replicated and extended the previous findings. We compared a dual tendon stimulation condition with single tendon stimulation conditions and with a control condition (no vibration on both 'upward-downward' and 'towards-away from the elbow' planes. Our results show a mislocalisation towards the elbow of the position of the vibrated arm during dual vibration, in line with previous results; however, this did not clarify whether the effect was due to arm representation contraction (i.e., a 'telescoping' effect. Therefore, in Experiment 2 we investigated explicitly and implicitly the perceived arm length during the same conditions. Our results clearly suggest that in all the vibration conditions there was a mislocalisation of the entire arm (including the elbow, but no evidence of a contraction of the perceived arm length.

  9. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: Radio Frequency Interference in the Green Bank Telescope (United States)

    Dana, Ryan


    In the search for extra terrestrial intelligence, the vast majority of our “signals of interest,” are simply satellite radio frequency interference. The goal to my research, therefore, was to accurately predict the exact locations of satellites in our sky to analyze specific satellites causing the interference as well as potentially predict when satellites will cross in the way of our beams so that we can further optimize our scripts and get more usable data.I have built an algorithm that plots the exact location in altitude and azimuth of any grouping of satellites that you want in the sky from any position on earth in latitude, longitude, and elevation. From there, you can input a specific right ascension and declination of the location you are trying to track in the sky with a telescope. Using these inputs, we can calculate the angular and positional distance of certain satellites to our beam to further analyze satellite radio frequency interference.The process begins by importing a list of Two Line Element information that the algorithm reads in. Two Line Elements are how Satellites are organized and are updated frequently. They give a variety of information ranging from the Satellite ID to its Mean Motion or anomaly. From there, the code breaks up the information given by these elements to predict their location. The algorithm can also plot in 3D coordinates around an earthlike sphere to conceptualize the route that each Satellite has taken.The code has been used in a variety of ways but most notably to identify satellites interfering with the beam for Arecibo’s Ross 128 Candidate signal. From here, the code will be the backbone to calculating drift rates, Doppler shifts and intensity of certain satellites and why our team consistently receives estranged satellite signals of interest. Furthermore, in the case of a serious candidate signal in the near future, it will be important to analyze satellites interfering in the beam.

  10. Metrology Arrangement for Measuring the Positions of Mirrors of a Submillimeter Telescope (United States)

    Abramovici, Alex; Bartman, Randall K.


    The position of the secondary mirror of a submillimeter telescope with respect to the primary mirror needs to be known .0.03 mm in three dimensions. At the time of this reporting, no convenient, reasonably priced arrangement that offers this capability exists. The solution proposed here relies on measurement devices developed and deployed for the GeoSAR mission, and later adapted for the ISAT (Innovative Space Based Radar Antenna Technology) demonstration. The measurement arrangement consists of four metrology heads, located on an optical bench, attached to the secondary mirror. Each metrology head has a dedicated target located at the edge of the primary mirror. One laser beam, launched from the head and returned by the target, is used to measure distance. Another beam, launched from a beacon on the target, is monitored by the metrology head and generates a measurement of the target position in the plane perpendicular to the laser beam. A 100-MHz modulation is carried by a collimated laser beam. The relevant wavelength is the RF one, 3 m, divided by two, because the light carries it to the target and back. The phase change due to travel to the target and back is measured by timing the zero-crossing of the RF modulation, using a 100-MHz clock. In order to obtain good resolution, the 100-MHz modulation signal is down-converted to 1 kHz. Then, the phase change corresponding to the round-trip to the target is carried by a 1-kHz signal. Since the 100-MHz clock beats 100,000 times during one period of the 1-kHz signal, the least-significant-bit (LSB) resolution is LSB = 0.015 mm.

  11. Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Data Handling Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochester, Leon S


    The GLAST Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) represents one of 16 towers that constitute the Large Area Telescope (LAT), a high-energy (>20 MeV) gamma-ray pair-production telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006. The prototype tower consists of a Pb/Si pair-conversion tracker (TKR), a CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), an anti-coincidence detector (ACD) and an autonomous data acquisition system (DAQ). The self-triggering capabilities and performance of the detector elements have been previously characterized using positron, photon and hadron beams. External target scintillators were placed above the instrument to act as sources of hadronic showers. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the BFEM data-reduction process, from receipt of the flight data from telemetry through event reconstruction and background rejection cuts. The goals of the ground analysis presented here are to verify the functioning of the instrument and to validate the reconstruction software and the background-rejection scheme.

  12. Infrared Astronomy Professional Development for K-12 Educators: WISE Telescope (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, B. M.


    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. WISE Telescope (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer Space Telescope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the summer of 2009. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of WISE lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, listening to light by using speakers hooked up to photoreceptor cells, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars. We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development. Funding was provided by WISE Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Starbucks, Arecibo Observatory, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  13. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  14. Modal vibration testing of the DVA-1 radio telescope (United States)

    Byrnes, Peter W. G.; Lacy, Gordon


    The Dish Verification Antenna 1 (DVA-1) is a 15m aperture offset Gregorian radio telescope featuring a rim-supported single piece molded composite primary reflector on an altitude-azimuth pedestal mount. Vibration measurements of the DVA-1 telescope were conducted over three days in October 2014 by NSI Herzberg engineers. The purpose of these tests was to measure the first several natural frequencies of the DVA-1 telescope. This paper describes the experimental approach, in particular the step-release method, and summarizes some interesting results, including unexpectedly high damping of the first mode over a narrow range of zenith angles.

  15. Modelling and Simulation of Mobile Hydraulic Crane with Telescopic Arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole


    paper a model of a loader crane with a flexible telescopic arm is presented, which may be used for evaluating control strategies. The telescopic arm is operated by four actuators connected hydraulically by a parallel circuit. The operating sequences of the individual actuators is therefore...... not controllable, but depends on the flow from the common control valve, flow resistances between the actuators and friction. The presented model incorporates structural flexibility of the telescopic arm and is capable of describing the dynamic behaviour of both the hydraulic and the mechanical system, including...

  16. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Risk Reduction Cryo Test Program (United States)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noel, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A., Jr.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; hide


    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.

  17. Free-Choice Family Learning Experiences at Telescope Observing Events (United States)

    Wenger, M. C.; Carter, K.; Harris, C. J.


    This study examines family experiences at nighttime telescope observing events. The goal was to observe family visitors and understand how they negotiate meaning and incorporate these experiences into their family culture. In this case study of one family's telescope observing experience, the participants' motivations and agenda are described as well as ways in which they negotiated identity and family-community membership at the same time as they were involved in the construction of meaning. The analysis revealed evidence of both meaning making and identity negotiation during, and related to, the educational leisure activity of attending a nighttime telescope observing event.

  18. Eyes on the Skies 400 Years of Telescopic Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert


    Adopted as the official book of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009, this stunningly illustrated history of telescopic discovery spans the range from the first telescopes via the Hubble Space Telescope to next generation platforms, and how they have changed and continue to change our view of the universe, our place in it and where it all came from. Eyes on the Skies features numerous full-page photographs and is printed in high-quality color throughout. Also includes the official IYA DVD with 59 minutes of narrated text, expert comments and interviews, animations, computer simulatio

  19. Payload maintenance cost model for the space telescope (United States)

    White, W. L.


    An optimum maintenance cost model for the space telescope for a fifteen year mission cycle was developed. Various documents and subsequent updates of failure rates and configurations were made. The reliability of the space telescope for one year, two and one half years, and five years were determined using the failure rates and configurations. The failure rates and configurations were also used in the maintenance simulation computer model which simulate the failure patterns for the fifteen year mission life of the space telescope. Cost algorithms associated with the maintenance options as indicated by the failure patterns were developed and integrated into the model.

  20. SOFIA in operation: telescope performance during the early science flights (United States)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Wagner, Jörg; Krabbe, Alfred; Lampater, Ulrich; Keilig, Thomas; Wolf, Jürgen


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA started in December 2010 with the first series of science flights, and has successfully completed about 38 science missions until fall 2011. The science instruments flown included HIPO, FORCAST, GREAT and FLITECAM. Beside their scientific results (see related papers in these proceedings) the flights delivered an extensive data base which is now used for the telescope performance characterization and the operational optimization of the telescope in its unique environment. In this progress report we summarize recent achievements of the observatory as well as the status of the telescope and give an update of the SOFIA pointing system completed by intended future pointing optimization activities.